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Sample records for stage study volume

  1. Calculating Study of the Turbine at Last Stage Flow Field in the Small Volume Flow Condition

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    Jiang Tieliu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on basic equation and boundary layer theory of pneumodynamics, the thesis conducts numerical modeling and theoretical analysis on the last stage of turbine characteristics at a small volume flow by using FLUENT, gives an emphasized analysis on the position of first occurrence of backflow and its expansion direction and comes up with flow structure of the turbine flow field at last stage in the small volume flow condition. In connection with specific experiments, it puts forward the flow model of backflow occurring in the last stage field and the solution to the model. The flow field at last stage for a 100MW turbine in the small volume flow condition that is calculated by using the model is basically in conformity to the actual result.

  2. Effect of fluid loading on left ventricular volume and stroke volume variability in patients with end-stage renal disease: a pilot study

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    Kanda H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Kanda,1 Yuji Hirasaki,2 Takafumi Iida,1 Megumi Kanao-Kanda,1 Yuki Toyama,1 Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hiroshi Iwasaki11Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Department of Anatomy, The Jikei University Graduate School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate fluid loading-induced changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV and stroke volume variability (SVV in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and the Vigileo-FloTrac system.Patients and methods: After obtaining ethics committee approval and informed consent, 28 patients undergoing peripheral vascular procedures were studied. Fourteen patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD were assigned to the HD group and 14 patients without ESRD were assigned to the control group. Institutional standardized general anesthesia was provided in both groups. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. Simultaneously, a full-volume three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography dataset was acquired to measure LVEDV, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Measurements were obtained before and after loading 500 mL hydroxyethyl starch over 30 minutes in both groups.Results: In the control group, intravenous colloid infusion was associated with a significant decrease in SVV (13.8%±2.6% to 6.5%±2.6%, P<0.001 and a significant increase in LVEDV (83.6±23.4 mL to 96.1±28.8 mL, P<0.001. While SVV significantly decreased after infusion in the HD group (16.2%±6.0% to 6.2%±2.8%, P<0.001, there was no significant change in LVEDV.Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that fluid responsiveness can be assessed not by LVEDV but also by SVV due to underlying cardiovascular pathophysiology in patients with ESRD.Keywords: stroke volume variability, end-stage renal

  3. Effect of early breast milk expression on milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II among mothers of very low birth weight infants: a pilot study.

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    Parker, L A; Sullivan, S; Krueger, C; Kelechi, T; Mueller, M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study was to collect preliminary data regarding the feasibility and effects of early initiation of milk expression on the onset of lactogenesis stage II and milk volume in mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Twenty women were randomized to initiate milk expression within 60 min (group 1) or 1 to 6 h (group 2) following delivery. Milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II was compared between groups using Wilcoxon's rank sum tests. Group 1 produced statistically significantly more milk than group 2 during the first 7 days (P=0.05) and at week 3 (P=0.01). Group 1 also demonstrated a significantly earlier lactogenesis stage II (P=0.03). Initiation of milk expression within 1 h following delivery increases milk volume and decreases time to lactogenesis stage II in mothers of VLBW infants.

  4. A Prospective Randomized Study of the Radiotherapy Volume for Limited-stage Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Preliminary Report

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    Xiao HU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Controversies exists with regard to target volumes as far as thoracic radiotherapy (TRT is concerned in the multimodality treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the local control rate, toxicity profiles, and overall survival (OS between patients received different target volumes irradiation after induction chemotherapy. Methods LSCLC patients received 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP induction chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to receive TRT to either the post- or pre-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T as study arm and control arm, CTV-N included the positive nodal drainage area for both arms. One to 2 weeks after induction chemotherapy, 45 Gy/30 Fx/19 d TRT was administered concurrently with the third cycle of EP regimen. After that, additional 3 cycles of EP consolidation were administered. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI was administered to patients with a complete response. Results Thirty-seven and 40 patients were randomly assigned to study arm and control arm. The local recurrence rates were 32.4% and 28.2% respectively (P=0.80; the isolated nodal failure (INF rate were 3.0% and 2.6% respectively (P=0.91; all INF sites were in the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa. Medastinal N3 disease was the risk factor for INF (P=0.02, OR=14.13, 95%CI: 1.47-136.13. During radiotherapy, grade I, II weight loss was observed in 29.4%, 5.9% and 56.4%, 7.7% patients respectively (P=0.04. Grade 0-I and II-III late pulmonary injury was developed in 97.1%, 2.9% and 86.4%, 15.4% patients respectively (P=0.07. Median survival time was 22.1 months and 26.9 months respectively. The 1 to 3-year OS were 77.9%, 44.4%, 37.3% and 75.8%, 56.3%, 41.7% respectively (P=0.79. Conclusion The preliminary results of this study indicate that irradiant the post-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T and positive nodal drainage area did not decrease local control and overall

  5. DNA level, tumor thickness, and stereological estimates of nuclear volume in stage I cutaneous malignant melanomas. A comparative study with analysis of prognostic impact

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    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Kristensen, I B; Grymer, F

    1991-01-01

    The mutual relation and prognostic value of three quantitative variables were investigated in a retrospective series of 56 stage I cutaneous malignant melanomas. Unbiased stereological estimates of nuclear volume, nuclear nu v were obtained along with measurements of melanoma thickness. The DNA......, nuclear nu v was the only independent, prognostically significant variable. Physical, three-dimensional nuclear volume is not solely a reflection of nuclear DNA content, and may represent a valuable, quantitative prognostic indicator in cutaneous malignant melanomas....

  6. DNA level, tumor thickness, and stereological estimates of nuclear volume in stage I cutaneous malignant melanomas. A comparative study with analysis of prognostic impact

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    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Kristensen, I B; Grymer, F

    1991-01-01

    The mutual relation and prognostic value of three quantitative variables were investigated in a retrospective series of 56 stage I cutaneous malignant melanomas. Unbiased stereological estimates of nuclear volume, nuclear nu v were obtained along with measurements of melanoma thickness. The DNA i...

  7. Hard tissue volume stability of guided bone regeneration during the healing stage in the anterior maxilla: A clinical and radiographic study.

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    Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Yu; Di, Ping; Lin, Ye

    2018-02-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is currently the most widely used technique to reconstruct localized peri-implant bone defects. To evaluate hard tissue volume stability during the healing stage of GBR with particulate bone graft and resorbable collagen membrane. Twenty-eight patients who were missing a single maxillary incisor and required implant placement combined with GBR were randomly assigned to 2 groups: submerged (n = 14) and transmucosal (n = 14) healing groups. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed before, immediately after and 6 months post-surgery. The 3 sets of CBCT data were three-dimensionally reconstructed and superimposed. Horizontal hard tissue alterations at different vertical levels were recorded. The relative position and distances from the boundary line of the bony defect envelope to the outlines of the augmented ridge were determined immediately post-augmentation and 6 months after healing. Augmented ridge underwent horizontal volume reduction during the healing period. Vertical levels (P = .000) rather than healing strategies (submerged or transmucosal) (P = .182) had statistically significant impacts on the reduction width. The boundary line of the ridge defect envelope located within the bony profile immediately after surgery, but outside of the bony profile after 6 months. GBR with resorbable membrane and particulate bovine bone would undergo horizontal volume reduction during the healing stage. New bone formation at the coronal site may only be predictable within the bony envelope. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mediastinal staging for lung cancer: the influence of biopsy volume

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    Nelson, Elof; Pape, Christian; Jørgensen, Ole Dan

    2010-01-01

    biopsy volume has any influence on the result of conventional cervical mediastinoscopy. In this study, we investigated the influence of biopsy volume and the number of lymph node stations biopsied during mediastinoscopy on the probability of demonstrating N2-disease in patients with NSCLC. METHODS: We...... retrospectively. Demographics and the number of lymph node stations biopsied were recorded, and the volume of biopsies from each lymph node station was calculated. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that larger biopsy volume was significantly associated with increased probability...... of demonstrating N2-disease (pBiopsy volume from lymph...

  9. Atrial function, atrial volume and cardiovascular clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease - A study of cardiac computed tomography

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    Rasmussen, Laust Dupont; Winther, Simon; Jørgensen, Hanne Skou

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Previous studies using 2-dimensional echocardiography show that left atrial end-diastolic volume (LAEDV) predicts cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with CKD. However, contrast...... candidates (n = 117) underwent contrast-enhanced CT screening for coronary artery disease as part of the work-up prior to kidney transplantation before being accepted on the transplantation waiting list. Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) volume and function were determined by cardiac CT. MACE...

  10. Atrial function, atrial volume and cardiovascular clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease - A study of cardiac computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Laust; Winther, Simon; Jørgensen, Hanne Skou

    2017-01-01

    candidates (n = 117) underwent contrast-enhanced CT screening for coronary artery disease as part of the work-up prior to kidney transplantation before being accepted on the transplantation waiting list. Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) volume and function were determined by cardiac CT. MACE......-enhanced cardiac CT may offers a more precise measure of atrial dimensions and function than 2-dimensional echocardiography and may provide improved predictionof patient outcome. AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of LAEDV and left atrial ejection fraction (LAEF) assessed by CT...... with left ventricle end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular mass, left ventricular ejection fraction and N-terminal plasma-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-PRO-BNP). Furthermore, we examined LAEDV and LAEF as predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality. METHODS: Kidney transplant...

  11. A comparative study of the target volume definition in radiotherapy with «Slow CT Scan» vs. 4D PET/CT Scan in early stages non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Molla, M; Anducas, N; Simó, M; Seoane, A; Ramos, M; Cuberas-Borros, G; Beltran, M; Castell, J; Giralt, J

    To evaluate the use of 4D PET/CT to quantify tumor respiratory motion compared to the «Slow»-CT (CTs) in the radiotherapy planning process. A total of 25 patients with inoperable early stage non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were included in the study. Each patient was imaged with a CTs (4s/slice) and 4D PET/CT. The adequacy of each technique for respiratory motion capture was evaluated using the volume definition for each of the following: Internal target volume (ITV) 4D and ITVslow in relation with the volume defined by the encompassing volume of 4D PET/CT and CTs (ITVtotal). The maximum distance between the edges of the volume defined by each technique to that of the total volume was measured in orthogonal beam's eye view. The ITV4D showed less differences in relation with the ITVtotal in both the cranio-caudal and the antero-posterior axis compared to the ITVslow. The maximum differences were 0.36mm in 4D PET/CTand 0.57mm in CTs in the antero-posterior axis. 4D PET/CT resulted in the definition of more accurate (ITV4D/ITVtotal 0.78 vs. ITVs/ITVtotal 0.63), and larger ITVs (19.9 cc vs. 16.3 cc) than those obtained with CTs. Planning with 4D PET/CT in comparison with CTs, allows incorporating tumor respiratory motion and improving planning radiotherapy of patients in early stages of lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Target volume delineation variation in radiotherapy for early stage rectal cancer in the Netherlands.

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    Nijkamp, Jasper; de Haas-Kock, Danielle F M; Beukema, Jannet C; Neelis, Karen J; Woutersen, Dankert; Ceha, Heleen; Rozema, Tom; Slot, Annerie; Vos-Westerman, Hanneke; Intven, Martijn; Spruit, Patty H; van der Linden, Yvette; Geijsen, Debby; Verschueren, Karijn; van Herk, Marcel B; Marijnen, Corrie A M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure and improve the quality of target volume delineation by means of national consensus on target volume definition in early-stage rectal cancer. The CTV's for eight patients were delineated by 11 radiation oncologists in 10 institutes according to local guidelines (phase 1). After observer variation analysis a workshop was organized to establish delineation guidelines and a digital atlas, with which the same observers re-delineated the dataset (phase 2). Variation in volume, most caudal and cranial slice and local surface distance variation were analyzed. The average delineated CTV volume decreased from 620 to 460 cc (p<0.001) in phase 2. Variation in the caudal CTV border was reduced significantly from 1.8 to 1.2 cm SD (p=0.01), while it remained 0.7 cm SD for the cranial border. The local surface distance variation (cm SD) reduced from 1.02 to 0.74 for anterior, 0.63 to 0.54 for lateral, 0.33 to 0.25 for posterior and 1.22 to 0.46 for the sphincter region, respectively. The large variation in target volume delineation could significantly be reduced by use of consensus guidelines and a digital delineation atlas. Despite the significant reduction there is still a need for further improvement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic tumour volumes measured at staging in lymphoma: methodological evaluation on phantom experiments and patients

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    Meignan, Michel [Hopital Henri Mondor and Paris-Est University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Paris-Est University, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, EAC CNRS 7054, Hopital Henri Mondor AP-HP, Creteil (France); Sasanelli, Myriam; Itti, Emmanuel [Hopital Henri Mondor and Paris-Est University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Casasnovas, Rene Olivier [CHU Le Bocage, Department of Hematology, Dijon (France); Luminari, Stefano [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Diagnostic, Clinic and Public Health Medicine, Modena (Italy); Fioroni, Federica [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Medical Physics, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Coriani, Chiara [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Radiology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Masset, Helene [Henri Mondor Hospital, Department of Radiophysics, Creteil (France); Gobbi, Paolo G. [University of Pavia, Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Hematology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Versari, Annibale [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging on CT is an independent prognostic factor in malignant lymphomas. However, its prognostic value is limited in diffuse disease. Total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) determined on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT could give a better evaluation of the total tumour burden and may help patient stratification. Different methods of TMTV measurement established in phantoms simulating lymphoma tumours were investigated and validated in 40 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Data were processed by two nuclear medicine physicians in Reggio Emilia and Creteil. Nineteen phantoms filled with {sup 18}F-saline were scanned; these comprised spherical or irregular volumes from 0.5 to 650 cm{sup 3} with tumour-to-background ratios from 1.65 to 40. Volumes were measured with different SUVmax thresholds. In patients, TMTV was measured on PET at staging by two methods: volumes of individual lesions were measured using a fixed 41 % SUVmax threshold (TMTV{sub 41}) and a variable visually adjusted SUVmax threshold (TMTV{sub var}). In phantoms, the 41 % threshold gave the best concordance between measured and actual volumes. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect. In patients, the agreement between the reviewers for TMTV{sub 41} measurement was substantial (ρ {sub c} = 0.986, CI 0.97 - 0.99) and the difference between the means was not significant (212 ± 218 cm{sup 3} for Creteil vs. 206 ± 219 cm{sup 3} for Reggio Emilia, P = 0.65). By contrast the agreement was poor for TMTV{sub var}. There was a significant direct correlation between TMTV{sub 41} and normalized LDH (r = 0.652, CI 0.42 - 0.8, P <0.001). Higher disease stages and bulky tumour were associated with higher TMTV{sub 41}, but high TMTV{sub 41} could be found in patients with stage 1/2 or nonbulky tumour. Measurement of baseline TMTV in lymphoma using a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold is reproducible and correlates with the other parameters for tumour mass evaluation

  14. Impact of Surgeon Volume on Outcomes of Older Stage I Lung Cancer Patients Treated via Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery.

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    Smith, Cardinale B; Wolf, Andrea; Mhango, Grace; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2017-01-01

    Surgeon procedure volume influences outcomes of patients undergoing cancer operations. Limited data are available, however, on the volume-outcome relationship for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we used population-based data to evaluate the extent to which surgeon volume is associated with postoperative and long-term oncological outcomes following VATS resection for older patients with early-stage NSCLC. Stage I NSCLC patients >65 years treated with VATS wedge, segmentectomy, or lobectomy between 2000 and 2010 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry linked to Medicare. Surgeon volume was grouped into tertiles (low, intermediate, and high). Outcomes included perioperative complications, intensive care unit admission, extended length of stay, perioperative (30-day) mortality, and long-term overall and lung cancer-specific survival. We used propensity score methods to compare adjusted survival of patients by surgical volume group. A total of 2295 study patients were identified. Patients treated by high-volume surgeons had decreased intensive care unit admissions (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.41-0.51) and postoperative length of stay (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.61-0.92). Adjusted analyses showed that overall (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.62-0.87) and lung cancer-specific (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99) survival was better for patients treated by high-volume surgeons. Elderly stage I NSCLC patients undergoing VATS by high-volume surgeons have reduced postoperative complications and improved survival. Organization of care favoring referrals of VATS candidates to high-volume providers may help improve the outcomes of patients with early-stage lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

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    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components' final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  16. Pantex staging study near-term alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.S.; Adickes, M.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Nealey, S.M.; Smith, B.W.

    1992-12-01

    As the result of bilateral treaties to reduce the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile, the US Department of Energy must now address the requirements for additional storage of the plutonium components (pits) from the retired weapons at Pantex until the components` final disposition. Because of the critical need to take action, Pantex has initiated two related efforts: Project Stage Right and this Staging Study. While support of Project Stage Right is a key objective of this study, the scope covers a broader range of activities and aspects of the pit staging problem. This study provides estimates of worker radiation exposures under the current scenario as well as estimated radiation exposure for workers under four alternative staging scenarios. An important objective of this study also identifies and recommends for future study other activities related to staging where radiation safety and overall efficiency can be improved.

  17. The prognostic impact of tumor volume on stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Hao-Jun; Liu, Qian-Wen; Mo, Yun-Xian; Long, Hao; Rong, Tie-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of tumor volume (TV) on patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after complete resection. We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 274 patients with stage I NSCLC who had received preoperative chest computed tomography (CT) scans and complete resection. TV was semi-automatically measured from chest CT scans by using an imaging software program. The optimal cutoff values of TV were determined by X-tile software. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for DFS and OS. By using 3.046cm3 and 8.078cm3 as two optimal cutoff values of TV, the patients were separated into three groups. The 5-year DFS and OS for patients with TV≤3.046cm3, 3.046-8.078cm3, and>8.078cm3 were 88.0%, 73.6%, and 62.1%, respectively (P<0.001), and 91.4%, 84.5%, and 73.3%, respectively (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that age and TV were independent factors associated with DFS. Sex, age, histology, visceral pleural invasion, and TV were independent factors associated with OS. Stage Ia patients might be separated into three groups on the basis of TV with significantly different DFS and OS. Patients with tumor diameter≤2cm and 2-3cm were also stratified into two groups with significantly different DFS and OS on the basis of TV, respectively. TV is an independent risk factor for DFS and OS for stage I NSCLC after complete resection. TV might provide additional prognostic information over tumor diameter in patients with stage I NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cervical Vertebral Body’s Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

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    Youn-Kyung Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5–18 years of age. We performed Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P<0.05. The simple regression model with the greatest R-square indicated the fourth-cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level.

  19. Can aortic elastic parameters be used for the diagnosis of volume overload in patients with end stage renal disease.

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    Sayin, Muhammet R; Akpinar, Ibrahim; Cetiner, Mehmet A; Karabag, Turgut; Aydin, Mustafa; Hur, Ender; Dogan, Sait M

    2012-01-01

    We aimed here to investigate hydration status by echocardiography in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. 25 ESRD patients [15 males; mean age: 54.0±16.6 years; 13 hemodialysis; 12 peritoneal dialysis] were considered eligible for this study. We also examined 29 healthy volunteers as a control group (17 males; mean age: 46.5±12.8 years). Body composition analysis using the bioimpedance spectroscopy technique was performed for volume overload diagnosis. The ratio of extracellular water (ECW) to height was used as volume indices. The aortic elastic parameters were calculated by echocardiography. A correlation analyses was performed between the ratio of ECW to height indicating the volume overload and the aortic elastic parameters e.g. Aortic strain (AS), Aortic distensibility (AD) and Aortic stiffness index (ASI). The ratio of ECW to height that indicates volume overload in ESRD patients was considerably higher than that in the control group (10.25±1.98 L/m vs. 8.66±1.22 L/m, p=0.001). There was a negative correlation between the ratio of ECW to height and AS and AD and a positive correlation between the ratio of ECW to height and ASI. Given the importance of the diagnosis and follow up of volume overload, the results show that aortic elasticity measurements, being easy to perform and replicate, can be used for this purpose. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Tumour volume and high grade tumour volume are the best predictors of pathologic stage and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

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    Chun, Felix K-H; Briganti, Alberto; Jeldres, Claudio; Gallina, Andrea; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Schlomm, Thorsten; Walz, Jochen; Eichelberg, Christian; Salomon, Georg; Haese, Alexander; Currlin, Eike; Ahyai, Sascha A; Bénard, François; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2007-02-01

    Our goal was to examine to what extent tumour volume (TV) and percentage of high grade tumour volume (%HGTV) affect the rate of positive surgical margins and the rate of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. TV and %HGTV were routinely planimetrically quantified in a cohort of 780 consecutive patients. Mean follow-up was 46.7 months. Multivariable regression models addressed two separate endpoints: positive surgical margins and biochemical recurrence. The increase in model predictive accuracy related to the addition of TV and %HGTV to radical prostatectomy stage and grade was assessed, after 200 bootstrap resamples to reduce overfit bias. In multivariable logistic regression models addressing positive surgical margins rate, predictive accuracy increased by 1.9% (p<0.001) when TV was added to other covariates. No further increment was noted when %HGTV was added (p=0.3). In multivariable Cox regression models addressing biochemical recurrence, accuracy increased by 0.6% (p=0.002) when TV was added and an additional increase of 0.7% was recorded when %HGTV (p<0.001) was added. Tumour bulk reflected by TV affects local cancer control rate, which is reflected in the rate of positive surgical margins. Conversely, high grade cancer determines the rate of biochemical recurrence. These two variables represent the most powerful predictors of cancer control in men treated for localised prostate cancer. Moreover, they increase the ability of established predictors to predict the outcomes of interest. In consequence, they warrant consideration in future predictive and prognostic tools.

  1. Glandular breast tissue volume by magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy peripubertal girls: evaluation of clinical Tanner staging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fugl, Louise; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Fallentin, Eva; Main, Katharina M; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    ...) has never been performed. Our objective was to report normative data of glandular breast tissue volume and validate the clinical evaluation of pubertal breast staging by MRI of breast tissue and to evaluate circulating...

  2. Association Between Smoking and Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Volume in Healthy Aging and Prodromal and Dementia Stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Teipel, Stefan; Grothe, Michel J

    2016-04-12

    Smoking has been found associated with decreased cerebral volumes in healthy adults and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. We aimed to determine whether chronic nicotine exposure through smoking is associated with reduced volume of cortically projecting cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We retrieved cross-sectional data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database including 179 cognitively normal elderly subjects, 270 subjects with early stage MCI, 136 subjects in later, more advanced, stage of MCI, and 86 subjects in dementia stages of AD. We determined the association between past or current smoking versus lifetime non-smoker status on the volumes of the basal forebrain determined from volumetric MRI scans. Hippocampus volume was used as a control region. Significant effects were controlled for mediating or moderating effects of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity. In cognitively healthy individuals and early MCI, past or current smoking was significantly associated with smaller basal forebrain volume. This effect was independent from age, sex, or cardiovascular or respiratory morbidity. Hippocampus volume was not associated with smoking. In late MCI and AD dementia, smoking was not associated with basal forebrain or hippocampus volumes. Our findings suggest that chronic nicotine exposure through smoking may lead to atrophy of cholinergic input areas of the basal forebrain. This effect may account for an increased risk of AD dementia onset with smoking by exhausting the cholinergic system reserve capacity.

  3. Elliptic Volume Grid Generation for Viscous CFD Parametric Design Studies

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    Alter, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a robust method for the generation of zonal volume grids of design parametrics for aerodynamic configurations. The process utilizes simple algebraic techniques with parametric splines coupled with elliptic volume grid generation to generate isolated zonal grids for changes in body configuration needed to perform parametric design studies. Speed of the algorithm is maximized through the algebraic methods and reduced number of grid points to be regenerated for each design parametric without sacrificing grid quality and continuity within the volume domain. The method is directly applicable to grid reusability, because it modifies existing ow adapted volume grids and enables the user to restart the CFD solution process with an established flow field. Use of this zonal approach reduces computer usage time to create new volume grids for design parametric studies by an order of magnitude, as compared to current methods which require the regeneration of an entire volume grid. A sample configuration of a proposed Single Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle is used to illustrate an application of this method.

  4. Results of volume-staged fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large complex arteriovenous malformations: obliteration rates and clinical outcomes of an evolving treatment paradigm.

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    Franzin, Alberto; Panni, Pietro; Spatola, Giorgio; Vecchio, Antonella Del; Gallotti, Alberto L; Gigliotti, Carmen R; Cavalli, Andrea; Donofrio, Carmine A; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3). Hemorrhage and seizures were the presenting clinical feature for 6 (30%) and 8 (40%) patients, respectively. The median AVM volume was 15.9 cm(3) (range 10.1-34.3 cm(3)). The mean interval between stages (± standard deviation) was 15 months (± 9 months). The median margin dose for each stage was 20 Gy (range 18-25 Gy). RESULTS Obliteration was confirmed in 8 (42%) patients after a mean follow-up of 45 months (range 19-87 months). A significant reduction (> 75%) of the original nidal volume was achieved in 4 (20%) patients. Engel Class I-II seizure status was reported by 75% of patients presenting with seizures (50% Engel Class I and 25% Engel Class II) after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, 71.5% (5/7) of patients who had presented with a worsening neurological deficit reported a complete resolution or amelioration. None of the patients who presented acutely because of hemorrhage experienced a new bleeding episode during follow-up. One (5%) patient developed radionecrosis that caused sensorimotor hemisyndrome. Two (10%) patients sustained a bleeding episode after GKRS, although only 1 (5%) was symptomatic. High nidal flow rate and a time interval between stages of less than 11.7 months were factors significantly associated with AVM obliteration (p = 0.021 and p = 0.041, respectively). Patient age younger than 44 years was significantly associated with a greater than 75% reduction in AVM volume but not with AVM obliteration (p = 0

  5. Estimates of nuclear volume in plaque and tumor-stage mycosis fungoides. A new prognostic indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1994-01-01

    biopsies of cutaneous plaque and tumor-stage MF. The value of nucl vV in the first sampled biopsy, as well as the average and highest values, were determined in biopsies from each patient. The patients were divided into two groups, either above or below the group median. There was a strong positive......V evolution in the patients with multiple biopsies, but the impact of various therapeutic regimens cannot be assessed. Certain estimates of nucl vV appear to be good prognostic indicators in plaque and tumor-stage MF, but further study of a larger series of patients is needed to corroborate these results...

  6. Risk-stratifying capacity of PET/CT metabolic tumor volume in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkle, Joshua H; Jo, Stephanie Y; Ferguson, Mark K; Liu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Chenpeng; Zhu, Xuee; Yuan, Cindy; Pu, Yonglin

    2017-08-01

    Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in tumor burden, and its treatment is variable. Whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTVWB) has been shown to be an independent prognostic index for overall survival (OS). However, the potential of MTVWB to risk-stratify stage IIIA NSCLC has previously been unknown. If we can identify subgroups within the stage exhibiting significant OS differences using MTVWB, MTVWB may lead to adjustments in patients' risk profile evaluations and may, therefore, influence clinical decision making regarding treatment. We estimated the risk-stratifying capacity of MTVWB in stage IIIA by comparing OS of stratified stage IIIA with stage IIB and IIIB NSCLC. We performed a retrospective review of 330 patients with clinical stage IIB, IIIA, and IIIB NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. The patients' clinical TNM stage, initial MTVWB, and long-term survival data were collected. Patients with TNM stage IIIA disease were stratified by MTVWB. The optimal MTVWB cutoff value for stage IIIA patients was calculated using sequential log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier OS analysis with log-rank tests were performed. The optimal MTVWB cut-point was 29.2 mL for the risk-stratification of stage IIIA. We identified statistically significant differences in OS between stage IIB and IIIA patients (p capacity of MTVWB was observed in a large range of cutoff values from 15 to 55 mL in stage IIIA patients. Using MTVWB cutoff points ranging from 15 to 55 mL with an optimal value of 29.2 mL, stage IIIA NSCLC may be effectively stratified into subgroups with no significant survival difference from stages IIB or IIIB NSCLC. This may result in more accurate survival estimation and more appropriate risk adapted treatment selection in stage IIIA NSCLC.

  7. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  8. The impact of volume overload on right heart function in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Serkan; Şahinarslan, Asife; Gökalp, Gökhan; Seçkin, Özden; Arınsoy, Selim Turgay; Boyacı, Nuri Bülent; Çengel, Atiye

    2017-12-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of volume overload on echocardiographic parameters used for the assessment of the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA), to determine volume-independent parameters and to noninvasively investigate the physio-mechanics of RV and RA by examining end-stage kidney patients before and after hemodialysis (HD). The echocardiographic images were obtained from 67 patients (49.2 ± 17.3 years, 23 f) before and after HD. Changes in echocardiographic parameters with HD were examined. The average ultrafiltrated volume was 3088.1 ± 1103.7 mL. The size of RV and RA and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) decreased after HD, whereas myocardial performance index increased. RV fractional area change and iso-volumetric contraction acceleration time remained unchanged. RV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and RV early diastolic strain rate (SR) decreased after HD. Systolic and late diastolic SR of the RV showed no statistically significant difference after HD. Longitudinal strain and SR of RA contraction were not significantly different after HD. The changes in RV GLS (r = .641, P = .027), RV free wall longitudinal strain (r = .643, P information on RA physio-mechanics. This might lead to a better evaluation of the cardiac pathophysiology and hemodynamics of patients. Moreover, providing novel volume-independent parameters for the evaluation of right heart chambers would improve the clinical perspectives of patients. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  10. State of the art in fluid and volume therapy : A user-friendly staged concept. English version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, M; Hulde, N; Kammerer, T; Meidert, A S; Hofmann-Kiefer, K

    2017-04-10

    Adequate intraoperative infusion therapy is essential for the perioperative outcome of a patient. Both hypo- and hypervolemia can lead to an increased rate of perioperative complications and to a worse outcome. Perioperative infusion therapy should therefore be needs-based. The primary objective is the maintenance of preoperative normovolemia using a rational infusion strategy. Perioperative fluid losses should be differentiated from volume losses due to surgical bleeding or protein losses into the interstitial space. Fluid loss via urine excretion or insensible perspiration (0.5-1.0 ml/kg/h) should be replaced with balanced, isooncotic, crystalloid infusion solutions in a ratio of 1:1. Volume therapy stage 1: intraoperative volume losses up to a blood loss corresponding to 20% of the patient's total blood volume are compensated for by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 4-5:1. Stage 2: blood losses exceeding this level are to be treated with isooncotic colloids (preferably balanced) in a 1:1 ratio. In this regard taking into consideration the contraindications, e. g., sepsis, burns, critical illness (usually patients in the intensive care unit), impaired renal function or renal replacement therapy, intracranial hemorrhage, or severe coagulopathy, artificial colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) can be used perioperatively for volume replacement. Stage 3: if an allogeneic blood transfusion is indicated, blood and blood products are applied in a differentiated manner.

  11. Commencement Bay Study. Volume IV. Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    AD-AI12 555 DAMES AND MOORE SEATTLE WA* FIG 8/1 COMMENCEMENT BAY STUDY. VOLUME IV. INVERTEBRATES .(U)DEC 81 W M BAYLOCK, J P HOUGHTON DACW67-80-C-OIDI...December 1981 Volume IV, Invertebrates 6. PERFORMINO ORG. REPORT NUMBER 682-021-05 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUmaER(S) DACW67-80-C-0101 S. PERFORMING... Invertebrates Air Quality, Birds Is. KEY WORDS (Continue an reverse old. It necomemy w red ty a b eek mireber) Salmonids Wetlands Noise Aesthetics Marine Fish

  12. Aggravation of dyspnea in stage I non-small cell lung cancer patients following stereotactic body radiotherapy: Is there a dose-volume dependency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan, Merete; Hansen, Anders Traberg; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    2006-01-01

    In SBRT for NSCLC, highly potent radiation doses are delivered to patients with frequent pre-irradiatory compromise of pulmonary function. For the risk of pulmonary toxicity to be minimized during SBRT planning, data on its dose-volume dependency is needed. In the present study, we analyse...... the association of dose-volume histogram parameters with changes in dyspnea. The study concerns 28 medically inoperable stage I NSCLC patients that received SBRT at our department between 2000 and 2003. A central dose of 45 Gy/3 fractions was delivered in 5-8 days. WHO toxicity scoring of dyspnea...... toxicity should not be prohibitive for future studies targeting limitations to dose and volume....

  13. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-08-10

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate the ignition delay of n-dodecane and n-heptane in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), which is archived in the engine combustion network (ECN) library (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ecn). A detailed chemical kinetic model for gasoline surrogates from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was utilized for the simulation of n-heptane and isooctane. Additional simulations were performed using an optimized gasoline surrogate mechanism from RWTH Aachen University. Validations of the simulated data were also performed with experimental results from an IQT at KAUST. For simulation of n-dodecane in the CVCC, two n-dodecane kinetic models from the literature were utilized. The primary aim of this study is to test the ability of TSL to replicate ignition timings in the IQT and the CVCC. The agreement between the model and the experiment is acceptable except for isooctane in the IQT and n-heptane and n-dodecane in the CVCC. The ability of the simulations to replicate observable trends in ignition delay times with regard to changes in ambient temperature and pressure allows the model to provide insights into the reactions contributing towards ignition. Thus, the TSL model was further employed to investigate the physical and chemical processes responsible for controlling the overall ignition under various conditions. The effects of exothermicity, ambient pressure, and ambient oxygen concentration on first stage ignition were also studied. Increasing ambient pressure and oxygen concentration was found to shorten the overall ignition delay time, but does not affect the timing of the first stage ignition. Additionally, the temperature at the end of the first stage ignition was found to increase at higher ambient pressure

  14. Risk-stratifying capacity of PET/CT metabolic tumor volume in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkle, Joshua H.; Jo, Stephanie Y.; Yuan, Cindy; Pu, Yonglin [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ferguson, Mark K. [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Hai-Yan [First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Chenpeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, RenJi Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Xuee [Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2017-08-15

    Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in tumor burden, and its treatment is variable. Whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub WB}) has been shown to be an independent prognostic index for overall survival (OS). However, the potential of MTV{sub WB} to risk-stratify stage IIIA NSCLC has previously been unknown. If we can identify subgroups within the stage exhibiting significant OS differences using MTV{sub WB}, MTV{sub WB} may lead to adjustments in patients' risk profile evaluations and may, therefore, influence clinical decision making regarding treatment. We estimated the risk-stratifying capacity of MTV{sub WB} in stage IIIA by comparing OS of stratified stage IIIA with stage IIB and IIIB NSCLC. We performed a retrospective review of 330 patients with clinical stage IIB, IIIA, and IIIB NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. The patients' clinical TNM stage, initial MTV{sub WB}, and long-term survival data were collected. Patients with TNM stage IIIA disease were stratified by MTV{sub WB}. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cutoff value for stage IIIA patients was calculated using sequential log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier OS analysis with log-rank tests were performed. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cut-point was 29.2 mL for the risk-stratification of stage IIIA. We identified statistically significant differences in OS between stage IIB and IIIA patients (p < 0.01), between IIIA and IIIB patients (p < 0.01), and between the stage IIIA patients with low MTV{sub WB} (below 29.2 mL) and the stage IIIA patients with high MTV{sub WB} (above 29.2 mL) (p < 0.01). There was no OS difference between the low MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA and the cohort of stage IIB patients (p = 0.485), or between the high MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA patients and the cohort of stage IIIB patients (p = 0.459). Similar risk-stratification capacity of MTV{sub WB} was observed in a large range of cutoff values from 15 to 55 mL in

  15. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    .... We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients...

  16. [State of the art in fluid and volume therapy : A user-friendly staged concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, M; Hulde, N; Kammerer, T; Meidert, A S; Hofmann-Kiefer, K

    2017-03-01

    Adequate fluid therapy is highly important for the perioperative outcome of our patients. Both, hypovolemia and hypervolemia can lead to an increase in perioperative complications and can impair the outcome. Therefore, perioperative infusion therapy should be target-oriented. The main target is to maintain the patient's preoperative normovolemia by using a sophisticated, rational infusion strategy.Perioperative fluid losses should be discriminated from volume losses (surgical blood loss or interstitial volume losses containing protein). Fluid losses as urine or perspiratio insensibilis (0.5-1.0 ml/kg/h) should be replaced by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 1:1. Volume therapy step 1: Blood loss up to a maximum value of 20% of the patient's blood volume should be replaced by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 4(-5):1. Volume therapy step 2: Higher blood losses should be treated by using iso-oncotic, preferential balanced colloids in a ratio of 1:1. For this purpose hydroxyethyl starch can also be used perioperatively if there is no respective contraindication, such as sepsis, burn injuries, critically ill patients, renal impairment or renal replacement therapy, and severe coagulopathy. Volume therapy step 3: If there is an indication for red cell concentrates or coagulation factors, a differentiated application of blood and blood products should be performed.

  17. Two-stage dental implants inserted in a one-stage procedure : a prospective comparative clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdenrijk, Kees

    2002-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that dental implants designed for a submerged implantation procedure can be used in a single-stage procedure and may be as predictable as one-stage implants. Although one-stage implant systems and two-stage.

  18. Association of timing of initiation of breastmilk expression on milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II among mothers of very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Leslie A; Sullivan, Sandra; Krueger, Charlene; Mueller, Martina

    2015-03-01

    Feeding breastmilk to premature infants decreases morbidity but is often limited owing to an insufficient milk supply and delayed attainment of lactogenesis stage II. Early initiation of milk expression following delivery has been shown to increase milk production in mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Although recommendations for milk expression in this population include initiation within 6 hours following delivery, little evidence exists to support these guidelines. This study compared milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II in mothers of VLBW infants who initiated milk expression within 6 hours following delivery versus those who initiated expression after 6 hours. Forty mothers of VLBW infants were grouped according to when they initiated milk expression following delivery. Group I began milk expression within 6 hours, and Group II began expression after 6 hours. Milk volume was measured daily for the first 7 days and on Days 21 and 42. Timing of lactogenesis stage II was determined through mothers' perceptions of sudden breast fullness. Group I produced more breastmilk during the initial expression session and on Days 6, 7, and 42. No difference in timing of lactogenesis stage II was observed. When mothers who began milk expression prior to 1 hour following delivery were removed from analysis, benefits of milk expression within 6 hours were no longer apparent. Initiation of milk expression within 6 hours following delivery may not improve lactation success in mothers of VLBW infants unless initiated within the first hour.

  19. High-volume ovarian cancer care: survival impact and disparities in access for advanced-stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Robert E; Chang, Jenny; Ziogas, Argyrios; Randall, Leslie M; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2014-02-01

    To characterize the impact of hospital and physician ovarian cancer case volume on survival for advanced-stage disease and investigate socio-demographic variables associated with access to high-volume providers. Consecutive patients with stage IIIC/IV epithelial ovarian cancer (1/1/96-12/31/06) were identified from the California Cancer Registry. Disease-specific survival analysis was performed using Cox-proportional hazards model. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate for differences in access to high-volume hospitals (HVH) (≥20 cases/year), high-volume physicians (HVP) (≥10 cases/year), and cross-tabulations of high- or low-volume hospital (LVH) and physician (LVP) according to socio-demographic variables. A total of 11,865 patients were identified. The median ovarian cancer-specific survival for all patients was 28.2 months, and on multivariate analysis the HVH/HVP provider combination (HR = 1.00) was associated with superior ovarian cancer-specific survival compared to LVH/LVP (HR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.16-1.49). Overall, 2119 patients (17.9%) were cared for at HVHs, and 1791 patients (15.1%) were treated by HVPs. Only 4.3% of patients received care from HVH/HVP, while 53.1% of patients were treated by LVH/LVP. Both race and socio-demographic characteristics were independently associated with an increased likelihood of being cared for by the LVH/LVP combination and included: Hispanic race (OR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.22-2.42), Asian/Pacific Islander race (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.07-2.32), Medicaid insurance (OR = 2.51, 95%CI = 1.46-4.30), and low socioeconomic status (OR = 2.84, 95%CI = 1.90-4.23). Among patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer, the provider combination of HVH/HVP is an independent predictor of improved disease-specific survival. Access to high-volume ovarian cancer providers is limited, and barriers are more pronounced for patients with low socioeconomic status, Medicaid insurance, and racial minorities. Copyright © 2013

  20. ESTRO consensus guideline on target volume delineation for elective radiation therapy of early stage breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offersen, B.V.; Boersma, L.J.; Kirkove, C.; Hol, S.; Aznar, M.C.; Sola, A. Biete; Kirova, Y.M.; Pignol, J.P.; Remouchamps, V.; Verhoeven, K.; Weltens, C.; Arenas, M.; Gabrys, D.; Kopek, N.; Krause, M.; Lundstedt, D.; Marinko, T.; Montero, A.; Yarnold, J.; Poortmans, P.M.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) is a weak link in radiation therapy (RT), and large inter-observer variation is seen in breast cancer patients. Several guidelines have been proposed, but most result in larger CTVs than based on conventional simulator-based RT.

  1. Space Transportation System Cargo projects: inertial stage/spacecraft integration plan. Volume 1: Management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Management System for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) - spacecraft processing from KSC arrival through launch is described. The roles and responsibilities of the agencies and test team organizations involved in IUS-S/C processing at KSC for non-Department of Defense missions are described. Working relationships are defined with respect to documentation preparation, coordination and approval, schedule development and maintenance, test conduct and control, configuration management, quality control and safety. The policy regarding the use of spacecraft contractor test procedures, IUS contractor detailed operating procedures and KSC operations and maintenance instructions is defined. Review and approval requirements for each documentation system are described.

  2. Decision making in the treatment of tuberous and tubular breasts: volume adjustment as a crucial stage in the surgical strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Tenna, Stefania; Simone, Pierfranco; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Li Vecchi, Giancarlo

    2005-01-01

    Tuberous and tubular breasts, two distinct deformities based on the same anatomic anomaly, are characterized by several morphologic alterations with a wide spectrum of expression. The classifications reported in the literature are based primarily on deformity of shape, but other parameters such as breast volume and symmetry often are underrated. This study aimed to define tuberous and tubular breasts and their management accurately on the basis of multiple anatomic alterations involving breast volume and symmetry as well as shape. The records of 30 patients affected by tubular and tuberous breast were reviewed. Surgical strategy included correction of breast shape through areola and gland alterations, correction of volume asymmetry through parenchyma resection, and volume augmentation through permanent expandable breast implant insertion. All the patients were treated bilaterally. Evaluation using a visual analogic scale confirmed high patient satisfaction with a mean value of 92.6% in the assessment of shape, volume, and symmetry. Correct diagnosis, careful preoperative evaluation, and a comprehensive surgical strategy can achieve, in one surgical procedure, good and long-lasting outcomes in terms of breast shape and volume symmetry.

  3. Staging and storage facility feasibility study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of adapting the design of the HWVP Canister Storage Building (CSB) to meet the needs of the WHC Spent Nuclear Fuel Project for Staging and Storage Facility (SSF), and to develop Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost and schedule estimates.

  4. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    10.4314/sokjvs.v10i1.3. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in one-humped camel. SA Hena1*, ML Sonfada1, BI Onyeanusi2, ROC Kene3 & A Bello1. 1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ...

  5. ESTRO consensus guideline on target volume delineation for elective radiation therapy of early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offersen, Birgitte V; Boersma, Liesbeth J; Kirkove, Carine; Hol, Sandra; Aznar, Marianne C; Biete Sola, Albert; Kirova, Youlia M; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Remouchamps, Vincent; Verhoeven, Karolien; Weltens, Caroline; Arenas, Meritxell; Gabrys, Dorota; Kopek, Neil; Krause, Mechthild; Lundstedt, Dan; Marinko, Tanja; Montero, Angel; Yarnold, John; Poortmans, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) is a weak link in radiation therapy (RT), and large inter-observer variation is seen in breast cancer patients. Several guidelines have been proposed, but most result in larger CTVs than based on conventional simulator-based RT. The aim was to develop a delineation guideline obtained by consensus between a broad European group of radiation oncologists. During ESTRO teaching courses on breast cancer, teachers sought consensus on delineation of CTV through dialogue based on cases. One teacher delineated CTV on CT scans of 2 patients, followed by discussion and adaptation of the delineation. The consensus established between teachers was sent to other teams working in the same field, both locally and on a national level, for their input. This was followed by developing a broad consensus based on discussions. Borders of the CTV encompassing a 5mm margin around the large veins, running through the regional lymph node levels were agreed, and for the breast/thoracic wall other vessels were pointed out to guide delineation, with comments on margins for patients with advanced breast cancer. The ESTRO consensus on CTV for elective RT of breast cancer, endorsed by a broad base of the radiation oncology community, is presented to improve consistency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exceptional Infant: Studies in Abnormalities, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Jerome, Ed.

    Designed as a complement to Volume 1 on the normal infant (available as EC 003 414), the text examines the following areas: neurological examination of the newborn, neurobehavioral organization of the newborn, neuropsychology examinations in young children, learning of motor skills on the basis of self-induced movements, factors in vulnerability…

  7. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT in locally advanced head and neck cancer can influence the stage migration and nodal radiation treatment volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Rosario; Alongi, Pierpaolo; Ricchetti, Francesco; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Salgarello, Matteo; Alongi, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    To analyze the impact of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (PET/CT) in the radiotherapy (RT) planning strategy in HNC, correlating CT-scan and PET/CT performances. Inclusion criteria were: age >18 years old, histologically proven head and neck cancer (HNC), patients candidate to definitive RT ± chemotherapy, stage of disease by means of PET/TC and CT-scan performed at our Cancer Care Center. Sixty patients were analyzed. The following primary tumor sites were investigated: nasopharynx (13%), oropharynx (42%), oral cavity (32%) and larynx non-glottic (13%). Globally, PET/CT findings caused changes on nodal radiation treatment volumes in 10% of all the population of study. Specifically, in 5 cases out of 19 oral cavity tumors (26%), PET/CT detected neck-nodes positive (not detected at CT-scan). These findings have allowed to change the patients management, including PET/CT neck-nodes positive in the high-risk RT volumes. In the RT planning strategy, the present findings support the use of PET/CT to improve upfront regional staging of HNC disease, particularly for oral cavity tumors. Further investigations are advocated to evaluate if this strategy could impact on long-term outcomes in terms of local control and overall survival.

  8. Leaving Education Early: Putting Vocational Education and Training Centre Stage. Volume II: Evaluating Policy Impact. Cedefop Research Paper. No 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Cedefop study focuses on the contribution that vocational education and training (VET) can make to reducing early leaving from education and training (ELET). Published in two volumes, the first is dedicated to understanding better the learning pathways of young students, providing measurements of early leaving in VET, and understanding the…

  9. Commencement Bay Study. Volume V. Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    source discharges also reflect local rainfall activity (e.g., storm drains , sewer plant outfalls). The body of literature available to -55- support...water.* There were higher concentrations noted in some storm drains , bank seepage, and effluent samples. The amount of discharge at these points was...either storm drains or bank seepage and of low volume. Purgeable Halocarbons None of the waterway stations had concentrations in excess of

  10. Body Presence on Stage in Performance Studies and in Ethnoscenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armindo Jorge de Carvalho Bião

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief analysis on the titles of two related cross-disciplinary contemporary perspectives, in the university context, which seek to articulate theory and practice, arts and sciences, creation and criticism, cultural diversity and specific contexts, Ethnoscenology and Performance Studies, with emphasis on the explicit statement of their focus of interest, respectively performance and body presence on stage, and a statement about preferable choices.

  11. Which Stage of ADPKD Is More Appropriate for Decortication? A Retrospective Study of 137 Patients from a Single Clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Qian

    Full Text Available To study retrospectively the efficacy of decortication in patients with different stages of ADPKD and to determine which stage for decortication is more appropriate.We analyzed 137 patients with ADPKD from 2001 to 2010. All patients were divided into three stages. A total of 70 patients underwent decortication, and we studied intraoperative indicators and postoperative indicators at 1 and 3 years follow-up.In 70 patients who underwent decortication, significant differences were observed in operative duration and bleeding volume between patients with stage I and II ADPKD (P 0.05. The total complication occurrence rate was significantly different between them (P 0.05. Scr levels were significantly decreased in patients with stage II ADPKD in the 1st postoperative year (P 0.05. In the 1st postoperative year, VAS value, blood pressure and renal volume significantly differed (P 0.05.Decortication in patients with stage I ADPKD can alleviate back pain symptoms and decrease blood pressure within 1 year, but the long-term efficacy is not ideal. Scr levels can be maintained within normal limits, suggesting that decortication does not lead to deterioration of renal function. For patients with stage II ADPKD, decortication can significantly improve renal function over the short term. However, after 3 years, renal function returns to the preoperative level, and surgical difficulties and complications also increase.

  12. Which Stage of ADPKD Is More Appropriate for Decortication? A Retrospective Study of 137 Patients from a Single Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoqiang; Sheng, Xujun; Li, Ruipeng; Liu, Hailong; Kong, Xiangjie; Duan, Liujian; Qi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To study retrospectively the efficacy of decortication in patients with different stages of ADPKD and to determine which stage for decortication is more appropriate. We analyzed 137 patients with ADPKD from 2001 to 2010. All patients were divided into three stages. A total of 70 patients underwent decortication, and we studied intraoperative indicators and postoperative indicators at 1 and 3 years follow-up. In 70 patients who underwent decortication, significant differences were observed in operative duration and bleeding volume between patients with stage I and II ADPKD (P 0.05). The total complication occurrence rate was significantly different between them (P 0.05). Scr levels were significantly decreased in patients with stage II ADPKD in the 1st postoperative year (P 0.05). In the 1st postoperative year, VAS value, blood pressure and renal volume significantly differed (P 0.05). Decortication in patients with stage I ADPKD can alleviate back pain symptoms and decrease blood pressure within 1 year, but the long-term efficacy is not ideal. Scr levels can be maintained within normal limits, suggesting that decortication does not lead to deterioration of renal function. For patients with stage II ADPKD, decortication can significantly improve renal function over the short term. However, after 3 years, renal function returns to the preoperative level, and surgical difficulties and complications also increase.

  13. A study on the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil in the flapping adjustment stage during forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan; Zhang, Xingwei; Huang, Panpan; Xie, Lingwang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of a flapping airfoil in the adjustment stage between two specific flight patterns during the forward flight. Four flapping movement models in adjustment stage are firstly established by using the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, a numerical experiment is carried out by using finite volume method to solve the two-dimensional time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The attack angles are selected from ‑5° to 7.5° with an increase of 2.5°. The results are systematically analyzed and special attention is paid to the corresponding changes of aerodynamic forces, vortex shedding mechanism in the wake structure and thrust efficiency. Present results show that output aerodynamic performance of flapping airfoil can be improved by the increasement of amplitude and frequency in the flapping adjustment stage, which further validates and complements previous studies. Moreover, it is also show that the manner using multi-objective optimization algorithm to generate a movement model in adjustment stage, to connect other two specific plunging motions, is a feasible and effective method. Current study is dedicated to providing some helpful references for the design and control of artificial flapping wing air vehicles.

  14. A decade of comparative dose planning studies for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Specht, Lena

    2014-01-01

    , especially in young patients with a long life expectancy. In this study, we review the current evidence for modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques in the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma with a focus on a reduced delivered dose, a reduced irradiated volume, and a more conformal......During the past 4 decades, the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma has changed dramatically, and combined modality treatment is now considered the standard of care for patients with early-stage disease. However, the risk of late effects has led to concerns regarding the use of radiation therapy...... the estimated risk of late effects. However, there is no such thing as a single best modern delivery technique when multiple organs at risk are considered simultaneously because of the heterogeneity in patient anatomy and disease location, and the choice of radiation therapy technique should be made...

  15. Effect of hospital volume on processes of breast cancer care: A National Cancer Data Base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tina W F; Pezzin, Liliana E; Li, Jianing; Sparapani, Rodney; Laud, Purushuttom W; Nattinger, Ann B

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine variations in delivery of several breast cancer processes of care that are correlated with lower mortality and disease recurrence, and to determine the extent to which hospital volume explains this variation. Women who were diagnosed with stage I-III unilateral breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 were identified within the National Cancer Data Base. Multiple logistic regression models were developed to determine whether hospital volume was independently associated with each of 10 individual process of care measures addressing diagnosis and treatment, and 2 composite measures assessing appropriateness of systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy) and locoregional treatment (margin status and radiation therapy). Among 573,571 women treated at 1755 different hospitals, 38%, 51%, and 10% were treated at high-, medium-, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. On multivariate analysis controlling for patient sociodemographic characteristics, treatment year and geographic location, hospital volume was a significant predictor for cancer diagnosis by initial biopsy (medium volume: odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.25; high volume: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14-1.49), negative surgical margins (medium volume: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06-1.24; high volume: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.13-1.44), and appropriate locoregional treatment (medium volume: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17; high volume: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.24). Diagnosis of breast cancer before initial surgery, negative surgical margins and appropriate use of radiation therapy may partially explain the volume-survival relationship. Dissemination of these processes of care to a broader group of hospitals could potentially improve the overall quality of care and outcomes of breast cancer survivors. Cancer 2017;123:957-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-12-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  17. Mars power system concept definition study. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary top level study was completed to define power system concepts applicable to Mars surface applications. This effort included definition of power system requirements and selection of power systems with the potential for high commonality. These power systems included dynamic isotope, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell, sodium sulfur battery, photovoltaic, and reactor concepts. Design influencing factors were identified. Characterization studies were then done for each concept to determine system performance, size/volume, and mass. Operations studies were done to determine emplacement/deployment maintenance/servicing, and startup/shutdown requirements. Technology development roadmaps were written for each candidate power system (included in Volume 2). Example power system architectures were defined and compared on a mass basis. The dynamic isotope power system and nuclear reactor power system architectures had significantly lower total masses than the photovoltaic system architectures. Integrated development and deployment time phasing plans were completed for an example DIPS and reactor architecture option to determine the development strategies required to meet the mission scenario requirements.

  18. Volume-based assessment by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT predicts survival in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Seung Hyup; Choi, Joon Young [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hee Kyung [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hojoong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Keunchil [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yong Chan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jhingook; Shim, Young Mog [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    We evaluated the prognostic impact of volume-based assessment by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We reviewed 194 consecutive patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with surgical resection (surgical group) and 115 patients treated with nonsurgical therapy (nonsurgical group: 50 stage IIIA, 65 stage IIIB). Metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of primary tumours were measured using pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Overall survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of PET parameters and other clinical variables was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. To evaluate and compare the predictive performance of PET parameters, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used. In the Cox proportional hazards models, MTV (HR = 1.27 for a doubling of MTV, P = 0.008) and TLG (HR = 1.22 for a doubling of TLG, P = 0.035) were significantly associated with an increased risk of death after adjusting for age, gender, histological cell type, T stage, N stage, and treatment variables in the surgical group. SUVmax was not a significant prognostic factor in either the surgical or nonsurgical group. In the time-dependent ROC curve analysis, volume-based PET parameters predicted survival better than SUVmax. The volume-based PET parameters (MTV and TLG) are significant prognostic factors for survival independent of tumour stage and better prognostic imaging biomarkers than SUVmax in patients with stage IIIA NSCLC after surgical resection. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  20. Design Study for a Staged Very Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-02-27

    Particle physics makes its greatest advances with experiments at the highest energy. The only sure way to advance to a higher-energy regime is through hadron colliders--the Tevatron, the LHC, and then, beyond that, a Very Large Hadron Collider. At Snowmass-1996 [1], investigators explored the best way to build a VLHC, which they defined as a 100 TeV collider. The goals in this study are different. The current study seeks to identify the best and cheapest way to arrive at frontier-energy physics, while simultaneously starting down a path that will eventually lead to the highest-energy collisions technologically possible in any accelerator using presently conceivable technology. This study takes the first steps toward understanding the accelerator physics issues, the technological possibilities and the approximate cost of a particular model of the VLHC. It describes a staged approach that offers exciting physics at each stage for the least cost, and finally reaches an energy one-hundred times the highest energy currently achievable.

  1. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for linking a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data with a composite likelihood approach. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models...... in this last case where very flexible modelling is possible. The suggested method is also studied in simulations and found to be efficient compared to maximum likelihood. Finally, the suggested method is applied to a family study of deep venous thromboembolism where it is seen that the association between ages...... are derived, combining the approaches of Parner (2001) and Andersen (2003). The method is mainly studied when the families consist of groups of exchangeable members (e.g. siblings) or members at different levels (e.g. parents and children). The advantages of the proposed method are especially clear...

  2. The physics benchmark processes for the detector performance studies used in CLIC CDR Volume 3

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B.J.; Desch, K.; Ellis, J.; Giudice, G.; Grefe, C.; Kraml, S.; Lastovicka, T.; Linssen, L.; Marschall, J.; Martin, S.P.; Muennich, A.; Poss, S.; Roloff, P.; Simon, F.; Strube, J.; Thomson, M.; Wells, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    This note describes the detector benchmark processes used in volume 3 of the CLIC conceptual design report (CDR), which explores a staged construction and operation of the CLIC accelerator. The goal of the detector benchmark studies is to assess the performance of the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detector concepts for different physics processes and at a few CLIC centre-of-mass energies.

  3. Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Chronic Gastrointestinal Complications After Radical Hysterectomy and Postoperative Concurrent Nedaplatin-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isohashi, Fumiaki, E-mail: isohashi@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mabuchi, Seiji [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Konishi, Koji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Division of Medical Physics, Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Maruoka, Shintaroh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kimura, Tadashi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 97 patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The organs at risk that were contoured were the small bowel loops, large bowel loop, and peritoneal cavity. DVH parameters subjected to analysis included the volumes of these organs receiving more than 15, 30, 40, and 45 Gy (V15-V45) and their mean dose. Associations between DVH parameters or clinical factors and the incidence of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications were evaluated. Results: Of the clinical factors, smoking and low body mass index (BMI) (<22) were significantly associated with grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications. Also, patients with chronic GI complications had significantly greater V15-V45 volumes and higher mean dose of the small bowel loops compared with those without GI complications. In contrast, no parameters for the large bowel loop or peritoneal cavity were significantly associated with GI complications. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis led to the conclusion that V15-V45 of the small bowel loops has high accuracy for prediction of GI complications. Among these parameters, V40 gave the highest area under the ROC curve. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed with V40 of the small bowel loops and 2 other clinical parameters that were judged to be potential risk factors for chronic GI complications: BMI and smoking. Of these 3 parameters, V40 of the small bowel loops and smoking emerged as independent predictors of chronic GI complications. Conclusions: DVH parameters of the small bowel loops may serve as predictors of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications after postoperative

  4. Quantifying normal ankle joint volume: An anatomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draeger Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many therapeutic and diagnostic modalities such as intraarticular injections, arthrography and ankle arthroscopy require introduction of fluid into the ankle joint. Little data are currently available in the literature regarding the maximal volume of normal, nonpathologic, human ankle joints. The purpose of this study was to measure the volume of normal human ankle joints. Materials and Methods: A fluoroscopic guided needle was passed into nine cadaveric adult ankle joints. The needle was connected to an intracompartmental pressure measurement device. A radiopaque dye was introduced into the joint in 2 mL boluses, while pressure measurements were recorded. Fluid was injected into the joint until three consecutive pressure measurements were similar, signifying a maximal joint volume. Results: The mean maximum ankle joint volume was 20.9 ± 4.9 mL (range, 16-30 mL. The mean ankle joint pressure at maximum volume was 142.2 ± 13.8 mm Hg (range, 122-166 mm Hg. Two of the nine samples showed evidence of fluid tracking into the synovial sheath of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Conclusion: Maximal normal ankle joint volume was found to vary between 16-30 mL. This study ascertains the communication between the ankle joint and the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Exceeding maximal ankle joint volume suggested by this study during therapeutic injections, arthrography, or arthroscopy could potentially damage the joint.

  5. The Role of Liver Segment-to-Spleen Volume Ratio in the Staging of Hepatic Fibrosis in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Eyal; Raskin, Stephen P; Amitai, Michal M; Kleinbaum, Yeruham; Veitsman, Ella; Weiss, Peretz; Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Berdichevski, Tania; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2017-04-01

    Accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is crucial for the management of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To evaluate the performance of liver segment-to-spleen volume ratio in predicting the severity of liver fibrosis. Sixty-four consecutive HCV patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and were divided into three groups based on their hepatic fibrosis stage evaluated by shear-wave elastography (SWE): non-advanced (F0-F1, n=29), advanced (F2, n=19) and severe fibrosis (F3-F4, n=16). Using semi-automated liver segmentation software, we calculated the following liver segments and spleen volumes for each participant: total liver volume (TLV), caudate lobe (CV), left lateral segment (LLV), left medial segment (LMV), right lobe (RV) and spleen (SV), a well as their ratios: CV/SV, RV/SV, LLV/SV, LMV/SV and TLV/SV. RV/SV was found to discriminate between patients with non-advanced and advanced fibrosis (P = 0.001), whereas SV, CV, RV, TLV/SV, LMV/SV and RV/SV discriminated between patients with advanced and severe fibrosis (P fibrosis and advanced from severe fibrosis with sensitivities of 72.2% and 92.7%, specificities of 72.7% and 77.8%, and with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.797 and 0.847, respectively (P ≤ 0.002). RV/SV may be used for the assessment and monitoring of liver fibrosis in HCV patients prior to the administration of antiviral therapy, considering SWE as the reference method.

  6. Aircraft Simulator Data Requirements Study. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    planned, to solicit suggestions relative to the study approach, and to again point out the importance of cooperacion . Representatives from the Aeronautical...be a trn-service document. The decision was reached that this study was to address fixed wing, horizontal takeoff, turbojet, turbofan, or turboprop

  7. Laparoscopic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Clinical Stage I Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors of the Testis: Safety and Efficacy Analyses at a High Volume Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Nicola; Tarabelloni, Nicholas; Gasperoni, Francesca; Catanzaro, Mario; Stagni, Silvia; Torelli, Tullio; Tesone, Antonio; Bettin, Laura; Necchi, Andrea; Giannatempo, Patrizia; Raggi, Daniele; Colecchia, Maurizio; Piva, Luigi; Salvioni, Roberto; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Pizzocaro, Giorgio; Biasoni, Davide

    2017-09-28

    The prognosis of stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis is favorable. Early and late side effects of treatment may affect quality of life and survival. We determined the tolerability, safety and efficacy of laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis at a high volume center. Unilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was prospectively recorded in 225 patients from 2000 to 2014. Since 2007, patients have been treated at a multidisciplinary clinic and were proposed surgery as an alternative to surveillance or adjuvant chemotherapy. The indication for adjuvant chemotherapy changed during the study period. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to evaluate the domains of safety and oncologic outcomes. A total of 221 patients were evaluable. Median operative time was 200 minutes. Conversion to open surgery was done in 20 cases (9%). A median of 14 nodes (IQR 11-20) was retrieved. Grade greater than 2 complications in 8 cases (3.6%) increased as the number of retrieved nodes increased. Antegrade ejaculation was maintained in 98.6% of patients. Nodal metastases were found in 29 patients (13%), of whom 7 underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. There were 14 recurrences (6.3%), including 8 of 192 (4.2%) associated with no nodal metastases and 6 of 22 (27.3%) associated with nodal metastases in patients not undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. At regression analyses lymph node ratio was the only significant factor predictive of recurrence and of the administration of any chemotherapy (each p retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was safe and its oncologic efficacy was comparable to that of open surgery. Select patients with stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor could be offered laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection as an alternative to other options. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. High-risk clinical target volume delineation in CT-guided cervical cancer brachytherapy - Impact of information from FIGO stage with or without systematic inclusion of 3D documentation of clinical gynecological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegazy, Neamat [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Medical Univ. of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Poetter Rickard; Kirisits, Christian [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria); Berger, Daniel; Federico, Mario; Sturdza, Alina; Nesvacil, Nicole [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)], e-mail: nicole.nesvacil@meduniwien.ac.at

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to improve computed tomography (CT)-based high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV) delineation protocols for cervix cancer patients, in settings without any access to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of brachytherapy. Therefore the value of a systematic integration of comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) documentation of repetitive gynecological examination for CT-based HR CTV delineation protocols, in addition to information from FIGO staging, was investigated. In addition to a comparison between reference MRI contours and two different CT-based contouring methods (using complementary information from FIGO staging with or without additional 3D clinical drawings), the use of standardized uterine heights was also investigated. Material and methods: Thirty-five cervix cancer patients with CT- and MR-images and 3D clinical drawings at time of diagnosis and brachytherapy were included. HR CTV{sub stage} was based on CT information and FIGO stage. HR CTV{sub stage} {sub +3Dclin} was contoured on CT using FIGO stage and 3D clinical drawing. Standardized HR CTV heights were: 1/1, 2/3 and 1/2 of uterine height. MRI-based HR CTV was delineated independently. Resulting widths, thicknesses, heights, and volumes of HR CTV{sub stage}, HR CTV{sub stage+3Dclin} and MRI-based HR CTV contours were compared. Results: The overall normalized volume ratios (mean{+-}SD of CT/MRI{sub ref} volume) of HR CTV{sub stage} and HR{sub stage+3Dclin} were 2.6 ({+-}0.6) and 2.1 ({+-}0.4) for 1/1 and 2.3 ({+-}0.5) and 1.8 ({+-}0.4), for 2/3, and 1.9 ({+-}0.5) and 1.5 ({+-}0.3), for 1/2 of uterine height. The mean normalized widths were 1.5{+-}0.2 and 1.2{+-}0.2 for HR CTV{sub stage} and HR CTV{sub stage+3Dclin}, respectively (p < 0.05). The mean normalized heights for HR CTV{sub stage} and HR CTV{sub stage+3Dclin} were both 1.7{+-}0.4 for 1/1 (p < 0.05.), 1.3{+-}0.3 for 2/3 (p < 0.05) and 1.1{+-}0.3 for 1/2 of uterine height. Conclusion: CT-based HR

  9. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    National Security Study Memorandum 213--Part I: Intelligence Appraisal— Fac - tors Influencing the Course of Events in the Republic of Vietnam over the...2011), 266 pp., index. After high school, Jack O’Connell worked to save the $750 tuition needed to attend Notre Dame and play football . When an

  10. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  11. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  12. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  13. Professional Development of Officers Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-21

    side It neoeeeoop and Idehu•dI by blok nulmber). Officer Development Periods, Warrior Spirit, Mentor, Professional Values, ducation and Training...ndlows•:: study. We conclude that PDOS recommended Sreflection, research and inquiry, policies contain no unfair sexual bias. 7. The manpower investment

  14. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    CORDS) after 1967.49 In the words of CIA historian Thomas Ahern in his study of CIA pacification programs: [They] incorporated sug- gestions into a...Balawi had adopted several on-line personas in his highly inflam- matory, anti-Western blogs. Balawi seemed to “crack” after three days of relatively

  15. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  16. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  17. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  18. Moderate intensity supine exercise causes decreased cardiac volumes and increased outer volume variations: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Jablonowski, Robert; Arvidsson, Per M

    2013-01-01

    The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study ...... was to determine if LV, RV and total heart volumes (THV) as well as cardiac pumping mechanisms change during physical exercise compared to rest using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).......The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study...

  19. Evaluation of natural- and forced-draft staging air systems for nitric oxide reduction in refinery process heaters. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report October 1982-February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, R.C.; Frohoff, R.A.; Markee, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    The two-volume report gives results of pilot-scale tests to evaluate combustion modifications for emission reduction and efficiency enhancement on petroleum process heaters. Objectives were to determine nitric oxide (NO) emission reductions, thermal efficiency changes, long-term performance, and cost of both natural- and forced-draft staged-combustion-air modifications. Forced-draft-staged-combustion-air modifications had been shown to be the most promising combustion modification in previous pilot-scale tests. The test unit was a vertical, cylindrical, natural-draft crude heater, and the test fuels were natural gas, refinery gas, and a combination of No. 6 oil and refinery gas.

  20. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  1. Small power systems study. Volume. Study results. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitney, L.R.

    1978-05-31

    The Division of Solar Technology of the Department of Energy is currently examining the market potential of a number of dispersed solar energy systems, including the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power system. Small fossil-fueled generating units in the United States utility system, (i.e., investor-owned, municipal, and cooperatives) have a current capacity of approximately 8000 MW/sub e/ or about 1.5 percent of the total US electrical capacity, and provide a large potential market for small solar thermal power systems. The Small Power Systems Study has as its objective the determination of conditions under which small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power units can provide cost-effective electrical power to a variety of users. Potential users, in addition to the utility systems; include Department of Defense installations and applications, remote mining and/or lumbering operations, and other industrial power systems with and without cogeneration. The first year's results on the Small Power Systems Study are summarized. The data base used and the breakeven cost analysis are discussed. Information on both small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units and the utility systems using them is presented as well as data on fossil fuel costs, solar plant costs, and solar insolation values. The results of a survey of Department of Defense (DOD) worldwide electrical generating capacity at its military bases and on a potential DOD application are presented. Information on a potential small solar power system experiment in the interior of Alaska is given, and a limited amount of information on a remote application which would provide power or a large open pit copper mine is presented. Volume II of this Technical Summary Report contains an inventory, by state, of the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units in the US utility system. (WHK)

  2. Preschool and Primary Education. Estonian Studies in Education. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The studies in this volume explore a number of issues in education today. One paper reveals what actually motivates teachers to develop their career, another, how to teach primary teachers to talk about visual art. Children's artworks were explored in one article to see how they relate to their adjustment to school. In another, a case study was…

  3. Two-stage graft urethroplasty for proximal and complicated hypospadias in children: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; Nyo, Yoke Lin; O'Brien, Mike; Heloury, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Although two-stage graft urethroplasty is widely used, the literature regarding the complication rates and functional characteristics of reconstructed neourethra is relatively modest. The aim was to analyze the complication rates and uroflow data of boys who have previously undergone a two-stage graft urethroplasty procedure for proximal and complicated hypospadias. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 52 boys with proximal (n = 44) and complicated (n = 8) hypospadias who underwent two-stage graft urethroplasty repair (median age of 15 months and 3 years respectively) between 2004 and 2015. Fifteen toilet-trained boys without fistulas underwent uroflowmetry. The uroflow data were plotted on age-volume-dependent normograms with normal controls. The median follow-up was 34 months (8 months-8 years). Complications were identified in three patients (6%) after the first stage (i.e. contracture of the graft) and in 20 patients (38.4%) after the second stage, including meatal stenosis (n = 8, 15.3%), urethral stricture (n = 4, 7.6%), urethrocutaneous fistula (n = 8, 15.3%), glandular dehiscence (n = 1, 1.9%), and diverticulum (n = 1, 1.9%). The patients with failed hypospadias experienced fewer complications than those who underwent the two-stage procedure for primary repair (25% and 45%, respectively). The reoperation rate was 36.8%. Eleven of the 15 toilet-trained boys were asymptomatic but exhibited flow rates below the normal range (median Qmax = 7 mL/s, range 3.5-16.7). Only one of the boys with a low flow rate was confirmed to have urethral stenosis under general anesthesia. In our study, primary hypospadias repair requiring urethral plate transection elicited worse outcomes than those observed in the prior failed hypospadias cases. However, because of our study's retrospective design, we were unable to accurately assess the initial position of the meatus in the redo hypospadias cases. Our data also demonstrated that the majority of

  4. Total Gross Tumor Volume Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients Treated With Selective Nodal Irradiation for Stage I to III Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymen, Bart, E-mail: bart.reymen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Loon, Judith; Baardwijk, Angela van; Wanders, Rinus; Borger, Jacques [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Dingemans, Anne-Marie C. [Department of Pulmonology, GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bootsma, Gerben [Department of Pulmonology, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen (Netherlands); Pitz, Cordula [Department of Pulmonology, Laurentius Hospital, Roermond (Netherlands); Lunde, Ragnar [Department of Pulmonology, St Jansgasthuis, Weert (Netherlands); Geraedts, Wiel [Department of Pulmonology, Orbis Medical Centre, Sittard (Netherlands); Lambin, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); De Ruysscher, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital Leuven/ KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: In non-small cell lung cancer, gross tumor volume (GTV) influences survival more than other risk factors. This could also apply to small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Analysis of our prospective database with stage I to III SCLC patients referred for concurrent chemo radiation therapy. Standard treatment was 45 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions twice daily concurrently with carboplatin-etoposide, followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in case of non-progression. Only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)-positive or pathologically proven nodal sites were included in the target volume. Total GTV consisted of post chemotherapy tumor volume and pre chemotherapy nodal volume. Survival was calculated from diagnosis (Kaplan-Meier ). Results: A total of 119 patients were included between May 2004 and June 2009. Median total GTV was 93 ± 152 cc (7.5-895 cc). Isolated elective nodal failure occurred in 2 patients (1.7%). Median follow-up was 38 months, median overall survival 20 months (95% confidence interval = 17.8-22.1 months), and 2-year survival 38.4%. In multivariate analysis, only total GTV (P=.026) and performance status (P=.016) significantly influenced survival. Conclusions: In this series of stage I to III small cell lung cancer patients treated with FDG-PET-based selective nodal irradiation total GTV is an independent risk factor for survival.

  5. Prognostic value of baseline metabolic tumor volume in early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma in the standard arm of H10 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottereau, Anne Ségolène; Versari, Annibale; Loft, Annika

    2018-01-01

    We tested baseline PET/CT as a measure of total tumor burden in order to better identify high risk patients in early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Stage I-II HL patients enrolled in the standard arm (combined modality treatment) of the H10 trial (NCT00433433) with available baseline PET and inte...

  6. Managing large-volume literature searches in research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Nancy L; Leeman, Jennifer; Shaw-Kokot, Julia; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews typically require searching for, retrieving, and screening a large volume of literature, yet little guidance is available on how to manage this volume. We detail methods used to search for and manage the yield of relevant citations for a mixed-methods, mixed research synthesis study focused on the intersection between family life and childhood chronic physical conditions. We designed inclusive search strings and searched nine bibliographic databases to identify relevant research regardless of methodological origin. We customized searches to individual databases, developed work-arounds for transferring large volumes of citations and eliminating duplicate citations using reference management software, and used this software as a portal to select citations for inclusion or exclusion. We identified 67,555 citations, retrieved and screened 3,617 reports, and selected 800 reports for inclusion. Systematic reviews require search procedures to allow consistent and comprehensive approaches and the ability to work around technical obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Impact of ascites volume on clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J Brian; Emmons, Tiffany; Belliotti, Sarah; Dickson, Danielle; Khan, Aalia; Morrell, Kayla; Khan, A N M Nazmul; Singel, Kelly L; Mayor, Paul C; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Segal, Brahm H; Eng, Kevin H

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the impact of ascites volume on ovarian cancer outcomes. Clinicopathologic features of a cohort of patients with ovarian cancer were obtained from a curated database at a single institution. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were recorded. Ascites volume at primary surgery was dichotomized at 2000mL and comparisons for high and low volume ascites were made. Additionally, to elucidate interactions between ascites and ovarian tumor progression, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal administrations of murine cell-free ascites versus saline in a syngeneic mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer. Out of 685 patients identified, 58% had ascites present at the time of initial surgery. Considering the volume of ascites continuously, each liter of ascites was associated with shorter PFS (HR=1.12, 95% CI: 1.07-1.17) and OS (HR=1.12, 95%CI: 1.07-1.17). Patients with ascites greater than the median of 2000mL had significantly shorter PFS (14.5months vs. 22.7months; povarian cancer progression in mice. The volume of ascites at initial diagnosis of ovarian cancer correlated with worse PFS and OS. The effect of large volume on prognosis is likely to be in part related to reduced likelihood for complete resection of tumor (R0). If these findings are confirmed in independent studies, consideration should be made to add the presence of large volume ascites at diagnosis to the staging criteria for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Graduate Studies in Education, Volume 1, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, E. Wayne, Comp.; Heineke, William F., Comp.

    As one part of a volume of abstracts of studies of the last decade primarily in the vocational and technical field, this report includes 139 abstracts in the categories of philosophy, psychology, sociology, statistics, supervision, and technical education. The abstracts in philosophy treat the development of trade and industrial education,…

  10. The study on stage financing model of IT project investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-hua; Xu, Sheng-hua; Lee, Changhoon; Xiong, Neal N; He, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model.

  11. Reentry: Supporting Students in the Final Stage of Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gretchen E.

    2014-01-01

    It is often more challenging for students to readjust to their home culture upon return from an international or cross-cultural experience than it is for them to adjust to their new culture upon arrival in a foreign community. Many professionals argue that the readjustment process is actually the most important stage of the international…

  12. Drug and Alcohol Studies (Volume 2: Theoretical Studies)

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, S.; Thom, B

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME TWO: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES Excerpt from Drug, Set and Setting: The Basis for Controlled Intoxicant Use N. Zinberg Sociocultural Anthropology and Alcohol and Drug Research Geoffrey Hunt and Judith Barker Towards a Unified Theory Addiction Is a Brain Disease and It Matters Alan Leshner Drug Dependence A. Thomas McLellan et al A Chronic Mental Illness Alcohol Dependence Griffith Edwards and Milton Gross Provisional Description of a Clinical Syndrome Illicit Drugs and the Rise of Epidem...

  13. Stage 2 Report for Reformulation Phase I General Design Memorandum, Cleveland Harbor, Ohio. Volume I. Main Report. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    subsequent events that necessitated reformulation of the authorized plan of improvement; the formulation methodology used in this Stage 2 evaluation...removal methods currently under consideration would cause the material to become waterlogged and unfit for use as stable fill. If the material is...Stage 3 planning, as appropriate. The removal methods currently under consideration would cause the excavated material to become waterlogged and

  14. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume II. Gas generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume II of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report contains the data generated from evaluating the adequacy of venting/filtering devices for maintaining safe hydrogen levels in plutonium contaminated waste drums. Additional studies reported in this volume include gas generation rates, selected waste form monitoring, and evaluation of hydrogen migration from sealed 90-mil rigid polyethylene drum liners containing /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes. All wastes used in the studies were newly-generated, and the waste drums were under controlled, experimental conditions. Studies using /sup 239/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant. Studies using /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  15. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure. A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenrijk, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A; van der Reijden, Willy A; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V-VI) participated in this study. After randomisation, 20 patients received two IMZ implants inserted in a single-stage procedure and 20 patients received two ITI implants. After 3 months, overdentures were fabricated, supported by a bar and clip attachment. A standardised clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed immediately after denture insertion and 6 and 12 months later. Twelve months after loading, peri-implant samples were collected with sterile paper points and analysed for the presence of putative periodontal pathogens using culture techniques. One IMZ implant was lost due to insufficient osseointegration. With regard to the clinical parameters at the 12 months evaluation, significant differences for plaque score and probing pocket depth (IMZ: mean 3.3 mm, ITI: mean 2.9 mm) were found between the two groups. The mean bone loss in the first year of functioning was 0.6 mm for both groups. Prevotella intermedia was detected more often in the ITI group (12 implants) than in the IMZ group (three implants). Porphyromonas gingivalis was found in three patients. In one of these patients an implant showed bone loss of 1.6 mm between T0 and T12. Some associations were found between clinical parameters and the target microorganisms in the ITI group. These associations were not present in the IMZ group. The short-term results indicate that two-stage implants inserted in a single-stage procedure may be as predictable as one-stage implants. The microgap at crestal level in nonsubmerged IMZ implants seems to have no adverse influence on the peri-implant microbiological colonisation and of crestal bone loss in the first year of functioning. The peri-implant sulcus can and does harbour

  16. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in18F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A 18 F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm 3 , TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. Late Miocene Molluscan Stage of Jawa Insight from New Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswan; Sufiati, Elina; Kistiani, Desty; Yudi Abdurrahman, Irman; Dwijo Santoso, Wahyu; Rudyawan, Alfend; Zin Oo, Thaw

    2017-06-01

    Neogene stratigraphic stages of Jawa based on molluscan index fossils firstly compiled by Oostingh in 1938. This concept is widely used by palaeontologists, both for application in and outside Jawa. Based on the estimated ages of previous researchers the Neogene stages from old to young are: Rembangian stage considered equivalent to Early Miocene, Preangerian stage (Middle Miocene), Odengian stage (Upper Miocene), Cheribonian stage (Early Pliocene), Sondian stage (Late Pliocene) and Bantamian stage (Early Pleistocene). Further studies to determine a more precise age of each stage are often difficult due to lack of planktonic foraminifera fossils and other age index fossils within the sedimentary deposits that are mostly shallow marine sediments. This study focuses to re-examine the age of sediments of Preangerian and Odengian Stages on new field studies. The type locality and rock units that are correlated with these stages are part of the well-exposed Nyalindung formation around Sukabumi area. The studies were carried out in four main fosill-rich sedimentary sequences that are exposed along Cijarian, Citalahab, Ciangsana and Ciodeng rivers. More detailed ages were obtained from the sediments. The exposed sequences along the Ciangsana and Citalahab rivers are Middle Miocene (N9-N14) while the Cijarian and Ciodeng rivers sequences were deposited between Middle to early Late Miocene (N9-N16). The Nyalindung formation in the Cijarian river also contain Vicarya sp, an index fossil that marks a rise in sea level in the Miocene (12 Ma), which previously only been reported from the Ciangsana river sediments.

  18. A prospective study of PET/CT in initial staging of small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, B M; Mortensen, J; Langer, S W

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15%-20% of all lung cancer cases. Accurate and fast staging is mandatory when choosing treatment, but current staging procedures are time consuming and lack sensitivity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was designed to examine the role....../CT caused change of stage in 5/29 (17%). Excluding patients with unconfirmed findings or pleural effusion, the sensitivity for accurate staging of patients with extensive disease was the following: for standard staging 79%, PET 93% and PET/CT 93%. Specificity was 100%, 83% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION...

  19. Control system retrofit guidelines: Volume 3, Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caple, E. (Lower Colorado River Authority, CO (United States)); Christianson, E.C.; Popkawa, M.S.; Vaccaro, G.J. (Centerior Energy Corp., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Clark, S.L. (Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)); Everly, D.P. (Southern Co. Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Michael, N.Y. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)); Patel, M.B. (Boston

    1992-07-01

    In many fossil fuel power plants, new digital control technology has rendered existing control and instrumentation systems obsolete. This comprehensive three-volume report discusses key phases of control system retrofits, technical assessment of a digital control system, and utility-authored case studies focusing on individual retrofit approaches. The project team divided the work into three distinct phases. First they developed a method for assessing the need for a retrofit as well as its associated benefits. Next, they cataloged information concerning manufacturer control system equipment and capabilities. Finally, they documented control system retrofit experience from utility members of EPRI's Instrumentation and Control Advisory Committee. Volume 3 documents utility response to the three-phase retrofit approach. Phase 1 involves project and plant condition assessment, conceptual design, budget development, and benefits analysis. Phase 2 focuses on project approval and planning with emphasis on final cost-benefit justification, final design, and scheduling aspects. Phase 3 emphasizes project implementation, including final hardware specifications, justification for equipment selection, construction management, startup performance, and training. Volume 3 also discusses postretrofit evaluation.

  20. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  1. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 1 (Executive Summary) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  2. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 3: Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 3 (Addendum) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study Program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  3. Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) study. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, E. M.; Driggers, T.; Jorasch, R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Volume 2 (Technical Report) of the Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation Final Report for the Communication Platform Payload Definition (CPPD) Study program conducted for NASA Lewis Research Center under contract No. NAS3-24235. This report presents the results of the study effort leading to five potential platform payloads to service CONUS and WARC Region 2 traffic demand as projected to the year 2008. The report addresses establishing the data bases, developing service aggregation scenarios, selecting and developing 5 payload concepts, performing detailed definition of the 5 payloads, costing them, identifying critical technology, and finally comparing the payloads with each other and also with non-aggregated equivalent services.

  4. Youth Attitude Tracking Study. Volume 2. Fall 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    youth as coming from rela- tively modest socio-economic backgrounds. Periods of high unemployment affect the less-educated, less-skilled, and less...FRD-fl143 187 YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY VOLUME 2 FALL 1976(U) 1/2 MARKET FACTS INC CHICAGO IL J T HEISLER JAN 76 H390 UNCLASSIFIED ___ F/G 5/9 NL...PRACTS ag e 8 Analytic Comment. I MARKET FAOTS YOUTH ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY -. FALL 1976 e4.? .2 L A Report Prepared for: . The Department of Defense p’V

  5. Theoretical study of spinodal decomposition at intermediate stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Yu; Konno, Mikio; Saito, Shozaburo

    1991-10-01

    A computational method for the spinodal decomposition is presented on the basis of a nonlinear theory proposed by Langer, Bar-on, and Miller [Phys. Rev. A 11, 1417 (1975)] (LBM) with an application of Suzuki's [Prog. Theor. Phys. 56, 77 (1976); 56, 477 (1976); 57, 380 (1977); Adv. Chem. Phys. 46, 195 (1981); J. Stat. Phys. 49, 977 (1987)] general scaling theory for transient phenomena. The results were compared with experimental observations for a typical polymer-blend system with respect to the experimentally accessible quantities such as the structure factor and the single-point distribution function. The main features observed in scattering experiments were reproduced by this method. The inequality β>3α was found in the numerical analyses when fitting the power-law relations expressed by qm~t-α and Sm~tβ to the time variations of the dominant Fourier component of concentration fluctuations qm and the corresponding structure factor Sm. It is shown that the LBM theory can be used to describe the phase-separation behavior up to intermediate stages.

  6. On the volume of cremated remains - a comparative study of archaeologically recovered cremated bone volume as measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography and by Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, L.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Weight but occasionally also the volume of cremated human remains may often be the primary basis for interpreting the many stages involved in past cremation ceremonies. However, methods used for describing volume for cremated remains are extremely varying and biased by many factors. Here we evalu...

  7. [Whole body versus segmental bioimpedance measurements (BIS) of electrical resistance (Re) and extracellular volume (ECV) for assessment of dry weight in end-stage renal patients treated by hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załuska, Wojciech; Małecka, Teresa; Mozul, Sławomir; Ksiazek, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The precise estimation of the hydration status of the human body has a great meaning in the assessment of dry weight in end-stage renal disease patients treated by hemodialysis. The bioimpedance technique (BIS) is postulated as easy in use and as a non-invasive method in monitoring the size of hydrate space such as total body water (TBW) and extracellular volume (ECV). However, the precision of the method (Whole Body Bioimpedance Technique) has been questioned in several research papers. One of the problems lies in fluid transfer from peripheral spaces (limbs) to the central space (trunk) while changing the position of the body (orthostatic effect). This phenomena can be eliminated using segmental bioimpedance technique (4200 Hydra, Analyzer, Xitron, San Diego, CA, U.S.A.). The purpose of the study was to estimate the changes of electrical resistance (Re) the extracellular volume (ECV) at the time -pre, and -post 10 hemodialysis sessions using whole body bioimpedance technique (WBIS) in comparison to BIS measurements in specific segments of the body; arm (ECVarm), leg (ECVleg), trunk (ECVtrunk). The sum of changes in extracellular volume (ECV) in segments (2ECVarm+ ECVtrunk + 2ECVleg) was 13.26 +/- 1.861 L in comparison to 17.29 +/- 2.07 L (p ECV volume measurement was of 11.42 +/- 1.28 L in comparison to 14.84 +/- 1.31 (p ECV volume as measured by WBIS versus sum of segment ECV measurements can be partly explain by non-cylindric nature of human body composition. However, the segmental bio-impedance technique is a method which gives us more accurate data about the extracellular volume taken from each segment in the hemodialysis patient but the accuracy of trunk water assessment is still a problem.

  8. Vitrification of ICSI- and IVF-derived bovine blastocysts by minimum volume cooling procedure: effect of developmental stage and age

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, H.; Shimoda, M.; Hara, H.; Morita, H.; Kuwayama, M; Hirabayashi, M.; Hochi, S

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of developmental stage (fully-expanded or expanding blastocysts) and/or age (harvested on Days 7 or 8) on post-vitrification in vitro survival of bovine blastocysts derived from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Post-warming survival (re-expansion of blastocoele within 24 h) of ICSI-derived fully-expanded blastocysts (80%) was similar to that of their IVF-derived counterparts (88%). However, the ability of ICS...

  9. The prospects for electric and hybrid electric vehicles: Second-stage results of a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Santini, D.J.; Vyas, A.D.

    1996-08-01

    This study was conducted to collect information for a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994, while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper reports results from the second round of the survey and major differences between the two rounds. This second-stage international survey obtained information from 93 expert respondents from the automotive technology field. Key results: EVs will penetrate the market first, followed by internal combustion engine HEVs, while gas turbine and fuel cell HEVs will come after 2020. By 2020, EVs and internal combustion engine HEVs will have a 15% share of the new vehicle market; they will also cost 18-50% more and will be slightly inferior to 1993 gasoline cars. AC induction motor is projected to be superior to DC and DC brushless motors by 2020, although the DC motor will be less expensive in 2000. DC brushless motors are projected to be the most expensive. Though generally declining, battery costs will remain high. EVs are believed to be effective in reducing urban emissions; however, their costs must be reduced drastically. Petroleum is expected to be the predominant fuel for hybrid vehicles through 2020. Mean energy equivalent fuel economy of electric drivetrain vehicles is projected to be 20-40% greater than for conventional vehicles in 2000, and to rise a few percents during the projection period. Respondents anticipate only a 16% increase in conventional vehicle fuel economy from 2000 to 2020.

  10. Kinetic study of the first one-electron stage of indium ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrienko, S.V.; Molodov, A.I.; Losev, V.V. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR))

    1982-11-01

    Using the method of rotating disk electrode kinetics of the stage of In particle transfer through the phase interface electrode-electrolyte is studied. The investigations are carried out in the electrolyte of the composition xMHClO/sub 4/+(3-x)MNaClO/sub 4/, where x=(3x10/sup -3/-3)M at 22 deg C. The region of the stage actual kinetics is found and anodic coefficient of transfer of the stage is determined. The stage studied obeys the theorem of delayed discharge. The established independence of the stage rate of hydrogen ion concentration proves that the chemical reaction of indium intermediate hydrolized particles formation takes place in subsequent stages of indium dissolution.

  11. Stage of Ego Development and Leadership Capacity: A Study of Twelve Illinois School District Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christina Kay

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods research study investigated stage of ego development and "leadership capacity" in a purposeful, stratified sample of 12 Illinois school district superintendents. The purpose of this study was to determine the following: 1) are postconventional stages of ego development evidenced in school superintendents; 2) do the…

  12. Experimental Study of Thermal Field Evolution in the Short-Impending Stage Before Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yaqiong; Ma, Jin; Liu, Peixun; Chen, Shunyun

    2017-08-01

    Phenomena at critical points are vital for identifying the short-impending stage prior to earthquakes. The peak stress is a critical point when stress is converted from predominantly accumulation to predominantly release. We call the duration between the peak stress and instability "the meta-instability stage", which refers to the short-impending stage of earthquakes. The meta-instability stage consists of a steady releasing quasi-static stage and an accelerated releasing quasi-dynamic stage. The turning point of the above two stages is the remaining critical point. To identify the two critical points in the field, it is necessary to study the characteristic phenomena of various physical fields in the meta-instability stage in the laboratory, and the strain and displacement variations were studied. Considering that stress and relative displacement can be detected by thermal variations and peculiarities in the full-field observations, we employed a cooled thermal infrared imaging system to record thermal variations in the meta-instability stage of stick slip events generated along a simulated, precut planer strike slip fault in a granodiorite block on a horizontally bilateral servo-controlled press machine. The experimental results demonstrate the following: (1) a large area of decreasing temperatures in wall rocks and increasing temperatures in sporadic sections of the fault indicate entrance into the meta-instability stage. (2) The rapid expansion of regions of increasing temperatures on the fault and the enhancement of temperature increase amplitude correspond to the turning point from the quasi-static stage to the quasi-dynamic stage. Our results reveal thermal indicators for the critical points prior to earthquakes that provide clues for identifying the short-impending stage of earthquakes.

  13. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Portella; Sergio Machado; Oscar Arias-Carrión; Sack, Alexander T.; Julio Guilherme Silva; Marco Orsini; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite; Adriana Cardoso Silva; Nardi, Antonio E.; Mauricio Cagy; Roberto Piedade; Pedro Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a vis...

  14. Vitrification of ICSI- and IVF-derived bovine blastocysts by minimum volume cooling procedure: effect of developmental stage and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, H; Shimoda, M; Hara, H; Morita, H; Kuwayama, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of developmental stage (fully-expanded or expanding blastocysts) and/or age (harvested on Days 7 or 8) on post-vitrification in vitro survival of bovine blastocysts derived from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Post-warming survival (re-expansion of blastocoele within 24 h) of ICSI-derived fully-expanded blastocysts (80%) was similar to that of their IVF-derived counterparts (88%). However, the ability of ICSI-derived expanding blastocysts to survive vitrification procedures (61%) was lower than that of IVF-derived blastocysts (85%; P vitrification did not affect cryotolerance for either ICSI-derived (73 and 59% for Days 7 and 8 embryos, respectively) or IVF-derived blastocysts (86% for both Days 7 and 8 embryos). At 24 h of post-warming culture, ICSI-derived blastocysts surviving vitrification contained a higher proportion of dead cells than their IVF-derived counterparts (5-13% vs. 2-4%; P vitrification on the ability of blastocysts to hatch within 72 h of culture only in IVF-derived Day 8 blastocysts (41 and 70% in vitrified and fresh control groups, respectively). In conclusion, the proportion of blastocysts that survived vitrification procedures was similar for ICSI- and IVF-derived bovine blastocysts if the former were cultured to the fully-expanded stage prior to vitrification, with no significant difference between embryos harvested on Day 7 versus Day 8. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  16. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiographic studies on the fetal heads of 32 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) with 11 fetuses at the first trimester, 12 at the second trimester and 9 at the third trimester levels were conducted in Sokoto Metropolis. The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and ...

  17. Studies on the immature stages and burrow excavating behavior of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drury) were investigated in this study that was carried out between 2004 and 2007 in the left bank of River Indus Sindh province. The study showed that S. monstrosus which is a nocturnal and voracious carnivorous insect, passed through 9 ...

  18. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, Mathieu [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU MORVAN, LaTIM, INSERM U650, Brest (France); Cheze-le Rest, Catherine [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU, Academic Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest (France); Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU, Institute of Oncology, Brest (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France)

    2011-04-15

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  19. USAF advanced terrestrial energy study. Volume 2: Technology handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, E. J.; Yudow, B. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the results of the USAF Advanced Terrestrial Energy Study. The objective of that study was to develop a data base of key parameters of selected energy conversion and energy storage technologies. The data base includes present and expected (through 2000) performance goals of the systems. The data base was established through an extensive literature search, surveys of manufacturers and researchers, and statistical and qualitative analyses of the available input data. The results of the study are reported in four documents: (1) Project Summary; (2) Technology Handbook; (3) Parameter Survey; (4) Analysis, Data, Bibliography. Contents (Volume II): Diesels, Gas Turbines, Stirlings, Organic Rankine Cycle, Fuel Cells, Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System, Wind Turbines, Batteries, Thermal Energy Storage System.

  20. Akutan, Alaska bottomfish harbor study feasibility stage: Planning aid report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Six alternatives are presently being studied by the Corps of Engineers, in conjunction with facilitating construction of a bottomfish harbor at Akutan Harbor located...

  1. A Decade of Comparative Dose Planning Studies for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: What Can We Learn?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-12-01

    During the past 4 decades, the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma has changed dramatically, and combined modality treatment is now considered the standard of care for patients with early-stage disease. However, the risk of late effects has led to concerns regarding the use of radiation therapy, especially in young patients with a long life expectancy. In this study, we review the current evidence for modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques in the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma with a focus on a reduced delivered dose, a reduced irradiated volume, and a more conformal dose distribution. Although studies are difficult to compare because of differences in field technique, prescribed dose, target volumes, patient population, and reported dosimetric and plan evaluation parameters, modern radiation therapy significantly reduces exposure to normal tissues and thereby the estimated risk of late effects. However, there is no such thing as a single best modern delivery technique when multiple organs at risk are considered simultaneously because of the heterogeneity in patient anatomy and disease location, and the choice of radiation therapy technique should be made individually for each patient.

  2. Information management system study results. Volume 1: IMS study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The information management system (IMS) special emphasis task was performed as an adjunct to the modular space station study, with the objective of providing extended depth of analysis and design in selected key areas of the information management system. Specific objectives included: (1) in-depth studies of IMS requirements and design approaches; (2) design and fabricate breadboard hardware for demonstration and verification of design concepts; (3) provide a technological base to identify potential design problems and influence long range planning (4) develop hardware and techniques to permit long duration, low cost, manned space operations; (5) support SR&T areas where techniques or equipment are considered inadequate; and (6) permit an overall understanding of the IMS as an integrated component of the space station.

  3. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  4. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    flounder and northern puffer are, in general, declining in abundance. Tidal Tributaries Although the New Jersey Division of Fish , Game and Shellfisheries...environmental impacts of dredge disposal and inventory various fish and wildlife in the area. Historic and archeological sites are also listed...STUDY AREA 13 NATURAL RESOURCES 13 Environmental Overview 13 Fish and Wildlife 16.4 HUMAN RESOURCES A 20 Population jBUTnON ST. 20 Housing Aprc"’ for

  5. Prospective study of proton-beam radiation therapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Verma, Vivek; Lin, Liyong; Berman, Abigail T; Levin, William P; Evans, Tracey L; Aggarwal, Charu; Rengan, Ramesh; Langer, Corey; Cohen, Roger B; Simone, Charles B

    2017-11-01

    Existing data supporting the use of proton-beam therapy (PBT) for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) are limited to a single 6-patient case series. This is the first prospective study to evaluate clinical outcomes and toxicities of PBT for LS-SCLC. This study prospectively analyzed patients with primary, nonrecurrent LS-SCLC definitively treated with PBT and concurrent chemotherapy from 2011 to 2016. Clinical backup intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were generated for each patient and were compared with PBT plans. Outcome measures included local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates and toxicities. Thirty consecutive patients were enrolled and evaluated. The median dose was 63.9 cobalt gray equivalents (range, 45-66.6 cobalt gray equivalents) in 33 to 37 fractions delivered daily (n = 18 [60.0%]) or twice daily (n = 12 [40.0%]). The concurrent chemotherapy was cisplatin/etoposide (n = 21 [70.0%]) or carboplatin/etoposide (n = 9 [30.0%]). In comparison with the backup IMRT plans, PBT allowed statistically significant reductions in the cord, heart, and lung mean doses and the volume receiving at least 5 Gy but not in the esophagus mean dose or the lung volume receiving at least 20 Gy. At a median follow-up of 14 months, the 1-/2-year LC and RFS rates were 85%/69% and 63%/42%, respectively. The median OS was 28.2 months, and the 1-/2-year OS rates were 72%/58%. There was 1 case each (3.3%) of grade 3 or higher esophagitis, pneumonitis, anorexia, and pericardial effusion. Grade 2 pneumonitis and esophagitis were seen in 10.0% and 43.3% of patients, respectively. In the first prospective registry study and largest analysis to date of PBT for LS-SCLC, PBT was found to be safe with a limited incidence of high-grade toxicities. Cancer 2017;123:4244-4251. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Familiarity and Emotional Expression Influence an Early Stage of Face Processing: An Electrophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caharel, Stephanie; Courtay, Nolwenn; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicate that the familiarity and the emotional expression of faces occur at an early stage of information processing. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these two aspects interact at the structural encoding stage as reflected by the N170 component of event-related potentials in tasks requiring the subjects either…

  7. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of st...

  8. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Wistisen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111 plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  9. Combining evidence from multiple electronic health care databases: performances of one-stage and two-stage meta-analysis in matched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gamba, Fabiola; Corrao, Giovanni; Romio, Silvana; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca; Schink, Tania; de Ridder, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Clustering of patients in databases is usually ignored in one-stage meta-analysis of multi-database studies using matched case-control data. The aim of this study was to compare bias and efficiency of such a one-stage meta-analysis with a two-stage meta-analysis. First, we compared the approaches by generating matched case-control data under 5 simulated scenarios, built by varying: (1) the exposure-outcome association; (2) its variability among databases; (3) the confounding strength of one covariate on this association; (4) its variability; and (5) the (heterogeneous) confounding strength of two covariates. Second, we made the same comparison using empirical data from the ARITMO project, a multiple database study investigating the risk of ventricular arrhythmia following the use of medications with arrhythmogenic potential. In our study, we specifically investigated the effect of current use of promethazine. Bias increased for one-stage meta-analysis with increasing (1) between-database variance of exposure effect and (2) heterogeneous confounding generated by two covariates. The efficiency of one-stage meta-analysis was slightly lower than that of two-stage meta-analysis for the majority of investigated scenarios. Based on ARITMO data, there were no evident differences between one-stage (OR = 1.50, CI = [1.08; 2.08]) and two-stage (OR = 1.55, CI = [1.12; 2.16]) approaches. When the effect of interest is heterogeneous, a one-stage meta-analysis ignoring clustering gives biased estimates. Two-stage meta-analysis generates estimates at least as accurate and precise as one-stage meta-analysis. However, in a study using small databases and rare exposures and/or outcomes, a correct one-stage meta-analysis becomes essential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Discriminative analysis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease and normal aging with automatic segmentation technique in subcortical gray matter structures: a multicenter in vivo MRI volumetric and DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-di; He, Hui-jin; Dong, Hai-bo; Feng, Xiao-yuan; Xie, Guo-ming; Zhang, Ling-jun

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have revealed that amyloid depositions exist in not only the hippocampus but in other subcortical gray matter structures as well. Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) parameters might be more sensitive measures of early degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) than conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. To evaluate the significance of the volumes and the mean diffusivity (MD) values of subcortical gray matter structures in discrimination between early-stage AD and normal subjects using the Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool in FMRIB's Software Library. Fifty-three cases of early-stage AD and 30 normal aging volunteers from two hospitals were scanned with 3D-FSPGRIR and SSSE-EPI sequences using two similar 1.5T MR systems. The mean relative volumes and mean MD values of subcortical gray matter structures were compared between early-stage AD and control groups. Binary logistic regression analysis and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to assess the diagnostic significance of every structure's relative volume, MD value, and combination of both. The relative volumes of the left hippocampus, right amygdala, bilateral thalamus, right caudate, left putamen, and bilateral pallidum were significantly lower in the early-stage AD group than in the control group (P early-stage AD group (P early-stage AD. Diffusive imaging has great diagnostic significance in early-stage AD. The combination of both imaging modalities can lead to better discrimination between early-stage AD and normal aging.

  11. Leaving Education Early: Putting Vocational Education and Training Centre Stage. Volume I: Investigating Causes and Extent. Cedefop Research Paper. No 57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Cedefop study examines the contribution that vocational education and training (VET) can make to reducing early leaving from education and training (ELET). Published in two volumes, this first looks at quantitative data to understand better the extent of early leaving from VET (ELVET). It analyses mechanisms for monitoring early leaving (at…

  12. A biomechanical study of keratoconus at different stages of progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate and analyze the changes of corneal biomechanics of normal eyes, forme frusta keratoconus eyes, subclinical keratoconus eyes and clinical keratoconus eyes by Corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology(Corvis ST, and provide clinical basis for early diagnosis of keratoconus. METHODS: Case-control study. We randomly selected 40 normal eyes as normal group, 15 forme frusta keratoconus eyes as forme frusta keratoconus group, 23 subclinical keratoconus eyes as subclinical keratoconus group, and 40 clinical keratoconus eyes as keratoconus group. The biomechanical parameters of each group were measured by Corvis ST. The receiver operating characteristic(ROCcurves was plotted to distinguish keratoconus from the normal cornea. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the parameters of biomechanics between normal group and forme frusta keratoconus group (P>0.05. Compared to normal group and subclinical keratoconus group, the parameters second applanation length(AL2, first velocity of applanation(AV1, central curvature radius at highest concavity(HC-radius, deformation amplitude(DAwere revealed statistically significant differences(PCONCLUSION: The corneal biomechanical parameters of forme frusta keratoconus group are not changed compared with normal group. The changes between normal group and subclinical keratoconus group should combine with other technology to further improve subclinical keratoconic screening. Compared with normal corneas, keratoconus has a great change in biomechanics, which DA diagnosis of the highest efficiency.

  13. Literacy & Numeracy Studies Volume 15 No 2 Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Literacy and Numeracy Studies takes up two major themes shaping the landscape of research and practice in adult literacy. The first of these is the more recent of the two: the intersections between literacy and professional and workplace practice. The second is perhaps a more sustained and enduring concern in the field with the relationship of literacy to context, place and culture. In this sense, this issue of the journal is an expression of the reach and diversity of concerns with literacy in ‘social participation, the utilisation of social resources and the quality of life’ (Green, Lo Bianco and Wyn, this volume and carries forward critical debates for the field across the span of practice from the workplace, to the classroom to the community.

  14. Early treatment volume reduction rate as a prognostic factor in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for limited stage small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jeong Shin; Lee, Chang Geol; Cho, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Hyun; Kim, Jun Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the relationship between early treatment response to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and survival outcome in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with LS-SCLC who received definitive CRT between January 2009 and December 2012. Patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy regimen of etoposide/carboplatin (n = 15) or etoposide/cisplatin (n = 32) and concurrent thoracic radiotherapy at a median dose of 54 Gy (range, 46 to 64 Gy). Early treatment volume reduction rate (ETVRR) was defined as the percentage change in gross tumor volume between diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and simulation CT for adaptive RT planning and was used as a parameter for early treatment response. The median dose at adaptive RT planning was 36 Gy (range, 30 to 43 Gy), and adaptive CT was performed in 30 patients (63.8%). With a median follow-up of 27.7 months (range, 5.9 to 75.8 months), the 2-year locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 74.2% and 56.5%, respectively. The mean diagnostic and adaptive gross tumor volumes were 117.9 mL (range, 5.9 to 447 mL) and 36.8 mL (range, 0.3 to 230.6 mL), respectively. The median ETVRR was 71.4% (range, 30 to 97.6%) and the ETVRR >45% group showed significantly better OS (p < 0.0001) and LRPFS (p = 0.009) than the other group. ETVRR as a parameter for early treatment response may be a useful prognostic factor to predict treatment outcome in LS-SCLC patients treated with CRT.

  15. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  16. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  17. Southwest Florida Shelf benthic communities study, Year 4 annual report. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danek, L.J.; Lewbel, G.S.; Tomlinson, M.S.; Boland, G.S.; Tourtellotte, G.H.

    1985-07-01

    The appendix (Volume 3) accompanies the Technical Discussion (Volume 2) of the study. It presents station plots, physical oceanography data, ancillary physical data, sediment data, lists of infauna, epifauna, nekton and macroalgae, and fouling-plate data.

  18. Evolution of Ventricular Energetics in the Different Stages of Palliation of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Molfetta, A; Iacobelli, R; Guccione, P; Di Chiara, L; Rocchi, M; Cobianchi Belisari, F; Campanale, M; Gagliardi, M G; Filippelli, S; Ferrari, G; Amodeo, A

    2017-12-01

    Hyperplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) patients are palliated by creating a Fontan-type circulation passing from different surgical stages. The aim of this work is to describe the evolution of ventricular energetics parameters in HLHS patients during the different stages of palliation including the hybrid, the Norwood, the bidirectional Glenn (BDG), and the Fontan procedures. We conducted a retrospective clinical study enrolling all HLHS patients surgically treated with hybrid procedure and/or Norwood and/or BDG and/or Fontan operation from 2011 to 2016 collecting echocardiographic and hemodynamic data. Measured data were used to calculate energetic variables such as ventricular elastances, external and internal work, ventriculo-arterial coupling and cardiac mechanical efficiency. From 2010 to 2016, a total of 29 HLHS patients undergoing cardiac catheterization after hybrid (n = 7) or Norwood (n = 6) or Glenn (n = 8) or Fontan (n = 8) procedure were retrospectively enrolled. Ventricular volumes were significantly higher in the Norwood circulation than in the hybrid circulation (p = 0.03) with a progressive decrement from the first stage to the Fontan completion. Ventricular elastances were lower in the Norwood circulation than in the hybrid circulation and progressively increased passing from the first stage to the Fontan completion. The arterial elastance and Rtot increased in the Fontan circulation. The ventricular work progressively increased. Finally, the ventricular efficiency improves passing from the first to the last stage of palliation. The use of ventricular energetic parameters could lead to a more complete evaluation of such complex patients to better understand their adaptation to different pathophysiological conditions.

  19. Prospective Cohort Study Depending on the Use of Palliative Care for Advanced Stage of Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Liver Cancer; Malignant Hematologic Neoplasm; Biliary Cancer Metastatic; Pediatric Leukemia; Pediatric Lymphoma; Pediatric Brain Tumor; Pediatric Solid Tumor

  20. Lymphocyte subsets at different stages of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a study with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrosu, M G; Cianchetti, C; Ennas, M G

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocyte subsets in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were studied using monoclonal antibodies, in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, eight of whom were at stage 2 and seven at stage 4. Eighteen subjects affected with non immunological diseases constituted the controls. Regardless of the stage, patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis had lower percentages of OKT3+ (pan-T) cells in both CSF and peripheral blood, with an increase of OKIa+ cells (B cells, macrophages and active T cells) in peripheral blood. A difference was found in the proportion of OKT4+ (helper-inducer) and OKT8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) cells in relation to the stage, the most striking finding being a significant decrease of OKT8+ with an increase of T4/T8 ratio in peripheral blood at an early stage. PMID:2942644

  1. Theory of stages applied to the studies of motor development: a revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory of stages applied to motor development was based on development psychology, proposed by Piaget. The idea was that the cognitive behavior was undergoing qualitative changes called stages. And it was that idea which provided the basis for building a theory of stages for motor behaviour. Since then, the goal of the professional who works with motor development has been to try to explain the process of acquisition of fundamental movements through a hierarchical sequence of stages, identified since the first movement manifestation until its execution in a mature way. This article, however, aims not at confirming the theory of stages as adequate, but at carrying out an explanation about such theory applied to the studies of motor development, considering its principal characteristics as well a discussion of such content in face of new trends.

  2. Hypothalamus and pituitary volume in schizophrenia: a structural MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Anne; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S; Haren, Neeltje E M Van

    2012-03-01

    Volumetric differences of the hypothalamus and/or the pituitary gland tend to support involvement of the HPA axis in psychotic disorders. These structures were manually outlined in 154 schizophrenia patients and 156 matched healthy comparison subjects by MRI brain images. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate differences in volume between groups. Moreover, the effects of illness duration and type of medication were investigated. No significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in volumes of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. In addition, there were no differences in volumes between patients with short and long illness duration. There was a trend towards patients receiving typical antipsychotic medication at the time of scanning having larger pituitary volumes than patients receiving atypical medication. These findings indicate that volume decreases in brain structures important for the normal functioning of the HPA axis are not present, either in recent-onset or chronically ill patients.

  3. Studie en stage in het buitenland en de ontwikkeling van internationale competenties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jos Walenkamp; R.F.M. (Rudy) van den Hoven

    2013-01-01

    Hogeronderwijsinstellingen hebben verschillende redenen voor internationalisering. Een van de belangrijkste redenen vormt de ontwikkeling van internationale competenties van studenten. Van de instrumenten die zij daartoe inzetten wordt een verblijf in het buitenland om redenen van studie of stage

  4. Endoscopic lung volume reduction coil treatment in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marcel; Harbaum, Lars; Oqueka, Tim; Kluge, Stefan; Klose, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is an option for selected patients with severe emphysema. In the advanced stages, emphysema leads to respiratory failure: hypoxemia and eventually chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. It can be hypothesized that LVRC treatment, a procedure targeting hyperinflation and thereby reducing ventilatory workload, may be especially beneficial in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. This study was conducted to gain first insights into the effects and the safety of LVRC treatment in patients with emphysema and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. A retrospective observational study conducted in the Department of Respiratory Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany on all patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure in whom bilateral LVRC treatment was performed between 1 April 2012 and 30 September 2015. During the study period, bilateral LVRC treatment was performed in 10 patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Compared with baseline, bilateral LVRC treatment led to a significant increase in mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) from 0.5 ± 0.1 l to 0.6 ± 0.2 l ( p = 0.004), a decrease in residual volume (RV) from 6.1 ± 0.9 l to 5.6 ± 1.1 l ( p = 0.02) and a reduction in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) from 53 ± 5 mmHg to 48 ± 4 mmHg ( p = 0.03). One case of hemoptysis requiring readmission to hospital was the only severe adverse event. LVRC treatment was safe and effective in patients with nonsevere chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. It led not only to an improvement in lung function but also to a significant decrease in PaCO2.

  5. Comparative study of essential oil content and composition of Ducrosia anethifolia at two phenologocal stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Karimi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ducrosia anethifolia is one species which belongs to Apiaceae family that is used to improve the odor of foods and drinks. It is used also to treat catarrh, headache and backache in folk medicine. The herb is also reported to relax the mind and body and induce a peaceful sleep. The growing stage has an important role in quantity and quality of medicinal plants metabolite. In this study, the oil content and composition of D. anethifolia at two growth stages (full flowering and seed formation were studied. Methods: Oil content of this plant was isolated by hydrodistillation method by Clevenger type apparatus. Chemical composition was detected by GC and GC/MS analysis. Results: The results showed that the phenological stage had significant effect on the oil content and composition. Oil content at seed formation was more than the flowering stage (0.24 and 0.96% v/w, respectively. At the flowering stage, n-dodecanal (14.43%, dodecanal (13.30% and n-decanoic acid (11.61% were the major constituents while in the seed formation stage, they were detected slightly. Besides, at seed formation stage cis-chrysanthenyl acetae (39.06%, cubenol (7.97% and p-cymene-7-ol (4.30% were identified as the main composition. Conclusion: The results showed depending on our goal for each plant usage, the harvest time could be different; during seed formation the oil content increased significantly.

  6. Lorain Harbor, Ohio. Preliminary Feasibility Study (Stage 2). Review of Reports. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    X 58 1909 12,450 X D. M. Clemson :600 X 60 :1917 14,100 : Thomas P. Cole :605 X 58 :1907 :12,550 X: Alva C. Dinkey :601 X158 :1909 :12,450 X: Benjamin...that. As far as I know, the only coal burning utility is the one right down there (Ohio Edison ) now being served, that is consuming eastern coal...retained to serve Ohio Edison . WJF/dag cc: DWB/C-File, MRJ/A-File, GK,Jr., WRK/JMH, JF S.O. #13402-ARA MEETING REPORT May 9, 1979 TRANSSHIPMENT FACILITY

  7. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE VARIATION OF SPRAY DEPOSITS IN VINEYARDS WITH AIRFLOW RATE AND VOLUME RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cerruto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research, continuing that reported in [2], deals with the spray application subject, so to investigate as volume rate and airflow rate, forward speed being equal, affect the foliar deposition in an espalier vineyard. Experimental trials were carried out by means of an air assisted towed sprayer, equipped with “Albuz ATR” nozzles. To take into account the influence of the development of the trees, the field trials were replicated in two phenological stages with an interval of about one month: “Inflorescences fully developed” (stage 1 and “Beginning of berry touch” (stage 2. A full factorial experiment was carried out for each growth stage, with two airflow rates (3.9 and 7.5 m3/s, three volume rates (103, 216, and 276 L/ha in the first growth stage and 154, 330 and 432 L/ha in the second growth stage, and four replicates, arranged according to a randomised complete block design. Working pressure (1.2 MPa and forward speed (1.4 m/s were kept unchanged for all the trials. The foliar deposition was measured by means of a spectrophotometric technique. The leaves were sampled on two depth layers and two or three heights, according to the trees’ development. The results showed that volume rate did not significantly influence the mean foliar deposition in both the two growth stages, while the highest deposits were obtained with the lowest airflow rate. The airflow rate × volume rate interaction, though not statistically significant, showed that low volume rates together with high airflow rates, result in a noticeable reduction in foliar deposition (29% with respect the grand mean, due to an increase of the spry drift, especially at the first growth stage, when the foliar development is little. These second tests, unlike those described in [2], did not show any positive influence of the airflow rate on the foliar deposition in the inner part of the canopy, so further investigations could be necessary to better understand the

  8. Georgetown University Integrated Community Energy System (GU-ICES). Phase III, Stage I. Feasibility analysis. Final report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This Feasibility Analysis covers a wide range of studies and evaluations. The Report is divided into five parts. Section 1 contains all material relating to the Institutional Assessment including consideration of the requirements and position of the Potomac Electric Co. as they relate to cogeneration at Georgetown in parallel with the utility (Task 1). Sections 2 through 7 contain all technical information relating to the Alternative Subsystems Analysis (Task 4). This includes the energy demand profiles upon which the evaluations were based (Task 3). It further includes the results of the Life-Cycle-Cost Analyses (Task 5) which are developed in detail in the Appendix for evaluation in the Technical Report. Also included is the material relating to Incremental Savings and Optimization (Task 6) and the Conceptual Design for candidate alternate subsystems (Task 7). Section 8 contains all material relating to the Environmental Impact Assessment (Task 2). The Appendix contains supplementary material including the budget cost estimates used in the life-cycle-cost analyses, the basic assumptions upon which the life-cycle analyses were developed, and the detailed life-cycle-cost anlysis for each subsystem considered in detail.

  9. Observational study of the effect of obesity on lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, Joerg; Lunt, Alan; Hart, Nicholas; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John

    2014-08-01

    Severe obesity causes respiratory morbidity and mortality. The impact of obesity on the mechanics of breathing is not fully understood. We undertook a comprehensive observational study of lung volumes and elasticity in nine obese and nine normal weight subjects, seated and supine, during spontaneous breathing. Seated and supine total lung capacity (TLC) and subdivisions were measured by multibreath helium dilution method. Using balloon catheters, oesophageal (Poes) and gastric (Pgas) pressures were recorded. Transpulmonary pressure (PL) was calculated as mouth pressure (Pmouth)-Poes, and complete expiratory PL volume curves were measured. The obese group had a body mass index (BMI) of 46.8 (17.2) kg/m(2), and the normal group had a BMI of 23.2 (1.6) kg/m(2) (p=0.001). Obese and normals were matched for age (p=0.233), gender (p=0.637) and height (p=0.094). The obese were more restricted than the normals (TLC 88.6 (16.9) vs 104.4 (12.3) %predicted, p=0.033; FEV1/FVC 79.6 (7.3) vs 82.5 (4.2) %, p=0.325), had dramatically reduced expiratory reserve volume (ERV 0.4 (0.4) vs 1.7 (0.6) L, p<0.001) and end-tidal functional residual capacity (FRC) was smaller (37.5 (6.9) vs 46.9 (4.6) %TLC, p=0.004) when seated, but was similar when supine (39.4 (7.7) vs 41.5 (4.3) %TLC, p=0.477). Gastric pressures at FRC were significantly elevated in the obese (seated 19.1 (4.7) vs 12.1 (6.2) cm H2O, p=0.015; supine 14.3 (5.7) vs 7.1 (2.6) cm H2O, p=0.003), as were end-expiratory oesophageal pressures at FRC (seated 5.2 (6.9) vs -2.0 (3.5) cm H2O, p=0.013; supine 14.0 (8.0) vs 5.4 (3.1) cm H2O, p=0.008). BMI correlated with end-expiratory gastric (seated R(2)=0.43, supine R(2)=0.66, p<0.01) and oesophageal pressures (seated R(2)=0.51, supine R(2)=0.62, p<0.01). Obese subjects have markedly increased gastric and oesophageal pressures, both when upright and supine, causing dramatically reduced FRC and ERV, which increases work of breathing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  10. Modeled Urea Distribution Volume and Mortality in the HEMO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A.; Levin, Nathan W.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, observed small decreases in achieved equilibrated Kt/Vurea were noncausally associated with markedly increased mortality. Here we examine the association of mortality with modeled volume (Vm), the denominator of equilibrated Kt/Vurea. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Parameters derived from modeled urea kinetics (including Vm) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained monthly in 1846 patients. Case mix–adjusted time-dependent Cox regressions were used to relate the relative mortality hazard at each time point to Vm and to the change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. Mixed effects models were used to relate Vm to changes in intradialytic systolic BP and to other factors at each follow-up visit. Results Mortality was associated with Vm and change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. The association between change in Vm and mortality was independent of vascular access complications. In contrast, mortality was inversely associated with V calculated from anthropometric measurements (Vant). In case mix–adjusted analysis using Vm as a time-dependent covariate, the association of mortality with Vm strengthened after statistical adjustment for Vant. After adjustment for Vant, higher Vm was associated with slightly smaller reductions in intradialytic systolic BP and with risk factors for mortality including recent hospitalization and reductions in serum albumin concentration and body weight. Conclusions An increase in Vm is a marker for illness and mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21511841

  11. Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats : effect of stage of lactation, parity and milk volume on withdrawal periods, and the effect of treatment on milk compositional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karzis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The length of the antibiotic withdrawal period after intramammary treatment was influenced by the milk yield of dairy goats during this trial. Shorter withdrawal periods were seen in relatively high yielding dairy goats (production above 1.5 ℓ per day compared to low producers (less than 1.3 ℓ per day. High yielding goats treated with Curaclox LC (Norbrook [Pharmacia AH] had a withdrawal period of 42 h, while low yielding goats, treated with the same product, had a withdrawal period of 74 h. The recommended withdrawal period for Curaclox LC for use in cattle is 72 h. Relatively high yielding goats treated with Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac] had a significantly shorter withdrawal period (37 h than that recommended for use in cattle (96 h. Low yielding goats treated with Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health had a significantly longer (95 h withdrawal period than that recommended for use in cattle (60 h. Withdrawal periods were also influenced by stage of lactation and parity. There was a moderate positive correlation between lactation number and withdrawal period, as measured by TRIS (R2 = 0.621, and a moderate negative correlation between stage of lactation and withdrawal period (R2 = -0.669. In Trials 1, 2 and 3 combined there was a moderate negative correlation between withdrawal period and volume (R2 = -0.511 and a strong positive correlation between withdrawal period and lactation number (R2 = 0.720. The differences in percentage milk fat, protein and lactose before, during and after treatment were not statistically significant except in Trial 3 (Curaclox LC and Rilexine 200 LC where protein and lactose differed significantly. In Trial 2 (Spectrazol Milking Cow milk fat percentages differed significantly between treatment and control groups as did protein percentages in Trial 3. These differences are however, not biologically meaningful.

  12. Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats: effect of stage of lactation, parity and milk volume on withdrawal periods, and the effect of treatment on milk compositional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzis, J; Donkin, E F; Petzer, I M

    2007-09-01

    The length of the antibiotic withdrawal period after intramammary treatment was influenced by the milk yield of dairy goats during this trial. Shorter withdrawal periods were seen in relatively high yielding dairy goats (production above 1.5 l per day) compared to low producers (less than 1.3 l per day). High yielding goats treated with Curaclox LC (Norbrook [Pharmacia AH]) had a withdrawal period of 42 h, while low yielding goats, treated with the same product, had a withdrawal period of 74 h. The recommended withdrawal period for Curaclox LC for use in cattle is 72 h. Relatively high yielding goats treated with Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac]) had a significantly shorter withdrawal period (37 h) than that recommended for use in cattle (96 h). Low yielding goats treated with Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) had a significantly longer (95 h) withdrawal period than that recommended for use in cattle (60 h). Withdrawal periods were also influenced by stage of lactation and parity. There was a moderate positive correlation between lactation number and withdrawal period, as measured by TRIS (R2 = 0.621), and a moderate negative correlation between stage of lactation and withdrawal period (R2 = -0.669). In Trials 1, 2 and 3 combined there was a moderate negative correlation between withdrawal period and volume (R2 = -0.511) and a strong positive correlation between withdrawal period and lactation number (R2 = 0.720). The differences in percentage milk fat, protein and lactose before, during and after treatment were not statistically significant except in Trial 3 (Curaclox LC and Rilexine 200 LC) where protein and lactose differed significantly. In Trial 2 (Spectrazol Milking Cow) milk fat percentages differed significantly between treatment and control groups as did protein percentages in Trial 3. These differences are however, not biologically meaningful.

  13. A study of pulmonary function in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Sharma

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The aim here was to study acute effects of hemodialysis among end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in tertiary-level care center. METHODS: Fifty ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis were studied. Spirometric pulmonary function tests were performed before and after four-hour hemodialysis sessions. RESULTS: The patients’ average age was 45.8 ± 10.0 years; 64% were males and 64% had normal body mass index. Anemia (94% and hypoalbuminemia (72% were common. Diabetes mellitus (68%, hypertension (34% and coronary artery disease (18% were major comorbidities. Forty-five patients (90% had been on hemodialysis for six months to three years. The patients’ pre-dialysis mean forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 were below normal: 45.8 ± 24.9% and 43.5 ± 25.9% of predicted, respectively. After hemodialysis, these increased significantly, to 51.1 ± 23.4% and 49.3 ± 25.5% of predicted, respectively (P 0.05. The pre-dialysis mean forced expiratory flow 25-75% was 50.1 ± 31% and increased significantly, to 56.3 ± 31.6% of predicted (P < 0.05. The mean peak expiratory flow was below normal (43.8 ± 30.7% and increased significantly, to 49.1 ± 29.9% of predicted (P < 0.05. Males and females showed similar directions of change after hemodialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary function abnormalities are common among ESRD patients. Comparison of pre and post-hemodialysis parameters showed significant improvements, but normal predicted values were still not achieved.

  14. PREVENTION OF BLOOD LOSS IN THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR BY PLACENTAL BLOOD DRAINAGE- A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Placental cord drainage is a simple, safe and non-invasive method which reduces the duration and blood loss in the third stage of labour thereby preventing PPH. This method is of great use in day to day obstetric practices not requiring any extra effort, cost or equipment, so this type of practice is more relevant in rural areas. The objectives of the study were1. To evaluate the effectiveness of placental blood drainage via umbilical cord in reducing duration and blood loss in third stage of labour. 2. Reducing the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. 3. Decreasing the complications in third stage of labour and reduce maternal mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in 100 full term pregnant women admitted in the labour room in Gauhati medical college and hospital in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology since 1st August 2007 to 30th August 2008. Cases were divided into two. Study group and control group. RESULTS In control group the average duration of third stage was 7.41 minutes and in study group 5.57 minutes and p value was <0.001 which is very highly significant. The blood loss in third stage of labour was more in case of control group, the mean blood loss in control was 169.48 ml and study group was 110.38 ml after delivery of placenta. The post-partum haemorrhage was present in 2% of cases in control group while in study group it was present in 0% case. CONCLUSION Placental blood drainage is one of the additional components in active management of third stage of labour, which is safe, simple and non-invasive method. It reduces the duration of third stage of labour, amount of blood loss and decreases the duration of placental separation time.

  15. Collection of population-based cancer staging information in Western Australia – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katris Paul

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine data from cancer registries often lack information on stage of cancer, limiting their use. This study aimed to determine whether or not it is feasible to add cancer staging data to the routine data collections of a population-based Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR. Methods For each of the five most common cancer types (prostate, colorectal, melanoma, breast and lung cancers, 60 cases were selected for staging. For the 15 next most common cancer types, 20 cases were selected. Four sources for collecting staging data were used in the following order: the WACR, the hospital based cancer registries (HBCRs, hospital medical records, and letters to treating doctors. If the case was unable to be fully staged, due to lack of information on regional lymph node invasion or distant metastases, we made the following assumptions. Cases which had data available for tumour (T and regional lymph nodes (N, but no assessment of distant metastasis (MX were assumed to have no distant metastases (M0. Cases which had data for T and M, but no assessment of regional nodal involvement (NX were assumed to have no regional nodal involvement (N0. Results The main focus of this project was the process of collecting staging data, and not the outcomes. For ovary, cervix and uterus cancers the existence of a HBCR increased the stageable proportion of cases so that staging data for these cancers could be incorporated into the WACR immediately. Breast and colorectal cancer could also be staged with adequate completeness if it were assumed that MX = M0. Similarly, melanoma and prostate cancer could be staged adequately if it were assumed that NX = N0 and MX = M0. Some cases of stomach, lung, pancreas, thyroid, testis and kidney cancers could be staged, but additional clinical input – on pathology request forms, for example – would be required to achieve useable levels of completeness. For the remaining cancer types either staging is widely

  16. [Application of the 2007 lung cancer staging system by International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Nan; Zheng, Qing-feng; Feng, Yuan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yue

    2009-08-18

    To compare the prognoses of non-small cell lung cancer patients based respectively on the 6th-Edition Staging System for NSCLC (the 6th-Edition Staging System) and the new staging system by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) (new staging system). Data were collected from 136 operated NSCLC patients from Sep. 2003 through Oct. 2007. Those data were staged based respectively on the 6th-Edition Staging System and the new staging system. The 2-year no-recurrence survival rate was calculated, and life span was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method of SPSS 13.0 software. (1) In this series, using the 6th-Edition Staging System, there were 56, 23, 53 and 4 patients in stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV respectively; using the new staging system, there were 50, 31, 54 and 1 patients in stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV respectively. There were 6 patients in stage I according to the 6th-Edition Staging System who had become 6 patients in stage II according to the new staging system, 1 patient in stage II 1 in stage III, 3 patients in stage III 3 in stage II, 1 patient in stage III 1 in stage IV, and 4 patients in stage IV 4 in stage III. (2) According to the 6th-Edition Staging System, the 2-year no-recurrence survival rates for Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb,IIIa, IIIb and IV were 95.0%, 83.3%, 100.0%, 63.6%, 52.1%, 80.0% and 50.0% respectively, and according to the new staging system, the 2-year cumulative survival rates for I a, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb and IV were 95.5%, 89.3%, 68.4%, 63.6%, 52.8%, 50.0% and 0.0% respectively. After Chi square analysis, there was no distinguished difference between the 2 staging systems for the 2-year cumulative survival rate. (3) According to the 6th-Edition Staging System, the difference between the no-recurrence rate of stage I and stage II was not statistically significant (P = 0.232), and the difference between the no-recurrence rates of stage II and III was statistically significant(P = 0

  17. Do all patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer need staging radionuclide bone scan? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghazo, Mohammed A; Ghalayini, Ibrahim F; Al-Azab, Rami S; Bani-Hani, Ibrahim; Barham, Alaa; Haddad, Yazan

    2010-01-01

    Define a group of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, whose risk of bone metastasis is low enough to omit a bone scan staging study. From 2003 to 2009, the medical records of patients who were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The data collected included: age, digital rectal examination, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, clinical T stage, and bone isotope scan. Patients were divided into two groups according to the results of bone isotope scan; positive group and negative group. A univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression was used to analyze the results. Of the 106 patients, 98 had a complete data collection and were entered into the study. The median age of the patients was 70.5 years and patients with a positive bone scan was 74 years, significantly higher than for patients with negative scans (69 years) (p=0.02). Bone metastasis was detected in 39 cases (39.7%). In all patients with clinical T1-2 stage, a Gleason score of bone isotope scans were negative. In univariate analysis, PSA (>20 ng/mL) and Gleason score (>7) were independently predictive of positive bone scan, while clinical stage was not. Staging bone scans can be omitted in patients with a PSA level of ≤20 ng/mL, and Gleason scoreGleason score and PSA, a larger proportion of patients with prostate cancer could avoid a staging bone scan.

  18. Do all patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer need staging radionuclide bone scan? a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Ghazo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Define a group of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, whose risk of bone metastasis is low enough to omit a bone scan staging study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2003 to 2009, the medical records of patients who were newly diagnosed with prostate cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The data collected included: age, digital rectal examination, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA, Gleason score, clinical T stage, and bone isotope scan. Patients were divided into two groups according to the results of bone isotope scan; positive group and negative group. A univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression was used to analyze the results. RESULTS: Of the 106 patients, 98 had a complete data collection and were entered into the study. The median age of the patients was 70.5 years and patients with a positive bone scan was 74 years, significantly higher than for patients with negative scans (69 years (p = 0.02. Bone metastasis was detected in 39 cases (39.7%. In all patients with clinical T1-2 stage, a Gleason score of 20 ng/mL and Gleason score (> 7 were independently predictive of positive bone scan, while clinical stage was not. CONCLUSION: Staging bone scans can be omitted in patients with a PSA level of = 20 ng/mL, and Gleason score < 8. Our results suggest that by considering the Gleason score and PSA, a larger proportion of patients with prostate cancer could avoid a staging bone scan.

  19. Duration of the second stage of labor while wearing a dental support device: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Mudd, Janna V; Kopelman, Jerome N; Atlas, Robert O

    2009-08-01

    Developing a method of maximizing maternal expulsive effort should be of great value in reducing the number of cesarean sections or instrumental deliveries. Various investigations have shown that use of a dental support device (DSD) increases the isometric strength of different muscle groups. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of a DSD in second stage of pushing. Nulliparous women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy course were randomly assigned either to a DSD group or to a non-device group. Duration of the second stage of labor was evaluated. Rates of cesarean section or instrumental delivery indicated for failure to descend in the second stage of labor were also evaluated. Satisfaction scores for the DSD group were evaluated (range 1-5). Sixty-four subjects were enrolled in the study. Cesarean section and instrumental delivery were performed for 12 (18.8%) and 5 (7.8%) patients, respectively. There was no difference in obstetrical and neonatal demographics between the two groups. Among 64 enrolled patients, 38 (59.3%) were evaluated for the second stage of labor (n = 19 for each group). Duration of the second stage of labor in the DSD group was significantly shorter than in the non-device group: (median 19 min (interquartile interval, IQI, 9) vs 31 min (IQI, 23)), P dental support device may shorten the second stage of labor, and may decrease the number of failures to descend requiring operative intervention. NCT00629369.

  20. Evaluation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. leaves during its developmental stages: a chemical composition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Batoqui França Biondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot leaves (Beta vulgaris L. are commonly cut off and discarded before using its bulb due to lack of knowledge of how to use them. Aiming at using these leaves, in the present study, in natura and dehydrated beetroot leaves were chemically characterized in terms of fatty acid composition, proximate composition, minerals, total phenolic compounds (TPC, and antioxidant activity by DPPH• in different stages (60, 80, and 100 days of development. The beetroot leaves showed significant levels of protein and lipids in all developmental stages, and all proximate composition nutrients decreased during these maturation stages; the highest content was observed at 60 days. The Fe content decreased during the developmental stages (from 342.75 to 246.30 mg.kg-1, while the content of K increased (from 13,367.64 to 20,784.90 mg.kg-1. With regard to to fatty acid composition, linolenic acid was present in the greatest quantity, and it increase up to 2.58 mg.g-1 (in natura and 40.11 mg.g-1 (dehydrated at 100 days of development. The n-6/n-3 ratios were low in all stages. The TPC and antioxidant activity by DPPH• changed during the developmental stages. The TPC was highest in the 100-day dehydrated leaves (15.27±0.12 mg GAE.g-1 FW, and the 50% inhibition of DPPH• (IC50 89.52 µg.mL-1 were better in the 60-day in natura leaves. This study shows that all developmental stages produced satisfactory results, and therefore, these leaves can be reused as food. The antioxidant activity and the chemical constituents, mainly the ω-3fatty acid, increased during the stages of development.

  1. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  2. Stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C; Krebs, Paul M; Prochaska, James O

    2011-02-01

    The transtheoretical model, in general, and the stages of change, in particular, have proven useful in adapting or tailoring treatment to the individual. We define the stages and processes of change and then review previous meta-analyses on their interrelationship. We report an original meta-analysis of 39 studies, encompassing 8,238 psychotherapy patients, to assess the ability of stages of change and related readiness measures to predict psychotherapy outcomes. Clinically significant effect sizes were found for the association between stage of change and psychotherapy outcomes (d = .46); the amount of progress clients make during treatment tends to be a function of their pretreatment stage of change. We examine potential moderators in effect size by study outcome, patient characteristics, treatment features, and diagnosis. We also review the large volume of behavioral health research, but scant psychotherapy research, that demonstrates the efficacy of matching treatment to the patient's stage of change. Limitations of the extant research are noted, and practice recommendations are advanced. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A study on staging bone scans in newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyathurai, R; Mahapatra, R; Rajasundaram, R; Srinivasan, V; Archard, N P; Toussi, H

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of bone scan as a staging investigation in newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancers. Bone scan results in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were reviewed and correlated with clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason scores from the biopsy specimen. In all, 124 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria with an age range of 51-94 (mean 72.3) years. Pre-biopsy PSA ranged from 2.2 to 5,864 with a median of 21.1 ng/ml. Clinical stage was T0-T1c 14.5%, T2a 41.9%, T2b 17.7%, T3 16.9%, and T4 9%. A Gleason score of 7 was found in 31%. Four patients' samples were not suitable for Gleason scoring. Twenty patients (16.1%) had a positive bone scan with a mean age of 79.4 years (median 83). Two patients with PSAGleason sumGleasonbone scans as a staging investigation. Staging bone scan can be safely omitted in patients with a clinical stage of Gleason score of Gleason patternmetastasis. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Three stages of emotional word processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; He, Weiqi; Wang, Ting; Luo, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Li, Hong; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2014-12-01

    Rapid responses to emotional words play a crucial role in social communication. This study employed event-related potentials to examine the time course of neural dynamics involved in emotional word processing. Participants performed a dual-target task in which positive, negative and neutral adjectives were rapidly presented. The early occipital P1 was found larger when elicited by negative words, indicating that the first stage of emotional word processing mainly differentiates between non-threatening and potentially threatening information. The N170 and the early posterior negativity were larger for positive and negative words, reflecting the emotional/non-emotional discrimination stage of word processing. The late positive component not only distinguished emotional words from neutral words, but also differentiated between positive and negative words. This represents the third stage of emotional word processing, the emotion separation. Present results indicated that, similar with the three-stage model of facial expression processing; the neural processing of emotional words can also be divided into three stages. These findings prompt us to believe that the nature of emotion can be analyzed by the brain independent of stimulus type, and that the three-stage scheme may be a common model for emotional information processing in the context of limited attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Staging reproductive aging using Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10 in black urban African women in the Study of Women Entering and in Endocrine Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaff, Nicole G; Snyman, Tracy; Norris, Shane A; Crowther, Nigel J

    2014-11-01

    There has been limited research on accurate staging of the menopausal transition in sub-Saharan African women. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10 (STRAW + 10) criteria in staging ovarian aging in black South African women, examining whether obesity has any effect on the menopausal transition. The study enrolled 702 women aged 40 to 60 years. STRAW + 10 criteria were used to categorize the stages of reproductive aging. The Menopause Rating Scale was used to measure the prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels were used as supportive criteria for staging. Human immunodeficiency virus status was assessed using a point-of-care method. Reported age at final menstrual period (FMP) was higher in women interviewed within 4 years of FMP (mean [SD], 49.0 [3.80] y) than in women interviewed 10 years or more after FMP (mean [SD], 42.0 [4.06] y; P menopause symptoms. Obesity (body mass index ≥35.0 kg/m) was associated with severe vasomotor symptoms. Reporting of age at FMP is unreliable in women interviewed 4 years or more after the event. STRAW + 10 seems accurate in staging reproductive aging, as confirmed by the strong association of FSH and estradiol levels with the menopausal transition stage. STRAW + 10 may be appropriate for use in resource-limited settings in the absence of biomarkers. Biocultural methods may be useful in assessing the menopausal transition in culturally diverse women.

  6. A phase I study of gemcitabine with concurrent radiotherapy in stage III, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, JWG; Price, A; van der Leest, AHD; Gregor, A; Little, FA; Groen, HJM

    Purpose: Our goal was to find the maximum tolerated dose of gemcitabine administered concurrently with thoracic radiotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Patients with stage III NSCLC and a radiation planning volume less than 2000 cm(3) were included.

  7. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD. PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES, VOLUME 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS

    TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…

  8. MRI-guided single fraction ablative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer: a brachytherapy versus volumetric modulated arc therapy dosimetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaghvandi, Ramona K; den Hartogh, Mariska D; van Ommen, Anne-Mar L N; de Vries, Wilfred J H; Scholten, Vincent; Moerland, Marinus A; Philippens, Mariëlle E P; Schokker, Rogier I; van Vulpen, Marco; van Asselen, Bram; van den Bongard, Desirée H J G

    2015-12-01

    A radiosurgical treatment approach for early-stage breast cancer has the potential to minimize the patient's treatment burden. The dosimetric feasibility for single fraction ablative radiotherapy was evaluated by comparing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with an interstitial multicatheter brachytherapy (IMB) approach. The tumors of 20 patients with early-stage breast cancer were delineated on a preoperative contrast-enhanced planning CT-scan, co-registered with a contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both in radiotherapy supine position. A dose of 15 Gy was prescribed to the planned target volume of the clinical target volume (PTVCTV), and 20 Gy integrated boost to the PTV of the gross tumor volume (PTVGTV). Treatment plans for IMB and VMAT were optimized for adequate target volume coverage and minimal organs at risk (OAR) dose. The median PTVGTV/CTV receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose was ⩾99% with both techniques. The median PTVCTV unintentionally receiving 95% of the prescribed PTVGTV dose was 65.4% and 4.3% with IMB and VMAT, respectively. OAR doses were comparable with both techniques. MRI-guided single fraction radiotherapy with an integrated ablative boost to the GTV is dosimetrically feasible with both techniques. We perceive IMB less suitable for clinical implementation due to PTVCTV overdosage. Future studies have to confirm the clinical feasibility of the single fraction ablative approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Small World" architecture in brain connectivity and hippocampal volume in Alzheimer's disease: a study via graph theory from EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Piludu, Francesca; Granata, Giuseppe; Romanello, Roberto; Caulo, Massimo; Onofrj, Valeria; Bramanti, Placido; Colosimo, Cesare; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2017-04-01

    Brain imaging plays an important role in the study of Alzheimer's disease (AD), where atrophy has been found to occur in the hippocampal formation during the very early disease stages and to progress in parallel with the disease's evolution. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible correlation between "Small World" characteristics of the brain connectivity architecture-as extracted from EEG recordings-and hippocampal volume in AD patients. A dataset of 144 subjects, including 110 AD (MMSE 21.3) and 34 healthy Nold (MMSE 29.8) individuals, was evaluated. Weighted and undirected networks were built by the eLORETA solutions of the cortical sources' activities moving from EEG recordings. The evaluation of the hippocampal volume was carried out on a subgroup of 60 AD patients who received a high-resolution T1-weighted sequence and underwent processing for surface-based cortex reconstruction and volumetric segmentation using the Freesurfer image analysis software. Results showed that, quantitatively, more correlation was observed in the right hemisphere, but the same trend was seen in both hemispheres. Alpha band connectivity was negatively correlated, while slow (delta) and fast-frequency (beta, gamma) bands positively correlated with hippocampal volume. Namely, the larger the hippocampal volume, the lower the alpha and the higher the delta, beta, and gamma Small World characteristics of connectivity. Accordingly, the Small World connectivity pattern could represent a functional counterpart of structural hippocampal atrophying and related-network disconnection.

  10. Comparative study on developmental stages of the clavicle by postmortem MRI and CT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels; Jensen, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The developmental stages of the clavicles are important for forensic age estimation purposes in adolescents. This study compares the 4-stage system to evaluate the ossification of the medial end of the clavicle as visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography...... (CT). As several forensic institutes routinely perform CT scans, the large amount of available data may serve as reference sample for MRI in specific cases. Material and methods: This prospective study included an MRI and CT scan of 47 autopsy cases performed prior to medico-legal autopsy (age range...

  11. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  12. Experimental and numerical studies on two-stage combustion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshfar, Eshan

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, two-stage combustion of biomass was experimentally/numerically investigated in a multifuel reactor. The following emissions issues have been the main focus of the work: 1- NOx and N2O 2- Unburnt species (CO and CxHy) 3- Corrosion related emissions.The study had a focus on two-stage combustion in order to reduce pollutant emissions (primarily NOx emissions). It is well known that pollutant emissions are very dependent on the process conditions such as temperature, reactant concentrations and residence times. On the other hand, emissions are also dependent on the fuel properties (moisture content, volatiles, alkali content, etc.). A detailed study of the important parameters with suitable biomass fuels in order to optimize the various process conditions was performed. Different experimental studies were carried out on biomass fuels in order to study the effect of fuel properties and combustion parameters on pollutant emissions. Process conditions typical for biomass combustion processes were studied. Advanced experimental equipment was used in these studies. The experiments showed the effects of staged air combustion, compared to non-staged combustion, on the emission levels clearly. A NOx reduction of up to 85% was reached with staged air combustion using demolition wood as fuel. An optimum primary excess air ratio of 0.8-0.95 was found as a minimizing parameter for the NOx emissions for staged air combustion. Air staging had, however, a negative effect on N2O emissions. Even though the trends showed a very small reduction in the NOx level as temperature increased for non-staged combustion, the effect of temperature was not significant for NOx and CxHy, neither in staged air combustion or non-staged combustion, while it had a great influence on the N2O and CO emissions, with decreasing levels with increasing temperature. Furthermore, flue gas recirculation (FGR) was used in combination with staged combustion to obtain an enhanced NOx reduction. The

  13. Application of cluster analysis to the study of piagetian stages of intellectual development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, Frederick P.

    The purpose of this study was to reexamine Piagetian stages by way of the application of cluster analysis and to seek information concerning the occurrence of stages and the influence of different tasks and gender on cluster patterns. Six Piagetian tasks were administered to 182 males and 176 females ages 9 through 18 years old. Analysis and interpretation of the data suggested the following conclusions: (1) Piagetian stages exist as a general sequence through which intellectual development progresses; however, the males in the study conformed more to Piagetian stages than did the females; (2) deviation from Piagetian stages was influenced by gender and the type of task; (3) lack of synchronization of substages across several tasks suggested that Piagetian tasks were more situation-specific than indicated by Piaget, and it also helped to explain why strong, correlations among tasks at a given level have been difficult to obtain; (4) for the males, the greatest discontinuity occurred between substages IIIA and IIIB, not between IIB and IIIA as stated by Piaget; and (5) the group of 13-year-old females tended to cluster with the 17- and 18-year-old female groups, but it was not known why.

  14. Late-stage diagnosis of HIV infection in Brazilian children: evidence from two national cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from two consecutive retrospective cohort samples (1983 to 1998 and 1999 to 2002 of Brazilian children with AIDS (N = 1,758 through mother-to-child-transmission. Late-stage diagnosis (CDC category C was investigated in relation to the following variables: year of birth, year of HIV diagnosis, and time periods related to changes in government treatment guidelines. Late-stage diagnosis occurred in 731 (41.6% of cases and was more prevalent in infants under 12 months of age. The rate of late-stage diagnosis decreased from 48% to 36% between the two periods studied. We also observed a reduction in the proportion of late-stage diagnoses and the time lapse between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation. A significant association was found between timely diagnosis and having been born in recent years (OR = 0.62; p = 0.009 and year of HIV diagnosis (OR = 0.72; p = 0.002/OR = 0.62; p < 0.001. Infants under the age of 12 months were more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage than older children (OR = 1.70; p = 0.004. Despite advances, there is a need to improve the effectiveness of policies and programs focused on improving early diagnosis and management of HIV/AIDS.

  15. Two-Stage Experimental Design for Dose-Response Modeling in Toxicology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yang, Feng; Porter, Dale W; Wu, Nianqiang

    The efficient design of experiments (i.e., selection of experimental doses and allocation of animals) is important to establishing dose-response relationships in toxicology studies. The proposed procedure for design of experiments is distinct from those in the literature because it is able to adequately accommodate the special features of the dose-response data, which include non-normality, variance heterogeneity, possibly nonlinearity of the dose-response curve, and data scarcity. The design procedure is built in a sequential two-stage paradigm that allows for a learning process. In the first stage, preliminary experiments are performed to gain information regarding the underlying dose-response curve and variance structure. In the second stage, the prior information obtained from the previous stage is utilized to guide the second-stage experiments. An optimization algorithm is developed to search for the design of experiments that will lead to dose-response models of the highest quality. To evaluate model quality (or uncertainty), which is the basis of design optimization, a bootstrapping method is employed; unlike standard statistical methods, bootstrapping is not subject to restrictive assumptions such as normality or large sample sizes. The design procedure in this paper will help to reduce the experimental cost/time in toxicology studies and alleviate the sustainability concerns regarding the tremendous new materials and chemicals.

  16. Influence of the selection from incremental stages on lactate minimum intensity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Eiji Miyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to assess the influence of stage selection from the incremental phase and the use of peak lactate after hyperlactatemia induction on the determination of the lactate minimum intensity (iLACmin. Twelve moderately active university students (23±5 years, 78.3±14.1 kg, 175.3±5.1 cm performed a maximal incremental test to determine the respiratory compensation point (RCP (initial intensity at 70 W and increments of 17.5 W every 2 minutes and a lactate minimum test (induction with the Wingate test, the incremental test started at 30 W below RCP with increments of 10 W every 3 minutes on a cycle ergometer. The iLACmin was determined using second order polynomial adjustment applying five exercise stage selection: 1 using all stages (iLACmin P; 2 using all stages below and two stages above iLACminP (iLACminA; 3 using two stages below and all stages above iLACminP (iLACminB; 4 using the largest and same possible number of stages below and above the iLACminP (iLACminI; 5 using all stages and peak lactate after hyperlactatemia induction (iLACminD. No differences were found between the iLACminP (138.2±30.2 W, iLACminA (139.1±29.1 W, iLACminB (135.3±14.2 W, iLACminI (138.6±20.5 W and iLACmiD (136.7±28.5 W protocols, and a high level of agreement between these intensities and iLACminP was observed. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and lactate corresponding to these intensities was not different and was strongly correlated. However, the iLACminB presented the lowest success rate (66.7%. In conclusion, stage selection did not influence the determination of iLACmin but modified the success rate

  17. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Apply radiomics approach for early stage prognostic evaluation of ovarian cancer patients: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danala, Gopichandh; Wang, Yunzhi; Thai, Theresa; Gunderson, Camille; Moxley, Katherine; Moore, Kathleen; Mannel, Robert; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin; Qiu, Yuchen

    2017-03-01

    Predicting metastatic tumor response to chemotherapy at early stage is critically important for improving efficacy of clinical trials of testing new chemotherapy drugs. However, using current response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) guidelines only yields a limited accuracy to predict tumor response. In order to address this clinical challenge, we applied Radiomics approach to develop a new quantitative image analysis scheme, aiming to accurately assess the tumor response to new chemotherapy treatment, for the advanced ovarian cancer patients. During the experiment, a retrospective dataset containing 57 patients was assembled, each of which has two sets of CT images: pre-therapy and 4-6 week follow up CT images. A Radiomics based image analysis scheme was then applied on these images, which is composed of three steps. First, the tumors depicted on the CT images were segmented by a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, a total of 115 features were computed from the segmented tumors, which can be grouped as 1) volume based features; 2) density based features; and 3) wavelet features. Finally, an optimal feature cluster was selected based on the single feature performance and an equal-weighed fusion rule was applied to generate the final predicting score. The results demonstrated that the single feature achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.838+/-0.053. This investigation demonstrates that the Radiomic approach may have the potential in the development of high accuracy predicting model for early stage prognostic assessment of ovarian cancer patients.

  19. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage...... metaphor lets the user adjust volume and panning by positioning tracks relative to a virtual listening position. In this study test participants are given the task to adjust volume and panning of one channel (in mixes consisting of three channels) in order to replicate a series of simple pre-rendered mixes....... They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance...

  20. Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Aufort, S.; Gallix, B. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Department of Abdominal Imaging, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jung, B.; Chanques, G.; Jaber, S. [Hopital Saint Eloi, Intensive Care Unit, Department of Critical Care and Anesthesiology: DAR B, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-10-15

    To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry. Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients. The volumes of control and septic shock patients were compared and the relationship between volume and outcome in intensive care was studied. The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 {+-} 2.0 cm{sup 3} in control subjects and 13.3 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 3} for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001). Measurement reproducibility was excellent with a concordance correlation coefficient value of 0.87. The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care. The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly. Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients. The absence of increased volume during sepsis would appear to be associated with a higher rate of mortality and may represent a prognosis factor which may help the clinician to guide their strategy. (orig.)

  1. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  2. Patterns of Primary Tumor Invasion and Regional Lymph Node Spread Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early-Stage Nasal NK/T-cell Lymphoma: Implications for Clinical Target Volume Definition and Prognostic Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Run-Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Song, Yong-Wen; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Bo; Qi, Shu-Nan; Lu, Ning-Ning; Tang, Yu; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. Methods and Materials: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The incidences of PTI and regional LN involvement were 64.7% and 25.7%, respectively. Based on the incidence of PTI, involved sites surrounding the nasal cavity were classified into 3 risk subgroups: high-risk (>20%), intermediate-risk (5%-20%), and low-risk (<5%). The most frequently involved site was the nasopharynx (35.2%), followed by the maxillary (21.9%) and ethmoid (21.9%) sinuses. Local disease and regional LN spread followed an orderly pattern without LN skipping. The retropharyngeal nodes (RPNs) were most frequently involved (19.0%), followed by level II (11.4%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates for all patients were 72.8%, 65.2%, and 90.0%, respectively. The presence of PTI and regional LN involvement based on MRI significantly and negatively affected PFS and OS. Conclusions: Early-stage nasal NKTCL presents with a high incidence of PTI but a relatively low incidence of regional LN spread. Locoregional spread followed an orderly pattern, and PTI and regional LN spread are powerful prognostic factors for poorer survival outcomes. CTV reduction may be feasible for selected patients.

  3. In silico studies of the early stages of aggregation of Aβ₄₂ peptides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Molecular simulation; intrinsically disordered protein; amyloid β. ... We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulation to study the early stages of the aggregation process of five full-length Aβ₄₂ peptide monomers with varying secondary structural contents in aqueous solution. Attempts have been ...

  4. Stages of Change in Physical Activity: A Validation Study in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the validity of a recent stages of change (SoC) measure and algorithm among a sample of late adolescents. MANOVA and structural equation modeling are used to assess the relationship between five SoC groups (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance) and a set of dependent measures including…

  5. A Nationwide Cohort Study of Stage I Seminoma Patients Followed on a Surveillance Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard, Maria Gry

    2014-01-01

    -based study of Danish patients diagnosed with stage I seminoma between 1984 and 2008 and followed for 5 yr (n=1954). Patient data were linked with national registries on November 30, 2012, to obtain information on late relapse, vital status, and cause of death. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS...

  6. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume III: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The following information was calculated to support cost estimates and radiation exposure calculations for closure activities at the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). Within the estimate, volumes were calculated to determine the required amount of grout to be used during closure activities. The remaining calcine on the bin walls, supports, piping, and floor was also calculated to approximate the remaining residual calcine volumes at different stages of the removal process. The estimates for remaining calcine and vault void volume are higher than what would actually be experienced in the field, but are necessary for bounding purposes. The residual calcine in the bins may be higher than was is experienced in the field as it was assumed that the entire bin volume is full of calcine before removal activities commence. The vault void volumes are higher as the vault roof beam volumes were neglected. The estimations that follow should be considered rough order of magnitude, due to the time constraints as dictated by the project`s scope of work. Should more accurate numbers be required, a new analysis would be necessary.

  7. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  8. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 4, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    scrutinize the differences will set the stage for deterrence failure. Those differences can be examined, and the logic and grammar of space weapons can be...confrontation and toward goal achievement via proxy conflict in client states. The earliest Cold War example of subnational proxy conflict was the Greek ...Civil War, a communist uprising supported by Yugoslavia and Bul- garia and countered by the Greek army with support from the United States and the

  9. Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Kalantari; Masrur Vahabi Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran ? Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast ? and compare them to WHO normative values. Materials and Methods: In a cross-...

  10. WHO-ILAR COPCORD Study (Stage 1, Urban Study) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatchi, Fereydoun; Jamshidi, Ahmad-Reza; Banihashemi, Arash Tehrani; Gholami, Jaleh; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Barghamdi, Mojgan; Noorolahzadeh, Elham; Khabazi, Ali-Reza; Salesi, Mansoor; Salari, Amir-Hossein; Karimifar, Mansoor; Essalat-Manesh, Kamal; Hajialiloo, Mehrzad; Soroosh, Mohsen; Farzad, Farhad; Moussavi, Hamid-Reza; Samadi, Farideh; Ghaznavi, Koorosh; Asgharifard, Homa; Zangiabadi, Amir-Hossein; Shahram, Farhad; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Akbarian, Mahmood; Gharibdoost, Farhad

    2008-07-01

    To find the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and rheumatic disorders in Iran. Tehran, with one-ninth of the population of Iran and of mixed ethnic origins, was selected as the field. Subjects were randomly selected from the 22 districts. Interviews were conducted once a week, on the weekend. The 3 phases of stage 1 were done on the same day, in parallel, like the fast-track Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD). Four thousand ninety-six houses were visited and 10,291 persons were interviewed. Musculoskeletal complaints during the past 7 days were detected in 41.9% of the interviewed subjects. The distribution was: shoulder 14.5%, wrist 10%, hands and fingers 9.4%, hip 7.1%, knee 25.5%, ankle 9.8%, toes 6.1%, cervical spine 13.4%, and dorsal and lumbar spine 21.7%. Degenerative joint diseases were detected in 16.6% of subjects: cervical spondylosis 1.8%, knee osteoarthritis (OA) 15.3%, hand OA 2.9%, and hip OA 0.32%. Low back pain was detected in 15.4% and soft tissue rheumatism in 4.6%. Inflammatory disorders were rheumatoid arthritis 0.33%, seronegative spondyloarthropathies 0.23%, ankylosing spondylitis 0.12%, systemic lupus erythematosus 0.04%, and Behçet's disease 0.08%. Fibromyalgia was detected in 0.69% and gout in 0.13% of the studied population. The large urban COPCORD study in Iran showed a high prevalence of rheumatic complaints in the population over the age of 15 years, 41.9%. Knee OA and low back pain were the most frequent complaints.

  11. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Sexuality and body image following treatment for early-stage vulvar cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Ellen L; Hacker, Neville F; Hussain, Rafat; Parmenter, Glenda

    2014-08-01

    To describe women's experiences of sexuality and body image following treatment for early-stage vulvar cancer. There is limited information available on sexual function following treatment for early-stage vulvar cancer. A review of the literature has shown a lack of qualitative investigation into this topic. This study was undertaken to address this deficiency and to add to the existing body of knowledge describing the psychosexual outcomes for these women. Qualitative interview study. A qualitative approach based on interpretive phenomenology was used to interview a purposive sample of 10 women (mean age 58 years) who had previously been treated for an early-stage vulvar cancer. Interviews were conducted from June-October 2009. Data were generated from verbatim transcription of the semi-structured in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis of these data revealed themes that were common to the women's experiences of sexuality and body image. Four themes were identified that described the structure of the experience. Only two of these themes, sexuality and body image, will be discussed in this paper. Findings from this study indicated that the majority of women experienced little to no long-term disruption to sexuality and body image following conservative treatment for early-stage vulvar cancer. Intimacy and relationship status were more closely linked to women's sexual satisfaction than physical arousal. Factors contributing to women experiencing negative emotions were radical vulvar excision, multiple vulvar procedures and/or the development of lymphoedema. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pressure-regulated volume control vs. volume control ventilation in healthy and injured rabbit lung: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porra, Liisa; Bayat, Sam; Malaspinas, Iliona; Albu, Gergely; Doras, Camille; Broche, Ludovic; Strengell, Satu; Peták, Ferenc; Habre, Walid

    2016-10-01

    It is not well understood how different ventilation modes affect the regional distribution of ventilation, particularly within the injured lung. We compared respiratory mechanics, lung aeration and regional specific ventilation ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) distributions in healthy and surfactant-depleted rabbits ventilated with pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) mode with a decelerating inspiratory flow or with volume control (VC) mode. Randomised experimental study. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 8) were anaesthetised, paralysed and mechanically ventilated either with VC or PRVC mode (tidal volume: 7 ml kg; rate: 40 min; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): 3 cmH2O), at baseline and after lung injury induced by lung lavage. Airway resistance (Raw), respiratory tissue damping (G) and elastance (H) were measured by low-frequency forced oscillations. Synchrotron radiation computed tomography during stable xenon wash-in was used to measure regional lung aeration and specific ventilation and the relative fraction of nonaerated, trapped, normally, poorly and hyperinflated lung regions. Lung lavage significantly elevated peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (P lungs with, however, a significantly lower peak pressure. Our data suggest that the lower PIP on PRVC ventilation was because of the decelerating flow pattern rather than the ventilation distribution.

  14. Feasibility of perfusion CT technique integrated into conventional {sup 18}FDG/PET-CT studies in lung cancer patients: clinical staging and functional information in a single study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ippolito, Davide; Capraro, Cristina; Sironi, Sandro [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, H.S. Gerardo Monza, Via Pergolesi 11, Monza, Milan (Italy); Guerra, Luca [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Unit - Molecular Bioimaging Centre, Monza (Italy); De Ponti, Elena [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Monza (Italy); Messa, Cristina [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Unit - Molecular Bioimaging Centre, Monza (Italy); Tecnomed Foundation, University of Milano-Bicocca, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, National Research Council, Milan (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    To assess the additional functional vascular information and the relationship between perfusion measurements and glucose metabolism (SUVmax) obtained by including a perfusion CT study in a whole-body contrast-enhanced PET/CT protocol in primary lung cancer lesions. Enrolled in this prospective study were 34 consecutive patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of lung cancer who were referred for contrast-enhanced PET/CT staging. This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Perfusion CT was performed with the following parameters: 80 kV, 200 mAs, 30 scans during intravenous injection of 50 ml contrast agent, flow rate 5 ml/s. Another bolus of contrast medium (3.5 ml/s, 80 ml, 60-s delay) was administered to ensure a full diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT scan for clinical staging. The perfusion CT data were used to calculate a range of tumour vascularity parameters (blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time), and tumour FDG uptake (SUVmax) was used as a metabolic indicator. Quantitative and functional parameters were compared and in relation to location, histology and tumour size. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for statistical analysis. A cut-off value of 3 cm was used according to the TNM classification to discriminate between T1 and T2 tumours (i.e. T1b vs. T2a). There were significant perfusion differences (lower blood volumes and higher mean transit time) between tumours with diameter >30 mm and tumours with diameter <30 mm (p < 0.05; blood volume 5.6 vs. 7.1 ml/100 g, mean transit time 8.6 vs. 3.9 s, respectively). Also there was a trend for blood flow to be lower in larger lesions (p < 0.053; blood flow 153.1 vs. 98.3 ml/100 g tissue/min). Significant inverse correlations (linear regression) were found between blood volume and SUVmax in tumours with diameter >30 mm in diameter. Perfusion CT combined with PET/CT is feasible technique that may provide

  15. Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Saeed; Moghadam, Masrur Vahabi

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran - Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast - and compare them to WHO normative values. In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA), and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases. Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases) by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects) grade I and 23.9% (385 cases) grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%). In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R (2) = 0.391, P thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters.

  16. The two-stage clonal expansion model in occupational cancer epidemiology: results from three cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Ariana; Gore, Rebecca; Kriebel, David

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this work was to apply the two-stage clonal expansion model, with the intention to expand the literature on epidemiological applications of the model and demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating biologically based modelling methods into the widely used retrospective cohort study. The authors fitted the two-stage clonal expansion model model to three occupational cohort studies: (1) a cohort of textile workers exposed to asbestos and followed for lung cancer mortality; (2) a cohort of diatomaceous earth workers exposed to silica and also followed for lung cancer mortality; and (3) a cohort of automotive manufacturing workers exposed to straight metalworking fluid (MWF) and followed for larynx cancer incidence. The model allowed the authors to estimate exposure effects in three stages: cancer initiation (early effects), promotion or malignant transformation (late effects). In the first cohort, the authors found strong evidence for an early effect of asbestos on lung cancer risk. Findings from analyses of the second cohort suggested early and less evidently late effects of silica on lung cancer risk. In the MWF (third) cohort, there was only weak evidence of straight MWF exposure effects on both early and late stages. The authors also observed a late birth cohort effect on larynx cancer risk. The findings for asbestos and silica were essentially confirmatory, supporting evidence for their early effects on lung cancer from a large body of literature. The effect of straight MWF on larynx cancer was less clear.

  17. Relative tolerance of cirripede larval stages to acute thermal shock: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan; Nancharaiah; Venugopalan; Nair; Subramoniam

    2000-12-01

    (1) Meroplankters drawn into once-through cooling circuits of coastal power plants are subjected to transient thermal stress. The effect of such acute thermal shock on the development of barnacle larvae was studied in the laboratory.(2) The response of the barnacle larvae (naupliar and cyprid stages) to elevated temperature was dependent on exposure time and their stage of development.(3) Among the stages tested, N-6 larvae showed maximum tolerance. Exposure to 37 degrees C did not affect larval survival, but delayed development of N-2 larva to cypris by one day.(4) Exposure at 40 degrees C delayed, hastened or did not affect the development time of N-2 and N-4 larvae through cypris, depending on exposure time.(5) Ten mins exposure at 43 degrees C proved lethal to all larval stages with mortality ranging from 20 to 86%.(6) Development success of the surviving larvae, measured in terms of cypris yield, showed no significant difference from controls, at temperatures below 40 degrees C.(7) Settlement activity was significantly affected in only those cyprid larvae which were exposed to 43 degrees C for 10 min.(8) Results of the present study indicate that thermal stress experienced in the once-through cooling system does not have significant impact on survival and development of the barnacle larvae at temperatures of 37-40 degrees C.

  18. A multi-institutional study of outcomes in stage I-III uterine carcinosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Elizabeth L; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Gehrig, Paola A; Pierce, Stuart; Havrilesky, Laura; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Dottino, Joseph; Fader, Amanda N; Ricci, Stephanie; Geller, Melissa A

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the use of adjuvant therapy after primary surgery for stage I-III uterine carcinosarcoma (CS). A multi-institutional retrospective study of women with stage I-III CS was conducted. Analyses were stratified by stage (I/II and III). Patients were categorized according to adjuvant therapy: observation (OBS), radiation (RT), chemotherapy (CT) or multimodal therapy (CT+RT). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. 303 patients were identified across four institutions: 195 with stage I/II and 108 with stage III disease. In stage I/II disease, 75 (39.9%) received OBS, 33 (17.6%) CT, 37 (19.7%) RT, and 43 (22.9%) CT+RT. OBS was associated with a fourfold increased risk of death compared to CT (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=4.48, p=0.003). Patients receiving CT+RT had significantly improved PFS compared to those receiving CT alone (aHR=0.43, p=0.04), but no difference in OS. In the stage III cohort, 16 (15.0%) received OBS, 34 (31.8%) CT, 20 (18.7%) RT, and 37 (34.6%) CT+RT. OBS was associated with worse OS and PFS compared to CT (OS: aHR=2.46, p=0.04; PFS: aHR=2.39, p=0.03, respectively). A potential improvement in PFS was seen for those treated with CT+RT compared to CT alone, however it was not statistically significant (aHR=0.53, p=0.09). Observation after surgery was associated with poor outcomes in uterine CS compared to CT and RT alone. Multimodality therapy for women with stage I/II disease was associated with improved PFS compared to chemotherapy alone. Novel treatment options are needed to improve outcomes in this aggressive disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A multi-institutional study of outcomes in stage I–III uterine carcinosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Elizabeth L.; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Gehrig, Paola A.; Pierce, Stuart; Havrilesky, Laura; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Dottino, Joseph; Fader, Amanda N.; Ricci, Stephanie; Geller, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of adjuvant therapy after primary surgery for stage I–III uterine carcinosarcoma (CS). Methods A multi-institutional retrospective study of women with stage I–III CS was conducted. Analyses were stratified by stage (I/II and III). Patients were categorized according to adjuvant therapy: observation (OBS), radiation (RT), chemotherapy (CT) or multimodal therapy (CT + RT). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models. Results 303 patients were identified across four institutions: 195 with stage I/II and 108 with stage III disease. In stage I/II disease, 75 (39.9%) received OBS, 33 (17.6%) CT, 37 (19.7%) RT, and 43 (22.9%) CT + RT. OBS was associated with a fourfold increased risk of death compared to CT (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 4.48, p = 0.003). Patients receiving CT + RT had significantly improved PFS compared to those receiving CT alone (aHR = 0.43, p = 0.04), but no difference in OS. In the stage III cohort, 16 (15.0%) received OBS, 34 (31.8%) CT, 20 (18.7%) RT, and 37 (34.6%) CT + RT. OBS was associated with worse OS and PFS compared to CT (OS: aHR = 2.46, p = 0.04; PFS: aHR = 2.39, p = 0.03, respectively). A potential improvement in PFS was seen for those treated with CT + RT compared to CT alone, however it was not statistically significant (aHR = 0.53, p = 0.09). Conclusions Observation after surgery was associated with poor outcomes in uterine CS compared to CT and RT alone. Multimodality therapy for women with stage I/II disease was associated with improved PFS compared to chemotherapy alone. Novel treatment options are needed to improve outcomes in this aggressive disease. PMID:26348313

  20. Risk of end-stage renal disease associated with gout: a nationwide population study

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Kuang-Hui; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Luo, Shue-Fen; See, Lai-Chu; Chou, I-Jun; Chang, Hsiao-Chun; Chiou, Meng-Jiun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We explored the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among gout patients in a representative cohort in Taiwan. Methods The primary database used was the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Subjects older than 20 years without ESRD, coronary heart disease, or stroke were included in the study. The case definition of gout in the present study was gout diagnosis and medical treatment for gout. An ESRD case was defined by the presence of chronic renal failure necess...

  1. A contribution to the study of hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L. juvenile stage of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed material for the study of hackberry characters and variation in the juvenile stage of development was collected in the micropopulations on the territory of the town Sombor. The study results refer to different stages of early ontogeny, which are presented at 7 levels. The observed variation at the levels of seeds, seedlings, 1-year-old and 2-year-old plants, as well as the high i.e. low values of the analysed morphometric characters of individual half-sib lines, are a good base for the study and the adequate utilisation of the species genetic potential, in harmony with the basic principles of breeding and the enhancement of reproductive material quality.

  2. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies: the WHIMS-MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Laura H; Espeland, Mark A; Hogan, Patricia E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, R Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G; Goveas, Joseph S; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H; Williamson, Jeff D; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Shumaker, Sally A

    2014-02-04

    To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm(3)/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm(3)/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm(3)/y (p = 0.88). Conjugated equine estrogen-based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings.

  3. Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Charles S; Danforth, Alicia L; Chopra, Gurpreet S; Hagerty, Marycie; McKay, Charles R; Halberstadt, Adam L; Greer, George R

    2011-01-01

    Researchers conducted extensive investigations of hallucinogens in the 1950s and 1960s. By the early 1970s, however, political and cultural pressures forced the cessation of all projects. This investigation reexamines a potentially promising clinical application of hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety reactive to advanced-stage cancer. To explore the safety and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with advanced-stage cancer and reactive anxiety. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety, with subjects acting as their own control, using a moderate dose (0.2 mg/kg) of psilocybin. A clinical research unit within a large public sector academic medical center. Twelve adults with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety. In addition to monitoring safety and subjective experience before and during experimental treatment sessions, follow-up data including results from the Beck Depression Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were collected unblinded for 6 months after treatment. Safe physiological and psychological responses were documented during treatment sessions. There were no clinically significant adverse events with psilocybin. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait anxiety subscale demonstrated a significant reduction in anxiety at 1 and 3 months after treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory revealed an improvement of mood that reached significance at 6 months; the Profile of Mood States identified mood improvement after treatment with psilocybin that approached but did not reach significance. This study established the feasibility and safety of administering moderate doses of psilocybin to patients with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety. Some of the data revealed a positive trend toward improved mood and anxiety. These results support the need for more research in this long-neglected field. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00302744.

  4. Stage at presentation of breast cancer in Luanda, Angola - a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Miguel, Fernando; Freitas, Helga; Tavares, António; Pangui, Salvador; Castro, Clara; Lacerda, Gonçalo Forjaz; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2015-10-15

    It is expected that, by 2020, 15 million new cases of cancer will occur every year in the world, one million of them in Africa. Knowledge of cancer trends in African countries is far from adequate, and improvements in cancer prevention efforts are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to characterize breast cancer clinically and pathologically at presentation in Luanda, Angola; we additionally provide quality information that will be useful for breast cancer care planning in the country. Data on breast cancer cases were retrieved from the Angolan Institute of Cancer Control, from 2006 to 2014. For women diagnosed in 2009 (5-years of follow-up), demographic, clinical and pathological information, at presentation, was collected, namely age at diagnosis, parity, methods used for pathological diagnoses, tumor pathological characteristics, stage of disease and treatment. Descriptive statistics were performed. The median age of women diagnosed with breast cancer in 2009 was 47 years old (range 25-89). The most frequent clinical presentation was breast swelling with axillary lymph nodes metastasis (44.9 %), followed by a mass larger than 5 cm (14.2 %) and lump (12.9 %). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the main histologic type (81.8 %). Only 10.1 % of cancer cases had a well differentiated histological grade. Cancers were diagnosed mostly at advanced stages (66.7 % in stage III and 11.1 % in stage IV). In this study, breast cancer was diagnosed at a very advanced stage. Although it reports data from a single cancer center in Luanda, Angola it reinforces the need for early diagnosis and increasing awareness. According to the main challenges related to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment herein presented, we propose a realistic framework that would allow for the implementation of a breast cancer care program, built under a strong network based on cooperation, teaching, audit, good practices and the organization of health services. Angola needs urgently a program for

  5. Understanding quality-of-life while living with late-stage lung cancer: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Gail; Brownell, Gracie

    2014-01-01

    U.S. Veterans have a higher prevalence of advanced lung cancer and poorer survival outcomes compared to the general population; yet, no studies exist which specifically explore the psychosocial and existential quality-of-life (QOL) of late-stage lung cancer among this population. This article presents the perspectives of older veterans (N = 12) living with late-stage lung cancer who were receiving chemotherapy, routine hospice care, or both concurrently. Based on individual interviews, themes associated with loss of functionality, close relationships, and communicative acts contributed to veterans' perceptions of diminished or enhanced QOL while living with advanced disease. An overarching theme, loss of the person I know myself to be, suggests that personhood is an important concept to consider in QOL assessment. While findings suggest that the experiences of older Veterans with late-stage lung cancer are similar to other populations of lung cancer patients, and persons with incurable cancer in general, further research regarding the influence of veteran identity at end-of-life is warranted. Further research is needed which explores the influence of a whole person approach to QOL during life-limiting illness and end-of-life decision-making, particularly while receiving late-stage cancer-directed therapy.

  6. Attention and information processing in end stage renal disease and effect of hemodialysis: a bedside study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Abhinav; Dhawan, Sanjay; Raizada, Alpana; Yadav, Anil; Vaney, Neelam; Kalra, Om Prakash

    2013-10-01

    The neurobehavioral syndrome of uremia in chronic kidney disease affects the functioning of the central nervous system. Cognitive impairment is one of the most important manifestations of this dysfunction. The process of hemodialysis is known to bring about conflicting changes in the cognitive status of patients. In the present study an assessment of cognitive status of patients with end stage renal disease was done in comparison to controls before and after a session of hemodialysis using simple bedside paper-pencil tests. Thirty patients of end stage renal disease on maintenance dialysis for at least one month with MMSE score >24 were assessed one hour before and one hour after hemodialysis using Digit Symbol Substitution Test, One Letter and Three Letter Cancellations tasks. Their results were compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. The patients with end stage renal disease had significantly lower performance in cognitive tests in comparison to controls. The performance improved 1 hour after hemodialysis in comparison to pre-dialysis values. However, the values after dialysis were significantly lower than in controls, thereby indicating that though the cognitive functions improved after hemodialysis, they did not reach the control levels. There was also a significant change in the biochemical parameters after dialysis. We conclude that patients with end stage renal disease suffered from cognitive impairment which improved on hemodialysis due to removal of metabolic waste products.

  7. A Comparison Study on Multidomain EEG Features for Sleep Stage Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction from physiological signals of EEG (electroencephalogram is an essential part for sleep staging. In this study, multidomain feature extraction was investigated based on time domain analysis, nonlinear analysis, and frequency domain analysis. Unlike the traditional feature calculation in time domain, a sequence merging method was developed as a preprocessing procedure. The objective is to eliminate the clutter waveform and highlight the characteristic waveform for further analysis. The numbers of the characteristic activities were extracted as the features from time domain. The contributions of features from different domains to the sleep stages were compared. The effectiveness was further analyzed by automatic sleep stage classification and compared with the visual inspection. The overnight clinical sleep EEG recordings of 3 patients after the treatment of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP were tested. The obtained results showed that the developed method can highlight the characteristic activity which is useful for both automatic sleep staging and visual inspection. Furthermore, it can be a training tool for better understanding the appearance of characteristic waveforms from raw sleep EEG which is mixed and complex in time domain.

  8. Studies on Some Parasitic Diseases in Oreochromis niloticus Fish Hatchery with Emphasis to Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel M. El Asely

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 210 Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus of different life stages including (100 fry, 100 fingerlings and 10 broodstocks obtained from a private fish hatchery at Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt; during August 2014. The hatchery complains 30% mortality among fry and fingerlings while no mortalities was recorded among broodstocks. Parasitological examination revealed heavy infestation with Triochodina species (sp. in all examined life stages at a prevalence rate 100%. In addition, Gyrodactylus sp. was recorded in gills of fry, fingerlings and broodstocks at a rate of 5, 12, and 10 %, respectively. Kidneys and gills of all examined life stages showed heavy infestations with Myxosporean sp., with 100 % prevalence rate. Haemogregarina sp. was described in the blood of fingerlings and gill tissues of broodstocks. Additionally, Encysted metacerceria was observed in gills of broodstocks. The recovered parasites were demonstrated hisopathologically in the gill and kidney tissues of the examined fish. The histopathological examination revealed that the infested gills exhibited serious lesions such as hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the lining epithelial cells of the gill filaments, fusion and necrosis of secondary lamellae and vasodilatation. The lining epithelium of the renal tubules showed degenerative and necrotic changes with the presence of various developmental stages of myxosporidia. In conclusion, fry and fingerlings exhibited high mortalities, while no mortality was recorded among broodstocks, regardless the intensity of infestation and severity of pathological alterations which was intense in broodstocks.

  9. Clinical stage, age and treatment in tropical pyomyositis: a retrospective study including forty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de Jesus, F R; Mendiola-Segura, I

    1996-01-01

    A comparative and retrospective trial of 40 patients with tropical pyomyositis covering studies done between January 1, 1987 and November 31, 1990, at the General Hospital at Cosamaloapan, Veracruz, IMSS, was undertaken. The objectives were to compare predisposing factors, clinical data, morbidity, mortaity and hospital stay among 1) medical (group I) and surgical treatment (II), 2) adult and pediatric populations and 3) the clinical stage of the disease (invasive, suppurative and late). In group I, the family history of diabetes (56%), fever (66%) and hospital stay (6.5 +/- 1.8 days) were significantly different from group II (19%, 100% and 12.8 +/- 5.5 days), respectively. The mean age in adult and pediatric populations was 38 and 8 years, respectively. Pediatric patients had lowest hemoglobin levels (9.7 +/- 1.3). Upper respiratory antecedent was highest in suppurative stage (65%). In the late stage eosinophilia (5.9 +/- 6.9), fluctuance muscles (100%), complication rate of 57%, surgical drainage (100%) and mortality of 29% were found. Cultures were performed in 20 cases with negative results in 55% and the remaining 45% were positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Pyomyositis appears to be multifactorial in origin, the antecedents of trauma and upper respiratory infection were the major predisposing factors. Septicemia caused high morbidity and mortality in the late stage. Surgical treatment was frequently needed, increasing costs.

  10. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  11. Design and evaluation of potentiometric principles for bladder volume monitoring: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Fan, Wen-Jia; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Wei, Wei-Feng; Peng, Chih-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and wireless transmission technology have led to the development of various implantable sensors for real-time monitoring of bladder conditions. Although various sensing approaches for monitoring bladder conditions were reported, most such sensors have remained at the laboratory stage due to the existence of vital drawbacks. In the present study, we explored a new concept for monitoring the bladder capacity on the basis of potentiometric principles. A prototype of a potentiometer module was designed and fabricated and integrated with a commercial wireless transmission module and power unit. A series of in vitro pig bladder experiments was conducted to determine the best design parameters for implementing the prototype potentiometric device and to prove its feasibility. We successfully implemented the potentiometric module in a pig bladder model in vitro, and the error of the accuracy of bladder volume detection was wireless module, the design principles and animal experience gathered from this research can serve as a basis for developing new implantable bladder sensors in the future.

  12. Design and Evaluation of Potentiometric Principles for Bladder Volume Monitoring: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ching Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microelectronics and wireless transmission technology have led to the development of various implantable sensors for real-time monitoring of bladder conditions. Although various sensing approaches for monitoring bladder conditions were reported, most such sensors have remained at the laboratory stage due to the existence of vital drawbacks. In the present study, we explored a new concept for monitoring the bladder capacity on the basis of potentiometric principles. A prototype of a potentiometer module was designed and fabricated and integrated with a commercial wireless transmission module and power unit. A series of in vitro pig bladder experiments was conducted to determine the best design parameters for implementing the prototype potentiometric device and to prove its feasibility. We successfully implemented the potentiometric module in a pig bladder model in vitro, and the error of the accuracy of bladder volume detection was <±3%. Although the proposed potentiometric device was built using a commercial wireless module, the design principles and animal experience gathered from this research can serve as a basis for developing new implantable bladder sensors in the future.

  13. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  14. Association between serum bicarbonate levels and albuminuria in stage 3 and stage 4 chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Ji; Cho, Seong; Kim, Sung Rok

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and appears to be associated with CKD progression and mortality. We evaluated whether serum bicarbonate level is associated with albuminuria in patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of outpatients with CKD stages 3 - 4 (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15 - 59 mL/minutes/1.73 m2). Serum bicarbonate levels, serum creatinine levels, and random urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UA/Cr) examined on the same day were required for enrollment. Significant albuminuria was defined as UA/Cr >= 300 mg/g. Serum bicarbonate was analyzed as both a continuous variable and a categorical variable after it was divided into categories of = 26 mmol/L. 151 patients were included in this study. Their mean age was 59.1 ± 13.9 years, and 60.9% were men. The mean serum bicarbonate level was 23.7 ± 3.3 mmol/L. In a multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the factors associated with significant albuminuria, the serum bicarbonate categories were independent factors associated with significant albuminuria after adjustments were made for relevant covariates (p = 0.028). In a subgroup analysis according to CKD stage, the association between bicarbonate categories and significant albuminuria was significant only for patients with stage 3 disease, regardless of renal function or blood pressure (p = 0.014 and 0.706 in stage 3 and 4 diseases, respectively). Low serum bicarbonate levels were ssociated with significant albuminuria, even at levels in the normal range, in CKD patients, especially with stage 3 disease.

  15. Myocardial Fibrosis Quantified by Extracellular Volume Is Associated With Subsequent Hospitalization for Heart Failure, Death, or Both Across the Spectrum of Ejection Fraction and Heart Failure Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, Erik B; Piehler, Kayla M; Zareba, Karolina M; Moon, James C; Ugander, Martin; Messroghli, Daniel R; Valeti, Uma S; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Diez, Javier; Miller, Christopher A; Schmitt, Matthias; Kellman, Peter; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Wong, Timothy C

    2015-12-18

    Myocardial fibrosis (MF) in noninfarcted myocardium may be an interstitial disease pathway that confers vulnerability to hospitalization for heart failure, death, or both across the spectrum of heart failure and ejection fraction. Hospitalization for heart failure is an epidemic that is difficult to predict and prevent and requires potential therapeutic targets associated with outcomes. We quantified MF with cardiovascular magnetic resonance extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measures in 1172 consecutive patients without amyloidosis or hypertrophic or stress cardiomyopathy and assessed associations with outcomes using Cox regression. ECV ranged from 16.6% to 47.8%. Over a median of 1.7 years, 111 patients experienced events after cardiovascular magnetic resonance, 55 had hospitalization for heart failure events, and there were 74 deaths. ECV was more strongly associated with outcomes than "nonischemic" MF observed with late gadolinium enhancement, thus ECV quantified MF in multivariable models. Adjusting for age, sex, renal function, myocardial infarction size, ejection fraction, hospitalization status, and heart failure stage, higher ECV was associated with hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio 1.77; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.36 for every 5% increase in ECV), death (hazard ratio 1.87 95% CI 1.45 to 2.40) or both (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.27). ECV improved classification of persons at risk and improved model discrimination for outcomes (eg, hospitalization for heart failure: continuous net reclassification improvement 0.33, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.66; P=0.02; 0.16, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.33; P=0.02; integrated discrimination improvement 0.037, 95% CI 0.008 to 0.073; Pheart failure, death, or both. MF may represent a principal phenotype of cardiac vulnerability that improves risk stratification. Because MF can be reversible, cells and enzymes regulating collagen could be potential therapeutic targets. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  16. "We're the Mature People": A Study of Masculine Subjectivity and Its Relationship to Key Stage Four Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Critical theory and research has shown that subjects carry gendered meanings. Numbers opting for Religious Studies (RS) have remained skewed towards girls. Drawing from post-structuralism and masculinities theory, this article critically analyses data from interviews with a group of key stage four boys who had opted for Religious Studies in…

  17. Caveolin-1 expression in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma--a clinicopathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, B; Nesland, J M; Goldberg, I; Kopolovic, J; Gotlieb, W H; Bryne, M; Ben-Baruch, G; Berner, A; Reich, R

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation among the expression of caveolin-1, the protein constituent of caveolae, and disease outcome in advanced-stage ovarian carcinomas. Sections from 76 primary ovarian carcinomas and metastatic lesions from 45 patients diagnosed with advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma (FIGO stages III-IV) were evaluated for caveolin-1 expression using immunohistochemistry. Patients were divided into long-term survivors and short-term survivors based on disease outcome. Twenty nonneoplastic fallopian tubes and ovaries were additionally studied. The mean follow-up period was 70 months. The mean values for disease-free survival and overall survival were 109 and 125 months for long-term survivors, compared to 3 and 21 months for short-term survivors, respectively. Caveolin-1 expression was localized to the cell membrane in 24/76 (32%) specimens and was detected in the cytoplasm in 52/76 (68%) cases. Both patterns were more often detected in metastases, when compared with primary tumors. In addition, membrane immunoreactivity was more often seen in tumor of short-term survivors. These differences did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). Combined membrane and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity was seen in 17/20 (85%) nonneoplastic lesions. Despite its role in tyrosine-kinase-mediated signal transduction in vitro studies, caveolin-1 expression in carcinomas showed no association with the protein expression of c-erbB-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor, evaluated in a previous study of this patient cohort. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of caveolin-1 membrane expression in human malignancies. Caveolin-1 is often expressed in advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma, but does not appear to be a powerful predictor of disease outcome in these tumors. The reduced expression level in carcinomas compared to nonneoplastic epithelium may point to a role for caveolin-1 as a tumor suppressor gene. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Operations analysis (study 2.1). Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects related to future STS operations concepts were investigated. The majority of effort was directed at assessing the benefits of automated space servicing concepts as related to improvements in payload procurement and shuttle utilization. Another subject was directed at understanding shuttle upper stage software development and recurring costs relative to total program projections. Space serving of automated payloads is addressed by examining the broad spectrum of payload applications with the belief that shared logistic operations will be a major contributor to reduction of future program costs. However, there are certain requirements for support of payload operations, such as availability of the payload, that may place demands upon the shuttle fleet. Because future projections of the NASA Mission Model are only representative of the payload traffic, it is important to recognize that it is the general character of operations that is significant rather than service to any single payload program.

  19. A study of the impact of disease burden in quality of life of people with pre-End-Stage and End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Georgiadou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a common chronic disease accompanied by severe complications. It is the leading cause of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD requiring management either by haemodialysis (HD or peritoneal dialysis (PD. The chronicity of the disease, and its complications, affects the psychological, family and social life of the patients and their Quality of Life (QoL. Aim: of the present study was to estimate the disease burden of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN during pre-ESRD and during End-Stage Renal Disease. Methods: A sample of 103 patients with DN treated at the General Hospital of Veria were studied during May and June 2016. The study was conducted using the Dialysis Symptoms Index (DSI for the assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD symptom load and the European Quality of Life (EuroQol questionnaire for assessing the QoL of patients in the Renal Outpatient Clinic, Haemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Unit. Results: It was found that the Renal Replacement Method (HD or PD, the presence of DM and CKD’s stage affect significantly the patients’ self-assessment regarding painful symptoms of DN. Furthermore, the above factors have major impact on some aspects of patients’ QoL, such as mobility and self-care. Conclusions: Pre-End Stage patients experience more severe painful symptoms of DN compared to patients on Renal Replacement Therapies.

  20. Severity stages in essential tremor: a long-term retrospective study using the glass scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironell, Alexandre; Ribosa-Nogué, Roser; Gich, Ignasi; Marin-Lahoz, Juan; Pascual-Sedano, Berta

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have attempted to estimate the rate of decline of essential tremor (ET) and these were over a relatively short time period (less than 10 years). We performed a long-term study of severity stages in ET using the Glass Scale scoring system. Fifty consecutive patients with severe ET were included. We retrospectively obtained Glass Scale scores throughout the patient's life. Common milestone events were used to help recall changes in tremor severity. According to the Glass Scale, the age distributions were as follows: score I, 40±17 years, score II, 55±12 years, score III, 64±9 years, and score IV, 69±7 years. A significant negative correlation between age at first symptom and rate of progression was found (r = -0.669, pScale may be a useful tool to determine severity stages during the course of ET in a manner similar to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale for Parkinson's disease.

  1. [Clinical stages of patients with Alzheimer disease treated in specialist clinics in Spain. The EACE study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alom Poveda, J; Baquero, M; González-Adalid Guerreiro, M

    2013-10-01

    The diagnostic paradigm of Alzheimer disease (AD) is changing; there is a trend toward diagnosing the disease in its early stages, even before the complete syndrome of dementia is apparent. The clinical stage at which AD is usually diagnosed in our area is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the clinical stages of AD patients at time of diagnosis. Multicentre, observational and cross-sectional study. Patients with probable AD according to NINCDS-ARDRA criteria, attended in specialist clinics in Spain, were included in the study. We recorded the symptom onset to evaluation and symptom onset to diagnosis intervals and clinical status of AD (based on MMSE, NPI questionnaire, and CDR scale). Participants in this study included 437 specialists representing all of Spain's autonomous communities and a total of 1,707 patients, of whom 1,694 were included in the analysis. Mean MMSE score was 17.6±4.8 (95% CI:17.4-17.9). Moderate cognitive impairment (MMSE between 10 and 20) was detected in 64% of the patients, and severe cognitive impairment (MMSEcare visit was 10.9±17.2 months (95% CI:9.9-11.8), and the interval between symptom onset and diagnosis with AD was 28.4±21.3 months. Results from the EACE show that most AD patients in our area have reached a moderate clinical stage by the time they are evaluated in a specialist clinic. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Redefining radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer with single dose ablative treatment : a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Charaghvandi, R K; van Asselen, B; Philippens, M E P; Verkooijen, H M; van Gils, C H; van Diest, P J; Pijnappel, R M; Hobbelink, M G G; Witkamp, A J; van Dalen, T; van der Wall, E; van Heijst, T C; Koelemij, R; van Vulpen, M; van den Bongard, H J G D

    2017-01-01

    Background A shift towards less burdening and more patient friendly treatments for breast cancer is currently ongoing. In low-risk patients with early-stage disease, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an alternative for whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery. MRI-guided single dose ablative APBI has the potential to offer a minimally burdening, non-invasive treatment that could replace current breast-conserving therapy. Methods The ABLATIVE study is a prosp...

  3. Comparative effectiveness studies to improve clinical outcomes in end stage renal disease: the DEcIDE patient outcomes in end stage renal disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulware Ebony L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence is lacking to inform providers’ and patients’ decisions about many common treatment strategies for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. Methods/design The DEcIDE Patient Outcomes in ESRD Study is funded by the United States (US Agency for Health Care Research and Quality to study the comparative effectiveness of: 1 antihypertensive therapies, 2 early versus later initiation of dialysis, and 3 intravenous iron therapies on clinical outcomes in patients with ESRD. Ongoing studies utilize four existing, nationally representative cohorts of patients with ESRD, including (1 the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD study (1041 incident dialysis patients recruited from October 1995 to June 1999 with complete outcome ascertainment through 2009, (2 the Dialysis Clinic Inc (45,124 incident dialysis patients initiating and receiving their care from 2003–2010 with complete outcome ascertainment through 2010, (3 the United States Renal Data System (333,308 incident dialysis patients from 2006–2009 with complete outcome ascertainment through 2010, and (4 the Cleveland Clinic Foundation Chronic Kidney Disease Registry (53,399 patients with chronic kidney disease with outcome ascertainment from 2005 through 2009. We ascertain patient reported outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life, morbidity, and mortality using clinical and administrative data, and data obtained from national death indices. We use advanced statistical methods (e.g., propensity scoring and marginal structural modeling to account for potential biases of our study designs. All data are de-identified for analyses. The conduct of studies and dissemination of findings are guided by input from Stakeholders in the ESRD community. Discussion The DEcIDE Patient Outcomes in ESRD Study will provide needed evidence regarding the effectiveness of common treatments employed for dialysis patients. Carefully planned dissemination strategies to the

  4. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two-stage genome-wide association study identifies a novel susceptibility locus associated with melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, Katherine J; Wu, Wenting; Cho, Hyunje G; Chahal, Harvind C; Lin, Yuan; Dai, Hong-Ji; Amos, Christopher I; Lee, Jeffrey E; Tang, Jean Y; Hinds, David A; Han, Jiali; Wei, Qingyi; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2017-03-14

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 21 susceptibility loci associated with melanoma. These loci implicate genes affecting pigmentation, nevus count, telomere maintenance, and DNA repair in melanoma risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of melanoma. The stage 1 discovery phase consisted of 4,842 self-reported melanoma cases and 286,565 controls of European ancestry from the 23andMe research cohort and the stage 2 replication phase consisted of 1,804 melanoma cases and 1,026 controls from the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. We performed a combined meta-analysis totaling 6,628 melanoma cases and 287,591 controls. Our study replicates 20 of 21 previously known melanoma-loci and confirms the association of the telomerase reverse transcriptase, TERT, with melanoma susceptibility at genome-wide significance. In addition, we uncover a novel polymorphism, rs187843643 (OR = 1.96; 95% CI = [1.54, 2.48]; P = 3.53 x 10-8), associated with melanoma. The SNP rs187842643 lies within a noncoding RNA 177kb downstream of BASP1 (brain associated protein-1). We find that BASP1 expression is suppressed in melanoma as compared with benign nevi, providing additional evidence for a putative role in melanoma pathogenesis.

  6. Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Different Stages of Malignant Melanoma and Correlation with Tumor Stage and Other Prognostic Factors: A Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghanadan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is one of the most immunogenic tumors that causes a significant immune response. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are an important part of this response. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are lymphocytes in close association with tumor cells that have infiltrated tumor nests. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the relationship of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in malignant melanoma with histopathologic findings, tumor stage, and other prognostic factors. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. We re-evaluated patients’ specimens and categorized the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes as grades 0, 1, 2, or 3 based on density and distribution of the infiltrating lymphocytes. Results:We enrolled 111 patients with a mean age of 59.33±14.68 years, and a male to female ratio of 1.09. There was no evidence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in 17.1% of patients. The melanoma subtypes had the following tumor infiltrating lymphocyte grades: 1 (47.7%, 2 (28.8%, and 3 (6.3%. Cancer stage significantly decreased with increasing grade of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (P<0.001. Although numerous histopathologic findings had a relationship with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, only microsatellitosis had a significant relation after adjustments for melanoma stage (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Increased density of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes can show a more effective immune response against melanoma. This response can limit cancer progression and result in tumor diagnosis at lower stages of the disease.

  7. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design.

  8. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  9. Clinical evaluation of a newly designed single-stage craniofacial implant: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Mohamed Moataz; Medra, Ahmed; Gauld, John

    2008-11-01

    Placing craniofacial implants in a 2-stage procedure requires an additional second-stage surgery that is tedious for patients and clinicians and results in additional cost. The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the use of a newly designed craniofacial implant for retaining facial prostheses, placed in a single-stage surgical procedure. Twenty-one newly designed craniofacial implants (OsteoCare Implant System) were placed in 7 patients, all seeking implant-retained auricular prostheses, using a single-stage surgical procedure. Modified O-ring abutments were directly screwed onto the implants at the time of surgery. Plastic washers were attached to the O-ring heads of the exposed abutments to avoid skin overgrowth to allow a single-stage surgical procedure. After a delayed loading period of 4 months, a silicone prosthetic ear was fabricated and retained using clips over the O-ring abutments. Implants and surrounding tissues were clinically evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months following prosthesis insertion. The following were evaluated: periimplant abutment sebaceous crusting, periimplant abutment exudate, skin thickness, periimplant abutment tissue reaction, and implant mobility. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using the nonparametric Friedman's test for overall comparisons and Wilcoxon signed rank test for post hoc assessment of significance between follow-up periods. None of the implants failed to osseointegrate, providing a survival rate of 100%. Periimplant abutment sebaceous crusting values were significantly reduced at the 12-month test session (P<.05). Periimplant abutment skin thickness was also significantly reduced (P<.05) between the 6- and 12-month, and 1- and 12-month, follow-up visits. No significant difference was found throughout the follow-up period for periimplant abutment exudates and tissue reactions. None of the implants showed any signs of mobility throughout the study period. The use of the single-stage surgical

  10. Two-stage estimation in copula models used in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2005-01-01

    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for studying a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models are derived, generalising the approach...... by Shih and Louis (Biometrics vol. 51, pp. 1384-1399, 1995b) and Glidden (Lifetime Data Analysis vol. 6, pp. 141-156, 2000). Because register based family studies often involve very large cohorts a method for analysing a sampled cohort is also derived together with the asymptotic properties...

  11. Depression and Anxiety Scores Are Associated with Amygdala Volume in Cushing’s Syndrome: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cushing’s syndrome (CS has repeatedly been associated with hippocampal volume reductions, while little information is available on the amygdala, another structure rich in glucocorticoid receptors. The aim of the study was to analyze amygdala volume in patients with CS and its relationship with anxiety, depression, and hormone levels. Material and Methods. 39 CS patients (16 active and 23 patients in remission and 39 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level completed anxiety (STAI and depression tests (BDI-II and underwent a 3 Tesla brain MRI and endocrine testing. Amygdala volumes were analysed with FreeSurfer software. Results. Active CS patients had smaller right (but not left amygdala volumes when compared to controls (P=0.045. Left amygdala volumes negatively correlated with depression scores (r=-0.692, P=0.003 and current anxiety state scores (r=-0.617, P=0.011 in active CS patients and with anxiety trait scores (r=-0.440, P=0.036 in patients in remission. No correlations were found between current ACTH, urinary free cortisol or blood cortisol levels, and amygdala volumes in either patient group. Conclusion. Patients with active CS have a smaller right amygdala volume in comparison to controls, while left amygdala volumes are associated with mood state in both patient groups.

  12. A deformation-based morphometry study of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, P; Østergaard, Karen; Cumming, P

    2010-01-01

    purported to be more sensitive than VBM, to test for atrophy in patients with early-stage PD. METHODS: T1-weighted MRI images from 24 early-stage PD patients and 26 age-matched normal control subjects were compared using DBM. Two separate studies were conducted, where two minimally-biased nonlinear...... intensity-average were created; one for all subjects and another for just the PD patients. The DBM technique creates an average population-based MRI-average in an iterative hierarchical fashion. The nonlinear transformations estimated to match each subject to the MRI-average were then analysed. RESULTS......: The DBM comparison between patients and controls revealed significant contraction in the left cerebellum, and non-significant trends towards frontal, temporal and cingulate sulcal expansions with frontal and temporal white matter contractions. Within the patient group, the unified PD rating scores were...

  13. Unilateral vs one stage bilateral total knee replacement in rheumatoid and osteoarthritis - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : A controversy exists regarding simultaneous or staged bilateral total knee replacement. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral and 50 undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty were evaluated prospectively to compare the clinical, radiological results and complication rates. Eighty-four patients belonged to ASA category II or III preoperatively. The study included a high proportion of rheumatoid patients and osteoarthritis patients with severe deformities. Results: Bilateral group had greater blood loss and required more blood transfusion, but there was no difference in requirement of postoperative intensive care and the complication rates. Rheumatoid knees had lower pre and postoperative knee score and functional score as compared to osteoarthritic knees. Morbidity and mortality of one stage bilateral knee replacement was no greater than unilateral operation. Conclusion: Simultaneous bilateral knee replacement in younger patients with advanced rheumatoid arthritis is safe and effective

  14. Computational Study of a McDonnell Douglas Single-Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle Concept for Aerodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a computational flow analysis of the McDonnell Douglas single-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept designated as the 24U. This study was made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle with and without body flaps over an angle of attack range of 20-40 deg. Computations were made at a flight Mach number of 20 at 200,000 ft. altitude with equilibrium air, and a Mach number of 6 with CF4 gas. The software package FELISA (Finite Element Langley imperial College Sawansea Ames) was used for all the computations. The FELISA software consists of unstructured surface and volume grid generators, and inviscid flow solvers with (1) perfect gas option for subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic speeds, and (2) perfect gas, equilibrium air, and CF4 options for hypersonic speeds. The hypersonic flow solvers with equilibrium air and CF4 options were used in the present studies. Results are compared with other computational results and hypersonic CF4 tunnel test data.

  15. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results...... of stage 3, in which we evaluated 1,536 SNPs in 4,574 individuals with prostate cancer (cases) and 4,164 controls. We followed up ten new association signals through genotyping in 51,311 samples in 30 studies from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations...... in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. In addition to replicating previously reported loci, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2p11, 3q23, 3q26, 5p12, 6p21, 12q13 and Xq12 (P = 4.0 × 10(-8) to P = 2.7 × 10(-24)). We also identified a SNP in TERT more strongly associated...

  16. Survival and safety associated with aggressive surgery for stage III/IV epithelial ovarian cancer: A single institution observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Shinichi; Kato, Kazuyoshi; Nishikimi, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Shozu, Makio

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of aggressive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer at a non-high-volume center. We evaluated consecutive patients with stage III/IV ovarian, fallopian, and peritoneal cancer undergoing elective aggressive surgery from January 2008 to December 2012, which encompassed the first 5years after implementing an aggressive surgery protocol. After receiving appropriate training for 9months, a gynecological surgical team began performing multi-visceral resections. Primary debulking surgery was chosen when the team considered that optimal surgery was achievable on the initial laparotomy, otherwise interval debulking surgery was chosen (the protocol treatments). Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis (full-set analysis), and outcomes were compared to those of patients who underwent standard surgery between 2000 and 2007. Of 106 consecutive patients studied, 87 (82%) underwent aggressive surgery per protocol and 19 were excluded. Serous carcinoma was the most common disease (78%), followed by clear cell carcinoma (7%), and 32% of the patients had stage IV disease. The respective median progression-free and overall survival rates increased from 14.6 and 38.1months before implementation, respectively, to 25.0 and 68.5months after implementation, respectively. Complete resection was achieved in 83 of the 106 patients (78%), and the surgical complexity score was high (>8) in 61 patients (58%); although there was no mortality within 12weeks of surgery, major complications occurred in 8 patients. We confirmed that outcomes improved after implementing aggressive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer, without causing a significant increase in mortality. Factors enhancing survival outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  18. A multi-stage genome-wide association study of uterine fibroids in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Jeff, Janina M; Wise, Lauren A; Gallagher, C Scott; Wellons, Melissa; Hartmann, Katherine E; Jones, Sarah F; Torstenson, Eric S; Dickinson, Scott; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Rohland, Nadin; Allen, Alexander; Reich, David; Tandon, Arti; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Mancuso, Nicholas; Im, Hae Kyung; Hinds, David A; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Morton, Cynthia C; Kenny, Eimear E; Edwards, Todd L; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2017-10-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign tumors of the uterus affecting up to 77% of women by menopause. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and account for $34 billion annually in the United States. Race/ethnicity and age are the strongest known risk factors. African American (AA) women have higher prevalence, earlier onset, and larger and more numerous fibroids than European American women. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fibroid risk among AA women followed by in silico genetically predicted gene expression profiling of top hits. In Stage 1, cases and controls were confirmed by pelvic imaging, genotyped and imputed to 1000 Genomes. Stage 2 used self-reported fibroid and GWAS data from 23andMe, Inc. and the Black Women's Health Study. Associations with fibroid risk were modeled using logistic regression adjusted for principal components, followed by meta-analysis of results. We observed a significant association among 3399 AA cases and 4764 AA controls at rs739187 (risk-allele frequency = 0.27) in CYTH4 (OR (95% confidence interval) = 1.23 (1.16-1.30), p value = 7.82 × 10-9). Evaluation of the genetic association results with MetaXcan identified lower predicted gene expression of CYTH4 in thyroid tissue as significantly associated with fibroid risk (p value = 5.86 × 10-8). In this first multi-stage GWAS for fibroids among AA women, we identified a novel risk locus for fibroids within CYTH4 that impacts gene expression in thyroid and has potential biological relevance for fibroids.

  19. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929

  20. A Study on Flavonoid Compounds of Six Citrus Varieties during Maturity and Ripening Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fattahi Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to physical and chemical properties of citrus fruit, its quality depends on antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant enzymes. Flavonoids group, especially flavonoid glycosides are dominant in citrus, which prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In this experiment, the total flavonoids, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, quercetin and catechin were measured in the mature and ripe fruits of six citrus varieties (Thomson, Siavaraz, Moro, Sanguinello, Tarocco and Page by HPLC analysis. The results showed that all cultivars had high level of total flavonoid at the ripening stage. The amount of naringin was highest in 'Thomson' and 'Tarocco' (with 452.8 and 824.8 μgg-1 respectively at maturity phase. Hesperidin accumulation was higher in blood oranges than blond varieties. The Sanguinello and Siavaraz had the highest value of neohesperidin especially in ripe fruits. The pulp of Tarocco had the highest level of catechin with 24.36 μgg-1 followed by Siavaraz with 10.6 μgg-1 at ripening stage. The Quercetin levels were higher in immature fruits selected from Thomson, Siavaraz and Tarocco varieties. Among the studied varieties, 'Tarocco' variety showed higher levels of flavonoid compounds at the ripened or mature stage.

  1. On bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MURAD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the optimum distribution of goods between sources and destinations is one of the important topics in projects economics. This importance comes as a result of minimizing the transportation cost, deterioration, time, etc. The classical transportation problem constitutes one of the major areas of application for linear programming. The aim of this problem is to obtain the optimum distribution of goods from different sources to different destinations which minimizes the total transportation cost. From the practical point of view, the transportation problems may differ from the classical form. It may contain one or more objective function, one or more stage to transport, one or more type of commodity with one or more means of transport. The aim of this paper is to construct an optimization model for transportation problem for one of mill-stones companies. The model is formulated as a bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem with a special structure depending on the capacities of suppliers, warehouses and requirements of the destinations. A solution algorithm is introduced to solve this class of bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem to obtain the set of non-dominated extreme points and the efficient solutions accompanied with each one that enables the decision maker to choose the best one. The solution algorithm mainly based on the fruitful application of the methods for treating transportation problems, theory of duality of linear programming and the methods of solving bi-criteria linear programming problems.

  2. Relationship between early and late stages of information processing: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Portella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.

  3. Oxidation of polycrystalline Ni studied by spectromicroscopy: Phase separation in the early stages of crystallite growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, A.; Eralp, T.; Shavorskiy, A.; Bennett, R. A.; Held, G.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Dhesi, S. S.

    2010-02-01

    Low-energy and photoemission electron microscopy enables the determination of facet planes of polycrystalline surfaces and the study of their chemical composition at the sub- μm scale. Using these techniques the early oxidation stages of nickel were studied. After exposing the surface to 20 L of oxygen at 373 K a uniform layer of chemisorbed oxygen was found on all facets. After oxygen exposure at 473-673 K, small NiO crystallites are formed on all facets but not in the vicinity of all grain boundaries. The crystallites are separated by areas of bare Ni without significant oxygen coverage.

  4. Constrained reaction volume approach for studying chemical kinetics behind reflected shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Hanson, Ronald K.

    2013-09-01

    We report a constrained-reaction-volume strategy for conducting kinetics experiments behind reflected shock waves, achieved in the present work by staged filling in a shock tube. Using hydrogen-oxygen ignition experiments as an example, we demonstrate that this strategy eliminates the possibility of non-localized (remote) ignition in shock tubes. Furthermore, we show that this same strategy can also effectively eliminate or minimize pressure changes due to combustion heat release, thereby enabling quantitative modeling of the kinetics throughout the combustion event using a simple assumption of specified pressure and enthalpy. We measure temperature and OH radical time-histories during ethylene-oxygen combustion behind reflected shock waves in a constrained reaction volume and verify that the results can be accurately modeled using a detailed mechanism and a specified pressure and enthalpy constraint. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  5. SUCCESS FACTORS IN GROWING SMBs: A STUDY OF TWO INDUSTRIES AT TWO STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Jarl Trondsen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to identify factors for growing SMBs. An evolutionary phase approach has been used. The study also aims to find out if there are common and different denominators for newer and older firms that can affect their profitability. The study selects a sampling frame that isolates two groups of firms in two industries at two stages of development. A variety of organizational and structural data was collected and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions that may be drawn from the study are that it is not easy to find a common definition of success, it is important to stratify SMBs when studying them, an evolutionary stage approach helps to compare firms with roughly the same external and internal dynamics and each industry has its own set of success variables.The study has identified three success variables for older firms that reflect contemporary strategic thinking such as crafting a good strategy and changing it only incrementally, building core competencies and outsourcing the rest, and keeping up with innovation and honing competitive skills.

  6. Normal gray matter volumes in women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2016-05-13

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has consistently been associated with reduced gray (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes. It is unclear whether GM alterations are present following recovery from AN, as previous findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to determine if women recovered from AN exhibit reduced global or regional GM volumes. Global GM and WM, as well as regional GM volumes, were investigated in 22 women recovered from AN and 22 age-matched healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging. Women were considered recovered if they had maintained a body mass index above 18.0 and had not engaged in binge eating, purging, or restrictive eating behaviors during the past year. There were no significant differences between recovered AN women and healthy controls in terms of GM and WM volumes. There were also no significant differences between restricting and binging-purging AN subtypes. Lowest lifetime weight was positively correlated with regional GM volumes in the precuneus and insula. The present study showed that regional GM and global GM and WM volumes were similar for women long-term recovered from AN and age-matched healthy controls. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which illness severity affect regional GM volumes.

  7. HPG-axis hormones during puberty: a study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Jiska S; Brouwer, Rachel M; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2010-01-01

    During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary volumes and development of pubertal hormones in healthy pubertal children. Hormone levels of LH, FSH, estradiol (measured in urine) and testosterone (measured in saliva) were assessed in 85 healthy children (39 boys, 46 girls) between 10 and 15 years of age. Hypothalamic and pituitary gland volumes were segmented on high resolution structural MRI scans. Since sex hormone production is regulated in a sex-specific manner, associations between hormones, hypothalamus and pituitary were analyzed in boys and girls separately. LH, estradiol and testosterone levels all increased with age in both sexes, whereas FSH level did not. Pituitary volume also increased with age and explained 12%, 10% and 8% of the variance in female estradiol, testosterone and LH levels respectively. Corrected for age, pituitary volume explained 17% of FSH level in girls (not boys). Hypothalamic volume did not change with age and did not significantly explain variance in any hormonal level. Our study suggests that a larger pituitary volume is related to higher FSH production, but this association seems independent of pubertal development. The positive association between estradiol, LH and testosterone and pituitary volume is related to age-related pubertal development. With respect to the hypothalamus, we did not find convincing evidence for a larger structure to be involved in elevated hormonal production.

  8. Association of cognitive impairment and lesion volumes in multiple sclerosis--a MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Murat; Tettenborn, Barbara; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can be demonstrated in 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, sometimes starting from the early stages of the disease. The objective of this study was a community-based investigation of FLAIR-hyperintense lesion volumes (LV) and their association with CI in patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS. The neurocognitive assessment was conducted with the brief cognitive screening instrument, MUSIC. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla Sigma Magnetom MRI scanner. We conducted a stepwise multiple regression analysis to assess the relative contribution of the main clinical, demographic and MRI-variables in predicting cognitive impairment. We recruited 78 patients with RRMS. The mean MUSIC score was 20.6 ± 5.4. Forty five percent of patients (n = 35, mean score 15.1 ± 3.3) had CI and 55% (n = 43, mean score 24.4 ± 2.5) had no sign of CI. In the correlation analysis of the MUSIC subtests only the interference test correlated negatively with the LV (r = -0.23). Multivariate linear regression analysis using MUSIC as the dependent continuous variable revealed LV and disability severity as independent factors associated with MUSIC (p value of the regression model < 0.001; adjusted R-square = 0.11). The results of the present study suggest an association between white matter damage and CI in MS. We could demonstrate an association between attention difficulties and the LV in MS patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01250665 and NCT01250678. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors and Diagnostic Strategies for Early-Stage Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hideyo; Ohtsuka, Takao; Matsunaga, Taketo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Tamura, Koji; Ideno, Noboru; Aso, Teppei; Miyazaki, Tetsuyuki; Osoegawa, Takashi; Aishima, Shinichi; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Junji; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hisato; Ito, Tetsuhide; Takahata, Shunichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masao

    2015-10-01

    As a strategy to diagnose early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is urgently needed, we aimed to clarify characteristics of early-stage PDAC. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 299 consecutive patients who underwent R0 or R1 surgical resection for PDAC between 1994 and 2013 and compared clinical characteristics between patients with early-stage (stages 0-I by Japanese General Rules for Pancreatic Cancer) and advanced-stage (stages II-IV) disease. Diagnostic processes were also analyzed. Twenty-four patients (8%) had early-stage PDAC (stage 0: 11; stage I: 13). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that presence or history of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (P early-stage PDAC. Cytological examination during endoscopic retrograde pancreatography cytology was ∼65% sensitive in preoperative diagnosis of early-stage PDAC, whereas other imaging modalities were only 29% to 38% sensitive; 9 of 24 early-stage PDACs were diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography cytology alone. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography cytology for patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm or pancreatitis may help diagnose early-stage PDAC. Surveillance of extrapancreatic malignancies might also provide opportunities to detect early-stage PDAC as a second malignancy.

  10. [Study on change of behavioral stages on nutritional intervention in farmers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Pan, Yi; Yang, Yi; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Wei

    2011-07-01

    To explore the applying stages of change model on nutrition intervention on "eating more vegetables and fruits, eating less salt" in farmers, and evaluate the change of behavioral stages. The questionnaires were used to do baseline and evaluation survey on 500 farmers in trial group and control group respectively. Applying stages of change model to divide farmers into five stages according to their behavior of eating more vegetables and fruits. The intervention ways were used in trial group, especially in five stages farmers. After one year,the changes of behavioral stages in two groups were evaluated. There were statistical significance on proportion of behavioral stages between before intervention and after intervention in trial group (P stages has been gained, the proportion of preparation, action, maintenance increased by 15.1%, 20.7% and 16.1% for eating more vegetables and fruits. With the rise of behavioral stage, the awareness rates of healthy knowledge, the average daily intake of vegetables and fruits, folic acid and urine potassium levels have rised, and the average daily intake of salts, diastolic pressure, homocysteine and urine sodium levels have reduced increasingly (P stages about eating more vegetables and fruits on farmers have changed from precontemplation to action and maintenance, the upgrade of behavior stages has been gained; The higher stages farmers have higher levels of heathy knowledge, more positive healthy belief and attitude, lower risk factors of chronic diseases than the lower stages farmers, the stages of change model has the practicability on behavior change.

  11. Identifying Grade/Stage-Related Active Modules in Human Co-regulatory Networks: A Case Study for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Chenchen; Chen, Lina; Li, Wan; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Liangcai; Jia, Xu; Miao, Zhengqiang; Qu, Xiaoli; Li, Weiguo; He, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    The histological grade/stage of tumor is widely acknowledged as an important clinical prognostic factor for cancer progression. Recent experimental studies have explored the following two topics at the molecular level: (1) whether or not gene expression levels vary by different degrees among different tumor grades/stages, and (2) whether some well-defined modules could distinguish one grade/stage from another. In this article, using breast cancer as an example, we investigated this topic and ...

  12. Reduced Pineal Volume in Alzheimer Disease: A Retrospective Cross-sectional MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Teruyuki; Imai, Ayu; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Kato, Yuka; Shibata, Keisuke; Nakamura, Kaeko; Yokota, Hajime; Yamada, Kei; Narumoto, Jin

    2017-07-26

    Purpose To evaluate pineal volume in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy control subjects and to correlate the findings with results of cognitive testing and brain parenchymal volumes. Materials and Methods The ethics committee approved this retrospective study. The participants included 63 patients with AD, 33 patients with MCI, and 24 healthy control subjects. There were 36 men and 84 women, with a mean age (±standard deviation) of 76.7 years ± 7.6. The pineal gland volume and pineal parenchymal volume were measured by using three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo sequence; spatial resolution, 0.9 × 0.98 × 0.98 mm). With age and total intracranial volume as covariates, analysis of covariance with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to compare the pineal volume among the AD, MCI, and control groups. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictor variables associated with pineal volume. Results The mean pineal gland volume in patients with AD (72.3 mm(3) ± 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.5 mm(3), 83.1 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than that in control subjects (102.1 mm(3) ± 9.0; 95% CI: 84.4 mm(3), 119.9 mm(3)) (P = .019). The mean pineal parenchymal volume in patients with AD (63.8 mm(3) ± 4.2; 95% CI: 55.4 mm(3), 72.1 mm(3)) was significantly smaller than that in patients with MCI (81.7 mm(3) ± 5.8; 95% CI: 70.3 mm(3), 93.1 mm(3); P = .044) and control subjects (89.1 mm(3) ± 6.9; 95% CI: 75.4 mm(3), 102.9 mm(3); P = .009). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Mini-Mental State Examination score and total intracranial volume were significant independent predictors of both pineal gland volume and pineal parenchymal volume (P Pineal volume reduction showed correlation with cognitive decline and thus might be useful to predict cognitive decline in patients with AD. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  13. Conceptual design and systems analysis of photovoltaic systems. Volume II. Study results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpich, A.

    1977-03-19

    This investigation of terrestrial PV systems considered the technical and economic feasibility for systems in three size categories: a small system of about 12 kW peak output for on-site residential use; a large 1500 MW central power plant contributing to the bulk energy of a utility system power grid; and an intermediate size system of about 250 kW for use on public or commercial buildings. In each category, conceptual designs were developed, performance was analyzed for a range of climatic regions, economic analyses were performed, and assessments were made of pertinent institutional issues. The report consists of three volumes. Volume I contains a Study Summary of the major study results. This volume contains the detailed results pertaining to on-site residential photovoltaic systems, central power plant photovoltaic systems, and intermediate size systems applied to commercial and public buildings. Volume III contains supporting appendix material. (WHK)

  14. Dutch surgeons' views on the volume-outcome mechanism in surgery: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, R; Faber, M J; Westert, G P; Berden, H J J M

    2017-08-09

    To contribute to a better understanding of volume-outcome relationships in surgery by exploring Dutch surgeons' views on the underlying mechanism. A qualitative study based on face-to-face semi structured interviews and an inductive content analysis approach. Interviews were conducted in eight hospitals in the Netherlands (2 university, 4 teaching and 2 general). Twenty surgeons (gastrointestinal, vascular and trauma). Dutch surgeons' views on volume-outcome relationships in surgery and the underlying mechanism. The majority of surgeons believed volume is related to outcomes after surgery. Interviewees highlighted the importance of both focus and skills when describing the underlying mechanism. Focus was visible on three levels: hospital, surgeon and team. Focus on a hospital level referred to investing in specific infrastructure and dedicated personnel. Surgeons described both the benefits and downsides of surgeons' increased focus to a certain surgical subspeciality. And their experiences on the importance of working with fixed, procedure-specific teams. The positive influence of caseload on technical and nontechnical skills was acknowledged, as well as the benefits of combining skills by operating together. Although a basic skill set should be maintained, this does not necessarily require high volume. Focus and skills are important explanatory factors in volume-outcome relationships according to Dutch surgeons. This suggests that both high- and low-volume providers should enable specialized, fixed teams for complex surgeries and focus on maintenance of both their technical and nontechnical skills. By uncovering the underlying mechanism, imperfect quality indicators such as volume can be supplemented or replaced.

  15. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  16. Psychological effects of poetry workshops with people with early stage dementia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Ioana; MacFarlane, Kit; Ranzijn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of writing poetry on psychological functioning in people with early stage dementia. A series of poetry writing workshops was conducted with four women, at the end of which a one-on-one short structured interview was conducted. All of the women said that they benefited from the workshops, but their experiences differed greatly. Themes included competence and self-efficacy, personal growth, wanting to contribute and poetry writing as a way of coping with the progression of the condition. Creative activities such as writing poetry hold promise for enhancing the quality of life of people with dementia.

  17. Theoretical Study on the Flow of Refilling Stage in a Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Sang [Halla Univ. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed to the flow of refilling stage in a safety injection tank, which is the core cooling system of nuclear power plant in an emergency. A theoretical model was proposed with a nonlinear governing equation defining on the flow of the refilling process of the coolant. Utilizing the Taylor-series expansion, the 1st - order approximation flow equation was obtained, along with its analytic solution of closed type, which could predict accurately the variations of free surface height and flow rate of the coolant. The availability of theoretical result was confirmed by comparing with previous experimental results.

  18. A motion study of a manipulator for transferring microparts in a multi stage former

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hansen, Casper

    2013-01-01

    of milliseconds. A high speed camera was used in the experiments with high resolution to show the details of the motion while enabling to detect any unwanted movement within milliseconds. Importantly, increasing the frequency of image capturing within the movement is another beneficial feature in the high speed...... together. A motion study of the system gives an overview of different steps and movements inside the multi stage former. Significantly, increasing the production rate increases the acceleration and also causes the time frame tight. The time limitations put overlaps on the moving parts in terms...

  19. A randomized double-blind study evaluating Anandron associated with orchiectomy in stage D prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, M; Toubol, J; Caty, A; Couette, J E; Douchez, J; Kerbrat, P; Droz, J P

    1990-12-20

    A randomized double-blind study with a 3-yr follow-up comparing the two arms "orchiectomy + Anandron (300 mg)" vs "orchiectomy + placebo" in 125 patients with stage D prostate cancer has confirmed the beneficial effects of the combined Anandron therapy on subjective parameters and on the best objective response (NPCP criteria), although these effects were not statistically significant, but failed to detect any improvement in time-to-disease progression or survival. Comparison with the results of other trials emphasizes the urgent need to establish suitable prognostic factors by further clinical research before evaluating the benefits of individual drugs.

  20. Coping with chronic illness: A study with end-stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cassaretto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies coping styles and strategies used by 40 end-stage renal disease patients over 20 years old who receive treatment in a general hospital in Peru. The instruments applied were a personal sociodemographic questionnaire and the Coping Inventory (Carver, Scheier & Weintraub, 1989. Results showed that emotion focused coping were most frequently used followed by problem focused coping. Planning, acceptance and positive reinterpretation-growth coping strategies were more frequently used by these patients, whereas mental disengagement, suppression of competing activities and behavioral disengagement were the less frequently used coping strategies. Other differences between coping styles and strategies and sociodemographic and medical variables were analyzed.

  1. Thyroid gland volume of schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Saeed; Moghadam, Masrur Vahabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD)-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran — Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast — and compare them to WHO normative values. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA), and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases. Results: Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases) by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects) grade I and 23.9% (385 cases) grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P < 0.0001). According to the 1997 WHO thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%). In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R2 = 0.391, P < 0.0001) followed by BSA (R2 = 0.151, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant difference between thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P < 0.0001. 4.3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.3 ± 2.5 mL; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The WHO standards for thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters. PMID:26941811

  2. Thyroid gland volume off schoolchildren in the North of Iran: Comparison with other studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have shown the limitation of the World Health Organization (WHO/ International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD-adopted thyroid gland volume references as universal normative values for thyroid gland volume. So we decided to measure thyroid gland volume by sonography in schoolchildren in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran - Rasht is a metropolitan city on the Caspian Sea coast - and compare them to WHO normative values. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 2,522 schoolchildren, aged 6-13 years, in Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran were selected by multistage random sampling. Data were collected on their age, sex, weight, height, body surface area (BSA, and thyroid gland size by palpation and sonography. The terminal phalange of thumb finger volume was calculated with the same formula used in sonography, for the thyroid gland in 1,085 of these cases. Results: Goiter prevalence was 64% (1613 cases by palpation, 76.1% (1228 subjects grade I and 23.9% (385 cases grade II. The mean thyroid gland volume in girls was more than boys (3.67 ± 1.89 mL vs 3.41 ± 1.58 mL, P < 0.0001. According to the 1997 WHO thyroid gland volume reference, none of the children had goiter based on BSA and age even in those with grade II goiters (23.9%. In contrast, the median thyroid gland volume in our cases was larger than the 2004 WHO reference. The best single predictor of thyroid gland volume was age (R2 = 0.391, P < 0.0001 followed by BSA (R2 = 0.151, P < 0.0001. There was also a significant difference between thyroid gland and finger volume in all grades of goiter and grade II goiters (3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.59 ± 2.4 mL; P < 0.0001. 4.3 ± 1.4 mL vs 9.3 ± 2.5 mL; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: The WHO standards for thyroid gland volume by sonography may underestimate or overestimate the goiter prevalence in many areas and populations. Finger volume was much larger than thyroid gland volume in even visible goiters.

  3. Wilderness Study Report : Volume VI : Kenai National Moose Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to conform to the Wilderness Act of 1964, a study was conducted by the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife personnel to ascertain which of the Kenai...

  4. 6809 Volume 12 No. 6 October 2012 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ayoola S.O

    2012-10-06

    Clarias gariepinus), pituitary extract and non-piscine; frog (Haplobutrachus occipitalis) pituitary extracts. The study was carried out in the Department of Marine. Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos state Nigeria.

  5. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    This collection of studies in contrastive linguistics includes the following: "Bilingual Intralinguistic Orthographic Interference" (Philip A. Luelsdorff); "Reassociation of Sentence Melodies" (Wolfgang U. Dressler, Lavinia Merlini Barbaresi); "English Word Stress and Empty Vowel Slots" (Grazyna Rowicka);…

  6. Pulmonary vascular volume, impaired left ventricular filling and dyspnea: The MESA Lung Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Carrie P; Hoffman, Eric A; Lima, Joao A C; Kawut, Steven M; Bertoni, Alain G; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Habibi, Mohammadali; Hueper, Katja; Jacobs, David R; Kalhan, Ravi; Michos, Erin D; Post, Wendy S; Prince, Martin R; Smith, Benjamin M; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Liu, Chia-Ying; Zemrak, Filip; Watson, Karol E; Budoff, Matthew; Bluemke, David A; Barr, R Graham

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of impaired left ventricular (LV) filling has focused on intrinsic causes of LV dysfunction; however, pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to reduced LV filling and dyspnea. We hypothesized that lower total pulmonary vascular volume (TPVV) on computed tomography (CT) would be associated with dyspnea and decrements in LV end-diastolic volume, particularly among ever-smokers. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in 2000-02. In 2010-12, TPVV was ascertained as the volume of arteries and veins in the lungs detectable on non-contrast chest CT (vessels ≥1 mm diameter). Cardiac measures were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dyspnea was self-reported. Of 2303 participants, 53% had ever smoked cigarettes. Among ever-smokers, a lower TPVV was associated with a lower LV end-diastolic volume (6.9 mL per SD TPVV), stroke volume, and cardiac output and with dyspnea (all P-values lung disease and those with 0-10 pack-years but were mostly non-significant among never-smokers. TPVV was associated smaller left atrial volume but not with LV ejection fraction or MRI measures of impaired LV relaxation. In a second sample of ever-smokers, a lower pulmonary microvascular blood volume on contrast-enhanced MRI was also associated with a lower LV end-diastolic volume (P-value = 0.008). Reductions in pulmonary vascular volume were associated with lower LV filling and dyspnea among ever-smokers, including those without lung disease, suggesting that smoking-related pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to symptoms and impair cardiac filling and function without evidence of impaired LV relaxation.

  7. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Wang; He Sun; Zhihui Sun; Enqing Ma

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, ...

  8. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  9. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study.

  10. Thermal loading study for FY 1996. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-08

    The primary objective of this study was to provide recommendations for Mined Geologic Disposal System requirements affected by thermal loading that will provide sufficient definition to facilitate development of design concepts and support life cycle cost determinations. The study reevaluated and/or redefined selected thermal goals used for design and are currently contained in the requirements documents or the Controlled Design Assumption Document. The study provided recommendations as to what, if any, actions (such as edge loading and limiting of the heat variability between waste packages) are needed and must be accommodated in the design. Additionally, the study provided recommendations as to what alternative thermal loads should be maintained for continued flexibility. Section 1 provides the study objective, background, scope, and organization of the report. Section 2 documents the requirements and standards to include quality assurance (QA) requirements, any requirements used or evaluated, and the inputs and assumptions considered. Section 3 provides the analysis and recommendations for the thermal goals reevaluation. Section 4 discusses the evaluation of edge loading and provides conclusions. Section 5 provides the analyses done to establish recommendations as to what requirements need to be implemented to either limit or manage the amount of heat output variability that may occur. Section 6 discusses alternate thermal loadings; Section 7 provides the study conclusions and recommendations; Section 8 provides the references, standards, and regulations; and Section 9 contains the acronym list.

  11. Multiparametric-MRI as a comprehensive study in evaluation, characterization & local staging of urinary bladder carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hafez Afifi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Mp-MRI is comprehensive & effective tool for determining local T stages, and the histological grades of urinary bladder cancers. Also, it predicts nature & stages of local lymph nodes, exhibiting high diagnostic performance with excellent objectivity.

  12. A Bayesian multi-stage cost-effectiveness design for animal studies in stroke research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunyan; Ning, Jing; Huang, Xuelin

    2016-07-08

    Much progress has been made in the area of adaptive designs for clinical trials. However, little has been done regarding adaptive designs to identify optimal treatment strategies in animal studies. Motivated by an animal study of a novel strategy for treating strokes, we propose a Bayesian multi-stage cost-effectiveness design to simultaneously identify the optimal dose and determine the therapeutic treatment window for administrating the experimental agent. We consider a non-monotonic pattern for the dose-schedule-efficacy relationship and develop an adaptive shrinkage algorithm to assign more cohorts to admissible strategies. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the proposed design by comparing it with two standard designs. These simulation studies show that the proposed design yields a significantly higher probability of selecting the optimal strategy, while it is generally more efficient and practical in terms of resource usage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  14. Study of Prostatic Volume and its Variations in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsi, E Z; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Azam, A S; Choudhury, S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ismatsara, M; Yesmin, M; Zisa, R S; Khan, S H

    2016-10-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders of Bangladeshi male in recent years. Volume of the prostate is necessary to estimate the amount of BPH adenoma to determine the appropriate therapy or to select the surgical approach. Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) is preferred for small glands and open prostatectomy for larger ones. Decrease in prostatic mass after hormonal manipulation or radiation therapy can be used as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy. The effect of prostate volume on biopsy outcome was assessed and was noted that there was an inverse relationship in between size of the gland and prostate cancer. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to find out the difference in volume of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories: Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The volume of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean volume of the prostate gland was 13.75ml in Group A, 24.44ml in Group B and 29.72ml in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of volume of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The volume of prostate gland was found to be increased with increasing age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the volume of prostate gland of Bangladeshi

  15. Southwest Florida shelf ecosystems study, Volume 1: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The 6-year Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Program began in 1980 as an interdisciplinary study. The study area extends seaward from the west coast of Florida to the 200-meter isobath and from 27/degree/N latitude southward to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas. The region includes Florida Bay but not other estuarine areas. This area contains numerous live-bottom habitats and associated communities in a complex, patchy matrix. Live-bottom areas are often separated by wide expanses of sand or mud bottom areas. This report concludes the 6-year Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Program's environmental study. The ultimate objective of the program was to determine the potential impact of OCS oil and gas offshore activities on live-bottom habitats and communities, which are integral components of the southwest Florida shelf ecosystems.

  16. Experimental geothermal research facilities study (Phase 0). Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The study comprises Phase 0 of a project for Experimental Geothermal Research Facilities. The study focuses on identification of a representative liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of moderate temperature and salinity, preliminary engineering design of an appropriate energy conversion system, identification of critical technology, and planning for implementation of experimental facilities. The objectives included development of liaison with the industrial sector, to ensure responsiveness to their views in facility requirements and planning, and incorporation of environmental and socioeconomic factors. This Phase 0 report covers problem definition and systems requirements. Facilities will incorporate capability for research in component, system, and materials technology and a nominal 10 MWe experimental, binary cycle, power generating plant.

  17. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    were derived from administration of two sets of structured questionnaires, which were administered to 120 respondents who were randomly selected among peasant farmers from all ..... bare football pitch, it would grow well. It is therefore not surprising that all the 120 respondents included in this study cultivated cassava.

  18. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 1, Spring 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    www.guardian.co.uk/mcveigh/story/0,7369,488284,00.html; and David Segal, "The Pied Piper of Racism ," Washington Post, 12 January 2000. 18. For more on Pierces...alliance to shed the stigma of World STRATEGIC STUDIES QUARTERLY ♦ SPRING 2013 [81] Damon V. Coletta War II and punch above its weight on several issues

  19. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Great Lakes, from cheap energy at nearby Niagara Falls, and from its railroad links to the great markets of North America. The opening of the Panama ...vious years. (Sweeny and Merckel: 1972). A 1977 benthic study of Buffalo Harbor showed the family Chironomidae was the most diverse group followed by

  20. Buffalo Harbor Study. Preliminary Feasibility Report. Volume I. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    between 1933-1937 of 98 million bushels (Barrick, 1970). The opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, the growing use of alternative inland waterways, and...Sweeny and Merckel: 1972). A 1977 benthic study of Buffalo Harbor showed the family Chironomidae was the most diverse group followed by Tubificidae and

  1. Vessel Monitoring Systems Study. Volume I - Technical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    In the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 the U.S. Conress directed the Department of Transportation to performa a study on the desirability and feasibility of a shore-station system for monitoring vessels (including fishing vessels)offshore within t...

  2. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Volume XXIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Ruth S., Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-seven papers treat aspects of the psychoanalytic study of the child. Problems of psychopathology and therapy considered are the fantasy of the phallic woman, the use of child analysis, the background of perversions, variables in the production of neurotic disturbances, treatment of narcissistic personality disorders, and problems of the…

  3. Improving School Leadership. Volume 2: Case Studies on System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David, Ed.; Nusche, Deborah, Ed.; Pont, Beatriz, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores what specialists are saying about system leadership for school improvement. Case studies examine innovative approaches to sharing leadership across schools in Belgium (Flanders), Finland and the United Kingdom (England) and leadership development programmes for system improvement in Australia and Austria. As these are emerging…

  4. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "Tag Questions, Transformational Grammar and Pragmatics" (Wolfram Bublitz); "Toward Contrasting Styles" (Karol Janicki); "Some More Remarks on the Pedagogical Uses of Contrastive Studies" (Waldemar Marton); "Stress in Polish--With Some Comparisons to English Stress" (James…

  5. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "The Impersonal Sentence in Russian and Romanian" (Suzanne Whalen); "Differential Identity Between Languages--A Study of Assertion and Interrogation in French and English" (William A. Bennett); "The Use of the Article in English and Hungarian: A Contrastive Analysis" (Eva…

  6. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the journal includes these papers on contrastive linguistics: "A Note on Semantic Representation of Lexical Items and on Lexical Gaps" (Maria Grzegorek); "Some Remarks on Case Grammars as Bases for Contrastive Studies" (Hans U. Boas); "Are Exclusively Attributive Adjectives 'Transpositional'?--Some Comments on the Nature of Lexical…

  7. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 10, Number 3. Fall 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    marketed handheld device. 41. Matthew Potter , “Boeing Video of Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) Aircraft,” Defense Procurement News, 2 October 2009, accessed...C. Hailes, and Harry Foster, “Blue Horizons III: The Age of Surprise” (unpublished briefing given to AF/A8, April 2010). 74 Strategic Studies

  8. Expression of antimicrobial peptides and interleukin-8 during early stages of inflammation: An experimental gingivitis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommisch, H; Staufenbiel, I; Schulze, K; Stiesch, M; Winkel, A; Fimmers, R; Dommisch, J; Jepsen, S; Miosge, N; Adam, K; Eberhard, J

    2015-12-01

    In the oral cavity, the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to a number of different microorganisms that are organized in a well-structured biofilm. The aim of this study was to monitor gingival expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in an early gingivitis model. Experimental gingivitis was allowed to develop in healthy volunteers (n = 17). Bleeding on probing (BOP%) and gingival crevicular fluid volume (GCF) were assessed at baseline and day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Expression of AMPs (human beta-defensin-2, hBD-2; CC-chemokine ligand 20, CCL20; psoriasin, pso/S100A7) and IL-8 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in gingival biopsies. In addition, hBD-2 and IL-8 protein expression was monitored in GCF using the ELISA technology. Experimental gingivitis gradually developed with an increase in BOP scores and GCF volume over time. In GCF, elevated concentrations of hBD-2 and IL-8 were monitored at day 1, 5 and 7 (p ≤ 0.0002). Immunohistochemical analysis of gingival sections demonstrated increased staining for hBD-2 at day 3, whereas the CCL20, pso/S100A7, and IL-8 expression was increased at later time points (p gingival inflammation. Differential temporal expression for AMPs may ensure a constant antimicrobial activity against changes in the bacterial composition of the growing dental biofilm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Experimental study of the effect of top-ring clearance volume on unburned hydrocarbon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muammer Ozkan; Orhan Deniz; Tarkan Sandalci [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2002-07-01

    The clearance volume between the piston, the cylinder and the top compression ring in an internal combustion engine has a significant effect on the unburned hydrocarbon concentration. The high heat transfer from the burning mixture to the cylinder surface extinguishes the flame front, and this is the main reason for increased unburned hydrocarbon concentrations. The heat transfer between the mixture and the clearance volume surface is affected by the ratio of coolant surface to the clearance volume. In this study the effect of the ratio of the coolant surface to the clearance volume on the unburned hydrocarbon concentration was investigated using three different purpose-built pistons. A decrease of this ratio reduced the unburned hydrocarbon concentration by 40%. (author)

  10. Free volumes and gas transport in polymers: amine-modified epoxy resins as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pushkar N; Roilo, David; Brusa, Roberto S; Miotello, Antonio; Aghion, Stefano; Ferragut, Rafael; Checchetto, Riccardo

    2016-02-07

    The CO2 transport process was studied in a series of amine-modified epoxy resins having different cross-linking densities but the same chemical environment for the penetrant molecules. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) was used to monitor the free volume structure of the samples and experimentally evaluate their fractional free volume fh(T) and its temperature evolution. The analysis of the free volume hole size distribution showed that all the holes have a size large enough to accommodate the penetrant molecules at temperatures T above the glass transition temperature Tg. The measured gas diffusion constants at T > Tg have been reproduced in the framework of the free volume theory of diffusion using a novel procedure based on the use of fh(T) as an input experimental parameter.

  11. USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process. Volume 3. Future to be Asset Sustainment Process Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adamson, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    .... It is published as three separate volumes. Volume I, USAF Logistics Process Optimization Study for the Aircraft Asset Sustainment Process -- Phase II Report, discusses the result and cost/benefit analysis of testing three initiatives...

  12. Kidney volume measurement methods for clinical studies on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishka Sharma

    Full Text Available In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, total kidney volume (TKV is regarded as an important biomarker of disease progression and different methods are available to assess kidney volume. The purpose of this study was to identify the most efficient kidney volume computation method to be used in clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of treatments on ADPKD progression.We measured single kidney volume (SKV on two series of MR and CT images from clinical studies on ADPKD (experimental dataset by two independent operators (expert and beginner, twice, using all of the available methods: polyline manual tracing (reference method, free-hand manual tracing, semi-automatic tracing, Stereology, Mid-slice and Ellipsoid method. Additionally, the expert operator also measured the kidney length. We compared different methods for reproducibility, accuracy, precision, and time required. In addition, we performed a validation study to evaluate the sensitivity of these methods to detect the between-treatment group difference in TKV change over one year, using MR images from a previous clinical study. Reproducibility was higher on CT than MR for all methods, being highest for manual and semiautomatic contouring methods (planimetry. On MR, planimetry showed highest accuracy and precision, while on CT accuracy and precision of both planimetry and Stereology methods were comparable. Mid-slice and Ellipsoid method, as well as kidney length were fast but provided only a rough estimate of kidney volume. The results of the validation study indicated that planimetry and Stereology allow using an importantly lower number of patients to detect changes in kidney volume induced by drug treatment as compared to other methods.Planimetry should be preferred over fast and simplified methods for accurately monitoring ADPKD progression and assessing drug treatment effects. Expert operators, especially on MR images, are required for performing reliable

  13. Phased-array-fed antenna configuration study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R. M.; Zaghloul, A. I.; Lee, B. S.; Siddiqi, S.; Geller, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Increased capacity in future satellite systems can be achieved through antenna systems which provide multiplicity of frequency reuses at K sub a band. A number of antenna configurations which can provide multiple fixed spot beams and multiple independent spot scanning beams at 20 GHz are addressed. Each design incorporates a phased array with distributed MMIC amplifiers and phasesifters feeding a two reflector optical system. The tradeoffs required for the design of these systems and the corresponding performances are presented. Five final designs are studied. In so doing, a type of MMIC/waveguide transition is described, and measured results of the breadboard model are presented. Other hardware components developed are described. This includes a square orthomode transducer, a subarray fed with a beamforming network to measure scanning performance, and another subarray used to study mutual coupling considerations. Discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of the final design are included.

  14. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W [eds.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  15. Superconducting gravity gradiometer mission. Volume 2: Study team technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Samuel H. (Editor); Paik, Ho Jung (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Scientific and engineering studies and developments performed or directed by a Study Team composed of various Federal and University activities involved with the development of a three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer integrated with a six-axis superconducting accelerometer are examined. This instrument is being developed for a future orbital mission to make precise global gravity measurements. The scientific justification and requirements for such a mission are discussed. This includes geophysics, the primary mission objective, as well as secondary objective, such as navigation and feats of fundamental laws of physics, i.e., a null test of the inverse square law of gravitation and tests of general relativity. The instrument design and status along with mission analysis, engineering assessments, and preliminary spacecraft concepts are discussed. In addition, critical spacecraft systems and required technology advancements are examined. The mission requirements and an engineering assessment of a precursor flight test of the instrument are discussed.

  16. Neandertals in the forests : a palaeomagnetic study of the Eemian interglacial stage deposits from north-western and central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, Mark Jan

    2013-01-01

    One of the key periods to understand the Neandertal ecological niche and tolerances in Europe is the Eemian. This interglacial stage is the last and best documented interglacial stage in which Neandertals were present in Europe. This study aims to contribute to the debate on Neandertal environmental

  17. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume II. Basic Information and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    plantain (Plantago maritima ) and lilaeopsis (Lilaeopsis occidentalis). Bulrush (Scirpus spp.) oc- casionally forms extensive monotypic communities in the...chti-es the inatioune polit -y Wo encouragte a (R) The National 1Iistonic e. l’esrvii- that the clumping of the minterial will re- ’prodactive kind... Political and Legislative Environment. F-11 Puget Sound Task Force, Pacific N.W. River Basins Commission, 1970b, Comprehensive Study of Water and

  18. Anthropometry: Basic Studies and Applications. Volume 2, 1976 - July 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    in a questionnaire and somatotype measurement study during the 1972 U.S. Masters long-course national champions. Nearly 70 percent of all mala...swimming experience. Somatotype data gathered on the men did not differentiate swimmers in their 70’s from swimmers in their 5C’s, nor did somatotype ...Anthropometry, Males, Physical fitness, Aging (PhysiolDgy) , Body weight Identifiers: Competition, Reprints, Questionnaires, Surveys, Somatotyping

  19. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 4, Number 4, Winter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and George Kennan. The English School is best represented in the work of Martin Wight and Hedley Bull. The con- temporary argument is found in...Indeed, Israel has reported deployed nuclear weapons on submarines. See Martin Sieff, “Israel Buying 3 Submarines to Carry Nuclear Missiles,” Washington...Washington: Institute for National Strategic Studies [INSS], October 2008), 3. 31. Gustav Lindstrom , EU-US Burdensharing: Who Does What? Chaillot Paper no

  20. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 2, Summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    US educators also fan out across Asia, teach - ing in a wide range of Asian universities and vocational schools. The Fulbright Program remains the...flagship sponsor, sending US professors and students to Asia and bringing Asians to the United States to teach and study.7 One can offer many other...between global market de- mands and domestic cultural idioms —which include the rise of "new wealth barons" in China as well as other powers.12 Ultimately

  1. Early-Stage Capital Cost Estimation of Biorefinery Processes: A Comparative Study of Heuristic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkari, Mirela; Couturier, Jean-Luc; Kokossis, Antonis; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2016-09-08

    Biorefineries offer a promising alternative to fossil-based processing industries and have undergone rapid development in recent years. Limited financial resources and stringent company budgets necessitate quick capital estimation of pioneering biorefinery projects at the early stages of their conception to screen process alternatives, decide on project viability, and allocate resources to the most promising cases. Biorefineries are capital-intensive projects that involve state-of-the-art technologies for which there is no prior experience or sufficient historical data. This work reviews existing rapid cost estimation practices, which can be used by researchers with no previous cost estimating experience. It also comprises a comparative study of six cost methods on three well-documented biorefinery processes to evaluate their accuracy and precision. The results illustrate discrepancies among the methods because their extrapolation on biorefinery data often violates inherent assumptions. This study recommends the most appropriate rapid cost methods and urges the development of an improved early-stage capital cost estimation tool suitable for biorefinery processes. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to use the operational experience at the launch site to identify, describe and quantify the operational impacts of the various configurations on the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and/or space station launch sites. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) configurations are being developed/defined by contractor teams. Lacking an approved configuration, the KSC Study Team defined a Reference Configuration to be used for this study. This configuration then become the baseline for the identification of the facilities, personnel and crew skills required for processing the OTV in a realistic manner that would help NASA achieve the lowest possible OTV life cycle costs. As the study progressed, researchers' initial apraisal that the vehicle, when delivered, would be a sophisticated, state-of-the-art vehicle was reinforced. It would be recovered and reused many times so the primary savings to be gained would be in the recurring-cycle of the vehicle operations--even to the point where it would be beneficial to break from tradition and make a significant expenditure in the development of processing facilities at the beginning of the program.

  3. Impression cytological study for ocular surface disorders of late stage eye burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y-F; Zheng, L-B; Yao, Y-F

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the ocular surface of late stage eye burns by impression cytology (IC) and analyze the cytological changes and their relationship to ocular surface abnormalities. 68 eyes with late stage eye burns (thermal burn: 28 eyes; alkali burn: 26 eyes; acid burn: 14 eyes), procured from 68 patients (aged ranges from 17 to 70 years old). Ocular surface abnormalities were assessed under slit lamp and graded. These were broadly classified as eyelid, corneal, conjunctival, and tear film abnormalities. Impression cytological examination was taken by cellulose acetate filter paper for all eyes. Samples were analyzed and scored under light microscope, including the status of epithelial cells, goblet cells, mucus and inflammatory cells. All the results and data were compared and analyzed by SPSS software (version 16.0). According to the IC results, loosed cell-to-cell density and nuclear abnormality, keratinization, reduced goblet cell amount, disorder of mucus, and existing of inflammatory cells were observed in almost all the cases. The IC results were significantly correlated to the ocular surface injury severity (r=0.458, pocular surface injury severity mostly contains three aspects: the corneal neovascularization scales, the present or absent of recurrent epithelial erosion and the tear film break-up time. Eyes with the foreword three symptoms were inclined to have higher IC scores. The epithelial cell-to-cell density, goblet cell and mucus amount were all correlated to tear film break-up time. However, inflammatory cell density showed no significant correlation to the conjunctival hyperemia grade. But inflammatory cell density correlated to the corneal opacity grade and epithelial stability status. IC examinations could reflect the cytological disorders and relative injury severity of the ocular surface in late stage eye burns. It provides further information which will be useful in surgery and therapy.

  4. D-dimer and histamine in early stage bacteremia: A prospective controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Michael; Steiner, Margarete Maria; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Lagler, Heimo; Buchtele, Nina; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Boehm, Thomas; Jilma, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Plasma histamine levels and D-dimer predict disease severity and mortality in advanced septic shock. We hypothesized that increased plasma histamine levels parallel coagulation activation and yield prognostic significance already at a very early stage of bacteremia. This prospective controlled cohort study enrolled 72 consecutive non-surgical non-ICU-ward inpatients with newly culture-diagnosed bacteremia and a Pitt Bacteremia score ≤2 to determine the extent of histamine and D-dimer release and their predictive role on outcome at the earliest stage of blood stream infection. Age-matched healthy adults served as internal controls (n=36). A binominal logistic regression and a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to ascertain the effects of D-dimer and histamine on in-hospital mortality. In contrast to plasma histamine, D-dimer levels were significantly higher within hours of culture-proven bacteremia. In-hospital mortality occurred in 17%. Histamine levels were neither associated with D-dimer level (r=0.04; p>0.05) nor with ICU admissions (r=0.06; p>0.05) and outcome (crude OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.3-1.9; p=0.6). In contrast, early-elevated D-dimer levels predicted mortality: the odds to die increased with the D-dimer level, and was 12.6 (crude OR, 95% CI 3-52; p=0.001) in patients with a D-dimer ≥4μg/mL (n=13). Histamine levels are elevated in only few patients (4%) with newly diagnosed bacteremia. Our findings suggest that D-dimer, but not plasma histamine, could be a promising marker of lethality already at a very early stage of blood stream infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of aging and degeneration on disc volume and shape: A quantitative study in asymptomatic volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Metzdorf, Alexander; Elfering, Achim; Hodler, Juerg; Boos, Norbert

    2006-05-01

    Debate continues on the effect of disc degeneration and aging on disc volume and shape. So far, no quantitative in vivo MRI data is available on the factors influencing disc volume and shape. The objective of this MRI study was to quantitatively investigate changes in disc height, volume, and shape as a result of aging and/or degeneration omitting pathologic (i.e., painful) disc alterations. Seventy asymptomatic volunteers (20-78 years) were investigated with sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MR-images encompassing the whole lumbar spine. Disc height was determined by the Dabbs method and the Farfan index. Disc volume was calculated by the Cavalieri method. For the disc shape the "disc convexity index" was calculated by the ratio of central disc height and mean anterior/posterior disc height. Disc height, disc volume, and the disc convexity index measurements were corrected for disc level and the individuals age, weight, height, and sex in a multilevel regression analysis. Multilevel regression analysis showed that disc volume was negatively influenced by disc degeneration (p < 0.001) and positively correlated with body height (p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.01). Mean disc height and the disc convexity index were negatively influenced by disc degeneration but not by gender, weight, and height. Disc height was positively correlated with age (p < 0.01). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that disc degeneration generally results in a decrease of disc height and volume as well as a less convex disc shape. In the absence of disc degeneration, however, age tends to result in an inverse relationship on disc height, volume, and shape. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  6. Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies imply the amygdala as the most critical structure involved in processing of fear-relevant stimuli. In phobias, the amygdala seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the disorder. However, the neuropathology of specific phobias remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with spider phobia show altered amygdala volumes as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Twenty female patients with spider phobia and twenty age-matched healthy female controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging to investigate amygdala volumes. The amygdalae were segmented using an automatic, model-based segmentation tool (FSL FIRST). Differences in amygdala volume were investigated by multivariate analysis of covariance with group as between-subject factor and left and right amygdala as dependent factors. The relation between amygdala volume and clinical features such as symptom severity, disgust sensitivity, trait anxiety and duration of illness was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis. Results Spider phobic patients showed significantly smaller left amygdala volume than healthy controls. No significant difference in right amygdala volume was detected. Furthermore, the diminished amygdala size in patients was related to higher symptom severity, but not to higher disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety and was independent of age. Conclusions In summary, the results reveal a relation between higher symptom severity and smaller left amygdala volume in patients with spider phobia. This relation was independent of other potential confounders such as the disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety. The findings suggest that greater spider phobic fear is associated with smaller left amygdala. However, the smaller left amygdala volume may either stand for a higher vulnerability to develop a phobic disorder or emerge as a consequence of the disorder. PMID:23442196

  7. Effect of malaria on placental volume measured using three-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Marcus J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of malaria parasites and histopathological changes in the placenta are associated with a reduction in birth weight, principally due to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of studying early pregnancy placental volumes using three-dimensional (3D ultrasound in a malaria endemic area, as a small volume in the second trimester may be an indicator of intra-uterine growth restriction and placental insufficiency. Methods Placenta volumes were acquired using a portable ultrasound machine and a 3D ultrasound transducer and estimated using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL image analysis software package. Intra-observer reliability and limits of agreement of the placenta volume measurements were calculated. Polynomial regression models for the mean and standard deviation as a function of gestational age for the placental volumes of uninfected women were created and tested. Based on these equations each measurement was converted into a z -score. The z-scores of the placental volumes of malaria infected and uninfected women were then compared. Results Eighty-four women (uninfected = 65; infected = 19 with a posterior placenta delivered congenitally normal, live born, single babies. The mean placental volumes in the uninfected women were modeled to fit 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th and 95th centiles for 14-24 weeks' gestation. Most placenta volumes in the infected women were below the 50th centile for gestational age; most of those with Plasmodium falciparum were below the 10th centile. The 95% intra-observer limits of agreement for first and second measurements were ± 37.0 mL and ± 25.4 mL at 30 degrees and 15 degrees rotation respectively. Conclusion The new technique of 3D ultrasound volumetry of the placenta may be useful to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological constraints on foetal growth caused by malaria infection in early pregnancy.

  8. Crew/computer communications study. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The software routines developed during the crew/computer communications study are described to provide the user with an understanding of each routine, any restrictions in use, the required input data, and expected results after executing the routines. The combination of routines to generate a crew/computer communications application is also explained. The programmable keyboard and display used by the program is described, and an experiment scenario is provided to illustrate the relationship between the program frames when they are grouped into activity phases. Program descriptions and a user's guide are also presented. For Vol. 1, see N74-18843.

  9. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 2, Number 3, Fall 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). The lowest common denominator of these disparate views is very low indeed—a [ 20 ] Strategic Studies Quarterly...Air Force are than those of the People’s Liberation Army , and despite the disagreeable experiences of the Korean War, I have little doubt that we...Quarterly 13 (Au­ tumn 1996): 10–14. 4. Ibid., 15. 5. Richard Meinhart , Strategic Planning by the Chairmen, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1990–2005 (Carlisle

  10. A study of nasal cavity volume in patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kenichi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-02-01

    Nasal cavity volume was studied in 11 patients with cleft lip and palate by magnetic resonance imaging. The areas of horizontal sections of the nasal cavity on the cleft and non-cleft sides were measured with the help of a personal computer and image analyzing software. Nasal cavity volume was determined by integrated volume calculation. The volume of each side was measured before and after cleft lip repair. Before cleft lip repair nasal cavity volume on the non-cleft side was larger than on the cleft side. However there was no significant difference in the volume of the cleft and non-cleft sides after cleft lip repair. (author)

  11. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  12. Space physics strategy: Implementation study. Volume 2: Program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In June, 1989, the Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee (SSAAC) authorized its Space Physics Subcommittee (SPS) to prepare a plan specifying the future missions, launch sequence, and encompassing themes of the Space Physics Division. The plan, now complete, is the product of a year-long study comprising two week-long workshops - in January and June 1990 - assisted by pre-workshop, inter-workshop, and post-workshop preparation and assessment activities. The workshops engaged about seventy participants, drawn equally from the Division's four science disciplines: cosmic and heliospheric physics, solar physics, magnetosphere physics, and ionosphere-thermosphere-mesospheric physics. An earlier report records the outcome of the first workshop; this is the report of the final workshop.

  13. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  14. Redefining radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer with single dose ablative treatment: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaghvandi, R K; van Asselen, B; Philippens, M E P; Verkooijen, H M; van Gils, C H; van Diest, P J; Pijnappel, R M; Hobbelink, M G G; Witkamp, A J; van Dalen, T; van der Wall, E; van Heijst, T C; Koelemij, R; van Vulpen, M; van den Bongard, H J G D

    2017-03-09

    A shift towards less burdening and more patient friendly treatments for breast cancer is currently ongoing. In low-risk patients with early-stage disease, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an alternative for whole breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery. MRI-guided single dose ablative APBI has the potential to offer a minimally burdening, non-invasive treatment that could replace current breast-conserving therapy. The ABLATIVE study is a prospective, single arm, multicenter study evaluating preoperative, single dose, ablative radiation treatment in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Patients with core biopsy proven non-lobular invasive breast cancer, (estrogen receptor positive, Her2 negative, maximum tumor size 3.0 cm on diagnostic MRI) and a negative sentinel node biopsy are eligible. Radiotherapy (RT) planning will be performed using a contrast enhanced (CE) planning CT-scan, co-registered with a CE-MRI, both in supine RT position. A total of twenty-five consecutive patients will be treated with a single ablative RT dose of 20 Gy to the tumor and 15 Gy to the tumorbed. Follow-up MRIs are scheduled within 1 week, 2, 4 and 6 months after single-dose RT. Breast-conserving surgery is scheduled at six months following RT. Primary study endpoint is pathological complete response. Secondary study endpoints are the radiological response and toxicity. Furthermore, patients will fill out questionnaires on quality of life and functional status. Cosmetic outcome will be evaluated by the treating radiation oncologist, patient and 'Breast Cancer Conservation Treatment cosmetic results' software. Recurrence and survival rates will be assessed. The patients will be followed up to 10 years after diagnosis. If patients give additional informed consent, a biopsy and a part of the irradiated specimen will be stored at the local Biobank and used for future research on radiotherapy response associated genotyping. The ABLATIVE study evaluates

  15. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactors. The first of three volumes briefly discusses the following: Introduction; Key objectives, requirements, and assumptions; Systems modeling and trade studies; Prometheus-L reactor plant design overview; Prometheus-H reactor plant design overview; Key technical issues and R&D requirements; Comparison of IFE designs; and study conclusions.

  16. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  17. Molecular chaperones-related studies using latent stages of invertebrates exposed to space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, O. A.; Alexeev, V. R.; Sychev, V. N.; Okuda, T.; Saigusa, M.

    The latent stages of certain groups of invertebrates such as Artemia and Daphnia cyst Crustacea tuns of water bears Tardigrada are very perspective material for the investigation of the boundaries of the survival of the living organisms in the space environment While the number of authors showed that exposition the space flight causes the alteration in the survivability of the Artemia cysts there is no data about the changes in the stress response on the molecular level after short and long-termed space flight In this report we present preliminary results of the analysis of the expression of hsp90 chaperon in response to the heat shock in the larvae of the Artemia obtained from the cyst exposed to the real space flight onboard ISS for 1 and 6 month in the frame of the Aquarium program 2005-2006 and control ground group The perspectives of the usage of the molecular chaperons hsp in the studies for elucidation of the influence of the open space environment BIORISK and EXPOSE research programs on the immune response end general physiology of the invertebrates in their latent stages are discussed

  18. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  19. Correcting the Standard Errors of 2-Stage Residual Inclusion Estimators for Mendelian Randomization Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Tom M; Holmes, Michael V; Keating, Brendan J; Sheehan, Nuala A

    2017-11-01

    Mendelian randomization studies use genotypes as instrumental variables to test for and estimate the causal effects of modifiable risk factors on outcomes. Two-stage residual inclusion (TSRI) estimators have been used when researchers are willing to make parametric assumptions. However, researchers are currently reporting uncorrected or heteroscedasticity-robust standard errors for these estimates. We compared several different forms of the standard error for linear and logistic TSRI estimates in simulations and in real-data examples. Among others, we consider standard errors modified from the approach of Newey (1987), Terza (2016), and bootstrapping. In our simulations Newey, Terza, bootstrap, and corrected 2-stage least squares (in the linear case) standard errors gave the best results in terms of coverage and type I error. In the real-data examples, the Newey standard errors were 0.5% and 2% larger than the unadjusted standard errors for the linear and logistic TSRI estimators, respectively. We show that TSRI estimators with modified standard errors have correct type I error under the null. Researchers should report TSRI estimates with modified standard errors instead of reporting unadjusted or heteroscedasticity-robust standard errors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  20. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Syverson, H T; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Fuel Quality/Processing Study project for production of gas turbine fuels. The objective was to provide a data base for establishing intelligent trade-off between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality. Synthetic fuels to be emphasized include those derived from coal and shale. The intent is to use the data base produced to guide the development of specifications for future synthetic liquid fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985-2000. It is also to be used as a basis for evaluating the value and benefits of federally sponsored R and D efforts in the field of advanced gas turbine technology. The project assessed relative fuel costs, quality and energy efficiency for a number of fuel sources and processing alternatives. An objective was to accelerate implementation of fuel-flexible combustors for industrial and utility stationary gas turbine systems. This is to be accomplished by generating and demonstrating the technology base for development of reliable gas turbine combustors capable of sustained environmentally acceptable operation when using minimally processed synthetic fuels. The key program results are summarized for the following subject areas: literature survey, on-site fuel pretreatment, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and environmental considerations. An inhouse linear programming model served as the basis for determining economic processing paths for the existing refineries and new refineries syncrude upgrading. This involved development of extensive input data comprised of fuel properties, yields, component blending characteristics, incremental capital and operating costs, feed and product costs. Economics are based on March 1980 price levels.

  1. Parametric theoretical study of a two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for RO desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmadakis, G.; Manolakos, D.; Papadakis, G. [Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, 11855 Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    The present work concerns the parametric study of an autonomous, two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for RO desalination. The main goal of the current simulation is to estimate the efficiency, as well as to calculate the annual mechanical energy available for desalination in the considered cases, in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters on the performance of the system. The parametric study concerns the variation of different parameters, without changing actually the baseline case. The effect of the collectors' slope and the total number of evacuated tube collectors used, have been extensively examined. The total cost is also taken into consideration and is calculated for the different cases examined, along with the specific fresh water cost (EUR/m{sup 3}). (author)

  2. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 2 - Confirmation/Quantification Stage 1. Dover Air Force Base, Dover, Delaware 19901. Volume 1 Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-10

    Include Security Clasification ) IRP Phase II, Stage 1, Dover AFB, DE 12 ’OERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Tokarski, E., J. Bramlett, R. Eades, A. Lanins. and E. Repa...Federal law and they have been adopted by Delaware. MCLs represent a calculated lifetime exposure level for a 154-pound adult consuming 0.5 gallons of

  3. Anaemia in a phase 2 study of a blood stage falciparum malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guindo Aldiouma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Phase 1-2b study of the blood stage malaria vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel was conducted in 336 children in Donéguébougou and Bancoumana, Mali. In the Phase 2 portion of the study (n = 300, no impact on parasite density or clinical malaria was seen; however, children who received the study vaccine had a higher frequency of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin Methods To further investigate the possible impact of vaccination on anaemia, additional analyses were conducted including patients from the Phase 1 portion of the study and controlling for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobin types S or C, alpha-thalassaemia, G6PD deficiency, and age. A multiplicative intensity model was used, which generalizes Cox regression to allow for multiple events. Frailty effects for each subject were used to account for correlation of multiple anaemia events within the same subject. Intensity rates were calculated with reference to calendar time instead of time after randomization in order to account for staggered enrollment and seasonal effects of malaria incidence. Associations of anaemia with anti-AMA1 antibody were further explored using a similar analysis. Results A strong effect of vaccine on the incidence of anaemia (risk ratio [AMA1-C1 to comparator (Hiberix]= 2.01, 95% confidence interval [1.26,3.20] was demonstrated even after adjusting for baseline haemoglobin, haemoglobinopathies, and age, and using more sophisticated statistical models. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels were not associated with this effect. Conclusions While these additional analyses show a robust effect of vaccination on anaemia, this is an intensive exploration of secondary results and should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. Possible mechanisms of the apparent adverse effect on haemoglobin of vaccination with AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel and implications for blood stage vaccine development are discussed. The potential impact on malaria-associated anaemia should be closely

  4. Effect of water coffee extract on kidney volume (a stereological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coffee is a traditional drinking used by most of the people around the world. Overuse of coffee leads to many side effects on body. In this study, the effect of different doses of coffee extract on kidney volume was studied by the stereological method. Material and Methods: Sixty spragu-dawley male rats were divided into 6 groups. Control group was given tap water (0.5ml and experimental groups were given coffee extract orally for 14 days with doses (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5gr/kg with the same volume of control group. Then rats were anesthetized (with ether, sacrificed and their right kidneys were removed, fixed, tissue processed and stained with H&E. The 5µm slides were studied by Cavalieri principle. Results: Higher doses of water coffee extract were associated with decreased kidney volume and volumes of glomerules but in lower doses it increased related to control group. Conclusion: It seems that, high doses of coffee has side effect on kidneyand reduces volume of kidney and its glomerules. However further studies are required to confirm this research.

  5. Reducing blood volume requirements for clinical pathology testing in toxicologic studies-points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitout-Belissent, Florence; Aulbach, Adam; Tripathi, Niraj; Ramaiah, Lila

    2016-12-01

    In preclinical safety assessment, blood volume requirements for various endpoints pose a major challenge. The goal of this working group was to review current practices for clinical pathology (CP) testing in preclinical toxicologic studies, and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of methods for reducing blood volume requirements. An industry-wide survey was conducted to gather information on CP instrumentation and blood collection practices for hematology, clinical biochemistry, and coagulation evaluation in laboratory animals involved in preclinical studies. Based on the survey results and collective experience of the authors, the working group proposes the following "points to consider" for CP testing: (1) For most commercial analyzers, 0.5 mL and 0.8 mL of whole blood are sufficient for hematology and biochemistry evaluation, respectively. (2) Small analyzers with low volume requirements and low throughput have limited utility in preclinical studies. (3) Sample pooling or dilution is inappropriate for many CP methods. (4) Appropriate collection sites should be determined based on blood volume requirements and technical expertise. (5) Microsampling does not provide sufficient volume given current analyzer and quality assurance requirements. (6) Study design considerations include: the use of older/larger animals (rodents), collection of CP samples before toxicokinetic samples, use of separate subsets of mice for hematology and clinical biochemistry testing, use of a priority list for clinical biochemistry, and when possible, eliminating coagulation testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. IUS/TUG Orbital Operations and Mission Support Study. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The space transportation system (STS) is discussed which will include a propulsive stage that is carried into low earth orbit by the space shuttle. Data were accumulated from the analyses of various stage concepts, operating modes, and projected missions (space tug systems studies, growth stage studies, engine studies, and critical area studies). The foundation formulated by these studies aided in establishing a tentative two-phase approach for the extension of the STS operating regime beyond the space shuttle including plane changes, higher orbits, geosynchronous orbits and beyond. The orbital operations study, was conducted to provide the generation and analysis of operational plans, requirement, and concepts for the utilization of these vehicles. Primary emphasis was placed on methods and techniques to provide a sound technical approach to operations at reduced cost for the STS mission period.

  7. A qualitative study exploring midlife women's stages of change from domestic violence towards freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, June; Smith, Debbie; Fisher, Colleen

    2016-03-08

    Domestic Violence (DV) remains a significant global health problem for women in contemporary society. Existing literature on midlife women's experiences of domestic violence is limited and focuses on health implications. Leaving a violent relationship is a dynamic process that often requires multiple attempts and separations prior to final termination. The aim of this study was to explore the process of leaving a violent relationship for midlife women. This qualitative study involved fifteen women aged between 40-55 who had accessed residential and non-residential community support services for domestic violence within the UK. Community-based support agencies provided these women with access to letters of invitation and participant information sheet explaining the study. The women notified agency staff who contacted the research team to arrange a mutually convenient time to meet within a safe place for both the women and researchers. It was stressed to all potential participants that no identifiable information would be shared with the agency staff. Women were considered survivors of DV if they defined themselves as such. Data were gathered through semi structured interviews, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Midlife women appear to differ from younger women by transitioning quickly though the stages of change, moving rapidly through the breaking free onto the maintenance stage. This rapid transition is the resultant effect of living with long-term violence causing a shift in the women's perception towards the violent partner, with an associated reclamation of power from within the violent relationship. A realisation that rapid departure from the violence may be critical in terms of personal safety, and the realisation that there was something 'wrong' within the relationship, a 'day of dawning' that had not been apparent previously appears to positively affect the trajectory of leaving. Midlife women appeared to navigate through the stages of change

  8. If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S

    1985-01-01

    This natural experiment provides substantial evidence for the following major themes, which are based on a cognitively oriented, process-centered theory of stress and coping: First, a stressful encounter should be viewed as a dynamic, unfolding process, not as a static, unitary event. Emotion and coping (including the use of social support) were assessed at three stages of a midterm examination: the anticipation stage before the exam, the waiting stage after the exam and before grades were announced, and after grades were posted. For the group as a whole there were significant changes in emotions and coping (including the use of social support) across the three stages. Second, people experience seemingly contradictory emotions and states of mind during every stage of an encounter. In this study, for example, subjects experienced both threat emotions and challege emotions. The complexity of emotions and their cognitive appraisals reflects ambiguity regarding the multifaceted nature of the exam and its meanings, especially during the anticipation stage. Third, coping is a complex process. On the average, subjects used combinations of most of the available forms of problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping at every stage of the exam. Different forms of coping were salient during the anticipation and waiting stages. Problem-focused coping and emphasizing the positive were more prominent during the former, and distancing more prominent during the latter. Finally, despite normatively shared emotional reactions at each stage, substantial individual differences remained. Using selected appraisal and coping variables, and taking grade point averages (GPA) into account, approximately 48% of the variances in threat and challenge emotions at the anticipation stage was explained. Controlling for variance due to the grade received, appraisal, and coping variables accounted for 28% of the variance in positive and negative emotions at the outcome stage. Including grade, 57

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OXYTOCIN/MISOPROSTOL/METHYLERGOMETRINE FOR ACTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundlapaty Sabitha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The third stage of labour is indeed the unforgiving stage of the labour and in it lurks more unheralded treachery than in both the other stages of labour combined. Many lifesaving drugs have been discovered and used for the management of this stage of labour. According to the WHO multicentric randomised trial using oral misoprostol with oxytocic, they concluded that oral misoprostol was associated with significantly high incidence of side effects like shivering and rise in body temperature and hence oxytocin is preferred to 600 mg of oral misoprostol in management of 3rd stage of labour in hospital settings, but still misoprostol has been suggested for the management of third stage of labour in developing countries, because it has strong uterotonic effects, can be given orally, inexpensive and does not need refrigeration. The aim of the study is to compare oxytocin, misoprostol, methylergometrine for active management of the third stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 300 women of 37 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation delivering vaginally in Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram, Andhra Pradesh. 300 women allocated into 3 groups of 100 each to receive 10 IU I.M. oxytocin, 600 mcg sublingual misoprostol or 200 mcg I.M. methylergometrine, respectively. Primary outcome measure was blood loss in the third stage of labor; secondary measures were duration of the third stage, side effects and complications. RESULTS Subjects who received 600 mcg of misoprostol had the least blood loss (113 mL, followed by oxytocin and methylergometrine. The shortest mean duration of the third stage was with misoprostol (4.34 mins.. Shivering and pyrexia were observed in misoprostol group and raised blood pressure in methylergometrine group. CONCLUSION Misoprostol is as effective as oxytocin and both are more effective than methylergometrine in active management of the third stage of labour. Misoprostol therefore can be used in places

  10. A Study of Low-Wage Workers and Their Response to High Intensity Training. Volume II: Technical Appendix A, Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl E.

    This is volume II of a three-volume study designed to examine low-wage, low-skilled workers, within the context of their work environment, and to develop techniques to measure the effects of skill advancement training upon the participants. Volume II is composed of 12 statistical tables showing factor analysis and analysis of variance derived from…

  11. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: the WHIMS-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Jaramillo, S A; Hirsch, C; Stefanick, M L; Murray, A M; Ockene, J; Davatzikos, C

    2009-01-13

    To determine whether menopausal hormone therapy (HT) affects regional brain volumes, including hippocampal and frontal regions. Brain MRI scans were obtained in a subset of 1,403 women aged 71-89 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS). WHIMS was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative, which consisted of two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with or without 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in one daily tablet. Scans were performed, on average, 3.0 years post-trial for the CEE + MPA trial and 1.4 years post-trial for the CEE-Alone trial; average on-trial follow-up intervals were 4.0 years for CEE + MPA and 5.6 years for CEE-Alone. Total brain, ventricular, hippocampal, and frontal lobe volumes, adjusted for age, clinic site, estimated intracranial volume, and dementia risk factors, were the main outcome variables. Compared with placebo, covariate-adjusted mean frontal lobe volume was 2.37 cm(3) lower among women assigned to HT (p = 0.004), mean hippocampal volume was slightly (0.10 cm(3)) lower (p = 0.05), and differences in total brain volume approached significance (p = 0.07). Results were similar for CEE + MPA and CEE-Alone. HT-associated reductions in hippocampal volumes were greatest in women with the lowest baseline Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores (scores equine estrogens with or without MPA are associated with greater brain atrophy among women aged 65 years and older; however, the adverse effects are most evident in women experiencing cognitive deficits before initiating hormone therapy.

  12. Second molar calcification stages to evaluate skeletal maturation: A cross-sectional radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U H Vijayashree

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: A highly positive correlation exists between DI of mandibular second molars and CVMI. Stage F of Demirjian index, with the root length equal to or greater than the crown height corresponds to stage 3 of CVMI indicating the start of peak in mandibular growth which would be appropriate time to plan for functional appliances. Therefore, mandibular second molar calcification stages are reliable skeletal maturity indicator, which can be used to predict the growth status in determining the optimal treatment timing.

  13. Level of Concordance of Pre-, Intra-, and Postoperative Staging in Cervical Cancers (TREYA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant radiochemotherapy is the therapeutic standard for locally advanced (Ib2 to IVa stage FIGO cervical cancer. In the absence of a radiotherapy in many of our Sub-Saharan African countries, surgical resection is the only therapeutic method available in hopes of achieving a definite cure. However, criteria for curative surgery are not always met due to preoperative understaging of most of our patients. In addition to socioeconomic factors, the causes for understaging are numerous. These include the lack of personnel or underqualified personnel and the absence of complete workup to assess the resectability of the tumor, but above all the lack of decision-making through multidisciplinary consultation meetings. This study makes a plea in order to provide our hospitals with qualified personnel and adequate technical platform to allow efficient management of our patients with cervical cancer.

  14. Early-stage hip involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A Chinese study based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongying; Yuan, Shiwen; Zhan, Zhongping; Xiao, Youjun; Li, Hao; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and identify potential factors of the early-stage hip involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A cross-sectional retrospective study of 655 consecutive patients was performed. Patients with hip pain or limited hip function but lacking definitive evidence of hip involvement on radiography underwent hip MRI. Based on the results of the imaging tests, the patients were classified into three categories: (1) no hip involvement; (2) early-stage hip involvement according to MRI but not radiography; (3) advanced-stage hip involvement according to a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index-hip score ≥2. One hundred and sixty-eight patients had early-stage hip involvement and 103 patients had advanced-stage hip involvement. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age at onset, worse BASMI score, and more active inflammation in the sacroiliac joints were associated with the occurrence of early-stage hip involvement. Negative plain radiography results cannot be used to rule out hip involvement. MRI was superior to radiography for the detection of early-stage hip involvement. Susceptible AS patients with symptoms or risk factors for hip involvement should undergo hip MRI to test for lesions in the early stage.

  15. The Early Stage of Neutron Tomography for Cultural Heritage Study in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaweerat, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; S. Wonglee; Schillinger, B.

    In parallel to the upgrade of neutron imaging facility at TRR-1/M1 since 2015, the practice on image processing software has led to implementation of neutron tomography (NT). The current setup provides a thermal neutron flux of 1.08×106 cm-2sec-1 at the exposure position. In general, the sample was fixed on a plate at the top of rotary stage controlled by Labview 2009 Version 9.0.1. The incremental step can be adjusted from 0.45 to 7.2 degree. A 16 bit CCD camera assembled with a Nikkor 50 mm f/1.2 lens was used to record light from 6LiF/ZnS (green) neutron converter screen. The exposure time for each shot was 60 seconds, resulting in the acquisition time of approximately three hours for completely turning the sample around. Afterwards, the batch of two dimensional neutron images of the sample was read into the reconstruction and visualization software Octopus reconstruction 8.8 and Octopus visualization 2.0, respectively. The results revealed that the system alignment is important. Maintaining the stability of heavy sample at every particular angle of rotation is important. Previous alignment showed instability of the supporting plane while tilting the sample. This study showed that the sample stage should be replaced. Even though the NT is a lengthy process and involves large data processing, it offers an opportunity to better understand features of an object in more details than with neutron radiography. The digital NT also allows us to separate inner features that appear superpositioned in radiography by cross-sectioning the 3D data set of an object without destruction. As a result, NT is a significant tool for revealing hidden information included in the inner structure of cultural heritage objects, providing great benefits in archaeological study, conservation process and authenticity investigating.

  16. Occupational burnout levels in emergency medicine--a stage 2 nationwide study and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Florian; Arafat, Raed; Purcărea, Victor Lorin; Lală, Adrian; Popa-Velea, Ovidiu; Bobirnac, George

    2010-01-01

    The first stage of this nationwide study and analysis of the occupational burnout and psychological risk parameters showed a high consistency of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment for doctors working in Emergency Departments and Emergency and Resuscitation Services. These workers were then set in the highest risk group for burnout syndrome and depression. This stage II of our research will focus on those two groups analyzing causal factors, coping mechanisms and possible repercussions of these findings. We have issued a total of 272 surveys from which we have received a total of 263 complete and valid ones (n = 263, response rate = 96, 69%). The Maslach Burnout Inventory--Human Services Survey MBI-HSS is an instrument designed to assess the three components of the burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). The COPE questionnaire is a 52 item addressing different ways of coping with stress. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) has been shown to be a reliable measure in assessing the number, types, and duration of depressive symptoms across racial, gender, and age categories. Results were not correlated with gender, age or marital status, but an important correlation was found with professional experience in the Emergency Departments. We have shown that during the first 4 years of experience, the EE factor has been at a satisfying average of 2.4, this variable rising to an average of 2.85 after another 3 years of work. The same type of correlation was found with the CES-D results. Of the two surveyed groups, the EMD group showed higher values for all risk parameters and low personal accomplishment on the MBI-HSS survey. Also, emotional exhaustion and depression were found to have a powerful correlation with work experience. Coping mechanisms were found to be invariable to the general population, with a slight incline towards active coping

  17. The meaning of life intervention for patients with advanced-stage cancer: development and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Esther; Lau, Ka-po; Lai, Theresa; Ching, Shirley

    2012-11-01

    To develop the Meaning of Life Intervention in response to the need for brief and meaning-focused interventions in palliative care and to establish potential effect sizes for future full-scale randomized, controlled trials. A randomized, controlled trial conducted to pilot test the Meaning of Life Intervention. A 68-bed oncology inpatient ward in an urban acute general hospital in Hong Kong. 84 patients with advanced-stage cancer. Fifty-eight completed the study. Assessments of outcome variables were conducted at baseline and one day and two weeks after the intervention. Patients were randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. Repeated measures analysis of covariance were conducted to assess the impact of the Meaning of Life Intervention on participants' quality of life. The primary outcome was quality of life and was measured by the Quality-of-Life Concerns in the End-of-Life (QOLC-E) questionnaire and with a single-item scale on global quality of life. The eight subscales of the QOLC-E served as secondary outcomes. Statistically significant main effects were noted for the group in the QOLC-E questionnaire total score, the single-item scale on global quality of life, and the existential distress subscale of the QOLC-E questionnaire. The effects represented a medium effect size. The results of this pilot study show that the Meaning of Life Intervention can improve quality of life, particularly existential distress. The Meaning of Life Intervention represents a potentially effective and efficient intervention that is feasible for implementation by nursing staff for patients with advanced-stage cancer in a palliative care setting.

  18. Measurement of angioplasty lumen volume and wall compliance: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A; Allen, V

    1997-02-01

    We have developed a device and technique for measuring the pressure-volume characteristics of an arterial segment from a standard angioplasty balloon, enabling us in this laboratory study to investigate the ability of the technique to measure changes in lumen volume and wall compliance. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a valuable clinical procedure for alleviating arterial stenosis, but the long-term success of the technique is less than ideal. The ability to monitor the effect of the balloon on the artery during inflations could lead to improvements in the technique. In this study, 10 different lumen diameters (1.6 to 3.4 mm) were produced in a Perspex block, and six different wall compliances produced with silicone tubes of constant inner diameter (2.0 mm) but different outer diameters (3.5 to 6.0 mm) A standard PTCA balloon was inflated under automatic control at a constant rate of 0.05 ml s-1 to 800 kPa (8 bar). Pressure and volume data were recorded to computer continuously throughout the procedure. Differences in lumen volume of +/-0.01 ml and wall compliance of +/-5% could be differentiated with greater than 95% confidence. We conclude that our technique allows small changes in lumen volume and wall compliance to be differentiated using a standard angioplasty catheter and balloon.

  19. Controlling the COD removal of an A-stage pilot study with instrumentation and automatic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Elliott, Matt; DeArmond, Jon; Kinyua, Maureen; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2017-06-01

    The pursuit of fully autotrophic nitrogen removal via the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathway has led to an increased interest in carbon removal technologies, particularly the A-stage of the adsorption/bio-oxidation (A/B) process. The high-rate operation of the A-stage and lack of automatic process control often results in wide variations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal that can ultimately impact nitrogen removal in the downstream B-stage process. This study evaluated the use dissolved oxygen (DO) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) based automatic control strategies through the use of in situ on-line sensors in the A-stage of an A/B pilot study. The objective of using these control strategies was to reduce the variability of COD removal by the A-stage and thus the variability of the effluent C/N. The use of cascade DO control in the A-stage did not impact COD removal at the conditions tested in this study, likely because the bulk DO concentration (>0.5 mg/L) was maintained above the half saturation coefficient of heterotrophic organisms for DO. MLSS-based solids retention time (SRT) control, where MLSS was used as a surrogate for SRT, did not significantly reduce the effluent C/N variability but it was able to reduce COD removal variation in the A-stage by 90%.

  20. OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies. Exercise 5: an international multicenter reliability study using computerized MRI erosion volume measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, P; Ejbjerg, B; McQueen, F

    2003-01-01

    . The volume estimation method was more time consuming, taking roughly 5 times as long as the scoring method. Computerized MRI erosion volume measurements are feasible, with high intra-observer and inter-occasion reliabilities. Despite high ICC, the inter-observer reliability is not sufficient for multicenter......Scoring erosions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one method of estimating damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but it has limitations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and inter-reader reliability of computer assisted erosion volume estimation...... in patients with RA. Intra-reader and inter-occasion reliability was also assessed, and different slice thicknesses were compared in terms of erosion volume estimation. A 3 mm slice thickness 3D gradient-echo sequence followed by a 1 mm sequence was performed at baseline and repeated within 24 h...

  1. Is Omentectomy Mandatory Among Early Stage (I, II) Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor Patients? A Retrospective Study of 223 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyan; Li, Yanfang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether omentectomy (OMT) is necessary in the operation for apparently early stage malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs). Searching medical records database of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from January 1, 1966, to November 30, 2015, patients with MOGCTs were identified and their age, year of diagnosis, tumor grade, histologic subtype, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, nodal findings, gross observation of omentum, and performance of OMT were assessed. Overall survivals of patients with or without OMT were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. A total of 223 MOGCT cases with clinically early stage (stage I and II) disease and with the 3 common histological subtypes of MOGCT were obtained, which include yolk sac tumor (YST), dysgerminoma (DSG), and immature teratoma (IMT). There were 192 stage I cases and 31 stage II cases. Fifty-four patients were diagnosed with YST, 61 with DSG, and 108 with IMT. Omentectomy was performed as part of the initial surgery in 74.0% patients (165/223) and was omitted in 26.0% patients (58/223). Chemotherapy was administered in 88.3% (197/223) of all patients. The median follow-up was 82.0 months. The 10-year overall survival rates of the patients with and without OMT were 90.5% and 98.1%, respectively (P = 0.156). Regarding different stages or histological subtypes, the 10-year survival rates of the 2 groups were 92.0% versus 97.9% (P = 0.324, stage I), 83.2% versus 100% (P = 0.351, stage II), 89.2% versus 100% (P = 0.303, YST), 94.1% versus 100% (P = 0.470, DSG), and 89.4% versus 96.0% (P = 0.405, IMT), respectively. In conclusion, OMT in patients with clinically early stage MOGCT may not improve patient survival and may be omitted.

  2. Comparative study between two different staging systems (AJCC TNM VS BALLANTYNE’S) for mucosal melanomas of the Head & Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Romero, Madeleine; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Zepeda-Castilla, Ernesto; Vidrio-Morgado, Horacio; Peteuil, Nathalie; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Mucosal melanoma (MM) of head and neck (H &N) is a rare entity with a quite poor prognosis. Ballantyne’s staging system has been commonly used since 1970. In the 7th edition of the AJCC Staging Manual a new chapter for the staging of TNM Classification system for mucosal melanoma (MM) of the head and neck (H &N) has been introduced to reflect the particularly aggressive biological behavior of this neoplasm. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare among Ballantyne’s staging system vs TNM H &N in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a consecutive population of patients with MM in a cancer centre. Material and Methods Descriptive analysis of demographic, clinical and pathological variables of MM of the Head & Neck were performed. We compared the survival curves for both systems according to the Kaplan-Meier method using the Log-rank test. Results An up-staging migration effect from Ballantyne’s localized disease to moderately and very advanced disease according to AJCC staging system. The 5-year DFS and OS for Ballantyne’s Localized Disease and AJCC Stage III were 31% and 36% vs. 47% and 50%, respectively. For locoregional disease the 5-year DFS / OS were 5% / 10% for Bal-lantyne’s system vs. 13.8% / 17.8% and 0 / 0% for AJCC Stages IVA and IVB, respectively. Conclusions In this series, the TNM staging system for MM of the H &N predicted better the prognosis of the disease when comparing with Ballantyne’s system. Key words:Head and neck, mucosal melanoma, AJCC TNM, Ballantynes´s staging system. PMID:27031071

  3. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Owen D. Waygood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment’s influence on the World Health Organization’s recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence.

  4. Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waygood, E. Owen D.; Sun, Yilin; Letarte, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Active travel can contribute to physical activity achieved over a day. Previous studies have examined active travel associated with trips in various western countries, but few studies have examined this question for the Asian context. Japan has high levels of cycling, walking and public transport, similar to The Netherlands. Most studies have focused either on children or on adults separately, however, having children in a household will change the travel needs and wants of that household. Thus, here a household lifecycle stage approach is applied. Further, unlike many previous studies, the active travel related to public transport is included. Lastly, further to examining whether the built environment has an influence on the accumulation of active travel minutes, a binary logistic regression examines the built environment’s influence on the World Health Organization’s recommendations of physical activity. The findings suggest that there is a clear distinction between the urbanized centers and the surrounding towns and unurbanized areas. Further, active travel related to public transport trips is larger than pure walking trips. Females and children are more likely to achieve the WHO recommendations. Finally, car ownership is a strong negative influence. PMID:26694429

  5. Identifying grade/stage-related active modules in human co-regulatory networks: a case study for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenchen; Chen, Lina; Li, Wan; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Liangcai; Jia, Xu; Miao, Zhengqiang; Qu, Xiaoli; Li, Weiguo; He, Weiming

    2012-12-01

    The histological grade/stage of tumor is widely acknowledged as an important clinical prognostic factor for cancer progression. Recent experimental studies have explored the following two topics at the molecular level: (1) whether or not gene expression levels vary by different degrees among different tumor grades/stages, and (2) whether some well-defined modules could distinguish one grade/stage from another. In this article, using breast cancer as an example, we investigated this topic and identified grade/stage-related active modules under the framework of a weighted network integrated from a human protein interaction network and a transcriptional regulatory network. Our results enabled us to draw the conclusion that the gene expression profile could provide more clues about tumor grade, but reveals less evidence about tumor stage. In addition, we found that our modular biomarker method had additional advantages in identifying some tumor grade/stage-related genes with slightly altered expression. According to our case study, the framework we introduced could be used for other cancers to identify their modules during grading or staging.

  6. Disease stage, but not sex, predicts depression and psychological distress in Huntington's disease: A European population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Maria; Maltby, John; Shimozaki, Steve; Cramp, Rebecca; Rickards, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Depression and anxiety significantly affect morbidity in Huntington's disease. Mice. models of Huntington's disease have identified sex differences in mood-like behaviours that vary across disease lifespan, but this interaction has not previously been explored in humans with Huntington's disease. However, among certain medical populations, evidence of sex differences in mood across various disease stages has been found, reflecting trends among the general population that women tend to experience anxiety and depression 1.5 to 2 times more than men. The current study examined whether disease stage and sex, either separately or as an interaction term, predicted anxiety and depression in Huntington's disease. A cross-sectional study of REGISTRY data involving 453 Huntington's disease participants from 12 European countries was undertaken using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A series of multiple regression analyses were undertaken to discover to what extent disease stage and sex predicted anxiety, depression, and general distress after controlling for a number of known predictors of mood difficulties. Disease stage, but not sex, was found to predict depressive symptoms and general distress. Neither disease stage nor sex predicted anxiety. Furthermore, an interaction term computed for disease stage and sex did not contribute to the models tested. In terms of considering risks to developing depression and anxiety in the Huntington's disease population, practitioners may need to pay special attention to disease stage progression (but not sex differences) to enable early detection and treatment of depression (but not anxiety). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prolonged persistence of substantial volumes of potentially viable brain tissue after stroke: a correlative PET-CT study with voxel-based data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, G; Beaudouin, V; Rioux, P; de la Sayette, V; Le Doze, F; Viader, F; Derlon, J M; Baron, J C

    1996-04-01

    The existence in humans of brain tissue at risk for infarction but potentially viable (eg, the penumbra) remains unproven. One retrospective operational definition of such tissue includes its final infarction despite a relatively preserved or even normal cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in the early hours after stroke onset. Although previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies identified tissue whose CMRO2 declined from the acute to the subacute stage, in principle compatible with deteriorating penumbra, they all lacked a coregistered CT scan mapping of final infarct and an objective three-dimensional PET data analysis, while many patients were studied in the subacute (up to 48 hours) phase. We have evaluated whether tissue with CMRO2 ranging above a threshold for presumably irreversible damage in the first 18 hours of middle cerebral artery territory stroke, but below it in the chronic stage, could be retrospectively identified within the final infarct volume. Our data bank comprises 30 consecutive patients with first-ever middle cerebral artery territory stroke prospectively studied with PET within the first 18 hours after clinical onset; the 15O equilibrium method was used to measure cerebral blood flow and CMRO2. All survivors with the following criteria were eligible for the present study: (1) technically adequate chronic-stage PET performed in the same stereotaxic conditions, (2) coregistered CT scan also performed in the chronic stage, and (3) an infarct of sufficient dimension (>16mm diameter) on late CT. Corresponding CT scan cuts and PET slices were exactly realigned, and the outlines of CT hypodensities were superimposed on the corresponding CMRO2 matrix. Infarcted voxels with CMRO2 values less than or greater than 1.40 mL/100 mL per minute (ie, the generally accepted threshold for irreversible damage) were automatically identified and projected on matrices of all other PET parameters and for both PET studies. Eight patients (mean age

  8. Micro-PIXE study of whole otolith of Anguilla japonica at elver stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, H.; Wei, K.; Tang, W. [Institute of Life Science, Shanghai Fisheries University, Shanghai 200090 (China); Satoh, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Takano, K.; Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.c [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, M.; Mi, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Strontium and calcium contents, within the otolith of Anguilla japonica, were measured by external micro-PIXE. According to the measured metamorphic checks, each otolith was divided into three stages. Comparing with the Sr:Ca ratios in stage 2, the ratios in stage 1 had two different trends. Among these fish, it may reflect their maternal condition was not the same. The ratios in stage 3 which was corresponding to the estuarine habitat were smaller than that in any other stage which was corresponding to the ocean habitat in each otolith. Suggested by our results, the eels from the spawning site may separate into two groups when they are near to the south of Taiwan, and then move to the different estuaries in China. It could be proposed that, in general, the migration direction is from south to north along the east coast in China.

  9. Penafsiran Volume Pohon Pinus merkusii melalui Foto Udara (Studi Kasus BKPH Majenang, KPH Banyumas Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahid -

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of  Stock Volume of Pinus merkusii  using Aerial Photographs (Case Study in BKPH Majenang, West Banyumas FMU The study aims to compile and analyse the growing stock volume of Pinus merkusii by using stand parameter measured through aerial photographs. The study was conducted by using black-white panchromatic aerial photographs produced in 2005 and the scale was 1 : 20,000. The study was conducted in Pinus merkusii taping plots in the Majenang BKPH, under the forest districts of west Banyumas, Perum Perhutani using tree height, crown diameter and number of trees per hectare as parameters. Data analysis was done to define the relationship among these parameters in regression equation. The steps of the study were defining measurement plots in aerial photographs, measurement of stand parameters in the aerial photographs and field observation. Data analysis was performed using micro computer. As a result, the regression equation for each location as follows: V = 72,415 – 0,231 N + 35,242 H – 24,454D – 0,923 (N x D, with the determination coefficient was 0,789 and the significance of 95%. Where: V = growing stock volume (m3, N = the number of trees per hectare, H = tree height (m and D = crown diameter (m. It was concluded that number of tree per hectare, tree height and crown diameter were good predictors for standing stock volume of Pinus merkusii.

  10. Temporal, seasonal and weather effects on cycle volume: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Sandar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling has the potential to provide health, environmental and economic benefits but the level of cycling is very low in New Zealand and many other countries. Adverse weather is often cited as a reason why people do not cycle. This study investigated temporal and seasonal variability in cycle volume and its association with weather in Auckland, New Zealand's largest city. Methods Two datasets were used: automated cycle count data collected on Tamaki Drive in Auckland by using ZELT Inductive Loop Eco-counters and weather data (gust speed, rain, temperature, sunshine duration available online from the National Climate Database. Analyses were undertaken using data collected over one year (1 January to 31 December 2009. Normalised cycle volumes were used in correlation and regression analyses to accommodate differences by hour of the day and day of the week and holiday. Results In 2009, 220,043 bicycles were recorded at the site. There were significant differences in mean hourly cycle volumes by hour of the day, day type and month of the year (p p Conclusions There are temporal and seasonal variations in cycle volume in Auckland and weather significantly influences hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations in cycle volume. Our findings will help inform future cycling promotion activities in Auckland.

  11. Anions Govern Cell Volume: A Case Study of Relative Astrocytic and Neuronal Swelling in Spreading Depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hübel

    Full Text Available Cell volume changes are ubiquitous in normal and pathological activity of the brain. Nevertheless, we know little about the dynamics of cell and tissue swelling, and the differential changes in the volumes of neurons and glia during pathological states such as spreading depolarizations (SD under ischemic and non-ischemic conditions, and epileptic seizures. By combining the Hodgkin-Huxley type spiking dynamics, dynamic ion concentrations, and simultaneous neuronal and astroglial volume changes into a comprehensive model, we elucidate why glial cells swell more than neurons in SD and the special case of anoxic depolarization (AD, and explore the relative contributions of the two cell types to tissue swelling. Our results demonstrate that anion channels, particularly Cl-, are intrinsically connected to cell swelling and blocking these currents prevents changes in cell volume. The model is based on a simple and physiologically realistic description. We introduce model extensions that are either derived purely from first physical principles of electroneutrality, osmosis, and conservation of particles, or by a phenomenological combination of these principles and known physiological facts. This work provides insights into numerous studies related to neuronal and glial volume changes in SD that otherwise seem contradictory, and is broadly applicable to swelling in other cell types and conditions.

  12. Stages of Change Profiles among Adults Experiencing Hearing Difficulties Who Have Not Taken Any Action: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Rönnberg, Jerker; Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that adults experiencing hearing difficulties who are aware of their difficulties but have not taken any action would fall under contemplation and preparation stages based on the transtheoretical stages-of-change model. The study employed a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in United Kingdom and 90 participants completed University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA) scale as well as measures of self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, self-reported hearing disability acceptance, and provided additional demographic details online. As predicted, the results indicate that a high percentage of participants (over 90%) were in the contemplation and preparation stages. No statistically significant differences were observed among groups of stage with highest URICA scores and factors such as: years since hearing disability, self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression, and self-reported hearing disability acceptance. Cluster analysis identified three stages-of-change clusters, which were named as: decision making (53% of sample), participation (28% of sample), and disinterest (19% of sample). Study results support the stages-of-change model. In addition, implications of the current study and areas for future research are discussed.

  13. Planning benchmark study for SBRT of early stage NSCLC. Results of the DEGRO Working Group Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustakis, Christos [University Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany); German CyberKnife Center, Soest (Germany); Blanck, Oliver [UKSH Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kiel (Germany); Saphir Radiosurgery Center, Guestrow and Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Ebrahimi Tazehmahalleh, Fatemeh [University Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany); City Hospital Dessau, Dessau (Germany); Chan, Mark ka heng [UKSH Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kiel (Germany); Ernst, Iris; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany); German CyberKnife Center, Soest (Germany); Krieger, Thomas [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Duma, Marciana-Nona; Oechsner, Markus [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Ganswindt, Ute; Heinz, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Alheit, Horst; Blank, Hilbert [Radiationtherapy Distler, Bautzen (Germany); Nestle, Ursula; Wiehle, Rolf [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Kornhuber, Christine; Ostheimer, Christian [University Halle, Department of Radiation Oncology, Halle (Germany); Petersen, Cordula [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Pollul, Gerhard [University Mainz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mainz (Germany); Baus, Wolfgang; Altenstein, Georg [University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Beckers, Eric; Jurianz, Katrin [Gamma Knife Center Krefeld, Krefeld (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Kretschmer, Matthias [Radiologische Allianz Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich; Maass, Torsten [Radiationtherapy and Cyberknife Center Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Droege, Stefan [Lung Clinic Hemer, Hemer (Germany); Wolf, Ulrich [University Leipzig, Department of Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany); Schoeffler, Juergen [Radiationtherapy Department Boeblingen, Boeblingen (Germany); Guckenberger, Matthias [University Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-15

    The aim was to evaluate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning variability for early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with respect to the published guidelines of the Stereotactic Radiotherapy Working Group of the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). Planning computed tomography (CT) scan and the structure sets (planning target volume, PTV; organs at risk, OARs) of 3 patients with early stage NSCLC were sent to 22 radiotherapy departments with SBRT experience: each department was asked to prepare a treatment plan according to the DEGRO guidelines. The prescription dose was 3 fractions of 15 Gy to the 65% isodose. In all, 87 plans were generated: 36 used intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT), 21 used three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), 6 used static field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SF-IMRT), 9 used helical radiotherapy and 15 used robotic radiosurgery. PTV dose coverage and simultaneously kept OARs doses were within the clinical limits published in the DEGRO guidelines. However, mean PTV dose (mean 58.0 Gy, range 52.8-66.4 Gy) and dose conformity indices (mean 0.75, range 0.60-1.00) varied between institutions and techniques (p ≤ 0.02). OARs doses varied substantially between institutions, but appeared to be technique independent (p = 0.21). All studied treatment techniques are well suited for SBRT of early stage NSCLC according to the DEGRO guidelines. Homogenization of SBRT practice in Germany is possible through the guidelines; however, detailed treatment plan characteristics varied between techniques and institutions and further homogenization is warranted in future studies and recommendations. Optimized treatment planning should always follow the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. (orig.) [German] Ziel war die Untersuchung der Variabilitaet der Bestrahlungsplanung der stereotaktischen Strahlentherapie (SBRT) fuer das nicht-kleinzellige Bronchialkarzinom (NSCLC) im

  14. Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study Technical Report: Volume 2--Science. Technical Report. NCES 2011-049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Helen E.; Lemmens, Meike; Druker, Stephen L.; Roth, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    This second volume of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study Technical Report focuses on every aspect of the planning, implementation, processing, analysis, and reporting of the science components of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. The report is intended to serve as a record of the actions and documentation of…

  15. High survival and hatching rates following vitrification of embryos at blastocyst stage: a bovine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Y J; Chung, Jin-Tae; Tan, Seang Lin; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Cryopreservation of embryos at the blastocyst stage may provide an effective method to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate for each treatment cycle of ovarian-stimulated IVF. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and hatching rate of bovine blastocysts following vitrification using a method designed for oocytes, with a view to introducing this methodology into human assisted reproduction technology and reproductive medicine. Bovine blastocysts were produced from abattoir materials subjected to in-vitro maturation and in-vitro fertilization. Survival rate of the bovine blastocysts was 100% (94/94) following vitrification using a method designed for oocyte cryopreservation. There was no difference in the hatching rate of the bovine blastocysts between control (62.5%: 60/96) and vitrified (61.7%: 58/94) groups. The number of dead cells in the blastocysts was not significantly different between control (5.0 +/- 2.9) and vitrified (9.5 +/- 4.0) groups. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that bovine blastocysts can be vitrified successfully using a procedure designed for oocyte cryopreservation. It is possible that this method may also be successful for the cryopreservation of human embryos. A further study into this is currently being organized.

  16. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R&D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description.

  17. Partial volume correction of brain PET studies using iterative deconvolution in combination with HYPR denoising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golla, Sandeep S. V.; Lubberink, Mark; van Berckel, Bart N. M.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Background: Accurate quantification of PET studies depends on the spatial resolution of the PET data. The commonly limited PET resolution results in partial volume effects (PVE). Iterative deconvolution methods (IDM) have been proposed as a means to correct for PVE. IDM improves spatial resolution

  18. Plasma volume expansion by medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch in neonates: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liet, Jean-Michel; Bellouin, Anne-Sophie; Boscher, Cécile; Lejus, Corinne; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2003-07-01

    To study the renal effects (measured by creatininemia) of plasma volume expansion with a medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch in the newborn. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, pilot study. The study included 26 neonates weighing 690-4030 g (gestational age, 26-40 wks), without cardiac or renal failure or major hemostasis abnormalities and requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter for parenteral nutrition. Pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital. Plasma volume expansion was performed to facilitate insertion of the central catheter. After parental consent, neonates were randomly allocated to receive intravenous infusions at 10 mL.kg(-1) of 5% albumin or 6% hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5. Sample size was calculated to detect an increase in mean creatininemia of >20 micromol.L(-1) (with alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.80). No clinically or statistically significant differences were found between the two groups 6 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, and 7 days after plasma volume expansion. The study could detect an increase in creatininemia > or =20 micromol.L(-1) with a power of 80%. In 13 healthy neonates, plasma volume expansion with 10 mL.kg(-1) of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 does not increase creatininemia.

  19. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2001-2002. Volume 6: Federal Work-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    The Federal Work-Study (FWS) Program encourages the part-time employment of undergraduate and graduate students who need the income to help pay the cost of their education and encourages FWS recipients to participate in community service activities. This volume describes the ways schools are required to use money from their FWS Program funds to…

  20. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  1. 4708 Volume 11 No. 2 March 2011 PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-02

    Mar 2, 2011 ... Volume 11 No. 2. March 2011. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ASPECTS OF THE BIOLOGY. OF SNAKEHEAD FISH Parachanna Obscura (Günther). IN A NIGERIAN WETLAND. Bolaji BB*. 2. ,Mfon TU. 1. , and DI Utibe. 2. Benard Bolaji. *Correspondence author's email: afababs@yahoo.com. 1.

  2. A Study on Sixth Grade Students' Misconceptions and Errors in Spatial Measurement: Length, Area, and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan Sisman, Gulcin; Aksu, Meral

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to portray students' misconceptions and errors while solving conceptually and procedurally oriented tasks involving length, area, and volume measurement. The data were collected from 445 sixth grade students attending public primary schools in Ankara, Türkiye via a test composed of 16 constructed-response…

  3. Patterns of regional gray matter loss at different stages of schizophrenia: A multisite, cross-sectional VBM study in first-episode and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ulysses S; Duran, Fabio L S; Schaufelberger, Maristela S; Crippa, José A S; Louzã, Mario R; Sallet, Paulo C; Kanegusuku, Caroline Y O; Elkis, Helio; Gattaz, Wagner F; Bassitt, Débora P; Zuardi, Antonio W; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo C; Leite, Claudia C; Castro, Claudio C; Santos, Antonio Carlos; Murray, Robin M; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-01-01

    Structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been repeatedly demonstrated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, but it remains unclear whether these are static or progressive in nature. While longitudinal MRI studies have been traditionally used to assess the issue of progression of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, information from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies directly comparing first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients to healthy controls may also be useful to further clarify this issue. With the recent interest in multisite mega-analyses combining structural MRI data from multiple centers aiming at increased statistical power, the present multisite voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study was carried out to examine patterns of brain structural changes according to the different stages of illness and to ascertain which (if any) of such structural abnormalities would be specifically correlated to potential clinical moderators, including cumulative exposure to antipsychotics, age of onset, illness duration and overall illness severity. We gathered a large sample of schizophrenia patients (161, being 99 chronic and 62 first-episode) and controls (151) from four previous morphometric MRI studies (1.5 T) carried out in the same geographical region of Brazil. Image processing and analyses were conducted using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) software with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm. Group effects on regional gray matter (GM) volumes were investigated through whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons using General Linear Model Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA), always including total GM volume, scan protocol, age and gender as nuisance variables. Finally, correlation analyses were performed between the aforementioned clinical moderators and regional and global brain volumes. First-episode schizophrenia subjects displayed subtle volumetric deficits relative to controls in a

  4. The comparative study of former and latest FIGO staging of vulva cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Zhang, Y; Sun, J; Feng, S; Yan, M; Cheng, H

    2012-04-01

    By means of comparing the 2009 staging with the 1994 staging for vulva carcinoma on prognostic predicting, the essay aims to investigate the alterations of clinical decision due to the staging changing. A retrospective analysis was adopted which involves 100 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from January 1980 to December 2005. Meanwhile, survival rate was calculated by life table method. In addition, Kaplan-Meirer method was used to evaluate the prognostic factors in univariate analysis. And the independent prognostic factors were provided through COX regression model. Univariate analysis indicated that the prognostic factors of vulva squamous cell carcinoma were: age (P=0.018), lymph node metastasis (P=0.010), the 1988 staging (P=0.031), the 2009 staging (P=0.001), the number of positive lymphnodes (PCOX regression model indicated that the independent prognostic factor was: the number of positive lymph nodes (Pextension, lymph node status and so on. The 2009 staging is better than the 1994 staging on prognostic predicting and, which could guide the clinical treatment more accurately.

  5. Inter-scan and inter-observer tumour volume delineation variability on cone beam computed tomography in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Lee, Stephanie; Agrawal, Vishesh; Romano, John; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Chen, Aileen B; Kozono, David E; Killoran, Joseph H; Wagar, Matthew; Hacker, Fred L; Aerts, Hugo Jwl; Lewis, John H; Mak, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Quantification of volume changes on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and for adaptive treatment planning. This study quantifies inter-scan and inter-observer variability in tumour volume delineation on CBCT. Three clinicians independently contoured the primary gross tumour volume (GTV) manually on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (post) for 19 NSCLC patients. Relative volume differences (RVD) were calculated between the pre- and post-CBCTs for a given treatment and between any two of three observers for a given CBCT. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to quantitatively measure and compare the extent of variability. Inter-observer variability had a significantly higher CV of 0.15 ± 0.13 compared to inter-scan CV of 0.03 ± 0.04 with P volume delineation on CBCT with greatest variability for small tumours (volume change during SBRT treatment for tumours with diameter greater than 2 cm, with larger thresholds needed for smaller tumours. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Sexual dimorphism of volume reduction but not cognitive deficit in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: A combined diffusion tensor imaging, cortical thickness and brain volume study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Treit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has revealed abnormalities in brain volumes, cortical thickness and white matter microstructure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD; however, no study has reported all three measures within the same cohort to assess the relative magnitude of deficits, and few studies have examined sex differences. Participants with FASD (n = 70; 30 females; 5–32 years and healthy controls (n = 74; 35 females; 5–32 years underwent cognitive testing and MRI to assess cortical thickness, regional brain volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA/mean diffusivity (MD of white matter tracts. A significant effect of group, age-by-group, or sex-by-group was found for 9/9 volumes, 7/39 cortical thickness regions, 3/9 white matter tracts, and 9/10 cognitive tests, indicating group differences that in some cases differ by age or sex. Volume reductions for several structures were larger in males than females, despite similar deficits of cognition in both sexes. Correlations between brain structure and cognitive scores were found in females of both groups, but were notably absent in males. Correlations within a given MRI modality (e.g. total brain volume and caudate volume were prevalent in both the control and FASD groups, and were more numerous than correlations between measurement types (e.g. volumes and diffusion tensor imaging in either cohort. This multi-modal MRI study finds widespread differences of brain structure in participants with prenatal alcohol exposure, and to a greater extent in males than females which may suggest attenuation of the expected process of sexual dimorphism of brain structure during typical development.

  7. Life-Stage and Mobility: An Exploratory GPS Study of Mobility in Multigenerational Families, Ahmedabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Michal; D'Ambrosio, Lisa; Samanta, Tannistha; Coughlin, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults in India grows, research is needed to plan a sustainable future for India's older adults. This article reports results from a Global Positioning System (GPS)-based pilot study that examined the mobility of middle-class, older adults living in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Using mobility as a lens through which to examine the lives of older adults, we map potential research and identify policy areas of interest considering older adults in urban India. The study explores the role of life stage in mobility as well as the effects of gender and urban environment on mobility. Using this distinctive perspective on day-to-day life, we propose themes through which, using policy and planning tools, the living environments of older adults in Indian cities can be improved. These policy measures include focusing on walkability and pedestrian safety in residential areas and building on existing mixed land use to create high accessibility to goods and services in urban environments.

  8. End-stage renal disease in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama El Minshawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk fac-tors of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD in the region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. We studied 460 renal replacement therapy patients through a review of medical records and patient interviews and obtained patient demographics, family history, risk factors for ESRD, environmental exposure to toxins, work conditions, social history and causes of death. The estimated prevalence of treated ESRD was 460 per million populations (PMP; 350 (76% were treated by hemodialysis, 30 (7% by peritoneal dialysis and 80 (17% by kidney transplantation. The mean age was 48 ± 17 years, body mass index was 25 ± 2 kg/m 2 and the male vs. female ratio was 64% vs. 36%. Most patients (55% were living in rural areas. Etiology of the ESRD was unknown in 33%, hypertension in 24%, chronic glomerulonephritis in 8%, obstructive uropathy in 3.5%, analgesic nephropathy in 5%, Bilhaziasis in 0.5%, chronic pyelonephritis in 2% and diabetic nephropathy in 18%. Other causes such as gouty nephropathy, collagen diseases, toxemia of pregnancy and lupus nephritis constituted 6% of the cases. We conclude that the epidemiology of the treated ESRD in Tabuk area is similar to that in Egypt, but very different from that in the United States.

  9. Preoperative Serum Human Epididymis Protein 4 Levels in Early Stage Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfani, Francesco; Restaino, Stefano; Cicogna, Stefania; Petrillo, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Perrone, Emanuele; Radillo, Oriano; De Leo, Rossella; Ceccarello, Matteo; Scambia, Giovanni; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and cancer antigen 125 markers with pathological prognostic factor to complete the preoperative clinical panel and help the treatment planning. This prospective multicenter study was conducted in 2 gynecologic oncology centers between 2012 and 2014 (Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo in Trieste and Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Rome, Italy). We enrolled 153 patients diagnosed with clinical early (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages I-II) type I endometrial cancer. Human epididymis protein 4 levels seemed to be strictly related to age (P endometrial cancer type I versus type II (P = 0.86), the lymphovascular infiltration (P = 0.12), and the cervical invasion (P = 0.6). We established a new variable, considering 3 high-risk tumor features: MI of greater than 50% and/or histological G3 and/or type II. Human epididymis protein 4 levels significantly increase in high-risk tumors (high risk HE4, 93.6 pmol/L vs low-medium risk, 65.5 pmol/L; P < 0.001). A preoperative HE4 evaluation could help stratify patients with deep invasion and/or metastatic disease and is correlated with other relevant prognostic factors to be considered to tailor an adequate surgical strategy.

  10. A Stage I Pilot Study of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Methadone Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L.; Green, Charles; Masuda, Akihiko; Grabowski, John; Wilson, Kelly; Northrup, Thomas; Moeller, F. Gerard; Schmitz, Joy

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND While agonist replacement therapies are effective for managing opioid dependence, community treatment programs are increasingly choosing detoxification. Unfortunately, success rates for opioid detoxification are very low, in part, due to physical and psychological symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. Few behavior therapies specifically address the distressing experiences specific to opioid withdrawal. A novel behavioral treatment, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), works from the premise that the avoidance of unpleasant private experiences (thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations) is ubiquitous yet may be pathogenic, resulting in treatment drop-out and further drug use. METHODS This Stage I pilot study developed and tested an ACT-based opioid detoxification behavioral therapy. Opioid dependent patients (N = 56) who were attending a licensed methadone clinic were randomized to receive either 24 individual therapy sessions of ACT or Drug Counseling (DC) in the context of a 6-month methadone dose reduction program. RESULTS While no difference was found on opioid use during treatment, 37% of participants in the ACT condition were successfully detoxified at the end of treatment compared to 19% of those who received DC. Fear of detoxification was also reduced across time in the ACT condition relative to DC. CONCLUSION This first study of ACT to assist opioid detoxification indicates promise. Research is needed to refine specific treatment strategies for this population to further strengthen effects. PMID:22425411

  11. Multiple factors influence compliance with colorectal cancer staging recommendations: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Mahmoud A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with colorectal cancer (CRC retrieval by surgeons, and assessment by pathologists of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs predicts the need for adjuvant treatment and improved survival. Different interventions (educational presentation, engaging clinical opinion leaders, performance data sent to hospital executives to improve compliance with this practice had variable results. This exploratory study examined factors hypothesized to have influenced the outcome of those interventions. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 surgeons and pathologists at eleven hospitals. Clinicians were identified by intervention organizers, public licensing body database, and referral from interviewees. An interview guide incorporating open-ended questions was pilot-tested on one surgeon and pathologist. A single investigator conducted all interviews by phone. Transcripts were analyzed independently by two investigators using a grounded approach,ho then compared findings to resolve differences. Results Improvements in LN staging practice may have occurred largely due to educational presentations that created awareness, and self-initiated changes undertaken by pathologists. Executives that received performance data may not have shared this with staff, and opinion leaders engaged to promote compliance may not have fulfilled their roles. Barriers to change that are potentially amenable to quality improvement included perceptions about the practice (perceived lack of evidence for the need to examine at least 12 LNs and associated responsibilities (blaming other profession, technical issues (need for pathology assistants, better clearing solutions and laboratory facilities, and a lack of organizational support for multidisciplinary interaction (little communication between surgeons and pathologists or quality improvement (no change leaders or capacity for monitoring. Conclusion Use of an exploratory approach provided an in

  12. Multiple factors influence compliance with colorectal cancer staging recommendations: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Wright, Frances C; Khalifa, Mahmoud A; Smith, Andrew J

    2008-02-06

    For patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) retrieval by surgeons, and assessment by pathologists of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs) predicts the need for adjuvant treatment and improved survival. Different interventions (educational presentation, engaging clinical opinion leaders, performance data sent to hospital executives) to improve compliance with this practice had variable results. This exploratory study examined factors hypothesized to have influenced the outcome of those interventions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 surgeons and pathologists at eleven hospitals. Clinicians were identified by intervention organizers, public licensing body database, and referral from interviewees. An interview guide incorporating open-ended questions was pilot-tested on one surgeon and pathologist. A single investigator conducted all interviews by phone. Transcripts were analyzed independently by two investigators using a grounded approach,ho then compared findings to resolve differences. Improvements in LN staging practice may have occurred largely due to educational presentations that created awareness, and self-initiated changes undertaken by pathologists. Executives that received performance data may not have shared this with staff, and opinion leaders engaged to promote compliance may not have fulfilled their roles. Barriers to change that are potentially amenable to quality improvement included perceptions about the practice (perceived lack of evidence for the need to examine at least 12 LNs) and associated responsibilities (blaming other profession), technical issues (need for pathology assistants, better clearing solutions and laboratory facilities), and a lack of organizational support for multidisciplinary interaction (little communication between surgeons and pathologists) or quality improvement (no change leaders or capacity for monitoring). Use of an exploratory approach provided an in-depth view of the way that numerous factors amenable to

  13. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  14. A two-stage approach to the correction of ascertainment bias in complex genetic studies involving variance components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, J; Thompson, J R; Burton, P R

    2007-03-01

    Correction for ascertainment bias is a vital part of the analysis of genetic epidemiology studies that needs to be undertaken whenever subjects are not recruited at random. Adjustment often requires extensive numerical integration, which can be very slow or even computationally infeasible, especially if the model includes many fixed and random effects. In this paper we propose a two-stage method for ascertainment bias correction. In the first stage we estimate parameters that pertain to the ascertained population, that is the population that would be selected into the sample if the ascertainment criterion were applied to everyone. In the second stage we convert the estimates for the ascertained population into general population parameter estimates. We illustrate the method with simulations based on a simple model and then describe how the method can be used with complex models. The two-stage approach avoids some of the integration required in direct adjustment, hence speeding up the process of model fitting.

  15. Short and Long-term Effects of rTMS Treatment on Alzheimer's Disease at Different Stages: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Rutherford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS uses a magnetic coil to induce an electric field in brain tissue. As a pilot study, we investigated the effect of rTMS treatment on 10 volunteers with Alzheimer's disease (AD in a two-stage study. The first stage consisted of a double-blind crossover study with real and sham treatments. Each treatment block consisted of 13 sessions over 4 weeks. During each session, 2000 TMS pulses at 90%-100% of resting motor threshold were applied to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, and the patients were kept cognitively active by object/action naming during the treatment. The second stage was an open-label study, in which the same treatments were performed in 2-week blocks (10 sessions approximately every 3 months as follow-up treatments on six of the volunteers, who completed the first stage of the study. Primary outcome measures were the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale. The secondary outcome measures were the Revised Memory and Behavior Checklist as well as our team's custom-designed cognitive assessments. The results showed a noticeably stronger improvement on all assessments during the real treatment as compared to the sham treatment. The changes in MOCA scores as well as our designed cognitive assessment were found to be statistically significant, with particularly strong results in the six volunteers who were in the early stages of the disease. The long-term trends observed in the second stage of the study also showed generally less decline than would be expected for their condition. It appears that rTMS can be an effective tool for improving the cognitive abilities of patients with early to moderate stages of AD. However, the positive effects of rTMS may persist for only up to a few weeks. Specific skills being practiced during rTMS treatment may retain their improvement for longer periods.

  16. Cine MR imaging in mitral valve prolapse; Study on mitral regurgitation and left atrial volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumai, Toshihiko (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the ability of cine MR imaging to evaluate the direction, timing, and severity of mitral regurgitation in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). The population of this study was 33 patients with MVP diagnosed by two-dimensional echocardiography and 10 patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease (MSR) for comparison. 7 patients with MVP and 5 with MSR had atrial fibrillation and/or history of congestive heart failure as complications. Mitral regurgitation was graded for severity by color Doppler flow imaging in all patients. Direction and size of systolic flow void in the left atrium were analyzed by contiguous multilevel cine MR images and the maximum volumes of flow void and left atrium were measured. Although flow void was found at the center of the left atrium in most of MSR, it was often directed along the postero-caudal atrial wall in anterior leaflet prolapse and along the anterocranial atrial wall in posterior leaflet prolapse. In MVP, the maximum volume of flow void was often seen in late systole. The maximum volume of flow void and that of left atrium were significantly larger in patients with atrial fibrillation and/or history of congestive heart failure. The length and volume of flow void were increased with clinical severity and degree of regurgitation determined by color Doppler flow imaging. Thus cine MR imaging provides a useful means for detection and semiquantitative evaluation of mitral regurgitation in subjects with MVP. (author).

  17. Study on the Effect of Mutated Bacillus Megaterium in Two-Stage Fermentation of Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shujuan; Wang, Jun; Yao, Jianming; Yu, Zengliang

    2003-10-01

    Bacillus megaterium as a companion strain in two-stage fermentation of vitamin C could secrete some active substances to spur growth of Gluconobacter oxydans to produce 2-KLG. In the fermenting system where Gluconobacter oxydans was combined with GB82-a mutated strain of B. megaterium by ion implantation, the amount of 2-KLG harvested was larger than that produced by the original B. megaterium BP52 [1] being substituted for GB82. In this paper, we studied the effect of the active substances secreted by GB82 to enhance the capability of Gluconobacter oxydans to produce 2-KLG. The supernate of GB82 sampled at different cultivation times all had much more activity to spur Gluconobacter oxydans to yield 2-KLG than that of the original B. megaterium, which might be due to the genetic changes in the active components caused by ion implantation. Furthermore, the active substances of GB82's supernate would lose a part of its activity in extreme environments, which is typical of some proteins.

  18. SUPPLEMENTATION WITH PROTEIN SOURCES IN THE FINISHING STAGE OF BEEF HEIFERS: A BIOECONOMICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondineli Pavezzi Barbero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate biological and economically the use of three protein sources (soybean meal (SM, cottonseed (CS or turnip cake (TC, in the supplement formulation (1.0 % of body weight (BW in the finishing stage of heifers grazing Marandu grass pastures during the dry season. This experiment was conducted in the city of Potirendaba, São Paulo State, and the chemical analyses were performed at the Londrina State University, Paraná State. The experimental area had six hectares, divided into three paddocks, each one with six crossbred heifers (Simmental × Nellore, initial BW of 210 ± 8.34 kg, and age of 15 ± 3 months. Economic analysis was performed using the method of partial budgeting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replicates per treatment (n = 18. Analysis of variance was conducted, and means were compared by Tukey test (P <0.05. Animals supplemented with TC exhibited lower weight gain (SM = 0.81, CS = 0.76 and TC = 0.40 kg / animal / day; P <0.05. Negative changes were observed in net income for the CS supplements (US $ -22.15 / animal and TC (US $ -1.96 / animal relative to the SM supplement, which showed better biologic and economic results. Keywords: beef cattle; partial budgets; supplementation.

  19. A study on a multi-stage hybrid gasifier-engine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S.C.; San Shwe Hla; Hoang-Luang Pham [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on a multi-stage hybrid biomass-charcoal gasification to produce low tar content gas for engine application using coconut shell as a fuel. The performance of a gasifier-engine system consisting of the hybrid biomass-charcoal gasifier, a gas cleaning/cooling system and a diesel engine is also discussed. The lowest tar content found in hybrid coconut shell-charcoal gasification was 28 mgNm{sup -3}. Using a spray tower, producer gas could be cooled down to 40{sup o}C; almost tar-free gas was obtained after cooling the producer gas from the hybrid gasifier system. A three-cylinder Perkins diesel engine was tested at a constant speed of 1500 rpm on diesel alone and dual fuel modes of operation. A maximum of 81% of the total heat energy input was replaced by the producer gas at an electricity generation of 11.44 kWe. (author)

  20. Duration of second stage of labor and instrumental delivery as risk factors for severe perineal lacerations: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Marija; Cnattingius, Sven; Petersson, Gunnar; Sandström, Anna; Stephansson, Olof

    2017-02-21

    We sought to investigate the impact of the duration of second stage of labor on risk of severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). This population based cohort study was conducted in the Stockholm/Gotland region, Sweden, 2008-2014. Study population included 52 211 primiparous women undergoing vaginal delivery with cephalic presentation at term. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR), using 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main exposure was duration of second stage of labor, and main outcome was risks of severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). Risk of severe perineal lacerations increased with duration of second stage of labor. Compared with a second stage of labor of 1 h or less, women with a second stage of more than 2 h had an increased risk (aOR 1.42; 95% CI 1.28-1.58). Compared with non-instrumental vaginal deliveries, the risk was elevated among instrumental vaginal deliveries (aOR 2.24; 95% CI 2.07-2.42). The risk of perineal laceration increased with duration of second stage of labor until less than 3 h in both instrumental and non-instrumental vaginal deliveries, but after 3 h, the ORs did not further increase. After adjustments for potential confounders, macrosomia (birth weight > 4 500 g) and occiput posterior fetal position were risk factors of severe perineal lacerations. The risk of severe perineal laceration increases with duration until the third hour of second stage of labor. Instrumental delivery is the most significant risk factor for severe lacerations, followed by duration of second stage of labor, fetal size and occiput posterior fetal position.

  1. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  2. Cortisol/DHEA ratio and hippocampal volume: A pilot study in major depression and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Rowen O.; Mason, Sara; Mellon, Synthia H.; Elissa S Epel; Reus, Victor I.; Mahan, Laura; Rosser, Rebecca L.; Hough, Christina M.; Heather M. Burke; Mueller, Susanne G.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    Structural imaging studies investigating the relationship between hippocampal volume (HCV) and peripheral measures of glucocorticoids (GCs) have produced conflicting results in both normal populations and in individuals with MDD, raising the possibility of other modulating factors. In preclinical studies, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS; together abbreviated, DHEA(S)) have been shown to antagonize the actions of GCs on the central nervous system. Therefore, consider...

  3. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  4. [Comparison study of CT indicators and pathological N staging in lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-peng; Sun, Ying-shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Ning; Cao, Kun; Ji, Jia-fu; Li, Zi-yu

    2008-11-01

    To explore the CT criteria for evaluating lymph node (LN) metastasis and preoperative N-staging of gastric cancer through the comparison of CT signs and surgical pathology. Eighty-nine patients with gastric cancer underwent CT examinations before radical resections. A soft-reading method on PACS workstation was employed to evaluate the detection of LNs. The size and number of LNs were registered, and the accumulated size of LNs was calculated in every case. The pathological N-staging (pN(0-3)) was considered on the basis of pathological examination of excised specimens according to UICC TNM-staging system (6th edition, 2002). The relationships between LN metastases and CT findings were analyzed by SPSS using t test and one-way ANOVA analysis. The distribution of maximal size, CT detection number and accumulated size were significantly different among different pN stages (P0.05), while significant difference could be found in CT detection number between pN1 and pN3 (P<0.01), pN2 and pN3 (P<0.01), and in accumulated size between pN1 and pN3 (P<0.01), pN1 and pN2 (P<0.01). The involvement of LNs in gastric cancer and pN staging are associated with size, number, and accumulated size of CT detection. CT detection number is more valuable in the evaluation of N staging than LNs size. CT detection number combined with accumulated size of LNs can provide meaningful information for preoperative N-staging.

  5. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, Executive Summary, Volume I, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, David; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    1988-06-01

    This Executive Summary, Volume I, of the lower Flathead System Fisheries Study Final Report, was prepared to provide a study overview for persons who are not fisheries scientists. The contents provide an introduction to the study and its objectives, a short description of the study area, a discussion of the major findings and conclusions of the study, and the description of fisheries management alternatives available to managers of the lower Flathead system. Technical reports were prepared for those portions of the study dealing with the lower Flathead River and its tributaries, Volume II, and the South Bay of Flathead Lake, Volume III. The annual hydrographic regime of the Flathead system, consisting of upper rivers, lake and lower river, has been modified by the construction and operation of two major hydroelectric facilities, Hungry Horse Dam on the south fork Flathead River and Kerr Dam at the outlet of Flathead Lake. The modified hydrographic regime has resulted in significant impacts to kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) and several species of trout. Kerr Dam, closed in 1938, controls Flathead Lake levels between 878.7 m (2883 ft) and 881.8 m (2893 ft) and discharges into the lower Flathead River. Kerr Dam is a 63.4 m (208 ft) high concrete arch structure located 7.2 km (4.5 miles) downstream from the outlet of Flathead Lake. The facility is used by Montana Power Company primarily for system frequency load control with some use for low level base load. 77 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Relationship between Prefrontal Grey Matter Volumes and Working Memory Performance in Schizophrenia: A Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; MacDonald, Angus W; Sponheim, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse structural abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex have been reported in both schizophrenia patients and their nonpsychotic biological relatives. Additionally, working memory difficulties have long been documented in schizophrenia patients and have been associated with the genetic liability for the disorder. The present analysis investigated the relationship between prefrontal regional grey matter volumes and two facets of working memory in schizophrenia using a family study. Structural neuroimaging scans provided measurements of rostral middle, superior, and inferior prefrontal cortical grey matter volumes. Participants also completed a spatial working memory task that measured both short-term maintenance and manipulation of material in memory. Both schizophrenia patients and relatives had reduced superior and inferior frontal grey matter volumes. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated a spatial working memory deficit compared to both controls and relatives, with no greater impairment when required to manipulate material. Smaller prefrontal volumes in schizophrenia patients were associated with worse working memory performance. These relationships were absent in the nonpsychotic relatives and controls. Despite normative behavioural performance, nonpsychotic relatives demonstrated abnormalities in brain structure similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. Manipulation abilities were not more impaired than maintenance in schizophrenia patients. Consistent with other neuroimaging research, our results suggest that direct measures of the underlying biology may be more sensitive to the effects of the genetic liability for schizophrenia than behavioural measures. PMID:24529364

  7. Study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushio, N.

    1987-03-01

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator.

  8. An Experimental Study of High Strength-High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Sustainable Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Gunavant K.; Thakare, Sunil B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the construction of infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, highways, dams, and many other facilities. This paper reports the development, the basic idea, the main properties of high strength-high volume fly ash with application in concrete associated with the development and implementation of Sustainable Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC) Mixtures and Early Age Shrinkage and mechanical properties of concrete for 7,28,56 and 90days. Another alternative to make environment-friendly concrete is the development of high strength-high-volume fly ash concrete which is an synthesized from materials of geological origin or by-product materials such as fly ash which is rich in silicon and aluminum. In this paper 6 concrete mixtures were produced to evaluate the effect of key parameters on the mechanical properties of concrete and its behavior. The study key parameters are; binder material content, cement replacement ratios, and the steel fibers used to High Volume Fly Ash mixtures for increasing performance of concrete.

  9. Reduced thalamic volume in Parkinson disease with REM sleep behavior disorder: volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, M; Cerasa, A; Arabia, G; Morelli, M; Gambardella, A; Mumoli, L; Nisticò, R; Vescio, B; Quattrone, A

    2014-09-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common non motor feature of Parkinson's Disease (PD) affecting about half the patients with this disease. Distinct structural brain tissue abnormalities have been reported in several regions modulating REM sleep of the patients with idiopathic RBD. At the present time, there are no conventional MRI studies investigating patients with PD associated with RBD. Herein, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect the neuroanatomical profile of PD patients with and without RBD. Optimized VBM was applied to the MRI brain images in 11 PD patients with RBD (PD-RBD), 11 PD patients without RBD (PD) and 18 age-and sex-matched controls. To corroborate VBM findings we used automated volumetric method (FreeSurfer) to quantify subcortical brain regions volumes. Patients and controls also underwent DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies. The VBM analysis showed markedly reduced gray matter volume in the right thalamus of PD-RBD patients in comparison with PD patients and controls. Automatic thalamic segmentation in PD-RBD patients showed a bilaterally reduced thalamic volume as compared with PD patients or controls. All PD patients (with and without RBD) showed a reduced tracer uptake on DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies as compared to controls. Our findings suggest that the presence of RBD symptoms in PD patients is associated with a reduced thalamic volume suggesting a pathophysiologic role of the thalamus in the complex circuit causing RBD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Appraisal of Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy for Left-Sided Pancreatic Cancer: A Large Volume Cohort Study of 152 Consecutive Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Shin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to appraise the value of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP for left-sided pancreatic cancer based on a large volume cohort study.We reviewed data for all consecutive patients undergoing LDP for left-sided pancreatic cancer at Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea between December 2006 and December 2014.A total of 91 male and 61 female patients, with a median age of 62.7 years were included in this study. The median operative duration was 234 minutes. Pathological reports revealed the following: a median tumor size of 3.0 cm (range, 0.4-10.0, T stages (T1 in 7.9%, T2 in 5.3%, T3 in 86.8%, and no T4, the tumor differentiation (well differentiated in 16.4%, moderately differentiated in 75.4%, and poorly differentiated in 8.2%, and R0 resection in 126 patients (82.9%. After pancreatectomy, 96 patients (63.2% received adjuvant chemotherapy, and the median time to chemotherapy was 30 days. The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (range, 5-31, and the median time to diet resumption was 1 day. Grade B or C postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 14 patients (9.2% and grade II or III complications occurred in 27 (17.7%. The median overall survival was 43.0 months. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that tumor size, N1 stage, combined resection, and incompleteness of planned adjuvant chemotherapy affect patient survival.LDP for left-sided pancreatic cancer is reasonable within selected indications. An international consensus on laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic cancer would be desirable and timely.

  11. A bioprosthetic total artificial heart for end-stage heart failure: Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrémouille, Christian; Carpentier, Alain; Leprince, Pascal; Roussel, Jean-Christian; Cholley, Bernard; Boissier, Elodie; Epailly, Eric; Capel, Antoine; Jansen, Piet; Smadja, David M

    2018-01-01

    The electro-hydraulically actuated Carmat total artificial heart (C-TAH) is designed to replace the heart in patients with end-stage heart failure, either as bridge to transplant or destination therapy. It provides pulsatile flow and contains bio-prosthetic blood contacting materials. A clinical feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the C-TAH safety and performance. Hospitalized patients, at imminent risk of death from irreversible biventricular failure despite optimal medical management, and not eligible for transplant or eligible but on extracorporeal life support, were enrolled. The primary endpoint was 30-days survival. Four patients were implanted with the C-TAH, three as destination therapy (ages 76, 68, 74) and one as bridge to transplant (age 58). They had implant times of 74, 270, 254 and 20 days respectively. All patients were free from hemolysis, clinical neurologic events, clinical evidence of thrombus and device-related infections. Hemodynamic and physical recovery allowed two patients to be discharged home for a cumulative duration of 7 months. The anticoagulation management strategy comprised initial unfractionated heparin, from postoperative day 2, followed by low molecular weight heparin and aspirin. An increased D-dimer level was observed in all patients during months 1 to 4. Temporary suspension of heparin anticoagulation resulted in thrombocytopenia and increased fibrin monomer, reversed by resuming anticoagulation with heparin. Causes of death were device-related (2 cases), respiratory failure and multi-organ failure. Preliminary clinical results with the C-TAH demonstrated good safety and performance profiles in patients suffering from biventricular failure, which need to be confirmed in a pivotal study. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad R. Issa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP, composite nodal volumes (GTVN and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance.

  13. Alteration of Brain Functional Networks in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Linqiong; Zhang, Jiuquan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jingna; Zhang, Ye; Li, Pengyue; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Mingguo

    2015-01-01

    Although alterations of topological organization have previously been reported in the brain functional network of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the topological properties of the brain network in early-stage PD patients who received antiparkinson treatment are largely unknown. This study sought to determine the topological characteristics of the large-scale functional network in early-stage PD patients. First, 26early-stage PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage:1-2) and 30 age-matched normal controls were scanned using resting-state functional MRI. Subsequently, graph theoretical analysis was employed to investigate the abnormal topological configuration of the brain network in early-stage PD patients. We found that both the PD patient and control groups showed small-world properties in their functional brain networks. However, compared with the controls, the early-stage PD patients exhibited abnormal global properties, characterized by lower global efficiency. Moreover, the modular structure and the hub distribution were markedly altered in early-stage PD patients. Furthermore, PD patients exhibited increased nodal centrality, primarily in the bilateral pallidum, the inferior parietal lobule, and the medial superior frontal gyrus, and decreased nodal centrality in the caudate nucleus, the supplementary motor areas, the precentral gyrus, and the middle frontal gyrus. There were significant negative correlations between the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor scores and nodal centralities of superior parietal gyrus. These results suggest that the topological organization of the brain functional network was altered in early-stage PD patients who received antiparkinson treatment, and we speculated that the antiparkinson treatment may affect the efficiency of the brain network to effectively relieve clinical symptoms of PD.

  14. Alteration of Brain Functional Networks in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqiong Sang

    Full Text Available Although alterations of topological organization have previously been reported in the brain functional network of Parkinson's disease (PD patients, the topological properties of the brain network in early-stage PD patients who received antiparkinson treatment are largely unknown. This study sought to determine the topological characteristics of the large-scale functional network in early-stage PD patients. First, 26early-stage PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage:1-2 and 30 age-matched normal controls were scanned using resting-state functional MRI. Subsequently, graph theoretical analysis was employed to investigate the abnormal topological configuration of the brain network in early-stage PD patients. We found that both the PD patient and control groups showed small-world properties in their functional brain networks. However, compared with the controls, the early-stage PD patients exhibited abnormal global properties, characterized by lower global efficiency. Moreover, the modular structure and the hub distribution were markedly altered in early-stage PD patients. Furthermore, PD patients exhibited increased nodal centrality, primarily in the bilateral pallidum, the inferior parietal lobule, and the medial superior frontal gyrus, and decreased nodal centrality in the caudate nucleus, the supplementary motor areas, the precentral gyrus, and the middle frontal gyrus. There were significant negative correlations between the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor scores and nodal centralities of superior parietal gyrus. These results suggest that the topological organization of the brain functional network was altered in early-stage PD patients who received antiparkinson treatment, and we speculated that the antiparkinson treatment may affect the efficiency of the brain network to effectively relieve clinical symptoms of PD.

  15. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) laser studies. Volume 1: Laser environmental impact study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1980-01-01

    The environmental impact of space to Earth power transmission using space borne laser subsystems is emphasized. A laser system is defined, estimates of relevant efficiencies for laser power generation and atmospheric transmission are developed, and a comparison is made to a microwave system. Ancillary issues, such as laser beam spreading, safety and security, mass and volume estimates and technology growth are considered.

  16. Comparative study of pressure- and volume-controlled ventilation on stroke volume variation as a predictor of fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Park, Hee Yeon; Jung, Wol Seon; Jo, Youn Yi; Kwak, Hyun Jeong

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesized that the 2 ventilation modes might have a different influence on the stroke volume variation (SVV). This study investigated the effect of the ventilation modes on SVV as a predictor of fluid responsiveness during major abdominal surgery. Sixty patients were randomly allocated to volume-controlled ventilation (VCV, n = 30) or pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV, n = 30) modes. After the induction of anesthesia, hemodynamic variables and SVV were measured before and after volume expansion (VE) with colloid solution of 10 mL/kg. The ability of SVV to predict the fluid responsiveness was tested by calculation of the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve for an increase in stroke volume index of at least 15% after VE. There were 10 and 16 responders in the VCV and PCV groups, respectively. The area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) for SVV before VE was 0.723 (0.538-0.907) and 0.799 (0.625-0.973) in the VCV and PCV groups, respectively. The optimal threshold value of SVV was 11% and 14% in the VCV and PCV groups, respectively. Stroke volume variation can predict fluid responsiveness during both VCV and PCV modes. However, the optimal threshold values of SVV may differ according to the ventilation modes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tri-level study of the causes of traffic accidents, volume 2 : special analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    This final report is comprised of two volumes. Volume I provides causal result tabulations and related analyses. Volume II presents several special analysis reports dealing with driver vision knowledge, psychological make-up, etc. Human, environmenta...

  18. Genetic variation in white matter hyperintensity volume in the Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Larry D; Wolf, Philip A; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Massaro, Joseph M; Beiser, Alexa; D'Agostino, Ralph B; DeCarli, Charles

    2004-07-01

    In a previous study of normal elderly male twins, the heritability of quantitative white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume has been estimated to be high (0.73). We investigated heritability of WMH in a family-based sample of the Framingham Heart Study for sex differences and the impact of age. Brain magnetic resonance scans were performed on 2012 individuals in the cohort and offspring of the Framingham study. This report was limited to 1330 stroke-free and dementia-free members (mean age 61.0 years) of the Framingham offspring. Individuals with a history of multiple sclerosis, stroke, dementia, or other neurological condition including traumatic brain injury were excluded from this analysis. WMH volume and total cranial volume (TCV) were quantified using a previously published algorithm. Because of extreme skewing, measures of WMH were log-transformed before analysis. Variance components methods were used to estimate heritability of WMH after adjusting for sex, age, age2, and TCV. In the full dataset, WMH heritability was 0.55 (Pmen was 0.52 (Polder. Using a family-based study design comprising generally healthy individuals, this study found high heritability of WMH overall and similar heritability for both men and women. In addition, the heritability of WMH remained high among individuals in whom the prevalence of cerebrovascular brain injury was generally low, suggesting that WMH is also likely to be an excellent genetic marker of brain aging.

  19. Radiologic Predictors for Clinical Stage IA Lung Adenocarcinoma with Ground Glass Components: A Multi-Center Study of Long-Term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Ye, Bo; Bao, Minwei; Xu, Binbin; Chen, Qinyi; Liu, Sida; Han, Yudong; Peng, Mingzhen; Lin, Zhifeng; Li, Jingpei; Zhu, Wenzhuo; Lin, Qiang; Xiong, Liwen

    2015-01-01

    This study was to define preoperative predictors from radiologic findings for the pathologic risk groups based on long-term surgical outcomes, in the aim to help guide individualized patient management. We retrospectively reviewed 321 consecutive patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass component on computed tomography (CT) scanning. Pathologic diagnosis for resection specimens was based on the 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of lung adenocarcinoma. Patients were classified into different pathologic risk grading groups based on their lymph node status, local regional recurrence and overall survival. Radiologic characteristics of the pulmonary nodules were re-evaluated by reconstructed three-dimension CT (3D-CT). Univariate and multivariate analysis identifies independent radiologic predictors from tumor diameter, total volume (TV), average CT value (AVG), and solid-to-tumor (S/T) ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) studies were carried out to determine the cutoff value(s) for the predictor(s). Univariate cox regression model was used to determine the clinical significance of the above findings. A total of 321 patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass components were included in our study. Patients were classified into two pathologic low- and high- risk groups based on their distinguished surgical outcomes. A total of 134 patients fell into the low-risk group. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified AVG (HR: 32.210, 95% CI: 3.020-79.689, Plung adenocarcinoma. Statistical significance of 5-year OS and RFS was noted among clinical low-, moderate- and high-risk groups (log-rank, p = 0.024 and 0.010). The AVG and the S/T ratio by reconstructed 3D-CT are important preoperative radiologic predictors for pathologic risk grading. The two cutoff values of AVG and S/T ratio are recommended in decision-making for patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma with ground glass components.

  20. Residual tumour volumes and grey zones after external beam radiotherapy (with or without chemotherapy) in cervical cancer patients. A low-field MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, M.P.; Mansmann, B.; Federico, M.; Georg, P.; Fidarova, E. [General Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Dimopoulous, J.C.A. [Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Doerr, W. [General Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology; Poetter, R. [General Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-03-15

    Background: Grey zones, which are defined as tissue with intermediate signal intensity in the area of primary hyperintense tumour extension, can be seen during radiation with or without chemotherapy on the T2-weighted MRI in patients with cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to systematically measure the tumour volume at the time of diagnosis and the residual tumour volume at the time of brachytherapy without and with consideration of the grey zones and to estimate tumour regression during external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Material and methods: T2-weighted MRI datasets of 175 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB-IVA), who underwent combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy were available for this study. The gross tumour volume at the time of diagnosis (GTV{sub init}) and at the time of first brachytherapy without (GTV{sub res}) and with (GTV{sub res} + GZ) consideration of grey zones were measured for each patient. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed and tumour regression rates without (R) and with consideration of grey zones (R{sub GZ}) were calculated. Further, the role of prognostic factors on GTV{sub init}, GTV{sub res}, GTV{sub res} + GZ and tumour regression rates was investigated. Results: The median GTV{sub init}, GTV{sub res}, GTV{sub res} + GZ in all patients were 44.4 cm{sup 3}, 8.2 cm{sup 3}, 20.3 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The median R was 78.5% and the median R{sub GZ} was 50.1%. The histology and FIGO staging showed a significant impact on GTV{sub init}, GTV{sub res} and GTV{sub res} + GZ. Conclusion: Grey zones represent a substantial proportion of the residual tumour volume at the time of brachytherapy. Differentiation of high signal intensity mass and surrounding intermediate signal intensity grey zones may be reasonable. (orig.)

  1. Prospective study on stereotactic radiotherapy of limited-stage non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Morten; Roed, Henrik; Hansen, Anders Traberg

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effect of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in       the treatment of medically inoperable patients with limited-stage       non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Phase II trial. Methods and       Materials: Forty patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with SBRT......%. At 2       years, 54% were without local or distant progression, and overall survival       was 47%. Within 6 months after treatment, one or more Grade >/=2 reactions       were observed in 48% of the patients. Conclusions: Stereotactic body       radiotherapy in patients with limited-stage NSCLC...

  2. Tantalum acetabular augments in one-stage exchange of infected total hip arthroplasty: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Till Orla; Kendoff, Daniel; Sabihi, Reza; Kamath, Atul F; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    During the one-stage exchange procedure for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA), acetabular defects challenge reconstructive options. Porous tantalum augments are an established tool for addressing acetabular destruction in aseptic cases, but their utility in septic exchange is unknown. This retrospective case-control study presents the initial results of tantalum augmentation during one-stage exchange for PJI. Primary endpoints were rates of re-infection and short-term complications associated with this technique. Study patients had no higher risk of re-infection with equivalent durability at early follow-up with a re-infection rate in both groups of 4%. In conclusion, tantalum augments are a viable option for addressing acetabular defects in one-stage exchange for septic THA. Further study is necessary to assess long-term durability when compared to traditional techniques for acetabular reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies. Exercise 5: an international multicenter reliability study using computerized MRI erosion volume measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, P; Ejbjerg, B; McQueen, F

    2003-01-01

    Scoring erosions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one method of estimating damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but it has limitations. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and inter-reader reliability of computer assisted erosion volume estimation...

  4. Initial stages of CO2 adsorption on CaO: a combined experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Brian H; Cui, Yi; Weng, Xuefei; Seifert, Jan; Schauermann, Swetlana; Sauer, Joachim; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2017-02-08

    Room temperature adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) on monocrystalline CaO(001) thin films grown on a Mo(001) substrate was studied by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and quantum chemical calculations. For comparison, CO2 adsorption was examined on poorly ordered, nanoparticulate CaO films prepared on Ru(0001). For both systems, CO2 readily adsorbs on the clean CaO surface. However, additional bands were observable on the CaO/Ru(0001) films compared with CaO/Mo(001), because the stricter IRAS surface selection rules do not apply to adsorption on the disordered thin films grown on Ru(0001). Spectral evolution with increasing exposure of the IRA bands suggested the presence of several adsorption sites which are consecutively populated by CO2. Density functional calculations showed that CO2 adsorption occurs as monodentate surface carbonate (CO3(2-)) species at monatomic step sites and other low-coordinated sites, followed by formation of carbonates on terraces, which dominate at increasing CO2 exposure. To explain the coverage-dependent IRAS results, we propose CO2 surface islanding from the onset, most likely in the form of pairs and other chain-like species, which were calculated as thermodynamically favorable. The calculated adsorption energy for isolated CO2 on the terrace sites (184 ± 10 kJ mol(-1)) is larger than the adsorption energy obtained by temperature programmed desorption (∼120-140 kJ mol(-1)) and heat of adsorption taken from microcalorimetry measurements at low coverage (∼125 kJ mol(-1)). However, the calculated adsorption energies become less favorable when carbonate chains intersect on CaO terraces, forming kinks. Furthermore, our assignments of the initial stages of CO2 adsorption are consistent with the observed coverage effect on the CO2 adsorption energy measured by microcalorimetry and the IRAS results.

  5. Fifteen years of using a second stage protein substitute for weaning in phenylketonuria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S; Daly, A; MacDonald, J; Pinto, A; MacDonald, A

    2017-09-21

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), during weaning, it is necessary to introduce a second stage phenylalanine (Phe)-free protein substitute (PS) to help meet non-Phe protein requirements. Semi-solid weaning Phe-free PS have been available for >15 years, although no long-term studies have reported their efficacy. Retrospective data from 31 children with PKU who commenced a weaning PS were collected from clinical records from age of weaning to 2 years, on: gender; birth order; weaning age; anthropometry; blood Phe levels; age commenced and dosage of weaning PS and Phe-free infant L-amino acid formula; natural protein intake; and issues with administration of PS or food. Median commencement age for weaning was 17 weeks (range 12-25 weeks) and, for weaning PS, 20 weeks (range 13-37 weeks). Median natural protein was 4 g day(-1) (range 3-11 g day(-1) ) and total protein intake was >2 g kg(-1) day(-1) from weaning to 2 years of age. Children started on 2-4 g day(-1) protein equivalent (5-10 g day(-1) of powder) from weaning PS, increasing by 0.2 g kg(-1) day(-1) (2 g day(-1) ) monthly to 12 months of age. Teething and illness adversely affected the administration of weaning PS and the acceptance of solid foods. Altogether, 32% of children had delayed introduction of more textured foods, associated with birth order (firstborn 80% versus 38%; P = 0.05) and food refusal when teething (80% versus 29%; P = 0.02). Timing of introduction of solid foods and weaning PS, progression onto more textured foods and consistent feeding routines were important in aiding their acceptance. Any negative behaviour with weaning PS was mainly associated with food refusal, teething and illness. Parental approach influenced the acceptance of weaning PS. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Disorganization at the stage of schizophrenia clinical outcome: Clinical-biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestsiarovich, A; Obyedkov, V; Kandratsenka, H; Siniauskaya, M; Goloenko, I; Waszkiewicz, N

    2017-05-01

    According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality. Neuropsychological tests included Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Color-Word test. Neurophysiological examination included registration of P300 wave of the evoked cognitive auditory potentials. Environmental factors related to patient's education, family, surrounding and nicotine use, as well as subjectively significant traumatic events in childhood and adolescence were assessed. Using PCR we detected SNP of genes related to the systems of neurotransmission (COMT, SLC6A4 and DRD2), inflammatory response (IL6, TNF), cellular detoxification (GSTM1, GSTT1), DNA methylation (MTHFR, DNMT3b, DNMT1). Disorganization is associated with early schizophrenia onset and history of psychosis in family, low level of insight and compliance, high risk of committing delicts, distraction errors in WCST, lengthened P300 latency of evoked cognitive auditory potentials, low-functional alleles of genes MTHFR (rs1801133) and DNMT3b (rs2424913), high level of urbanicity and psychotraumatic events at early age. Severe disorganization at the stage of schizophrenia clinical outcome is associated with the set of specific biological and social-psychological characteristics that indicate its epigenetic nature and maladaptive social significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Focused abdominal ultrasound in preoperative liver surgery staging: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marcela P; Herman, Paulo; Chojniak, Rubens; Poli, Miriam R B; Barbosa, Paula N V; Bitencourt, Almir G V

    2013-06-14

    Because of its safety, relative low cost and widespread availability, conventional ultrasound (US) is the modality of choice for initial evaluation of the liver. Following US, in patients eligible for surgery, further computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging is usually recommended for surgical planning. There are no recent published series focusing on conventional abdominal US exclusively employed for the evaluation of liver nodules before surgery. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of focused conventional preoperative US in detecting liver lesions, and the impact of US findings on surgical management. Sixty-seven noncirrhotic patients underwent surgical resection, after being previously submitted to focused liver US evaluation. US results were compared with intraoperative US (IOUS) and histology (gold standard). The IOUS was performed by the same radiologist who performed the preoperative US. Patient-by-patient and lesion-by-lesion analyses were performed. A total of 241 lesions were depicted in 67 patients. The mean number of lesions detected per patient by US and IOUS was 2.37 and 3.37, respectively (P = 0.001). In 52.2% of patients, US and IOUS depicted the same number of liver lesions. Surgery with curative intent was conducted in 61 (91.0%) patients. Histological evaluation was obtained in 196 lesions; 155 were considered malignant. The overall lesions detection rate by US was 65.6%. For lesions focused on liver evaluation, with the aim of lowering costs but not efficiency, places the method in focus again for use in the routine preoperative staging of candidates for liver resection. We suggest for preoperative evaluation that US could be associated with one section imaging method (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) as routine.

  8. Multi-stage filament eruption and the decay index distribution, A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin

    2015-04-01

    The general consensus of solar eruptions is the release of magnetic free energy. However, it is still a big challenge to our understanding of the initiation of such events. From the observing perspective, the erupting material, basically filaments or magnetic flux ropes, usually keep either their original shape or become more twisted. The former case can be explained by torus instability and the latter represents the scenario of eruptions caused by kink instability. The model of torus instability requires a fast decay of the overlaying magnetic field, quantitatively defined as the vertical magnetic gradient in the log space. A specific range (1.1 to 2.0) of the decay index has been identified by previous studies and can be used to distinguish eruptive and confined eruptions. On the other hand, two phases of filament eruptions, i.e., a slow rising motion followed by a fast escape, were frequently observed. We present such a filament eruption occurred on 2007 May 19, in which the deprojected heights of the filament are measured by the stereoscopic reconstruction with STEREO observations. During the slow rising phase, the filament remained below 40 Mm. The decay indices are calculated using the extrapolated SOHO/MDI magnetograms. We found that the decay indices increase as a function of height and reaches the special range (1.1 to 2.0) around 30 to 50 Mm. This result reveals a picture of the two-stage filament eruption, in which a small perturbation breaks the equilibrium and leads the filament to lift up slowly. Once the filament reaches the critical height, the overlying field drops significantly leading to an acceleration of the filament eruption.

  9. Study of special performance and volume training loadings at swimmers in the year preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamutova N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the dynamics of the special performance and volume of training load during annual training swimmers. Material / Methods : The study involved 14 teams of students of Kharkiv universities. All swimmers are of high qualification. Motor tests of special performance swimmers, functional tests were used to confirm the effectiveness of the training process. Results : The dynamics of special performance indicators and volume of training load of highly qualified swimmers in the annual cycle of training. Determined part of aerobic (58.3 %, aerobic- anaerobic special (34.5%, anaerobic- glycolytic (5.5%, anaerobic- alactate (1.7% loadings in the direction of total training load for the academic year. Conclusions : In preparing swimmers stayer is the most appropriate single-cycle construction of the annual cycle, and for swimmers, sprinters should be based on two-cycle version of the load distribution.

  10. Liver cancer survival in the United States by race and stage (2001-2009): Findings from the CONCORD-2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh R; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Carreira, Helena; Li, Chunyu; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Worldwide, liver cancer is a leading cause of death for both men and women. The number of Americans who are diagnosed with and die of liver cancer has been rising slowly each year. Using data from the CONCORD-2 study, this study examined population-based survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Data from 37 statewide registries, which covered 81% of the US population, for patients diagnosed during 2001-2009 were analyzed. Survival up to 5 years was adjusted for background mortality (net survival) with state- and race-specific life tables, and it was age-standardized with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Liver cancer was diagnosed overall more often at the localized stage, with blacks being more often diagnosed at distant and regional stages than whites. 5-year net survival was 12.2% in 2001-2003 and 14.8% in 2004-2009. Whites had higher survival than blacks in both calendar periods (11.7% vs 9.1% and 14.3% vs 11.4%, respectively). During 2004-2009, 5-year survival was 25.7% for localized-stage disease, 9.5% for regional-stage disease, and 3.5% for distant-stage disease. Some progress has occurred in survival for patients with liver cancer, but 5-year survival remains low, even for those diagnosed at the localized stage. Efforts directed at controlling well-established risk factors such as hepatitis B may have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of liver cancer in the United States. Cancer 2017;123:5059-78. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. The prognostic importance of miR-21 in stage II colon cancer: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, S.; Hansen, T. F.; Nielsen, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite several years of research and attempts to develop prognostic models a considerable fraction of stage II colon cancer patients will experience relapse within few years from their operation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic importance of miRNA-21 (mi......R-21), quantified by in situ hybridisation, in a unique, large population-based cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 764 patients diagnosed with stage II colon cancer in Denmark in the year 2003. One section from a representative paraffin-embedded tumour tissue specimen from each patient...

  12. Preface to the 8th Volume of The Interdisciplinary Journal of International Studies (IJIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2012-01-01

    This 8th volume of The Interdisciplinary Journal of International Studies (IJIS) is a product of the continuing revitalization process that the journal has undertaken since 2010. Very significant recent developments in this process are the IJIS’ successful listing in the Directory of Open Access ...... by the commitments and generosity of many people—current students, alumni, and faculty members—to whom we express our sincerest gratitude and appreciation....

  13. From Insurgency to Stability. Volume 2: Insights from Selected Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Paul Oquist, Conflict and Politics in Colombia, New York: Academic Press, 1980; Rafael Pardo, La Historia de Las Guerras, Bogotá, 2004. 2 Known as...Verdadera Historia , Bogotá: Planeta, 2009. 58 From Insurgency to Stability, Volume II: Insights from Selected Case Studies been, or are being...1980. Pardo, Rafael, La Historia de Las Guerras, Bogotá, 2004. “Pastrana Desconoce Cómo Marchar Hacia Adelante,” El Tiempo, Bogotá, March 1, 1999. As

  14. Comparative studies on right ventricular pressure and volume overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, K.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kijima, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ono, K. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 44 patients with various heart diseases including mitral stenosis, atrial septal defect, primary pulmonary hypertension, and left atrial myxoma. The morphological findings of right ventricular (RV) free wall on the scintigram and RV/IVS (interventricular septum) uptake ratio of the images obtained from the left anterior oblique projection were studied in the patients with RV pressure or volume overloading.

  15. Application of a photogrammetric kinematic model for prediction of lung volumes in adolescents: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ripka, Wagner L; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro M

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. Methods We evaluated 50 subjects of both genders, aged between 14 and 17 years old, excluding those with respiratory obs...

  16. Experimental studies on pathogenesis of the brain radiation injury in early stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Tian [Suzhou Medical Coll., Jiangsu (China). 2nd Affiliated Hospital; Shiyao Bao; Weibo Yin; Chunfeng Liu; Zhilin Zhang

    2000-05-01

    changes are significantly only in the groups of irradiation within 1 month. The necrosis was observed in some of the 30 Gy 3 months observation period group rats. In all the other rats, the histological changes include: the blood vessel dilation, wall thickening and telangiectasia, associated with perivascular oedema; the neuroglial enlargement, the gliosis take shape of glial nodule; the shrunken neurons with irregular shape were identified also. All the changes of neuronal, glial, and vascular components within the brain are interdependent and dose related. The rat halfbrain irradiation appears to be an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of early stage brain radiation injury, and all these data suggest a possible association with the radiation induced brain toxicity. (author)

  17. Installation Restoration Program Stage 3. Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Volume 2. Section 5 - Bibliography Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    of performance, reliability, implementability, and safety. The performance of each alternative was based on the alternative’s excpected azcfecti.venes...weight per day CDI x10-X m 2L 1 = 2.86 x 10 mg/kg/day L I000 ug x day x 70 kg EDR = Exposure Duration Ration EDR - 5 Years 70 Years then R - 2.86 x 10-4

  18. Installation Restoration Program Stage 3. Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Volume 1. Sections 1-4, Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Black & Veatch 4-24 13833.130 // Begonia -N- Abandoned Dump 0-I Approximate Limits of Site Legend: 0 200 400ft Scale D3-0330 Monitoring Well Location...survey, visual observations were made in the field at all subsurface investigative sites. Black & Veatch 4-25 13833.130 // Begonia Street -N Abandoned...site. The metals detected included aluminum (9410 to 17700 mg/kg), iron (16700 to 33600 Black & Veatch 4-27 13833.130 / / Begonia Street Abandoned

  19. Histological study of the early stage of {sup 32}P-induced experimental osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahagi, Hiroshi; Osaka, Shunzo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-04-01

    {sup 32}P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of {sup 32}P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

  20. Socioeconomic position and stage at diagnosis of head and neck cancer - a nationwide study from DAHANCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maja Halgren; Bøje, Charlotte Rotbøl; Kjær, Trille Kristina

    2015-01-01

    of advanced stage (TNM III-IV) HNSCC in multivariate logistic regression models by site (glottic, non-glottic larynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx and oral cancer), with adjustment for age, gender, period of diagnosis, education, income, cohabitation status, degree of urbanisation and comorbidity in accordance...

  1. Phase II study of ipilimumab in adolescents with unresectable stage III or IV malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geoerger, Birgit; Bergeron, Christophe; Gore, Lia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab is approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma in adults; however, little information on the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in younger patients is available. METHODS: Patients aged 12 to <18 years with previously treated or untreated, unresectable stage III or IV mal...

  2. STUDY ON THE KINETICS OF BIOMASS BLENDS DEWATERING AS A STAGE OF THERMAL DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav ZASIADKO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid biomass co-combustion with coal in industrial furnaces, including those of power plants, looks promising in terms of fuel base diversification and also presents a way to reduce significantly the emission of air harmful pollutants, particularly carbon dioxide. CO2resultingfrom biomass burning is environmentally neutral, since the same amount of carbon dioxide will be consumed at the next cycle of biomass photosynthesis. In case of the Ukrainian low reactive anthracite schtib used in such technology, the radical differences in the kinetic characteristics of co-fired fuels become critical issues. A significant difference in the attainable degree of fuel milling fineness due to the prohibitively high expense for solid biomass milling makes the problem more complicated. The values of biomass particle fineness are approximately 5…15 mm; whereas the fineness of pulverized coal reaches as low as 30...50mkm. The moisture and volatiles content for the fuel mentioned also differ noticeably. Therefore, the stages of these fuels burn out will be extremely complex in terms of various time scales of subsequent stages and their positioning in the furnace. The case becomes even more aggravated insofar the kinetic characteristic of the stages of biomass combustion arenot known yet in details. The present work is dedicated to the research into the kinetics of biomass blends demoisturizationand aimed at the deriving of the Arrhenius type equations, allowing to develop submodels of the demoisturization as an individual stage of biomass burn out for 3-D models.

  3. Inappropriateness of using opioids for end-stage palliative sedation: a Dutch study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuzel, R.P.B.; Hasselaar, J.G.J.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Crul, B.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to distinguish end-stage palliative sedation from euthanasia without having to refer to intentions that are difficult to verify, physicians must be able to manage palliative sedation appropriately (i.e., see that death is not hastened as a result of disproportionate medication). In the

  4. Salty taste thresholds and preference in patients with chronic kidney disease according to disease stage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hee; Kim, Young Hoon; Bae, Na Yeong; Kang, Shin Sook; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Soon Bae

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the differences in salty taste thresholds among normal controls and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients according to disease stage and to evaluate the relationship between salty taste thresholds or preferences and mean spot urine sodium concentrations. This cross-sectional study enrolled 436 patients with non-dialysis CKD and 74 normal controls. We evaluated detection and recognition thresholds, salty taste preferences and salt usage behaviours (through a questionnaire) in CKD patients and normal controls. We averaged the three most recent spot urine sodium concentrations and used this 'mean spot urine sodium' value to estimate sodium intake in CKD patients. Detection thresholds of stages 3 and 5 and recognition thresholds of stage 3 CKD patients were higher than those of normal controls. Salty taste preferences of stage 5 and salt usage behaviour scores of stages 4 and 5 CKD patients were lower than those of normal controls. Univariate analysis showed that estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), salt usage behaviour score, salty taste preference, smoking, gender and zinc level were significantly associated with mean spot urine sodium in CKD patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that the eGFR and salty taste preference were independently correlated with mean spot urine sodium. Education to change salty taste preferences and regular follow up are necessary to decrease salt intake in CKD patients. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  5. A Two-Stage Penalized Logistic Regression Approach to Case-Control Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-stage penalized logistic regression approach to case-control genome-wide association studies. This approach consists of a screening stage and a selection stage. In the screening stage, main-effect and interaction-effect features are screened by using L1-penalized logistic like-lihoods. In the selection stage, the retained features are ranked by the logistic likelihood with the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD penalty (Fan and Li, 2001 and Jeffrey’s Prior penalty (Firth, 1993, a sequence of nested candidate models are formed, and the models are assessed by a family of extended Bayesian information criteria (J. Chen and Z. Chen, 2008. The proposed approach is applied to the analysis of the prostate cancer data of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS project in the National Cancer Institute, USA. Simulation studies are carried out to compare the approach with the pair-wise multiple testing approach (Marchini et al. 2005 and the LASSO-patternsearch algorithm (Shi et al. 2007.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Single-Stage versus 2-Stage Spinal Fusion via Posterior Instrumentation and Anterior Thoracoscopy: A Retrospective Matched-Pair Cohort Study with 247 Consecutive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezens, Lennart; Reer, Phillip; Strahl, Andre; Weiser, Lukas; Schroeder, Malte; Beyerlein, Joerg; Schaefer, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Posterior-anterior spondylodesis is often used to stabilize the spine in various pathologies. The anterior procedure is often performed via thoracoscopy. It is unclear whether the anterior procedure should be performed immediately after posterior instrumentation or after the patient has convalesced. This retrospective study compared perioperative safety and morbidity in 1-stage versus 2-stage posterior-anterior fusion surgery with a thoracoscopic anterior approach. All consecutive patients who underwent surgery for posterior-anterior spinal stabilization from 2006 to 2013 were included. American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative and postoperative laboratory values, operation duration, blood loss, intensive care unit stay, pain, postoperative hospital stay, perioperative complications, and preoperative and postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and Frankel scores were assessed. A subset of the cohort was selected by propensity score matching to eliminate possible selection bias. There were 247 patients who underwent 1-stage (n = 104) or 2-stage (n = 143) stabilization with thoracoscopic fusion. Spinal pathologies were fracture, malignancy, pyogenic spondylodiscitis, degenerative spinal disorders, and failed previous surgery. One-stage and 2-stage procedures were similar in terms of preoperative, surgical, and postoperative variables, including complication rates, except that the 1-stage procedure was associated with greater pain 2 days after surgery and shorter hospital stay. The propensity score-matched cohort of 64 pairs yielded similar results with only 1-stage patients showing elevated visual analog scale score on postoperative day 2 (3.8 vs. 2.4, P = 0.043). One-stage stabilization was as safe as 2-stage stabilization and associated with shorter hospitalization. Greater pain after the 1-stage procedure, which resolved 30 days after surgery, reflects the fact that 2-stage patients already had pain relief when they underwent

  7. Redução de volume pulmonar broncoscópico no enfisema em estádio terminal: Resultados dos primeiros 98 doentes Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction for end-stage emphysema: Report on the first 98 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo revela os resultados preliminares da redução de volume pulmonar efectuada em doentes com enfisema pulmonar em estádio terminal, através da colocação broncoscópica de uma válvula endobrônquica (VEB. A VEB utilizada neste estudo é de silicone e unidireccional, com 3 dimensões diferentes (dependendo da anatomia brônquica, produzindo uma atelectasia seleccionada ao impedir a entrada de ar no segmento tratado, mas permitindo a saída de secreções e de ar desse mesmo segmento isolado. O estudo foi levado a cabo em 9 centros de endoscopia respiratória, em 7 países a nível mundial. Todos os doentes tinham TAC torácica e cintigrafia de ventilação/perfusão para confirmação, avaliação da gravidade e distribuição do enfisema, bem como para exclusão de comorbilidades. Foram incluídos 98 doentes com enfisema em estádio terminal, em que a pletismografia basal em repouso após broncodilatação, revelava volume expiratório máximo no primeiro segundo (VEMS de 0,9 ± 0,3 L (30,1 ± 10,7% do previsto e volume residual (VR de 5,1 ± 1,3 L (244,3 ± 0,3% do previsto. opção de colocar as VEB num segmento pulmonar ou lobo completo, tratar um ou ambos os pulmões, dependeu de cada centro. Contudo, ao surgirem alguns casos de pneumotóraces em doentes com exclusão lobar completa, optaram por colocar as VEB apenas unilateralmente. Os doentes foram avaliados durante um período de 90 dias após implante da VEB, sendo efectuadas espirometria, pletismografia, capacidade de difusão de monóxido de carbono (DLCO e teste de tolerância ao esforço, aos 30 e 90 dias depois da colocação da VEB. Dos resultados obtidos, verificou-se um decréscimo do VR para 4,9 ± 17,4 % (p=0,025 e um acréscimo do VEMS para 10,7 ± 26,2 % (p=0,007, da capacidade vital forçada (CVF para 9,0 ± 23,9 % (p=0,024, e a distância percorrida em 6 minutos de marcha também aumentou para 23,0 ± 55,3 % (p=0,001. Demonstrou-se um ligeiro aumento da DLCO

  8. Comparative study of staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma in 428 patients treated with radioembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Kulik, Laura M; Lewandowski, Robert J; Wang, Edward; Wang, Jonathan; Ryu, Robert K; Hickey, Ryan; Vouche, Michael; Baker, Talia; Ganger, Daniel; Gates, Vanessa L; Habib, Ali; Mulcahy, Mary F; Salem, Riad

    2014-07-01

    To compare the utility of different staging systems and analyze independent predictors of survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization. During the period 2004-2011, 428 patients with HCC were treated with (90)Y radioembolization. All patients were staged prospectively by the following staging systems: Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), United Network for Organ Sharing, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC), Okuda classification, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP), Groupe d'Etude et de Traitement du Carcinome Hepatocellulaire, Chinese University Prognostic Index, and Japan Integrated Staging. The ability of the staging systems to predict survival was assessed. The staging systems were compared using Cox proportional hazards regression model, linear regression, Akaike information criterion (AIC), and concordance index (C-index). Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to assess independent predictors of survival. When tested independently, all staging systems exhibited significant ability to discriminate early (long survival) from advanced (worse survival) disease. CLIP provided the most accurate information in predicting survival outcomes (AIC = 2,993, C-index = 0.8503); CTP was least informative (AIC = 3,074, C-index = 0.6445). Independent predictors of survival included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status grade 0 (hazard ration [HR], 0.56; confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.93), noninfiltrative tumors (HR, 0.62; CI, 0.44-0.89), absence of portal venous thrombosis (HR, 0.60; CI, 0.40-0.89), absence of ascites (HR, 0.56; CI, 0.40-0.76), albumin ≥ 2.8 g/dL (HR, 0.72; CI, 0.55-0.94), alkaline phosphatase ≤ 200 U/L (HR, 0.68; CI, 0.50-0.92), and α-fetoprotein ≤ 200 ng/mL (HR, 0.67; CI, 0.51-0.86). CLIP was most accurate in predicting survival in patients with HCC. Given that not all patients receive the recommended BCLC treatment strategy, this information is relevant for

  9. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2016-01-01

    New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in urinary creatinine excretion. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. We examined 7,623 participants of the PREVEND and RENAAL studies for reclassified when using ACR instead of 24-hour UAE, the characteristics of reclassified participants, and their outcomes. Albuminuria was categorized into 3 ACR and UAE categories: 300mg/g or mg/24 h, respectively. Baseline ACR and 24-hour UAE. Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality. When using ACR in the early morning void instead of 24-hour UAE, 88% of participants were classified in corresponding albuminuria categories. 307 (4.0%) participants were reclassified to a higher, and 603 (7.9%), to a lower category. Participants who were reclassified to a higher ACR category in general had a worse CV risk profile compared with nonreclassified participants, whereas the reverse was true for participants reclassified to a lower ACR category. Similarly, Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that reclassification to a higher ACR category was associated with a tendency for increased risk for CV morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality, whereas reclassification to a lower ACR category was associated with a tendency for lower risk. Net reclassification improvement, adjusted for age, sex, and duration of follow-up, was 0.107 (P=0.002) for CV events and 0.089 (P<0.001) for all-cause mortality. Early morning void urine collection instead of spot urine collection. Our results indicate that there is high agreement between early morning void ACR and 24-hour UAE categories. Reclassification is therefore limited, but when present, is generally indicative of the presence of CV risk factors and prognosis. Copyright © 2016

  10. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  11. Relationships between sleep stages and changes in cognitive function in older men: the MrOS Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeonsu; Blackwell, Terri; Yaffe, Kristine; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Stone, Katie L

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the associations between sleep stage distributions and subsequent decline in cognitive function in older men over time. A population-based prospective substudy of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. Six sites in the United States. Community-dwelling men aged 67 y or older (n = 2,601), who were free of probable dementia at sleep visit. Follow-up averaged 3.4 y. Sleep stages were identified by in-home polysomnography at the initial sleep visit (2003-2005). Cognitive outcomes were assessed with the Trail Making Test Part B and Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) at sleep visit and two follow-up visits. After adjusting for multiple confounders compared with men in the lowest quartile of percent of sleep time spent in Stage N1, those in the highest quartile had a twofold increase in cognitive decline for both cognitive tests (adjusted annualized percent change/y: Trail Making Test Part B Q1 = 1.06, Q4 = 2.45, P = 0.01; 3MS Q1 = -0.27, Q4 = -0.48, P = 0.03). In addition, compared with men in the highest quartile, men in the lowest quartile of percent of sleep time in Stage R revealed more cognitive decline on the 3MS (adjusted annualized percent change/y: Q1 = -0.49, Q4 = -0.22, P = 0.003). These findings were consistent even after further adjustment of total sleep time and sleep disordered breathing. No significant relationships between other sleep stages (N2, N3) and cognitive change were found. Increased time in Stage N1 and less time in Stage R are associated with worsening cognitive performance in older men over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Association between hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and end-stage renal disease: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Kuan; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chang, Yi-Chih; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Lin, Shih-Yi; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chuang, Feng-Rong; Chen, Pei-Chun; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Wen, Chi-Pang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies into the association between hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and end-stage renal disease are limited. We investigated the risk of end-stage renal disease after delivery among women with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Methods: We used insurance claims data from 1998 to 2009 to identify 26 651 women aged 19–40 years old who experienced hypertensive disorders during pregnancy; these women had no history of hypertension, diabetes, kidney disease or lupus. We also randomly selected 213 397 women without hypertensive disorders during pregnancy as a comparison cohort; the frequency was matched by age and index year of pregnancy. We compared the incidence of end-stage renal disease in the 2 cohorts. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after controlling for demographic and clinical factors. Results: Women with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy had a greater risk of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, with adjusted HRs of 9.38 (95% CI 7.09–12.4) and 12.4 (95% CI 8.54–18.0), respectively, after controlling for urban status, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia and abruption. The HR for end-stage renal disease was 2.72 (95% CI 1.76–4.22) after we also controlled for hypertension and diabetes. Women with preeclampsia or eclampsia had a higher risk of end-stage renal disease (adjusted HR 14.0, 95% CI 9.43–20.7) than women who had gestational hypertension only (adjusted HR 9.03, 95% CI 5.20–15.7). Interpretation: Women with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy were at a high risk of end-stage renal disease. The risk was much greater for women who had preeclampsia or eclampsia than those who had gestational hypertension only. PMID:23339156

  13. [The correlation study of ground glass opacity and lepidic growth pattern component in stage I lung invasive adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Wu, N; Li, M; Sun, W; Lyu, L; Hou, D H; Lin, D M

    2017-04-23

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) component proportion and quantitative classification of lepidic growth pattern in pathological stage Ⅰpulmonary adenocarcinoma. Methods: Pathological and HRCT data of 183 stage Ⅰ invasive adenocarcinoma patients from January 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The proportion of GGO was calculated from diameter and volume.The correlation between GGO component proportion and lepidic growth pattern in pathological were analyzed by Spearman correlation. Results: Among 183 patients, the proportion of GGO component calculated by maximum diameter method and three-dimensional computerized quantification was 0.43±0.35 and 0.20±0.18, respectively. The percentage of lepidic growth pattern component using semi-quantitative analysis of pathological sections was 0.29±0.25.The proportion of GGO by diameter and three-dimensional computerized quantification was significantly correlated with the percentage of lepidic growth pattern component (r=0.599, Ppattern and the content of GGO in the small adenocarcinoma. Three-dimensional computerized quantification was a better method in preoperational evaluation.

  14. A stereological study of glomerular number and volume: preliminary findings in a multiracial study of kidneys at autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Hughson, Michael D; Cass, Alan; Johnson, Kelli; Bertram, John F

    2003-02-01

    This report describes preliminary results of a study of glomerular number and volume and their associations, in kidneys of people coming to autopsy. Both kidneys were weighed at autopsy and the right kidney was perfusion-fixed and sub-sampled for stereological estimation of total glomerular number, and of mean renal corpuscle volume, using the physical disector/fractionator combination. The 78 kidneys studied so far were from Australian Aborigines, Australian non-Aborigines, US blacks and US whites, ages newborn to 84 years. Glomerular number ranged almost ninefold (from 210,332 to 1,825,380), with mean (SD) of 784,909 (314,686); it decreased throughout adult life (r=-0.32, P=0.009). Mean renal corpuscle volume varied 5.6-fold in adults and was inversely correlated with glomerular number (r=-0.38, P=0.001). Total renal corpuscle volume varied in adults by a factor of 15.8. Kidney weight correlated with body surface area (BSA) at all ages (r=0.76, P obsolescence. Much, however, remains to be done, including evaluation of history, clinical features, accompanying pathology, detailed renal morphology, and further pursuit of potentially defining characteristics in high risk groups.

  15. Comparative study of pressure- and volume-controlled ventilation on pulse pressure variation in a model of hypovolaemia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E B; Otsuki, D A; Fantoni, D T; Bliacheriene, F; Auler, J O C

    2008-05-01

    Dynamic indices represented by systolic pressure variation and pulse pressure variation have been demonstrated to be more accurate than filling pressures in predicting fluid responsiveness. However, the literature is scarce concerning the impact of different ventilatory modes on these indices. We hypothesized that systolic pressure variation or pulse pressure variation could be affected differently by volume-controlled ventilation and pressure-controlled ventilation in an experimental model, during normovolaemia and hypovolaemia. Thirty-two anaesthetized rabbits were randomly allocated into four groups according to ventilatory modality and volaemic status where G1-ConPCV was the pressure-controlled ventilation control group, G2-HemPCV was associated with haemorrhage, G3-ConVCV was the volume-controlled ventilation control group and G4-HemVCV was associated with haemorrhage. In the haemorrhage groups, blood was removed in two stages: 15% of the estimated blood volume withdrawal at M1, and, 30 min later, an additional 15% at M2. Data were submitted to analysis of variance for repeated measures; a value of P ventilation modes. However, when 30% of the estimated blood volume was removed (M2), dynamic parameters became significantly higher in animals under volume-controlled ventilation when compared with those under pressure-controlled ventilation. Under normovolaemia and moderate haemorrhage, dynamic parameters were not influenced by either ventilatory modalities. However, in the second stage of haemorrhage (30%), animals in volume-controlled ventilation presented higher values of systolic pressure variation and pulse pressure variation when compared with those submitted to pressure-controlled ventilation.

  16. Effect of Climate Change on Service Life of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Subjected to Carbonation—A Korean Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Bong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in CO2 concentrations and global warming will increase the carbonation depth of concrete. Furthermore, temperature rise will increase the rate of corrosion of steel rebar after carbonation. On the other hand, compared with normal concrete, high volume fly ash (HVFA concrete is more vulnerable to carbonation-induced corrosion. Carbonation durability design with climate change is crucial to the rational use of HVFA concrete. This study presents a probabilistic approach that predicts the service life of HVFA concrete structures subjected to carbonation-induced corrosion resulting from increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, a hydration-carbonation integration model is used to evaluate the contents of the carbonatable material, porosity, and carbonation depth of HVFA concrete. The Monte Carlo method is adopted to determine the probability of corrosion initiation. Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, an updated model is proposed to evaluate the rate of corrosion, degree of corrosion for cover cracking of concrete, and probability of corrosion cracking. Third, the whole service life is determined considering both corrosion initiation stage and corrosion propagation stage. The analysis results show that climate change creates a significant impact on the service life of durable concrete.

  17. Simple platelet markers: Mean platelet volume and congestive heart failure coexistent with periodontal disease. Pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniuk, Maciej R; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Dudzik-Niewiadomska, Iwona; Pilecki, Tomasz; Górska, Renata; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2017-07-17

    Conducted pilot study concerning mean platelet volume parameter among patients suffering from congestive heart failure and periodontal disease. Examination of dynamic changes of platelet and periodontal markers in group of 50 patients before and an average of 6 months subsequent to professional periodontal treatment. Both platelet and periodontal parameters decreased after periodontal treatment, what is more, the decrease of mean platelet volume (MPV) value due to periodontal disease/mm improvement was shown to be statistically significant (p = 0.05). Improvement of periodontal status may influence decrease of MPV value andincrease of congestive heart failure treatment efficacy and effect patient comfort. It is a new, not frequently used pattern of chronic disease treatment optimalization.

  18. The Canada country study: Climate impacts and adaptation -- Vol. 7: National sectoral volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, G.; Avis, W. [eds.] [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The Canada Country Study is a comprehensive source of knowledge on how climate change could impact on communities across Canada. The Study consists of a series of eight volumes and constitutes the scientific and technical results of the assessment phase of the project. This volume (Vol. 7) contains 12 sectoral papers which provide a digest of the findings of the previous six regional volumes, but viewed from the vantage points of the various sectors of national life and the economy, i.e. (1) agriculture, (2) built environment, (3) energy, (4) fisheries, (5) forestry, (6) human health, (7) insurance, (8) recreation and tourism, (9) transportation, (10) unmanaged ecosystems, (11) water resources, and (12) wetlands. Each paper is accompanied by an extensive list of references, a list of tables, a list of figures, and a list of appendices. Readers are cautioned that confidence levels are higher in the hemispheric-to-continental projections of climate change than in the regional projections. Also, it should be borne in mind that the identified changes in climate are projected to occur over the next century, and that the average rate of warming used in the models underlying these projections may be greater than any seen in the last several millenia.

  19. Effects of yoga on arm volume among women with breast cancer related lymphedema: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mary Insana; Donahoe-Fillmore, Betsy; Leach, Laura; O'Malley, Colleen; Paeplow, Cheryl; Prescott, Tess; Merriman, Harold

    2014-10-01

    Lymphedema affects 3-58% of survivors of breast cancer and can result in upper extremity impairments. Exercise can be beneficial in managing lymphedema. Yoga practice has been minimally studied for its effects on breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of yoga on arm volume, quality of life (QOL), self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength in women with BCRL. Six women with BCRL participated in modified Hatha yoga 3×/week for 8 weeks. Compression sleeves were worn during yoga sessions. Arm volume, QOL, self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength were measured at baseline, half-way, and at the conclusion of yoga practice. Arm volume significantly decreased from baseline (2423.3 ml ± 597.2) to final measures (2370.8 ml ± 577.2) (p = .02). No significant changes in QOL (p = .12), self-reported arm function (p = .34), or hand grip strength (p = .26) were found. Yoga may be beneficial in the management of lymphedema. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A retrospective study of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical hysterectomy versus radical hysterectomy alone in patients with stage II cervical squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a bulky mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatori E

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eriko Takatori, Tadahiro Shoji, Anna Takada, Takayuki Nagasawa, Hideo Omi, Masahiro Kagabu, Tatsuya Honda, Fumiharu Miura, Satoshi Takeuchi, Toru Sugiyama Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Iwate, Japan Objective: In order to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC for stage II cervical squamous cell carcinoma with a bulky mass, we retrospectively compared patients receiving NAC followed by radical hysterectomy (RH; NAC group with patients who underwent RH without NAC (Ope group. Patients and methods: The study period was from June 2002 to March 2014. The subjects were 28 patients with a stage II bulky mass in the NAC group and 17 such patients in the Ope group. The chi-square test was used to compare operative time, volume of intraoperative blood loss, use of blood transfusion, and time from surgery to discharge between the two groups. Moreover, the log-rank test using the Kaplan–Meier method was performed to compare disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS between the groups. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in operative time, volume of intraoperative blood loss, or use of blood transfusion. However, the time from surgery to discharge was 18 days (14–25 days in the NAC group and 25 days (21–34 days in the Ope group; the patients in the NAC group were discharged earlier (P=0.032. The hazard ratio for DFS in the NAC group as compared with that in the Ope group was 0.36 (95% CI 0.08–0.91, and the 3-year DFS rates were 81.2% and 41.0%, respectively (P=0.028. Moreover, the hazard ratio for OS was 0.39 (95% CI 0.11–1.24, and the 3-year OS rates were 82.3% and 66.4%, respectively (P=0.101. Conclusion: NAC with cisplatin and irinotecan was confirmed to prolong DFS as compared with RH alone. The results of this study suggest that NAC might be a useful adjunct to surgery in the treatment of stage II squamous

  1. VOLUME STUDY WITH HIGH DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON CONTOUR AND CORRELATION IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  2. Stages of change, barriers, benefits, and preferences for exercise in RA patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchoz, Y; Zufferey, P; So, A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the distribution of exercise stages of change in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort, and to examine patients' perceptions of exercise benefits, barriers, and their preferences for exercise. One hundred and twenty RA patients who attended the Rheumatology Unit of a University Hospital were asked to participate in the study. Those who agreed were administered a questionnaire to determine their exercise stage of change, their perceived benefits and barriers to exercise, and their preferences for various features of exercise. Eighty-nine (74%) patients were finally included in the analyses. Their mean age was 58.4 years, mean RA duration 10.1 years, and mean disease activity score 2.8. The distribution of exercise stages of change was as follows: precontemplation (n = 30, 34%), contemplation (n = 11, 13%), preparation (n = 5, 6%), action (n = 2, 2%), and maintenance (n = 39, 45%). Compared to patients in the maintenance stage of change, precontemplators exhibited different demographic and functional characteristics and reported less exercise benefits and more barriers to exercise. Most participants preferred exercising alone (40%), at home (29%), at a moderate intensity (64%), with advice provided by a rheumatologist (34%) or a specialist in exercise and RA (34%). Walking was by far the preferred type of exercise, in both the summer (86%) and the winter (51%). Our cohort of patients with RA was essentially distributed across the precontemplation and maintenance exercise stages of change. These subgroups of patients exhibit psychological and functional differences that make their needs different in terms of exercise counselling.

  3. Relationships Between Sleep Stages and Changes in Cognitive Function in Older Men: The MrOS Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeonsu; Blackwell, Terri; Yaffe, Kristine; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Stone, Katie L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the associations between sleep stage distributions and subsequent decline in cognitive function in older men over time. Design: A population-based prospective substudy of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. Settings: Six sites in the United States. Participants: Community-dwelling men aged 67 y or older (n = 2,601), who were free of probable dementia at sleep visit. Follow-up averaged 3.4 y. Measurement and Results: Sleep stages were identified by in-home polysomnography at the initial sleep visit (2003–2005). Cognitive outcomes were assessed with the Trail Making Test Part B and Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) at sleep visit and two follow-up visits. After adjusting for multiple confounders compared with men in the lowest quartile of percent of sleep time spent in Stage N1, those in the highest quartile had a twofold increase in cognitive decline for both cognitive tests (adjusted annualized percent change/y: Trail Making Test Part B Q1 = 1.06, Q4 = 2.45, P = 0.01; 3MS Q1 = −0.27, Q4 = −0.48, P = 0.03). In addition, compared with men in the highest quartile, men in the lowest quartile of percent of sleep time in Stage R revealed more cognitive decline on the 3MS (adjusted annualized percent change/y: Q1 = −0.49, Q4 = −0.22, P = 0.003). These findings were consistent even after further adjustment of total sleep time and sleep disordered breathing. No significant relationships between other sleep stages (N2, N3) and cognitive change were found. Conclusion: Increased time in Stage N1 sleep and less time in Stage REM sleep are associated with worsening cognitive performance in older men over time. Citation: Song Y, Blackwell T, Yaffe K, Ancoli-Israel S, Redline S, Stone KL, Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Group. Relationships between sleep stages and changes in cognitive function in older men: the MrOS Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):411–421. PMID:25325465

  4. Optical contrast spectra studies for determining thickness of stage-1 graphene-FeCl{sub 3} intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Wen-Peng, E-mail: han-wenpeng@163.com, E-mail: yunze.long@163.com; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Hui [College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Li, Qiao-Qiao; Lu, Yan [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Long, Yun-Ze, E-mail: han-wenpeng@163.com, E-mail: yunze.long@163.com [College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Because of novel features in their structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties, especially potential applications in nanoelectronics, the few-layer graphene intercalation compounds (FLGICs) have been intensively studied recently. In this work, the dielectric constant of the doped graphene of stage-1 FeCl{sub 3}-GIC is obtained by fitting the optical contrast spectra. And fully intercalated stage-1 FeCl{sub 3}-FLGICs were prepared by micromechanical cleavage method from graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) for the first time. Finally, we demonstrated that the thickness of stage-1 FeCl{sub 3}-GICs by micromechanical cleavage can be determined by optical contrast spectra. This method also can be used to other FLGICs, such as SbCl{sub 5}-FLGICs and AuCl{sub 5}-FLGICs, etc.

  5. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at different stages of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; von der Maase, Hans; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2002-01-01

    ; group 1, 23 patients with recurrent stage Ta (non-invasive) tumors; group 2, 22 patients presenting at their first admission with T2-4 (muscle invasive) tumors; group 3, 24 patients who experienced disease progression from Ta or T1 (invasive in connective tissue) to a higher stage......PURPOSE: The cell cycle is known to be deregulated in cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of the cell cycle related proteins p21, p27, p16, Rb, and L-myc by immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumors.METHODS: The tissue material consisted of bladder tumors from three groups of patients....... By immunohistochemical staining the protein expression was compared to allelic deletions of the corresponding genes. The allelic deletions were detected by PCR-based microsatellite analyses.RESULTS: We detected a significant reduction in the expression levels of the cell cycle related proteins p21(waf1) ( P=0.002), p27...

  6. A new powerful non-parametric two-stage approach for testing multiple phenotypes in family-based association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; Lyon, H; DeMeo, D; Raby, B; Silverman, EK; Weiss, ST

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new powerful nonparametric testing strategy for family-based association studies in which multiple quantitative traits are recorded and the phenotype with the strongest genetic component is not known prior to the analysis. In the first stage, using a population-based test based on the

  7. Initial stages of Pt growth on Ge(001) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurlu, O.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene; Dag, Sefa; Ciraci, S.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the initial stages of submonolayer Pt growth on the Ge(001). We have observed several stable and meta-stable adsorption configurations of Pt atoms at various temperatures. Calculations indicate relatively high binding energies of Pt atoms onto the Ge lattice, at different adsorption

  8. The prognostic importance of miR-21 in stage II colon cancer: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, S.; Hansen, T. F.; Nielsen, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite several years of research and attempts to develop prognostic models a considerable fraction of stage II colon cancer patients will experience relapse within few years from their operation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic importance of miRNA-21 (mi...

  9. Early-stage sustainability assessment to assist with material selection : a case study for biobased printer panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M. L M; Molenveld, K.; van den Oever, M. J A; Patel, M. K.; Worrell, E.; Shen, L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to incorporate sustainability assessment into the material selection processes during early-stage product (re)design, when time and data availability for such assessments are usually limited. A material selection framework is presented and illustrated step-by-step with a case study

  10. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna R S Hulland

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60 and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes based on stress (high to low and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions. Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  11. Study on the Control Algorithm of Two-Stage DC-DC Converter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhao Piao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast response, high efficiency, and good reliability are very important characteristics to electric vehicles (EVs dc/dc converters. Two-stage dc-dc converter is a kind of dc-dc topologies that can offer those characteristics to EVs. Presently, nonlinear control is an active area of research in the field of the control algorithm of dc-dc converters. However, very few papers research on two-stage converter for EVs. In this paper, a fixed switching frequency sliding mode (FSFSM controller and double-integral sliding mode (DISM controller for two-stage dc-dc converter are proposed. And a conventional linear control (lag is chosen as the comparison. The performances of the proposed FSFSM controller are compared with those obtained by the lag controller. In consequence, the satisfactory simulation and experiment results show that the FSFSM controller is capable of offering good large-signal operations with fast dynamical responses to the converter. At last, some other simulation results are presented to prove that the DISM controller is a promising method for the converter to eliminate the steady-state error.

  12. Experimental and numerical studies of a lean-burn internally-staged combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhenbo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A lean-burn internally-staged combustor for low emissions that can be used in civil aviation gas turbines is introduced in this paper. The main stage is designed and optimized in terms of fuel evaporation ratio, fuel/air pre-mixture uniformity, and particle residence time using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD software. A single-module rectangular combustor is adopted in performance tests including lean ignition, lean blowout, combustion efficiency, emissions, and combustion oscillation using aviation kerosene. Furthermore, nitrogen oxides (NOx emission is also predicted using CFD simulation to compare with test results. Under normal inlet temperature, this combustor can be ignited easily with normal and negative inlet pressures. The lean blowout fuel/air ratio (LBO FAR at the idle condition is 0.0049. The fuel split proportions between the pilot and main stages are determined through balancing emissions, combustion efficiency, and combustion oscillation. Within the landing and take-off (LTO cycle, this combustor enables 42% NOx reduction of the standard set by the 6th Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP/6 with high combustion efficiency. The maximum board-band pressure oscillations of inlet air and fuel are below 1% of total pressure during steady-state operations at the LTO cycle specific conditions.

  13. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  14. Should ovaries be removed or not in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma: a multicenter retrospective study of 105 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Jiao, Xiaobing; Yang, Zhifeng; Cui, Heng; Guo, Hongyan; Wu, Yumei; Zhu, Lirong

    2017-11-01

    The study population consisted of 105 patients with stage IA to IIB cervical adenocarcinoma (AC) who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy from three institutions between 1994 and 2015, including 86 patients with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and 19 patients with ovarian preservation operation. Ovarian metastasis were diagnosed in 3 of 86 patients in BSO group with an incidence rate of 3.5% (3/86). Among the 19 patients with ovarian preservation, none developed an ovarian recurrence in the follow-up (2-71 months). The 5-year overall survival rate of the BSO group and ovarian preservation group were 88.6% and 100%, respectively, with no significant difference (p = .266 > .05). FIGO stage was an independent risk factor of ovarian metastasis for cervical AC (p = .000 early-stage cervical AC may be safe and not associated with an increased risk of overall mortality. Impact statement There has been long-running considerable controversy regarding ovarian preservation in women with cervical AC. The incidence of ovarian metastasis in AC varies significantly from 0% to 12.9%. There were few studies regarding the prognosis and risk factors of cervical AC patients with ovarian preservation. No preoperative selection criteria of ovarian preservation in cervical AC have been officially recommended. In our study of 105 patients with stage IA to IIB cervical AC, the overall ovarian metastasis rate was 3.5% (3/86), and the incidence was 1.5% (1/66) with stage IA to IB. The 5-year overall survival rate of 19 cervical adenocarcinoma patients with ovarian preservation was 100%, and no ovarian recurrence was observed during the follow-up. Our univariate analysis with clinicopathologic variables revealed that only FIGO stage was the risk factor associated with ovarian metastasis of cervical AC. Our data implied that ovarian preservation in young women with early-stage cervical AC might be safe and not associated with an increased risk of

  15. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects : A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Faber, H; Cotteleer, F; Vissink, A; Coppes, RP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To elucidate with a histopathological study the mechanism of region-dependent volume effects in the partly irradiated parotid gland of the rat. Methods and Materials: Wistar rats were locally X-irradiated with collimators with conformal radiation portals for 100% volume and 50%

  16. Regenerating the Philosophy of Education: What Happened to Soul? Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Volume 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Hewitt, Randall, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, Joe L. Kincheloe and Randall Hewitt have gathered an impressive and scholarly group of authors who argue for the continuing importance of the philosophy of education. Reviving the notion that philosophy is an essential foundation in the study and research of education, contributors to this volume directly confront the evisceration…

  17. A Simple Mercury-Free Laboratory Apparatus to Study the Relationship between Pressure, Volume, and Temperature in a Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Donna; Sweeney, William V.; Mills, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive mercury-free apparatus to measure the change in volume of a gas as a function of pressure at different temperatures is described. The apparatus is simpler than many found in the literature and can be used to study variations in pressure, volume, and temperature. (Contains 1 table and 7 figures.)

  18. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 1, Introduction and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L. [ed.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies or exercise. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. This volume, Volume 1, contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  19. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 2: Papers and presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database.

  20. The best prostate biopsy scheme is dictated by the gland volume: a monocentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Atti, L

    2015-08-01

    Accuracy of biopsy scheme depends on different parameters. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and digital rectal examination (DRE) influenced the detection rate and suggested the biopsy scheme to approach each patient. Another parameter is the prostate volume. Sampling accuracy tends to decrease progressively with an increasing prostate volume. We prospectively observed detection cancer rate in suspicious prostate cancer (PCa) and improved by applying a protocol biopsy according to prostate volume (PV). Clinical data and pathological features of these 1356 patients were analysed and included in this study. This protocol is a combined scheme that includes transrectal (TR) 12-core PBx (TR12PBx) for PV ≤ 30 cc, TR 14-core PBx (TR14PBx) for PV > 30 cc but scheme, in 198 (14.6%) through TR14PBx scheme and in 253 (18.6%) through TR18PBx scheme. The PCa detection rate was increased by 44% by adding two TZ cores (TR14PBx scheme). The TR18PBx scheme increased this rate by 21.7% vs. TR14PBx scheme. The diagnostic yield offered by TR18PBx was statistically significant compared to the detection rate offered by the TR14PBx scheme (p scheme diagnostic yield and those detected by the TR18PBx scheme (p = 0.362). The only PV parameter, in our opinion, can be significant in choosing the best biopsy scheme to approach in a first setting of biopsies increasing PCa detection rate.

  1. Excluded volume effects on ionic partitioning in gels and microgels: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahualli, Silvia; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel

    2014-12-14

    In this work the effect of volume exclusion on ionic partitioning in swollen and moderately collapsed gels has been studied through coarse-grained simulations. Our results show that finite size effects yield deviations from the classical theory of Donnan exclusion. At low or moderate reservoir electrolyte concentration these discrepancies become important if one of the ions has diameters of just a few nanometers. When the reservoir electrolyte concentration grows, volume exclusion can lead to a drastic failure of the ideal Donnan exclusion even for conventional hydrated monoatomic ions. In addition, an approximate analytical expression for the partition coefficient of ionic species including the volume exclusion associated with the polymer network and the neutralizing counterions has been proposed and tested. This theoretical approach also provides an expression for the Donnan potential difference that takes such effects into account. Good agreement between theory and simulations is found for slightly and moderately charged gels (both at low and high reservoir electrolyte concentrations). The theory also works acceptably for highly charged gels at high salt concentrations or for electrolytes with large counterions.

  2. Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S. C.; Mega, M.; Lin, K. P.; Toga, A. W.; Small, G. W.; Phelps, M. E.

    1996-12-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures: segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components: MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI's) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated "pure" image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM's of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al. (1992), and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.

  3. Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Mega, M.; Toga, A.W.; Small, G.W.; Phelps, M.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, K.P. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Chung-Li (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures; segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components; MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI`s) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated ``pure`` image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM`s of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al., and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.

  4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part C describes test facility support, data acquisition and control system design, cost data, energy self-sufficiency, and test facility applications.

  5. Study of the free volume fraction in polylactic acid (PLA) by thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A.; Benrekaa, N.

    2015-10-01

    The poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high modulus, strength and thermoplastic properties. In this work, the evolution of various properties of PLA is studied, such as glass transition temperature, mechanical modules and elongation percentage with the aim of investigating the free volume fraction. To do so, two thermal techniques have been used: the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and dilatometry. The results obtained by these techniques are combined to go back to the structural properties of the studied material.

  6. Economic Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) study. Volume I. ERTG design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-12-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and evaluate an ERTG design for a high power, Curium-244 fueled system based on the tubular thermoelectric module technology; (2) to prepare a program plan for the development of a flight qualified ERTG; and (3) to estimate the costs associated with the production of one, ten and twenty flight qualified ERTG's. This volume presents the Reference Design ERTG approach, the results of the engineering trade studies leading to its selection, and the Second Generation ERTG Design proposed for development. (WHK)

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  8. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  9. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  10. [Comparative study of the volume difference vs. healthy limb, morphological and population description in transfemoral amputees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of the general characteristics and physical condition that keeps the transfemoral amputation stump to select and adapt appropriate type of prosthesis to restore a walking pattern amputee patient acceptable and useful design parameters set to propose new prosthetic systems. In this paper, the degree of difference between the volumes of the limb stump and healthy as well as morphological features occurred more frequently in the stumps of transfemoral amputees who were treated at the Laboratory of Orthotics and Prosthetics (LOP), Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (INR) in 2008. It captured all patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation left and right, over 18 years old, both sexes, use of hearing candidates were evaluated clinically and took three measurements of the circumferences at different wavelengths and the limb stump healthy, were calculated volumes of both sides using the mathematical model of the truncated cone and analyzed in three groups according to the level of amputation (proximal, middle and distal third). We obtained 49 patients, 39 men and 10 women, the difference stump volume compared to healthy limb volume per group were: 44.9% proximal third, middle third and distal 26.5%, 21.1%, the frequency of diagnostic data showed a stump right transfemoral amputees, due to metabolic, without use of prostheses, the most common morphological features indicate that the stump has a conical shape and size distal third, whose tissue is semi-flaccid consistency, the scar is not adhered to deep planes and shows a negative tinel, the mattress soft tissue is 2.15 ± 1.3 cm and physically presents a force level 4 in the clinical rating scale Daniels. The data are consistent with other studies comparing the percentage of the volume change with the percentages of reduced diameters transfemoral stump muscle, likewise agrees most amputees incidence of diabetes mellitus with other studies, cataloging it eat first cause amputation. The general description

  11. The severity of pseudohyperkalaemia is not dependent upon the stage of chronic kidney disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Davison, Andrew S; Howse, Matthew; Williams, Peter; Kemp, Graham J; Roberts, Norman B

    2011-06-01

    Pseudohyperkalaemia may result from delay in centrifugation and storage at 4°C. We investigated whether the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD), its aetiology or medications influence this. Seventy-seven patients with CKD were recruited. Lithium heparin plasma samples were analysed for sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine, chloride, bicarbonate, magnesium, calcium and inorganic phosphate at 0 h and after storage of whole blood at 4°C for 6 h and 20 h. K-EDTA and fluoride-EDTA samples were analysed for full blood count and glucose at 0 h. CKD stage was determined by standard criteria. K(+) increased on average by 1.0 and 3.6 mmol/L after 6 and 20 h storage of whole blood at 4°C, independent of cause or stage of CKD. K(+) increase at 6 h was correlated with haemoglobin but not with white blood cell count, platelet count or glucose. Patients taking ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) had slightly higher K(+) at 0 h and increased K(+) after storage for 6 h. Na(+) decreased on average by 3.8 mmol/L at 20 h and was independent of CKD stage, and correlated with K(+) increase. K(+) increased significantly with time in samples stored at 4°C in all stages of CKD. This was greater in some patients on ACE inhibitors and ARBs, and increased with haemoglobin, but was not related to the stage of CKD, white blood cell count or platelet count for the samples used in this study.

  12. Study of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Increase in oil yield with suppression of retrogressive reaction during initial stage; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, K.; Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the coal liquefaction, improvement of liquefaction conditions and increase of liquefied oil yield are expected by suppressing the recombination through rapid stabilization of pyrolytic radicals which are formed at the initial stage of liquefaction. Two-stage liquefaction combining prethermal treatment and liquefaction was performed under various conditions, to investigate the effects of reaction conditions on the yields and properties of products as well as to increase liquefied oil yield. Consequently, it was found that the catalyst contributes greatly to the hydrogen transfer to coal at the prethermal treatment. High yield of n-hexane soluble fraction with products having low condensation degree could be obtained by combining the prethermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen and catalyst with the concentration of slurry after the treatment. This was considered to be caused by the synergetic effect between the improvement of liquefaction by suppressing polymerization/condensation at the initial stage of reaction through the prethermal treatment and the effective hydrogen transfer accompanied with the improvement of contact efficiency of coal/catalyst by the concentration of slurry at the stage of liquefaction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Factors predicting survival in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer: A cohort study between 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fararouei, Mohammad; Daneshi, Nima; Mohammadianpanah, Μohammad; Reza Tabatabaei, Hamid; Zare-Bandamiri, Mohammad; Dianatinasab, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, trends of treatment and survival of laryngeal cancer have received heightened attention. Despite the fact that most laryngeal cancers are diagnosed at early stage, a concern of worsening survival in patients with localized cancer has been raised but not consistently observed. This study aimed to determine factors affecting laryngeal cancer survival. This was a cohort study from 2000 to 2015 in which clinical and demographic characteristics of patients at early stage of laryngeal cancer were collected. Medical records and telephone interviews were used to define patient's demographic and clinical status during the study period. Multivariate Cox model was used as the main method for analyzing data. Age at diagnosis, type of treatment, stage, and tumor grade were statistically associated with patient survival. Older patients were more prone to worse prognosis (HR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.03-2.75, p=0.03). The results also suggested that people who had surgery compared with those who received only radiation therapy (RT) survived longer (HR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.20-0.94, p=0.03). Furthermore, for those whose tumor was grade 3 at diagnosis, the risk of death was 2.45-fold higher than those with grade 1 (HR =2.45, 95% CI: 1.19-5.40, p=0.01). Stage II patients experienced worse prognosis than stage I patients (HR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.06-2.93, p=0.02). This study revealed several factors that can influence patient survival rate, among them different therapeutic approaches.

  14. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites......In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived......, and systems 'hosting' these multiple and complex mobilities are designed and how they are staging these in terms of their physical layout. By analysing specific cases of ‘mobilities design’ related to the four modes of moving; Walk, Bike, Train, and Car, the book uncover important and until now neglected...

  15. Stage migration and pilot studies of reduced chemotherapy supported by positron-emission tomography findings suggest new combined strategies for stage 2 nonseminoma germ cell tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yasser; Williams, Michael V; Neal, David E; Ong, Josephine Y; Ostrowski, M Joe; Ell, Peter J; Nargund, Vinod; Shamash, Jonathan; Oliver, R Tim D

    2008-03-01

    To examine the nodal (N+) vs extranodal (M+) staging in each of the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification Group (IGCCCG) subgroups in an audit of 437 patients treated in The Anglian Germ Cell Cancer Group, where chemotherapy was the primary management, as there is an increasingly earlier presentation of patients with less advanced disease who thus face potentially unnecessary treatment. Clinicians from seven centres prospectively registered patients in a central database, and the follow-up was coordinated by one of the authors. Between 1982 and 2002, 436 patients (median follow-up 60 months) were registered; 63% of IGCCCG good risk (298), 42% of intermediate (62) and 8% poor risk (77) were stage II; 79% of N+M0 intermediate and poor risk cases (29) were alive, vs only 60% of M+ stage IV cases (92, P < 0.05). The trend was similar in IGCCCG good risk patients, with 92% of N+ stage II (156) alive vs only 85% (94) of stage IV M+ (not significant). The frequency of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection after chemotherapy increased from 26% (1983-1993) to 34% (1994-2002), and survival from 89% to 94%. There were no relapses in eight patients who elected to stop treatment after two courses. Four of six patients with positive findings on positron emission tomography had a durable complete response, assessed by standard uptake values, when tested at 72-96 h. Extra-lymphatic spread, although prognostically important within the IGCCCG subgroups, is only statistically significant for intermediate and poor risk combined. The observation that there might be N+ patients cured by two chemotherapy courses alone suggests that there might be opportunities to reduce the morbidity of treatment.

  16. Prospective study of single-stage repair of contaminated hernias using a biologic porcine tissue matrix: the RICH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Kamal M F; Rosen, Michael; Vargo, Daniel; Awad, Samir S; Denoto, George; Butler, Charles E

    2012-09-01

    In the presence of contamination, the repair of a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) is challenging. The presence of comorbidities poses an additional risk for postoperative wound events and hernia recurrence. To date, very few studies describe the outcomes of VIH repair in this high-risk population. A prospective, multicenter, single-arm, the Repair of Infected or Contaminated Hernias study was performed to study the clinical outcomes of open VIH repair of contaminated abdominal defects with a non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice. Of 85 patients who consented to participate, 80 underwent open VIH repair with Strattice. Hernia defects were 'clean-contaminated' (n = 39), 'contaminated' (n = 39), or 'dirty' (n = 2), and the defects were classified as grade 3 (n = 60) or grade 4 (n = 20). The midline was restored, and primary closure was achieved in 64 patients; the defect was bridged in 16 patients. At 24 months, 53 patients (66%) experienced 95 wound events. There were 28 unique, infection-related events in 24 patients. Twenty-two patients experienced seromas, all but 5 of which were transient and required no intervention. No unanticipated adverse events occurred, and no tissue matrix required complete excision. There were 22 hernia (28%) recurrences by month 24. There was no correlation between infection-related events and hernia recurrence. The use of the intact, non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice, in the repair of contaminated VIH in high-risk patients allowed for successful, single-stage reconstruction in >70% of patients followed for 24 months after repair. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  18. Importance of the test volume on the lag phase in biodegradation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, F.; Torang, Lars; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Increasing the total volume of test medium resulted in decreased lag times (TL) in biodegradability shake flask batch tests conducted with either surface water or with synthetic mineral medium inoculated with supernatant from settled activated sludge. Experiments were performed with test volumes...... volume tended to increase the lag time, even when a single test batch was redistributed into smaller flasks. With 5 ml supernatant added to different volumes of mineral medium, lag times for PNP were independent of the test volume in a range from 10 to 1,000 ml. At small volumes of 10 ml or less...

  19. Ecological Study of Lagoons Surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida . Volume 2; Theses and Project Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Many of the detailed studies done in connection with Ecological Study of the Lagoons surrounding the John F. Kennedy Space Port were performed as Master's Thesis investigations by various graduate students enrolled at F. I. T. during and subsequent to the report. The scope and purpose of what we came to call "the KSC Baseline Study" caught the imagination and interest of our student body. Many who were not financially or otherwise connected with the project found their inspiration in studies that were directly connected with project, and thus added materially to the totality of the knowledge gained. An example of one such study is the first article included in this Volume, A Master's Thesis study performed by Shen Phillip Chen, who chose the site for his investigation so that his results would correlate with and extend the results of others. In addition to the Master's Theses contained in this Volume, six other graduate studies must be acknowledged here as contributing to this Report, although they have not reached the stage of final publication. Ms. Sandra Fettes has completed a study of the amounts of five trace metals in mangrove leaves from plants at various locations around the Kennedy Space Center. Mr. Bernard Cohenour has isolated and identified a number of oil consuming bacteria endemic in the waters of the Indian Rivers. Mr. Charles Waterhouse has analyzed historic data of tidal gauges in the lagoonal area and correlated it with wind field records. Mr. Renkert Meyer has measured the vertical and horizontal currents of the lagoons and is attempting an interpretation of them in terms of the wind field as a driving force. Mr. Richard Campbell has measured the rate of nitrogen fixation in both the water columns and the sediments under them in the lagoons. Mr. Craig Weiderhold has measured thl3 annual variations in the populations of benthic invertebrates in the lagoons. An integral part of the F. I. T. curriculum is a requirement that each undergraduate

  20. A phase II study of Irofulven (MGI 114) in patients with stage IV melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, A Scott; Gibbs, Peter; Richards, Jon; Russ, Paul; Eckhardt, S Gail; Gonzalez, Rene

    2002-08-01

    Sixteen patients with stage IV melanoma, who were heavily pretreated, received 11 mg/m2/day of intravenous Irofulven for five consecutive days every 28 days. There were no objective tumor responses, although one patient exhibited stable disease after 4 cycles. The most common toxicities were grade 1/2 nausea, vomiting, fatigue, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. One patient required a dose reduction for an elevated creatinine while another patient required cessation of treatment because of acute ataxia that may have been related to Irofulven. Based upon these data, Irofulven does not demonstrate significant antitumor activity to warrant further investigation in advanced melanoma.

  1. Selective grazing of Temora longicornis in different stages of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom - a mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Dutz, Jörg; Breteler, W.C.M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Selective grazing of a calanoid copepod Temora longicornis was measured during different stages of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom, in order to reveal (1) if T longicornis feeds on single cells and/or colonies of P. globosa in the presence of alternative food sources, (2) if copepod food selection...... of alternative food sources. In contrast, feeding on single cells was never significant, and the total contribution of P globosa to carbon ingestion of T longicornis was minor. T longicornis fed most actively on the decaying colonies, whereas during the peak of the bloom copepods selected against P globosa...

  2. Transmission electron microscopy studies of YBCO coated conductor deposited using multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, H. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Material Research and Development Laboratory, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan)]. E-mail: hisasaki@jfcc.or.jp; Kato, T. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Material Research and Development Laboratory, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Sasaki, Y. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Material Research and Development Laboratory, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Hirayama, T. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Material Research and Development Laboratory, 2-4-1, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8587 (Japan); Kashima, N. [Electric Power Research and Development Center, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 459-8522 (Japan); Nagaya, S. [Electric Power Research and Development Center, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 459-8522 (Japan); Izumi, T. [Superconductivity Research Center, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Center, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    A YBCO film was deposited on Hastelloy tape with highly oriented CeO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} multilayer using multiple-stage chemical vapor deposition. The microstructures of the YBCO coated conductor were examined in detail using transmission electron microscopy. Analysis indicated a YBCO film about 1 {mu}m thick was deposited and consisted mainly of c-axis oriented grains. However, a-axis oriented grains were also observed in the YBCO film, and these a-axis oriented grains grew larger with increasing thickness of the YBCO film.

  3. Stages of change: A qualitative study on the implementation of a perinatal audit programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattinson Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Audit and feedback is an established strategy for improving maternal, neonatal and child health. The Perinatal Problem Identification Programme (PPIP, implemented in South African public hospitals in the late 1990s, measures perinatal mortality rates and identifies avoidable factors associated with each death. The aim of this study was to elucidate the processes involved in the implementation and sustainability of this programme. Methods Clinicians' experiences of the implementation and maintenance of PPIP were explored qualitatively in two workshop sessions. An analytical framework comprising six stages of change, divided into three phases, was used: pre-implementation (create awareness, commit to implementation; implementation (prepare to implement, implement and institutionalisation (integrate into routine practice, sustain new practices. Results Four essential factors emerged as important for the successful implementation and sustainability of an audit system throughout the different stages of change: 1 drivers (agents of change and team work, 2 clinical outreach visits and supervisory activities, 3 institutional perinatal review and feedback meetings, and 4 communication and networking between health system levels, health care facilities and different role-players. During the pre-implementation phase high perinatal mortality rates highlighted the problem and indicated the need to implement an audit programme (stage 1. Commitment to implementing the programme was achieved by obtaining buy-in from management, administration and health care practitioners (stage 2. Preparations in the implementation phase included the procurement and installation of software and training in its use (stage 3. Implementation began with the collection of data, followed by feedback at perinatal review meetings (stage 4. The institutionalisation phase was reached when the results of the audit were integrated into routine practice (stage 5 and

  4. Radiographic and pathological stages of the changes at the bone-cement interface: an in-vivo experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Neslihan; Seyahi, Aksel; Aksu, Taner; Oztürk, Cağatay; Dervişoğlu, Sergülen; Murat Hiz, Veli Muzaffer

    2008-10-01

    Chemical and physical effects of cementation cause radiographic and histological changes at bone-cement interface. These changes can be of interest in the assessment of the residual lesions and subsequent recurrences after local resection and cementation of local aggressive tumours. The aim of the study was to evaluate the evolution and determine the stages of the changes that occur at the bone-cement interface after cementation of cavitary lesions. We operated on 16 hind legs of 8 sheep (Ovies Aries) under general anaesthesia (Xylasin HCl, Ketamin HCl and Forane). A bone cavity of 12 cm(3) was produced by curettage of the distal femoral condyle and was filled with cement. Control radiographs were taken at 2 days; 3, 6 and 12 weeks, and again at 6 months. One sheep each time was killed after second day and sixth month and two sheep each time after the third, sixth and 12th week and the specimens underwent pathological examination. After the first 3 weeks, a reactive fibrous membrane was detected on pathological examinations. This membrane consisted of granulation tissue, necrotic bone and bone marrow, which were replaced gradually by fibrous tissue. The radiographic revelation of this fibrous membrane was a radiolucent zone of 0.5-1.5 mm at 3 weeks. A Sclerotic rim appeared around this radiolucent zone at 6 weeks. With new bone formation the fibrous membrane disappeared at 3 months. This was seen on radiographs as the replacement of the radiolucent zone by a sclerotic ring of 0.5-2 mm. This sclerotic ring disappeared at 6 months, when a diffuse sclerosis and cortical bone thickening was detected on radiographs. According to our findings we suggest to consider the pathological processes at the bone-cement interface in 3 phases: (1) Reactive phase (first 3 weeks); (2) Resorption phase (3-6 weeks), and (3) Formation phase (6 weeks to 6 months). We have distinguished five different radiographic stages: Stage 1-Early stage with no apparent zone (first 3 weeks); Stage 2

  5. Fertility preservation by photodynamic therapy combined with conization in young patients with early stage cervical cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Chul; Jung, Sang Geun; Park, Hyun; Lee, Sun Young; Lee, Chan; Hwang, Yeun Young; Kim, Seung Jo

    2014-09-01

    Vaginal radical trachelectomy (VRT) is the standard fertility preserving procedure for early stage cervical cancer patients. There have been reports in the literature, however, that VRT to be too radical procedure for early stage cervical cancer, as its post-operative obstetric morbidity was high. In this study, PDT with Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or conization was investigated as a less radical fertility preserving treatment alternative to VRT for early stage cervical cancer patients. We analyzed data of 21 patients with early stage cervical cancer (stages IA-IIA) who underwent PDT with LEEP/conization from 2003 to 2012. LEEP or conization was performed before PDT in every case. For patients in stage IB1 or above, only those who were confirmed to be free of malignancy in frozen section by pelvic lymph node dissection received PDT. Surface photoillumination with red laser light at a wavelength of 630nm was applied to the cervix and the endocervical canal 48h after intravenous injection of 2mg/kg of photosensitizer. Median age of the 21 patients was 31 years old (range: 22-43), 19 patients (90.5%) of whom were nulliparous. Majority of the lesions were at stage IA1 (47.6%) or IB1 (42.9%). Histologically, 80.9% were squamous cell carcinoma. 5 patients (23.8%) had a lesion of 2cm or larger in diameter. There was one recurrence (4.7%) and no death during 52.6 months (6-114 months). Of the 13 women who attempted to get pregnant, 10 (76.9%) women conceived a total of 11 pregnancies. The first and second trimester miscarriages were 2 and 1 respectively, and 7 (70%) of the pregnancies reached the third trimester, of which 5 delivered at term. No tumor-related deaths or PDT-related severe adverse effects were noted. PDT combined with LEEP/conization could be an effective fertility sparing conservative treatment for young patients with early stage cervical cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Disparities in the Initial Local Treatment of Older Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMasters, Traci J; Madhavan, Suresh S; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Vyas, Ami M

    2017-07-01

    Although breast cancer is most prevalent among older women, the majority are diagnosed at an early stage. When diagnosed at an early stage, women have the option of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiation therapy (RT) or mastectomy for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer (ESBC). Omission of RT when receiving BCS increases the risk for recurrence and poor survival. Yet, a small subset of older women may omit RT after BCS. This study examines the current patterns of local treatment for ESBC among older women. This study conducted a retrospective observational analysis using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked dataset of women age ≥66 diagnosed with stage I-II breast cancer in 2003-2009. SEER-Medicare data was additionally linked with data from the Area Resource File (ARF) to examine the association between area-level healthcare resources and treatment. Two logistic regression models were used to estimate how study factors were associated with receiving (1) BCS versus BCS+RT and (2) Mastectomy versus BCS+RT. A stratified analysis was also conducted among women aged stage II disease, and nonwhite race were more likely to have mastectomy or BCS only, than BCS+RT. Women diagnosed in 2004-2006, treated by an oncology surgeon, residing in metro areas, areas of greater education and income, were less likely to receive mastectomy or BCS only, than BCS+RT. While women aged <70 years were more likely to receive BCS+RT, socioeconomic and physician specialties were associated with receiving BCS only. Over half of older women with ESBC initially receive BCS+RT. The likelihood for mastectomy and BCS only increases with age, comorbidity, and vulnerable socio-demographic characteristics. Findings demonstrate continued treatment disparities among certain vulnerable populations.

  7. Evaluation of 18-F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a staging and monitoring tool for dogs with stage-2 splenic hemangiosarcoma – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Amber L.; Stuebner, Kathleen; Scott, Ruth; Ober, Christopher P.; Anderson, Kari L.; Feeney, Daniel A.; Vallera, Daniel A.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Froelich, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and monitoring of human cancer patients and is becoming increasingly available in veterinary medicine. In this study, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG)-PET-CT was used in dogs with naturally occurring splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) to assess its utility as a staging and monitoring modality as compared to standard radiography and ultrasonography. Nine dogs with stage-2 HSA underwent 18FDG-PET-CT following splenectomy and prior to commencement of chemotherapy. Routine staging (thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography) was performed prior to 18FDG-PET-CT in all dogs. When abnormalities not identified on routine tests were noted on 18FDG-PET-CT, owners were given the option to repeat a PET-CT following treatment with eBAT. A PET-CT scan was repeated on Day 21 in three dogs. Abnormalities not observed on conventional staging tools, and most consistent with malignant disease based on location, appearance, and outcome, were detected in two dogs and included a right atrial mass and a hepatic nodule, respectively. These lesions were larger and had higher metabolic activity on the second scans. 18FDG-PET-CT has potential to provide important prognostic information and influence treatment recommendations for dogs with stage-2 HSA. Additional studies will be needed to precisely define the value of this imaging tool for staging and therapy monitoring in dogs with this and other cancers. PMID:28222142

  8. Evaluation of 18-F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT as a staging and monitoring tool for dogs with stage-2 splenic hemangiosarcoma - A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Borgatti

    Full Text Available Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT is routinely used for staging and monitoring of human cancer patients and is becoming increasingly available in veterinary medicine. In this study, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG-PET-CT was used in dogs with naturally occurring splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA to assess its utility as a staging and monitoring modality as compared to standard radiography and ultrasonography. Nine dogs with stage-2 HSA underwent 18FDG-PET-CT following splenectomy and prior to commencement of chemotherapy. Routine staging (thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography was performed prior to 18FDG-PET-CT in all dogs. When abnormalities not identified on routine tests were noted on 18FDG-PET-CT, owners were given the option to repeat a PET-CT following treatment with eBAT. A PET-CT scan was repeated on Day 21 in three dogs. Abnormalities not observed on conventional staging tools, and most consistent with malignant disease based on location, appearance, and outcome, were detected in two dogs and included a right atrial mass and a hepatic nodule, respectively. These lesions were larger and had higher metabolic activity on the second scans. 18FDG-PET-CT has potential to provide important prognostic information and influence treatment recommendations for dogs with stage-2 HSA. Additional studies will be needed to precisely define the value of this imaging tool for staging and therapy monitoring in dogs with this and other cancers.

  9. Evaluation of 18-F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as a staging and monitoring tool for dogs with stage-2 splenic hemangiosarcoma - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatti, Antonella; Winter, Amber L; Stuebner, Kathleen; Scott, Ruth; Ober, Christopher P; Anderson, Kari L; Feeney, Daniel A; Vallera, Daniel A; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Modiano, Jaime F; Froelich, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) is rou