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Sample records for stage subsurface constructed

  1. Wastewater treatment in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different media (setup stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Razik A. Zidan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment through horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF constructed wetlands (CWs using three different treatment media (gravel, pieces of plastic pipes, and shredded tire rubber chips were investigated in Samaha village, Dakahliya, Egypt. The study focused on the wetland setup stage during the first months of its operation (setup stage. In this stage media porosity, bacterial biofilm, and plant roots growth were in progress and it was prior to the operational steady state stage. Objectives of this paper are to study the change in media porosity of HSSF wetland cells in order to estimate duration of wetland setup stage, and to evaluate the use of different bed media on biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS treatment. The results showed that after 180 days of operation, the wetland cells had reached steady porosity and had started stable treatment. Also performance of plastic media bed in pollutants reduction was better than gravel and rubber beds and gravel media was in advanced than rubber media.

  2. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. SUBSURFACE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.E. Kramer

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify appropriate construction methods and develop a feasible approach for construction and development of the repository subsurface facilities. The objective of this analysis is to support development of the subsurface repository layout for License Application (LA) design. The scope of the analysis for construction and development of the subsurface Repository facilities covers: (1) Excavation methods, including application of knowledge gained from construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). (2) Muck removal from excavation headings to the surface. This task will examine ways of preventing interference with other subsurface construction activities. (3) The logistics and equipment for the construction and development rail haulage systems. (4) Impact of ground support installation on excavation and other construction activities. (5) Examination of how drift mapping will be accomplished. (6) Men and materials handling. (7) Installation and removal of construction utilities and ventilation systems. (8) Equipping and finishing of the emplacement drift mains and access ramps to fulfill waste emplacement operational needs. (9) Emplacement drift and access mains and ramps commissioning prior to handover for emplacement operations. (10) Examination of ways to structure the contracts for construction of the repository. (11) Discussion of different construction schemes and how to minimize the schedule risks implicit in those schemes. (12) Surface facilities needed for subsurface construction activities

  4. Enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland: Effect of saturated zone depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Menglu; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Ran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox. Correspondingly, the VSSF had the best TN removal performance [(76.74±7.30)%] and lower N 2 O emission flux [(3.50±0.22)mg·(m 2 ·h) - 1 ]. It could be concluded that autotrophic nitrogen removal via CANON process could become a primary route for nitrogen removal in the VSSF with optimized microenvironment that developed as a result of the appropriate SZD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

  6. Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for mitigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of using constructed wetlands (CWs) for the mitigation of pesticide runoff has been studied in the last decade. However, a lack of related data was verified when subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) are considered for this purpose. In the present work, SSF CWs were submitted to continuous ...

  7. Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALVERSON, NANCY

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits. Constructed treatment wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to use the natural functions of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands have significantly lower total lifetime costs and often lower capital costs than conventional treatment systems. The two main types of constructed wetlands are surface flow and subsurface flow. In surface flow constructed wetlands, water flows above ground. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to keep the water level below the top of the rock or gravel media, thus minimizing human and ecological exposure. Subsurface flow wetlands demonstrate higher rates of contaminant removal per unit of land than surface flow (free water surface) wetlands, therefore subsurface flow wetlands can be smaller while achieving the same level of contaminant removal. Wetlands remove metals using a variety of processes including filtration of solids, sorption onto organic matter, oxidation and hydrolysis, formation of carbonates, formation of insoluble sulfides, binding to iron and manganese oxides, reduction to immobile forms by bacterial activity, and uptake by plants and bacteria. Metal removal rates in both subsurface flow and surface flow wetlands can be high, but can vary greatly depending upon the influent concentrations and the mass loading rate. Removal rates of greater than 90 per cent for copper, lead and zinc have been demonstrated in operating surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands. The constituents that exceed NPDES limits at outfalls H-02 a nd H

  8. Bacterial carbon utilization in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Langergraber, Günter; Watzinger, Andrea; Haberl, Raimund; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-03-01

    Subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands with intermittent loading are considered as state of the art and can comply with stringent effluent requirements. It is usually assumed that microbial activity in the filter body of constructed wetlands, responsible for the removal of carbon and nitrogen, relies mainly on bacterially mediated transformations. However, little quantitative information is available on the distribution of bacterial biomass and production in the "black-box" constructed wetland. The spatial distribution of bacterial carbon utilization, based on bacterial (14)C-leucine incorporation measurements, was investigated for the filter body of planted and unplanted indoor pilot-scale constructed wetlands, as well as for a planted outdoor constructed wetland. A simple mass-balance approach was applied to explain the bacterially catalysed organic matter degradation in this system by comparing estimated bacterial carbon utilization rates with simultaneously measured carbon reduction values. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands proved to be a suitable model system for investigating microbial carbon utilization in constructed wetlands. Under an ideal operating mode, the bulk of bacterial productivity occurred within the first 10cm of the filter body. Plants seemed to have no significant influence on productivity and biomass of bacteria, as well as on wastewater total organic carbon removal.

  9. Characterisation of microbial biocoenosis in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Kirschner, Alexander; Langergraber, Guenter; Sleytr, Kirsten; Haberl, Raimund

    2007-01-01

    In this study a quantitative description of the microbial biocoenosis in subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands fed with municipal wastewater was carried out. Three different methods (substrate induced respiration, ATP measurement and fumigation-extraction) were applied to measure the microbial biomass at different depths of planted and unplanted systems. Additionally, bacterial biomass was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and productivity was measured via 14 C leucine incorporation into bacterial biomass. All methods showed that > 50% of microbial biomass and bacterial activity could be found in the first cm and about 95% in the first 10 cm of the filter layer. Bacterial biomass in the first 10 cm of the filter body accounted only for 16-19% of the total microbial biomass. Whether fungi or methodical uncertainties are mainly responsible for the difference between microbial and bacterial biomass remains to be examined. A comparison between the purification performance of planted and unplanted pilot-scale subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (PSCWs) showed no significant difference with the exception of the reduction of enterococci. The microbial biomass in all depths of the filter body was also not different in planted and unplanted systems. Compared with data from soils the microbial biomass in the PSCWs was high, although the specific surface area of the used sandy filter material available for biofilm growth was lower, especially in the beginning of the set-up of the PSCWs, due to missing clay and silt fraction

  10. Vertical Subsurface Flow (VSSF) constructed wetland for domestic wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, M. C.; Sutanto, H. B.; Prihatmo, G.

    2018-04-01

    Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (VSSF) is appraised to become an alternative solution for treating domestic wastewater effectively and efficiently. The system which imitates the natural wetland concept is able to reduce organic material and nutrients in wastewater; therefore, it will be more feasible to be discharged to the environment. This study aimed to compare which species is more recommended to be applied for reducing organic material and nutrients in domestic wastewater. This experimental study applied four treatments, i.e 1) control (unplanted), 2) single species Iris pseudacorus, 3) single species Echinodorus palaefolius, and 4) combination (Iris pseudacorus and Echinodorus palaefolius) with three days of retention time. The application of those plants aims for holding the role in increasing wastewater quality and adding aesthetic impression at once. The plants were planted on VSSF media, in relatively same of weight and size to compare their effectiveness in decreasing organic and inorganic load. The parameters measured pervade TDS, pH, BOD5, COD, Nitrate, and Phosphate. The plants’ condition was also observed during and after the system worked. The result showed that the best average value of effectiveness for each of parameters: COD by combination treatment (50.76%), BOD5 by single I. pseudacorus (30.15%), Nitrate by single E. palaefolius (58.06%), Phosphate by single E. palaefolius (99.5%), and TDS by E.palaefolius (3.25%). The result showed that there was a significant difference of Nitrate and Phosphate reduction between control and three other treatments, while pH parameter showed non-significant change among them. In term of performance, I.pseudacorus seemed showed a preferable achievement.

  11. Feasibility of permeation grouting for constructing subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.

    1994-04-01

    Efforts are being made to devise technologies that provide interim containment of waste sites while final remediation alternatives are developed. Permeation grouting, a technique used extensively in the civil and mining engineering industry has been investigated as a method for emplacing a subsurface containment barrier beneath existing waste sites. Conceptually an underlying barrier is placed by injecting grout into the formation at less than fracturing pressure from a series of directionally drilled boreholes beneath the waste site. This study evaluated the penetration and performance characteristics in varying soil conditions of four different grout materials (two microfine cements, mineral wax, and sodium silicate) at a field scale. Field testing consisted of grout injection via sleeve (tube-a'-manchette) pipe into both vertical and horizontal borehole configurations at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration site at Sandia National Laboratories. Prior to, during, and after grout injection non-intrusive geophysical techniques were used to map grout flow. Following the tests, the site was excavated to reveal details of the grout permeation, and grouted soil samples were cored for laboratory characterization. The non-intrusive and intrusive grout mapping showed preferential flow patterns, i.e., the grout tended to follow the path of least resistance. Preliminary testing indicates that permeation grouting is a feasible method for emplacing a low permeability subsurface barrier in the semi-arid unconsolidated alluvial soils common to the Southwest. Despite the success of this project, difficulties in predicting grout flow in heterogeneous soils and non-intrusive methods for imaging grout location and continuity are issues that need more attention

  12. Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

    2001-05-01

    Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

  13. Removal of nutrients from septic tank effluent with baffle subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihu Cui; Ying Ouyang; Weizhi Yang; Zhujian Huang; Qiaoling Xu; Guangwei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Three new baffle flow constructed wetlands (CWs), namely the baffle horizontal flow CW (Z1), baffle vertical flow CW (Z2) and baffle hybrid flow CW (Z3), along with one traditional horizontal subsurface flow CW (Z4) were designed to test the removal efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the septic tank effluent under varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs...

  14. Modeling of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Induced Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Subsurface-Flow Constructed Treatment Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Jukka A. Rintala, Christof Holliger, and Alla N. Nozhevnikova. “Evaluation of Kinetic Coefficients Using Intergrated Monod and Haldane Models for...Rousseau, Diederik P. L., Peter A Vanrolleghem, and Niels De Pauw. “Model-Based Design of Horizontal Subsurface Flow constructed Treatment

  15. On-site wastewater treatment using subsurface flow constructed wetlands in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Laurence W; O'Luanaigh, Niall; Johnston, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    The results from an Irish EPA-funded project on the effectiveness of using constructed wetlands for treating wastewater from single households is presented, which has contributed to the design guidelines included in the new EPA Code of Practice. Three subsurface flow gravel-filled wetlands were constructed on separate sites--one to provide secondary treatment and the other two to provide tertiary treatment stages for the domestic effluent. A comprehensive analysis over three years was then conducted to provide a robust characterization of the internal dynamics of the systems, particularly with respect to N and P removal as well as evaluating the temporal water balance across the different seasons. The removal of Total N was only 29% and 30% in the secondary and tertiary treatment wetlands, respectively; particularly disappointing for the tertiary treatment process, which was receiving nitrified effluent. Studies on the (15)N stable isotope confirmed that 35% of the ammonium from the septic tank was passing straight through the process without taking part in any biogeochemical processes. However, influent N in the wetlands was shown to be biologically assimilated into organic nitrogen and then released again as soluble ammonium--so-called nitrogen "spiraling." Removal of Total P in the wetlands averaged from 28% to 45% with higher P removals measured during summer periods, although the effluent concentrations were still found to be high (> 5 mg/l on average). The phosphorus in the plant material was also analysed revealing that the annual above-ground stem matter only accounted for 1.3% to 8.4% of the annual total P-load in the wetlands. Finally, the water balance analyses showed that the mean flow discharging from both the secondary and tertiary treatment wetlands was slightly greater than the mean flow to the reed bed over the trial period, with rainfall acting to increase flows by 13% and 5%, respectively, on average in winter while just about balancing

  16. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater from different sources. Design and operation

    OpenAIRE

    Torrens Armengol, Antonina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to examine the viability of the subsurface constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater derived from three different sources (treatment ponds, pig farms and car wash facilities), and to evaluate the influence of design (size, type and depth of media, presence of Phragmites australis) and operational parameters (hydraulic load, dosing and feeding modes) on treatment efficiency and hydraulic behavior. Several studies were done in the framework of different ...

  17. [Correlation of substrate structure and hydraulic characteristics in subsurface flow constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shao-Yuan; Song, Zhi-Xin; Ding, Yan-Li; You, Shao-Hong; He, Shan

    2014-02-01

    The correlation of substrate structure and hydraulic characteristics was studied by numerical simulation combined with experimental method. The numerical simulation results showed that the permeability coefficient of matrix had a great influence on hydraulic efficiency in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The filler with a high permeability coefficient had a worse flow field distribution in the constructed wetland with single layer structure. The layered substrate structure with the filler permeability coefficient increased from surface to bottom could avoid the short-circuited flow and dead-zones, and thus, increased the hydraulic efficiency. Two parallel pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built according to the numerical simulation results, and tracer experiments were conducted to validate the simulation results. The tracer experiment result showed that hydraulic characteristics in the layered constructed wetland were obviously better than that in the single layer system, and the substrate effective utilization rates were 0.87 and 0.49, respectively. It was appeared that numerical simulation would be favorable for substrate structure optimization in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Nitrogen in the Soil of Constructed Wetland with Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubaszek Anita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of nitrogen compounds in constructed wetlands depends on various physical, chemical and biomechanical factors as well as on conditions of the environment. The paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the depositing of nitrogen at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow construcred wetland. The results of the substrate showed that the highest contents of nitrogen existed in the surface soil layer up to 20 cm of the depth. Nitrogen accumulation decreased in the deposit with depth, and in the direction of the wastewater flow.

  19. design, construction and measured performance of a single-stage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump .... the tachometer spindle to be held against a recess in the motor shaft. The constructed centrifugal ...

  20. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  1. Pharmaceutical removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands at varying hydraulic loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Qing; Gersberg, Richard M; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Junfei; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-04-01

    Determining the fate of emerging organic contaminants in an aquatic ecosystem is important for developing constructed wetlands (CWs) treatment technology. Experiments were carried out in subsurface flow CWs in Singapore to evaluate the fate and transport of eight pharmaceutical compounds. The CW system included three parallel horizontal subsurface flow CWs and three parallel unplanted beds fed continuously with synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The findings of the tests at 2-6 d HRTs showed that the pharmaceuticals could be categorized as (i) efficiently removed compounds with removal higher than 85% (ketoprofen and salicylic acid); (ii) moderately removed compounds with removal efficiencies between 50% and 85% (naproxen, ibuprofen and caffeine); and (iii) poorly removed compounds with efficiency rate lower than 50% (carbamazepine, diclofenac, and clofibric acid). Except for carbamazepine and salicylic acid, removal efficiencies of the selected pharmaceuticals showed significant (pcaffeine, ketoprofen and clofibric acid were found to follow first order decay kinetics with decay constants higher in the planted beds than the unplanted beds. Correlations between pharmaceutical removal efficiencies and log K(ow) were not significant (p>0.05), implying that their removal is not well related to the compound's hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and treatment efficiency of the Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland treatment system (HSF-CW in an arid climate. Seventeen sub-surface, horizontal-flow HSF-CW units have been operated for approximately three years to improve the quality of partially-treated municipal wastewater. The studied design parameters included two sizes of volcanic tuff media (i.e., fine or coarse, two different bed dimensions (i.e., long and short, and three plantation types (i.e., reed, kenaf, or no vegetation as a control. The effluent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, and phosphorus from all of the treatments were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 55%, 51%, 67%, and 55%, respectively. There were significant increases in Electrical Conductivity (EC, sulfate, and calcium in the effluent of most HSF-CWs due to evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution from the media. The study suggests that unplanted beds with either fine or coarse media are the most suitable combinations among all of the studied designs based on their treatment efficiency and less water loss in arid conditions.

  3. Limestone and Zeolite as Alternative Media in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Laboratory-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, K.; Jaque, I.; Ayala, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic is well known for its chronic toxicity. Millions of people around the world are currently at risk, drinking water with As concentrations above 10 ppb, the WHO drinking water guideline. Although different treatment options exist, they are often limited by elevated costs and maintenance requirements. Constructed wetlands are a natural water treatment system, capable to remove metals and metalloids -including As- via different physical, chemical and biological processes. The use of alternative supporting media to enhance As removal in subsurface flow wetlands has been recommended, but not sufficiently studied. Limestone and zeolite have been identified as effective supporting media in subsurface flow wetlands aiming As removal. However, there are still key aspects to be addressed, such as the implications of using these media, the speciation in the solid phase, the role of vegetation, etc. This study investigated the performance of limestone and zeolite in three types of experiments: batch, column and as main supporting media in a bench scale horizontal subsurface flow wetland system. Synthetic water resembling a contaminated river in Chile (As concentration=3 mg/L, Fe concentration= 100 mg/L, pH=2) was used in all experiments. In the batch experiments, the As concentration, the mass of media and the contact time were varied. The column system consisted of three limestone columns and three zeolite columns, operated under a hydraulic loading of 20 mm/d. The wetland system consisted of twelve PVC cells: six filled with zeolite and six with limestone. Phragmites australis were planted in three cells of each media type, as control cells. From the batch experiments, maximum As sorption capacities as indicated by Langmuir model were 1.3 mg/g for limestone and 0.17 mg/g for zeolite, at 18 h contact time and 6.3 g/L medium concentration. EDS and XPS analyses revealed that As and Fe were retained in zeolite at the end of the batch experiments. Zeolite and limestone

  4. Treatment of landfill leachate using an aerated, horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, J; Hoos, M B; Cross, C; Wallace, S; Parkin, G

    2007-07-15

    A pilot-scale subsurface-flow constructed wetland was installed at the Jones County Municipal Landfill, near Anamosa, Iowa, in August 1999 to demonstrate the use of constructed wetlands as a viable low-cost treatment option for leachate generated at small landfills. The system was equipped with a patented wetland aeration process to aid in removal of organic matter and ammonia nitrogen. The high iron content of the leachate caused the aeration system to cease 2 years into operation. Upon the installation of a pretreatment chamber for iron removal and a new aeration system, treatment efficiencies dramatically improved. Seasonal performance with and without aeration is reported for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH(4)-N), and nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N). Since winter air temperatures in Iowa can be very cold, a layer of mulch insulation was installed on top of the wetland bed to keep the system from freezing. When the insulation layer was properly maintained (either through sufficient litterfall or replenishing the mulch layer), the wetland sustained air temperatures of as low as -26 degrees C without freezing problems.

  5. Reconstruction of a constructed wetland with horizontal subsurface flow after 18 years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudcová, Tereza; Vymazal, Jan; Dunajský, Michal Kriška

    2013-01-01

    The constructed wetland (CW) for 326 PE with horizontal subsurface flow at Kotenčice, Central Bohemia, Czech Republic, was built in 1994. Despite the relatively high efficiency of the CW, the filtration beds suffered from clogging, and therefore it was decided in 2011 to rebuild the whole system. The new treatment system was built as an experimental system consisting of four different combinations of horizontal and vertical beds. The major aim of the design was to determine the best hybrid combination which then could be used in the future for refurbishment of older horizontal flow CWs or for the new systems. The mechanical pretreatment consists of mechanical bar screens, a new Imhoff tank, and the original settling tank which has been converted into the accumulation tank from where the wastewater is pumped into the wetlands. The filters are planted with Phragmites australis, Phalaris arundinacea, Iris pseudacorus, Iris sibirica, Glyceria maxima and Lythrum salicaria in order to evaluate and compare various plant species' effect on the treatment process. The new technology includes a tertiary treatment which consists of a greenhouse with a photo-reactor for the cultivation of algae and hydroponic systems (residual nutrients removal), sludge reed-beds and a composting field.

  6. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  7. Ibuprofen removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: treatment performance and fungal community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Luo, Jinxue; Lee, Zarraz May Ping; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-01-01

    The treatment performance of ibuprofen (IBP)-enriched wastewater by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with cattail (Typha angustifolia) and unplanted control mesocosms was investigated. Removal efficiencies of IBP were significantly (p fungal community in these wetland systems. The overall diversity of the fungal community was reduced under the IBP exposure. Taxonomic analysis revealed that 62.2% of the fungal sequences were affiliated with Basidiomycota, followed by Ascomycota (37.4%) at the phylum level. Uncultured fungus (48.2%), Chaetomium sp. (14.2%), Aspergillus sp. (12.4%), Trichoderma sp. (5.7%), Cladosporium sp. (5.4%), and Emericellopsis sp. (5.2%) were identified as dominant genera. At the genus level, a distinct profile of the fungal community in the IBP-enriched mesocosms was observed as compared to the control beds, and as well specific fungal genera were enhanced in the planted beds, regardless of IBP enrichment. However, despite these differences, the composition of the fungal community (as measured by Bray-Curtis similarity) was mostly unaffected by the significant IBP enrichment. On the other hand, a consistent similarity pattern of fungal community structure in the planted mesocosms suggests that the presence of higher macrophytes in the wetland systems may well help shape the fungal community structure.

  8. Bacterial transformation and biodegradation processes simulation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using CWM1-RETRASO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Esther; Saaltink, Maarten W; Poch, Manel; García, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The performance and reliability of the CWM1-RETRASO model for simulating processes in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) and the relative contribution of different microbial reactions to organic matter (COD) removal in a HSSF CW treating urban wastewater were evaluated. Various different approaches with diverse influent configurations were simulated. According to the simulations, anaerobic processes were more widespread in the simulated wetland and contributed to a higher COD removal rate [72-79%] than anoxic [0-1%] and aerobic reactions [20-27%] did. In all the cases tested, the reaction that most contributed to COD removal was methanogenesis [58-73%]. All results provided by the model were in consonance with literature and experimental field observations, suggesting a good performance and reliability of CWM1-RETRASO. According to the good simulation predictions, CWM1-RETRASO is the first mechanistic model able to successfully simulate the processes described by the CWM1 model in HSSF CWs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of nutrients from septic tank effluent with baffle subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lihua; Ouyang, Ying; Yang, Weizhi; Huang, Zhujian; Xu, Qiaoling; Yu, Guangwei

    2015-04-15

    Three new baffle flow constructed wetlands (CWs), namely the baffle horizontal flow CW (Z1), baffle vertical flow CW (Z2) and baffle hybrid flow CW (Z3), along with one traditional horizontal subsurface flow CW (Z4) were designed to test the removal efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the septic tank effluent under varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Results showed that the optimal HRT was two days for maximal removal of N and P from the septic tank effluent among the four CWs. At this HRT, the Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 CWs removed, respectively, 49.93, 58.50, 46.01 and 44.44% of TN as well as 87.82, 93.23, 95.97 and 91.30% of TP. Our study further revealed that the Z3 CW was the best design for overall removal of N and P from the septic tank effluent due to its hybrid flow directions with better oxygen supply inside the CW system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of chlorothalonil on the removal of organic matter in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Zapata, Juan C; Ríos, Karina; Florville-Alejandre, Tomás R; Morató, Jordi; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of chlorothalonil (CLT) on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW) planted with Phragmites australis. Physicochemical parameters of influent and effluent water samples, microbial population counting methods and statistical analysis were used to evaluate the influence of CLT on organic matter removal efficiency. The experiments were conducted on four planted replicate wetlands (HSSFCW-Pa) and one unplanted control wetland (HSSFCW-NPa). The wetlands exhibited high average organic matter removal efficiencies (HSSFCW-Pa: 80.6% DOC, 98.0% COD; HSSFCW-NPa: 93.2% DOC, 98.4% COD). The addition of CLT did not influence organic removal parameters. In all cases CLT concentrations in the effluent occurred in concentrations lower than the detection limit of the analytical method. Microbial population counts from HSSFCW-Pa showed significant correlations among different microbial groups and with different physicochemical variables. The apparent independence of organic matter removal and CLT inputs, along with the CLT depletion observed in effluent samples demonstrated that HSSFCW are a viable technology for the treatment of agricultural effluents contaminated with organo-chloride pesticides like CLT.

  11. Using constructed wetlands to treat subsurface drainage from intensively grazed dairy pastures in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C C; Nguyen, M Long; Sukias, J P S

    2003-01-01

    Performance data, during the start-up period, are presented for constructed wetlands treating subsurface drainage from dairy pastures in Waikato (rain-fed) and Northland (irrigated), North Island, New Zealand. The wetlands comprised an estimated 1 and 2% of the drained catchment areas, respectively. Nitrate concentrations were high in the drainage inflows at both sites (medians 10 g m(-3) at Waikato and 6.5 g m(-3) at Northland), but organic N was also an important form of N at Waikato (37% of TN). Comparison of wetland inflow and outflow nutrient concentrations showed overall nutrient reductions during passage through the wetlands for NO3-N (34 and 94% for medians, respectively), TN (56 and 33%, respectively), and DRP (80%, Northland only). Median NH4-N (both sites) and DRP (Waikato) concentrations showed apparent increases between the wetland inlets and outlets. However, a mass balance calculated for the 3 month preliminary monitoring periods showed substantial mass removal of DRP (80%) and all measured forms of N (NO3-N 78%, NH4-N 41%, Org-N 99.8% and TN 96%) in the Waikato wetland. Monitoring of these systems needs to be continued through a range of seasons and years to fully assess their long-term performance.

  12. Determination and removal of antibiotics in secondary effluent using a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Ning, Ke; Zhang, Wenwen; Guo, Yuanjie; Chen, Jun; Liang, Chen

    2013-04-01

    Increased attention is currently being directed towards the potential negative effects of antibiotics and other PPCPs discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal WWTP secondary effluents. A number of analytical methods, such as high performance liquid chromatography technologies, including a high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence method (HPLC-FLD), high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection method (HPLC-UV) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS), have been suggested as determination technologies for antibiotic residues in water. In this study, we implement a HPLC-MS/MS combined method to detect and analyze antibiotics in WWTP secondary effluent and apply a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) as an advanced wastewater treatment for removing antibiotics in the WWTP secondary effluent. The results show that there were 2 macrolides, 2 quinolones and 5 sulfas in WWTP secondary effluent among all the 22 antibiotics considered. After the CW advanced treatment, the concentration removal efficiencies and removal loads of 9 antibiotics were 53-100% and 0.004-0.7307 μg m(-2) per day, respectively.

  13. Construction accidents: identification of the main associations between causes, mechanisms and stages of the construction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Trillo-Cabello, Antonio F; Rubio-Romero, Juan C

    2017-06-01

    To identify the most frequent causes of accidents in the construction sector in order to help safety practitioners in the task of prioritizing preventive actions depending on the stage of construction. Official accident investigation reports are analysed. A causation pattern is identified with the proportion of causes in each of the different possible groups of causes. Significant associations of the types of causes with accident mechanisms and construction stages have been identified. Significant differences have been found in accident causation depending on the mechanism of the accident and the construction stage ongoing. These results should be used to prioritize preventive actions to combat the most likely causes for each accident mechanism and construction stage.

  14. Effect of Substrate, Feeding Mode and Number of Stages on the Performance of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Herrera-Melián

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid constructed wetland mesocosm has been used for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. The first stage was a mulch-based, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF. The HF achieved good removals of COD (61%; 54 g/m2·day and Total Suspended Solids (84%; 29 g/m2·day. The second stage was composed of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF that were employed to study the effect of substrate (gravel vs. mulch, feeding mode (continuous vs. intermittent and the number of stages (1 vs. 2 on performance. High hydraulic and organic surface loadings (513–583 L/m2·day and 103–118 g/m2·day of COD were applied to the reactors. The mulch was more efficient than gravel for all the parameters analyzed. The continuous feeding allowed a 3 to 6-fold reduction of the surface area required.

  15. A new framework for construction project definition stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikas, Ergo; Oehmen, Josef; Koskela, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    One major reason for the poor performance of construction project delivery is related to the 'ill'- performed project definition stage. The emphasis on rational decision-making and methods have stifled the creativity important to problem structuring and solution generation. Problem is in the poor...

  16. Application of subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands to reject water treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Karolinczak, Beata; Gajewska, Magdalena; Wojciechowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of applying subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SS VF) for the treatment of reject water generated in the process of aerobic sewage sludge stabilization in the biggest dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Poland. Two SS VF beds were built: bed (A) with 0.65 m depth and bed (B) with 1.0 m depth, planted with reeds. Beds were fed with reject water with hydraulic load of 0.1 m d -1 in order to establish the differences in treatment efficiency. During an eight-months research period, a high removal efficiency of predominant pollutants was shown: BOD 5 88.1% (A) and 90.5% (B); COD 84.5% (A) and 87.5% (B); TSS 87.6% (A) and 91.9% (B); TKN 82.4% (A) and 76.5% (B); N-NH 4 + 89.2% (A) and 85.7% (B); TP 30.2% (A) and 40.6% (B). There were not statistically significant differences in the removal efficiencies between bed (B) with 1.0 m depth and bed (A) with 0.65 m depth. The research indicated that SS VF beds could be successfully applied to reject water treatment in dairy WWTPs. The study proved that the use of SS VF beds in full scale in dairy WWTPs would result in a significant decrease in pollutants' load in reject water. In the analyzed case, decreasing the load of ammonia nitrogen was of greatest importance, as it constituted 58% of the total load treated in dairy WWTP and posed a hazard to the stability of the treatment process.

  17. Performance of hybrid subsurface constructed wetland system for piggery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Inoue, T; Kato, K; Harada, J; Izumoto, H; Wu, D; Sakuragi, H; Ietsugu, H; Sugawara, Y

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) built for high organic content piggery wastewater treatment in a cold region. The system consists of four vertical and one horizontal flow subsurface CWs. The wetland was built in 2009 and water quality was monitored from the outset. Average purification efficiency of this system was 95±5, 91±7, 89±8, 70±10, 84±15, 90±6, 99±2, and 93±16% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium-N (NH4-N), total phosphorus (TP), total coliform (T. Coliform), and suspended solids (SS), respectively during August 2010-December 2013. Pollutant removal rate was 15±18 g m(-2) d(-1), 49±52 g m(-2) d(-1), 6±4 g m(-2) d(-1), 7±5 g m(-2) d(-1), and 1±1 g m(-2) d(-1) for BOD5, COD, TN, NH4-N, and TP, respectively. The removal efficiency of BOD5, COD, NH4-N, and SS improved yearly since the start of operation. With respect to removal of TN and TP, efficiency improved in the first three years but slightly declined in the fourth year. The system performed well during both warm and cold periods, but was more efficient in the warm period. The nitrate increase may be attributed to a low C/N ratio, due to limited availability of carbon required for denitrification.

  18. Swine wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine wastewater using a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSF CW planted with two species of Napier grass. The grass productivities were also cultivated and compared in order to provide information for species selection. Twelve treatment units were set up with the VSF CWs planted with Giant Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass and Dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott. with 2 and 5 cm d−1 of hydraulic loading rates (HLR. Comparisons of removal efficiency and grass productivity were analyzed using Duncan's Multiple Range Test and t-test at the significant level 0.05. Both species of Napier grass performed more than 70% of removal efficiency of BOD and TKN. The VSF CW planted with Giant Napier grass at 5 cm d−1 HLR performed the highest BOD removal efficiency of 94 ± 1%, while the 2 cm d−1 HLR removed COD with efficiency of 64 ± 6%. The results also showed the effluent from all treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TSS, TKN and pH that followed Thailand's swine wastewater quality standard. Average fresh yields and dry yields were between 4.6 ± 0.4 to 15.2 ± 1.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.1 kg m−2, respectively. The dry yields obtained from four cutting cycles in five months of CW system operation were higher than the ones planted with a traditional method, but declined continuously after each cutting cycle. Both species of Napier grass indicated their suitability to be used in the VSF CW for swine wastewater treatment.

  19. Performance of surface and subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating eutrophic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Crespo, C; Gargallo, S; Benedito-Durá, V; Nácher-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Rodrigo-Alacreu, M A; Martín, M

    2017-10-01

    Three medium size constructed wetlands (CWs) with a total surface of 90ha are working since 2009 in the Albufera de Valencia Natural Park (Spain). Two of them are fed with eutrophic waters from l'Albufera Lake. Their objectives are both reduce the phytoplankton biomass and increase the biodiversity; consequently, improved water quality is returned to the lake. A "science based governance" of these CWs is ongoing inside the LIFE+12 Albufera Project to demonstrate the environmental benefits of these features. In this paper, results and relationships among hydraulic operation, physicochemical variables and plankton in two different CWs typologies, five free water surface CW (FWSCW) and one horizontal subsurface flow CW (HSSFCW), were analysed showing that CWs were capable of improving the water quality and biodiversity but showing clear differences depending on the CW type. The CWs worked under different hydraulic load rates (HLR) from <0.12 to 54.75myr -1 . Inflow water quality was typical from eutrophic waters with mean values of chlorophyll a (Chl a) about 22-90μgChlal -1 and mean total phosphorus (TP) between 0.122 and 0.337mgl -1 . The main conclusion is that HSSFCW was much more efficient than FWSCW in the removal of organic matter, suspended solids and nutrients. The biological role of several shallow lagoons located at the end of the CWs has also been evaluated, showing that they contribute to increase the zooplankton biomass, a key factor to control the phytoplankton blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigations of subsurface flow constructed wetlands and associated geomaterial resources in the Akumal and Reforma regions, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Probst, Pete; Samsonov, Misha; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Bates, William; Kearns, Lance E.; Maynard, J. Barry

    2007-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the village of Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico were surveyed to determine the general status of the wetland systems and provide baseline information for long term monitoring and further study. Twenty subsurface flow wetlands were surveyed and common problems observed in the systems were overloading, poor plant cover, odor, and no secondary containment. Bulk mineral composition of aggregate from two subsurface flow constructed wetlands was determined to consist solely of calcite using bulk powder X-ray diffraction. Some soil structure is developed in the aggregate and aggregate levels in wetlands drop at an estimated rate between 3 and 10 cm/year for overloaded wetlands owing to dissolution. Mineral composition from fresh aggregate samples commonly is a mixture of calcite and aragonite. Trace amounts of Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr were observed in fresh aggregate. Coefficients of permeability ( k) varied from 0.006 to 0.027 cm/s with an average values being 0.016 cm/s. Grain size analysis of fresh aggregate samples indicates there are unimodal and multimodal size distributions in the samples with modes in the coarse and fine sand being common. Investigations of other geologic media from the Reforma region indicate that a dolomite with minor amounts of Fe-oxide and palygorskite is abundant and may be a better aggregate source that the current materials used. A Ca-montmorillonite bed was identified in the Reforma region as well and this unit is suitable to serve as a clay liner to prevent leaks for new and existing wetland systems. These newly discovered geologic resources should aid in the improvement of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the region. Although problems do exist in these wetlands with respect to design, these systems represent a successful implementation of constructed wetlands at a community level in developing regions.

  1. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L"−"1). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ_P_S_I_I) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos loads

  2. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: shpcheng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  3. Design of combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, A. D.; Lindu, M.; Yanidar, R.; Faruq, M.

    2018-01-01

    As environmental regulation has become stricter in recent years, there is an increasing concern about the issue of wastewater treatment in urban areas. Senior High School as center of student activity has a potential source to generated domestic wastewater from toilet, bathroom and canteen. Canteen wastewater contains high-organic content that to be treated before discharged. Based on previous research the subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow is an attractive alternative to provide efficient treatment of canteen wastewater. The effluent concentration complied with regulation according to [9]. Due to limited land, addition of preliminary treatment such as the presence of biofilter was found to improve the performance. The aim of this study was to design combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) treating canteen wastewater. Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) is used because from previous research, subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration (SCW-MLF) with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) can be an alternative canteen wastewater treatment that is uncomplicated in technology, low cost in operational and have a beautiful landscape view, besides no odors or insects were presented during the operation.

  4. Potential and Benefits of Building Information Modeling (BIM During Pre-Construction, Construction and Post Construction Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aw Nien Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is the main economic support for all countries around the world in which continually adapting to meet competitive challenges around the global market. Nevertheless, the construction project is becoming much more complex and difficult to manage. This is because the construction project involves a large number of stakeholder, for example, the consultant companies, architects, engineers, building surveyors and quantity surveyors. The technology currently used in the construction industry is the AutoCAD (Automatic computeraided design. AutoCAD is a commercial software application for 2D and 3D computer-aided design (CAD and drafting develop by Autodesk. Generally, all the drawing design from Autocad will be exchanged among the stakeholder in the form of paper. Information exchanged among them mostly involves a lot of documents and drawings. This practice creates errors because of documents and drawings are mostly in a paper-based format that is not properly managed which results in miscommunication among them. Having wrong information in the construction process could hinder the productivity of projects because in a construction project information is one of the important construction materials. Building Information Modeling (BIM is one of the newly software in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC industries to ensure all parties receive the right information. BIM technology is also an intelligent model of a building constructed digitally in the way of 3D. The software will generate model containing the information needed to support the construction, fabrication, and procurement activities that needed to realize the building. This paper will discuss on potential and benefits of BIM during pre-construction stage, construction stage and during post construction stage

  5. A Review of Application Building Information Modeling (BIM) During Pre-Construction Stage: Retrospective and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edra Nisa Lau, Santi; Zakaria, Rozana; Aminudin, Eeydzah; Saar, Chai Chang; Yusof, Aswadi; Fatihi Hafifi Che Wahid, Che Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Pre-construction is one of the biggest areas of risk and uncertainty in construction project as it deals with subsurface ground conditions information. The amount of detail data needed in pre-construction especially for existing data modelling and site analysis should be sufficient enough to ensure that significant risks could not reasonably be anticipated. Current practicing method in interpreting data during this stage tasks reveal limitation. Construction industry faced many obstacles due to the depends on the traditional practice; paper-based document which missing and redundant data always happened. In recent years, there has been a shift in construction where people move to BIM application because of its potential to reduce the problem faced by infrastructure world. BIM has become a successful technology and widely popular in the construction world especially in developed countries because of its potential. Nowadays, people are moving one step ahead in BIM which is adoption of BIM during pre-construction stage. Thus, this paper review studies centered on BIM-integrated modelling during preconstruction stage. But there is lack of practical researches have been made during this stage. Although a large number of studies on BIM have been conducted in the past decade, a lack of consensus remains among researchers and practitioners regarding the applications of BIM during pre-construction stage, the availability of subsequent data integration tool for geotechnical activity. A comprehensive literature review was conducted for data collection and analysis. After in-depth review of journal articles widely cover the application of BIM, this study summarizes an overview and critical reflection of geotechnical data integration using BIM during pre-construction stage. The results are useful for the identification of research clusters and topics in the BIM community.

  6. Ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) removal from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiri, Amin; Ahmad, Zakiah; Tajuddin, Ramlah Mohd; Arshad, Mohd Fadzil; Gholami, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Water pollution is a global problem. During current study, ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) were removed from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland. In current investigation, distilled water was polluted with four contaminants including ammonia, phosphate, copper (Cu), and phenol. Response surface methodology and central composite design were applied to optimize pollutant removal during treatment by subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFCW). Contact time (12 to 80 h) and initial pollutant concentration (20 to 85 mg/L) were selected as independent factors; some upper and lower ranges were also monitored for accuracy. In SSFCW, water hyacinth transplanted in two substrate layers, namely zeolite and cockle shell. SSFCW removed 87.7, 81.4, 74.7, and 54.9% of ammonia, phosphate, Cu, and phenol, respectively, at optimum contact time (64.5 h) and initial pollutant concentration (69.2 mg/L). Aqueous solution was moved to a surface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) after treating via SSFCW at optimum conditions. In SFCW, Typha was transplanted to a fixed powdered substrate layer, including bentonite, zeolite, and cockle shell. SFCW could develop performance of this combined system and could improve elimination efficacy of the four contaminants to 99.99%. So this combined CW showed a good performance in removing pollutants. Graphical abstract Wetlands arrangement for treating aqueous solution in current study.

  7. Nitrogen and phosphorus removed from a subsurface flow multi-stage filtration system purifying agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqi; Huang, Lei; Chen, Yucheng

    2018-07-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The main causes were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides. A multi-stage filtration system was built to test the purification efficiencies and removal characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus when treating agricultural runoff. Simulated runoff pollution was prepared by using river water as source water based on the monitoring of local agricultural runoff. Experimental study had been performed from September to November 2013, adopting 12 h for flooding and 12 h for drying. The results showed that the system was made adaptive to variation of inflow quality and quantity, and had good removal for dissolved total nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total phosphorus, and the average removal rate was 27%, 36%, 32%, and 48%, respectively. Except nitrate ([Formula: see text]), other forms of nitrogen and phosphorus all decreased with the increase of stages. Nitrogen was removed mainly in particle form the first stage, and mostly removed in dissolved form the second and third stage. Phosphorus was removed mainly in particulate during the first two stages, but the removal of particulate phosphorus and DTP were almost the same in the last stage. An approximate logarithmic relationship between removal loading and influent loading to nitrogen and phosphorus was noted in the experimental system, and the correlation coefficient was 0.78-0.94. [Formula: see text]: ammonium; [Formula: see text]: nitrite; [Formula: see text]: nitrate; DTN: dissolved total nitrogen; TN: total nitrogen; DTP: dissolved total phosphorus; TP: total phosphorus; PN: particulate nitrogen; PP: particulate phosphorus.

  8. Effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on the removal efficiency of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselles-Osorio, Aracelly [Environmental Engineering Division, Hydraulics, Coastal and Environmental Engineering Department, Technical University of Catalonia, c/Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul D-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Biology, Atlantic University, Km 7 Higway Old Colombia Port, Barranquilla (Colombia); Garcia, Joan [Environmental Engineering Division, Hydraulics, Coastal and Environmental Engineering Department, Technical University of Catalonia, c/Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul D-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: joan.garcia@upc.edu

    2007-03-15

    In this study, we tested the effect of a physico-chemical pretreatment on contaminant removal efficiency in two experimental horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs). One SSF CW was fed with settled urban wastewater, whereas the other with the same wastewater after it had undergone a physico-chemical pretreatment. The SSF CWs were operated with three different hydraulic retention times. During the experiments the effluent concentrations of COD, ammonia N and sulfate were very similar, and, therefore, the physico-chemical pretreatment did not improve the quality of the effluents. COD removal efficiency (as percentage or mass surface removal rate) was slightly greater in the SSF CW fed with pretreated wastewater. Ammonia N removal efficiency was, in general, similar in both SSF CWs and very high (80-90%). At the end of the experiments it was observed that in the SSF CW fed with settled wastewater the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a 20%. - A physico-chemical pretreatment may help to reduce the risk of clogging of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

  9. Effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on the removal efficiency of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselles-Osorio, Aracelly; Garcia, Joan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of a physico-chemical pretreatment on contaminant removal efficiency in two experimental horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs). One SSF CW was fed with settled urban wastewater, whereas the other with the same wastewater after it had undergone a physico-chemical pretreatment. The SSF CWs were operated with three different hydraulic retention times. During the experiments the effluent concentrations of COD, ammonia N and sulfate were very similar, and, therefore, the physico-chemical pretreatment did not improve the quality of the effluents. COD removal efficiency (as percentage or mass surface removal rate) was slightly greater in the SSF CW fed with pretreated wastewater. Ammonia N removal efficiency was, in general, similar in both SSF CWs and very high (80-90%). At the end of the experiments it was observed that in the SSF CW fed with settled wastewater the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a 20%. - A physico-chemical pretreatment may help to reduce the risk of clogging of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

  10. 3D seismic imaging of the subsurface for underground construction and drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    3D seismic imaging of underground structure has been carried out in various parts of the world for various purposes. Examples shown below were introduced in the presentation. - CO 2 storage in Ketzin, Germany; - Mine planning at the Millennium Uranium Deposit in Canada; - Planned Forsmark spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden; - Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep Drilling: the COSC drilling project in Sweden. The author explained that seismic methods provide the highest resolution images (5-10 m) of deeper (1-5 km) sub-surfaces in the sedimentary environment, but further improvement is required in crystalline rock environments, and the integration of geology, geophysics, and drilling will provide an optimal interpretation. (author)

  11. Comparing the Efficiency of Stabilization Ponds and Subsurface Constructed Wetland in Domestic Sewage Treatment in City of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hadi Eslami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater is one of the most important contributors to water pollution on the one hand, while it has the potential to serve as an alternative source of water if subjected to proper treatment, on the other. The present study was designed to compare the removal efficiencies of stabilization ponds and subsurface constructed wetlands in the treatment of urban wastewater in Yazd. For this purpose, 72 samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of a constructed wetland as well as 72 from the inlet and outlet of stabilization ponds over a period of one year. The samples were subjected to identical tests and the results were compared. The removal efficiencies for BOD5, COD, TSS, NH4-N, NO3-N, and PO4 in the stabilization ponds were 79.7, 79.6, 44.4, 57, 0, and 42.5 percent, respectively. The same parameters for the constructed wetland system were 80.7, 81.5, 77.7, 9.9, 34, and 59.4, respectively. Moreover, BOD5, COD, TSS, and PO4 removal efficiencies were higher in autumn and summer. From these results, it may be concluded that constructed wetlands are more commercially viable than stabilization ponds both in terms of performance and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Nitrogen removal and its relationship with the nitrogen-cycle genes and microorganisms in the horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with different design parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Wei, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; He, Liang-Ying; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Fan-Rong

    2017-07-03

    This study aims to investigate nitrogen removal and its relationship with the nitrogen-cycle genes and microorganisms in the horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs) with different design parameters. Twelve mesocosm-scale CWs with four substrates and three hydraulic loading rates were set up in the outdoor. The result showed the CWs with zeolite as substrate and HLR of 20 cm/d were selected as the best choice for the TN and NH 3 -N removal. It was found that the single-stage mesocosm-scale CWs were incapable to achieve high removals of TN and NH 3 -N due to inefficient nitrification process in the systems. This was demonstrated by the lower abundance of the nitrification genes (AOA and AOB) than the denitrification genes (nirK and nirS), and the less diverse nitrification microorganisms than the denitrification microorganisms in the CWs. The results also show that microorganism community structure including nitrogen-cycle microorganisms in the constructed wetland systems was affected by the design parameters especially the substrate type. These findings show that nitrification is a limiting factor for the nitrogen removal by CWs.

  13. Impact of post-infiltration soil aeration at different growth stages of sub-surface trickle-irrigated tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Jia, Zong-xia; Niu, Wen-Quan; Wang, Jing-wei

    2016-07-01

    Sensitivity to low rhizosphere soil aeration may change over time and therefore plant response may also depend on different growth stages of a crop. This study quantified effects of soil aeration during 5 different periods, on growth and yield of trickle-irrigated potted single tomato plants. Irrigation levels were 0.6 to 0.7 (low level) or 0.7 to 0.8 (high level) of total water holding capacity of the pots. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 l of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Fresh fruit yield, above ground plant dry weight, plant height, and leaf area index response to these treatments were measured. For all these 4 response variables, means of post-infiltration aeration between 58 to 85 days after sowing were 13.4, 43.5, 13.7, and 37.7% higher than those for the non-aerated pots, respectively. The results indicated that: post-infiltration soil aeration can positively impact the yield and growth of sub-surface trickle-irrigated potted tomato plants; positive effects on plant growth can be obtained with aeration during the whole growth period or with aeration for partial periods; positive growth effects of partial periods of aeration appears to persist and result in yield benefit.

  14. Batch versus continuous feeding strategies for pharmaceutical removal by subsurface flow constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M.; Zhu, Junfei; Hua, Tao; Jinadasa, K.B.S.N.; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of continuous and batch feeding on the removal of 8 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine, salicylic acid, ketoprofen and clofibric acid) from synthetic wastewater in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs). Both loading modes were operated at hydraulic application rates of 5.6 cm day −1 and 2.8 cm day −1 . Except for carbamazepine, clofibric acid and naproxen, removal in CWs was significantly (p ow ) and removal efficiencies of pharmaceutical compounds in the CWs, showed that pharmaceutical removal efficiency was significantly (p ow value, but not with log K ow value. - Highlights: ► Batch feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal. ► K values for the 8 pharmaceuticals were in the range of 0.01–0.1 m day −1 . ► The pharmaceutical removal efficiency was inversely correlated with log D ow value. - Batch (drain and fill) feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal.

  15. Constructed wetland attenuation of nitrogen exported in subsurface drainage from irrigated and rain-fed dairy pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C C; Nguyen, M L; Sukias, J P S

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen removal performance is reported for constructed wetlands treating subsurface drainage from irrigated and rain-fed dairy pastures in North Island, New Zealand. Flow-proportional sampling of inflow and outflow concentrations were combined with continuous flow records to calculate mass balances for the wetlands. Drainage flows from the irrigated catchment were 2.5-4 fold higher and N exports up to 5 fold higher per unit area than for the rain-fed catchment. Hydraulic and associated N loadings to the wetlands were highly pulsed, associated with rainfall, soil water status, and irrigation events. Transient pulses of organic nitrogen were an important form of N loss from the rain-fed landscape in the first year, and were very effectively removed in the wetland (> 90%). Median nitrate concentrations of approximately 10 g m(-3) in the drainage inflows were reduced by 15-67% during passage through the wetlands and annual nitrate-N loads by 16-61% (38-31 7 g N m(-2)y(-1)). Generation in the wetlands of net ammoniacal-N and organic-N (irrigated site) partially negated reduction in nitrate-N loads. The results show that constructed wetlands comprising 1-2% of catchment area can provide moderate reductions in TN export via pastoral drainage, but performance is markedly influenced by variations in seasonal loading and establishment/maturation factors.

  16. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yu

    Full Text Available For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs, two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  17. Proposal for the construction of the staged Scyllac prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; McDonald, T.E.

    1975-07-01

    After the completion of the present feedback experiment on Scyllac, the machine will be reconfigured into a toroidal staged theta pinch. A 0.9-m prototype of the Staged Scyllac experiment is proposed which will be used to test the components required for the implosion-heating and staging circuits in a system environment. In addition, various systems of the Staged Scyllac, such as the trigger system and the gap-monitoring system, can be developed on the prototype before installation on the full experiment. (auth)

  18. Determination of the hydraulic residence time of two subsurface-flow constructed wetlands using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debien, Bruno R.

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of constructed wetland systems (CW's) with subsuperficial drainage for sewage treatment is increasingly growing in places with low technological resources and available land. The efficient removal of pollutants depends on the internal flow characteristics in the CW and on its hydraulic residence time (HRT). In the present work 82 Br - a gamma radiation emitter, produced from soluble potassium bromide irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at the Centre for the Development of Nuclear Energy (CDTN) - was used as a pseudo-conservative tracer for the comparative study of aqueous phase flow dynamics in two CW's: one in which plants were grown (WP) whereas the other had no plants (WNP). Experimental hydraulic residence time values were found to be very close to the theoretical one, while dispersion numbers obtained for both CW's were quite small. Besides these measured hydrodynamic parameters, the residence time distribution (RTD) curves of the tracer test and the results of modeling of experimental data also demonstrate the tendency of the units to display a plug flow-like effluent hydraulic transport within their systems, as expected from their designs, considering the large length/width ratio (L/W=8). (author)

  19. Determination of the hydraulic residence time of two subsurface-flow constructed wetlands using radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debien, Bruno R., E-mail: brunordebien@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept de Geografia. Lab. de Geomorfologia; Barreto, Alberto A.; Pinto, Amenonia M.F.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: amfp@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of constructed wetland systems (CW's) with subsuperficial drainage for sewage treatment is increasingly growing in places with low technological resources and available land. The efficient removal of pollutants depends on the internal flow characteristics in the CW and on its hydraulic residence time (HRT). In the present work {sup 82}Br - a gamma radiation emitter, produced from soluble potassium bromide irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at the Centre for the Development of Nuclear Energy (CDTN) - was used as a pseudo-conservative tracer for the comparative study of aqueous phase flow dynamics in two CW's: one in which plants were grown (WP) whereas the other had no plants (WNP). Experimental hydraulic residence time values were found to be very close to the theoretical one, while dispersion numbers obtained for both CW's were quite small. Besides these measured hydrodynamic parameters, the residence time distribution (RTD) curves of the tracer test and the results of modeling of experimental data also demonstrate the tendency of the units to display a plug flow-like effluent hydraulic transport within their systems, as expected from their designs, considering the large length/width ratio (L/W=8). (author)

  20. A novel horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland: Reducing area requirements and clogging risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoulis, Triantafyllos; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Vayenas, Dimitrios V; Stefanakis, Alexandros I

    2017-11-01

    The use of Constructed Wetlands (CWs) has been nowadays expanded from municipal to industrial and agro-industrial wastewaters. The main limitations of CWs remain the relatively high area requirements compared to mechanical treatment technologies and the potential occurrence of the clogging phenomenon. This study presents the findings of an innovative CW design where novel materials were used. Four pilot-scale CW units were designed, built and operated for two years. Each unit consisted of two compartments, the first of which (two thirds of the total unit length) contained either fine gravel (in two units) or random type high density polyethylene (HDPE) (in the other two units). This plastic media type was tested in a CW system for the first time. The second compartment of all four units contained natural zeolite. Two units (one with fine gravel and one with HDPE) were planted with common reeds, while the other two were kept unplanted. Second cheese whey was introduced into the units, which were operated under hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 2 and 4 days. After a two-year operation and monitoring period, pollutant removal rates were approximately 80%, 75% and 90% for COD, ammonium and ortho-phosphate, respectively, while temperature and HRT had no significant effect on pollutant removal. CWs containing the plastic media achieved the same removal rates as those containing gravel, despite receiving three times higher hydraulic surface loads (0.08 m/d) and four times higher organic surface loads (620 g/m 2 /d). This reveals that the use of HDPE plastic media could reduce CW surface area requirements by 75%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of multilayer substrate configuration in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: assessment of treatment performance, biofilm development, and solids accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanli; Lyu, Tao; Bai, Shaoyuan; Li, Zhenling; Ding, Haijing; You, Shaohong; Xie, Qinglin

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of multilayer substrate configuration in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) on their treatment performance, biofilm development, and solids accumulation. Three pilot-scale HSCWs were built to treat campus sewage and have been operational for 3 years. The HSCWs included monolayer (CW1), three-layer (CW3), and six-layer (CW6) substrate configurations with hydraulic conductivity of the substrate increasing from the surface to bottom in the multilayer CWs. It was demonstrated the pollutant removal performance after a 3-year operation improved in the multilayer HSCWs (49-80%) compared to the monolayer HSCW (29-41%). Simultaneously, the multilayer HSCWs exhibited significant features that prevented clogging compared to the monolayer configuration. The amount of accumulated solids was notably higher in the monolayer CW compared to multilayer CWs. Further, multilayer HSCWs could delay clogging by providing higher biofilm development for organics removal and consequently, lesser solids accumulations. Principal component analysis strongly supported the visualization of the performance patterns in the present study and showed that multilayer substrate configuration, season, and sampling locations significantly influenced biofilm growth and solids accumulation. Finally, the present study provided important information to support the improved multilayer configured HSCW implication in the future.

  2. Fate of heavy metals in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary treated petroleum refinery wastewater in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Hassana Ibrahim; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2018-01-02

    This study examined the performance of pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VSF-CWs) planted with three indigenous plants, i.e. Typha latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon, in removing heavy metals from secondary treated refinery wastewater under tropical conditions. The T. latifolia-planted VSF-CW had the best heavy metal removal performance, followed by the Cyperus alternifolius-planted VSF-CW and then the Cynodon dactylon-planted VSF-CW. The data indicated that Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Fe were accumulated in the plants at all the three VSF-CWs. However, the accumulation of the heavy metals in the plants accounted for only a rather small fraction (0.09-16%) of the overall heavy metal removal by the wetlands. The plant roots accumulated the highest amount of heavy metals, followed by the leaves, and then the stem. Cr and Fe were mainly retained in the roots of T. latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon (TF < 1), meaning that Cr and Fe were only partially transported to the leaves of these plants. This study showed that VSF-CWs planted with T. latifolia, Cyperus Alternifolius, and Cynodon dactylon can be used for the large-scale removal of heavy metals from secondary refinery wastewater.

  3. Phytoextraction, phytotransformation and rhizodegradation of ibuprofen associated with Typha angustifolia in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifei; Zhang, Jiefeng; Zhu, Guibing; Liu, Yu; Wu, Bing; Ng, Wun Jern; Appan, Adhityan; Tan, Soon Keat

    2016-10-01

    Widespread occurrence of trace pharmaceutical residues in aquatic environments is of great concerns due to the potential chronic toxicity of certain pharmaceuticals including ibuprofen on aquatic organisms even at environmental levels. In this study, the phytoextraction, phytotransformation and rhizodegradation of ibuprofen associated with Typha angustifolia were investigated in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system. The experimental wetland system consisted of a planted bed with Typha angustifolia and an unplanted bed (control) to treat ibuprofen-loaded wastewater (∼107.2 μg L(-1)). Over a period of 342 days, ibuprofen was accumulated in leaf sheath and lamina tissues at a mean concentration of 160.7 ng g(-1), indicating the occurrence of the phytoextraction of ibuprofen. Root-uptake ibuprofen was partially transformed to ibuprofen carboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy ibuprofen and 1-hydroxy ibuprofen which were found to be 1374.9, 235.6 and 301.5 ng g(-1) in the sheath, respectively, while they were 1051.1, 693.6 and 178.7 ng g(-1) in the lamina. The findings from pyrosequencing analysis of the rhizosphere bacteria suggest that the Dechloromonas sp., the Clostridium sp. (e.g. Clostridium saccharobutylicum), the order Sphingobacteriales, and the Cytophaga sp. in the order Cytophagales were most probably responsible for the rhizodegradation of ibuprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  5. Design configurations affecting flow pattern and solids accumulation in horizontal free water and subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedescoll, A; Sidrach-Cardona, R; Sánchez, J C; Carretero, J; Garfi, M; Bécares, E

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different horizontal constructed wetland (CW) design parameters on solids distribution, loss of hydraulic conductivity over time and hydraulic behaviour, in order to assess clogging processes in wetlands. For this purpose, an experimental plant with eight CWs was built at mesocosm scale. Each CW presented a different design characteristic, and the most common CW configurations were all represented: free water surface flow (FWS) with different effluent pipe locations, FWS with floating macrophytes and subsurface flow (SSF), and the presence of plants and specific species (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis) was also considered. The loss of the hydraulic conductivity of gravel was greatly influenced by the presence of plants and organic load (representing a loss of 20% and c.a. 10% in planted wetlands and an overloaded system, respectively). Cattail seems to have a greater effect on the development of clogging since its below-ground biomass weighed twice as much as that of common reed. Hydraulic behaviour was greatly influenced by the presence of a gravel matrix and the outlet pipe position. In strict SSF CW, the water was forced to cross the gravel and tended to flow diagonally from the top inlet to the bottom outlet (where the inlet and outlet pipes were located). However, when FWS was considered, water preferentially flowed above the gravel, thus losing half the effective volume of the system. Only the presence of plants seemed to help the water flow partially within the gravel matrix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrogen Removal in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Estimated Using the First-Order Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the water quality and hydrological conditions of a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF-CW in Beijing, China, for two years. We simulated the area-based constant and the temperature coefficient with the first-order kinetic model. We examined the relationships between the nitrogen (N removal rate, N load, seasonal variations in the N removal rate, and environmental factors—such as the area-based constant, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO. The effluent ammonia (NH4+-N and nitrate (NO3−-N concentrations were significantly lower than the influent concentrations (p < 0.01, n = 38. The NO3−-N load was significantly correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01, but the NH4+-N load was not correlated with the removal rate (R2 = 0.02, p > 0.01. The area-based constants of NO3−-N and NH4+-N at 20 °C were 27 ± 26 (mean ± SD and 14 ± 10 m∙year−1, respectively. The temperature coefficients for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were estimated at 1.004 and 0.960, respectively. The area-based constants for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were not correlated with temperature (p > 0.01. The NO3−-N area-based constant was correlated with the corresponding load (R2 = 0.96, p < 0.01. The NH4+-N area rate was correlated with DO (R2 = 0.69, p < 0.01, suggesting that the factors that influenced the N removal rate in this wetland met Liebig’s law of the minimum.

  7. Financial Planning at Small Construction Enterprises at the Formation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Verstina, Nataliya Grigorievna; Akimova, Elena Mikhajlovna; Kisel, Tatiana Nikolaevna; Chibisova, Elena Yurievna; Lukinov, Vitaliy Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    Planning is the most important function of management as it is the stage of planning when the main targets of the enterprise are determined and the assessment of the resources necessary for the targets implementation is made. The enterprise within its activities needs different types of resources, however the most important type of resources are financial resources as the availability of other types of resources as well as the opportunity to receive them always depends on the of financial opp...

  8. Storm event-scale nutrient attenuation in constructed wetlands experiencing a Mediterranean climate: A comparison of a surface flow and hybrid surface-subsurface flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adyel, Tanveer M; Oldham, Carolyn E; Hipsey, Matthew R

    2017-11-15

    Among different Water Sensitive Urban Design options, constructed wetlands (CWs) are used to protect and restore downstream water quality by attenuating nutrients generated by stormwater runoff. This research compared the nutrient attenuation ability during a diverse population of storm events of two CWs: (a) a hybrid CW with multiple alternating surface flow (SF) and laterite-based subsurface flow (SSF) compartments, and (b) a single stage SF CW. Within-storm variability, nutrient concentrations were assessed at 2 to 3-h intervals at both the main inlet and outlet of each CW. Dissolved oxygen concentrations of the surface waters were also monitored at 10-min intervals using high frequency in situ sensors. Nutrient loads into the CWs were observed to be higher when a high rainfall event occurred, particularly after longer antecedent dry conditions. Longer hydraulic retention times promoted higher attenuation at both sites. However, the relative extent of nutrient attenuation differed between the CW types; the mean total nitrogen (TN) attenuation in the hybrid and SF CW was 45 and 48%, respectively. The hybrid CW attenuated 67% total phosphorus (TP) loads on average, while the SF CW acted as a net TP source. Periodic storm events transitioned the lentic CW into a lotic CW and caused riparian zone saturation; it was therefore hypothesized that such saturation of organic matter rich-riparian zones led to release of TP in the system. The hybrid CW attenuated the released TP in the downstream laterite-based SSF compartments. Diel oxygen metabolism calculated before and after the storm events was found to be strongly correlated with water temperature, solar exposure and antecedent dry condition during the pre-storm conditions. Furthermore, the SF CW showed a significant relationship between overall nutrient load attenuation and the change in oxygen metabolism during the storm perturbation, suggesting oxygen variation could be a useful proxy indicator of CW function

  9. Systematization of the major stages of the client in certain branches of construction production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains substantiation of the need for investment and construction projects in various sectors of the construction production. On the basis of domestic and foreign experience it describes the concept of the client (customer and his functions and tasks in the implementation of such projects. It also systematizes the main stages of the customer’s activities, which are presented as a preparation for the construction, development of construction sites, monitoring the progress of the construction, commis-sioning and commissioning of facilities. There is also a determination of time intervals at each stage, the final formula for calculating the duration of the investment project due to the given the shared stages. The article also gives optimization variants in some sectors of construction production.

  10. International Markets: Malaysian Construction Contractors and the Stage Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Awil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced demand for services, lack of finances for projects and idle resources at homehave resulted in loss of business for Malaysian construction contractors. Among the optionsthat are explored in this paper is internationalisation of services to help the contractorsgainfully employ their resources and diversify their markets. Integration of worldmarkets, faster transportation and improved means of communication have made it possiblefor contractors to undertake work in international markets. It was found that contractorswere motivated to internationalise by need to make the firm a viable one byconsidering the long-term profitability. Reputation and size of the firm were found to befactors that help contractors in winning contracts overseas. Most non-exporters were concernedwith provision of market intelligence and export credit finance. It was found thatproviding relevant market information, accessible to both exporter and non-exporters, canhelp firms make informed decisions. Any assistance provided should match the firm to thestage the firm has reached in exporting

  11. Nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal from septic tank wastewater in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: substrate (cation exchange capacity) effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Robert S; Grismer, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    The current article focuses on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal performance from synthetic human wastewater as affected by different substrate rocks having a range of porosities and cation exchange capacities (CECs). The aggregates included lava rock, lightweight expanded shale, meta-basalt (control), and zeolite. The first three had CECs of 1 to 4 mequiv/100 gm, whereas the zeolite CEC was much greater (-80 mequiv/100 gm). Synthetic wastewater was gravity fed to each constructed wetland system, resulting in a 4-day retention time. Effluent samples were collected, and COD and nitrogen species concentrations measured regularly during four time periods from November 2008 through June 2009. Chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal fractions were not significantly different between the field and laboratory constructed wetland systems when corrected for temperature. Similarly, overall COD and nitrogen removal fractions were practically the same for the aggregate substrates. The important difference between aggregate effects was the zeolite's ammonia removal process, which was primarily by adsorption. The resulting single-stage nitrogen removal process may be an alternative to nitrification and denitrification that may realize significant cost savings in practice.

  12. Potential and Benefits of Building Information Modeling (BIM) During Pre-Construction, Construction and Post Construction Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Aw Nien Wei; Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry is the main economic support for all countries around the world in which continually adapting to meet competitive challenges around the global market. Nevertheless, the construction project is becoming much more complex and difficult to manage. This is because the construction project involves a large number of stakeholder, for example, the consultant companies, architects, engineers, building surveyors and quantity surveyors. The technology current...

  13. Planning Costs in Certain Stage of the Life Cycle of Investment Activity of Construction Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakymchuk Iryna M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues related to planning costs in certain stages of the life-cycle of investment activity of construction organization. It has been specified that cost management based on the life-cycle model of the investment project, which is being implemented by a construction organization, allows for a consistent improvement in the efficiency of the innovation process on the basis of a clear planning, as well as cost forecasting. This approach allows for the long-term effectiveness of innovation project by providing cost-management services at all stages of investment project, identifying opportunities for reducing them, thereby contributing to sustainable development of construction organization over time. It has been concluded that the more specific the program of activities of construction organization, the more accurate the process of identification of costs becomes, the more efficient is the management of costs, targeted at saving resources, reducing the self cost of construction works.

  14. Design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Con

    1995-01-01

    This report outlines the design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube. The project has completed its construction phase and the facility has been installed in the new impulsive research laboratory where commissioning is about to take place. The X-2 uses a unique, two-stage driver design which allows a more compact and lower overall cost free piston compressor. The new facility has been constructed in order to examine the performance envelope of the two-stage driver and how well it couple to sub-orbital and super-orbital expansion tubes. Data obtained from these experiments will be used for the design of a much larger facility, X-3, utilizing the same free piston driver concept.

  15. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions.

  16. Planning Costs in Certain Stage of the Life Cycle of Investment Activity of Construction Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Iakymchuk Iryna M.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the issues related to planning costs in certain stages of the life-cycle of investment activity of construction organization. It has been specified that cost management based on the life-cycle model of the investment project, which is being implemented by a construction organization, allows for a consistent improvement in the efficiency of the innovation process on the basis of a clear planning, as well as cost forecasting. This approach allows for the long-term effectiv...

  17. Design and construction of a two-stage centrifugal pump | Nordiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Centrifugal pumps are widely used in moving liquids from one location to another in homes, offices and industries. Due to the ever increasing demand for centrifugal pumps it became necessary to design and construction of a two-stage centrifugal pump. The pump consisted of an electric motor, a shaft, two rotating impellers ...

  18. Subsurface quality assurance practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report addresses only the concept of applying Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) practices to repository shaft and subsurface design and construction; how NQA will be applied; and the level of detail required in the documentation for construction of a shaft and subsurface repository in contrast to the level of detail required in the documentation for construction of a traditional mine. This study determined that NQA practices are viable, attainable, as well as required. The study identified the appropriate NQA criteria and the repository's major structures, systems, items, and activities to which the criteria are applicable. A QA plan, for design and construction, and a list of documentation, for construction, are presented. 7 refs., 1 fig., 18 tabs

  19. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  20. Risk assessment framework on time impact: Infrastructure projects in soft soil during construction stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W. W.; Wong, K. S.; Lee, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    With the growth of economy and population, there is an increase in infrastructure construction projects. As such, it is unavoidable to have construction projects on soft soil. Without proper risk management plan, construction projects are vulnerable to different types of risks which will have negative impact on project’s time, cost and quality. Literature review showed that little or none of the research is focused on the risk assessment on the infrastructure project in soft soil. Hence, the aim of this research is to propose a risk assessment framework in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage. This research was focused on the impact of risks on project time and internal risk factors. The research method was Analytical Hierarchy Process and the sample population was experienced industry experts who have experience in infrastructure projects. Analysis was completed and result showed that for internal factors, the five most significant risks on time element are lack of special equipment, potential contractual disputes and claims, shortage of skilled workers, delay/lack of materials supply, and insolvency of contractor/sub-contractor. Results indicated that resources risk factor play a critical role on project time frame in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage.

  1. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  2. Assumption and program of the earlier stage construction of L/ILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuequn; Chen Shi; Li Xinbang

    1993-01-01

    The authors analysed the production and treatment of low- and intermediate-level radwastes (L/ILW) in China. Some problems and situation in this field are introduced. Over the past ten years, preliminary efforts have been made by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) in policy, law and rules, developing program, management system, siting, engineering techniques, and safety assessment for radwaste disposal. The investment of the earlier stage work of L/ILW disposal site construction is estimated, the program and assumption to disposal site construction of the L/ILW are reviewed

  3. PRINCIPLES, STAGES AND OBJECTIVES OF FORMATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS AT CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Valeriy Yurevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the research performed in the field of innovative development of enterprises are provided, and the main principles and the content of each stage of innovative development of construction enterprises in the new economic environment are developed on the basis of the research. Actions, proposed in the article, will ensure the implementation of the strategy of innovative development with a view to effective attainment of objectives of case management and successful adaptation of construction enterprises to altering factors of the media.

  4. Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical constructed wetlands planted with Sesbania sesban: Horizontal subsurface flow versus vertical downflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Truong Hoang; Quang, Le Nhat; Chiem, Nguyen Huu

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of various types of wastewaters is an urgent problem in densely populated areas of many tropical countries. We studied the potential of using Sesbania sesban, an N2-fixing shrub, in constructed wetland systems for the treatment of high-strength wastewater. A replicated horizontal subsur...

  5. Features of construction of structures in long-term training acrobatics at the modern stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Bachynska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the basic directions of the structure of long-term training in sports acrobatics are ground. The objectives of the study was to determine the leading requirements and criteria, the main stages of a multi-year training in acrobatics. Material : analysis of special scientific and methodical literature, revealing the specific features of the construction of long-term training in sports and gymnastics, acrobatic rock 'n' roll, a number of other sports. Results : general structure, goals, objectives and provisions of the basic stages of a multi-year training in sports acrobatics. Singled leading indicators and criteria for each of the main stages of long-term sports training in acrobatics. Recommended duration of training sessions and key requirements for the preparation of acrobats. Conclusions : outlines the main requirements and benchmarks that can guide the trainer in a training and competitive activity when working with acrobats all age groups and different sports qualification.

  6. Effects of carbon sources and COD/N ratio on N2O emissions in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Wanlin; Huang, Lei; Xiao, Guangquan; Chen, Yucheng

    2017-12-01

    A set of constructed wetlands under two different carbon sources, namely, glucose (CW) and sodium acetate (YW), was established at a laboratory scale with influent COD/N ratios of 20:1, 10:1, 7:1, 4:1, and 0 to analyze the influence of carbon supply on nitrous oxide emissions. Results showed that the glucose systems generated higher N 2 O emissions than those of the sodium acetate systems. The higher amount of N 2 O-releasing fluxes in the CWs than in the YWs was consistent with the higher NO 2 - -N accumulation in the former than in the latter. Moreover, electron competition was tighter in the CWs and contributed to the incomplete denitrification with poor N 2 O production performance. Illumina MiSeq sequencing demonstrated that some denitrifying bacteria, such as Denitratisoma, Bacillus, and Zoogloea, were higher in the YWs than in the CWs. This result indicated that the carbon source is important in controlling N 2 O emissions in microbial communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Computer modelling of structures with account of the construction stages and the time dependent material properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traykov Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical studies are performed on computer models taking into account the stages of construction and time dependent material properties defined in two forms. A 2D model of three storey two spans frame is created. The first form deals with material defined in the usual design practice way - without taking into account the time dependent properties of the concrete. The second form creep and shrinkage of the concrete are taken into account. Displacements and internal forces in specific elements and sections are reported. The influence of the time dependent material properties on the displacement and the internal forces in the main structural elements is tracked down. The results corresponding to the two forms of material definition are compared together as well as with the results obtained by the usual design calculations. Conclusions on the influence of the concrete creep and shrinkage during the construction towards structural behaviour are made.

  8. Subsurface probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Imaging techniques that can be used to translate seismic and electromagnetic wave signals into visual representation are briefly discussed. The application of these techniques is illustrated on the example of determining the subsurface structure of a proposed power plant. Imaging makes the wave signals intelligible to the non-geologists. R and D work needed in this area are tabulated

  9. Constructing stage-structured matrix population models from life tables: comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Fujiwara

    2017-10-01

    for discounting the rate, was the best approach. However, stage-structured models performed poorly in estimating generation time, regardless of the methods used for constructing the models. Based on the results, we recommend using an age-structured matrix population model or the Euler-Lotka equation for calculating λ and generation time when life table data are available. Then, these age-structured vital rates can be converted into a stage-structured model for further analyses.

  10. Design and construction of a heat stage for investigations of samples by atomic force microscopy above ambient temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækmark, Thomas Rosleff; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1997-01-01

    The construction from simple and cheap commercially available parts of a miniature heat stage for the direct heating of samples studied with a commercially available optical-lever-detection atomic force microscope is reported. We demonstrate that by using this heat stage, atomic resolution can...... be obtained on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite at 52 °C. The heat stage is of potential use for the investigation of biological material at physiological temperatures. ©1997 American Institute of Physics....

  11. Radiological and chemical characterization report for the planned Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Quarry Construction Staging Area and Water Treatment Plant (QCSA) will be used in the support of the bulk waste removal of the Weldon Spring Quarry. Radiological and chemical characterization was performed on a 12 acre site where the QCSA will be constructed. The characterization revealed approximately .5 acres of radiologically contaminated land. No chemical contamination was found. 8 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  13. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  14. Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RSI

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to present the fiscal year (FY) 2007 results of characterization activities and recommended remedial actions (RAs) for 11 exposure units (EUs) in Zone 2 (Z2-01, Z2-03, Z2-08, Z2-23, Z2-24, Z2-28, Z2-34, Z2-37, Z2-41, Z2-43, and Z2-44) at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), which is located in the northwest corner of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Fig. 1). ETTP encompasses a total land area of approximately 5000 acres that has been subdivided into three zones--Zone 1 ({approx}1400 acres), Zone 2 ({approx}800 acres), and the Boundary Area ({approx}2800 acres). Zone 2, which encompasses the highly industrialized portion of ETTP shown in Fig. 1, consists of all formerly secured areas of the facility, including the large processing buildings and direct support facilities; experimental laboratories and chemical and materials handling facilities; materials storage and waste disposal facilities; secure document records libraries; and shipping and receiving warehouses. The Zone 2 Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005) (Zone 2 ROD) specifies the future end use for Zone 2 acreage as uncontrolled industrial for the upper 10 ft of soils. Characterization activities in these areas were conducted in compliance with the Zone 2 ROD and the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS) and data quality objectives (DQOs) presented in the Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2007) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document DVS characterization results for the accessible EUs in FY 2007; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation for each EU, and determine if the EU met the Zone 2 ROD requirements

  15. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, Troy G.; Meikrantz, Dave H.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell R.; Law, Jack D.

    2008-01-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a small

  16. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigby, D.; Mrugala, M.; Shideler, G.; Davidsavor, T.; Leem, J.; Buesch, D.; Sun, Y.; Potyondy, D.; Christianson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  17. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  18. Domestic Wastewater Depuration Using a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland and Theoretical Surface Optimization: A Case Study under Dry Mediterranean Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andreo-Martínez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater generated by isolated houses without access to public sewers can cause environmental problems, like the contamination of aquifers with nitrates and phosphates, as occurs in southeastern Spain. The effectiveness of a previously built horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HF-CW was studied over two years as a possible solution. This HF-CW measured 27 m2; it was planted with Phragmites australis(Cav. Trin. Ex Steuds sp. Altissima and the parameters studied were those required by European Union (EU legislation and adopted by Spain. Average abatement efficiency rates, for the first and the second year of study, were: biochemical oxygen demand over five days (BOD5 (96.4%, 92.0%, chemical oxygen demand (COD (84.6%, 77.7%, total suspended solids(TSS (94.8%,89.9%,total nitrogen(TN(79.5%,66.0%,ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N(98.8%, 86.6% and total phosphorous (TP (83.7%, 82.8%. Average abatement efficiency for nitrate nitrogen (NO3−-N (−1280.5%, −961.1% and nitrite nitrogen (NO2−-N (−5.8%, −40.0% were negative because its content in influent wastewater was very low and they appear mainly from influent NH4+-N, as a result of purification processes carried out in the HF-CW bed. The abatement rates make the system suitable to produce discharges into the environment in accordance with Spanish law. It is noteworthy that the HF-CW patch suffered an episode of bed drying during the summer of 2013, whereby the causes were related to system oversizing and high evapotranspiration in the area. As a consequence, the decrease in the abatement of water pollutants during the second year can be attributed to the creation of preferential water flow paths and short circuits through the constructed wetland (CW bed. As a result of the oversizing of the CW, a theoretical resizing based on BOD5, TSS, TN or TP is proposed. The calculated values for the redesign were: 5.22 m2 considering DBO5, 0.18 m2 considering TSS, 10.14 m2 considering

  19. Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, A.; Saunders, R.S.; Boutin, R.J.; Harrington, P.G.; Lachman, K.D.; Trautner, L.J.

    2002-01-01

    Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to accommodate emplacing waste packages in the proposed repository. This paper summarized recent progress in the design of subsurface layout of the proposed repository. The original Site Recommendation (SR) concept for the subsurface design located the repository largely within the lower lithophysal zone (approximately 73%) of the Topopah The Site Recommendation characterized area suitable for emplacement consisted of the primary upper block, the lower block and the southern upper block extension. The primary upper block accommodated the mandated 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) at a 1.45 kW/m hear heat load. Based on further study of the Site Recommendation concept, the proposed repository siting area footprint was modified to make maximum use of available site characterization data, and thus, reduce uncertainties associated with performance assessment. As a result of this study, a modified repository footprint has been proposed and is presently being review for acceptance by the DOE. A panel design concept was developed to reduce overall costs and reduce the overall emplacement schedule. This concept provides flexibility to adjust the proposed repository subsurface layout with time, as it makes it unnecessary to ''commit'' to development of a large single panel at the earliest stages of construction. A description of the underground layout configuration and influencing factors that affect the layout configuration are discussed in the report

  20. Traffic condition with road upgrading during construction and operation stages based on level-of-service (LOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A. C.; Lee, H. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, traffic survey was done at signalized intersection of both ends of an upgrading road during morning and afternoon peak hours throughout construction period. The intersections of Tudan Road located at Miri City in Sarawak State, Malaysia were chosen as study sites. The aim of this research was to investigate the traffic condition for the signalized intersections of a R3 secondary road that being upgrading to standard U5 dual carriageway during peak hours for construction and operation stages. Data collected from these sites were analyzed according to Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010. From the results, the level-of-services (LOS) of Kuala Baram By Pass Road intersection improved from Level F to Level E at operation stage for weekday during peak hours in the morning. LOS of Lutong-Kuala Baram Road intersection at construction stage were Level C during peak hours in the morning and Level D during peak hours in the afternoon for weekends. However, the LOS during both peak hours for weekends were projected to improve to Level B at the operation stage. It proved that the road construction has affected LOS, and this temporary issue can be solved after the upgraded road is in operation.

  1. Evolution Dynamics of Relief and Sediment Structures During the Initial Phase of Ecosystem Evolution Within an Experimentally Constructed Catchment Landscape and Their Influence on the Shallow Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerkamp, K.; Voelkel, J.; Leopold, M.; Roeder, J.; Winkelbauer, J.

    2008-12-01

    The studies are integrated in a project of the Collaborative Research Center of the German Research Foundation (DFG SFB-TRR 38) 'Structures and processes of the initial ecosystem development phase in an artificial water catchment'. The experimental catchment 'Hühnerwasser' is built up by mechanically deposited sediments reconstructing an initially emerged landscape. In order to monitor its geomorphological as well as ecofunctional evolution with time it is essential to incorporate comprehensive geophysical applications dealing with geomorphology and sedimentology of both surface as well as shallow subsurface. Digital terrain modelling on meso- to microscale is employed to reflect and analyze superficial processes and evolution trends as well as their influence on the abiotic and biotic structures and processes of the succeeding ecosystem. Especially in the case of the portrayal and analysis of subsurface characteristics, strategy needs to adapt to the special requirements of the SFB-project as the catchment system should only underlie 'natural' conditions and therefore not be altered by any implementations in the course of field investigation. Consequently, intrusive methods such as drillings or profiles are to be omitted. Methods of geophysical prospection hence constitute an indispensable tool in investigation of subsurface composition. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) are applied with adequate resolution to detect the primary deposition structures within the technogenically bedded sediment. By means of this evaluation subsurface structures can be interpreted with regards to their relevance in controlling soil water movement, slope hydrology, redox interactions, root distribution etc. Furthermore, alterations of these primary structures resulting from bio- and pedoturbation processes can be monitored.

  2. Safety analysis in subsurface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The development of mathematical models to represent the repository-geosphere-biosphere system, and the development of a structure for data acquisition, processing, and use to analyse the safety of subsurface repositories, are presented. To study the behavior of radionuclides in geosphere a laboratory to determine the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient was constructed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated

  4. Assessing the costs attributed to project delay during project pre-construction stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This project for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) developed a simple but sound : methodology for estimating the cost of delaying most types of highway projects. Researchers considered the : cost of delays during the pre-construction pha...

  5. Stages in planning and construction of the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracht, F.

    1975-01-01

    On October 23, 1972, RWE gave a letter of intent and on January 9, 1973 an order for the construction of a nuclear power plant on a turn-key basis to the consortium of BBC, BBR and Hochtief. The power plant in question was the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station with a pressurized-water reactor of a gross efficiency of 1,295 MWe. After considerable delay of the project, the first building permit was issued to the builder-owner on January 15, 1975, and the constructional work on the building site started immediately afterwards. As the planning and constructional work has so far been carried out according to schedule and the consortium intends to keep the effects of the belated license as small as possible, the start-off of the plant will probably be in summer 1979 if the constructional work is not interrupted. (orig./AK) [de

  6. Effects of interspecific competition on the growth of macrophytes and nutrient removal in constructed wetlands: A comparative assessment of free water surface and horizontal subsurface flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Zhao, Yaqian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Ge, Yuan; Xiong, Jiaqing

    2016-05-01

    The outcome of competition between adjoining interspecific colonies of Phragmites and Typha in two large field pilot-scale free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) CWs is evaluated. According to findings, the effect of interspecific competition was notable for Phragmites australis, whereby it showed the highest growth performance in both FWS and SSF wetland. In a mixed-culture, P. australis demonstrates superiority in terms of competitive interactions for space between plants. Furthermore, the interspecific competition among planted species seemed to cause different ecological responses of plant species in the two CWs. For example, while relatively high density and shoot height determined the high aboveground dry weight of P. australis in the FWS wetland, this association was not evident in the SSF. Additionally, while plants nutrients uptake accounts for a higher proportion of the nitrogen removal in FWS, that in the SSF accounts for a higher proportion of the phosphorous removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk management at the stage of design of high-rise construction facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Violetta

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the probabilistic risk of an accident formed in the process of designing a technically complex facility. It considers values of conditional probabilities of the compliance of load-bearing structures with safety requirements, provides an approximate list of significant errors of the designer and analyzes the relationship between the degree of compliance and the level of danger of errors. It describes and proposes for implementation the regulated procedures related to the assessment of the safety level of constructive solutions and the reliability of the construction process participants.

  8. Final stage of first super-critical 460 MW CFB boiler construction. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, Waldemar [PKE, Lagisza Power Plant (Poland); Goral, Damian [Foster Wheeler Energia Polska, Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Steam boilers with circulating fluidised bed combustion have been advanced in the past years and proved well as large-scale technology. A further step was the development and construction of a boiler with super-critical steam parameters and increased output. In 2002 the Polish utility Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA awarded a contract to Foster Wheeler Energia Oy to erect a fluidised bed boiler for the Lagisza power plant. Construction of the 460 MW plant was started in 2006. The plant has been in commercial operation since 2009. (orig.)

  9. Inspection activities of the Mexican regulatory body during the construction stage of the first unit of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado Gonzalez, Julio Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    The paper addresses the regulatory framework established for the design, construction and operation of the NPP. The regulatory bases of the inspection program are mentioned.A summary of the inspection and reviewing activities carried out by the former Nuclear Safety Management Construction area during the construction stage, taking the year 1977 as the beginning of regular inspection activities for this construction stage, and up to the year 1987, when this one is considered as practically completed, and a stage of pre-operational tests has been started. Finally, the main inspection areas are described, and a summary is given of the classification of deficiencies detected during the inspections

  10. Clinical Results of Arteriovenous Fistulas Constructed Using Autologous Vessels in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Tae Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: For hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, it is important to construct an efficient vascular access with a superior patency rate. This study investigated the factors influencing the efficiency of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs constructed using an autologous vessel and evaluated the necessity of ultrasonography as a preoperative tool for AVF construction. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of 250 patients in whom an AVF was constructed using an autologous vessel due to ESRD at our institution from January 2009 to April 2016. Results: The 1-, 3-, and 5-year patency rates for all subjects were 87.6%, 85.6%, and 84.4%, respectively. The patients who underwent a preoperative evaluation of their vessels via ultrasonography had better patency rates than those who did not. Superior patency rates were found in patients under 65 years of age or with an anastomotic vein diameter of 3 mm or more. The 1-year patency rate and the diameter of the anastomotic vein showed a positive relationship. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is strongly recommended for AVF construction, and efforts should be made to increase the patency rate in patients over 65. Superior clinical results can be expected when an AVF is made using an autologous vessel with an anastomotic vein diameter of at least 3 mm.

  11. Cancerous Tumour Model Analysis and Constructing schemes of Anti-angiogenesis Therapy at an Early Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mukhomorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an alternative and successfully employed method for treatment of cancerous tumour. However, this therapy isn't widely used in medicine because of expensive drugs. It leads naturally to elaboration of such treatment regimens which use minimum amount of drugs.The aim of the paper is to investigate the model of development of illness and elaborate appropriate treatment regimens in the case of early diagnosis of the disease. The given model reflects the therapy at an intermediate stage of the disease treatment. Further treatment is aimed to destroy cancer cells and may be continued by other means, which are not reflected in the model.Analysis of the main properties of the model was carried out with consideration of two types of auxiliary systems. In the first case, the system is considered without control, as a model of tumour development in the absence of medical treatment. The study of the equilibrium point and determination of its type allowed us to describe disease dynamics and to determine tumour size resulting in death. In the second case a model with a constant control was investigated. The study of its equilibrium point showed that continuous control is not sufficient to support satisfactory patient's condition, and it is necessary to elaborate more complex treatment regimens. For this purpose, we used the method of terminal problems consisting in the search for such program control which forces system to a given final state. Selecting the initial and final states is due to medical grounds.As a result, we found two treatment regimens | one-stage treatment regimen and multi-stage one. The properties of each treatment regimen are analyzed and compared. The total amount of used drugs was a criterion for comparing these two treatment regimens. The theoretical conclusions obtained in this work are supported by computer modeling in MATLAB environment.

  12. The Design, Construction and Operation of a 75 kW Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2003-01-01

    The Two-Stage Gasifier was operated for several weeks (465 hours) and of these 190 hours continuously. The gasifier is operated automatically unattended day and night, and only small adjustments of the feeding rate were necessary once or twice a day. The operation was successful, and the output...... as expected. The engine operated well on the produced gas, and no deposits were observed in the engine afterwards. The bag house filter was an excellent and well operating gas cleaning system. Small amounts of deposits consisting of salts and carbonates were observed in the hot gas heat exchangers. The top...

  13. Subsurface Profile Mapping using 3-D Compressive Wave Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazreek Z A M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical site investigation related to subsurface profile mapping was commonly performed to provide valuable data for design and construction stage based on conventional drilling techniques. From past experience, drilling techniques particularly using borehole method suffer from limitations related to expensive, time consuming and limited data coverage. Hence, this study performs subsurface profile mapping using 3-D compressive wave imaging in order to minimize those conventional method constraints. Field measurement and data analysis of compressive wave (p-wave, vp was performed using seismic refraction survey (ABEM Terraloc MK 8, 7 kg of sledgehammer and 24 units of vertical geophone and OPTIM (SeisOpt@Picker & SeisOpt@2D software respectively. Then, 3-D compressive wave distribution of subsurface studied was obtained using analysis of SURFER software. Based on 3-D compressive wave image analyzed, it was found that subsurface profile studied consist of three main layers representing top soil (vp = 376 – 600 m/s, weathered material (vp = 900 – 2600 m/s and bedrock (vp > 3000 m/s. Thickness of each layer was varied from 0 – 2 m (first layer, 2 – 20 m (second layer and 20 m and over (third layer. Moreover, groundwater (vp = 1400 – 1600 m/s starts to be detected at 2.0 m depth from ground surface. This study has demonstrated that geotechnical site investigation data related to subsurface profiling was applicable to be obtained using 3-D compressive wave imaging. Furthermore, 3-D compressive wave imaging was performed based on non destructive principle in ground exploration thus consider economic, less time, large data coverage and sustainable to our environment.

  14. Selection of adequate site location during early stages of construction project management: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Ivan; Hanak, Tomaš

    2017-10-01

    In the management of construction projects special attention should be given to the planning as the most important phase of decision-making process. Quality decision-making based on adequate and comprehensive collaboration of all involved stakeholders is crucial in project’s early stages. Fundamental reasons for existence of this problem arise from: specific conditions of construction industry (final products are inseparable from the location i.e. location has a strong influence of building design and its structural characteristics as well as technology which will be used during construction), investors’ desires and attitudes, and influence of socioeconomic and environment aspects. Considering all mentioned reasons one can conclude that selection of adequate construction site location for future investment is complex, low structured and multi-criteria problem. To take into account all the dimensions, the proposed model for selection of adequate site location is devised. The model is based on AHP (for designing the decision-making hierarchy) and PROMETHEE (for pairwise comparison of investment locations) methods. As a result of mixing basis feature of both methods, operational synergies can be achieved in multi-criteria decision analysis. Such gives the decision-maker a sense of assurance, knowing that if the procedure proposed by the presented model has been followed, it will lead to a rational decision, carefully and systematically thought out.

  15. Nursing professional practice environments: setting the stage for constructive conflict resolution and work effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Heidi; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Finegan, Joan

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of nurses' perceived professional practice environment on their quality of nursing conflict management approaches and ultimately their perceptions of unit effectiveness from the perspective of Deutsch's theory of constructive conflict management. Rising reports of hostility and conflict among Canadian nurses are a concern to nurses' health and the viability of effective patient care delivery. However, research on the situational factors that influence nurses' ability to apply effective conflict resolution skills that lead to positive results in practice is limited. A nonexperimental, predictive design was used in a sample of 678 registered nurses working in community hospitals within a large metropolitan area in Ontario. The results supported a modified version of the hypothesized model [chi2(1) = 16.25, Goodness of Fit = 0.99, Comparative Fit Index = 0.98, Root-Mean-Square Error of Approximation = 0.15] linking professional practice environment and core self-evaluation to nurses' conflict management and, ultimately, unit effectiveness. Professional practice environment, conflict management, and core-self evaluation explained approximately 46.6% of the variance in unit effectiveness. Positive professional practice environments and high core self-evaluations predicted nurses' constructive conflict management and, in turn, greater unit effectiveness.

  16. Large-scale multi-stage constructed wetlands for secondary effluents treatment in northern China: Carbon dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2018-02-01

    Multi-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) have been proved to be a cost-effective alternative in the treatment of various wastewaters for improving the treatment performance as compared with the conventional single-stage CWs. However, few long-term full-scale multi-stage CWs have been performed and evaluated for polishing effluents from domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of carbon and the effects of the key factors (input loading and temperature) in the large-scale seven-stage Wu River CW polishing domestic WWTP effluents in northern China. The results indicated a significant improvement in water quality. Significant seasonal and spatial variations of organics removal were observed in the Wu River CW with a higher COD removal efficiency of 64-66% in summer and fall. Obvious seasonal and spatial variations of CH 4 and CO 2 emissions were also found with the average CH 4 and CO 2 emission rates of 3.78-35.54 mg m -2 d -1 and 610.78-8992.71 mg m -2 d -1 , respectively, while the higher CH 4 and CO 2 emission flux was obtained in spring and summer. Seasonal air temperatures and inflow COD loading rates significantly affected organics removal and CH 4 emission, but they appeared to have a weak influence on CO 2 emission. Overall, this study suggested that large-scale Wu River CW might be a potential source of GHG, but considering the sustainability of the multi-stage CW, the inflow COD loading rate of 1.8-2.0 g m -2 d -1 and temperature of 15-20 °C may be the suitable condition for achieving the higher organics removal efficiency and lower greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in polishing the domestic WWTP effluent. The obtained knowledge of the carbon dynamics in large-scale Wu River CW will be helpful for understanding the carbon cycles, but also can provide useful field experience for the design, operation and management of multi-stage CW treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. The construction and use of bacterial DNA microarrays based on an optimized two-stage PCR strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesta David

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool with important applications such as global gene expression profiling. Construction of bacterial DNA microarrays from genomic sequence data using a two-stage PCR amplification approach for the production of arrayed DNA is attractive because it allows, in principal, the continued re-amplification of DNA fragments and facilitates further utilization of the DNA fragments for additional uses (e.g. over-expression of protein. We describe the successful construction and use of DNA microarrays by the two-stage amplification approach and discuss the technical challenges that were met and resolved during the project. Results Chimeric primers that contained both gene-specific and shared, universal sequence allowed the two-stage amplification of the 3,168 genes identified on the genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, an important prokaryotic model organism for the study of oxygenic photosynthesis. The gene-specific component of the primer was of variable length to maintain uniform annealing temperatures during the 1st round of PCR synthesis, and situated to preserve full-length ORFs. Genes were truncated at 2 kb for efficient amplification, so that about 92% of the PCR fragments were full-length genes. The two-stage amplification had the additional advantage of normalizing the yield of PCR products and this improved the uniformity of DNA features robotically deposited onto the microarray surface. We also describe the techniques utilized to optimize hybridization conditions and signal-to-noise ratio of the transcription profile. The inter-lab transportability was demonstrated by the virtual error-free amplification of the entire genome complement of 3,168 genes using the universal primers in partner labs. The printed slides have been successfully used to identify differentially expressed genes in response to a number of environmental conditions, including salt stress. Conclusions The technique detailed

  18. Experiences from the full-scale implementation of a new two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Guenter; Pressl, Alexander; Haberl, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the first full-scale implementation of a two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland (CW) system developed to increase nitrogen removal. The full-scale system was constructed for the Bärenkogelhaus, which is located in Styria at the top of a mountain, 1,168 m above sea level. The Bärenkogelhaus has a restaurant with 70 seats, 16 rooms for overnight guests and is a popular site for day visits, especially during weekends and public holidays. The CW treatment system was designed for a hydraulic load of 2,500 L.d(-1) with a specific surface area requirement of 2.7 m(2) per person equivalent (PE). It was built in fall 2009 and started operation in April 2010 when the restaurant was re-opened. Samples were taken between July 2010 and June 2013 and were analysed in the laboratory of the Institute of Sanitary Engineering at BOKU University using standard methods. During 2010 the restaurant at Bärenkogelhaus was open 5 days a week whereas from 2011 the Bärenkogelhaus was open only on demand for events. This resulted in decreased organic loads of the system in the later period. In general, the measured effluent concentrations were low and the removal efficiencies high. During the whole period the ammonia nitrogen effluent concentration was below 1 mg/L even at effluent water temperatures below 3 °C. Investigations during high-load periods, i.e. events like weddings and festivals at weekends, with more than 100 visitors, showed a very robust treatment performance of the two-stage CW system. Effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and NH4-N were not affected by these events with high hydraulic loads.

  19. Using one filter stage of unsaturated/saturated vertical flow filters for nitrogen removal and footprint reduction of constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvannou, Ania; Troesch, Stéphane; Esser, Dirk; Forquet, Nicolas; Petitjean, Alain; Molle, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) treating raw wastewater have been developed successfully over the last 30 years. Nevertheless, the two-stage VFCWs require a total filtration area of 2-2.5 m 2 /P.E. Therefore, implementing a one-stage system in which treatment performances reach standard requirements is of interest. Biho-Filter ® is one of the solutions developed in France by Epur Nature. Biho-Filter ® is a vertical flow system with an unsaturated layer at the top and a saturated layer at the bottom. The aim of this study was to assess this new configuration and to optimize its design and operating conditions. The hydraulic functioning and pollutant removal efficiency of three different Biho-Filter ® plants commissioned between 2011 and 2012 were studied. Outlet concentrations of the most efficient Biho-Filter ® configuration are 70 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 15 mg/L and 25 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), respectively. Up to 60% of total nitrogen is removed. Nitrification efficiency is mainly influenced by the height of the unsaturated zone and the recirculation rate. The optimum recirculation rate was found to be 100%. Denitrification in the saturated zone works at best with an influent COD/NO 3 -N ratio at the inflet of this zone larger than 2 and a hydraulic retention time longer than 0.75 days.

  20. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  1. [Construction of individual-based ecological model for Scomber japonicas at its early growth stages in East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-Song; Chen, Xin-Jun; Yang, Hong

    2012-06-01

    By adopting FVCOM-simulated 3-D physical field and based on the biological processes of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicas) in its early life history from the individual-based biological model, the individual-based ecological model for S. japonicas at its early growth stages in the East China Sea was constructed through coupling the physical field in March-July with the biological model by the method of Lagrange particle tracking. The model constructed could well simulate the transport process and abundance distribution of S. japonicas eggs and larvae. The Taiwan Warm Current, Kuroshio, and Tsushima Strait Warm Current directly affected the transport process and distribution of the eggs and larvae, and indirectly affected the growth and survive of the eggs and larvae through the transport to the nursery grounds with different water temperature and foods. The spawning grounds in southern East China Sea made more contributions to the recruitment to the fishing grounds in northeast East China Sea, but less to the Yangtze estuary and Zhoushan Island. The northwestern and southwestern parts of spawning grounds had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Cheju and Tsushima Straits, whereas the northeastern and southeastern parts of the spawning ground had strong connectivity with the nursery grounds of Kyushu and Pacific Ocean.

  2. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  3. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  4. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  5. Rock mass evaluation for predicting tunnel constructability in the preliminary investigation stage. Phenomena causing difficult tunneling and rockburst prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Koichi; Sawada, Masataka; Inohara, Yoshiki; Shidahara, Takumi; Hatano, Teruyoshi

    2011-01-01

    For the selection of the Detailed Investigation Areas for HLW disposal, predicting the tunnel constructability is one of the requirements together with assessing long-term safety. This report is the 1st of the three papers dealing with the evaluation of tunnel constructability. This paper deals with the geological factors relating to difficult tunneling such as squeezing, rockburst, and others. Also it deals with the prediction of rockburst. The 2nd paper will deal with the prediction of squeezing. The 3rd paper deals with the engineering characteristics of rock mass through rock mass classification. This paper about difficult tunneling has been based upon analysis of more than 500 tunneling reports about 280 tunnel constructions. The causes of difficult tunneling are related to (1) underground water, (2) mechanical properties of the rock, or (3) others such as gas. The geological factors for excessive water inflow are porous volcanic product of Quarternary, fault crush zone and hydrothermally altered zone of Green Tuff area, and degenerated mixed rock in accretionary complex. The geological factors for squeezing are solfataric clay at Quarternary volcanic zone, fault crush zone and hydrothermally altered zone of Green Tuff area, mudstone and fault crush zone of sedimentary rock of Neogene and later. Information useful for predicting rockburst has been gathered from previous reports. In the preliminary investigation stage, geological survey, geophysical survey and borehole survey from the surface are the source of information. Therefore rock type, P-wave velocity from seismic exploration and in-situ rock stress from hydrofracturing have been considered. Majority of rockburst events occurred at granitic rock, excluding coal mine where different kind of rockburst occurred at pillars. And P-wave velocity was around 5 km/s at the rock of rockburst events. Horizontal maximum and minimum stresses SH and Sh have been tested as a criterion for rockburst. It has been

  6. Modelling Nitrogen Transformation in Horizontal Subsurface Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model was developed to permit dynamic simulation of nitrogen interaction in a pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland receiving effluents from primary facultative pond. The system was planted with Phragmites mauritianus, which was provided with root zone depth of 75 cm. The root zone was ...

  7. The use of methods of structural optimization at the stage of designing high-rise buildings with steel construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkin, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    The more designing solutions at the search stage for design for high-rise buildings can be synthesized by the engineer, the more likely that the final adopted version will be the most efficient and economical. However, in modern market conditions, taking into account the complexity and responsibility of high-rise buildings the designer does not have the necessary time to develop, analyze and compare any significant number of options. To solve this problem, it is expedient to use the high potential of computer-aided designing. To implement automated search for design solutions, it is proposed to develop the computing facilities, the application of which will significantly increase the productivity of the designer and reduce the complexity of designing. Methods of structural and parametric optimization have been adopted as the basis of the computing facilities. Their efficiency in the synthesis of design solutions is shown, also the schemes, that illustrate and explain the introduction of structural optimization in the traditional design of steel frames, are constructed. To solve the problem of synthesis and comparison of design solutions for steel frames, it is proposed to develop the computing facilities that significantly reduces the complexity of search designing and based on the use of methods of structural and parametric optimization.

  8. Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E.; O'Neil, Regina A.; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'Guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll , Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2007-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants.

  9. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  10. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I andC) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I andC systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I andC systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored

  11. THE USE OF CARTOGRAPHIC MATTER FROM OPEN SOURCES FOR MASS ASSESSMENT AT THE PRE-STAGE STUDY OF HYDROPOWER CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tesalovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the possibility of planning and cartographic materials and supplies to remote sensing of the Earth, which can get them open sources for mass valuation of land at the pre-stage study on developing a multi-purpose reservoirs on the plains and plateaus. Particular attention is given to the use of the service "Public cadastral map', available on the portal of the Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography: advantages and disadvantages of the use of undeveloped and sparsely populated areas of service information. Clarified what objects other than those required by regulatory and technical documents and regulations can be obtained by using the public cadastral map using its various functions: cadastral division maps, raster maps Russian and available on a portal of Earth Remote Sensing Data. In the article it is assumed that the accuracy of the image contour of the situation and the relief map material from open sources corresponds to map scale is larger than 1: 100 000 with the height of the relief section of not less than 20 meters. Mass assessment is based on the possibility of placing some or all of the seven species of water potential in the waters of hydroelectric complex. Potential benefits of each of the water users, attributable to the land plot is set on the basis of the cadastral value of land corresponding to each type of water. The area used by each of the water users, established in accordance with its requirements to the bottom topography, the provisions of water and nature protection legislation. Justification is made on the basis of the calculation of measurement error plot area used by water users in their economic activity, taking into account the errors in the image of the contour of the situation on these maps. It was found that the error introduced by cartographic materials used in certain methods of mass estimation of cost of land area, reserved for the construction of multi

  12. The Serpentinite Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Nelson, B. Y.; Brazelton, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial habitats hosted in ultramafic rocks constitute substantial, globally-distributed portions of the subsurface biosphere, occurring both on the continents and beneath the seafloor. The aqueous alteration of ultramafics, in a process known as serpentinization, creates energy rich, high pH conditions, with low concentrations of inorganic carbon which place fundamental constraints upon microbial metabolism and physiology. Despite their importance, very few studies have attempted to directly access and quantify microbial activities and distributions in the serpentinite subsurface microbiome. We have initiated microbiological studies of subsurface seeps and rocks at three separate continental sites of serpentinization in Newfoundland, Italy, and California and compared these results to previous analyses of the Lost City field, near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In all cases, microbial cell densities in seep fluids are extremely low, ranging from approximately 100,000 to less than 1,000 cells per milliliter. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed low-diversity microbial communities related to Gram-positive Firmicutes and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Interestingly, unlike Lost City, there has been little evidence for significant archaeal populations in the continental subsurface to date. Culturing studies at the sites yielded numerous alkaliphilic isolates on nutrient-rich agar and putative iron-reducing bacteria in anaerobic incubations, many of which are related to known alkaliphilic and subsurface isolates. Finally, metagenomic data reinforce the culturing results, indicating the presence of genes associated with organotrophy, hydrogen oxidation, and iron reduction in seep fluid samples. Our data provide insight into the lifestyles of serpentinite subsurface microbial populations and targets for future quantitative exploration using both biochemical and geochemical approaches.

  13. Design and construction of a single unit multi-function optical encoder for a six-degree-of-freedom motion error measurement in an ultraprecision linear stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Kim, Gyu Ha; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the method of a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) posture measurement in a linear stage by employing a single unit of an optical encoder. The proposed optical encoder was constructed to simultaneously measure the posture along the traveling axis; angular errors, pitch, yaw and roll; and translational errors, ΔX, ΔY and ΔZ. It consists of a diffractive optical element, a corner cube, four separate two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors, four photodiodes and auxiliary optics components. The circularly polarizing interferometric technique was integrated to measure the displacement of the stage along the traveling axis in a robust manner and the resolution was estimated to be less than 0.4 nm. Two types of stages were employed for the measurement implementation, the piezoelectric transducer-driven and the ballscrew-driven, and they were feedback-controlled for the traveling axis, respectively. With a single travel of the stage, it provided a six-DOF motion error with a high resolution, less than 0.03 arcsec, 20 nm and 0.4 nm for angular errors, ΔY and ΔZ, and ΔX, respectively, at the same time. As a result, it was seen that motion errors of the stage have relevance to the driving mechanism and the whole construction of the stage

  14. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.; Novotny, R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES)

  15. Identification and Construction of Combinatory Cancer Hallmark-Based Gene Signature Sets to Predict Recurrence and Chemotherapy Benefit in Stage II Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanwu; Tibiche, Chabane; Zou, Jinfeng; Zaman, Naif; Trifiro, Mark; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen; Wang, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) have been among the most challenging and controversial in oncology over the past 20 years. To develop robust combinatory cancer hallmark-based gene signature sets (CSS sets) that more accurately predict prognosis and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Thirteen retrospective studies of patients with stage II CRC who had clinical follow-up and adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Respective totals of 162 and 843 patients from 2 and 11 independent cohorts were used as the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. A total of 1005 patients with stage II CRC were included in the 13 cohorts. Among them, 84 of 416 patients in 3 independent cohorts received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Identification of CSS sets to predict relapse-free survival and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain substantial survival benefits from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Eight cancer hallmark-based gene signatures (30 genes each) were identified and used to construct CSS sets for determining prognosis. The CSS sets were validated in 11 independent cohorts of 767 patients with stage II CRC who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The CSS sets accurately stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Five-year relapse-free survival rates were 94%, 78%, and 45%, respectively, representing 60%, 28%, and 12% of patients with stage II disease. The 416 patients with CSS set-defined high-risk stage II CRC who received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy showed a substantial gain in survival benefits from the treatment (ie, recurrence reduced by 30%-40% in 5 years). The CSS sets substantially outperformed other prognostic predictors of stage 2 CRC. They are more accurate and robust for prognostic predictions and facilitate the identification of patients with stage

  16. Improving the biodegradative capacity of subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, M.F.; Brockman, F.J.

    1993-04-01

    The continual release of large volumes of synthetic materials into the environment by agricultural and industrial sources over the last few decades has resulted in pollution of the subsurface environment. Cleanup has been difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of the contaminants caused by their wide dispersal in the deep subsurface, often at low concentrations and in large volumes. As a possible solution for these problems, interest in the introduction of biodegradative bacteria for in situ remediation of these sites has increased greatly in recent years (Timmis et al. 1988). Selection of biodegradative microbes to apply in such cleanup is limited to those strains that can survive among the native bacterial and predator community members at the particular pH, temperature, and moisture status of the site (Alexander, 1984). The use of microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments would be advantageous because the organisms are already adapted to the subsurface conditions. The options are further narrowed to strains that are able to degrade the contaminant rapidly, even in the presence of highly recalcitrant anthropogenic waste mixtures, and in conditions that do not require addition of further toxic compounds for the expression of the biodegradative capacity (Sayler et al. 1990). These obstacles can be overcome by placing the genes of well-characterized biodegradative enzymes under the control of promoters that can be regulated by inexpensive and nontoxic external factors and then moving the new genetic constructs into diverse groups of subsurface microbes. ne objective of this research is to test this hypothesis by comparing expression of two different toluene biodegradative enzymatic pathways from two different regulatable promoters in a variety of subsurface isolates

  17. MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the open-quotes User's Guide and Referenceclose quotes companion document

  18. Technique treatment of early stage support construction system for Gaoling mountain tunnel engineering of Daya Bay nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Keli

    2010-01-01

    This article studies the technical treatment of primary support system used in Gaoling mountain tunnel construction process at Daya by nuclear power plant in combination with the new austrian tunneling construction method, this article first analyzes the design of primary support system, and the key point of the analyses lies in the primary support technical treatment schemes of Gaoling mountain tunnel with the examples of tunnel collapse and primary support design alteration for bias voltage section, then the construction technology of the primary support system is summarized, and the safety of wall rock is analyzed as well with the measurement data. In the end, suggestions are put forward on the design and construction of primary support system for tunnels on the basis of practical working experience. (author)

  19. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  20. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  1. Investigation of the effects of construction and stage filling of reservoirs on the environment and ecology: Preproject baseline. [Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Anderson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results: (1) LANDSAT imagery can be used effectively as a baseline for detection of environmental change, resulting from construction of a major inland reservoir. (2) Forest cover can be observed adequately on two-band composite enlargements at a scale of 1:130,000. (3) Forest cover delineated on LANDSAT enlargements compares accurately with ground truth at a scale of 1:250,000. (4) A dual image mapping technique superimposing winter, summer, and spring scenes using the zoom transfer scope facilitates the determination. (5) The same technique can be used to detect changes in the project area, resulting from construction activities. (6) High altitude aircraft imagery can also be used to interpret changes in land use and forest type. (7) Construction operations can be more clearly detailed on the air photos than on LANDSAT imagery.

  2. The Problem of Constructive Misalignment in International Business Education: A Three-Stage Integrated Approach to Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shasha

    2016-01-01

    Past evidence suggests that constructive misalignment is particularly problematic in International Business (IB) education, though this paradigm has received limited research attention. Building on the literature of three independent teaching methods (threshold concept, problem-based learning, and technology-based learning), this study contributes…

  3. Subsurface Biogeochemistry of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Univ. Relations and Science Education; Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.

    2016-06-29

    A major scientific challenge in environmental sciences is to identify the dominant processes controlling actinide transport in the environment. It is estimated that currently, over 2200 metric tons of plutonium (Pu) have been deposited in the subsurface worldwide, a number that increases yearly with additional spent nuclear fuel (Ewing et al., 2010). Plutonium has been shown to migrate on the scale of kilometers, giving way to a critical concern that the fundamental biogeochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface are not well understood (Kersting et al., 1999; Novikov et al., 2006; Santschi et al., 2002). Neptunium (Np) is less prevalent in the environment; however, it is predicted to be a significant long-term dose contributor in high-level nuclear waste. Our focus on Np chemistry in this Science Plan is intended to help formulate a better understanding of Pu redox transformations in the environment and clarify the differences between the two long-lived actinides. The research approach of our Science Plan combines (1) Fundamental Mechanistic Studies that identify and quantify biogeochemical processes that control actinide behavior in solution and on solids, (2) Field Integration Studies that investigate the transport characteristics of Pu and test our conceptual understanding of actinide transport, and (3) Actinide Research Capabilities that allow us to achieve the objectives of this Scientific Focus Area (SFA and provide new opportunities for advancing actinide environmental chemistry. These three Research Thrusts form the basis of our SFA Science Program (Figure 1).

  4. Development of safety evaluation methods and analysis codes applied to the safety regulations for the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to develop the safety evaluation methods and analysis codes needed in the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). In JFY 2012, the following results are obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination conducted for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as core damage analysis code, were carried out following the planned schedule. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  5. Naïve Bayesian Classifier for Selecting Good/Bad Projects during the Early Stage of International Construction Bidding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosik Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, revenues generated by Korean contractors in international construction have increased rapidly, exceeding USD 70 billion per year in recent years. However, Korean contractors face significant risks from market uncertainty and sensitivity to economic volatility and technical difficulties. As the volatility of these risks threatens project profitability, approximately 15% of bad projects were found to account for 74% of losses from the same international construction sector. Anticipating bad projects via preemptive risk management can better prevent losses so that contractors can enhance the efficiency of bidding decisions during the early stages of a project cycle. In line with these objectives, this paper examines the effect of such factors on the degree of project profitability. The Naïve Bayesian classifier is applied to identify a good project screening tool, which increases practical applicability using binomial variables with limited information that is obtainable in the early stages. The proposed model produced superior classification results that adequately reflect contractor views of risk. It is anticipated that when users apply the proposed model based on their own knowledge and expertise, overall firm profit rates will increase as a result of early abandonment of bad projects as well as the prioritization of good projects before final bidding decisions are made.

  6. Machine Learning Multi-Stage Classification and Regression in the Search for Vector-like Quarks and the Neyman Construction in Signal Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Leone, Robert Matthew

    A search for vector-like quarks (VLQs) decaying to a Z boson using multi-stage machine learning was compared to a search using a standard square cuts search strategy. VLQs are predicted by several new theories beyond the Standard Model. The searches used 20.3 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector in 2012 at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CLs upper limits on production cross sections of vector-like top and bottom quarks were computed for VLQs produced singly or in pairs, Tsingle, Bsingle, Tpair, and Bpair. The two stage machine learning classification search strategy did not provide any improvement over the standard square cuts strategy, but for Tpair, Bpair, and Tsingle, a third stage of machine learning regression was able to lower the upper limits of high signal masses by as much as 50%. Additionally, new test statistics were developed for use in the Neyman construction of confidence regions in order to address deficiencies in c...

  7. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPLORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-000111) (CRWMS M and O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M and O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the

  8. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.J. Clark

    1999-06-28

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-00011 Rev 01) (CRWMS M&O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M&O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility

  9. Subsurface Facility System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Subsurface Facility System encompasses the location, arrangement, size, and spacing of the underground openings. This subsurface system includes accesses, alcoves, and drifts. This system provides access to the underground, provides for the emplacement of waste packages, provides openings to allow safe and secure work conditions, and interfaces with the natural barrier. This system includes what is now the Exploratory Studies Facility. The Subsurface Facility System physical location and general arrangement help support the long-term waste isolation objectives of the repository. The Subsurface Facility System locates the repository openings away from main traces of major faults, away from exposure to erosion, above the probable maximum flood elevation, and above the water table. The general arrangement, size, and spacing of the emplacement drifts support disposal of the entire inventory of waste packages based on the emplacement strategy. The Subsurface Facility System provides access ramps to safely facilitate development and emplacement operations. The Subsurface Facility System supports the development and emplacement operations by providing subsurface space for such systems as ventilation, utilities, safety, monitoring, and transportation

  10. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... point source diffusion. A ray source corresponds better to the light that refracts through the surface of a translucent material. Using this ray source, we are able to take the direction of the incident light ray and the direction toward the point of emergence into account. We use a dipole construction...

  11. Subsurface remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Groves, Joel L.

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface remote sensing measurements are widely used for oil and gas exploration, for oil and gas production monitoring, and for basic studies in the earth sciences. Radiation sensors, often including small accelerator sources, are used to obtain bulk properties of the surrounding strata as well as to provide detailed elemental analyses of the rocks and fluids in rock pores. Typically, instrument packages are lowered into a borehole at the end of a long cable, that may be as long as 10 km, and two-way data and instruction telemetry allows a single radiation instrument to operate in different modes and to send the data to a surface computer. Because these boreholes are often in remote locations throughout the world, the data are frequently transmitted by satellite to various locations around the world for almost real-time analysis and incorporation with other data. The complete system approach that permits rapid and reliable data acquisition, remote analysis and transmission to those making decisions is described

  12. Selection of organic chemicals for subsurface transport. Subsurface transport program interaction seminar series. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, J.M.; Wobber, F.J.

    1984-11-01

    Model compounds are finding increasing use in environmental research. These individual compounds are selected as surrogates of important contaminants present in energy/defense wastes and their leachates and are used separately or as mixtures in research to define the anticipated or ''model'' environmental behavior of key waste components and to probe important physicochemical mechanisms involved in transport and fate. A seminar was held in Germantown, Maryland, April 24-25, 1984 to discuss the nature of model organic compounds being used for subsurface transport research. The seminar included participants experienced in the fields of environmental chemistry, microbiology, geohydrology, biology, and analytic chemistry. The objectives of the seminar were two-fold: (1) to review the rationale for the selection of organic compounds adopted by research groups working on the subsurface transport of organics, and (2) to evaluate the use of individual compounds to bracket the behavior of compound classes and compound constructs to approximate the behavior of complex organic mixtures

  13. Program overview: Subsurface science program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The OHER Subsurface Science Program is DOE's core basic research program concerned with subsoils and groundwater. These practices have resulted in contamination by mixtures of organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and radionuclides. A primary long-term goal is to provide a foundation of knowledge that will lead to the reduction of environmental risks and to cost-effective cleanup strategies. Since the Program was initiated in 1985, a substantial amount of research in hydrogeology, subsurface microbiology, and the geochemistry of organically complexed radionuclides has been completed, leading to a better understanding of contaminant transport in groundwater and to new insights into microbial distribution and function in the subsurface environments. The Subsurface Science Program focuses on achieving long-term scientific advances that will assist DOE in the following key areas: providing the scientific basis for innovative in situ remediation technologies that are based on a concept of decontamination through benign manipulation of natural systems; understanding the complex mechanisms and process interactions that occur in the subsurface; determining the influence of chemical and geochemical-microbial processes on co-contaminant mobility to reduce environmental risks; improving predictions of contaminant transport that draw on fundamental knowledge of contaminant behavior in the presence of physical and chemical heterogeneities to improve cleanup effectiveness and to predict environmental risks

  14. Imaging subsurface geology and volatile organic compound plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualheim, B.J.; Daley, P.F.; Johnson, V.; McPherrin, R.V.; Laguna, G.

    1992-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Fig. 1) is in the final stages of the Superfund decisionmaking process for site remediation and restoration. In the process of characterizing the subsurface of the LLNL site, we have developed unique methods of collecting, storing, retrieving, and imaging geologic and chemical data from more than 350 drill holes. The lateral and vertical continuity of subsurface paleostream channels were mapped for the entire LLNL site using geologic descriptions from core samples, cuttings, and interpretations from geophysical logs. A computer-aided design and drafting program, SLICE, written at LLNL, was used to create two-dimensional maps of subsurface sediments, and state-of-the-art software produced three-dimensional images of the volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes using data from water and core fluid analyses

  15. A reformation Study about the Construction Management in the Primary Stage Curricula’s for the Civil Engineering in Some of the Iraqi Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair mikhaail sako

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the field of education and teaching (in any country and whatever its ruling system varies “d” is considered one of the most specific and sensitive field, because it is related to the building of human. And as the human is a purpose (aim and the means in the same time and he is the strategist capital, so he way of his rearing, education, choosing the educator, methods of working and the aims are considered serious matters. The educational process has aim determined by the society for him self through its working establishments in this field and these are the official and public establishments. And as he feels that the establishments have failed to achieve its duty, it, and without hesitation immediately interferes by the means that he choose to fix the defect. The educational process aims are meant to be the determined modification for the way which are expected to change the students through this process .i,e. the way of their thinking, feeling and actions. And the curricula’s used (followed are considered one of the means to achieve the aims. This research aims at studying the program of the construction management wherefrom the items are distributed although the years and hours of primary stage in the civil engineering department in Baghdad university and some other Iraqi universities. The curricula’s items of some sedate worldwide (universal universities, and to make a comparison between them to reach a specific form to the method of teaching these items, unify them, revive them and to contribute in clarifying the features of the path way ahead of a teaching Corp member which is followed in the teaching curricula’s of the construction on the means which make achieving this complicated process a living interactive system.

  16. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  17. Subsurface images of the Eastern Rift, Africa, from the joint inversion of body waves, surface waves and gravity: investigating the role of fluids in early-stage continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecker, S.; Ebinger, C.; Tiberi, C.; Mulibo, G.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Mtelela, K.; Kianji, G.; Muzuka, A.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Eastern Rift System (ERS) of northern Tanzania and southern Kenya, where a cratonic lithosphere is in the early stages of rifting, offers an ideal venue for investigating the roles of magma and other fluids in such an environment. To illuminate these roles, we jointly invert arrival times of locally recorded P and S body waves, phase delays of ambient noise generated Rayleigh waves and Bouguer anomalies from gravity observations to generate a 3-D image of P and S wave speeds in the upper 25 km of the crust. While joint inversion of gravity and arrival times requires a relationship between density and wave speeds, the improvement in resolution obtained by the combination of these disparate data sets serves to further constrain models, and reduce uncertainties. The most significant features in the 3-D model are (1) P and S wave speeds that are 10-15 per cent lower beneath the rift zone than in the surrounding regions, (2) a relatively high wave speed tabular feature located along the western edge of the Natron and Manyara rifts, and (3) low (∼1.71) values of Vp/Vs throughout the upper crust, with the lowest ratios along the boundaries of the rift zones. The low P and S wave speeds at mid-crustal levels beneath the rift valley are an expected consequence of active volcanism, and the tabular, high-wave speed feature is interpreted to be an uplifted footwall at the western edge of the rift. Given the high levels of CO2 outgassing observed at the surface along border fault zones, and the sensitivity of Vp/Vs to pore-fluid compressibility, we infer that the low Vp/Vs values in and around the rift zone are caused by the volcanic plumbing in the upper crust being suffused by a gaseous CO2 froth on top of a deeper, crystalline mush. The repository for molten rock is likely located in the lower crust and upper mantle, where the Vp/Vs ratios are significantly higher.

  18. Feasibility of a subsurface storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This report analyses the notion of subsurface storage under the scientifical, technical and legal aspects. This reflection belongs to the studies about long duration storage carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 30, 1991 law. The report comprises 3 parts. The first part is a synthesis of the complete subsurface storage study: definitions, aim of the report, very long duration storage paradigm, description files of concepts, thematic synthesis (legal aspects, safety, monitoring, sites, seismicity, heat transfers, corrosion, concretes, R and works, handling, tailings and dismantlement, economy..), multi-criteria/multi-concept cross-analysis. The second part deals with the technical aspects of the subsurface storage: safety approach (long duration impact, radiation protection, mastery of effluents), monitoring strategy, macroscopic inventory of B-type waste packages, inventory of spent fuels, glasses, hulls and nozzles, geological contexts in the French territory (sites selection and characterization), on-site activities, hydrogeological and geochemical aspects, geo-technical works and infrastructures organization, subsurface seismic effects, cooling modes (ventilation, heat transfer with the geologic environment), heat transfer research programs (convection, poly-phase cooling in porous media), handling constraints, concretes (use, behaviour, durability), corrosion of metallic materials, technical-economical analysis, international context (experience feedback from Sweden (CLAB) and the USA (Yucca Mountain), other European and French facilities). The last part of the report is a graphical appendix with 3-D views and schemes of the different concepts. (J.S.)

  19. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.W. Markman

    2001-01-01

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M andO 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M andO 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree

  20. Integrated geomechanical modelling for deep subsurface damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Orlic, B.; Zijl, W.; Jongerius, P.; Schreppers, G.J.; Hendriks, M.

    2001-01-01

    Government, E&P and mining industry increasingly demand fundamental insight and accurate predictions on subsurface and surface deformation and damage due to exploitation of subsurface natural resources, and subsurface storage of energy residues (e.g. CO2). At this moment deformation is difficult to

  1. Translucent Radiosity: Efficiently Combining Diffuse Inter-Reflection and Subsurface Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yu; Shi, Yulong; Wang, Lili; Narasimhan, Srinivasa G

    2014-07-01

    It is hard to efficiently model the light transport in scenes with translucent objects for interactive applications. The inter-reflection between objects and their environments and the subsurface scattering through the materials intertwine to produce visual effects like color bleeding, light glows, and soft shading. Monte-Carlo based approaches have demonstrated impressive results but are computationally expensive, and faster approaches model either only inter-reflection or only subsurface scattering. In this paper, we present a simple analytic model that combines diffuse inter-reflection and isotropic subsurface scattering. Our approach extends the classical work in radiosity by including a subsurface scattering matrix that operates in conjunction with the traditional form factor matrix. This subsurface scattering matrix can be constructed using analytic, measurement-based or simulation-based models and can capture both homogeneous and heterogeneous translucencies. Using a fast iterative solution to radiosity, we demonstrate scene relighting and dynamically varying object translucencies at near interactive rates.

  2. Subsurface Noble Gas Sampling Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The intent of this document is to provide information about best available approaches for performing subsurface soil gas sampling during an On Site Inspection or OSI. This information is based on field sampling experiments, computer simulations and data from the NA-22 Noble Gas Signature Experiment Test Bed at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The approaches should optimize the gas concentration from the subsurface cavity or chimney regime while simultaneously minimizing the potential for atmospheric radioxenon and near-surface Argon-37 contamination. Where possible, we quantitatively assess differences in sampling practices for the same sets of environmental conditions. We recognize that all sampling scenarios cannot be addressed. However, if this document helps to inform the intuition of the reader about addressing the challenges resulting from the inevitable deviations from the scenario assumed here, it will have achieved its goal.

  3. Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) Subsurface Containment Berm Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Degree-Days CRREL Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory ERDC U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center FWENC Foster Wheeler ...contract with the Navy, Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) constructed a subsurface containment berm at the airfield of the Naval...659J91.61 ncURE 3- 3 NAVAl.. AACnC R(Sf.ARCH l,.ASORATORY POINT 9ARROW. AlASKA AS-BUILT CONTAINMENT BERM EXTENSION AND MONITORING WELLS FOSTER W

  4. Avaliação de aspectos hidraúlicos e hidrológicos de sistemas alagados construídos de fluxo subsuperficial Evaluating hydrological and hydraulic aspects in subsurface-flow constructed wetland systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart da Silva Brasil

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve-se como objetivo avaliar os aspectos hidráulicos e hidrológicos de quatro sistemas alagados construídos (SACs, cultivados com taboa (Typha sp. e utilizados no tratamento de esgoto doméstico pré-decantado em tanque séptico. O sistema foi alimentado com uma taxa de aplicação hidráulica (q constante de 60, 47, 23 e 35 litro m-2 d-1, respectivamente, nos SACs 1, 2, 3 e 4, tendo recebido monitoramento e medição da condutividade hidráulica e evapotranspiração no sistema. Foram realizados balanços hídricos mensais, durante um período de seis meses. Os resultados evidenciaram que: a condutividade hidráulica no meio suporte é reduzida com o tempo de funcionamento do sistema; e o sistema de tratamento apresentou evapotranspiração média de 9,3 mm d-1, resultando num coeficiente da cultura (Kc da taboa com variação de 2,22 a 4,58.This work was conducted to evaluate both hydrological and hydraulic aspects in four constructed wetland systems (SACs, that were cropped with Typha sp. and used in the treatment of the domestic wastewater presettled in septic tank. The system was fed a constant water application ratio (q of 60, 47, 23 and 35 liter m-2 d-1 in SACs 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, besides being monitored. The hydraulic conductivity and evapotranspiration were also measured. Water balances were monthly accomplished during six-months period. The results evidenced the hydraulic conductivity in the supportive medium to be reduced during the operating time of the system, as well as the treatment system showed an average evapotranspiration of 9.3mm d-1, as resulting into a cropping coefficient (Kc of the Typha sp. ranging from 2.22 to 4.58.

  5. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  6. Subsurface transport program: Research summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    DOE's research program in subsurface transport is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biological mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in subsurface ecosystems can be understood. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the transport of single and co-contaminants is the underlying concern of the program. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research and to geosphere-biosphere interactions. The scientific results of the program will contribute to resolving Departmental questions related to the disposal of energy-producing and defense wastes. The background papers prepared in support of this document contain additional information on the relevance of the research in the long term to energy-producing technologies. Detailed scientific plans and other research documents are available for high priority research areas, for example, in subsurface transport of organic chemicals and mixtures and in the microbiology of deep aquifers. 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  8. A neural network model for non invasive subsurface stratigraphic identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, John M. Jr.; Ludwig, Reinhold; Lai Qiang

    2000-01-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GRP) is a powerful tool to examine the stratigraphy below ground surface for remote sensing. Increasingly GPR has also found applications in microwave NDE as an interrogation tool to assess dielectric layers. Unfortunately, GPR data is characterized by a high degree of uncertainty and natural physical ambiguity. Robust decomposition routines are sparse for this application. We have developed a hierarchical set of neural network modules which split the task of layer profiling into consecutive stages. Successful GPR profiling of the subsurface stratigraphy is of key importance for many remote sensing applications including microwave NDE. Neural network modules were designed to accomplish the two main processing goals of recognizing the 'subsurface pattern' followed by the identification of the depths of the subsurface layers like permafrost, groundwater table, and bedrock. We used an adaptive transform technique to transform raw GPR data into a small feature vector containing the most representative and discriminative features of the signal. This information formed the input for the neural network processing units. This strategy reduced the number of required training samples for the neural network by orders of magnitude. The entire processing system was trained using the adaptive transformed feature vector inputs and tested with real measured GPR data. The successful results of this system establishes the feasibility the feasibility of delineating subsurface layering nondestructively

  9. A technical investigation on tools and concepts for sustainable management of the subsurface in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Jasper; van Wensem, Joke; Oomes, Justine L M; Barends, Frans; Breunese, Jaap; Bruining, Hans; Olsthoorn, Theo; Stams, Alfons J M; van der Stoel, Almer E C

    2014-07-01

    In response to increasing use of the subsurface, there is a need to modernise policies on sustainable use of the subsurface. This holds in particular for the densely populated Netherlands. We aimed to analyse current practice of subsurface management and the associated pressure points and to establish a conceptual overview of the technical issues related to sustainable management of the subsurface. Case studies on the exploitation of subsurface resources (including spatial use of the subsurface) were analysed, examining social relevance, environmental impact, pressure points and management solutions. The case studies ranged from constructing underground garages to geothermal exploitation. The following issues were identified for the technological/scientific aspects: site investigation, suitability, risk assessment, monitoring and measures in the event of failure. Additionally, the following general issues were identified for the administrative aspects: spatial planning, option assessment, precaution, transparency, responsibility and liability. These issues were explored on their technological implications within the framework of sustainable management of the subsurface. This resulted into the following key aspects: (1) sustainability assessment, (2) dealing with uncertainty and (3) policy instruments and governance. For all three aspects, different options were identified which might have a legal, economic or ethical background. The technological implications of these backgrounds have been identified. A set of recommendations for sustainable management of the subsurface resources (incl. space) was established: (1) management should be driven by scarcity, (2) always implement closed loop monitoring when the subsurface activities are high-risk, (3) when dealing with unknown features and heterogeneity, apply the precautionary principle, (4) responsibility and liability for damage must be set out in legislation and (5) sustainability should be incorporated in all

  10. Microbial activity in the terrestrial subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.P.; Bollag, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the layers under the earth's crust. Only in recent years have techniques for sampling the deeper subsurface been developed to permit investigation of the subsurface environment. Prevailing conditions in the subsurface habitat such as nutrient availability, soil composition, redox potential, permeability and a variety of other factors can influence the microflora that flourish in a given environment. Microbial diversity varies between geological formations, but in general sandy soils support growth better than soils rich in clay. Bacteria predominate in subsurface sediments, while eukaryotes constitute only 1-2% of the microorganisms. Recent investigations revealed that most uncontaminated subsurface soils support the growth of aerobic heteroorganotrophic bacteria, but obviously anaerobic microorganisms also exist in the deeper subsurface habitat. The microorganisms residing below the surface of the earth are capable of degrading both natural and xenobiotic contaminants and can thereby adapt to growth under polluted conditions. (author) 4 tabs, 77 refs

  11. Urban heat islands in the subsurface of German cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberg, K.; Blum, P.; Zhu, K.; Bayer, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the subsurface of many cities there are widespread and persistent thermal anomalies (subsurface urban heat islands) that result in a warming of urban aquifers. The reasons for this heating are manifold. Possible heat sources are basements of buildings, leakage of sewage systems, buried district heating networks, re-injection of cooling water and solar irradiation on paved surfaces. In the current study, the reported groundwater temperatures in several German cities, such as Berlin, Munich, Cologne and Karlsruhe, are compared. Available data sets are supplemented by temperature measurements and depth profiles in observation wells. Trend analyses are conducted with time series of groundwater temperatures, and three-dimensional groundwater temperature maps are provided. In all investigated cities, pronounced positive temperature anomalies are present. The distribution of groundwater temperatures appears to be spatially and temporally highly variable. Apparently, the increased heat input into the urban subsurface is controlled by very local and site-specific parameters. In the long-run, the superposition of various heat sources results in an extensive temperature increase. In many cases, the maximum temperature elevation is found close to the city centre. Regional groundwater temperature differences between the city centre and the rural background are up to 5 °C, with local hot spots of even more pronounced anomalies. Particular heat sources, like cooling water injections or case-specific underground constructions, can cause local temperatures > 20°C in the subsurface. Examination of the long-term variations in isotherm maps shows that temperatures have increased by about 1°C in the city, as well as in the rural background areas over the last decades. This increase could be reproduced with trend analysis of temperature data gathered from several groundwater wells. Comparison between groundwater and air temperatures in Karlsruhe, for example, also indicates a

  12. Feasibility of permeation grouting for constructing subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.

    1994-03-01

    The technical feasibility of emplacing a barrier beneath a waste site using directionally drilled boreholes and permeation grouting was investigated. The benefits of this emplacement system are: (1) Directionally drilled boreholes provide access beneath a waste site without disturbing the waste; (2) interim containment of contaminants allows time for the development of remediation options; (3) in the interim, the volume of waste remains fixed; (4) barriers may enhance the effectiveness of in situ remediation actions; and (5) barrier systems may provide permanent waste containment

  13. Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for mitigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-22

    Dec 22, 2008 ... Results indicated that 39% of the total initially added amount of ametryn ... characteristics (Table 1), may result in the detection of poten- ... Water solubility at 20oC (g∙m-3) 204 ... culture, part of the resident liquid in CWs was lost, therefore ..... LIN T, WEN y, JIANG L, LI J, yANG S and ZHOu Q (2008) Study.

  14. Warm season performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-06-14

    Jun 14, 2013 ... degradation and population risk of diseases particularly ..... 5G: gravel substrate with a HRT of 5 days; 5S: sand substrate with a HRT of 5 days; 10G: gravel substrate with a .... American Public Health Association; American.

  15. performance of subsurface flow constructed wetland for domestic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    2Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences,. University of ... combination of biological, chemical and ... methods are mostly used in developed ..... plants in Bio-Environmental Engineering.

  16. Cultivating the Deep Subsurface Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, C. P.; Osburn, M. R.; Flynn, T. M.; Masterson, A.; Kruger, B.

    2017-12-01

    Subterranean ecosystems are poorly understood because many microbes detected in metagenomic surveys are only distantly related to characterized isolates. Cultivating microorganisms from the deep subsurface is challenging due to its inaccessibility and potential for contamination. The Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in Lead, SD however, offers access to deep microbial life via pristine fracture fluids in bedrock to a depth of 1478 m. The metabolic landscape of DeMMO was previously characterized via thermodynamic modeling coupled with genomic data, illustrating the potential for microbial inhabitants of DeMMO to utilize mineral substrates as energy sources. Here, we employ field and lab based cultivation approaches with pure minerals to link phylogeny to metabolism at DeMMO. Fracture fluids were directed through reactors filled with Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeS2, MnO2, and FeCO3 at two sites (610 m and 1478 m) for 2 months prior to harvesting for subsequent analyses. We examined mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological composition of the reactors via DNA sequencing, microscopy, lipid biomarker characterization, and bulk C and N isotope ratios to determine the influence of mineralogy on biofilm community development. Pre-characterized mineral chips were imaged via SEM to assay microbial growth; preliminary results suggest MnO2, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 were most conducive to colonization. Solid materials from reactors were used as inoculum for batch cultivation experiments. Media designed to mimic fracture fluid chemistry was supplemented with mineral substrates targeting metal reducers. DNA sequences and microscopy of iron oxide-rich biofilms and fracture fluids suggest iron oxidation is a major energy source at redox transition zones where anaerobic fluids meet more oxidizing conditions. We utilized these biofilms and fluids as inoculum in gradient cultivation experiments targeting microaerophilic iron oxidizers. Cultivation of microbes endemic to DeMMO, a system

  17. Coupling a three-dimensional subsurface flow and transport model with a land surface model to simulate stream–aquifer–land interactions (CP v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bisht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully coupled three-dimensional surface and subsurface land model is developed and applied to a site along the Columbia River to simulate three-way interactions among river water, groundwater, and land surface processes. The model features the coupling of the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5 and a massively parallel multiphysics reactive transport model (PFLOTRAN. The coupled model, named CP v1.0, is applied to a 400 m × 400 m study domain instrumented with groundwater monitoring wells along the Columbia River shoreline. CP v1.0 simulations are performed at three spatial resolutions (i.e., 2, 10, and 20 m over a 5-year period to evaluate the impact of hydroclimatic conditions and spatial resolution on simulated variables. Results show that the coupled model is capable of simulating groundwater–river-water interactions driven by river stage variability along managed river reaches, which are of global significance as a result of over 30 000 dams constructed worldwide during the past half-century. Our numerical experiments suggest that the land-surface energy partitioning is strongly modulated by groundwater–river-water interactions through expanding the periodically inundated fraction of the riparian zone, and enhancing moisture availability in the vadose zone via capillary rise in response to the river stage change. Meanwhile, CLM4.5 fails to capture the key hydrologic process (i.e., groundwater–river-water exchange at the site, and consequently simulates drastically different water and energy budgets. Furthermore, spatial resolution is found to significantly impact the accuracy of estimated the mass exchange rates at the boundaries of the aquifer, and it becomes critical when surface and subsurface become more tightly coupled with groundwater table within 6 to 7 meters below the surface. Inclusion of lateral subsurface flow influenced both the surface energy budget and subsurface transport processes as a result

  18. Coupling a three-dimensional subsurface flow and transport model with a land surface model to simulate stream-aquifer-land interactions (CP v1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Gautam; Huang, Maoyi; Zhou, Tian; Chen, Xingyuan; Dai, Heng; Hammond, Glenn E.; Riley, William J.; Downs, Janelle L.; Liu, Ying; Zachara, John M.

    2017-12-01

    A fully coupled three-dimensional surface and subsurface land model is developed and applied to a site along the Columbia River to simulate three-way interactions among river water, groundwater, and land surface processes. The model features the coupling of the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and a massively parallel multiphysics reactive transport model (PFLOTRAN). The coupled model, named CP v1.0, is applied to a 400 m × 400 m study domain instrumented with groundwater monitoring wells along the Columbia River shoreline. CP v1.0 simulations are performed at three spatial resolutions (i.e., 2, 10, and 20 m) over a 5-year period to evaluate the impact of hydroclimatic conditions and spatial resolution on simulated variables. Results show that the coupled model is capable of simulating groundwater-river-water interactions driven by river stage variability along managed river reaches, which are of global significance as a result of over 30 000 dams constructed worldwide during the past half-century. Our numerical experiments suggest that the land-surface energy partitioning is strongly modulated by groundwater-river-water interactions through expanding the periodically inundated fraction of the riparian zone, and enhancing moisture availability in the vadose zone via capillary rise in response to the river stage change. Meanwhile, CLM4.5 fails to capture the key hydrologic process (i.e., groundwater-river-water exchange) at the site, and consequently simulates drastically different water and energy budgets. Furthermore, spatial resolution is found to significantly impact the accuracy of estimated the mass exchange rates at the boundaries of the aquifer, and it becomes critical when surface and subsurface become more tightly coupled with groundwater table within 6 to 7 meters below the surface. Inclusion of lateral subsurface flow influenced both the surface energy budget and subsurface transport processes as a result of river-water intrusion into the

  19. Drawing the subsurface : an integrative design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Lafleur, F.; Trinh, T.T.; Gogu, Constantin Radu; Campbell, Diarmad; de Beer, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The sub-surface, with its man-made and natural components, plays an important, if not crucial, role in the urban climate and global energy transition. On the one hand, the sub-surface is associated with a variety of challenges such as subsidence, pollution, damage to infrastructure and shortages of

  20. Extracting subsurface fingerprints using optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akhoury, SS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Fingerprints using Optical Coherence Tomography Sharat Saurabh Akhoury, Luke Nicholas Darlow Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract Physiologists have found... approach to extract the subsurface fingerprint representation using a high-resolution imaging technology known as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). ...

  1. The thermal impact of subsurface building structures on urban groundwater resources - A paradigmatic example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Scheidler, Stefan; Affolter, Annette; Borer, Paul; Mueller, Matthias H; Egli, Lukas; García-Gil, Alejandro; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-10-15

    Shallow subsurface thermal regimes in urban areas are increasingly impacted by anthropogenic activities, which include infrastructure development like underground traffic lines as well as industrial and residential subsurface buildings. In combination with the progressive use of shallow geothermal energy systems, this results in the so-called subsurface urban heat island effect. This article emphasizes the importance of considering the thermal impact of subsurface structures, which commonly is underestimated due to missing information and of reliable subsurface temperature data. Based on synthetic heat-transport models different settings of the urban environment were investigated, including: (1) hydraulic gradients and conductivities, which result in different groundwater flow velocities; (2) aquifer properties like groundwater thickness to aquitard and depth to water table; and (3) constructional features, such as building depths and thermal properties of building structures. Our results demonstrate that with rising groundwater flow velocities, the heat-load from building structures increase, whereas down-gradient groundwater temperatures decrease. Thermal impacts on subsurface resources therefore have to be related to the permeability of aquifers and hydraulic boundary conditions. In regard to the urban settings of Basel, Switzerland, flow velocities of around 1 md -1 delineate a marker where either down-gradient temperature deviations or heat-loads into the subsurface are more relevant. Furthermore, no direct thermal influence on groundwater resources should be expected for aquifers with groundwater thicknesses larger 10m and when the distance of the building structure to the groundwater table is higher than around 10m. We demonstrate that measuring temperature changes down-gradient of subsurface structures is insufficient overall to assess thermal impacts, particularly in urban areas. Moreover, in areas which are densely urbanized, and where groundwater flow

  2. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

  3. Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C.; Ruwe, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation's strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site's soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site's southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald's mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald

  4. Modeling Subsurface Hydrology in Floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cristina M.; Dritschel, David G.; Singer, Michael B.

    2018-03-01

    Soil-moisture patterns in floodplains are highly dynamic, owing to the complex relationships between soil properties, climatic conditions at the surface, and the position of the water table. Given this complexity, along with climate change scenarios in many regions, there is a need for a model to investigate the implications of different conditions on water availability to riparian vegetation. We present a model, HaughFlow, which is able to predict coupled water movement in the vadose and phreatic zones of hydraulically connected floodplains. Model output was calibrated and evaluated at six sites in Australia to identify key patterns in subsurface hydrology. This study identifies the importance of the capillary fringe in vadose zone hydrology due to its water storage capacity and creation of conductive pathways. Following peaks in water table elevation, water can be stored in the capillary fringe for up to months (depending on the soil properties). This water can provide a critical resource for vegetation that is unable to access the water table. When water table peaks coincide with heavy rainfall events, the capillary fringe can support saturation of the entire soil profile. HaughFlow is used to investigate the water availability to riparian vegetation, producing daily output of water content in the soil over decadal time periods within different depth ranges. These outputs can be summarized to support scientific investigations of plant-water relations, as well as in management applications.

  5. Introduction: energy and the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2016-01-01

    This theme issue covers topics at the forefront of scientific research on energy and the subsurface, ranging from carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration to the recovery of unconventional shale oil and gas resources through hydraulic fracturing. As such, the goal of this theme issue is to have an impact on the scientific community, broadly, by providing a self-contained collection of articles contributing to and reviewing the state-of-the-art of the field. This collection of articles could be used, for example, to set the next generation of research directions, while also being useful as a self-study guide for those interested in entering the field. Review articles are included on the topics of hydraulic fracturing as a multiscale problem, numerical modelling of hydraulic fracture propagation, the role of computational sciences in the upstream oil and gas industry and chemohydrodynamic patterns in porous media. Complementing the reviews is a set of original research papers covering growth models for branched hydraulic crack systems, fluid-driven crack propagation in elastic matrices, elastic and inelastic deformation of fluid-saturated rock, reaction front propagation in fracture matrices, the effects of rock mineralogy and pore structure on stress-dependent permeability of shales, topographic viscous fingering and plume dynamics in porous media convection. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Energy and the subsurface’. PMID:27597784

  6. Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface thermal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamano, Makoto; Onodera, Shin-ichi; Kaneko, Shinji; Yoshikoshi, Akihisa

    2009-04-15

    Anthropogenic effects in both Osaka and Bangkok were evaluated to compare the relationships between subsurface environment and the development stage of both cities. Subsurface thermal anomalies due to heat island effects were found in both cities. The Surface Warming Index (SWI), the departure depth from the steady geothermal gradient, was used as an indicator of the heat island effect. SWI increases (deeper) with the magnitude of heat island effect and the elapsed time starting from the surface warming. Distributions of subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect agreed well with the distribution of changes in air temperature due to the same process, which is described by the distribution of population density in both Osaka and Bangkok. Different time lags between groundwater depression and subsidence in the two cities was found. This is attributed to differences in hydrogeologic characters, such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity. We find that differences in subsurface degradations in Osaka and Bangkok, including subsurface thermal anomalies, groundwater depression, and land subsidence, depends on the difference of the development stage of urbanization and hydrogeological characters.

  7. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation

  8. Design and maintenance of subsurface gravel wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) evaluation of : a review of Subsurface Gravel Wetlands design and specifications used by the New Hampshire : Department of Transportation (NHDOT or Department). : Subsur...

  9. Component-based framework for subsurface simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, B J; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

    2007-01-01

    Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow

  10. Subsurface Prospecting by Planetary Drones, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program innovates subsurface prospecting by planetary drones to seek a solution to the difficulty of robotic prospecting, sample acquisition, and sample...

  11. Modeling the Dutch subsurface: From paper product towards dissemination of a 3D-digital model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulk, M. den; Doornenbal, J.C.; Veen, J.H. ten

    2015-01-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands carried out several major mapping projects to construct a consistent, regional-scale petroleum geological framework for the deep subsurface of the Netherlands, both on- and offshore. In the last decade the modeling approach has developed into a fully digital

  12. A single-stage functionalization and exfoliation method for the production of graphene in water: stepwise construction of 2D-nanostructured composites with iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Melin, Frédéric; Hellwig, Petra; Janowska, Izabela; Begin, Dominique; Baaziz, Walid; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Baati, Rachid

    2013-10-07

    A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low intensity cavitation conditions. Large area functionalized graphene flakes with the hexahistidine oligopeptide (His₆-TagGN = His₆@GN) have been produced efficiently at room temperature and characterized by TEM, Raman, and UV spectroscopy. Conductivity experiments carried out on His₆-TagGN samples revealed superior electric performances as compared to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and non-functionalized graphene, demonstrating the non-invasive features of our non-covalent functionalization process. We postulated a rational exfoliation mechanism based on the intercalation of the peptide amphiphile under cavitational chemistry. We also demonstrated the ability of His6-TagGN nanoassemblies to self-assemble spontaneously with inorganic iron oxide nanoparticles generating magnetic two-dimensional (2D) His₆-TagGN/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites under mild and non-hydrothermal conditions. The set of original experiments described here open novel perspectives in the facile production of water dispersible high quality GN and FLG sheets that will improve and facilitate the interfacing, processing and manipulation of graphene for promising applications in catalysis, nanocomposite construction, integrated nanoelectronic devices and bionanotechnology.

  13. EVALUATION OF SUBSOIL RESOURCES, LAND RESOURCES AND SOILS IN THE COURSE OF ENGINEERING AND ECOLOGICAL SURVEYS AT THE DESIGN STAGE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platov Nikolaj Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective environmental legislative acts, industrial regulations and Construction Standards and Norms do not comprise a consistent system governing rational use of natural resources. Inconsistency of regulatory acts, unavailability of a single approach or a methodological background backing the development of new and the update of effective regulatory documents causes inconsistency of engineering and ecological information. The inconsistency prevents any competent application and correlation of the information about the condition and properties of the ground and soils. The main objective of an engineering survey is the supply of trustworthy information to teams of designers. The quality of the engineering and ecological information stands behind the safety of buildings and structures. The quality of any environment-related information and data concerning any environmental protection measures is consequent to the quality of regulatory documents. In addition to their role in the built environment, resources of the lithosphere serve as the basis for the development of almost all branches of industry and other types of human activities. Effective legal and regulatory documents ignore the fact that subsoil resources serve as the material and physical basis of the living environment on Earth. Foundations of the Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics on Subsoil Resources served as the basis for their protection. The successor legislation includes in excess of 40 regulatory documents that govern the extraction of natural resources and losses that accompany the exploitation of their deposits. The principal acts include the Unified Rules Governing Protection of Subsoil Resources in the course of Development of Deposits of Solid Mineral Resources (1985 and other acts approved by the Principal State Technical Supervision Committee; the above Unified Rules have not undergone any substantial changes since the days of the USSR. The exception is the

  14. Intelligent SUBsurface Quality : Intelligent use of subsurface infrastructure for surface quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Kuzniecow Bacchin, T.; Lafleur, F.; van de Ven, F.H.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Broere, W.; Laumann, S.J.; Klaassen, R.G.; Marinetti, C.

    2016-01-01

    This project focuses on the urban renewal of (delta) metropolises and concentrates on the question how to design resilient, durable (subsurface) infrastructure in urban renewal projects using parameters of the natural system – linking in an efficient way (a) water cycle, (b) soil and subsurface

  15. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I andC) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I andC and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I andC systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures

  16. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that

  17. Subsurface barrier verification technologies, informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    One of the more promising remediation options available to the DOE waste management community is subsurface barriers. Some of the uses of subsurface barriers include surrounding and/or containing buried waste, as secondary confinement of underground storage tanks, to direct or contain subsurface contaminant plumes and to restrict remediation methods, such as vacuum extraction, to a limited area. To be most effective the barriers should be continuous and depending on use, have few or no breaches. A breach may be formed through numerous pathways including: discontinuous grout application, from joints between panels and from cracking due to grout curing or wet-dry cycling. The ability to verify barrier integrity is valuable to the DOE, EPA, and commercial sector and will be required to gain full public acceptance of subsurface barriers as either primary or secondary confinement at waste sites. It is recognized that no suitable method exists for the verification of an emplaced barrier's integrity. The large size and deep placement of subsurface barriers makes detection of leaks challenging. This becomes magnified if the permissible leakage from the site is low. Detection of small cracks (fractions of an inch) at depths of 100 feet or more has not been possible using existing surface geophysical techniques. Compounding the problem of locating flaws in a barrier is the fact that no placement technology can guarantee the completeness or integrity of the emplaced barrier. This report summarizes several commonly used or promising technologies that have been or may be applied to in-situ barrier continuity verification

  18. Subsurface Science Program Bibliography, 1985--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Subsurface Science Program sponsors long-term basic research on (1) the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms that control the reactivity, mobilization, stability, and transport of chemical mixtures in subsoils and ground water; (2) hydrogeology, including the hydraulic, microbiological, and geochemical properties of the vadose and saturated zones that control contaminant mobility and stability, including predictive modeling of coupled hydraulic-geochemical-microbial processes; and (3) the microbiology of deep sediments and ground water. TWs research, focused as it is on the natural subsurface environments that are most significantly affected by the more than 40 years of waste generation and disposal at DOE sites, is making important contributions to cleanup of DOE sites. Past DOE waste-disposal practices have resulted in subsurface contamination at DOE sites by unique combinations of radioactive materials and organic and inorganic chemicals (including heavy metals), which make site cleanup particularly difficult. The long- term (10- to 30-year) goal of the Subsurface Science Program is to provide a foundation of fundamental knowledge that can be used to reduce environmental risks and to provide a sound scientific basis for cost-effective cleanup strategies. The Subsurface Science Program is organized into nine interdisciplinary subprograms, or areas of basic research emphasis. The subprograms currently cover the areas of Co-Contaminant Chemistry, Colloids/Biocolloids, Multiphase Fluid Flow, Biodegradation/ Microbial Physiology, Deep Microbiology, Coupled Processes, Field-Scale (Natural Heterogeneity and Scale), and Environmental Science Research Center

  19. Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.Su

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M and O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations

  20. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line

  1. Complete Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements With PING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument will measure the complete bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of Mars as well as any other solid planetary body. PING can thus be a highly effective tool for both detailed local geochemistry science investigations and precision measurements of Mars subsurface reSOurces in preparation for future human exploration. As such, PING is thus fully capable of meeting a majority of both ncar and far term elements in Challenge #1 presented for this conference. Measuring the ncar subsurface composition of Mars will enable many of the MEPAG science goals and will be key to filling an important Strategic Knowledge Gap with regard to In situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) needs for human exploration. [1, 2] PING will thus fill an important niche in the Mars Exploration Program.

  2. Data inversion in coupled subsurface flow and geomechanics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Marco A; McLaughlin, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    We present an inverse modeling approach to estimate petrophysical and elastic properties of the subsurface. The aim is to use the fully coupled geomechanics-flow model of Girault et al (2011 Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 21 169–213) to jointly invert surface deformation and pressure data from wells. We use a functional-analytic framework to construct a forward operator (parameter-to-output map) that arises from the geomechanics-flow model of Girault et al. Then, we follow a deterministic approach to pose the inverse problem of finding parameter estimates from measurements of the output of the forward operator. We prove that this inverse problem is ill-posed in the sense of stability. The inverse problem is then regularized with the implementation of the Newton-conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm of Hanke (1997 Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 18 18–971). For a consistent application of the Newton-CG scheme, we establish the differentiability of the forward map and characterize the adjoint of its linearization. We provide assumptions under which the theory of Hanke ensures convergence and regularizing properties of the Newton-CG scheme. These properties are verified in our numerical experiments. In addition, our synthetic experiments display the capabilities of the proposed inverse approach to estimate parameters of the subsurface by means of data inversion. In particular, the added value of measurements of surface deformation in the estimation of absolute permeability is quantified with respect to the standard history matching approach of inverting production data with flow models. The proposed methodology can be potentially used to invert satellite geodetic data (e.g. InSAR and GPS) in combination with production data for optimal monitoring and characterization of the subsurface. (paper)

  3. Engineering and Design. Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Relief Wells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide guidance and information on the design, construction, and maintenance of pressure relief wells installed for the purpose of relieving subsurface hydrostatic...

  4. Surface finish and subsurface damage in polycrystalline optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafrir, Shai Negev

    We measure and describe surface microstructure and subsurface damage (SSD) induced by microgrinding of hard metals and hard ceramics used in optical applications. We examine grinding of ceramic materials with bonded abrasives, and, specifically, deterministic microgrinding (DMG). DMG, at fixed nominal infeed rate and with bound diamond abrasive tools, is the preferred technique for optical fabrication of ceramic materials. In DMG material removal is by microcracking. DMG provides cost effective high manufacturing rates, while attaining higher strength and performance, i.e., low level of subsurface damage (SSD). A wide range of heterogeneous materials of interest to the optics industry were studied in this work. These materials include: A binderless tungsten carbide, nonmagnetic Ni-based tungsten carbides, magnetic Co-based tungsten carbides, and, in addition, other hard optical ceramics, such as aluminum oxynitride (Al23O27N5/ALON), polycrystalline alumina (Al2O3/PCA), and chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (Si4C/SiC). These materials are all commercially available. We demonstrate that spots taken with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) platforms can be used for estimating SSD depth induced by the grinding process. Surface morphology was characterized using various microscopy techniques, such as: contact interferometer, noncontact white light interferometer, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The evolution of surface roughness with the amount of material removed by the MRF process, as measured within the spot deepest point of penetration, can be divided into two stages. In the first stage the induced damaged layer and associated SSD from microgrinding are removed, reaching a low surface roughness value. In the second stage we observe interaction between the MRF process and the material's microstructure as MRF exposes the subsurface without introducing new damage. Line scans taken parallel to the MR

  5. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  6. Regulatory issues and assumptions associated with polymers for subsurface barriers surrounding buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.; Siskind, B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Subsurface barriers will improve remediation performance by removing pathways for contaminant transport due to groundwater movement, meteorological water infiltration, vapor- and gas-phase transport, transpiration, etc. Subsurface barriers may be used to open-quotes directclose quotes contaminant movement to collection sumps/lysimeters in cases of unexpected remediation failures or transport mechanisms, to contain leakage from underground storage tanks, and to restrict in-situ soil cleanup operation and chemicals. Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently investigating advanced polymer materials for subsurface barriers. This report addresses the regulatory aspects of using of non-traditional polymer materials as well as soil-bentonite or cement-bentonite mixtures for such barriers. The regulatory issues fall into two categories. The first category consists of issues associated with the acceptability of subsurface barriers to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a method for achieving waste site performance improvement. The second category encompasses those regulatory issues concerning health, safety and the environment which must be addressed regarding barrier installation and performance, especially if non-traditional materials are to be used. Since many of EPA's concerns regarding subsurface barriers focus on the chemicals used during installation of these barriers the authors discuss the results of a search of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations for references in Titles 29 and 40 pertaining to key chemicals likely to be utilized in installing non-traditional barrier materials. The use of polymeric materials in the construction industry has been accomplished with full compliance with the applicable health, safety, and environmental regulations

  7. Subsurface plasma in beam of continuous CO2-laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danytsikov, Y. V.; Dymshakov, V. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Pismennyy, V. D.; Ryazanov, A. V.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments performed at the Institute of Atomic Energy established the conditions for formation of subsurface plasma in substances by laser radiation and its characteristics. A quasi-continuous CO2 laser emitting square pulses of 0.1 to 1.0 ms duration and 1 to 10 kW power as well as a continuous CO2 laser served as radiation sources. Radiation was focused on spots 0.1 to 0.5 mm in diameter and maintained at levels ensuring constant power density during the interaction time, while the temperature of the target surface was measured continuously. Metals, graphite and dielectric materials were tested with laser action taking place in air N2 + O2 mixtures, Ar or He atmosphere under pressures of 0.01 to 1.0 atm. Data on radiation intensity thresholds for evaporation and plasma formation were obtained. On the basis of these thresholds, combined with data on energy balance and the temperature profile in plasma layers, a universal state diagram was constructed for subsurface plasma with nonquantified surface temperature and radiation intensity coordinates.

  8. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that there is

  9. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that

  10. The last stage of LHC construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2006-01-01

    A few months ago the setting of the LHC (large hadron collider) machine began in the Lep's tunnel at CERN. The LHC is composed of 1200 dipole magnets that are progressively installed in the 27 km long underground circular facility, 2 universal experiments ATLAS and CMS, huge by the size of their respective detector: 40 x 20 x 20 m as well as by their number of participants: 1500 people for each one are being built in gigantic carves. All the efforts are concentrated to make every component of the machine fully installed by summer 2007 in order to get the first collisions before 2008

  11. Staging constructions of authenticity in organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2018-01-01

    Authenticity in organizations has gained increased focus in recent years. Authentic management and leadership are ways to motivate and make sustainable changes in the organization. But authenticity is also strategically worked with in order to serve social and political functions...... that are emotionally charged. Through a socio-material perspective this paper seeks to explore how change processes in organizations challenges the idea of authentic leadership as a merely individual ability or personality trait and suggest that the authentic leader is distributed into the practices of change...

  12. Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil competence and soil corrosivity at and engineering site location in Akungba-Akoko, ... The study concluded that the characteristics of the earth materials in the site would be favourable to normal engineering structures/materials that may be located on it.

  13. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  14. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  15. Microarrays for global expression constructed with a low redundancy set of 27,500 sequenced cDNAs representing an array of developmental stages and physiological conditions of the soybean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retzel Ernest

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an important tool with which to examine coordinated gene expression. Soybean (Glycine max is one of the most economically valuable crop species in the world food supply. In order to accelerate both gene discovery as well as hypothesis-driven research in soybean, global expression resources needed to be developed. The applications of microarray for determining patterns of expression in different tissues or during conditional treatments by dual labeling of the mRNAs are unlimited. In addition, discovery of the molecular basis of traits through examination of naturally occurring variation in hundreds of mutant lines could be enhanced by the construction and use of soybean cDNA microarrays. Results We report the construction and analysis of a low redundancy 'unigene' set of 27,513 clones that represent a variety of soybean cDNA libraries made from a wide array of source tissue and organ systems, developmental stages, and stress or pathogen-challenged plants. The set was assembled from the 5' sequence data of the cDNA clones using cluster analysis programs. The selected clones were then physically reracked and sequenced at the 3' end. In order to increase gene discovery from immature cotyledon libraries that contain abundant mRNAs representing storage protein gene families, we utilized a high density filter normalization approach to preferentially select more weakly expressed cDNAs. All 27,513 cDNA inserts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The amplified products, along with some repetitively spotted control or 'choice' clones, were used to produce three 9,728-element microarrays that have been used to examine tissue specific gene expression and global expression in mutant isolines. Conclusions Global expression studies will be greatly aided by the availability of the sequence-validated and low redundancy cDNA sets described in this report. These cDNAs and ESTs represent a wide array of developmental

  16. Visualization of construction engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Hisako; Miura, Jun

    2000-01-01

    It is required for nuclear power plant construction to reduce construction cost and shorten construction period. An early and accurate construction planning including schedule coordination among the companies has recently become more important and it is possible to obtain necessary information for construction planning in early stage. In this situation, we have been developing a visualization system for construction engineering for nuclear power plants. This system has an interface with the existing Plant Layout 3D-CAD system and consists of three sub systems: (1) Scheduling and simulation system, (2) Yard planning system and (3) Scaffolding planning system. This paper describes overview of this system. This visualization system is very helpful for construction engineers to easily understand situation and environment around installation area, to easily plan a work sequence and confirm the planned schedule, and it is also effective for customers and workers to understand the planning. As a result, this visualization system enables safety and high quality construction. (author)

  17. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  18. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blohm, M.; Hatch, W.E.; Hoekstra, P.; Porter, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    Effective site characterization requires that many relevant geologic, hydrogeologic and biological properties of the subsurface be evaluated. A parameter that often directly influences chemical processes, ground water flow, contaminant transport, and biological activities is the lateral and vertical distribution of clays. The objective of the research an development under this contract is to improve non-invasive methods for detecting clay lenses. The percentage of clays in soils influences most physical properties that have an impact on environmental restoration and waste management. For example, the percentage of clays determine hydraulic permeability and the rate of contaminant migration, absorption of radioactive elements, and interaction with organic compounds. Therefore, improvements in non-invasive mapping of clays in the subsurface will result in better: characterization of contaminated sites, prediction of pathways of contaminant migration, assessment of risk of contaminants to public health if contaminants reach water supplies, design of remedial action and evaluation of alternative action

  19. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  20. Water Table Recession in Subsurface Drained Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Yomota, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical drainage equations are intensively tested in many parts of humid and arid regions and are commonly used in drainage design. However, this is still a great concern in Japan as the drainage design is exclusively based on local experiences and empirical basis. There is a need therefore to evaluate the theoretical drainage equations under Japanese field conditions to recommend equations for design of subsurface drainage systems. This was the main motivation for this study. While drain...

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  2. Cultivation Of Deep Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, Natalia; Casar, Caitlin; Osburn, Magdalena R.

    2018-01-01

    The potential habitability of surface environments on other planets in our solar system is limited by exposure to extreme radiation and desiccation. In contrast, subsurface environments may offer protection from these stressors and are potential reservoirs for liquid water and energy that support microbial life (Michalski et al., 2013) and are thus of interest to the astrobiology community. The samples used in this project were extracted from the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) in the former Homestake Mine at depths of 800 to 2000 feet underground (Osburn et al., 2014). Phylogenetic data from these sites indicates the lack of cultured representatives within the community. We used geochemical data to guide media design to cultivate and isolate organisms from the DeMMO communities. Media used for cultivation varied from heterotrophic with oxygen, nitrate or sulfate to autotrophic media with ammonia or ferrous iron. Environmental fluid was used as inoculum in batch cultivation and strains were isolated via serial transfers or dilution to extinction. These methods resulted in isolating aerobic heterotrophs, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, ammonia oxidizers, and ferric iron reducers. DNA sequencing of these strains is underway to confirm which species they belong to. This project is part of the NASA Astrobiology Institute Life Underground initiative to detect and characterize subsurface microbial life; by characterizing the intraterrestrials, the life living deep within Earth’s crust, we aim to understand the controls on how and where life survives in subsurface settings. Cultivation of terrestrial deep subsurface microbes will provide insight into the survival mechanisms of intraterrestrials guiding the search for these life forms on other planets.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Garrett

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  4. Molecular analysis of deep subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Baez, L.E.

    1989-09-01

    Deep sediments samples from site C10a, in Appleton, and sites, P24, P28, and P29, at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina were studied to determine their microbial community composition, DNA homology and mol %G+C. Different geological formations with great variability in hydrogeological parameters were found across the depth profile. Phenotypic identification of deep subsurface bacteria underestimated the bacterial diversity at the three SRS sites, since bacteria with the same phenotype have different DNA composition and less than 70% DNA homology. Total DNA hybridization and mol %G+C analysis of deep sediment bacterial isolates suggested that each formation is comprised of different microbial communities. Depositional environment was more important than site and geological formation on the DNA relatedness between deep subsurface bacteria, since more 70% of bacteria with 20% or more of DNA homology came from the same depositional environments. Based on phenotypic and genotypic tests Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.-like bacteria were identified in 85 million years old sediments. This suggests that these microbial communities might have been adapted during a long period of time to the environmental conditions of the deep subsurface

  5. Linking Chaotic Advection with Subsurface Biogeochemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, D. C.; Freedman, V. L.; White, S. K.; Fang, Y.; Neupauer, R.

    2017-12-01

    This work investigates the extent to which groundwater flow kinematics drive subsurface biogeochemical processes. In terms of groundwater flow kinematics, we consider chaotic advection, whose essential ingredient is stretching and folding of plumes. Chaotic advection is appealing within the context of groundwater remediation because it has been shown to optimize plume spreading in the laminar flows characteristic of aquifers. In terms of subsurface biogeochemical processes, we consider an existing model for microbially-mediated reduction of relatively mobile uranium(VI) to relatively immobile uranium(IV) following injection of acetate into a floodplain aquifer beneath a former uranium mill in Rifle, Colorado. This model has been implemented in the reactive transport code eSTOMP, the massively parallel version of STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases). This presentation will report preliminary numerical simulations in which the hydraulic boundary conditions in the eSTOMP model are manipulated to simulate chaotic advection resulting from engineered injection and extraction of water through a manifold of wells surrounding the plume of injected acetate. This approach provides an avenue to simulate the impact of chaotic advection within the existing framework of the eSTOMP code.

  6. Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ram Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface microbial communities undertake many terminal electron-accepting processes, often simultaneously. Using a tritium-based assay, we measured the potential hydrogen oxidation catalyzed by hydrogenase enzymes in several subsurface sedimentary environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Gulf of Mexico with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen and allows qualitative detection of microbial activity irrespective of the predominant electron-accepting process. Because the method only requires samples frozen immediately after recovery, the assay can be used for identifying microbial activity in subsurface ecosystems without the need to preserve live material.We measured potential hydrogen oxidation rates in all samples from multiple depths at several sites that collectively span a wide range of environmental conditions and biogeochemical zones. Potential activity normalized to total cell abundance ranges over five orders of magnitude and varies, dependent upon the predominant terminal electron acceptor. Lowest per-cell potential rates characterize the zone of nitrate reduction and highest per-cell potential rates occur in the methanogenic zone. Possible reasons for this relationship to predominant electron acceptor include (i increasing importance of fermentation in successively deeper biogeochemical zones and (ii adaptation of H2ases to successively higher concentrations of H2 in successively deeper zones.

  8. Integral Analysis of Seismic Refraction and Ambient Vibration Survey for Subsurface Profile Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Akmal, M. A. K.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.; Rais, Y.; Ishak, M. F.; Alel, M. N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Geotechnical site investigation as known as subsurface profile evaluation is the process of subsurface layer characteristics determination which finally used for design and construction phase. Traditionally, site investigation was performed using drilling technique thus suffers from several limitation due to cost, time, data coverage and sustainability. In order to overcome those problems, this study adopted surface techniques using seismic refraction and ambient vibration method for subsurface profile depth evaluation. Seismic refraction data acquisition and processing was performed using ABEM Terraloc and OPTIM software respectively. Meanwhile ambient vibration data acquisition and processing was performed using CityShark II, Lennartz and GEOPSY software respectively. It was found that studied area consist of two layers representing overburden and bedrock geomaterials based on p-wave velocity value (vp = 300 – 2500 m/s and vp > 2500 m/s) and natural frequency value (Fo = 3.37 – 3.90 Hz) analyzed. Further analysis found that both methods show some good similarity in term of depth and thickness with percentage accuracy at 60 – 97%. Consequently, this study has demonstrated that the application of seismic refractin and ambient vibration method was applicable in subsurface profile depth and thickness estimation. Moreover, surface technique which consider as non-destructive method adopted in this study was able to compliment conventional drilling method in term of cost, time, data coverage and environmental sustainaibility.

  9. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  10. Using Muons to Image the Subsurface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, Nedra [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cashion, Avery Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cieslewski, Grzegorz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dorsey, Daniel J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foris, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dreesen, Wendi [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States); Green, J. Andrew [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwellenbach, David [NSTec, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Muons are subatomic particles that can penetrate the earth 's crust several kilometers and may be useful for subsurface characterization . The absorption rate of muons depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity, making them beneficial for subsurface investigation . Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. This work consists of three parts to address the use of muons for subsurface characterization : 1) assess the use of muon scattering for estimating density differences of common rock types, 2 ) using muon flux to detect a void in rock, 3) measure muon direction by designing a new detector. Results from this project lay the groundwork for future directions in this field. Low-density objects can be detected by muons even when enclosed in high-density material like lead, and even small changes in density (e.g. changes due to fracturing of material) can be detected. Rock density has a linear relationship with muon scattering density per rock volume when this ratio is greater than 0.10 . Limitations on using muon scattering to assess density changes among common rock types have been identified. However, other analysis methods may show improved results for these relatively low density materials. Simulations show that muons can be used to image void space (e.g. tunnels) within rock but experimental results have been ambiguous. Improvements are suggested to improve imaging voids such as tunnels through rocks. Finally, a muon detector has been designed and tested to measure muon direction, which will improve signal-to-noise ratio and help address fundamental questions about the source of upgoing muons .

  11. Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; McKinzie, II Billy John [Houston, TX

    2009-08-18

    A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

  12. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  13. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  14. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  15. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  16. Prediction of future subsurface temperatures in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, S. K.; Jeong, J.; SHIN, E.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of climate change has been increasingly recognized because it has had the huge amount of impact on social, economic, and environmental aspect. For the reason, paleoclimate change has been studied intensively using different geological tools including borehole temperatures and future surface air temperatures (SATs) have been predicted for the local areas and the globe. Future subsurface temperatures can have also enormous impact on various areas and be predicted by an analytical method or a numerical simulation using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data of rocks. SATs have been measured at 73 meteorological observatories since 1907 in Korea and predicted at same locations up to the year of 2100. Measured SATs at the Seoul meteorological observatory increased by about 3.0 K from the year of 1907 to the present. Predicted SATs have 4 different scenarios depending on mainly CO2 concentration and national action plan on climate change in the future. The hottest scenario shows that SATs in Korea will increase by about 5.0 K from the present to the year of 2100. In addition, thermal diffusivity values have been measured on 2,903 rock samples collected from entire Korea. Data pretreatment based on autocorrelation analysis was conducted to control high frequency noise in thermal diffusivity data. Finally, future subsurface temperatures in Korea were predicted up to the year of 2100 by a FEM simulation code (COMSOL Multiphysics) using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data in Korea. At Seoul, the results of predictions show that subsurface temperatures will increase by about 5.4 K, 3.0 K, 1.5 K, and 0.2 K from the present to 2050 and then by about 7.9 K, 4.8 K, 2.5 K, and 0.5 K to 2100 at the depths of 10 m, 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m, respectively. We are now proceeding numerical simulations for subsurface temperature predictions for 73 locations in Korea.

  17. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  18. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  19. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M and O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  20. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Byrne

    2001-02-20

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the individual

  1. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  2. Contaminated environments in the subsurface and bioremediation: organic contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Holliger, Christof; Gaspard, Sarra; Glod, Guy; Heijman, Cornelis; Schumacher, Wolfram; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Vazquez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Due to leakages, spills, improper disposal and accidents during transport, organic compounds have become subsurface contaminants that threaten important drinking water resources. One strategy to remediate such polluted subsurface environments is to make use of the degradative capacity of bacteria. It is often sufficient to supply the subsurface with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and aerobic treatments are still dominating. However, anaerobic processes have advantages such as low ...

  3. Predictability of Subsurface Temperature and the AMOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.; Schubert, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    GEOS 5 coupled model is extensively used for experimental decadal climate prediction. Understanding the limits of decadal ocean predictability is critical for making progress in these efforts. Using this model, we study the subsurface temperature initial value predictability, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and its impacts on the global climate. Our approach is to utilize the idealized data assimilation technology developed at the GMAO. The technique 'replay' allows us to assess, for example, the impact of the surface wind stresses and/or precipitation on the ocean in a very well controlled environment. By running the coupled model in replay mode we can in fact constrain the model using any existing reanalysis data set. We replay the model constraining (nudging) it to the MERRA reanalysis in various fields from 1948-2012. The fields, u,v,T,q,ps, are adjusted towards the 6-hourly analyzed fields in atmosphere. The simulated AMOC variability is studied with a 400-year-long segment of replay integration. The 84 cases of 10-year hindcasts are initialized from 4 different replay cycles. Here, the variability and predictability are examined further by a measure to quantify how much the subsurface temperature and AMOC variability has been influenced by atmospheric forcing and by ocean internal variability. The simulated impact of the AMOC on the multi-decadal variability of the SST, sea surface height (SSH) and sea ice extent is also studied.

  4. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called ''data fusion,'' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site

  5. Dislocation model of a subsurface crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.; Li, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    A dislocation model of a subsurface crack parallel to the surface is presented. For tensile loading, the results agree with those of previous workers except that we studied the crack very close to the surface and found that K II (mode II stress intensity factor) approaches K I (mode I stress intensity factor) to within about 22% (K II =0.78K I ). (Note that K II is zero when the crack is far away from the surface). Using bending theory for such situations, it is found that both stress intensity factors are inversely proportional to the 3/2 power of the distance between the subsurface crack and the free surface. For shear loading, the crack faces overlap each other for the free traction condition. This indicates the failure of the model. However, there was no overlap for tensile loading even though the stresses in front of the crack oscillate somewhat when the crack is very close to the surface. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Atmospheric energy for subsurface life on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Nealson, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    The location and density of biologically useful energy sources on Mars will limit the biomass, spatial distribution, and organism size of any biota. Subsurface Martian organisms could be supplied with a large energy flux from the oxidation of photochemically produced atmospheric H(2) and CO diffusing into the regolith. However, surface abundance measurements of these gases demonstrate that no more than a few percent of this available flux is actually being consumed, suggesting that biological activity driven by atmospheric H(2) and CO is limited in the top few hundred meters of the subsurface. This is significant because the available but unused energy is extremely large: for organisms at 30-m depth, it is 2,000 times previous estimates of hydrothermal and chemical weathering energy and far exceeds the energy derivable from other atmospheric gases. This also implies that the apparent scarcity of life on Mars is not attributable to lack of energy. Instead, the availability of liquid water may be a more important factor limiting biological activity because the photochemical energy flux can only penetrate to 100- to 1,000-m depth, where most H(2)O is probably frozen. Because both atmospheric and Viking lander soil data provide little evidence for biological activity, the detection of short-lived trace gases will probably be a better indicator of any extant Martian life.

  7. Modeling subsurface stormflow initiation in low-relief landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Luisa; Vaché, Kellie B.; Rhett Jackson, C.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow lateral subsurface flow as a runoff generating mechanism at the hillslope scale has mostly been studied in steeper terrain with typical hillside angles of 10 - 45 degrees. These studies have shown that subsurface stormflow is often initiated at the interface between a permeable upper soil layer and a lower conductivity impeding layer, e.g. a B horizon or bedrock. Many studies have identified thresholds of event size and soil moisture states that need to be exceeded before subsurface stormflow is initiated. However, subsurface stormflow generation on low-relief hillslopes has been much less studied. Here we present a modeling study that investigates the initiation of subsurface stormflow on low-relief hillslopes in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hillslopes in this region typically have slope angles of 2-5 degrees. Topsoils are sandy, underlain by a low-conductivity sandy clay loam Bt horizon. Subsurface stormflow has only been intercepted occasionally in a 120 m long trench, and often subsurface flow was not well correlated with stream signals, suggesting a disconnect between subsurface flow on the hillslopes and stream flow. We therefore used a hydrologic model to better understand which conditions promote the initiation of subsurface flow in this landscape, addressing following questions: Is there a threshold event size and soil moisture state for producing lateral subsurface flow? What role does the spatial pattern of depth to the impeding clay layer play for subsurface stormflow dynamics? We reproduced a section of a hillslope, for which high-resolution topographic data and depth to clay measurements were available, in the hydrologic model HYDRUS-3D. Soil hydraulic parameters were based on experimentally-derived data. The threshold analysis was first performed using hourly climate data records for 2009-2010 from the study site to drive the simulation. For this period also trench measurements of subsurface flow were available. In addition

  8. Contaminant geochemistry. Interactions and transport in the subsurface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Brian; Dror, Ishai; Yaron, Bruno [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research

    2008-07-01

    This book combines earth science, subsurface hydrology and environmental geochemistry, providing a comprehensive background for specialists interested in the protection and sustainable management of the subsurface environment. The reader is introduced to the chemistry of contaminants, which usually disturb the natural equilibrium in the subsurface as a result of human activity. The major focus of the book is on contaminant reactions in soil solutions, groundwater and porous media solid phases, accounting for their persistence and transformation in the subsurface, as they are transported from the land surface into groundwater. Discussions on selected case studies are provided. (orig.)

  9. Method of imaging the electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C.

    2017-09-26

    A method of imaging electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface containing metallic structures with known locations and dimensions is disclosed. Current is injected into the subsurface to measure electrical potentials using multiple sets of electrodes, thus generating electrical resistivity tomography measurements. A numeric code is applied to simulate the measured potentials in the presence of the metallic structures. An inversion code is applied that utilizes the electrical resistivity tomography measurements and the simulated measured potentials to image the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution and remove effects of the subsurface metallic structures with known locations and dimensions.

  10. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  11. Investigation into the kinetics of constructed wetland degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -scale, horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland (6.0 m × 1.0 m × 0.5 m) in Leipzig, Germany. The bed contained glacial gravel (4–8 mm) planted with Phragmites australis. Construction was completed in October 2013 and experiments ...

  12. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA REMOCIÓN DE MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HUMEDALES CONSTRUIDOS DE FLUJO HORIZONTAL SUBSUPERFICIAL USANDO TRES ESPECIES DE MACRÓFITAS ESTUDO COMPARATIVO DA REMOÇÃO DE MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA EM BANHADOS CONSTRUÍDOS DE FLUXO HORIZONTAL SUBSUPERFICIAL USANDO TRES ESPÉCIES DE MACRÓFITAS COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ORGANIC MATTER REMOVAL IN HORIZONTAL SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS USING THREE SPECIES OF MACROPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE IGNACIO MONTOYA

    2010-12-01

    present time like a promising technology in reducing the pollution by waste waters; this study investigated the organic matter removal with synthetic waste water, in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD5 and in situ measurements of pH, oxygen and temperature every 15 days, during three months, in six horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland systems, in pilot scale, seeded with three different macrophytes: Canna limbata, Heliconia psittacorum and Phragmites sp; the average removals of COD were of 97,31 % and 95,94 % for Canna limbata; 94,49 % and 93,50 % for Heliconia psittacorum; 97,39 % and 97,13 % for Phragmites sp. In BOD they were of 100 % and 99,36 % for Canna limbata; 99,09 % and 97,49 % for Heliconia psittacorum; 100 % and 99,45 % for Phragmites sp. We conclude that there are significant differences in DQO removal between different plants (P < 0,05; in BOD5 removal significant differences between the different plants do not exist statistically (P < 0,05. This study demonstrates the option to reduce the polution from organic matter using constructed wetlands.

  13. Microbial communities in the deep subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms appear to be maintained by the consumption of organic compounds derived from adjacent deposits. Sources of organic material serving as electron donors include lignite-rich Eocene sediments beneath the Texas coastal plain, organic-rich Cretaceous shales from the southwestern US, as well as Cretaceous clays containing organic materials and fermentative bacteria from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Additionally, highly diverse microbial communities occur in regions where a source of organic matter is not apparent but where igneous rock is present. Examples include the basalt-rich subsurface of the Columbia River valley and the granitic subsurface regions of Sweden and Canada. These subsurface microbial communities appear to be maintained by the action of lithotrophic bacteria growing on H2 that is chemically generated within the subsurface. Other deep-dwelling microbial communities exist within the deep sediments of oceans. These systems often rely on anaerobic metabolism and sulfate reduction. Microbial colonization extends to the depths below which high temperatures limit the ability of microbes to survive. Energy sources for the organisms living in the oceanic subsurface may originate as oceanic sedimentary deposits. In this review, each of these microbial communities is discussed in detail with specific reference to their energy sources, their observed growth patterns, and their diverse composition. This information is critical to develop further understanding of subsurface

  14. Analysis of residual stress in subsurface layers after precision hard machining of forging tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czan Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on analysis of residual stress of functional surfaces and subsurface layers created by precision technologies of hard machining for progressive constructional materials of forging tools. Methods of experiments are oriented on monitoring of residual stress in surface which is created by hard turning (roughing and finishing operations. Subsequently these surfaces were etched in thin layers by electro-chemical polishing. The residual stress was monitored in each etched layer. The measuring was executed by portable X-ray diffractometer for detection of residual stress and structural phases. The results significantly indicate rise and distribution of residual stress in surface and subsurface layers and their impact on functional properties of surface integrity.

  15. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Heiser, J.; Stewart, W.

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification

  16. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  17. Quantitative Identification of Construction Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprowicz T.

    2017-01-01

    Risks pertaining to construction work relate to situations in which various events may randomly change the duration and cost of the project or worsen its quality. Because of possible significant changes of random events, favorable, moderate, and difficult conditions of construction work are considered. It is the first stage of the construction risk analysis. The probabilistic parameters of construction are identified and described by using the design characteristics model of the structure and...

  18. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45 degree angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained

  19. Subsurface data visualization in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Robbert; Smelik, Ruben; Appleton, Rick; van Maanen, Peter-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Due to their increasing complexity and size, visualization of geological data is becoming more and more important. It enables detailed examining and reviewing of large volumes of geological data and it is often used as a communication tool for reporting and education to demonstrate the importance of the geology to policy makers. In the Netherlands two types of nation-wide geological models are available: 1) Layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented by a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and 2) Voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels that can contain different properties per voxel. The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) provides an interactive web portal that delivers maps and vertical cross-sections of such layer-based and voxel models. From this portal you can download a 3D subsurface viewer that can visualize the voxel model data of an area of 20 × 25 km with 100 × 100 × 5 meter voxel resolution on a desktop computer. Virtual Reality (VR) technology enables us to enhance the visualization of this volumetric data in a more natural way as compared to a standard desktop, keyboard mouse setup. The use of VR for data visualization is not new but recent developments has made expensive hardware and complex setups unnecessary. The availability of consumer of-the-shelf VR hardware enabled us to create an new intuitive and low visualization tool. A VR viewer has been implemented using the HTC Vive head set and allows visualization and analysis of the GSN voxel model data with geological or hydrogeological units. The user can navigate freely around the voxel data (20 × 25 km) which is presented in a virtual room at a scale of 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 meters. To enable analysis, e.g. hydraulic conductivity, the user can select filters to remove specific hydrogeological units. The user can also use slicing to cut-off specific sections of the voxel data to get a closer look. This slicing

  20. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) well construction technology evaluation report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, Louis, Jr. (Thermasource Inc.); Huh, Michael; Swanson, Robert (Thermasource Inc.); Raymond, David Wayne; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production from geothermal resources is currently based on the exploitation of hydrothermal reservoirs. Hydrothermal reservoirs possess three ingredients critical to present day commercial extraction of subsurface heat: high temperature, in-situ fluid and high permeability. Relative to the total subsurface heat resource available, hydrothermal resources are geographically and quantitatively limited. A 2006 DOE sponsored study led by MIT entitled 'The Future of Geothermal Energy' estimates the thermal resource underlying the United States at depths between 3 km and 10 km to be on the order of 14 million EJ. For comparison purposes, total U.S. energy consumption in 2005 was 100 EJ. The overwhelming majority of this resource is present in geological formations which lack either in-situ fluid, permeability or both. Economical extraction of the heat in non-hydrothermal situations is termed Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The technologies and processes required for EGS are currently in a developmental stage. Accessing the vast thermal resource between 3 km and 10 km in particular requires a significant extension of current hydrothermal practice, where wells rarely reach 3 km in depth. This report provides an assessment of well construction technology for EGS with two primary objectives: (1) Determining the ability of existing technologies to develop EGS wells. (2) Identifying critical well construction research lines and development technologies that are likely to enhance prospects for EGS viability and improve overall economics. Towards these ends, a methodology is followed in which a case study is developed to systematically and quantitatively evaluate EGS well construction technology needs. A baseline EGS well specification is first formulated. The steps, tasks and tools involved in the construction of this prospective baseline EGS well are then explicitly defined by a geothermal drilling contractor in terms of sequence, time and

  1. Determination of Importance Evaluation for Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Subsurface Testing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodin, S.

    2002-01-01

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas including the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. This evaluation applies specifically to site characterization testing activities ongoing and planned in the Subsurface ESF. ESF site characterization activities are being performed to obtain the information necessary to determine whether the Yucca Mountain Site is suitable as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A more detailed description of these testing activities is provided in Section 6 of this DIE. Generally, the construction and operation of excavations associated with these testing activities are evaluated in the DIE for the Subsurface ESF (CRWMS M andO 1999a) and the DIE for the ESF ECRB Cross Drift (CRWMS M andO 2000a). The scope of this DIE also entails the proposed Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test at Busted Butte. Although, not a part of the TS Loop or ECRB Cross Drift, the associated testing activities are Subsurface testing activities. Busted Butte is located to the south south-east of the TS Loop and is outside the Conceptual Controlled Area Boundary (CCAB). These activities provide access to the Calico Hills (CH) geologic structure. In the case of Busted Butte, construction and operation of excavations are evaluated herein (since this activity was not previously evaluated in CRWMS M andO 1999a). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether Subsurface ESF testing, and associated activities, could potentially impact site characterization testing and/or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified in Section 13. The validity and veracity of the

  2. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M and O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents

  3. Longevity of magma in the near subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, B.D.; Resmini, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Small, sporadic occurrences of basaltic volcanism are particularly difficult to evaluate in terms of long term threat to mankind because of their short overall eruptive history. Insight into future eruptive vigor and possible subsurface magma storage may be furnished by studying the ages of crystals in the eruptive products themselves. In this paper, the authors do this by applying the method of crystal size distribution theory (CSD) to a stack of basaltic lavas within the Nevada test site; namely the Dome Mtn. lavas. Preliminary results suggest a pre-eruptive residence time of 10 - 20 years, decreasing with decreasing age of lava within the sequence. These times are similar to those found by M.T. Mangan for the 1959 Kilauea (Hawaii) eruptions, and may suggest a relatively vigorous magmatic system at this time some 8 m.y. ago. Work is progressing on a greatly expanded CSD analysis of the Dome Mtn. lavas

  4. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  5. Subsurface oxidation for micropatterning silicon (SOMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Sautter, Ken; Davis, Robert C; Linford, Matthew R

    2009-02-03

    Here we present a straightforward patterning technique for silicon: subsurface oxidation for micropatterning silicon (SOMS). In this method, a stencil mask is placed above a silicon surface. Radio-frequency plasma oxidation of the substrate creates a pattern of thicker oxide in the exposed regions. Etching with HF or KOH produces very shallow or much higher aspect ratio features on silicon, respectively, where patterning is confirmed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The oxidation process itself is studied under a variety of reaction conditions, including higher and lower oxygen pressures (2 and 0.5 Torr), a variety of powers (50-400 W), different times and as a function of reagent purity (99.5 or 99.994% oxygen). SOMS can be easily executed in any normal chemistry laboratory with a plasma generator. Because of its simplicity, it may have industrial viability.

  6. Acclimation of subsurface microbial communities to mercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lipthay, Julia R; Rasmussen, Lasse D; Øregaard, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    of mercury tolerance and functional versatility of bacterial communities in contaminated soils initially were higher for surface soil, compared with the deeper soils. However, following new mercury exposure, no differences between bacterial communities were observed, which indicates a high adaptive potential......We studied the acclimation to mercury of bacterial communities of different depths from contaminated and noncontaminated floodplain soils. The level of mercury tolerance of the bacterial communities from the contaminated site was higher than those of the reference site. Furthermore, the level...... of the subsurface communities, possibly due to differences in the availability of mercury. IncP-1 trfA genes were detected in extracted community DNA from all soil depths of the contaminated site, and this finding was correlated to the isolation of four different mercury-resistance plasmids, all belonging...

  7. Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- Subsurface bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happer, W.; MacDonald, G.J.; Ruderman, M.A.; Treiman, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    During the past summer, the authors had the opportunity to examine aspects of the remediation program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The most important conclusion that they have come to is that there is an urgent need to mount a comprehensive research program in remediation. It is also clear to them that DOE does not have the funding to carry out a program on the scale that is required. On the other hand, Environmental Management could very well fund such activities. They would hope that in the future there would be close collaboration between Environmental Management and Energy Research in putting together a comprehensive and well thought-out research program. Here, the authors comment on one aspect of remediation: subsurface bioremediation

  8. Imaging the Subsurface with Upgoing Muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Schwellenbach, D.; Dreesen, W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upgoing muons. Traditional muon imaging focuses on more-prevalent downgoing muons. Muons are subatomic particles capable of penetrating the earth's crust several kilometers. Downgoing muons have been used to image the Pyramid of Khafre of Giza, various volcanoes, and smaller targets like cargo. Unfortunately, utilizing downgoing muons requires below-target detectors. For aboveground objects like a volcano, the detector is placed at the volcano's base and the top portion of the volcano is imaged. For underground targets like tunnels, the detector would have to be placed below the tunnel in a deeper tunnel or adjacent borehole, which can be costly and impractical for some locations. Additionally, detecting and characterizing subsurface features like voids from tunnels can be difficult. Typical characterization methods like sonar, seismic, and ground penetrating radar have shown mixed success. Voids have a marked density contrast with surrounding materials, so using methods sensitive to density variations would be ideal. High-energy cosmic ray muons are more sensitive to density variation than other phenomena, including gravity. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, tomography using downgoing muons can resolve features to the sub-meter scale. We present results of exploratory work, which demonstrates that upgoing muon fluxes appear sufficient to achieve target detection within a few months. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Subsurface material identification and sensor selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, H.; Reghunadh, R.; Ramesh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    In India, most of the landslides occur during monsoon season and causes huge loss of life and property. Design of an early warning system for highly landslide prone area will reduce losses to a great extent. The in-situ monitoring systems needs deployment of several sensors inside a borehole for monitoring a particular slope. Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications (AmritaWNA), Amrita University has designed, developed and deployed a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for real time landslide monitoring using geotechnical instruments and sensors like rain gauge, moisture sensor, piezometer, strain gauge, tilt meter and geophone inside a Deep Earth Probe (DEP) at different locations. These sensors provide point measurements of the subsurface at a higher accuracy. Every landslide prone terrain is unique with respect to its geology, hydrological conditions, meteorological conditions, velocity of movement etc. The decision of installing different geotechnical instruments in a landslide prone terrain is a crucial step to be considered. Rain gauge, moisture sensor, and piezometer are usually used in clay rich areas to sense the moisture and pore pressure values. Geophone and Crack meter are instruments used in rocky areas to monitor cracks and vibrations associated with a movement. Inclinometer and Strain gauge are usually placed inside a casing and can be used in both rocky and soil areas. In order to place geotechnical instruments and sensors at appropriate places Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can be used. Variation in electrical resistivity values indicate the changes in composition, layer thickness, or contaminant levels. The derived true resistivity image can be used for identifying the type of materials present in the subsurface at different depths. We have used this method for identifying the type of materials present in our site at Chandmari (Sikkim). Fig 1 shows the typical resistivity values of a particular area in Chandmari site. The

  10. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM - BROWN & ROOT ENVIRONMENTAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS*) is an in-situ vacuum extraction/air sparging and bioremediation technology for the treatment of subsurface organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The technology, developed by Billings and Associates, Inc., and o...

  12. Water and nitrogen requirements of subsurface drip irrigated pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface drip irrigation is a well-developed practice for both annual and perennial crops. The use of subsurface drip is a well-established practice in many annual row crops, e.g. tomatoes, strawberries, lettuce. However, the use of subsurface drip on perennial crops has been slow to develop. With th...

  13. Geochemical characterization of subsurface sediments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Traditionally, the Netherlands' subsurface is mainly used to obtain good quality drinking and industrial waters from the different aquifers. Due to the lack of space on the surface, increasing environmental problems and demand for energy, the subsurface will be used increasingly for other

  14. AA under construction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA at an early stage of construction, in the newly built AA-Hall. Cable-trays already outline the shape of the accumulator ring. To the right are huge cable-drums for the pulse-forming-network (PFN) of the injection kicker. Seeing this picture, can one imagine that only 8 months later beams were circulating in the completed accumulator ring ?

  15. Nitrogen patterns in subsurface waters of the Yzeron stream: effect of combined sewer overflows and subsurface-surface water mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucour, A M; Bariac, T; Breil, P; Namour, P; Schmitt, L; Gnouma, R; Zuddas, P

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization subjects streams to increased nitrogen loads. Therefore studying nitrogen forms at the interface between urban stream and groundwater is important for water resource management. In this study we report results on water δ(18)O and nitrogen forms in subsurface waters of a stream (Yzeron, France). The sites studied were located upstream and downstream of combined sewer overflows (CSO) in a rural area and a periurban area, respectively. Water δ(18)O allowed us to follow the mixing of subsurface water with surface water. Dissolved organic nitrogen and organic carbon of fine sediment increased by 20-30% between rural and periurban subsurface waters in the cold season, under high flow. The highest nitrate levels were observed in rural subsurface waters in the cold season. The lowest nitrate levels were found in periurban subsurface waters in the warm season, under low flow. They corresponded to slow exchange of subsurface waters with channel water. Thus reduced exchange between surface and subsurface waters and organic-matter-rich input seemed to favor nitrate reduction in the downstream, periurban, subsurface waters impacted by CSO.

  16. Subsurface ecosystems. Oil triggered life. Opportunities for the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Kraan, G.M.

    2010-10-05

    As it is getting more difficult to retrieve oil from the subsurface, there is a renewed interest from the petroleum industry regarding microbial processes in oil-water systems, like oil reservoirs and their associated refineries. Oil fields are specific ecosystems, they are oxygen depleted, contain a variety of hydrocarbons and often have elevated temperatures and pressures. Through human exploitation, active changes in oil field ecosystems are induced. An example is seawater injection to displace oil. Seawater injection causes a decrease in temperature and induces the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria due to the introduction of sulphate and thereby as a consequence the production of harmful H2S. The current idea is that microorganisms detected in, for example, production water from an oil well, hold additional information on the oil field itself and the processes that are occurring in this oil field during exploitation of the field, so-called 'Biomonitoring'. Through the application of 'smart well' technology, viz. clever exploitation of the oil field, more oil can be retrieved from the field. This however requires new information sources from the field itself. Biotechnology might offer an additional information source. Also it is expected that growth of microorganisms in oil field can plug so called 'thief zones' in oil fields, which forces injected water to take an alternative route and thereby displacing more of the oil. This process however has first to be understood on the pore level. This thesis investigates the concept of 'biomonitoring'. To this purpose the microbial community of water and core samples taken from various oil fields, their separation facilities, and other subsurface environments have been investigated with the use of various molecular techniques like denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library construction of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The presence of several species can be

  17. A construção do sujeito narrador: pensamento discursivo na etapa personalista La construcción del sujeto narrador: pensamiento discursivo en la etapa personalista The construction of the narrator subject: discoursive thought in the personalist stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Hamann Smith

    2007-12-01

    un mundo multidimensional, complejo y en constante proceso de cambio.Narrative is a kind of discoursive thought that allows the preschooler child to progressively construct a sense of self, while she situates herself in a world of relationships and social practices. In this paper, Wallon’s concepts on development and language in the personalist stage are taken as a theoretical framework to discuss contributions of contemporary sociointeractionists studies on narrative. The study of narrative development permits that children’s process of incorporation of others and cultural elements may be followed, at the same time as they differentiate themselves as individuals who narrate and evaluate what is told. The appropriation of conventional forms of telling stories contributes to the discoursive thought organization and sophistication and of creative imagination. This appropriation enables children to develop cognitive and affective resources to interact with a multidimensional world that is complex and changeable.

  18. What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    can be used to delineate subsurface permafrost geomorphology. This presentation will include examples of projects in Alaska and Greenland where a combination of geophysical and other measurement techniques have been used to identify subsurface conditions. These include projects at multiple locations around Interior Alaska where a variety of ground based and standoff measurements are being used to identify subsurface conditions, and infrastructure projects at Thule, Greenland, where geophysical measurements are being used to cut costs for new construction and maintenance. The expansion of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories' Fox Permafrost Tunnel is to provide a three dimensional test bed for geophysical measurements, and construction is aided by geophysical measurements. The array of geophysical research tools used to interrogate the subsurface in permafrost terrains can likely provide worthwhile information in non-frozen ground terrains to support sensor development and geomorphological interpretation.

  19. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  20. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...

  1. Environmental geophysics: Locating and evaluating subsurface geology, geologic hazards, groundwater contamination, etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical surveys can be used to help delineate and map subsurface geology, including potential geologic hazards, the water table, boundaries of contaminated plumes, etc. The depth to the water table can be determined using seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods, and hydrogeologic and geologic cross sections of shallow alluvial aquifers can be constructed from these data. Electrical resistivity and GPR data are especially sensitive to the quality of the water and other fluids in a porous medium, and these surveys help to identify the stratigraphy, the approximate boundaries of contaminant plumes, and the source and amount of contamination in the plumes. Seismic, GPR, electromagnetic (VLF), gravity, and magnetic data help identify and delineate shallow, concealed faulting, cavities, and other subsurface hazards. Integration of these geophysical data sets can help pinpoint sources of subsurface contamination, identify potential geological hazards, and optimize the location of borings, monitoring wells, foundations for building, dams, etc. Case studies from a variety of locations will illustrate these points. 20 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Leaching of 14-Carbofuran into sub-surface water in vegetable agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Misman Sumin; Maizatul Akmam Mohd Nasir; Kubiak, R.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental setup was constructed to investigate leaching of 14C C arbofuran into sub-surface water through Bungor series sandy loam soil. The indoor lysimeter was constructed using homogenous and packed disturbed soil column. The outdoor lysimeter was constructed using undisturbed soil column. In the field, leachate production was influenced by rainfall intensity but tracer transport was independent of water transport to a certain degree. A high rainfall intensity at 39 DAA has not enhanced tracer leaching into sub-surface water in vegetable agroecosystem whereas a lower rainfall intensity at 21 DAA has enhanced its leaching. Indoor lysimeter behaved incoherently and showed non-parallel relationship between applied water and also volume of leachate produced with tracer transport. In both types of lysimeter, tracer transport and carbofuran transport generally correlated. Carbofuran and tracer were leached at a lower magnitude in outdoor lysimeter compared to the indoor lysimeter. The maximum total radioactivities leached were 1.1% and 0.4% of applied radio activities from indoor lysimeter and outdoor lysimeter at 35 and 21 DAA respectively. The maximum total carbofuran equivalent leached were 193.9 μg/L and 39.3 μg/L at 35 DAA and 21 DAA from indoor lysimeter and outdoor lysimeter respectively. (author)

  3. Detecting Subsurface Agricultural Tile Drainage using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, M.; Gokkaya, K.; Tank, J. L.; Christopher, S. F.; Hanrahan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface tile drainage is a common practice in many of the row crop dominated agricultural lands in the Upper Midwest, which increases yield by making the soil more productive. It is reported that nearly half of all cropland in Indiana benefits from some sort of artificial drainage. However, subsurface tile has a significant negative impact on surface water quality by providing a fast means of transport for nutrients from fertilizers. Therefore, generating spatial data of tile drainage in the field is important and useful for agricultural landscape and hydrological studies. Subsurface tile drains in Indiana's croplands are not widely mapped. In this study, we will delineate subsurface tile drainage in agricultural land in Shatto Ditch watershed, located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. We will use geo-spatial methodology, which was purposed by earlier researchers to detect tile drainage. We will use aerial color-infrared and satellite imagery along with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. In order to map tile lines with possible accuracy, we will use GIS-based analysis in combination with remotely sensed data. This research will be comprised of three stages: 1) masking out the potential drainage area using a decision tree rule based on land cover information, soil drainage category, surface slope, and satellite image differencing technique, 2) delineate tile lines using image processing techniques, and 3) check the accuracy of mapped tile lines with ground control points. To our knowledge, this study will be the first to check the accuracy of mapping with ground truth data. Based on the accuracy of results, we will extend the methodology to greater spatial scales. The results are expected to contribute to better characterizing and controlling water pollution sources in Indiana, which is a major environmental problem.

  4. Advanced core-analyses for subsurface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.

    2017-12-01

    The heterogeneity of geological formations varies over a wide range of length scales and represents a major challenge for predicting the movement of fluids in the subsurface. Although they are inherently limited in the accessible length-scale, laboratory measurements on reservoir core samples still represent the only way to make direct observations on key transport properties. Yet, properties derived on these samples are of limited use and should be regarded as sample-specific (or `pseudos'), if the presence of sub-core scale heterogeneities is not accounted for in data processing and interpretation. The advent of imaging technology has significantly reshaped the landscape of so-called Special Core Analysis (SCAL) by providing unprecedented insight on rock structure and processes down to the scale of a single pore throat (i.e. the scale at which all reservoir processes operate). Accordingly, improved laboratory workflows are needed that make use of such wealth of information by e.g., referring to the internal structure of the sample and in-situ observations, to obtain accurate parameterisation of both rock- and flow-properties that can be used to populate numerical models. We report here on the development of such workflow for the study of solute mixing and dispersion during single- and multi-phase flows in heterogeneous porous systems through a unique combination of two complementary imaging techniques, namely X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The experimental protocol is applied to both synthetic and natural porous media, and it integrates (i) macroscopic observations (tracer effluent curves), (ii) sub-core scale parameterisation of rock heterogeneities (e.g., porosity, permeability and capillary pressure), and direct 3D observation of (iii) fluid saturation distribution and (iv) the dynamic spreading of the solute plumes. Suitable mathematical models are applied to reproduce experimental observations, including both 1D and 3D

  5. Biogenic Carbon on Mars: A Subsurface Chauvinistic Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Harris, R.; Chen, Y.; Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Kieft, T. L.; van Heerden, E.; Borgonie, G.; Dong, H.

    2015-12-01

    A review of 150 publications on the subsurface microbiology of the continental subsurface provides ~1,400 measurements of cellular abundances down to 4,800 meter depth. These data suggest that the continental subsurface biomass is comprised of ~1016-17 grams of carbon, which is higher than the most recent estimates of ~1015 grams of carbon (1 Gt) for the marine deep biosphere. If life developed early in Martian history and Mars sustained an active hydrological cycle during its first 500 million years, then is it possible that Mars could have developed a subsurface biomass of comparable size to that of Earth? Such a biomass would comprise a much larger fraction of the total known Martian carbon budget than does the subsurface biomass on Earth. More importantly could a remnant of this subsurface biosphere survive to the present day? To determine how sustainable subsurface life could be in isolation from the surface we have been studying subsurface fracture fluids from the Precambrian Shields in South Africa and Canada. In these environments the energetically efficient and deeply rooted acetyl-CoA pathway for carbon fixation plays a central role for chemolithoautotrophic primary producers that form the base of the biomass pyramid. These primary producers appear to be sustained indefinitely by H2 generated through serpentinization and radiolytic reactions. Carbon isotope data suggest that in some subsurface locations a much larger population of secondary consumers are sustained by the primary production of biogenic CH4 from a much smaller population of methanogens. These inverted biomass and energy pyramids sustained by the cycling of CH4 could have been and could still be active on Mars. The C and H isotopic signatures of Martian CH4 remain key tools in identifying potential signatures of an extant Martian biosphere. Based upon our results to date cavity ring-down spectroscopic technologies provide an option for making these measurements on future rover missions.

  6. Studies of the subsurface effects of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the National Terminal Waste Storage Program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting a series of studies on the subsurface effects of earthquakes. This report summarizes three subcontracted studies. (1) Earthquake damage to underground facilities: the purpose of this study was to document damage and nondamage caused by earthquakes to tunnels and shallow underground openings; to mines and other deep openings; and to wells, shafts, and other vertical facilities. (2) Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities: the study included an analysis of block motion, an analysis of the dependence of displacement on the orientation and distance of joints from the earthquake source, and displacement related to distance and depth near a causative fault as a result of various shapes, depths, and senses of movement on the causative fault. (3) Numerical simulation of earthquake effects on tunnels for generic nuclear waste repositories: the objective of this study was to use numerical modeling to determine under what conditions seismic waves might cause instability of an underground opening or create fracturing that would increase the permeability of the rock mass

  7. Starvation-survival of subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of four subsurface isolates to survive starvation was examined and the results were compared to survival curves obtained for Escherichia coli B and Serratia marcescens. To examine the starvation-survival phenomenon further, several experimental parameters including nutritional history, initial cell density, growth phase, temperature of growth and starvation, and aeration. Nutritional history, initial cell density, and growth phases of the cells had some effect on the ability of these bacteria to survive whereas temperature and limited aeration had no effect under the conditions tested. No conditions were found where E. coli B or Serratia marcescens died rapidly or where less than 10% of the original cell number of viable cells remained. Because the apparent survival of these bacteria may be due to cryptic growth, cross-feeding experiments with 14 C-labeled cells and unlabeled cells were carried out with E. coli B and Pseudomonas Lula V. Leaked extracellular 14 C-compounds were not used for growth or maintenance energy, and were not taken up by either bacterium. Cryptic growth did not occur; the cells were truly starving under the experimental conditions used

  8. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1993-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site

  9. Fracture detection using subsurface electromagnetic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Q.; Becker, A.; Goldstein, N.E.; Morrison, H.F.; Lee, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    Audio frequency subsurface electromagnetic (EM) techniques using cross-hole and in-hole arrays for fracture detection are evaluated numerically. The fracture zone is represented by a thin rectangular conductor with finite dimensions, embedded in a conductive host rock. Because of its practical advantages, the EM source considered in this study is a grounded vertical electrical dipole (G.V.E.D.) placed in a vertical bore hole. Three source-receiver configurations are considered. The first is the cross-hole configuration with the source and receiver moving parallel to each other in separate holes. The second configuration is a fixed source in one hole and a moving receiver in the other. Finally, the author also treat the case of a tandem source and receiver at fixed separation traversing a single hole. In all cases the conductive fracture zone is not intersected by either hole. Comparisons between the grounded electric dipole and the vertical magnetic dipole indicate clear advantages for the former

  10. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  11. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  12. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  13. Broadband Counter-Wound Spiral Antenna for Subsurface Radar Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yong, Lim

    2003-01-01

    Subsurface radar also known as ground-penetrating radar is increasingly being used for the detection and location of buried objects such as mines and structure that are found within the upper regions...

  14. SUBSURFACE VOLATIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologies’ (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...

  15. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System is an integrated technology used for attacking all phases of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in soil and groundwater. The SVVS technology promotes insitu remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with or-ga...

  16. SOLID OXYGEN SOURCE FOR BIOREMEDIATION IN SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium percarbonate was encapsulated in poly(vinylidene chloride) to determine its potential as a slow-release oxygen source for biodegradation of contaminan ts in subsurface soils. In laboratory studies under aqueous conditions, the encapsulated sodium percarbonate was estimate...

  17. Molecular Simulation towards Efficient and Representative Subsurface Reservoirs Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the application of Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Molecular Dynamics (MD) in modeling thermodynamics and flow of subsurface reservoir fluids. At first, MC molecular simulation is proposed as a promising method

  18. Sub-Surface Oil Monitoring Cruise (GU1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives were to evaluate ability of acoustic echosounder measurements to detect and localize a sub-surface plume of oil or related hydrocarbons released from the...

  19. Subsurface Sampling and Sensing Using Burrowing Moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for life on Mars will likely require accessing the subsurface since the Martian surface is both hostile to life and to preservation of biosignatures due to the cold dry conditions, the strong W environment, and the presence of strong oxidants. Systems are needed to probe beneath the sun and oxidant baked surface of Mars and return samples to the surface for analysis or to bring the instrument sensing underground. Recognizing this need, the European Space Agency incorporated a small subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 Mars lander. Had the 2003 landing been successful, the Mole would have collected samples from 1-1.5 m depth and delivered them to an organic analysis instrument on the surface. The de- vice called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), also measured soil mechanical and thermophysical properties. Constrained by the small mass and volume allowance of the Beagle lander, the PLUTO mole was a slender cylinder only 2 cm diameter and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device designed to collect samples and bring them to the surface for analysis by other instrument. The mass of the entire system including deployment mechanism and tether was 1/2 kg. sensor package underground to make in situ measurements. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM) is a larger Mole based on the PLUTO design but incorporating light collection optics that interface to a fiber optic cable in the tether that transmits light to a combined stimulated emission Raman Spectrometer and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) reflectance Spectrometer with sensitivity from 0.7 to 2.5 micrometers. This instrument is called the Dual Spectral Sensor and uses a Digital Array Scanning Interferometer as the sensor technology, a type of fourier transform interferometer that uses fixed element prisms and thus is highly rugged compared to a Michaelson interferometer. Due to the size limitations of an on-Mole instrument compartment, and the availability of a tether, the sensor head

  20. DWH MC 252: Subsurface Oil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle-Krause, C. J.; Boyer, T.; Murray, D.

    2010-12-01

    , previous research and modeling were combined to tell the story of the DWH MC 252 from the subsurface perspective. The Comprehensive Deepwater Oil and Gas model (CDOG, Yapa and Xie, 2005), and the General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME, Beegle-Krause, 1999) were used with the NOAA Gulf of Mexico Model nowcast/forecast model to understand the 3D evolution of the subsurface spill. Model/observational comparisons are favorable, though limitations of the available models are apparent. Historical perspective on Thunder Horse (a deepwater well incident that was a dress-rehearsal for the DWH MC 252, Beegle-Krause and Walton, 2004), transitioning models from research to operations, and research needs will also be discussed.

  1. Subsurface structures of buried features in the lunar Procellarum region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Heki, Kosuke

    2017-07-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission unraveled numbers of features showing strong gravity anomalies without prominent topographic signatures in the lunar Procellarum region. These features, located in different geologic units, are considered to have complex subsurface structures reflecting different evolution processes. By using the GRAIL level-1 data, we estimated the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies in several selected regions including such intriguing features. With the three-dimensional inversion technique, we recovered subsurface density structures in these regions.

  2. Method of solution mining subsurface orebodies to reduce restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, G.J.

    1984-01-24

    A method of solution mining is claimed wherein a lixiviant containing both leaching and oxidizing agents is injected into the subsurface orebody. The composition of the lixiviant is changed by reducing the level of oxidizing agent to zero so that soluble species continue to be removed from the subsurface environment. This reduces the uranium level of the ground water aquifer after termination of the lixiviant injection.

  3. A subsurface model of the beaver meadow complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C.; Grant, G.; Flinchum, B. A.; Lancaster, J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Davis, L. G.; Lewis, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wet meadows are a vital component of arid and semi-arid environments. These valley spanning, seasonally inundated wetlands provide critical habitat and refugia for wildlife, and may potentially mediate catchment-scale hydrology in otherwise "water challenged" landscapes. In the last 150 years, these meadows have begun incising rapidly, causing the wetlands to drain and much of the ecological benefit to be lost. The mechanisms driving this incision are poorly understood, with proposed means ranging from cattle grazing to climate change, to the removal of beaver. There is considerable interest in identifying cost-effective strategies to restore the hydrologic and ecological conditions of these meadows at a meaningful scale, but effective process based restoration first requires a thorough understanding of the constructional history of these ubiquitous features. There is emerging evidence to suggest that the North American beaver may have had a considerable role in shaping this landscape through the building of dams. This "beaver meadow complex hypothesis" posits that as beaver dams filled with fine-grained sediments, they became large wet meadows on which new dams, and new complexes, were formed, thereby aggrading valley bottoms. A pioneering study done in Yellowstone indicated that 32-50% of the alluvial sediment was deposited in ponded environments. The observed aggradation rates were highly heterogeneous, suggesting spatial variability in the depositional process - all consistent with the beaver meadow complex hypothesis (Polvi and Wohl, 2012). To expand on this initial work, we have probed deeper into these meadow complexes using a combination of geophysical techniques, coring methods and numerical modeling to create a 3-dimensional representation of the subsurface environments. This imaging has given us a unique view into the patterns and processes responsible for the landforms, and may shed further light on the role of beaver in shaping these landscapes.

  4. Subsurface Buoy Forms for Array Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    CIRCUMSCRIBED CIRCLES Figure 19. Derivation of a cycloid outline with relationship to familiar shape outlines. 35 An AutoLisp routine has been created to...An AutoLisp Program Routine Created to Construct the Torospherical Outlines Shown on the Previous Page Is Reproduced Below. (defun c.Iorodraw () input...F - 19.0 Case 7 f - 200 Case 8 f - 2 -0 A-26 An AutoLisp Routine Created to Enable Autocad to Construct the Dished and Flanged End Bell Outlines

  5. Construction Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  6. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  7. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  8. Japan's exploration of vertical holes and subsurface caverns on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, J.; Kawano, I.; Kubota, T.; Yoshida, K.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Kato, H.; Otsuki, M.; Watanabe, K.; Nishibori, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Iwata, T.; Ishigami, G.; Yamada, T. T.

    2013-12-01

    of ultra-violet rays, cosmic rays, and meteorite impacts; spacious volumes based on analogues of terrestrial lava tubes; tight walls and floors possibly glass-coated by rapid cooling inside the caverns; and so on. Exploration of subsurface caverns of the Moon and Mars would provide answers to various basic and applied scientific questions fundamental to understanding the nature of the Moon, Mars, and life. Furthermore, it could provide knowledge to enable constructing lunar and Martian bases for robotic and/or manned activities there. However, Japan does not have the technology for soft-landing on gravitational celestial bodies. First, we should acquire that technology. Next, we should acquire the technology for approaching and descending into holes that could be skylights of caverns. We should also develop the technology to move on the floors where there are many boulders and/or a mound of dusts. We should also consider how to investigate the dark inside of the caverns. There are many engineering challenges for exploring the lunar and Martian subsurface caverns, but our team is prepared to meet them.

  9. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase

  10. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Bridges are constructed in stages as pilings, : columns, girders, decks, and other components : are added. At each stage, the structure must be : stable. Girders, which add significant weight to : the developing structure, rest on elastomeric : beari...

  11. Advanced construction methods in ACR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgohary, M.; Choy, E.; Yu, S.K.W.

    2002-01-01

    The ACR - Advanced CANDU Reactor, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is designed with constructability considerations as a major requirement during all project phases from the concept design stage to the detail design stage. This necessitated a much more comprehensive approach in including constructability considerations in the design to ensure that the construction duration is met. For the ACR-700, a project schedule of 48 months has been developed for the nth replicated unit with a 36 month construction period duration from First Concrete to Fuel Load. An overall construction strategy that builds on the success of the construction methods that are proven in the construction of the Qinshan CANDU 6 project has been developed for the ACR. The overall construction strategy comprises the 'Open Top' construction technique using a Very Heavy Lift crane, parallel construction activities, with extensive modularization and prefabrication. In addition, significant applications of up to date construction technology will be implemented, e.g. large volume concrete pours, prefabricated rebar, use of climbing forms, composite structures, prefabricated permanent formwork, automatic welding, and utilization of the latest electronic technology tools such as 3D CADDs modelling yields a very high quality, clash free product to allow construction to be completed 'right the first time' and eliminates rework. Integration of 3D CADDs models and scheduling tools such as Primavera has allowed development of actual construction sequences and an iterative approach to schedule verification and improvement. Modularization and prefabrication are major features of the ACR design in order to achieve the project schedule. For the reactor building approximately 80% of the volume will be installed as modules or prefabricated assembles. This ensures critical path activities are achieved. This paper examines the advanced construction methods implemented in the design in order to

  12. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in

  13. A subsurface Fe-silicate weathering microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napieralski, S. A.; Buss, H. L.; Roden, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of microbially mediated weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals often invoke organic ligands (e.g. siderophores) used for nutrient acquisition. However, it is well known that the oxidation of Fe(II) governs the overall rate of Fe-silicate mineral dissolution. Recent work has demonstrated the ability of lithtrophic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) to grow via the oxidation of structural Fe(II) in biotite as a source of metabolic energy with evidence suggesting a direct enzymatic attack on the mineral surface. This process necessitates the involvement of dedicated outer membrane proteins that interact with insoluble mineral phases in a process known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). To investigate the potential role FeOB in a terrestrial subsurface weathering system, samples were obtained from the bedrock-saprolite interface (785 cm depth) within the Rio Icacos Watershed of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico. Prior geochemical evidence suggests the flux of Fe(II) from the weathering bedrock supports a robust lithotrophic microbial community at depth. Current work confirms the activity of microorganism in situ, with a marked increase in ATP near the bedrock-saprolite interface. Regolith recovered from the interface was used as inoculum to establish enrichment cultures with powderized Fe(II)-bearing minerals serving as the sole energy source. Monitoring of the Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratio and ATP generation suggests growth of microorganisms coupled to the oxidation of mineral bound Fe(II). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic libraries from in situ and enrichment culture samples lends further support to FeOB involvement in the weathering process. Multiple metagenomic bins related to known FeOB, including Betaproteobacteria genera, contain homologs to model EET systems, including Cyc2 and MtoAB. Our approach combining geochemistry and metagenomics with ongoing microbiological and genomic characterization of novel isolates obtained

  14. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  15. Electrode Cultivation and Interfacial Electron Transport in Subsurface Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbelkar, A. A.; Jangir, Y.; Reese, B. K.; Wanger, G.; Anderson, C.; El-Naggar, M.; Amend, J.

    2016-12-01

    Continental subsurface environments can present significant energetic challenges to the resident microorganisms. While these environments are geologically diverse, potentially allowing energy harvesting by microorganisms that catalyze redox reactions, many of the abundant electron donors and acceptors are insoluble and therefore not directly bioavailable. Microbes can use extracellular electron transfer (EET) as a metabolic strategy to interact with redox active surfaces. This process can be mimicked on electrode surfaces and hence can lead to enrichment and quantification of subsurface microorganisms A primary bioelectrochemical enrichment with different oxidizing and reducing potentials set up in a single bioreactor was applied in situ to subsurface microorganisms residing in iron oxide rich deposits in the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Secondary enrichment revealed a plethora of classified and unclassified subsurface microbiota on both oxidizing and reducing potentials. From this enrichment, we have isolated a Gram-positive Bacillus along with Gram-negative Cupriavidus and Anaerospora strains (as electrode reducers) and Comamonas (as an electrode oxidizer). The Bacillus and Comamonas isolates were subjected to a detailed electrochemical characterization in half-reactors at anodic and cathodic potentials, respectively. An increase in cathodic current upon inoculation and cyclic voltammetry measurements confirm the hypothesis that Comamonas is capable of electron uptake from electrodes. In addition, measurements of Bacillus on anodes hint towards novel mechanisms that allow EET from Gram-positive bacteria. This study suggests that electrochemical approaches are well positioned to dissect such extracellular interactions that may be prevalent in the subsurface, while using physical electrodes to emulate the microhabitats, redox and geochemical gradients, and the spatially dependent interspecies interactions encountered in the subsurface. Electrochemical

  16. Review of Well Operator Files for Hydraulically Fractured Oil and Gas Production Wells: Well Design and Construction Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA reviewed a statistically representative sample of oil and gas production wells reported by nine service companies to help understand the role of well design and construction practices preventing pathways for subsurface fluid movement.

  17. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  18. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+, creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO3, showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in normal production wells. Other groundwater constituents, such as Mn, As and Sr were found to co-accumulate with Fe. Acid extraction and ESEM-EDX showed that Ca occurred together with Fe and by X-ray Powder Diffraction it was identified as calcite. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  20. Fate of estrone in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A horizontal, subsurface, laboratory-scale constructed wetland (CW) consisting of four cells in series was used to determine the attenuation of the steroid hormone estrone (E1) present in animal wastewater. Liquid swine manure diluted 1:80 with farm pond water and dosed with [14C]E1 flowed through ...

  1. Detection and Localization of Subsurface Two-Dimensional Metallic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, S.; Pajewski, L.; Schettini, G.

    2009-04-01

    "Roma Tre" University, Applied Electronics Dept.v. Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome, Italy Non-invasive identification of buried objects in the near-field of a receiver array is a subject of great interest, due to its application to the remote sensing of the earth's subsurface, to the detection of landmines, pipes, conduits, to the archaeological site characterization, and more. In this work, we present a Sub-Array Processing (SAP) approach for the detection and localization of subsurface perfectly-conducting circular cylinders. We consider a plane wave illuminating the region of interest, which is assumed to be a homogeneous, unlossy medium of unknown permittivity containing one or more targets. In a first step, we partition the receiver array so that the field scattered from the targets result to be locally plane at each sub-array. Then, we apply a Direction of Arrival (DOA) technique to obtain a set of angles for each locally plane wave, and triangulate these directions obtaining a collection of crossing crowding in the expected object locations [1]. We compare several DOA algorithms such as the traditional Bartlett and Capon Beamforming, the Pisarenko Harmonic Decomposition (PHD), the Minimum-Norm method, the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) and the Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Techinque (ESPRIT) [2]. In a second stage, we develop a statistical Poisson based model to manage the crossing pattern in order to extract the probable target's centre position. In particular, if the crossings are Poisson distributed, it is possible to feature two different distribution parameters [3]. These two parameters perform two density rate for the crossings, so that we can previously divide the crossing pattern in a certain number of equal-size windows and we can collect the windows of the crossing pattern with low rate parameters (that probably are background windows) and remove them. In this way we can consider only the high rate parameter windows (that most

  2. APPLIED ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kievskiy Leonid Vladimirovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Applied disciplines in the sphere of construction which are engaged in the solution of vital macroeconomical problems (the general trend of development of these disciplines is the expansion of problematics and mutual integration are considered. Construction organization characteristic at the present stage as a systems engineering discipline covering the investment process of creation of real estate items, is given. The main source of current research trends for applied sciences (socio-economic development forecasts, regional and local programs is determined. Interpenetration and integration of various fields of knowledge exemplified by the current interindustry problem of blocks renovation organization of existing development, is demonstrated. Mathematical model of wave construction (for the period of deployment is proposed. Nature of dependence of the total duration of renovation on the limit of annual input and coefficient of renovation, is established. Overall structure of the Moscow region housing market is presented, and approaches to definition of effective demand are proposed.

  3. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, A G; Fernandez, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, Pza. de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); MartI, J [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole SabarIs s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Wooller, L; Rymer, H [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); GarcIa, A [Department of Volcanology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: j.gottsmann@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  4. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuras, Oliver, E-mail: oku@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Paul B.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Oxby, Lucy S. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Uhlemann, Sebastian [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Geophysics, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chambers, Jonathan E. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Graham, James [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Smith, Nicholas T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Atherton, Nick [Sellafield Ltd, Albion Square, Swingpump Lane, Whitehaven CA28 7NE (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. - Graphical abstract: 3D fractional resistivity change (resistivity change Δρ divided by baseline resistivity ρ{sub 0}) image showing results of Stage 1 silo liquor simulant injection. The black line delineates the preferential flow path; green cylinders show regions of historic contamination found in sediment cores from ERT boreholes. - Highlights: • 4D geoelectrical monitoring at Sellafield detected and tracked simulated silo leaks. • ERT revealed likely pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the subsurface. • The method can reduce uncertainty in subsurface process models at nuclear sites. • Has been applied in this form at a UK nuclear licensed site for the first time • Study demonstrates value of 4D geophysics for nuclear decommissioning.

  5. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  6. Groundwater Salinity Simulation of a Subsurface Reservoir in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. T.

    2015-12-01

    The subsurface reservoir is located in Chi-Ken Basin, Pescadores (a group islands located at western part of Taiwan). There is no river in these remote islands and thus the freshwater supply is relied on the subsurface reservoir. The basin area of the subsurface reservoir is 2.14 km2 , discharge of groundwater is 1.27×106m3 , annual planning water supplies is 7.9×105m3 , which include for domestic agricultural usage. The annual average temperature is 23.3oC, average moisture is 80~85%, annual average rainfall is 913 mm, but ET rate is 1975mm. As there is no single river in the basin; the major recharge of groundwater is by infiltration. Chi-Ken reservoir is the first subsurface reservoir in Taiwan. Originally, the water quality of the reservoir is good. The reservoir has had the salinity problem since 1991 and it became more and more serious from 1992 until 1994. Possible reason of the salinity problem was the shortage of rainfall or the leakage of the subsurface barrier which caused the seawater intrusion. The present study aimed to determine the leakage position of subsurface barrier that caused the salinity problem. In order to perform the simulation for different possible leakage position of the subsurface reservoir, a Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) is used to define soils layer data, hydro-geological parameters, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the generation of three dimension meshes. A three dimension FEMWATER(Yeh , 1996) numerical model was adopted to find the possible leakage position of the subsurface barrier and location of seawater intrusion by comparing the simulation of different possible leakage with the observations. 1.By assuming the leakage position in the bottom of barrier, the simulated numerical result matched the observation better than the other assumed leakage positions. It showed that the most possible leakage position was at the bottom of the barrier. 2.The research applied three dimension FEMWATER and GMS as an interface

  7. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halem, Doris van; Vet, Weren de; Verberk, Jasper; Amy, Gary; Dijk, Hans van

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Accumulated iron was not found to clog the well or aquifer after 12 years of subsurface iron removal. → 56-100% of accumulated iron hydroxides were found to be crystalline. → Subsurface iron removal favoured certain soil layers, either due to hydraulics or mineralogy. → Other groundwater constituents, such as manganese and arsenic were found to co-accumulate with iron. - Abstract: The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O 2 -rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+ , creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO 3 , showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in

  8. Improvement of geological subsurface structure models for Kanto area, Japan, based on records of microtremor array and earthquake observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, A.; Senna, S.; Jin, K.; Cho, I.; Matsuyama, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2017-12-01

    To estimate damage caused by strong ground motions from a large earthquake, it is important to accurately evaluate broadband ground-motion characteristics in wide area. For realizing that, it is one of the important issues to model detailed subsurface structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.Here, we focus on Kanto area, including Tokyo, where there are thicker sedimentary layers. We, first, have ever collected deep bore-hole data, soil physical properties obtained by some geophysical explorations, geological information and existing models for deep ground from top surface of seismic bedrock to that of engineering bedrock, and have collected a great number of bore-hole data and surficial geological ones for shallow ground from top surface of engineering bedrock to ground surface. Using them, we modeled initial geological subsurface structure for each of deep ground and shallow one. By connecting them appropriately, we constructed initial geological subsurface structure models from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.In this study, we first collected a lot of records obtained by dense microtremor observations and earthquake ones in the whole Kanto area. About microtremor observations, we conducted measurements from large array with the size of hundreds of meters to miniature array with the size of 60 centimeters to cover both of deep ground and shallow one. And then, using ground motion characteristics such as disperse curves and H/V(R/V) spectral ratios obtained from these records, the initial geological subsurface structure models were improved in terms of velocity structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface in the area.We will report outlines on microtremor array observations, analysis methods and improved subsurface structure models.

  9. Soil Carbon Dioxide Production and Surface Fluxes: Subsurface Physical Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    Soil respiration is a critical determinant of landscape carbon balance. Variations in soil temperature and moisture patterns are important physical processes controlling soil respiration which need to be better understood. Relationships between soil respi- ration and physical controls are typically addressed using only surface flux data but other methods also exist which permit more rigorous interpretation of soil respira- tion processes. Here we use a combination of subsurface CO_{2} concentrations, surface CO_{2} fluxes and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface envi- ronment to examine physical controls on soil CO_{2} production at four climate observatories in Eastern Canada. Results indicate that subsurface CO_{2} produc- tion is more strongly correlated to the subsurface thermal environment than the surface CO_{2} flux. Soil moisture was also found to have an important influence on sub- surface CO_{2} production, particularly in relation to the soil moisture - soil profile diffusivity relationship. Non-diffusive profile CO_{2} transport appears to be im- portant at these sites, resulting in a de-coupling of summertime surface fluxes from subsurface processes and violating assumptions that surface CO_{2} emissions are the result solely of diffusion. These results have implications for the study of soil respiration across a broad range of terrestrial environments.

  10. Integrated Surface/subsurface flow modeling in PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Understanding soil water, groundwater, and shallow surface water dynamics as an integrated hydrological system is critical for understanding the Earth’s critical zone, the thin outer layer at our planet’s surface where vegetation, soil, rock, and gases interact to regulate the environment. Computational tools that take this view of soil moisture and shallow surface flows as a single integrated system are typically referred to as integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models. We extend the open-source, highly parallel, subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN to accommodate surface flows. In contrast to most previous implementations, we do not represent a distinct surface system. Instead, the vertical gradient in hydraulic head at the land surface is neglected, which allows the surface flow system to be eliminated and incorporated directly into the subsurface system. This tight coupling approach leads to a robust capability and also greatly simplifies implementation in existing subsurface simulators such as PFLOTRAN. Successful comparisons to independent numerical solutions build confidence in the approximation and implementation. Example simulations of the Walker Branch and East Fork Poplar Creek watersheds near Oak Ridge, Tennessee demonstrate the robustness of the approach in geometrically complex applications. The lack of a robust integrated surface/subsurface hydrology capability had been a barrier to PFLOTRAN’s use in critical zone studies. This work addresses that capability gap, thus enabling PFLOTRAN as a community platform for building integrated models of the critical zone.

  11. Considerations in the development of subsurface containment barrier performance standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, S.; Zdinak, A.P.; Lodman, D.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting subsurface barriers as an alternative remedial option for management of contamination problems at their facilities. Past cleanup initiatives have sometimes proven ineffective or extremely expensive. Economic considerations coupled with changing public and regulatory philosophies regarding remediation techniques makes subsurface barriers a promising technology for future cleanup efforts. As part of the initiative to develop subsurface containment barriers as an alternative remedial option, DOE funded MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to conduct a comprehensive review to identify performance considerations for the acceptability of subsurface barrier technologies as a containment method. Findings from this evaluation were intended to provide a basis for selection and application of containment technologies to address waste problems at DOE sites. Based on this study, the development of performance standards should consider: (1) sustainable low hydraulic conductivity; (2) capability to meet applicable regulations; (3) compatibility with subsurface environmental conditions; (4) durability and long-term stability; (5) repairability; and (6) verification and monitoring. This paper describes the approach for determining considerations for performance standards

  12. Peeking Beneath the Caldera: Communicating Subsurface Knowledge of Newberry Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark-Moser, M.; Rose, K.; Schultz, J.; Cameron, E.

    2016-12-01

    "Imaging the Subsurface: Enhanced Geothermal Systems and Exploring Beneath Newberry Volcano" is an interactive website that presents a three-dimensional subsurface model of Newberry Volcano developed at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Created using the Story Maps application by ArcGIS Online, this format's dynamic capabilities provide the user the opportunity for multimedia engagement with the datasets and information used to build the subsurface model. This website allows for an interactive experience that the user dictates, including interactive maps, instructive videos and video capture of the subsurface model, and linked information throughout the text. This Story Map offers a general background on the technology of enhanced geothermal systems and the geologic and development history of Newberry Volcano before presenting NETL's modeling efforts that support the installation of enhanced geothermal systems. The model is driven by multiple geologic and geophysical datasets to compare and contrast results which allow for the targeting of potential EGS sites and the reduction of subsurface uncertainty. This Story Map aims to communicate to a broad audience, and provides a platform to effectively introduce the model to researchers and stakeholders.

  13. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management

  14. Research, Development and Application of High Performance Earthquake Resistant Precast System as Green Construction in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurjaman Hari; Hariandja Binsar; Suprapto Gambiro; Faizal Lutfi; Sitepu Haerul

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable construction is a topic that emerges in the world construction as a response to climate change issue. Building construction stage is a stage in sustainable development. Construction concept that confirm to the concept is referred to as green construction. Precast concrete construction is a construction system that meets green construction criteria, because applies the usage of material and construction method that optimize energy consumption and minimize environment impact during ...

  15. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  16. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs

  17. Constructing sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... between how opponents perceive conflicts and the meaning of sanctions therein. This nexus of different constructions of sanctions moreover extends to “targeted” sanctions as well: As restrictive measures against Zimbabwe demonstrate, they are not the kind of minimally-invasive operations with clinical...

  18. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiest, G. J., E-mail: Verbiest@physik.rwth-aachen.de [JARA-FIT and II. Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J., E-mail: Rost@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  19. Electrical Resistance Tomography for Subsurface Imaging. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) noninvasively maps the 3-D resistivity field in the subsurface. It can be used on a scale from feet to kilometers. The 3-D resistivity field can be used to infer subsurface hydrogeological features and provides good resolution mapping of confining layers of various types. ERT imaging has been used for real-time monitoring and process control of remediation processes such as soil heating, pump and treat, steam injection, electrokinetics, Dynamic Underground Stripping (TechID 7), Hydrous Pyrolysis/Oxidation (TechID 1519) and more. ERT can be deployed via rapid and inexpensive installation of electrodes using a Cone Penetrometer (TechID 243). Additional applications are described under TechID 140 (Tanks) and TechID 2120 (Injected Subsurface Barriers); see also the related technology TechID 2121 (EIT)

  20. Prediction of Geological Subsurfaces Based on Gaussian Random Field Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Petter

    1997-12-31

    During the sixties, random functions became practical tools for predicting ore reserves with associated precision measures in the mining industry. This was the start of the geostatistical methods called kriging. These methods are used, for example, in petroleum exploration. This thesis reviews the possibilities for using Gaussian random functions in modelling of geological subsurfaces. It develops methods for including many sources of information and observations for precise prediction of the depth of geological subsurfaces. The simple properties of Gaussian distributions make it possible to calculate optimal predictors in the mean square sense. This is done in a discussion of kriging predictors. These predictors are then extended to deal with several subsurfaces simultaneously. It is shown how additional velocity observations can be used to improve predictions. The use of gradient data and even higher order derivatives are also considered and gradient data are used in an example. 130 refs., 44 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits.

  2. Subsurface barrier demonstration test strategy and performance specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    This document was developed to help specify a major demonstration test project of subsurface barrier systems supporting the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The document focuses discussion on requirements applicable to demonstration of three subsurface barrier concepts: (1) Injected Material, (2) Cryogenic, and (3) Desiccant. Detailed requirements are provided for initial qualification of a technology proposal followed by the pre-demonstration and demonstration test requirements and specifications. Each requirement and specification is accompanied by a discussion of the rationale for it. The document also includes information on the Hanford Site tank farms and related data; the related and currently active technology development projects within the DOE's EM-50 Program; and the overall demonstration test strategy. Procurement activities and other preparations for actual demonstration testing are on hold until a decision is made regarding further development of subsurface barriers. Accordingly, this document is being issued for information only

  3. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  4. PIK reactor construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, K.A.; Smolsky, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    The 100MW reactor PIK for fundamental researches has a thermal neutron flux of more than 10 15 n/cm 2 sec. This presentation outlines the construction state as of 2001, its prospects and completion tactics in the conditions of unstable finance. Construction of the reactor started in 1976. In 1986 construction of the building was completed and significant part of the installation work fulfilled. Construction of cooling systems was finished, the control panel assembled, and adjustment of the pump and gate valve control circuits started. After Chernobyl catastrophe, the USSR nuclear reactor safety requirements were revised. The PIK design did not meet these requirements and underwent considerable revision. The reconstruction design resulted in double the initial cost. Creation of the containment was the bulkiest part of the reconstruction. It brought about the need to disassemble the roofing of the building, dismantle all the equipment of the two upper floors, and lay up the equipment of the lower floors. As of 2001, construction in accordance with the revised design is at the stage of assemblage of the most important units, i.e. reactor itself, cooling system, heavy water system, and a number of auxiliary systems, such as depleted fuel storage, emergency cooling system etc. (orig.)

  5. Surface-subsurface flow modeling: an example of large-scale research at the new NEON user facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, H.; McKnight, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to alter surface-subsurface interactions in freshwater ecosystems. These interactions are hypothesized to control nutrient release at diel and seasonal time scales, which may then exert control over epilithic algal growth rates. The mechanisms underlying shifts in complex physical-chemical-biological patterns can be elucidated by long-term observations at sites that span hydrologic and climate gradients across the continent. Development of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will provide researchers the opportunity to investigate continental-scale patterns by combining investigator-driven measurements with Observatory data. NEON is a national-scale research platform for analyzing and understanding the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments, linked by advanced cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented Core Aquatic site in a wildland area and one Relocatable site, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse, nitrogen deposition, urbanization). In the current definition of NEON there are 36 Aquatic sites: 30 streams/rivers and 6 ponds/lakes. Each site includes automated, in-situ sensors for groundwater elevation and temperature; stream flow (discharge and stage); pond water elevation; atmospheric chemistry (Tair, barometric pressure, PAR, radiation); and surface water chemistry (DO, Twater, conductivity, pH, turbidity, cDOM, nutrients). Groundwater and surface water sites shall be regularly sampled for selected chemical and isotopic parameters. The hydrologic and geochemical monitoring design provides basic information on water and chemical fluxes in streams and ponds and between groundwater and surface water, which is intended to support investigator-driven modeling studies

  6. Enamel subsurface damage due to tooth preparation with diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H H; Kelly, J R; Jahanmir, S; Thompson, V P; Rekow, E D

    1997-10-01

    In clinical tooth preparation with diamond burs, sharp diamond particles indent and scratch the enamel, causing material removal. Such operations may produce subsurface damage in enamel. However, little information is available on the mechanisms and the extent of subsurface damage in enamel produced during clinical tooth preparation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the mechanisms of subsurface damage produced in enamel during tooth preparation by means of diamond burs, and to examine the dependence of such damage on enamel rod orientation, diamond particle size, and removal rate. Subsurface damage was evaluated by a bonded-interface technique. Tooth preparation was carried out on two enamel rod orientations, with four clinical diamond burs (coarse, medium, fine, and superfine) used in a dental handpiece. The results of this study showed that subsurface damage in enamel took the form of median-type cracks and distributed microcracks, extending preferentially along the boundaries between the enamel rods. Microcracks within individual enamel rods were also observed. The median-type cracks were significantly longer in the direction parallel to the enamel rods than perpendicular to the rods. Preparation with the coarse diamond bur produced cracks as deep as 84 +/- 30 microns in enamel. Finishing with fine diamond burs was effective in crack removal. The crack lengths in enamel were not significantly different when the removal rate was varied. Based on these results, it is concluded that subsurface damage in enamel induced by tooth preparation takes the form of median-type cracks as well as inter- and intra-rod microcracks, and that the lengths of these cracks are sensitive to diamond particle size and enamel rod orientation, but insensitive to removal rate.

  7. Subsurface Event Detection and Classification Using Wireless Signal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhannad T. Suleiman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs. The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  8. Subsurface event detection and classification using Wireless Signal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Suk-Un; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Cheng, Liang; Pamukcu, Sibel; Suleiman, Muhannad T

    2012-11-05

    Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs). The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events.

  9. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  10. Subsurface geology, geochemistry, and water flow at a Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Longlands Farm. Proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haszeldine, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Proof of Evidence is given by an expert witness on behalf of Greenpeace Ltd as part of their submission to a Planning Inquiry in 1995 hearing the application of UK Nirex Ltd for permission to construct an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at a site near Sellafield. The RCF is part of an investigation by Nirex into a suitable site for the disposal of radioactive waste. The evidence covers: a description of the general physical geology of the site; the contrast between Nirex's approach to this site investigation and those of hydrocarbon exploration; the possibility of tectonic movements in the region which are likely to affect subsurface water flows within the repository lifetime and could produce additional permeable water flow pathways through the RCF; an interpretation of Nirex data which indicates that the RCF site is on an axis of maximum flow in the subsurface; regional permeability between boreholes in the underlying fractured rock; recharge of subsurface waters during glaciation; doubts about the age-dating of subsurface water; the complex and sensitive hydrogeological setting of the site in which water flow directions are upwards and could be rapid; expert dissent relating to Nirex's assessment of regional geochemical processes affecting radionuclide release; disagreement in Nirex's assessment of the present groundwater chemistry which may influence the durability of a repository. The construction of the RCF could actually impede the resolution of some of these issues and it is concluded that, although the principle of a rock laboratory might be supported, the Nirex approach is fundamentally flawed. (18 figures; 20 references). (UK)

  11. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text

  12. Interactive directional subsurface scattering and transport of emergent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    need to store elements of irradiance from specific directions. To include changes in subsurface scattering due to changes in the direction of the incident light, we instead sample incident radiance and store scattered radiosity. This enables us to accommodate not only the common distance....... To build our maps of scattered radiosity, we progressively render the model from different directions using an importance sampling pattern based on the optical properties of the material. We obtain interactive frame rates, our subsurface scattering results are close to ground truth, and our technique...

  13. Dual-gas tracers for subsurface characterization and NAPL detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Peurrung, L.M.; Mendoza, D.P.; Pillay, G.

    1994-11-01

    Effective design of in situ remediation technologies often requires an understanding of the mass transfer limitations that control the removal of contaminants from the soil. In addition, the presence of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in soils will affect the ultimate success or failure of remediation processes. Knowing the location of NAPLs within the subsurface is critical to designing the most effective remediation approach. This work focuses on demonstrating that gas tracers can detect the location of the NAPLs in the subsurface and elucidating the mass transfer limitations associated with the removal of contaminants from soils

  14. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  15. Denitrification, greenhousegas emission and solute transport in reactive drainage filters (Subsurface flow constructed wetlands)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jacob Druedahl

    2016-01-01

    Kvælstofudvaskning fra landbrugsjord til overfladevand fører til eutrofiering og dermed en forringelse af vandkvaliteten, samt tab af biodiversitet. Underjordiske dræn leder nitratrigt drænvand direkte og hurtigt til overfladevand, hvilket resulterer i en ineffektiv rensningseffektivitet som eksi...

  16. Numerical simulation of radial compressor stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syka, T.; Luňáček, O.

    2013-04-01

    Article describes numerical simulations of air flow in radial compressor stage in NUMECA CFD software. In simulations geometry variants with and without seals are used. During tasks evaluating was observed seals influence on flow field and performance parameters of compressor stage. Also is described CFDresults comparison with results from design software based on experimental measurements and monitoring of influence of seals construction on compressor stage efficiency.

  17. Numerical simulation of radial compressor stage

    OpenAIRE

    Luňáček O.; Syka T.

    2013-01-01

    Article describes numerical simulations of air flow in radial compressor stage in NUMECA CFD software. In simulations geometry variants with and without seals are used. During tasks evaluating was observed seals influence on flow field and performance parameters of compressor stage. Also is described CFDresults comparison with results from design software based on experimental measurements and monitoring of influence of seals construction on compressor stage efficiency.

  18. Numerical simulation of radial compressor stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luňáček O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article describes numerical simulations of air flow in radial compressor stage in NUMECA CFD software. In simulations geometry variants with and without seals are used. During tasks evaluating was observed seals influence on flow field and performance parameters of compressor stage. Also is described CFDresults comparison with results from design software based on experimental measurements and monitoring of influence of seals construction on compressor stage efficiency.

  19. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  20. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pietraß, Tanja [USDOE Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-22

    From beneath the surface of the earth, we currently obtain about 80-percent of the energy our nation consumes each year. In the future we have the potential to generate billions of watts of electrical power from clean, green, geothermal energy sources. Our planet’s subsurface can also serve as a reservoir for storing energy produced from intermittent sources such as wind and solar, and it could provide safe, long-term storage of excess carbon dioxide, energy waste products and other hazardous materials. However, it is impossible to underestimate the complexities of the subsurface world. These complexities challenge our ability to acquire the scientific knowledge needed for the efficient and safe exploitation of its resources. To more effectively harness subsurface resources while mitigating the impacts of developing and using these resources, the U.S. Department of Energy established SubTER – the Subsurface Technology and Engineering RD&D Crosscut team. This DOE multi-office team engaged scientists and engineers from the national laboratories to assess and make recommendations for improving energy-related subsurface engineering. The SubTER team produced a plan with the overall objective of “adaptive control of subsurface fractures and fluid flow.”This plan revolved around four core technological pillars—Intelligent Wellbore Systems that sustain the integrity of the wellbore environment; Subsurface Stress and Induced Seismicity programs that guide and optimize sustainable energy strategies while reducing the risks associated with subsurface injections; Permeability Manipulation studies that improve methods of enhancing, impeding and eliminating fluid flow; and New Subsurface Signals that transform our ability to see into and characterize subsurface systems. The SubTER team developed an extensive R&D plan for advancing technologies within these four core pillars and also identified several areas where new technologies would require additional basic research

  1. In situ mapping of radionuclides in subsurface and surface soils: 1994 Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Knopf, M.A.; Abel, K.H.

    1995-04-01

    Uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites occasionally caused local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils. The thorough cleanup of these sites is a major public concern and a high priority for the US Department of Energy, but before any effective remedial protocols can be established, the three-dimensional distributions of target contaminants must be characterized. Traditional means of measuring radionuclide activities in soil are cumbersome, expensive, time-consuming, and often do not accurately reflect conditions over very large areas. New technologies must be developed, or existing ones improved, to allow cheaper, faster, and safer characterization of radionuclides in soils at these sites. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies to measure uranium in surface and subsurface soils. In partial completion of this effort, PNL developed an improved in situ gamma-ray spectrometry system to satisfy the technical requirements. This document summarizes fiscal-year 1994 efforts at PNL to fulfill requirements for TTP number-sign 321103 (project number-sign 19307). These requirements included (a) developing a user-friendly software package for reducing field-acquired gamma-ray spectra, (b) constructing an improved data-acquisition hardware system for use with high-purity germanium detectors, (c) ensuring readiness to conduct field mapping exercises as specified by the sponsor, (d) evaluating the in situ gamma-ray spectrometer for the determination of uranium depth distribution, and (e) documenting these efforts

  2. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.; Dwyer, B.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper will discuss the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification. The demonstration will take place at a cold site at the Hanford Geotechnical Test Facility, 400 Area, Hanford, Washington

  3. Retrieval of Parameters for Three-Layer Media with Nonsmooth Interfaces for Subsurface Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Goykhman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A solution to the inverse problem for a three-layer medium with nonsmooth boundaries, representing a large class of natural subsurface structures, is developed in this paper using simulated radar data. The retrieval of the layered medium parameters is accomplished as a sequential nonlinear optimization starting from the top layer and progressively characterizing the layers below. The optimization process is achieved by an iterative technique built around the solution of the forward scattering problem. The forward scattering process is formulated by using the extended boundary condition method (EBCM and constructing reflection and transmission matrices for each interface. These matrices are then combined into the generalized scattering matrix for the entire system, from which radar scattering coefficients are then computed. To be efficiently utilized in the inverse problem, the forward scattering model is simulated over a wide range of unknowns to obtain a complete set of subspace-based equivalent closed-form models that relate radar backscattering coefficients to the sought-for parameters including dielectric constants of each layer and separation of the layers. The inversion algorithm is implemented as a modified conjugate-gradient-based nonlinear optimization. It is shown that this technique results in accurate retrieval of surface and subsurface parameters, even in the presence of noise.

  4. A remote characterization system for subsurface mapping of buried waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Bennett, D.W.

    1992-10-01

    Mapping of buried objects and regions of chemical and radiological contamination is required at US Department of Energy (DOE) buried waste sites. The DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Integrated Program has initiated a project to develop and demonstrate a remotely controlled subsurface sensing system, called the Remote Characterization System (RCS). This project, a collaborative effort by five of the National Laboratories, involves the development of a unique low-signature survey vehicle, a base station, radio telemetry data links, satellite-based vehicle tracking, stereo vision, and sensors for non-invasive inspection of the surface and subsurface. To minimize interference with on-board sensors, the survey vehicle has been constructed predominatantly of non-metallic materials. The vehicle is self-propelled and will be guided by an operator located at a remote base station. The RCS sensors will be environmentally sealed and internally cooled to preclude contamination during use. Ground-penetrating radar, magnetometers, and conductivity devices are planned for geophysical surveys. Chemical and radiological sensors will be provided to locate hot spots and to provide isotopic concentration data

  5. Subsurface transport with emphasis on hydrology: research needs. Subsurface Transport Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-03-01

    A number of energy technologies presently in operation or under development generate solid wastes in large quantities as a major byproduct. These wastes will, for the most part, be disposed to the ground in landfills or inactive mine sites. Although the waste materials differ significantly among technologies, most contain residual, water-soluble chemical components which are of ecological and human health concern. Thus, in ground disposal may have a significant long-term impact on water supplies and human health if not properly conducted. With the growing magnitude of solid waste disposal operations, it becomes imperative to establish common ground between technologies such that research in this complex area can be efficiently managed to benefit a variety of users. This report develops the concept of multitechnology or generic research in subsurface transport with emphasis on hydrogeochemistry. Initially, a generic research approach was developed independent of waste characteristics. This approach both identified and prioritized the research information or experimentation and data management tools (models) required to resolve major technical concerns for in ground disposal. Waste characteristics were then evaluated to identify the common, cross-technology information needs. This evaluation indicated that solid wastes from energy producing technologies have physiocochemical properties in common which serve as a useful basis for identification of fundamental, generic research needs. Priority research projects are suggested for addressing contaminant identification, solubilization, transformation and transport. 38 references, 3 tables

  6. Subsurface characterization by the ground penetrating radar WISDOM/ExoMars 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Y.; Ciarletti, V.; Le Gall, A. A.; Oudart, N.; Loizeau, D.; Guiffaut, C.; Dorizon, S.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of the ExoMars 2020 mission is to search for signs of past and/or present life on Mars. Toward this goal, a rover was designed to investigate the shallow subsurface which is the most likely place where signs of life may be preserved, beneath the hostile surface of Mars. The rover of the ExoMars 2020 mission has on board a polarimetric ground penetrating radar called WISDOM (Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observation on Mars). Thanks to its large frequency bandwidth of 2.5 GHz, WISDOM is able to probe down to a depth of approximately 3 m on sedimentary rock with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters.The main scientific objectives of WISDOM are to characterize the shallow subsurface of Mars, to help understand the local geological context and to identify the most promising location for drilling. The WISDOM team is currently working on the preparation of the scientific return of the ExoMars 2020 mission. In particular, tools are developed to interpret WISDOM experimental data and, more specifically, to extract information from the radar signatures of expected buried reflectors. Insights into the composition of the ground (through the retrieval of its permittivity) and the geological context of the site can be inferred from the radar signature of buried rocks since the shape and the density of rocks in the subsurface is related to the geological processes that have shaped and placed them there (impact, fluvial processes, volcanism). This paper presents results obtained by automatic detection of structures of interest on a radargram, especially radar signature of buried rocks. The algorithm we developed uses a neural network to identify the position of buried rocks/blocs and then a Hough transform to characterize each signature and to estimate the local permittivity of the medium. Firstly, we will test the performances of the algorithm on simulated data constructed with a 3D FDTD code. This code allows us to simulate radar operation in realistic

  7. Subsurface iron and arsenic removal for shallow tube well drinking water supply in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halem, D; Olivero, S; de Vet, W W J M; Verberk, J Q J C; Amy, G L; van Dijk, J C

    2010-11-01

    Subsurface iron and arsenic removal has the potential to be a cost-effective technology to provide safe drinking water in rural decentralized applications, using existing shallow tube wells. A community-scale test facility in Bangladesh was constructed for injection of aerated water (∼1 m(3)) into an anoxic aquifer with elevated iron (0.27 mmolL(-1)) and arsenic (0.27μmolL(-1)) concentrations. The injection (oxidation) and abstraction (adsorption) cycles were monitored at the test facility and simultaneously simulated in the laboratory with anoxic column experiments. Dimensionless retardation factors (R) were determined to represent the delayed arrival of iron or arsenic in the well compared to the original groundwater. At the test facility the iron removal efficacies increased after every injection-abstraction cycle, with retardation factors (R(Fe)) up to 17. These high removal efficacies could not be explained by the theory of adsorptive-catalytic oxidation, and therefore other ((a)biotic or transport) processes have contributed to the system's efficacy. This finding was confirmed in the anoxic column experiments, since the mechanism of adsorptive-catalytic oxidation dominated in the columns and iron removal efficacies did not increase with every cycle (stable at R(Fe)=∼8). R(As) did not increase after multiple cycles, it remained stable around 2, illustrating that the process which is responsible for the effective iron removal did not promote the co-removal of arsenic. The columns showed that subsurface arsenic removal was an adsorptive process and only the freshly oxidized adsorbed iron was available for the co-adsorption of arsenic. This indicates that arsenic adsorption during subsurface treatment is controlled by the amount of adsorbed iron that is oxidized, and not by the amount of removed iron. For operational purposes this is an important finding, since apparently the oxygen concentration of the injection water does not control the subsurface arsenic

  8. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  9. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  10. Two dimentional modeling of subsurface structure over upper Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subsurface lithology obtained from 2D modelling of the residual field showed the presence of two lithological units. The sedimentary rock unit underlined by the basement rock consists of shales, sandstones, limestones, siltstones, clay and non-marine facies. The Basement rock units were composed of pegmatite, ...

  11. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow model, the SEAWAT model, was used to assess the influence of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on salt concentration at the base of the root zone, leaching and drainage in salt affected irrigated land. The study was carried out ...

  12. Testing Augmented Reality Systems for Spotting Sub-Surface Impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes setup and procedure for testing augmented reality systems for showing sub-surface positions of foreign elements in an opaque mass. The goal is it test four types of setup in terms of user accuracy and speed, the four setups being a head-mounted see-through display, an arm...

  13. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    Sensor Network (WSN) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based...time to assess the source and predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless

  14. subsurface sequence delineation and saline water mapping of lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A subsurface sequence delineation and saline water mapping of Lagos State was carried out. Ten (10) deep boreholes with average depth of 300 m were drilled within the sedimentary basin. The boreholes were lithologically and geophysically logged. The driller's lithological logs aided by gamma and resistivity logs, ...

  15. The Mojave Subsurface Bio-Geochemistry Explorer (MOSBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J.; Beegle, L.; Abbey, W.; Bhartia, R.; Kounaves, S.; Russell, M.; Towles, D.

    2012-01-01

    The MOSBE Team has developed a terrestrial field campaign to explore two subsurface biological habitats under the Mojave Desert. This field campaign will not only help us understand terrestrial desert biology, but also will develop methodologies and strategies for potential future Mars missions that would seek to explore the Martian subsurface. We have proposed to the ASTEP program to integrate a suite of field demonstrated instruments with a 20 m subsurface drill as a coherent unit, the Mojave Subsurface Bio-geochemistry Explorer. The ATK Space Modular Planetary Drill System (MPDS) requires no drilling fluid, which allows aseptic sampling, can penetrate lithic ground up to 20 meters of depth, and utilizes less than 100 Watts throughout the entire depth. The drill has been developed and demonstrated in field testing to a depth of 10 meters in Arizona, December 2002. In addition to caching a continuous core throughout the drilling depth, it also generates and caches cuttings and fines that are strata-graphically correlated with the core. As a core segment is brought to the surface, it will be analyzed for texture and structure by a color microscopic imager and for relevant chemistry and mineralogy with a UV fluorescence/Raman spectrometer. Organic and soluble ionic species will be identified through two instruments -- a microcapillary electrophoresis, and an ion trap mass spectrometer that have been developed under PIDDP, ASTID and MIDP funding.

  16. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris; De Vet, W. W. J. M.; Verberk, Jasper Q J C; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Hans C.

    2011-01-01

    The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+, creating a

  17. Quantitative subsurface analysis using frequency modulated thermal wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhani, S. K.; Suresh, B.; Ghali, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative depth analysis of the anomaly with an enhanced depth resolution is a challenging task towards the estimation of depth of the subsurface anomaly using thermography. Frequency modulated thermal wave imaging introduced earlier provides a complete depth scanning of the object by stimulating it with a suitable band of frequencies and further analyzing the subsequent thermal response using a suitable post processing approach to resolve subsurface details. But conventional Fourier transform based methods used for post processing unscramble the frequencies with a limited frequency resolution and contribute for a finite depth resolution. Spectral zooming provided by chirp z transform facilitates enhanced frequency resolution which can further improves the depth resolution to axially explore finest subsurface features. Quantitative depth analysis with this augmented depth resolution is proposed to provide a closest estimate to the actual depth of subsurface anomaly. This manuscript experimentally validates this enhanced depth resolution using non stationary thermal wave imaging and offers an ever first and unique solution for quantitative depth estimation in frequency modulated thermal wave imaging.

  18. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, J.; Kolejka, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445647.2016.1259129?scroll=top&needAccess=true

  19. Strategic planning features of subsurface management in Kemerovo Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, V.; Grinkevich, A.; Akhmadeev, K.; Pozdeeva, G.

    2016-09-01

    The article discusses the strategic planning features of regional development based on the production and subsurface management in Kemerovo Oblast. The modern approach - SWOT analysis was applied to assess the regional development strategy. The estimation of regional development plan implementation was given for the foreseeable future.

  20. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eGieg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  1. Investigation of the subsurface features of the basement complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3D seismic reflection survey was recently carried out within the Zaria area of the basement complex of northern Nigeria, in order to investigate the complexity of the subsurface features within the basement. The geology of the survey area was characterized by gneisses and low grade meta-sedimentary rocks that form the ...

  2. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M.; Cantrell, K.J.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods

  3. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-04-06

    In this project, inter-disciplinary research activities were conducted in collaboration among investigators at The University of Alabama (UA), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source (SSRL) to: (i) confirm that phosphatase activities of subsurface bacteria in Area 2 and 3 from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center result in solid U-phosphate precipitation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (ii) investigate the eventual competition between uranium biomineralization via U-phosphate precipitation and uranium bioreduction; (iii) determine subsurface microbial community structure changes of Area 2 soils following organophosphate amendments; (iv) obtain the complete genome sequences of the Rahnella sp. Y9-602 and the type-strain Rahnella aquatilis ATCC 33071 isolated from these soils; (v) determine if polyphosphate accumulation and phytate hydrolysis can be used to promote U(VI) biomineralization in subsurface sediments; (vi) characterize the effect of uranium on phytate hydrolysis by a new microorganism isolated from uranium-contaminated sediments; (vii) utilize positron-emission tomography to label and track metabolically-active bacteria in soil columns, and (viii) study the stability of the uranium phosphate mineral product. Microarray analyses and mineral precipitation characterizations were conducted in collaboration with DOE SBR-funded investigators at LBNL. Thus, microbial phosphorus metabolism has been shown to have a contributing role to uranium immobilization in the subsurface.

  4. Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Migration velocity analysis with the wave equation can be accomplished by focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface offset or shift. A reflector in the wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In the correct model, it should collapse to a

  5. Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Migration velocity analysis with the constant-density acoustic wave equation can be accomplished by the focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface shift in the imaging condition. A reflector in a wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In

  6. The potential of imaging subsurface heterogeneities by local, natural earthquakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishitsuji, Y.; Doi, I.; Draganov, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new imaging technique of subsurface heterogeneities that uses Sp-waves from natural earthquakes. This technique can be used as a first screening tool in frontier exploration areas before conventional active exploration. Analyzing Sp-waves from 28 earthquakes (Mj 2.0 to 4.2)

  7. Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormak, W.D.; Trenkler, T.; Walters, M.F.; Rouse, J.K.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to satisfy manage and dispose of the waste currently stored in the underground storage tanks. The retrieval element of TWRS includes a work scope to develop subsurface impermeable barriers beneath SSTs. The barriers could serve as a means to contain leakage that may result from waste retrieval operations and could also support site closure activities by facilitating cleanup. Three types of subsurface barrier systems have emerged for further consideration: (1) chemical grout, (2) freeze walls, and (3) desiccant, represented in this feasibility study as a circulating air barrier. This report contains analyses of the costs and relative risks associated with combinations retrieval technologies and barrier technologies that from 14 alternatives. Eight of the alternatives include the use of subsurface barriers; the remaining six nonbarrier alternative are included in order to compare the costs, relative risks and other values of retrieval with subsurface barriers. Each alternative includes various combinations of technologies that can impact the risks associated with future contamination of the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site to varying degrees. Other potential risks associated with these alternatives, such as those related to accidents and airborne contamination resulting from retrieval and barrier emplacement operations, are not quantitatively evaluated in this report

  8. Contaminated environments in the subsurface and bioremediation: organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliger, C; Gaspard, S; Glod, G; Heijman, C; Schumacher, W; Schwarzenbach, R P; Vazquez, F

    1997-07-01

    Due to leakages, spills, improper disposal and accidents during transport, organic compounds have become subsurface contaminants that threaten important drinking water resources. One strategy to remediate such polluted subsurface environments is to make use of the degradative capacity of bacteria. It is often sufficient to supply the subsurface with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and aerobic treatments are still dominating. However, anaerobic processes have advantages such as low biomass production and good electron acceptor availability, and they are sometimes the only possible solution. This review will focus on three important groups of environmental organic contaminants: hydrocarbons, chlorinated and nitroaromatic compounds. Whereas hydrocarbons are oxidized and completely mineralized under anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron acceptors such as nitrate, iron, sulfate and carbon dioxide, chlorinated and nitroaromatic compounds are reductively transformed. For the aerobic often persistent polychlorinated compounds, reductive dechlorination leads to harmless products or to compounds that are aerobically degradable. The nitroaromatic compounds are first reductively transformed to the corresponding amines and can subsequently be bound to the humic fraction in an aerobic process. Such new findings and developments give hope that in the near future contaminated aquifers can efficiently be remediated, a prerequisite for a sustainable use of the precious-subsurface drinking water resources.

  9. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  10. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  11. ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

  12. Assessing coastal plain risk indices for subsurface phosphorus loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) Indices are important tools for nutrient management planning in the U.S. whose evaluation often has been deemphasized in favor of research and development. Assessing P Indices in artificially drained agroecosystems is especially important, as subsurface flow is the predominant mode of...

  13. Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Subsurface Flow Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Esch, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural geological formations generally show multiscale structural and functional heterogeneity evolving over many orders of magnitude in space and time. In subsurface hydrological simulations the geological model focuses on the structural hierarchy of physical sub units and the flow model addresses

  14. Physico-chemical and Mineralogical Characterisation of Subsurface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on subsurface sediments obtained around the Gaborone landfill area Botswana, in order to characterize their mineralogy and physico-chemistry, appraise any contaminant inputs from the landfill and assess their ability to attenuate contaminants from the landfill. Physico-chemical properties ...

  15. Seismic characterisation of subsurface structural features of parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of thirty-four migrated 2D seismic reflection lines and two composite well logs have been interpreted with a view to unravel the subsurface geological ... The interpretation procedure includes horizon identification, fault mapping, timing of horizons at selected shot points, posting of times, time-depth conversion and ...

  16. The effects of fire on subsurface archaeological materials [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Oster; Samantha Ruscavage-Barz; Michael L. Elliott

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we concentrate on the effects of fire on subsurface archaeological deposits: the matrix containing post-depositional fill, artifacts, ecofactual data, dating samples, and other cultural and noncultural materials. In order to provide a context for understanding these data, this paper provides a summary of previous research about the potential effects of...

  17. Evaluation of the Dutch subsurface geoportal: What lies beneath?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lance, K.T.; Georgiadou, Y.; Bregt, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a geoportal from a “what lies beneath” perspective. It analyses processes of budgeting, planning, monitoring, performance measurement, and reporting of the national initiative titled Digital Information of the Dutch Subsurface (known by its Dutch acronym, DINO). The study is

  18. The significance of the subsurface in urban renewal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooimeijer, F.L.; Maring, Linda

    2018-01-01

    The subsurface is a technical space, the “engine room of the city,” that incorporates the vital functions of water and energy supply, communication systems, sewers and drainage. Natural systems too – crucial for stable, dry, cool and nature inclusive cities – are also largely dependent on the

  19. Monitoring subsurface coal fires in Jharia coalfield using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing adverse effects on the regional environment ... subsurface coal fires and to study its lateral prop- ... as is the case with the recently developed Persis- .... using Statistical-Cost, Network-Flow Algorithm ..... dence of Kolkata (Calcutta) City, India during the 1990s ... a case study in the east of France; Int. J. Remote Sens.

  20. Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; Heerden, van E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth’s crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere1–4. The constraints of temperature, energy,

  1. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical...

  2. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, inter-disciplinary research activities were conducted in collaboration among investigators at The University of Alabama (UA), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source (SSRL) to: (i) confirm that phosphatase activities of subsurface bacteria in Area 2 and 3 from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center result in solid U-phosphate precipitation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (ii) investigate the eventual competition between uranium biomineralization via U-phosphate precipitation and uranium bioreduction; (iii) determine subsurface microbial community structure changes of Area 2 soils following organophosphate amendments; (iv) obtain the complete genome sequences of the Rahnella sp. Y9-602 and the type-strain Rahnella aquatilis ATCC 33071 isolated from these soils; (v) determine if polyphosphate accumulation and phytate hydrolysis can be used to promote U(VI) biomineralization in subsurface sediments; (vi) characterize the effect of uranium on phytate hydrolysis by a new microorganism isolated from uranium-contaminated sediments; (vii) utilize positron-emission tomography to label and track metabolically-active bacteria in soil columns, and (viii) study the stability of the uranium phosphate mineral product. Microarray analyses and mineral precipitation characterizations were conducted in collaboration with DOE SBR-funded investigators at LBNL. Thus, microbial phosphorus metabolism has been shown to have a contributing role to uranium immobilization in the subsurface.

  3. Identifying Heterogeneities in Subsurface Environment using the Level Set Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hongzhuan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lu, Zhiming [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    These are slides from a presentation on identifying heterogeneities in subsurface environment using the level set method. The slides start with the motivation, then explain Level Set Method (LSM), the algorithms, some examples are given, and finally future work is explained.

  4. Tools for Social Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    for social construction, i.e. supporting staging, performing, and sharing of playful activities involving people and artifacts.             The method used is a triangulation of the problem domain—pervasive media systems for children—from three perspectives: theory, design, and empirical work......: the potential of pervasive media systems to support the children’s social construction.  ......In this dissertation, I propose a new type of playful media for children. Based on field work, prototypes, and theoretical development, I define, build, and explore a distinct cross-section of existing and new digital media, tools, and communication devices in order to assess the characteristics...

  5. Innovative subsurface stabilization project -- Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Zdinak, A.P.; Bishop, C.W.

    1996-11-01

    This is a report of results of applying four innovative grouting materials and one commercially available material for creating monoliths out of buried waste sites using jet grouting. The four innovative materials included a proprietary water-based epoxy, an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory-developed two-component grout that resembles hematite when cured with soil, molten low-temperature paraffin, and a proprietary iron oxide cement-based grout called TECT. The commercial grout was Type-H high-sulfate-resistant cement. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In addition to the grouting studies, specially designed field-scale permeameters were constructed to perform full-scale controlled mass balance hydraulic conductivity studies. An ungrouted field-scale permeameter contained simulated buried waste and soil and was left ungrouted, and a second identical field-scale permeameter was grouted with commercial-grade Type-H cement. The field demonstrations were performed in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Cold Test Pit is adjacent to the laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex. At the complex, 2 million ft 3 of transuranic waste is commingled with 6--8 million ft 3 of soil in shallow land burial, and improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final waste disposition. This report gives results of grouting, coring, hydraulic conductivity, and destructive examination of the grouted buried waste matrix

  6. ACCELERATING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Kumaraswamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The needs for construction industry development are initially viewed from the broader perspectives of imperatives for infrastructure development and national development. All these are clearly more critical in developing countries. A non-exhaustive set of potential drivers and common barriers to construction industry development is identified from previous research. These suggest the usefulness of consolidating a cluster of recent proposals and exercises aiming at (a construction organization development in terms of an over-arching management support system model, as well as improved information and knowledge management; and (b project team development in the context of relationally integrated teams and supply chains, joint risk management and ‘technology and knowledge exchange’ in joint ventures, as well as longer term public private partnerships. These apparently disparate research thrusts are threaded together into a pattern that may inspire, if not feed, specific research and development (R & D agendas for construction industry development in different countries according to their own priorities, constraints and stages of infrastructure and national development.

  7. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Valstar, Johan R.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data

  8. Subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the north-western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Aswanikumar, V.

    of thermocline suggests that the formation of the subsurface maximum is influencEd. by the presence of seasonal thermocline. Further the subsurface chlorophyll maximum is noticed within the depth ranges of ammonium maximum and nitracline, suggesting...

  9. A simulation study of moisture movement in proposed barriers for the subsurface disposal area, INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, S.O.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate moisture movement within two engineered barriers, which are proposed for use in eventual closure of the Subsurface Disposal Area. The results of the study are intended to guide the design and implementation of field test plots that will be constructed to test the barrier designs. Discussed are the sensitivity of barrier performance to changes in the conceptual model, which was used to simulate the barriers, and to changes in hydrologic parameters, which were used to describe the materials composing the barriers. In addition, estimates are presented concerning the time required for the moisture profile within the barriers to come into equilibrium with the meteorological conditions at the surface. In addition, the performance of the barriers under conditions of supplemental precipitation and ponding is presented

  10. Insights from the Probabilistic Safety Assessment Application to Subsurface Operations at the Preclosure Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Jung, Jong Tae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the insights obtained through the PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) application to subsurface operation at the preclosure facilities of the repository. At present, medium-low level waste repository has been constructed in Korea, and studies for disposal of high level wastes are under way. Also, safety analysis for repository operation has been performed. Thus, we performed a probabilistic safety analysis for surface operation at the preclosure facilities with PSA methodology for a nuclear power plant. Since we don't have a code to analyze the waste repository safety analysis, we used the codes, AIMS (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) and FTREX (Fault Tree Reliability Evaluation eXpert) which are developed for a nuclear power plant's PSA to develop ET (Event Tree) and FT (Fault Tree), and to quantify for an example analysis

  11. Managing and mitigating extensive subsurface fuel product beneath two inner-city heritage buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, K. [City of Edmonton, AB (Canada); Morton, P.R. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The management and mitigation of extensive subsurface fuel product beneath two inner-city heritage buildings in Edmonton, Alberta was examined. The presentation was organized under four components: description and planning; scope and risk; design; and implementation. The description and planning section identified the location, buildings, stakeholders, and integration with other activities. The section on scope and risk addressed issues regarding hydrocarbon impacts, remediation ranking (vertical and inclined wells and horizontal wells), remediation modes, and field trials. The section on design identified the remediation components including extraction wells; liquids separation and collection; water treatment; off-gas catalytic oxidation; sensor data acquisition and PLCS system; satellite link for web monitoring and control, and secure and noise-reducing enclosure. Implementation issues were also discussed with reference to horizontal directional drilling and well construction, difficulties and problems, commissioning, remediation progress to-date, and community benefits. tabs., figs.

  12. A poroelastic reservoir model for predicting subsidence and mapping subsurface pressure fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.; Olson, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    A forward model was constructed to numerically predict surface subsidence and reservoir compaction following the approach of Segall [Pure Appl. Phys. 139 (1992) 536]. A nucleus of poroelastic strain is numerically integrated over a rectangular prism assuming constant pressure change. This fundamental geometry allows a reservoir to be divided into many small cubic blocks in a manner similar to reservoir simulation. The subsidence and compaction effects of the pressure change throughout the reservoir are calculated by the superposition of results from each individual block. Using forward modeling, pressure boundary conditions can be acquired from pressure test data or reservoir simulation predictions. An inversion model also was developed that can track pressure fronts in a subsurface reservoir using surface displacements. The capability of the inversion model was demonstrated using synthetic examples of one-well and four-well cases with different layouts of surface observation locations. The impact of noise on the inversion result is also included

  13. BUDGET NORMALIZATION AND PRICING FEATURES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gadzhieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the pricing of the construction is different from the pricing system in the industry and other branches of economy, because it has different methodological and organizational approaches. It has been determined that the cost of construction is set on the stage of its design, in the process of concluding investment contracts (construction contracts, as well as directly during construction, major repairs of objects of capital construction, reconstruction and the implementation of certain types of construction and installation works. It has been found that the pricing mechanism in construction is based on the detailed legal and reference documents regulating material consumption rates and prices, taking into account sectoral, territorial and seasonal features of building production. It has been found that under inflation conditions the price index calculation of construction products for investment purposes is of great importance. Mandatory approval of all stakeholders of the construction production method for determining the price of the construction site is proposed.

  14. A Geostatistical Toolset for Reconstructing Louisiana's Coastal Stratigraphy using Subsurface Boring and Cone Penetrometer Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Tsai, F. T. C.; Jafari, N.; Chen, Q. J.; Bentley, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    A vast area of river deltaic wetlands stretches across southern Louisiana coast. The wetlands are suffering from a high rate of land loss, which increasingly threats coastal community and energy infrastructure. A regional stratigraphic framework of the delta plain is now imperative to answer scientific questions (such as how the delta plain grows and decays?) and to provide information to coastal protection and restoration projects (such as marsh creation and construction of levees and floodwalls). Through years, subsurface investigations in Louisiana have been conducted by state and federal agencies (Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, United States Geological Survey, United States Army Corps of Engineers, etc.), research institutes (Louisiana Geological Survey, LSU Coastal Studies Institute, etc.), engineering firms, and oil-gas companies. This has resulted in the availability of various types of data, including geological, geotechnical, and geophysical data. However, it is challenging to integrate different types of data and construct three-dimensional stratigraphy models in regional scale. In this study, a set of geostatistical methods were used to tackle this problem. An ordinary kriging method was used to regionalize continuous data, such as grain size, water content, liquid limit, plasticity index, and cone penetrometer tests (CPTs). Indicator kriging and multiple indicator kriging methods were used to regionalize categorized data, such as soil classification. A compositional kriging method was used to regionalize compositional data, such as soil composition (fractions of sand, silt and clay). Stratigraphy models were constructed for three cases in the coastal zone: (1) Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) area: soil classification and soil behavior type (SBT) stratigraphies were constructed using ordinary kriging; (2) Middle Barataria Bay area: a soil classification stratigraphy was constructed using multiple indicator kriging; (3) Lower Barataria

  15. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  16. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  17. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  18. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  19. Tectonosedimentary framework of Upper Cretaceous -Neogene series in the Gulf of Tunis inferred from subsurface data: implications for petroleum exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhraief, Wissem; Dhahri, Ferid; Chalwati, Imen; Boukadi, Noureddine

    2017-04-01

    The objective and the main contribution of this issue are dedicated to using subsurface data to delineate a basin beneath the Gulf of Tunis and its neighbouring areas, and to investigate the potential of this area in terms of hydrocarbon resources. Available well data provided information about the subsurface geology beneath the Gulf of Tunis. 2D seismic data allowed delineation of the basin shape, strata geometries, and some potential promising subsurface structures in terms of hydrocarbon accumulation. Together with lithostratigraphic data obtained from drilled wells, seismic data permitted the construction of isochron and isobath maps of Upper Cretaceous-Neogene strata. Structural and lithostratigraphic interpretations indicate that the area is tectonically complex, and they highlight the tectonic control of strata deposition during the Cretaceous and Neogene. Tectonic activity related to the geodynamic evolution of the northern African margin appears to have been responsible for several thickness and facies variations, and to have played a significant role in the establishment and evolution of petroleum systems in northeastern Tunisia. As for petroleum systems in the basin, the Cretaceous series of the Bahloul, Mouelha and Fahdene formations are acknowledged to be the main source rocks. In addition, potential reservoirs (Fractured Abiod and Bou Dabbous carbonated formations) sealed by shaly and marly formations (Haria and Souar formations respectively) show favourable geometries of trap structures (anticlines, tilted blocks, unconformities, etc.) which make this area adequate for hydrocarbon accumulations.

  20. Snowmelt-induced subsurface and overland flows in a hillslope in Noname Watershed, Laramie River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, T.; Ohara, N.

    2015-12-01

    Only few field observations have been implemented using surface and sub-surface trenches to investigate snowmelt-induced hillslope runoffs in mountainous regions. Hillslope trenches may be one of the most direct ways to measure subsurface and overland flow during winter and spring seasons. In July 2014, a 10 meter long trench was constructed with hand tools through glacial till on a south facing hillslope in the Noname Watershed, Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming, where heavy equipment and motorized vehicles were restricted. This trench measures subsurface and overland flow for a 610 square meters catchment which has an average slope of 25 degrees. This water-collecting trench is equipped with 4 soil-moisture and temperature sensors to detect the presence of unsaturated flow. Field observations from the trench showed that diurnal oscillation of snowmelt seemed to control the overland flow between the snow and soil surface. The water inputs to the hillslope, including rainfall, evaporation, and snowmelt rates, were estimated from the energy balance computations using the observed meteorological data at the site. Using the water input data, the lateral flow component through the deeper soil or weathered bedrock layer was also quantified by the mass balance in the catchment. This study provides one of key field activities for Wyoming Center for Environmental Hydrology and Geophysics (WyCEHG) project.

  1. Colloid formation in groundwater by subsurface aeration: characterisation of the geo-colloids and their counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthoorn, A.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater to make the water potable. In a groundwater system with pH > 7, subsurface aeration results in a non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove Fe in situ, the

  2. Geosystem services:A concept in support of sustainable development of the subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, C.C.D.F.; van Beukering, P.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Because functions of the subsurface are hidden from view, its important role in society is often taken for granted. Underground use in cities and subsurface resource extraction rapidly increase. Ensuring sustainability of the subsurface role requires balancing between exploitation and conservation,

  3. Integrated geomechanical modelling at TNO for assessement of deep subsurface risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Fokker, P.; Zijl, W.; Scheffers, B.

    2001-01-01

    Public authorities, E & P and the mining industry increasingly demand fundamental insight and accurate predictions on subsurface and surface deformation and damage due to exploitation of subsurface natural resources, and subsurface storage of energy residues (e.g. CO2). At this moment deformation is

  4. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250....119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. To receive MMS approval you must...

  5. A technical investigation on tools and concepts for sustainable management of the subsurface in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, Jasper; van Wensem, Joke; Oomes, Justine L.M.; Barends, Frans; Breunese, Jaap; Bruining, Hans; Olsthoorn, Theo; Stams, Alfons J.M.; van der Stoel, Almer E.C.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing use of the subsurface, there is a need to modernise policies on sustainable use of the subsurface. This holds in particular for the densely populated Netherlands. We aimed to analyse current practice of subsurface management and the associated pressure points and to

  6. A technical investigation on tools and concepts for sustainable management of the subsurface in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.; Wensem, van J.; Oomes, J.L.; Barends, F.; Breunese, J.; Bruining, H.; Olsthoorn, T.; Stams, A.J.M.; Stoel, van der A.E.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing use of the subsurface, there is a need to modernise policies on sustainable use of the subsurface. This holds in particular for the densely populated Netherlands. We aimed to analyse current practice of subsurface management and the associated pressure points and to

  7. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Two types of change will influence the environment of a subsurface nuclear waste isolation facility: natural geological changes and changes caused by the construction of the waste repository and introduction of the waste. This report is concerned with vertical crustal movements, which are an expression of natural geological changes. Vertical crustal movements observed outside the United Kingdom are reviewed, and vertical movements in a test region of the UK investigated by comparison of geodetic levellings. The implications of vertical crustal movement to waste isolation facilities and some potentially valuable lines of research are discussed. (author)

  8. Effectiveness of vegetation on phosphorus removal from reclaimed water by a subsurface flow wetland in a coastal area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoqing Shan; Liang Ao; Chunming Hu; Jiayu Song

    2011-01-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and influence factors of vegetation on phosphorus (P) removal from reclaimed water in constructed wetlands.Comparisons were conducted between one pilot scale subsurface flow wetland (P-SSFW) and two demonstration subsurface flow wetlands,which were series-wound and named as first subsurface flow wetland (F-SSFW),and second subsurface flow wetland (S-SSFW),respectively.The three wetlands had the same vegetation and substrate,but different pH values,total dissolved solids (TDS) and P loads.Results showed that the P content in the vegetation shoots of the F-SSFW was 2.16 mg/g,while 2.31 mg/g in the S-SSFW and 2.69 mg/g in the P-SSFW.These differences were likely caused by the higher pH and TDS in the reclaimed water.The P content also differed among the tissues of the plant,which were 5.94-6.44 mg/g,2.20-2.77 mg/g,1.31-1.46mg/g and 1.53-1.88 mg/g in the flowers,leaves,stems,and roots,respectively.The greatest discrepancy was observed in the leaves,indicating that the environment of the wetlands had the greatest influence on the leaves.When the total phosphorus (TP) load was lower,the proportion of P removed by vegetation assimilation was 16.17% in the P-SSFW,12.90% in the F-SSFW and 13.29% in the S-SSFW.However,the relative removal efficiency by vegetation among the three wetlands did not vary greatly from that observed in other studies.Moreover,the influence of pH,TDS and TP load was not as great as the influence of the vegetation species,type of substrate,influent style or climate.

  9. Seasonal and Daily Variations of Subsurface Velocity Revealed by the Air-gun Source in Binchuan, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Yang, H.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    We derive temporal variations of subsurface structure using a large-volume air-gun source excited in Binchuan, Yunnan, southwest China, the first transmitting seismic station that can generate high-quality repeating waveforms. The data were collected between January 2013 and December 2015 that were recorded by 40 stations within 150 km, including permanent and newly deployed air-gun array stations. Firstly, we conduct cluster analysis using the waveforms at the nearest station and find the clustering result is not only governed by the water level of the reservoir, but also has seasonal variations. Furthermore, we use the records of the nearest station to approximate the source time functions and then retrieve empirical Green's functions (EGF) by deconvolution. Then we obtain travel time difference by comparing the EGF. The travel time difference exhibits clear seasonal variation, and the pattern correlates the best with surface air temperature. The increasing temperature coincides with increasing delay time i.e. decreasing seismic velocity. We interpret the observed seasonal variation of subsurface velocity is partly caused by thermo-elastic strain. However, our calculated thermo-elastic strain is only half in amplitude of the observed strain, indicating other factors such as precipitation and ground water level may play a role in the subsurface changes. Moreover, we derive the daily variation of subsurface velocity in December 2015 when air-gun shots were made in every hour. The delay time clearly correlates with the barometric pressure change and the tidal strain. Here we demonstrate that both long-term (seasonal) and short-term (daily) structural variations can be derived using the newly constructed active source, which is a powerful tool to advance our understanding of rheological properties of the crust as well as well processes associated with earthquakes and other natural hazards.

  10. Capabilities of seismic and georadar 2D/3D imaging of shallow subsurface of transport route using the Seismobile system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Zenon; Isakow, Zbigniew; Czarny, Rafał; Pilecka, Elżbieta; Harba, Paulina; Barnaś, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the capabilities of the Seismobile system for shallow subsurface imaging of transport routes, such as roads, railways, and airport runways, in different geological conditions were presented. The Seismobile system combines the advantages of seismic profiling using landstreamer and georadar (GPR) profiling. It consists of up to four seismic measuring lines and carriage with a suspended GPR antenna. Shallow subsurface recognition may be achieved to a maximum width of 10.5 m for a distance of 3.5 m between the measurement lines. GPR measurement is performed in the axis of the construction. Seismobile allows the measurement time, labour and costs to be reduced due to easy technique of its installation, remote data transmission from geophones to accompanying measuring modules, automated location of the system based on GPS and a highly automated method of seismic wave excitation. In this paper, the results of field tests carried out in different geological conditions were presented. The methodologies of acquisition, processing and interpretation of seismic and GPR measurements were broadly described. Seismograms and its spectrum registered by Seismobile system were compared to the ones registered by Geode seismograph of Geometrix. Seismic data processing and interpretation software allows for the obtaining of 2D/3D models of P- and S-wave velocities. Combined seismic and GPR results achieved sufficient imaging of shallow subsurface to a depth of over a dozen metres. The obtained geophysical information correlated with geological information from the boreholes with good quality. The results of performed tests proved the efficiency of the Seismobile system in seismic and GPR imaging of a shallow subsurface of transport routes under compound conditions.

  11. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  12. Summary Stage 2018 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed January 1, 2018 and forward. 2018 version applies to every site and/or histology combination, including lymphomas and leukemias. Historically, also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  13. Advanced Algebraic Multigrid Solvers for Subsurface Flow Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Meng-Huo

    2015-09-13

    In this research we are particularly interested in extending the robustness of multigrid solvers to encounter complex systems related to subsurface reservoir applications for flow problems in porous media. In many cases, the step for solving the pressure filed in subsurface flow simulation becomes a bottleneck for the performance of the simulator. For solving large sparse linear system arising from MPFA discretization, we choose multigrid methods as the linear solver. The possible difficulties and issues will be addressed and the corresponding remedies will be studied. As the multigrid methods are used as the linear solver, the simulator can be parallelized (although not trivial) and the high-resolution simulation become feasible, the ultimately goal which we desire to achieve.

  14. Influence of groundwater composition on subsurface iron and arsenic removal

    KAUST Repository

    Moed, David H.; Van Halem, Doris; Verberk, J. Q J C; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface arsenic and iron removal (SAR/SIR) is a novel technology to remove arsenic, iron and other groundwater components by using the subsoil. This research project investigated the influence of the groundwater composition on subsurface treatment. In anoxic sand column experiments, with synthetic groundwater and virgin sand, it was found that several dissolved substances in groundwater compete for adsorption sites with arsenic and iron. The presence of 0.01 mmol L -1phosphate, 0.2 mmol L -1 silicate, and 1 mmol L -1 nitrate greatly reduced the efficiency of SAR, illustrating the vulnerability of this technology in diverse geochemical settings. SIR was not as sensitive to other inorganic groundwater compounds, though iron retardation was limited by 1.2 mmol L -1 calcium and 0.06 mmol L -1 manganese. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  15. Evaluating probability measures related to subsurface flow and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic modeling approaches are being used increasingly in order to carry out quantified risk analysis and to evaluate the uncertainty existing in subsurface flow and transport analyses. The work presented in this paper addresses three issues: comparison of common probabilistic modeling techniques, recent results regarding the sensitivity of probability measures to likely changes in the uncertain variables for transport in porous media, and a discussion of some questions regarding fundamental modeling philosophy within a probabilistic framework. Recent results indicate that uncertainty regarding average flow velocity controls the probabilistic outcome, while uncertainty in the dispersivity and diffusion coefficient does not seem very important. Uncertainty of reaction terms is important only at early times in the transport process. Questions are posed regarding (1) the inclusion of macrodispersion in a probabilistic analysis, (2) statistics of flow velocity and (3) the notion of an ultimate probability measure for subsurface flow analyses

  16. Influence of groundwater composition on subsurface iron and arsenic removal

    KAUST Repository

    Moed, David H.

    2012-06-01

    Subsurface arsenic and iron removal (SAR/SIR) is a novel technology to remove arsenic, iron and other groundwater components by using the subsoil. This research project investigated the influence of the groundwater composition on subsurface treatment. In anoxic sand column experiments, with synthetic groundwater and virgin sand, it was found that several dissolved substances in groundwater compete for adsorption sites with arsenic and iron. The presence of 0.01 mmol L -1phosphate, 0.2 mmol L -1 silicate, and 1 mmol L -1 nitrate greatly reduced the efficiency of SAR, illustrating the vulnerability of this technology in diverse geochemical settings. SIR was not as sensitive to other inorganic groundwater compounds, though iron retardation was limited by 1.2 mmol L -1 calcium and 0.06 mmol L -1 manganese. © IWA Publishing 2012.

  17. Automatic WEMVA by Focusing Subsurface Offset Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-05-26

    Macro velocity building is important for subsequent prestack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes band-limited waveform to invert the velocity in an automatic manner. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers(SOCIGs). We re-examine it with a different perspective and propose to view the SOCIGs and the background wavefield together as subsurface offset virtual sources(SOVS). A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those SOVS and velocity is derived and solved subsequently using a conjugate gradient method. Both synthetic and real dataset examples verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Transport of Chemical Vapors from Subsurface Sources to Atmosphere as Affected by Shallow Subsurface and Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. K.; Smits, K. M.; Hosken, K.; Schulte, P.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the movement and modeling of chemical vapor through unsaturated soil in the shallow subsurface when subjected to natural atmospheric thermal and mass flux boundary conditions at the land surface is of importance to applications such as landmine detection and vapor intrusion into subsurface structures. New, advanced technologies exist to sense chemical signatures at the land/atmosphere interface, but interpretation of these sensor signals to make assessment of source conditions remains a challenge. Chemical signatures are subject to numerous interactions while migrating through the unsaturated soil environment, attenuating signal strength and masking contaminant source conditions. The dominant process governing movement of gases through porous media is often assumed to be Fickian diffusion through the air phase with minimal or no quantification of other processes contributing to vapor migration, such as thermal diffusion, convective gas flow due to the displacement of air, expansion/contraction of air due to temperature changes, temporal and spatial variations of soil moisture and fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. Soil water evaporation and interfacial mass transfer add to the complexity of the system. The goal of this work is to perform controlled experiments under transient conditions of soil moisture, temperature and wind at the land/atmosphere interface and use the resulting dataset to test existing theories on subsurface gas flow and iterate between numerical modeling efforts and experimental data. Ultimately, we aim to update conceptual models of shallow subsurface vapor transport to include conditionally significant transport processes and inform placement of mobile sensors and/or networks. We have developed a two-dimensional tank apparatus equipped with a network of sensors and a flow-through head space for simulation of the atmospheric interface. A detailed matrix of realistic atmospheric boundary conditions was applied in a series of

  19. Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX

    2012-04-03

    A method for installing a horizontal or inclined subsurface heater includes placing a heating section of a heater in a horizontal or inclined section of a wellbore with an installation tool. The tool is uncoupled from the heating section. A lead in section is mechanically and electrically coupled to the heating section of the heater. The lead-in section is located in an angled or vertical section of the wellbore.

  20. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitored in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program. Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media

  1. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  2. Online monitoring of food processes using subsurface laser scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael; Møller, Flemming

    Online monitoring of physical parameters during food production is not a trivial task, but promising results can often be obtained with Subsurface Laser Scattering (SLS). The first SLS instruments are on the market today, and studies are needed to asses the potential of the technology. SLS can mo...... of the SLS technology is explained, and results from yoghurt fermentation and foaming of a dairy dessert product is presented....

  3. Subsurface microbial communities and degradative capacities during trichloroethylene bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Ringelberg, D.B.; Hedrick, D.B.; Phelps, T.J.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Subsurface amendments of air, methane, and nutrients were investigated for the in situ stimulation of trichloroethylene- degrading microorganisms at the US DOE Savannah River Integrated Demonstration. Amendments were injected into a lower horizontal well coupled with vacuum extraction from the vadose zone horizontal well. The amendments were sequenced to give increasingly more aggressive treatments. Microbial populations and degradative capacities were monitored in groundwaters samples bimonthly

  4. Martian geomorphology and its relation to subsurface volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Stephen M. (Editor); Rossbacher, Lisa A. (Editor); Zimbelman, James R. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Martian volatile inventory, planetary climatic and atmospheric evolution, and the interpretation of various remote sensing data were discussed. A number of morphologies that were cited as potential indicators of subsurface volatiles were reviewed. Rampart craters and terrain softening were the focus of more in-depth discussion because of the popular attention they have received and the fact that their areal distributions are by far the most extensive of all the proposed indicators.

  5. COST EFFECTIVE AND HIGH RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    objective of this project is to provide the DoD and its remediation contractors with the HT technology for delineating the spatial distribution of...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hydraulic Tomography ( HT ) is a high-resolution...performance of subsurface remedial actions at environmental sites. The good technical performance and cost-effectiveness of HT have been demonstrated in

  6. Confocal examination of subsurface cracking in ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etman, Maged K

    2009-10-01

    The original ceramic surface finish and its microstructure may have an effect on crack propagation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between crack propagation and ceramic microstructure following cyclic fatigue loading, and to qualitatively evaluate and quantitatively measure the surface and subsurface crack depths of three types of ceramic restorations with different microstructures using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Twenty (8 x 4 x 2 mm(3)) blocks of AllCeram (AC), experimental ceramic (EC, IPS e.max Press), and Sensation SL (SSL) were prepared, ten glazed and ten polished of each material. Sixty antagonist enamel specimens were made from the labial surfaces of permanent incisors. The ceramic abraders were attached to a wear machine, so that each enamel specimen presented at 45 degrees to the vertical movement of the abraders, and immersed in artificial saliva. Wear was induced for 80K cycles at 60 cycles/min with a load of 40 N and 2-mm horizontal deflection. The specimens were examined for cracks at baseline, 5K, 10K, 20K, 40K, and 80K cycles. Twenty- to 30-microm deep subsurface cracking appeared in SSL, with 8 to 10 microm in AC, and 7 microm close to the margin of the wear facets in glazed EC after 5K cycles. The EC showed no cracks with increasing wear cycles. Seventy-microm deep subsurface cracks were detected in SSL and 45 microm in AC after 80K cycles. Statistically, there was significant difference among the three materials (p 0.05) in crack depth within the same ceramic material with different surface finishes. The ceramic materials with different microstructures showed different patterns of subsurface cracking.

  7. Thematic survey of subsurface drainage systems in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlapáková, L.; Žaloudík, Jiří; Kolejka, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 55-65 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68145535 Keywords : subsurface drainage system * remote sensing * image interpretation * drainage recognition and mapping Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (UGN-S) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Physical geography (UGN-S) Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  8. Ecology, physiology, and phylogeny of deep subsurface Sphingomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, J K; Balkwill, D L; Romine, M F; Shi, T

    1999-10-01

    Several new species of the genus Sphingomonas including S. aromaticivorans, S. stygia, and S. subterranea that have the capacity for degrading a broad range of aromatic compounds including toluene, naphthalene, xylenes, p-cresol, fluorene, biphenyl, and dibenzothiophene, were isolated from deeply-buried (>200 m) sediments of the US Atlantic coastal plain (ACP). In S. aromaticivorans F199, many of the genes involved in the catabolism of these aromatic compounds are encoded on a 184-kb conjugative plasmid; some of the genes involved in aromatic catabolism are plasmid-encoded in the other strains as well. Members of the genus Sphingomonas were common among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria cultured from ACP sediments and have been detected in deep subsurface environments elsewhere. The major source of organic carbon for heterotrophic metabolism in ACP deep aquifers is lignite that originated from plant material buried with the sediments. We speculate that the ability of the subsurface Sphingomonas strains to degrade a wide array of aromatic compounds represents an adaptation for utilization of sedimentary lignite. These and related subsurface Sphingomonas spp may play an important role in the transformation of sedimentary organic carbon in the aerobic and microaerobic regions of the deep aquifers of the ACP.

  9. Subsurface metals fatigue cracking without and with crack tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shanyavskiy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Very-High-Cycle-Fatigue regime for metals was considered and mechanisms of the subsurface crack origination were introduced. In many metals first step of crack origination takes place with specific area formation because of material pressing and rotation that directed to transition in any volume to material ultra-high-plasticity with nano-structure appearing. Then by the border of the nano-structure takes place volume rotation and fracture surface creates with spherical particles which usually named Fine-Granular-Area. In another case there takes place First-Smooth-Facet occurring in area of origin due to whirls appearing by the one of the slip systems under discussed the same stress-state conditions. Around Fine-Granular-Area or First-Smooth-Facet there plastic zone appeared and, then, subsurface cracking develops by the same manner as for through cracks. In was discussed quantum-mechanical nature of fatigue crack growth in accordance with Yang’s modulus quantization for low level of deformations. New simply equation was considered for describing subsurface cracking in metals out of Fine-Granular-Area or Fist-Smooth-Facet.

  10. Subsurface Biogeochemical Research FY11 Second Quarter Performance Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.

    2011-03-31

    The Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) Long Term Measure for 2011 under the Performance Assessment Rating Tool (PART) measure is to "Refine subsurface transport models by developing computational methods to link important processes impacting contaminant transport at smaller scales to the field scale." The second quarter performance measure is to "Provide a report on computational methods linking genome-enabled understanding of microbial metabolism with reactive transport models to describe processes impacting contaminant transport in the subsurface." Microorganisms such as bacteria are by definition small (typically on the order of a micron in size), and their behavior is controlled by their local biogeochemical environment (typically within a single pore or a biofilm on a grain surface, on the order of tens of microns in size). However, their metabolic activity exerts strong influence on the transport and fate of groundwater contaminants of significant concern at DOE sites, in contaminant plumes with spatial extents of meters to kilometers. This report describes progress and key findings from research aimed at integrating models of microbial metabolism based on genomic information (small scale) with models of contaminant fate and transport in aquifers (field scale).

  11. Subsurface Ocean Tides in Enceladus and Other Icy Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthe, M.

    2016-12-01

    Could tidal dissipation within Enceladus' subsurface ocean account for the observed heat flow? Earthlike models of dynamical tides give no definitive answer because they neglect the influence of the crust. I propose here the first model of dissipative tides in a subsurface ocean, by combining the Laplace Tidal Equations with the membrane approach. For the first time, it is possible to compute tidal dissipation rates within the crust, ocean, and mantle in one go. I show that oceanic dissipation is strongly reduced by the crustal constraint, and thus contributes little to Enceladus' present heat budget. Tidal resonances could have played a role in a forming or freezing ocean less than 100 meters deep. The model is general: it applies to all icy satellites with a thin crust and a shallow or stratified ocean. Scaling rules relate the resonances and dissipation rate of a subsurface ocean to the ones of a surface ocean. If the ocean has low viscosity, the westward obliquity tide does not move the crust. Therefore, crustal dissipation due to dynamical obliquity tides can differ from the static prediction by up to a factor of two.

  12. Sub-surface defect detection using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaki Umar; Huda Abdullah; Abdul Razak Hamzah; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Ibrahim Ahmad; Vavilov, Vladimir

    2009-04-01

    An experimental research had been carried out to study the potential of transient thermography in detecting sub-surface defect of non-metal material. In this research, eight pieces of bakelite material were used as samples. Each samples had a sub-surface defect in the circular shape with different diameters and depths. Experiment was conducted using one-sided Pulsed Thermal technique. Heating of samples were done using 30 k Watt adjustable quartz lamp while infra red (IR) images of samples were recorded using THV 550 IR camera. These IR images were then analysed with thermo fit TM Pro software to obtain the Maximum Absolute Differential Temperature Signal value, ΔT max and the time of its appearance, τ max (ΔT). Result showed that all defects were able to be detected even for the smallest and deepest defect (diameter = 5 mm and depth = 4 mm). However the highest value of Differential Temperature Signal (ΔT max ), were obtained at defect with the largest diameter, 20 mm and at the shallowest depth, 1 mm. As a conclusion, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique to detect sub-surface defects of bakelite material is proportionately related with the size of defect diameter if the defect area at the same depth. On the contrary, the sensitivity of the pulsed thermography technique inversely related with the depth of defect if the defects have similar diameter size. (author)

  13. Uranium Biomineralization By Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillefert, Martial [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This project investigated the geochemical and microbial processes associated with the biomineralization of radionuclides in subsurface soils. During this study, it was determined that microbial communities from the Oak Ridge Field Research subsurface are able to express phosphatase activities that hydrolyze exogenous organophosphate compounds and result in the non-reductive bioimmobilization of U(VI) phosphate minerals in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The changes of the microbial community structure associated with the biomineralization of U(VI) was determined to identify the main organisms involved in the biomineralization process, and the complete genome of two isolates was sequenced. In addition, it was determined that both phytate, the main source of natural organophosphate compounds in natural environments, and polyphosphate accumulated in cells could also be hydrolyzed by native microbial population to liberate enough orthophosphate and precipitate uranium phosphate minerals. Finally, the minerals produced during this process are stable in low pH conditions or environments where the production of dissolved inorganic carbon is moderate. These findings suggest that the biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate minerals is an attractive bioremediation strategy to uranium bioreduction in low pH uranium-contaminated environments. These efforts support the goals of the SBR long-term performance measure by providing key information on "biological processes influencing the form and mobility of DOE contaminants in the subsurface".

  14. Applications of electrical resistance tomography to subsurface environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Daily, W.D.

    1994-11-15

    We are developing a new imaging technique, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), to map subsurface liquids as flow occurs during natural or clean-up processes and to map geologic structure. Natural processes (such as surface water infiltrating the vadose zone) and man-induced processes (such as tank leaks and clean-up processes such as steam injection), can create changes in a soil`s electrical properties that are readily measured. We have conducted laboratory and a variety of field experiments to investigate the capabilities and limitations of ERT for imaging underground structures and processes. In the last four years we have used ERT to successfully monitor several field processes including: a subsurface steam injection process (for VOC removal), an air injection process (below the water table) for VOC removal, water infiltration through the vadose zone, radio-frequency heating, ohmic heating, and tank and pond leaks. The information derived from ERT can be used by remediation projects to: detect and locate leaks, determine the effectiveness of clean-up processes, select appropriate clean-up alternatives, and to verify the installation and performance of subsurface barriers.

  15. Energy as a Constraint on Habitability in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, T.

    2008-12-01

    All living things must obtain energy from the environment to grow, to maintain a metabolic steady state, or simply to preserve viability. The availability of energy sources in the environment thus represents a key factor in determining the size, distribution, and activity of biological populations, and ultimately constrains the possibility for life itself. Lacking the abundant energy provided by solar radiation or the products of oxygenic photosynthesis, life in subsurface environments may be limited by energy availability as much as any other factor. The biological requirement for energy is expressed in two dimensions - analogous to the power and voltage requirements of electrical devices - and consideration and quantification of these requirements establishes quantitative boundary conditions on subsurface habitability. The magnitude of these requirements depends significantly on physicochemical environment, as does the provision of biologically-accessible energy from subsurface sources. With this conceptual basis, we are developing an 'energy balance' model that is designed to ultimately predict the habitability of a given environment, with respect to a given metabolism, in quantitative terms (as 'biomass density potential'). The model will develop from conceptual to quantitative as experimental and observational work constrains and quantifies, in natural populations adapted to low energy conditions, the magnitude of the biological energy requirements and the impacts of physicochemical environmental conditions on energy demand and supply.

  16. STOMP, Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases, theory guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.; Oostrom, M.

    1996-10-01

    This guide describes the simulator's governing equations, constitutive functions and numerical solution algorithms of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator, a scientific tool for analyzing multiple phase subsurface flow and transport. The STOMP simulator's fundamental purpose is to produce numerical predictions of thermal and hydrologic flow and transport phenomena in variably saturated subsurface environments, which are contaminated with volatile or nonvolatile organic compounds. Auxiliary applications include numerical predictions of solute transport processes including radioactive chain decay processes. In writing these guides for the STOMP simulator, the authors have assumed that the reader comprehends concepts and theories associated with multiple-phase hydrology, heat transfer, thermodynamics, radioactive chain decay, and nonhysteretic relative permeability, saturation-capillary pressure constitutive functions. The authors further assume that the reader is familiar with the computing environment on which they plan to compile and execute the STOMP simulator. The STOMP simulator requires an ANSI FORTRAN 77 compiler to generate an executable code. The memory requirements for executing the simulator are dependent on the complexity of physical system to be modeled and the size and dimensionality of the computational domain. Likewise execution speed depends on the problem complexity, size and dimensionality of the computational domain, and computer performance. One-dimensional problems of moderate complexity can be solved on conventional desktop computers, but multidimensional problems involving complex flow and transport phenomena typically require the power and memory capabilities of workstation or mainframe type computer systems

  17. Drilling Automation Demonstrations in Subsurface Exploration for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, H.; Lee, P.; Hanagud, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-01-01

    This project proposes to study subsurface permafrost microbial habitats at a relevant Arctic Mars-analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada) while developing and maturing the subsurface drilling and drilling automation technologies that will be required by post-2010 missions. It builds on earlier drilling technology projects to add permafrost and ice-drilling capabilities to 5m with a lightweight drill that will be automatically monitored and controlled in-situ. Frozen cores obtained with this drill under sterilized protocols will be used in testing three hypotheses pertaining to near-surface physical geology and ground H2O ice distribution, viewed as a habitat for microbial life in subsurface ice and ice-consolidated sediments. Automation technologies employed will demonstrate hands-off diagnostics and drill control, using novel vibrational dynamical analysis methods and model-based reasoning to monitor and identify drilling fault states before and during faults. Three field deployments, to a Mars-analog site with frozen impact crater fallback breccia, will support science goals, provide a rigorous test of drilling automation and lightweight permafrost drilling, and leverage past experience with the field site s particular logistics.

  18. Identification of subsurface structures using electromagnetic data and shape priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveit, Svenn, E-mail: svenn.tveit@uni.no [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Bakr, Shaaban A., E-mail: shaaban.bakr1@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Lien, Martha, E-mail: martha.lien@octio.com [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Octio AS, Bøhmergaten 44, Bergen 5057 (Norway); Mannseth, Trond, E-mail: trond.mannseth@uni.no [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020 (Norway)

    2015-03-01

    We consider the inverse problem of identifying large-scale subsurface structures using the controlled source electromagnetic method. To identify structures in the subsurface where the contrast in electric conductivity can be small, regularization is needed to bias the solution towards preserving structural information. We propose to combine two approaches for regularization of the inverse problem. In the first approach we utilize a model-based, reduced, composite representation of the electric conductivity that is highly flexible, even for a moderate number of degrees of freedom. With a low number of parameters, the inverse problem is efficiently solved using a standard, second-order gradient-based optimization algorithm. Further regularization is obtained using structural prior information, available, e.g., from interpreted seismic data. The reduced conductivity representation is suitable for incorporation of structural prior information. Such prior information cannot, however, be accurately modeled with a gaussian distribution. To alleviate this, we incorporate the structural information using shape priors. The shape prior technique requires the choice of kernel function, which is application dependent. We argue for using the conditionally positive definite kernel which is shown to have computational advantages over the commonly applied gaussian kernel for our problem. Numerical experiments on various test cases show that the methodology is able to identify fairly complex subsurface electric conductivity distributions while preserving structural prior information during the inversion.

  19. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  20. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  1. A multi-modal geological investigation framework for subsurface modeling and kinematic monitoring of a slow-moving landslide complex in Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, B. W.; Zhou, W.; Smartgeo

    2010-12-01

    The Muddy Creek landslide complex is a large area of active and reactivating landslides that impact the operation of both a state highway and Paonia Reservoir in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. Historically, the monitoring of this slide has been investigated using disparate techniques leading to protracted analysis and project knowledge attrition. We present an integrated, data-driven investigation framework that supports continued kinematic monitoring, document cataloging, and subsurface modeling of the landslide complex. A geospatial information system (GIS) was integrated with a visual programming based subsurface model to facilitate modular integration of monitoring data with borehole information. Subsurface modeling was organized by material type and activity state based on multiple sources of kinematic measurement. The framework is constructed to modularly integrate remotely sensed imagery and other spatial datasets such as ASTER, InSAR, and LiDAR derived elevation products as more precise datasets become available. The framework allows for terrestrial LiDAR survey error estimation, borehole siting, and placement of wireless sensor (GPS, accelerometers, geophysical ) networks for optimized spatial relevance and utility. Coordinated spatial referencing within the GIS facilitates geotechnical and hydrogeological modeling input generation and common display of modeling outputs. Kinematic data fusion techniques are accomplished with integration of instrumentation, surficial feature tracking, subsurface classification, and 3D interpolation. The framework includes dynamic decision support including landslide dam failure estimates, back-flooding scenario planning that can be accessed by multiple agencies and stakeholders.

  2. Efficient Bayesian inference of subsurface flow models using nested sampling and sparse polynomial chaos surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Elsheikh, Ahmed H.

    2014-02-01

    An efficient Bayesian calibration method based on the nested sampling (NS) algorithm and non-intrusive polynomial chaos method is presented. Nested sampling is a Bayesian sampling algorithm that builds a discrete representation of the posterior distributions by iteratively re-focusing a set of samples to high likelihood regions. NS allows representing the posterior probability density function (PDF) with a smaller number of samples and reduces the curse of dimensionality effects. The main difficulty of the NS algorithm is in the constrained sampling step which is commonly performed using a random walk Markov Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. In this work, we perform a two-stage sampling using a polynomial chaos response surface to filter out rejected samples in the Markov Chain Monte-Carlo method. The combined use of nested sampling and the two-stage MCMC based on approximate response surfaces provides significant computational gains in terms of the number of simulation runs. The proposed algorithm is applied for calibration and model selection of subsurface flow models. © 2013.

  3. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  4. Subsurface architecture of Las Bombas volcano circular structure (Southern Mendoza, Argentina) from geophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezzi, Claudia; Risso, Corina; Orgeira, María Julia; Nullo, Francisco; Sigismondi, Mario E.; Margonari, Liliana

    2017-08-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Llancanelo volcanic field is located in the south-eastern region of the province of Mendoza, Argentina. This wide back-arc lava plateau, with hundreds of monogenetic pyroclastic cones, covers a large area behind the active Andean volcanic arc. Here we focus on the northern Llancanelo volcanic field, particularly in Las Bombas volcano. Las Bombas volcano is an eroded, but still recognizable, scoria cone located in a circular depression surrounded by a basaltic lava flow, suggesting that Las Bombas volcano was there when the lava flow field formed and, therefore, the lava flow engulfed it completely. While this explanation seems reasonable, the common presence of similar landforms in this part of the field justifies the need to establish correctly the stratigraphic relationship between lava flow fields and these circular depressions. The main purpose of this research is to investigate Las Bombas volcano 3D subsurface architecture by means of geophysical methods. We carried out a paleomagnetic study and detailed topographic, magnetic and gravimetric land surveys. Magnetic anomalies of normal and reverse polarity and paleomagnetic results point to the occurrence of two different volcanic episodes. A circular low Bouguer anomaly was detected beneath Las Bombas scoria cone indicating the existence of a mass deficit. A 3D forward gravity model was constructed, which suggests that the mass deficit would be related to the presence of fracture zones below Las Bombas volcano cone, due to sudden degassing of younger magma beneath it, or to a single phreatomagmatic explosion. Our results provide new and detailed information about Las Bombas volcano subsurface architecture.

  5. Rapid Reactivation of Deep Subsurface Microbes in the Presence of C-1 Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in the deep biosphere are believed to conduct little metabolic activity due to low nutrient availability in these environments. However, destructive penetration to long-isolated bedrock environments during construction of underground waste repositories can lead to increased nutrient availability and potentially affect the long-term stability of the repository systems, Here, we studied how microorganisms present in fracture fluid from a depth of 500 m in Outokumpu, Finland, respond to simple carbon compounds (C-1 compounds in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. C-1 compounds such as methane and methanol are important intermediates in the deep subsurface carbon cycle, and electron acceptors such as sulphate are critical components of oxidation processes. Fracture fluid samples were incubated in vitro with either methane or methanol in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Metabolic response was measured by staining the microbial cells with fluorescent dyes that indicate metabolic activity and transcriptional response with RT-qPCR. Our results show that deep subsurface microbes exist in dormant states but rapidly reactivate their transcription and respiration systems in the presence of C-1 substrates, particularly methane. Microbial activity was further enhanced by the addition of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Sulphate- and nitrate-reducing microbes were particularly responsive to the addition of C-1 compounds and sulphate. These taxa are common in deep biosphere environments and may be affected by conditions disturbed by bedrock intrusion, as from drilling and excavation for long-term storage of hazardous waste.

  6. Under the pile. Understanding subsurface dynamics of historical cities trough geophysical models interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Paulo; Pereira, Bruno; Alves, Mafalda; Fontes, Luís; Sousa, Andreia; Martins, Manuela; Magalhães, Fernanda; Pimenta, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Braga is one of the oldest cities of the Iberian NW and as of so, the research team's studying the city's historical core for the past 40 years is often confronted with the unpredictability factor laying beneath an urban site with such a long construction history. In fact, Braga keeps redesigning its urban structure over itself on for the past 2000 years, leaving us with a research object filled with an impressive set of construction footprints from the various planning decisions that were taken in the city along its historical path. Aiming for a predicting understanding of the subsoil, we have used near surface geophysics as an effort of minimizing the areas of intervention for traditional archaeological survey techniques. The Seminário de Santiago integrated geophysical survey is an example of the difficulties of interpreting geophysical models in very complex subsurface scenarios. This geophysical survey was planned in order to aid the requalification project being designed for this set of historical buildings, that are estimated to date back to the 16h century, and that were built over one of the main urban arteries of both roman and medieval layers of Braga. We have used both GPR as well as ERT methods for the geophysical survey, but for the purpose of this article, we will focus in the use of the ERT alone. For the interpretation of the geophysical models we've cross-referenced the dense knowledge existing over the building's construction phases with the complex geophysical data collected, using mathematical processing and volume-based visualization techniques, resorting to the use of Res2Inv©, Paraview© and Voxler® software's. At the same time we tried to pinpoint the noise caused by the past 30 year's infrastructural interventions regarding the replacement of the building's water and sanitation systems and for which we had no design plants, regardless of its recent occurring. The deep impact of this replacement actions revealed by the archaeological

  7. SOFTWARE MODULE FOR CONSTRUCTING THE INTERSECTION OF TRIANGULATED SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kurgansky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective algorithm is proposed for implementing Boolean operations over triangulated surfaces, namely, disjunction, conjunction and Boolean difference, and its software implementation. The idea consists in as follow. The first step is to determine pairs of intersecting triangles: localizing the intersection of the two surfaces using the bounding volume of the parallelepipeds and the future of their intersection. The second step is constructing an intersection line for each pair of triangles: a pair of intersecting triangles is selected, and the segment along which they intersect is constructed. Further, thanks to the entered data structure, "adjacent" triangles are selected, among which are selected those that form the intersecting pair. The process described above continues as long as such triangles can be detected. After that the triangles involved in the intersection are retriangulated. For each triangle, all the edges are known on which it intersects with triangles from another surface. These edges are structural edges in the triangulation problem with constraints for a given triangle. The third step is to combine all surfaces into one surface. Further, subsurfaces are constructed along the loops of intersection limited by the found loops. Since the intersection line of the surfaces was constructed in sequence, it is possible to specify the direction of each edge. Any edge from the intersection line is selected. The triangle is added to the subsurface under construction, which includes this edge and its orientation is the same as the direction of the edge. The edge which was selected previously is deleted from intersection line, but two new edges are added is the remaining edges of added triangle. The third step is to combine all surfaces into one surface. Further, subsurfaces are constructed along the cycles of intersection limited by the found cycles. Since the intersection line of the surfaces was constructed in sequence, it is

  8. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical Studies Research Brain Donation ...

  9. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  10. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  11. Stages and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  12. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  14. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  15. Constructibility assessment of APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Jae; Kang, Yong Chul; Lee, Jae Gon; Lim, Woo Sang

    2003-01-01

    APR1400 (formerly KNGR) development is one of national G-7 projects sponsored by government and KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD). It is an evolutionary standard reactor with the thermal output of 4000MWt and has been adopted for Shin-Kori Unit 3 and 4. The government organizations, research institutes, universities and industries have participated in the project since 1992 along with KHNP, and the standard design certification program was issued in May 2002. The project set up the top-tier requirements about the safety, economy, operability and maintainability, and constructibility in the early design stage. The requirements have been evaluated periodically during the design process, and the results were reflected to the design. This paper describes the methods for constructibility enhancement and the results of schedule analysis to assure meeting construction duration target, which is set to 48 months from the first concrete pouring to the commercial operation on the condition that learning effects are maximized at Nth plant. To meet the target schedule, the design characteristics and constructibility studies such as new construction methods and construction schedule analysis were performed. The new construction methods presented here are over the top method for NSSS components, deck plate and steel from for concrete wall and slab, automatic welding for large bore piping, and modularization of components and structure, etc. (author)

  16. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  17. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the omentum. The cancer ... lymph nodes behind the peritoneum. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to the ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  4. A new model of equilibrium subsurface hydration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    One of the surprises of the Odyssey mission was the discovery by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) suite of large concentrations of water-equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the shallow subsurface at low latitudes, consistent with 5-7% regolith water content by weight (Mitrofanov et al. Science 297, p. 78, 2002; Feldman et al. Science 297, p. 75, 2002). Water at low latitudes on Mars is generally believed to be sequestered in the form of hydrated minerals. Numerous attempts have been made to relate the global map of WEH to specific mineralogy. For example Feldman et al. (Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16702, 2004) associated an estimated 10% sulfate content of the soil with epsomite (51% water), hexahydrite (46% water) and kieserite (13% water). In such studies, stability maps have been created by assuming equilibration of the subsurface water vapor density with a global mean annual column mass vapor density. Here it is argued that this value significantly understates the subsurface humidity. Results from the Phoenix mission are used to suggest that the midday vapor pressure measured just above the surface is a better proxy for the saturation vapor pressure of subsurface hydrous minerals. The measured frostpoint at the Phoenix site was found to be equal to the surface temperature by night and the modeled temperature at the top of the ice table by day (Zent et al. J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00E14, 2010). It was proposed by Hecht (41st LPSC abstract #1533, 2010) that this phenomenon results from water vapor trapping at the coldest nearby surface. At night, the surface is colder than the surface of the ice table; by day it is warmer. Thus, at night, the subsurface is bounded by a fully saturated layer of cold water frost or adsorbed water at the surface, not by the dry boundary layer itself. This argument is not strongly dependent on the particular saturation vapor pressure (SVP) of ice or other subsurface material, only on the thickness of the dry layer. Specifically, the diurnal

  5. Characterization of DNA-repair potential in deep subsurface bacteria challenged by UV light, hydrogen peroxide, and gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Arrage, Andrew Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Subsurface bacterial isolates obtained through the DOE Subsurface Science Program were tested for resistance to UV light, gamma radiation and H202. Some deep subsurface bacteria were resistant to UV light, demonstrating â ¥1.0% survival at fluences which resulted in a 0.0001% survival level of E. coli B. The percentage of UV resistant aerobic subsurface bacteria and surface soil bacteria were similar; 30.8% and 25.8% respectively. All of the microaerophilic subsurface isolates ...

  6. The Correlation between Radon Emission Concentration and Subsurface Geological Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntoro, Yudi; Setiawan, Herru L.; Wijayanti, Teni; Haerudin, Nandi

    2018-03-01

    Exploration activities with standard methods have already encountered many obstacles in the field. Geological survey is often difficult to find outcrop because they are covered by vegetation, alluvial layer or as a result of urban development and housing. Seismic method requires a large expense and licensing in the use of dynamite is complicated. Method of gravity requires the operator to go back (looping) to the starting point. Given some of these constraints, therefore it needs a solution in the form of new method that can work more efficiently with less cost. Several studies in various countries have shown a correlation between the presence of hydrocarbons and Radon gas concentration in the earth surface. By utilizing the properties of Radon that can migrate to the surface, the value of Radon concentration in the surface is suggested to provide information about the subsurface structure condition. Radon is the only radioactive substance that gas-phased at atmospheric temperature. It is very abundant in the earth mantle. The vast differences of temperatures and pressures between the mantle and the earth crust cause the convection flow toward earth surface. Radon in gas phase will be carried by convection flow to the surface. The quantity of convection currents depend on the porosity and permeability of rocks where Radon travels within, so that Radon concentration in the earth surface delineates the porosity and permeability of subsurface rock layers. Some measurements were carried out at several locations with various subsurface geological conditions, including proven oil fields, proven geothermal field, and frontier area as a comparison. These measurements show that the average and the background concentration threshold in the proven oil field (11,200 Bq/m3) and proven geothermal field (7,820 Bq/m3) is much higher than the quantity in frontier area (329 and 1,620 Bq/m3). Radon concentration in the earth surface is correlated with the presence of geological

  7. SeiVis: An interactive visual subsurface modeling application

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The most important resources to fulfill today’s energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Creating such a model is an inverse problem: reconstructing structures from measured reflection seismics. The major challenge here is twofold: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. This paper presents a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics. It integrates the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain and well data in depth domain. Using a novel joint time/depth visualization, depicting side-by-side views of the original and the resulting depth-converted data, domain experts can directly fit their interpretation in time domain to spatial ground truth data. We have conducted a domain expert evaluation, which illustrates that the presented workflow enables the creation of exact subsurface models much more rapidly than previous approaches. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. SeiVis: An interactive visual subsurface modeling application

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas; Freiler, Wolfgang; Gschwantner, Fritz M.; Doleisch, Helmut; Heinemann, Gabor F.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The most important resources to fulfill today’s energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Creating such a model is an inverse problem: reconstructing structures from measured reflection seismics. The major challenge here is twofold: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. This paper presents a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics. It integrates the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain and well data in depth domain. Using a novel joint time/depth visualization, depicting side-by-side views of the original and the resulting depth-converted data, domain experts can directly fit their interpretation in time domain to spatial ground truth data. We have conducted a domain expert evaluation, which illustrates that the presented workflow enables the creation of exact subsurface models much more rapidly than previous approaches. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Discriminative Random Field Models for Subsurface Contamination Uncertainty Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, M.; Abriola, L. M.; Miller, E. L.; De Paolis Kaluza, C.

    2017-12-01

    Application of flow and transport simulators for prediction of the release, entrapment, and persistence of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and associated contaminant plumes is a computationally intensive process that requires specification of a large number of material properties and hydrologic/chemical parameters. Given its computational burden, this direct simulation approach is particularly ill-suited for quantifying both the expected performance and uncertainty associated with candidate remediation strategies under real field conditions. Prediction uncertainties primarily arise from limited information about contaminant mass distributions, as well as the spatial distribution of subsurface hydrologic properties. Application of direct simulation to quantify uncertainty would, thus, typically require simulating multiphase flow and transport for a large number of permeability and release scenarios to collect statistics associated with remedial effectiveness, a computationally prohibitive process. The primary objective of this work is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that employs measured field data to produce equi-probable stochastic representations of a subsurface source zone that capture the spatial distribution and uncertainty associated with key features that control remediation performance (i.e., permeability and contamination mass). Here we employ probabilistic models known as discriminative random fields (DRFs) to synthesize stochastic realizations of initial mass distributions consistent with known, and typically limited, site characterization data. Using a limited number of full scale simulations as training data, a statistical model is developed for predicting the distribution of contaminant mass (e.g., DNAPL saturation and aqueous concentration) across a heterogeneous domain. Monte-Carlo sampling methods are then employed, in conjunction with the trained statistical model, to generate realizations conditioned on measured borehole data

  10. SeiVis: An Interactive Visual Subsurface Modeling Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollt, T; Freiler, W; Gschwantner, F; Doleisch, H; Heinemann, G; Hadwiger, M

    2012-12-01

    The most important resources to fulfill today's energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Creating such a model is an inverse problem: reconstructing structures from measured reflection seismics. The major challenge here is twofold: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. This paper presents a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics. It integrates the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain and well data in depth domain. Using a novel joint time/depth visualization, depicting side-by-side views of the original and the resulting depth-converted data, domain experts can directly fit their interpretation in time domain to spatial ground truth data. We have conducted a domain expert evaluation, which illustrates that the presented workflow enables the creation of exact subsurface models much more rapidly than previous approaches.

  11. Quantifying induced effects of subsurface renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof; Pfeiffer, Tilmann; Boockmeyer, Anke; Popp, Steffi; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Wang, Bo; Li, Dedong; Dethlefsen, Frank; Dahmke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    New methods and technologies for energy storage are required for the transition to renewable energy sources. Subsurface energy storage systems such as salt caverns or porous formations offer the possibility of hosting large amounts of energy or substance. When employing these systems, an adequate system and process understanding is required in order to assess the feasibility of the individual storage option at the respective site and to predict the complex and interacting effects induced. This understanding is the basis for assessing the potential as well as the risks connected with a sustainable usage of these storage options, especially when considering possible mutual influences. For achieving this aim, in this work synthetic scenarios for the use of the geological underground as an energy storage system are developed and parameterized. The scenarios are designed to represent typical conditions in North Germany. The types of subsurface use investigated here include gas storage and heat storage in porous formations. The scenarios are numerically simulated and interpreted with regard to risk analysis and effect forecasting. For this, the numerical simulators Eclipse and OpenGeoSys are used. The latter is enhanced to include the required coupled hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical and geochemical processes. Using the simulated and interpreted scenarios, the induced effects are quantified individually and monitoring concepts for observing these effects are derived. This presentation will detail the general investigation concept used and analyze the parameter availability for this type of model applications. Then the process implementation and numerical methods required and applied for simulating the induced effects of subsurface storage are detailed and explained. Application examples show the developed methods and quantify induced effects and storage sizes for the typical settings parameterized. This work is part of the ANGUS+ project, funded by the German Ministry

  12. The Lusi eruption site: insights from surface and subsurface investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Indonesian Lusi eruption has been spewing boiling water, gas, and sediments since the 29th of May 2006. Initially, numerous aligned eruptions sites appeared along the Watukosek fault system (WFS) that was reactivated after the Yogyakarta earthquake occurring the 27th of May in the Java Island. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active and an area of 7 km2is covered by mud. Since its birth Lusi erupted with a pulsating behaviour. In the framework of the ERC grant "Lusi Lab" we conducted several years of monitoring and regional investigations coupling surface sampling and subsurface imaging in the region around Lusi. Ambient noise tomography studies, obtained with a local network of 31 stations, revealed for the first time subsurface images of the Lusi region and the adjacent Arjuno-Welirang (AW) volcanic complex. Results show that below the AW volcanic complex are present 5km deep magma chambers that are connected, through a defined corridor, with the roots of the Lusi eruption site. The Lusi subsurface shows the presence of a defined vertical hydrothermal plume that extends to at least 5km. Chemical analyses of the seeping fluids sampled from 1) the Lusi plume (using a specifically designed drone), 2) the region around Lusi, and 3) the fumaroles and the hydro thermal springs of AW, revealed striking similarities. More specifically a mantellic signature of the Lusi fluids confirms the scenario that Lusi represents a magmatic-driven hydrothermal system hosted in sedimentary basin. Seismic profiles interpretation, surface mapping, and fluid sampling show that the WFS, connecting AW and extending towards the NE of Java, acted as a preferential pathway for the igneous intrusion and fluids migration towards the subsurface. Petrography and dating of the clasts erupted at Lusi record high temperatures and indicate that the roots of the active conduit extend to at least 5km

  13. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Voytek, Mary A.; Gronstal, Aaaron L

    2012-01-01

    the 35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced......Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from...

  14. Growth of nanoparticles in hydrogen-implanted palladium subsurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, F.

    2010-01-01

    Solid particles with nanometric dimensions are shown to grow in the opened subsurface of a polycrystalline palladium (Pd) hydrogen-implanted at around 500 C. The particles are Pd in main composition and densely grown on sloping walls of fissured grain boundaries or cracks. The average grain size increases from deeper to shallow regions, suggesting that a negative temperature gradient toward the surface existed along the crack walls. The nanoparticles are certain to arise from the condensation of Pd vapors on the walls, forcing us to assume that hydrogen atoms implanted in an overpopulation heated their implantation zone so strongly as to vaporize Pd. (orig.)

  15. Growth of nanoparticles in hydrogen-implanted palladium subsurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, F. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Solid particles with nanometric dimensions are shown to grow in the opened subsurface of a polycrystalline palladium (Pd) hydrogen-implanted at around 500 C. The particles are Pd in main composition and densely grown on sloping walls of fissured grain boundaries or cracks. The average grain size increases from deeper to shallow regions, suggesting that a negative temperature gradient toward the surface existed along the crack walls. The nanoparticles are certain to arise from the condensation of Pd vapors on the walls, forcing us to assume that hydrogen atoms implanted in an overpopulation heated their implantation zone so strongly as to vaporize Pd. (orig.)

  16. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described

  17. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  18. Subsurface dimerization in III-V semiconductor (001) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumpf, C.; Marks, L.D.; Ellis, D.

    2001-01-01

    We present the atomic structure of the c(8 X 2) reconstructions of InSb-, InAs-, and GaAs-(001) surfaces as determined by surface x-ray diffraction using direct methods. Contrary to common belief, group III dimers are not prominent on the surface, instead subsurface dimerization of group m atoms ...... takes place in the second bilayer, accompanied by a major rearrangement of the surface atoms above the dimers to form linear arrays. By varying the occupancies of four surface sites the (001)-c(8 X 2) reconstructions of III-V semiconductors can be described in a unified model....

  19. AMISS - Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Slob, Evert; Turk, Ahmet Serdar; Crocco, Lorenzo; Catapano, Ilaria; Di Matteo, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The FP7-IRSES project AMISS - Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging is based on a well-combined network among research institutions of EU, Associate and Third Countries (National Research Council of Italy - Italy, Technische Universiteit Delft - The Netherlands, Yildiz Technical University - Turkey, Bauman Moscow State Technical University - Russia, Usikov Institute for Radio-physics and Electronics and State Research Centre of Superconductive Radioelectronics "Iceberg" - Ukraine and University of Sao Paulo - Brazil) with the aims of achieving scientific advances in the framework of microwave and millimeter imaging systems and techniques for security and safety social issues. In particular, the involved partners are leaders in the scientific areas of passive and active imaging and are sharing their complementary knowledge to address two main research lines. The first one regards the design, characterization and performance evaluation of new passive and active microwave devices, sensors and measurement set-ups able to mitigate clutter and increase information content. The second line faces the requirements to make State-of-the-Art processing tools compliant with the instrumentations developed in the first line, suitable to work in electromagnetically complex scenarios and able to exploit the unexplored possibilities offered by new instrumentations. The main goals of the project are: 1) Development/improvement and characterization of new sensors and systems for active and passive microwave imaging; 2) Set up, analysis and validation of state of art/novel data processing approach for GPR in critical infrastructure and subsurface imaging; 3) Integration of state of art and novel imaging hardware and characterization approaches to tackle realistic situations in security, safety and subsurface prospecting applications; 4) Development and feasibility study of bio-radar technology (system and data processing) for vital signs detection and

  20. The seismic expression and hydrocarbon potential of subsurface impact craters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R.; Westbroek, H.H.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    The seismic characteristics of meteorite impact craters and their potential as oil and gas reservoirs were discussed. Seismic data from James River, Alberta, in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin show subsurface anomalies to be meteorite impact structures. The White Valley structure in Saskatchewan has similar features and seismic anomalies indicate that it too could be a meteorite impact structure, although other possibilities have been proposed. Other impact structures in western Canada such as the Steen River structure and the Viewfield crater have or are producing hydrocarbons. 5 refs., 2 figs.