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Sample records for stage specific influences

  1. Gender differences and stage-specific influence of parent-adolescent conflicts on adolescent suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Ching; Tseng, Chin-Yuan; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2017-09-01

    This study examined familial and peer related factors as predictors of suicidal ideation in school students. Total 2896 participants were included from Taiwan Youth Project released data, a longitudinal survey of adolescent suicidal ideation at ages 15, 18, and 20. Logistic regression analysis risk factors associated with adolescent suicidal ideation reveled differences during the developmental stages. After adjusted for psychological symptoms, effect of quarrels with parents on suicidal ideation lasts in early and middle stages; in the late adolescent stage, only cigarette or alcohol use remained significant. Girls who reported quarrels with parents had the highest level of suicidal ideation before age 18. Stage- and gender-specific differences may provide appropriate intervention strategies for parents and teachers preventing adolescent suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Influence of specific comorbidities on survival after early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Land, Lotte Holm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2018-01-01

    elevated for patients with prior myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, connective tissue disease, ulcer disease, and diabetes. The similar effect of adjuvant treatment in patients with and without comorbidity underlines the importance of adhering to guideline therapy.......BACKGROUND: While comorbidity indices are useful for describing trends in survival, information on specific comorbidities is needed for the clinician advising the individual breast cancer patient on her treatment. Here we present an analysis of overall survival, breast cancer-specific mortality......, and effect of medical adjuvant treatment among breast cancer patients suffering from 12 major comorbidities compared with breast cancer patients without comorbidities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population was identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and included 59,673 women without...

  3. RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression.<...

  4. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  5. Stage-specific predictive models for breast cancer survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Rohit J; Nadig, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    Survivability rates vary widely among various stages of breast cancer. Although machine learning models built in past to predict breast cancer survivability were given stage as one of the features, they were not trained or evaluated separately for each stage. To investigate whether there are differences in performance of machine learning models trained and evaluated across different stages for predicting breast cancer survivability. Using three different machine learning methods we built models to predict breast cancer survivability separately for each stage and compared them with the traditional joint models built for all the stages. We also evaluated the models separately for each stage and together for all the stages. Our results show that the most suitable model to predict survivability for a specific stage is the model trained for that particular stage. In our experiments, using additional examples of other stages during training did not help, in fact, it made it worse in some cases. The most important features for predicting survivability were also found to be different for different stages. By evaluating the models separately on different stages we found that the performance widely varied across them. We also demonstrate that evaluating predictive models for survivability on all the stages together, as was done in the past, is misleading because it overestimates performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep Stage Transition Dynamics Reveal Specific Stage 2 Vulnerability in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yishul; Colombo, Michele A; Ramautar, Jennifer R; Blanken, Tessa F; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-09-01

    Objective sleep impairments in insomnia disorder (ID) are insufficiently understood. The present study evaluated whether whole-night sleep stage dynamics derived from polysomnography (PSG) differ between people with ID and matched controls and whether sleep stage dynamic features discriminate them better than conventional sleep parameters. Eighty-eight participants aged 21-70 years, including 46 with ID and 42 age- and sex-matched controls without sleep complaints, were recruited through www.sleepregistry.nl and completed two nights of laboratory PSG. Data of 100 people with ID and 100 age- and sex-matched controls from a previously reported study were used to validate the generalizability of findings. The second night was used to obtain, in addition to conventional sleep parameters, probabilities of transitions between stages and bout duration distributions of each stage. Group differences were evaluated with nonparametric tests. People with ID showed higher empirical probabilities to transition from stage N2 to the lighter sleep stage N1 or wakefulness and a faster decaying stage N2 bout survival function. The increased transition probability from stage N2 to stage N1 discriminated people with ID better than any of their deviations in conventional sleep parameters, including less total sleep time, less sleep efficiency, more stage N1, and more wake after sleep onset. Moreover, adding this transition probability significantly improved the discriminating power of a multiple logistic regression model based on conventional sleep parameters. Quantification of sleep stage dynamics revealed a particular vulnerability of stage N2 in insomnia. The feature characterizes insomnia better than-and independently of-any conventional sleep parameter. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...... pays any attention to this. In this paper, we show how various capacity and time constraints influence the performance of a specific two-stage system. We study the effects of several basic scheduling and sequencing rules in the presence of these constraints in order to learn the characteristics...

  8. Influence of oxygen on the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barilla, Jiří; Lokajíček, Miloš V.; Pisaková, Hana; Simr, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The simulation of the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism may be very helpful in studying the radiobiological effect of ionizing radiation when the water radical clusters formed by the densely ionizing ends of primary or secondary charged particle may form DSBs damaging DNA molecules in living cells. It is possible to study not only the efficiency of individual radicals but also the influence of other species or radiomodifiers (mainly oxygen) being present in water medium during irradiation. The mathematical model based on Continuous Petri nets (proposed by us recently) will be described. It makes it possible to analyze two main processes running at the same time: chemical radical reactions and the diffusion of radical clusters formed during energy transfer. One may study the time change of radical concentrations due to the chemical reactions running during diffusion process. Some orientation results concerning the efficiency of individual radicals in DSB formation (in the case of Co60 radiation) will be presented; the influence of oxygen present in water medium during irradiation will be shown, too. - Highlights: • Creation of the mathematical model. • Realization of the model with the help of Continuous Petri nets. • Obtain the time dependence of changes in the concentration of radicals. • Influence of oxygen on the chemical stage of radiobiological mechanism.

  9. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...... were concurrently recorded. Three replicate estimates of mortality were obtained for each pair of subsequent developmental stages from newly spawned eggs to early larvae. A consistent pattern of stage-specific mortality coincided well with previous experimental observations. Average daily mortality...... rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  10. The protection motivation theory within the stages of the transtheoretical model - stage-specific interplay of variables and prediction of exercise stage transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2009-05-01

    Two different theories of health behaviour have been chosen with the aim of theory integration: a continuous theory (protection motivation theory, PMT) and a stage model (transtheoretical model, TTM). This is the first study to test whether the stages of the TTM moderate the interrelation of PMT-variables and the mediation of motivation, as well as PMT-variables' interactions in predicting stage transitions. Hypotheses were tested regarding (1) mean patterns, stage pair-comparisons and nonlinear trends using ANOVAs; (2) prediction-patterns for the different stage groups employing multi-group structural equation modelling (MSEM) and nested model analyses; and (3) stage transitions using binary logistic regression analyses. Adults (N=1,602) were assessed over a 6 month period on their physical activity stages, PMT-variables and subsequent behaviour. (1) Particular mean differences and nonlinear trends in all test variables were found. (2) The PMT adequately fitted the five stage groups. The MSEM revealed that covariances within threat appraisal and coping appraisal were invariant and all other constrains were stage-specific, i.e. stage was a moderator. Except for self-efficacy, motivation fully mediated the relationship between the social-cognitive variables and behaviour. (3) Predicting stage transitions with the PMT-variables underscored the importance of self-efficacy. Only when threat appraisal and coping appraisal were high, stage movement was more likely in the preparation stage. Results emphasize stage-specific differences of the PMT mechanisms, and hence, support the stage construct. The findings may guide further theory building and research integrating different theoretical approaches.

  11. Save the mystery - staging specificity of Pina Bausch's dance theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Roszak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article are presented the fundamental determinants of the style of the theatre of Pina Bausch. Tanztheater Wuppertal performances delight with their totality and originality (stage design, costumes, the musical layer, textual layer. Montage, collage, acting based on improvisation - these are the means which are the pillars of Bausch's theatre. Tanztheater Wuppertal performances have reformed the modern ballet and created a new kind of performance based - apart from dance, movement and pantomime - on the realistic activities, routine behaviours, dialogues and singing.

  12. [Multidimensional family therapy: which influences, which specificities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C; Bastard, N; Couteron, J-P; Har, A; Phan, O

    2014-10-01

    Among illegal psycho-active drugs, cannabis is the most consumed by French adolescents. Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) is a family-based outpatient therapy which has been developed for adolescents with drug and behavioral problems. MDFT has shown its effectiveness in adolescents with substance abuse disorders (notably cannabis abuse) not only in the United States but also in Europe (International Cannabis Need of Treatment project). MDFT is a multidisciplinary approach and an evidence-based treatment, at the crossroads of developmental psychology, ecological theories and family therapy. Its psychotherapeutic techniques find its roots in a variety of approaches which include systemic family therapy and cognitive therapy. The aims of this paper are: to describe all the backgrounds of MDFT by highlighting its characteristics; to explain how structural and strategy therapies have influenced this approach; to explore the links between MDFT, brief strategic family therapy and multi systemic family therapy; and to underline the specificities of this family therapy method. The multidimensional family therapy was created on the bases of 1) the integration of multiple therapeutic techniques stemming from various family therapy theories; and 2) studies which have shown family therapy efficiency. Several trials have shown a better efficiency of MDFT compared to group treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy and home-based treatment. Studies have also highlighted that MDFT led to superior treatment outcomes, especially among young people with severe drug use and psychiatric co-morbidities. In the field of systemic family therapies, MDFT was influenced by: 1) the structural family therapy (S. Minuchin), 2) the strategic family theory (J. Haley), and 3) the intergenerational family therapy (Bowen and Boszormenyi-Nagy). MDFT has specific aspects: MDFT therapists think in a multidimensional perspective (because an adolescent's drug abuse is a multidimensional disorder), they

  13. Factors influencing early stage healthcare-academia partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvhagen, Håkan; von Knorring, Mia; Hasson, Henna; Øvretveit, John; Hansson, Johan

    2018-02-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore factors influencing early implementation and intermediate outcomes of a healthcare-academia partnership in a primary healthcare setting. Design/methodology/approach The Academic Primary Healthcare Network (APHN) initiative was launched in 2011 in Stockholm County, Sweden and included 201 primary healthcare centres. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013-2014 with all coordinating managers ( n=8) and coordinators ( n=4). A strategic change model framework was used to collect and analyse data. Findings Several factors were identified to aid early implementation: assignment and guidelines that allowed flexibility; supportive management; dedicated staff; facilities that enabled APHN actions to be integrated into healthcare practice; and positive experiences from research and educational activities. Implementation was hindered by: discrepancies between objectives and resources; underspecified guidelines that trigger passivity; limited research and educational activities; a conflicting non-supportive reimbursement system; limited planning; and organisational fragmentation. Intermediate outcomes revealed that various actions, informed by the APHN assignment, were launched in all APHNs. Practical implications The findings can be rendered applicable by preparing stakeholders in healthcare services to optimise early implementation of healthcare-academia partnerships. Originality/value This study increases understanding of interactions between factors that influence early stage partnerships between healthcare services and academia in primary healthcare settings.

  14. Melanoma survival is superior in females across all tumour stages but is influenced by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Dasgupta, Paramita; Byrom, Lisa; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Green, Adele C

    2015-10-01

    Among patients with invasive melanoma, females are known to have higher survival than males globally. However, this survival advantage has not been explored in thin melanomas, the most common form of the disease. In addition, it is unclear if this advantage is true across all age groups. We aimed to compare melanoma survival between males and females by clinical stage and within age groups. Melanomas from 1995 to 2008 were extracted from the Queensland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, and melanoma-specific deaths were ascertained up to 2011. Flexible parametric survival models compared survival between groups. The Queensland cohort of 28,979 patients experienced 1712 melanoma deaths and the SEER cohort of 57,402 patients included 6929 melanoma deaths. Survival rates were in favour of females across nearly all tumour stages, including thin invasive tumours in both cohorts after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors [odds ratio (OR) death female:male for stage I melanoma = 0.64 in Queensland; and OR = 0.79 in the US, both P age categories. In particular, the survival advantage was inconsistent in females with stage I melanoma aged under 60. Females with melanoma have a survival advantage over males including in stage I melanomas. However, this advantage is dependent on age at diagnosis, suggesting an underlying biological mechanism influenced by age that exists from the very early stages of the disease.

  15. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence reveals stage specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells during Arabidopsis embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO I TEJOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic body plan of a plant is established early in embryogenesis when cells differentiate, giving rise to the apical and basal regions of the embryo. Using chlorophyll fluorescence as a marker for chloroplasts, we have detected specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells at specific stages of embryogenesis. Non-randomly distributed chloroplast-containing cells are seen as early as the globular stage of embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. In the heart stage of embryogenesis, chloroplast containing cells are detected in epidermal cells as well as a central region of the heart stage embryo, forming a triangular septum of chloroplast-containing cells that divides the embryo into three equal sectors. Torpedo stage embryos have chloroplast-containing epidermal cells and a central band of chloroplast-containing cells in the cortex layer, just below the shoot apical meristem. In the walking-stick stage of embryogenesis, chloroplasts are present in the epidermal, cortex and endodermal cells. The chloroplasts appear reduced or absent from the provascular and columella cells of walking-stick stage embryos. These results suggest that there is a tight regulation of plastid differentiation during embryogenesis that generates specific patterns of chloroplast-containing cells in specific cell layers at specific stages of embryogenesis.

  16. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria

    OpenAIRE

    Blanckenhorn Wolf U.; Gautier Roland; Nick Marcel; Puniamoorthy Nalini; Schäfer Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species populations individuals and even within individuals. Age or developmental stage and sex specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage and sex specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) a...

  17. How orchestra members influence stage acoustic parameters on five different concert hall stages and orchestra pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenmaekers, R.H.C.; Hak, C.C.J.M.; Hornikx, M.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Stage acoustic parameters aim to quantify the amount of sound energy reflected by the stage and hall boundaries and the energy decay over time. In this research, the effect of orchestra presence on parameter values is investigated. The orchestra is simulated by dressed mannequins, which have been

  18. Identification and characterization of a liver stage-specific promoter region of the malaria parasite Plasmodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helm

    Full Text Available During the blood meal of a Plasmodium-infected mosquito, 10 to 100 parasites are inoculated into the skin and a proportion of these migrate via the bloodstream to the liver where they infect hepatocytes. The Plasmodium liver stage, despite its clinical silence, represents a highly promising target for antimalarial drug and vaccine approaches. Successfully invaded parasites undergo a massive proliferation in hepatocytes, producing thousands of merozoites that are transported into a blood vessel to infect red blood cells. To successfully develop from the liver stage into infective merozoites, a tight regulation of gene expression is needed. Although this is a very interesting aspect in the biology of Plasmodium, little is known about gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites in general and in the liver stage in particular. We have functionally analyzed a novel promoter region of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei that is exclusively active during the liver stage of the parasite. To prove stage-specific activity of the promoter, GFP and luciferase reporter assays have been successfully established, allowing both qualitative and accurate quantitative analysis. To further characterize the promoter region, the transcription start site was mapped by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE. Using promoter truncation experiments and site-directed mutagenesis within potential transcription factor binding sites, we suggest that the minimal promoter contains more than one binding site for the recently identified parasite-specific ApiAP2 transcription factors. The identification of a liver stage-specific promoter in P. berghei confirms that the parasite is able to tightly regulate gene expression during its life cycle. The identified promoter region might now be used to study the biology of the Plasmodium liver stage, which has thus far proven problematic on a molecular level. Stage-specific expression of dominant-negative mutant proteins and

  19. First genetic quantification of sex- and stage-specific feeding in the ubiquitous copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismar, Stefanie M.H.; Kottmann, Johanna Sarah; Sommer, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    -specific feeding differences between Acartia life stages and sexes, which can have implications on food-web dynamics and specific nutrient transfer to higher trophic levels in copepod populations of varying age composition under changing environmental parameters, such as rising temperatures and increasing ocean...... acidification....

  20. Reactor staging influences microbial community composition and diversity of denitrifying MBBRs- Implications on pharmaceutical removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torresi, Elena; Gülay, Arda; Polesel, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    The subdivision of biofilm reactor in two or more stages (i.e., reactor staging) represents an option for process optimisation of biological treatment. In our previous work, we showed that the gradient of influent organic substrate availability (induced by the staging) can influence the microbial...

  1. EVALUATION OF A TWO-STAGE PASSIVE TREATMENT APPROACH FOR MINING INFLUENCE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-stage passive treatment approach was assessed at bench-scale using two Colorado Mining Influenced Waters (MIWs). The first-stage was a limestone drain with the purpose of removing iron and aluminum and mitigating the potential effects of mineral acidity. The second stage w...

  2. Mediastinal staging for lung cancer: the influence of biopsy volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Elof; Pape, Christian; Jørgensen, Ole Dan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mediastinal staging is of paramount importance prior to surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to identify patients with N2-disease. Mediastinoscopy remains the gold standard, and sampling from at least three lymph node stations is generally recommended. It is unknown whether...

  3. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  4. The Influence of Personal Values on Attitudes and Loyalty Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Henrique

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although loyalty has been extensively investigated in the marketing discipline, there is a lack of attention to the relationship between personal values, loyalty and attitudes. Based on that, the objective of this study was to test the moderating role of personal values in the relationship between attitudes and loyalty tages from Oliver (1999. Data from a survey with 910 bank customers support the hypothesis that attitudes predicts loyalty, despite the structural model does not reveal statistically significant differences among customer clusters (self-promotional and selftranscending Hedonic. However, when comparing Loyalty means among segments, it can be noted that (i the self-promotional and self-transcendent clusters were different at the cognitive and affective stages, and (ii the self-promotional differed from the hedonic in the action stage. Finally we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications and provide suggestions for future research in the area.

  5. Condition-specific Quality of Life Assessment at Each Stage of Class III Surgical Orthodontic Treatment -A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachiki, Chie; Nishii, Yasushi; Takaki, Takashi; Sueishi, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Surgical orthodontic treatment has been reported to improve oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL). Such treatment comprises three stages: pre-surgical orthodontic treatment; orthognathic surgery; and post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Most studies have focused on change in OHRQL between before and after surgery. However, it is also necessary to evaluate OHRQL at the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage, as it may be negatively affected by dental decompensation compared with at pre-treatment. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on QOL by assessing change in condition-specific QOL at each stage of treatment in skeletal class III cases. Twenty skeletal class III patients requiring surgical orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study. Each patient completed the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), which was developed for patients with dentofacial deformity. Its items are grouped into 4 domains: "social aspects of dentofacial deformity"; "facial esthetics"; "oral function"; and "awareness of dentofacial esthetics". The questionnaire was completed at the pre-treatment, pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, and post-surgical orthodontic treatment stages. The results revealed a significant worsening in scores between at pre-treatment and pre-surgical orthodontic treatment in the domains of facial esthetics and oral function (ppre-surgical orthodontic and post-surgical orthodontic treatment in all domains except awareness of dentofacial esthetics (ppre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. Significant correlations were also observed between improvement in upper and lower lip difference, soft tissue pogonion protrusion, and ANB angle and improvement in OQLQ scores at the post-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. These results indicate that morphologic change influences OHRQL in patients undergoing surgical orthodontic treatment not only after surgery, but also during pre

  6. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  7. Male Specific Gene Expression in Dioecious Phoenix Dactylifera (Date Palm) Tree at Flowering Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ameri, A. A.; Al-Qurainy, F.; Gaafar, A. R. Z.; Khan, S.; Nadeem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Date palm is a long-living and evergreen important tree in the semiarid regions. Its fruit is rich in carbohydrate and fibres. Transcriptional profiling was compared among male and female trees of dioecious date palm at flowering stage. Male specific genes are expressed at flowering stage which was studied using the cDNA-SCoT marker. We developed sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of size 253 bp from male tree based on cDNA-SCoT fingerprinting. Further, developed SCAR marker was validated on the independently collected samples of both types of trees at flowering stage. The unique and specific band (253 bp) was amplified from male samples only whereas it was absent from female samples. (author)

  8. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  9. Gender-specific differences in cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in pathologic tumor stage T4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias; Bastian, Patrick J; Brookman-May, Sabine; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Tilki, Derya; Otto, Wolfgang; Bolenz, Christian; Gilfrich, Christian; Trojan, Lutz; Herrmann, Edwin; Moritz, Rudolf; Tiemann, Arne; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Buchner, Alexander; Stief, Christian G; Wieland, Wolf F; Höfner, Thomas; Hohenfellner, Markus; Haferkamp, Axel; Roigas, Jan; Zacharias, Mario; Nuhn, Philipp; Burger, Maximilian

    2013-10-01

    Bladder cancer (UCB) staged pT4a show heterogeneous outcome after radical cystectomy (RC). No risk model has been established to date. Despite gender-specific differences, no comparative studies exist for this tumor stage. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 245 UCB patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy staged pT4a, pN0-2, M0 after RC were analyzed in a retrospective multi-center study. Seventeen patients were excluded from further analysis due to carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the prostatic urethra and/or positive surgical margins. Average follow-up period was 30 months (IQR: 14-45). The influence of different clinical and histopathologic variables on CSS was determined through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Two risk groups were generated using factors with independent effect in multivariate models. Internal validity of the prediction model was evaluated by bootstrapping. Eighty-four percent of the patients (n = 192) were male; 72% (n = 165) showed lymphovascular invasion (LVI). The 5-year CSS rate was 31%, and significantly different between male and female (35% vs. 15%, P = 0.003). Multivariate Cox regression modeling, female gender (HR = 1.83, P = 0.008), LVI (HR = 1.92, P = 0.005), and absence of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.61, P = 0.020) significantly worsened CSS. Two risk groups were generated using these 3 criteria, which differed significantly between each other in CSS (5-year-CSS: 46% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). The c-index value of the risk model was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.68, P < 0.001). Prognosis in UCB staged pT4a is heterogeneous. Female gender and LVI are adverse factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to improve outcome. The present analysis establishes the first risk model for this demanding tumor stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time for multi-stage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Altendorfer, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    In this paper the influence of different dispatching rules on the average production lead time is investigated. Two theorems based on covariance between processing time and production lead time are formulated and proved theoretically. Theorem 1 links the average production lead time to the "processing time weighted production lead time" for the multi-stage production systems analytically. The influence of different dispatching rules on average lead time, which is well known from simulation and empirical studies, can be proved theoretically in Theorem 2 for a single stage production system. A simulation study is conducted to gain more insight into the influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time in a multi-stage production system. We find that the "processing time weighted average production lead time" for a multi-stage production system is not invariant of the applied dispatching rule and can be used as a dispatching rule independent indicator for single-stage production systems.

  11. MR-specific staging of chondromalacia patellae using a special knee compressor: Comparison with arthroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, R.; Radmer, S.; Koenig, H.; Wolf, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present study proposes a new MRI-specific staging of chondromalacia patellae (CMP) which is based on cartilage thickness decrease and signal intensity behaviour under compression as well as cartilage morphology in the plain image. The investigation was performed in 30 patients with varying knee complaints who underwent arthroscopy after MR imaging. It was demonstrated that three CMP stages can already be differentiated by MRI under compression in arthroscopically healthy cartilage. This proves a marked improvement in the early diagnosis of CMP. (orig.) [de

  12. Silver nanoparticles induce developmental stage-specific embryonic phenotypes in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry J.; Browning, Lauren M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Osgood, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Much is anticipated from the development and deployment of nanomaterials in biological organisms, but concerns remain regarding their biocompatibility and target specificity. Here we report our study of the transport, biocompatibility and toxicity of purified and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 13.1 +/- 2.5 nm in diameter) upon the specific developmental stages of zebrafish embryos using single NP plasmonic spectroscopy. We find that single Ag NPs passively diffuse into five different developmental stages of embryos (cleavage, early-gastrula, early-segmentation, late-segmentation, and hatching stages), showing stage-independent diffusion modes and diffusion coefficients. Notably, the Ag NPs induce distinctive stage and dose-dependent phenotypes and nanotoxicity, upon their acute exposure to the Ag NPs (0-0.7 nM) for only 2 h. The late-segmentation embryos are most sensitive to the NPs with the lowest critical concentration (CNP,c nanotoxicity, upon their acute exposure to the Ag NPs (0-0.7 nM) for only 2 h. The late-segmentation embryos are most sensitive to the NPs with the lowest critical concentration (CNP,c << 0.02 nM) and highest percentages of cardiac abnormalities, followed by early-segmentation embryos (CNP,c < 0.02 nM), suggesting that disruption of cell differentiation by the NPs causes the most toxic effects on embryonic development. The cleavage-stage embryos treated with the NPs develop into a wide variety of phenotypes (abnormal finfold, tail/spinal cord flexure, cardiac malformation/edema, yolk sac edema, and acephaly). These organ structures are not yet developed in cleavage-stage embryos, suggesting that the earliest determinative events to create these structures are ongoing, and disrupted by NPs, which leads to the downstream effects. In contrast, the hatching embryos are most resistant to the Ag NPs, and majority of embryos (94%) develop normally, and none of them develop abnormally. Interestingly, early-gastrula embryos are less sensitive

  13. Identification of differentiation-stage specific markers that define the ex vivo osteoblastic phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twine, Natalie A; Chen, Li; Pang, Chi N

    2014-01-01

    The phenotype of osteoblastic (OB) cells in culture is currently defined using a limited number of markers of low sensitivity and specificity. For the clinical use of human skeletal (stromal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) in therapy, there is also a need to identify a set of gene markers...... clustering and Pearson's correlation generated 4 groups of genes: early stage differentiation genes (peak expression: 0-24h, n=28) which were enriched for extracellular matrix organisation, e.g. COL1A1, LOX, and SERPINH1; middle stage differentiating genes (peak expression days: 3 and 6, n=20) which were...

  14. Influence of sports on human mental and physical development in various stages of life

    OpenAIRE

    SLÁDKOVÁ, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with the impact of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental development in various developmental stages of life. It contains a brief description of the stages of life and presents the possibilities, nature and influence of sports and physical activity on human physical and mental state.

  15. Influence of udder stimulation, stage of lactation and parity on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of udder stimulation, stage of lactation and parity on milk yield in West African Dwarf goats. ... Left teat of the does produced significantly (P<0.05) more milk than the right teat. Therefore, it is recommended that goats udder in higher parity be stimulated prior to milking at early stage of lactation for higher milk ...

  16. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend s...

  17. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  18. Does thermal variability experienced at the egg stage influence life history traits across life cycle stages in a small invertebrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xing

    Full Text Available Although effects of thermal stability on eggs have often been considered in vertebrates, there is little data thermal stability in insect eggs even though these eggs are often exposed in nature to widely fluctuating ambient conditions. The modularity of development in invertebrates might lead to compensation across life cycle stages but this remains to be tested particularly within the context of realistic temperature fluctuations encountered in nature. We simulated natural temperate fluctuations on eggs of the worldwide cruciferous insect pest, the diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L., while maintaining the same mean temperature (25°C±0°C, 25±4°C, 25±6°C, 25±8°C, 25±10°C, 25±12°C and assessed egg development, survival and life history traits across developmental stages. Moderate fluctuations (25±4°C, 25±6°C did not influence performance compared to the constant temperature treatment, and none of the treatments influenced egg survival. However the wide fluctuating temperatures (25±10°C, 25±12°C slowed development time and led to an increase in pre-pupal mass, although these changes did not translate into any effects on longevity or fecundity at the adult stage. These findings indicate that environmental effects can extend across developmental stages despite the modularity of moth development but also highlight that there are few fitness consequences of the most variable thermal conditions likely to be experienced by Plutella xylostella.

  19. Cancer-specific self-efficacy and psychosocial and functional adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Ostroff, Jamie S; Norton, Tina R; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Goldstein, Lori

    2006-04-01

    Although self-efficacy is considered a key psychological resource in adapting to chronic physical illness, this construct has received less attention among individuals coping with cancer. To examine changes in cancer self-efficacy over time among women with early stage breast cancer and associations between task-specific domains of self-efficacy and specific psychological, relationship, and functional outcomes. Ninety-five women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer completed surveys postsurgery and 1 year later. Cancer-related self-efficacy was relatively stable over 1 year, with only 2 domains of efficacy-(a) Activity Management and (b) Self-Satisfaction-evidencing significant increases over the 1-year time period. Cross-sectional findings were relatively consistent with predictions and suggested that specific domains of self-efficacy were more strongly related to relevant domains of adaptation. Longitudinal findings were not as consistent with the domain-specificity hypothesis but did suggest several predictive associations between self-efficacy and outcomes. Personal Management self-efficacy was associated with higher relationship satisfaction, higher Communication Self-Efficacy was associated with less functional impairment, and higher Affective Management self-efficacy was associated with higher self-esteem 1 year later. Specific domains of cancer-related self-efficacy are most closely related to relevant areas of adaptation when considered cross-sectionally, but further study is needed to clarify the nature of these relationships over time.

  20. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  1. Developmental stage- and DNA damage-specific functions of C. elegans FANCD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyong Yun; Yang, Insil; Park, Jung-Eun; Baek, Ok-Ryun; Chung, Kee Yang; Koo, Hyeon-Sook

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we set out to investigate the role of Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 protein (FANCD2) in developmental stage-specific DNA damage responses in Caenorhabditis elegans. A mutant C. elegans strain containing a deletion in the gene encoding the FANCD2 homolog, FCD-2, exhibited egg-laying defects, precocious oogenesis, and partial defects in fertilization. The mutant strain also had a lower hatching rate than the wild-type after γ-irradiation of embryos, but not after the irradiation of pachytene stage germ cells. This mutation sensitized pachytene stage germ cells to the genotoxic effects of photoactivated psoralen, as seen by a greatly reduced hatching rate and increased chromosomal aberrations. This mutation also enhanced physiological M-phase arrest and apoptosis. Taken together, our data reveal that the C. elegans FANCD2 homolog participates in the repair of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA crosslinks, not only in proliferating cells but also in pachytene stage cells, and it may have an additional role in double-stranded DNA break repair during embryogenesis

  2. Organ-Specific Metabolic Shifts of Flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis at Different Growth and Development Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyuan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine mainly containing flavonoids that contribute to its bioactivities. In this study, the distributions and dynamic changes of flavonoid levels in various organs of S. baicalensis at different development stages were investigated by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and HPLC-DAD methods. The results indicated that the metabolic profiles of S. baicalensis changed with growth and development. During the initial germination stage, the seeds mainly contained flavonols. With growth, the main kinds of flavonoids in S. baicalensis changed from flavonols to flavanones and flavones. The results also revealed that the accumulation of flavonoids in S. baicalensis is organ-specific. The flavones without 4′-OH groups mainly accumulate in the root and the flavanones mainly accumulate in aerial organs. Dynamic accumulation analysis showed that the main flavonoids in the root of S. baicalensis accumulated rapidly before the full-bloom stage, then changed to a small extent. The results suggested the proper harvest time for the aerial parts was at the initial stage of reproductive growth and the flower buds should be collected before flowering. This study deepening the knowledge of S. baicalensis should provide valuable information for guiding the scientific cultivation of this plant and the development and utilization of S. baicalensis.

  3. Later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Most studies investigating the PDH have used the sequence learning paradigm; however these studies have principally focused on initial sequence learning in a single practice session. The present study sought to extend these investigations by assessing the consolidation stage and longer-term retention of implicit sequence-specific knowledge in 42 children with or without SLI. Both groups of children completed a serial reaction time task and were tested 24h and one week after practice. Results showed that children with SLI succeeded as well as children with typical development (TD) in the early acquisition stage of the sequence learning task. However, as training blocks progressed, only TD children improved their sequence knowledge while children with SLI did not appear to evolve any more. Moreover, children with SLI showed a lack of the consolidation gains in sequence knowledge displayed by the TD children. Overall, these results were in line with the predictions of the PDH and suggest that later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrafast hydrogen exchange reveals specific structural events during the initial stages of folding of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelinia, Hossein; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Hong; Roder, Heinrich

    2014-01-15

    Many proteins undergo a sharp decrease in chain dimensions during early stages of folding, prior to the rate-limiting step in folding. However, it remains unclear whether compact states are the result of specific folding events or a general hydrophobic collapse of the poly peptide chain driven by the change in solvent conditions. To address this fundamental question, we extended the temporal resolution of NMR-detected H/D exchange labeling experiments into the microsecond regime by adopting a microfluidics approach. By observing the competition between H/D exchange and folding as a function of labeling pH, coupled with direct measurement of exchange rates in the unfolded state, we were able to monitor hydrogen-bond formation for over 50 individual backbone NH groups within the initial 140 microseconds of folding of horse cytochrome c. Clusters of solvent-shielded amide protons were observed in two α-helical segments in the C-terminal half of the protein, while the N-terminal helix remained largely unstructured, suggesting that proximity in the primary structure is a major factor in promoting helix formation and association at early stages of folding, while the entropically more costly long-range contacts between the N- and C-terminal helices are established only during later stages. Our findings clearly indicate that the initial chain condensation in cytochrome c is driven by specific interactions among a subset of α-helical segments rather than a general hydrophobic collapse.

  5. Development stage-specific proteomic profiling uncovers small, lineage specific proteins most abundant in the Aspergillus Fumigatus conidial proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Moo-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent infectious cause of death in severely immunocompromised individuals such as leukemia and bone marrow transplant patients. Germination of inhaled conidia (asexual spores in the host is critical for the initiation of infection, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this process. Results To gain insights into early germination events and facilitate the identification of potential stage-specific biomarkers and vaccine candidates, we have used quantitative shotgun proteomics to elucidate patterns of protein abundance changes during early fungal development. Four different stages were examined: dormant conidia, isotropically expanding conidia, hyphae in which germ tube emergence has just begun, and pre-septation hyphae. To enrich for glycan-linked cell wall proteins we used an alkaline cell extraction method. Shotgun proteomic resulted in the identification of 375 unique gene products with high confidence, with no evidence for enrichment of cell wall-immobilized and secreted proteins. The most interesting discovery was the identification of 52 proteins enriched in dormant conidia including 28 proteins that have never been detected in the A. fumigatus conidial proteome such as signaling protein Pil1, chaperones BipA and calnexin, and transcription factor HapB. Additionally we found many small, Aspergillus specific proteins of unknown function including 17 hypothetical proteins. Thus, the most abundant protein, Grg1 (AFUA_5G14210, was also one of the smallest proteins detected in this study (M.W. 7,367. Among previously characterized proteins were melanin pigment and pseurotin A biosynthesis enzymes, histones H3 and H4.1, and other proteins involved in conidiation and response to oxidative or hypoxic stress. In contrast, expanding conidia, hyphae with early germ tubes, and pre-septation hyphae samples were enriched for proteins responsible for

  6. Plant specification of a generic human-error data through a two-stage Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Patterson, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    Expert judgement concerning human performance in nuclear power plants is quantitatively coupled with actuarial data on such performance in order to derive plant-specific human-error rate probability distributions. The coupling procedure consists of a two-stage application of Bayes' theorem to information which is grouped by type. The first information type contains expert judgement concerning human performance at nuclear power plants in general. Data collected on human performance at a group of similar plants forms the second information type. The third information type consists of data on human performance in a specific plant which has the same characteristics as the group members. The first and second information types are coupled in the first application of Bayes' theorem to derive a probability distribution for population performance. This distribution is then combined with the third information type in a second application of Bayes' theorem to determine a plant-specific human-error rate probability distribution. The two stage Bayesian procedure thus provides a means to quantitatively couple sparse data with expert judgement in order to obtain a human performance probability distribution based upon available information. Example calculations for a group of like reactors are also given. (author)

  7. Study on the Influence of Blade Roughnesson Axial Flow Compressor Stage Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xudong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A typically actual inlet stage NASA Stage 36 is chosen to study the influence of surface roughness on axial compressor performance. Firstly, a geometry model is created by blade design software BladeGen using transferred coordinates data of blade profile and flow path. Secondly, validation of simulation model is conducted by comparing computational data and field experiment data. Lastly, SST k-ω turbulence model is chosen to study the influence of blade surface roughness on performance parameters under different work points. It shows that adding roughness will significantly reduce axial compressor stage’s adiabatic efficiency and total pressure ratio and cause stage characteristic map shift toward left. It should not neglect the influence of surface roughness of stator near stall region under 100% design speed; Mach number shows a big difference after adding surface roughness, and it can be considered as a sensibility parameter of roughness.

  8. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers' smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers' smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.

  9. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding. PMID:27242810

  10. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  11. Sunflower resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana is controlled by specific QTLs for different parasitism stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann eLouarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation.In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with H. debilis. Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii young tubercle and (iii shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey and for the three stages of broomrape development.The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  12. Identification of differentiation-stage specific molecular markers for the osteoblastic phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twine, Natalie; Chen, Li; Wilkins, Marc

    to age-matched control (n=4). Using RNA-seq and cluster analysis, we identified a set of stage-specific molecular markers that define the progression of OB phenotype during ex vivo culture of hMSC, predict in vivo bone formation capacity of hMSC and can be employed to study the mechanisms of impaired......The phenotype of osteoblastic (OB) cells in culture is currently defined using a limited number of markers of low sensitivity and specificity which belong mostly to extracellular matrix proteins. Also, for clinical use of human skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) in bone regeneration......, there is a need to identify predictive markers for in vivo bone forming capacity. Thus, we employed Illumina RNA sequencing (RNASeq) to examine changes in gene expression across 8 time points between 0-12 days of ex vivo OB differentiation of hMSC. We identified a subset of expressed genes as potentially...

  13. Stage- and gender-specific proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi excretory-secretory products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovany Moreno

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While we lack a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which parasites establish and achieve protection from host immune responses, it is accepted that many of these processes are mediated by products, primarily proteins, released from the parasite. Parasitic nematodes occur in different life stages and anatomical compartments within the host. Little is known about the composition and variability of products released at different developmental stages and their contribution to parasite survival and progression of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a deeper understanding on these aspects, we collected and analyzed through 1D-SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS the Excretory-Secretory Products (ESP of adult female, adult male and microfilariae of the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, one of the etiological agents of human lymphatic filariasis. This proteomic analysis led to the identification of 228 proteins. The list includes 76 proteins with unknown function as well as also proteins with potential immunoregulatory properties, such as protease inhibitors, cytokine homologues and carbohydrate-binding proteins. Larval and adult ESP differed in composition. Only 32 proteins were shared between all three stages/genders. Consistent with this observation, different gene ontology profiles were associated with the different ESP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparative analysis of the proteins released in vitro by different forms of a parasitic nematode dwelling in the same host is presented. The catalog of secreted proteins reflects different stage- and gender-specific related processes and different strategies of immune evasion, providing valuable insights on the contribution of each form of the parasite for establishing the host-parasite interaction.

  14. Do symptom-specific stages of change predict eating disorder treatment outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackard, Diann M; Cronemeyer, Catherine L; Richter, Sara; Egan, Amber

    2015-03-01

    Interview methods to assess stages of change (SOC) in eating disorders (ED) indicate that SOC are positively correlated with symptom improvement over time. However, interviews require significant time and staff training and global measures of SOC do not capture varying levels of motivation across ED symptoms. This study used a self-report, ED symptom-specific SOC measure to determine prevalence of stages across symptoms and identify if SOC predict treatment outcome. Participants [N = 182; age 13-58 years; 92% Caucasian; 96% female; average BMI 21.7 (SD = 5.9); 50% ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS), 30.8% bulimia nervosa (BN), 19.2% anorexia nervosa (AN)] seeking ED treatment at a diverse-milieu multi-disciplinary facility in the United States completed stages of change, behavioral (ED symptom use and frequency) and psychological (ED concerns, anxiety, depression) measures at intake assessment and at 3, 6 and 12 months thereafter. Descriptive summaries were generated using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (continuous) and χ (2) (categorical) tests. Repeated measures linear regression models with autoregressive correlation structure predicted treatment outcome. At intake assessment, 53.3% of AN, 34.0% of BN and 18.1% of EDNOS patients were in Preparation/Action. Readiness to change specific symptoms was highest for binge-eating (57.8%) and vomiting (56.5%). Frequency of fasting and restricting behaviors, and scores on all eating disorder and psychological measures improved over time regardless of SOC at intake assessment. Symptom-specific SOC did not predict reductions in ED symptom frequency. Overall SOC predicted neither improvement in Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) scores nor reduction in depression or trait anxiety; however, higher overall SOC predicted lower state anxiety across follow-up. Readiness to change ED behaviors varies considerably. Most patients reduced eating disorder behaviors and increased psychological functioning regardless of stages

  15. Patient-specific core decompression surgery for early-stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Core decompression is an efficient treatment for early stage ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. In conventional procedures, the pre-operative X-ray only shows one plane of the ischemic area, which often results in inaccurate drilling. This paper introduces a new method that uses computer-assisted technology and rapid prototyping to enhance drilling accuracy during core decompression surgeries and presents a validation study of cadaveric tests.Twelve cadaveric human femurs were used to simulate early-stage ischemic necrosis. The core decompression target at the anterolateral femoral head was simulated using an embedded glass ball (target. Three positioning Kirschner wires were drilled into the top and bottom of the large rotor. The specimen was then subjected to computed tomography (CT. A CT image of the specimen was imported into the Mimics software to construct a three-dimensional model including the target. The best core decompression channel was then designed using the 3D model. A navigational template for the specimen was designed using the Pro/E software and manufactured by rapid prototyping technology to guide the drilling channel. The specimen-specific navigation template was installed on the specimen using positioning Kirschner wires. Drilling was performed using a guide needle through the guiding hole on the templates. The distance between the end point of the guide needle and the target was measured to validate the patient-specific surgical accuracy.The average distance between the tip of the guide needle drilled through the guiding template and the target was 1.92±0.071 mm.Core decompression using a computer-rapid prototyping template is a reliable and accurate technique that could provide a new method of precision decompression for early-stage ischemic necrosis.

  16. Stage-specific histone modification profiles reveal global transitions in the Xenopus embryonic epigenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias D Schneider

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryos are derived from a transitory pool of pluripotent cells. By the process of embryonic induction, these precursor cells are assigned to specific fates and differentiation programs. Histone post-translational modifications are thought to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of stable gene expression patterns underlying these processes. While on gene level histone modifications are known to change during differentiation, very little is known about the quantitative fluctuations in bulk histone modifications during development. To investigate this issue we analysed histones isolated from four different developmental stages of Xenopus laevis by mass spectrometry. In toto, we quantified 59 modification states on core histones H3 and H4 from blastula to tadpole stages. During this developmental period, we observed in general an increase in the unmodified states, and a shift from histone modifications associated with transcriptional activity to transcriptionally repressive histone marks. We also compared these naturally occurring patterns with the histone modifications of murine ES cells, detecting large differences in the methylation patterns of histone H3 lysines 27 and 36 between pluripotent ES cells and pluripotent cells from Xenopus blastulae. By combining all detected modification transitions we could cluster their patterns according to their embryonic origin, defining specific histone modification profiles (HMPs for each developmental stage. To our knowledge, this data set represents the first compendium of covalent histone modifications and their quantitative flux during normogenesis in a vertebrate model organism. The HMPs indicate a stepwise maturation of the embryonic epigenome, which may be causal to the progressing restriction of cellular potency during development.

  17. Identification and characterization of a stage specific membrane protein involved in flagellar attachment in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Woods

    Full Text Available Flagellar attachment is a visibly striking morphological feature of African trypanosomes but little is known about the requirements for attachment at a molecular level. This study characterizes a previously undescribed membrane protein, FLA3, which plays an essential role in flagellar attachment in Trypanosoma brucei. FLA3 is heavily N-glycosylated, locates to the flagellar attachment zone and appears to be a bloodstream stage specific protein. Ablation of the FLA3 mRNA rapidly led to flagellar detachment and a concomitant failure of cytokinesis in the long slender bloodstream form but had no effect on the procyclic form. Flagellar detachment was obvious shortly after induction of the dsRNA and the newly synthesized flagellum was often completely detached after it emerged from the flagellar pocket. Within 12 h most cells possessed detached flagella alongside the existing attached flagellum. These results suggest that proteins involved in attachment are not shared between the new and old attachment zones. In other respects the detached flagella appear normal, they beat rapidly although directional motion was lost, and they possess an apparently normal axoneme and paraflagellar rod structure. The flagellar attachment zone appeared to be disrupted when FLA3 was depleted. Thus, while flagellar attachment is a constitutive feature of the life cycle of trypanosomes, attachment requires stage specific elements at the protein level.

  18. The influence of marital status on stage at diagnosis and survival of patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingguo; Gan, Lu; Liang, Lei; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2015-03-30

    Marital status was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancer types, but it hasn't been fully studied in colorectal cancer (CRC). The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was used to compare survival outcomes with marital status in each stage. In total, 112, 776 eligible patients were identified. Patients in the widowed group were more frequently elderly women, more common of colon cancer, and more stage I/II in tumor stage (P married group (94.72% VS 94.10%). Married CRC patients had better 5year cause-specific survival (CSS) than those unmarried (P married patients at stage I (94.8% vs 89.8%, P vs 76.5%, P vs 53.9%, P VS 8.2%, P unmarried patients were at greater risk of cancer specific mortality. Despite favorable clinicpathological characteristics, widowed patients were at highest risk of death compared with other groups.

  19. Stage-specific fluorescence intensity of GFP and mCherry during sporulation In Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kirra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent proteins are powerful molecular biology tools that have been used to study the subcellular dynamics of proteins within live cells for well over a decade. Two fluorescent proteins commonly used to enable dual protein labelling are GFP (green and mCherry (red. Sporulation in the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has been studied for many years as a paradigm for understanding the molecular basis for differential gene expression. As sporulation initiates, cells undergo an asymmetric division leading to differential gene expression in the small prespore and large mother cell compartments. Use of two fluorescent protein reporters permits time resolved examination of differential gene expression either in the same compartments or between compartments. Due to the spectral properties of GFP and mCherry, they are considered an ideal combination for co-localisation and co-expression experiments. They can also be used in combination with fluorescent DNA stains such as DAPI to correlate protein localisation patterns with the developmental stage of sporulation which can be linked to well characterised changes in DNA staining patterns. Findings While observing the recruitment of the transcription machinery into the forespore of sporulating Bacillus subtilis, we noticed the occurrence of stage-specific fluorescence intensity differences between GFP and mCherry. During vegetative growth and the initial stages of sporulation, fluorescence from both GFP and mCherry fusions behaved similarly. During stage II-III of sporulation we found that mCherry fluorescence was considerably diminished, whilst GFP signals remained clearly visible. This fluorescence pattern reversed during the final stage of sporulation with strong mCherry and low GFP fluorescence. These trends were observed in reciprocal tagging experiments indicating a direct effect of sporulation on fluorescent protein fluorophores. Conclusions Great care should be taken

  20. Influence of mycorrhizal developmental stages and plant age on rhizosphere mycoflora of Pinus kesiya (Royle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively the population was recorded to be high around thc mycorrhizal roots. Some fungi were specific to different stages of mycorrhizal development. Rhizopus nigricans and Cunninghamella elegans were recorded at 5% mycorrhizal association stage. Fusarium sp. was found at 20% mycorrhizal association, while Mucor spp. were obtained at 60% stage. Verticillium sp. had the highest frequency of occurrence in the beginning of mycorrhizal association but later on Penicilium spp. were found to be the most common. Sugar content of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots were determined to assess their effect on the mycorrhizospheric micropopulation. The mannitol and trehalose were present only in mycorrhizal roots.

  1. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebe, B.; Petukhova, G.; Barchi, M.; Bellani, M.; Braselmann, H.; Nakano, T.; Pandita, T.K.; Jasin, M.; Fornace, A.; Meistrich, M.L.; Baarends, W.M.; Schimenti, J.; Lange, T. de; Keeney, S.; Camerini-Otero, R.D.; Scherthan, H.

    2006-01-01

    Meiosis pairs and segregates homologous chromosomes and thereby forms haploid germ cells to compensate the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologue pairing in many eukaryotic species depends on formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during early prophase I when telomeres begin to cluster at the nuclear periphery (bouquet stage). By fluorescence in situ hybridization criteria, we observe that mid-preleptotene and bouquet stage frequencies are altered in male mice deficient for proteins required for recombination, ubiquitin conjugation and telomere length control. The generally low frequencies of mid-preleptotene spermatocytes were significantly increased in male mice lacking recombination proteins SPO11, MEI1, MLH1, KU80, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme HR6B, and in mice with only one copy of the telomere length regulator Terf1. The bouquet stage was significantly enriched in Atm -/- , Spo11 -/- , Mei1 m1Jcs/m1Jcs , Mlh1 -/- , Terf1 +/- and Hr6b -/- spermatogenesis, but not in mice lacking recombination proteins DMC1 and HOP2, the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair factor KU80 and the ATM downstream effector GADD45a. Mice defective in spermiogenesis (Tnp1 -/- , Gmcl1 -/- , Asm -/- ) showed wild-type mid-preleptotene and bouquet frequencies. A low frequency of bouquet spermatocytes in Spo11 -/- Atm -/- spermatogenesis suggests that DSBs contribute to the Atm -/- -correlated bouquet stage exit defect. Insignificant changes of bouquet frequencies in mice with defects in early stages of DSB repair (Dmc1 -/- , Hop2 -/- ) suggest that there is an ATM-specific influence on bouquet stage duration. Altogether, it appears that several pathways influence telomere dynamics in mammalian meiosis

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  3. Defining Brugia malayi and Wolbachia symbiosis by stage-specific dual RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Grote

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Filarial nematodes currently infect up to 54 million people worldwide, with millions more at risk for infection, representing the leading cause of disability in the developing world. Brugia malayi is one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and remains the only human filarial parasite that can be maintained in small laboratory animals. Many filarial nematode species, including B. malayi, carry an obligate endosymbiont, the alpha-proteobacteria Wolbachia, which can be eliminated through antibiotic treatment. Elimination of the endosymbiont interferes with development, reproduction, and survival of the worms within the mamalian host, a clear indicator that the Wolbachia are crucial for survival of the parasite. Little is understood about the mechanism underlying this symbiosis.To better understand the molecular interplay between these two organisms we profiled the transcriptomes of B. malayi and Wolbachia by dual RNA-seq across the life cycle of the parasite. This helped identify functional pathways involved in this essential symbiotic relationship provided by the co-expression of nematode and bacterial genes. We have identified significant stage-specific and gender-specific differential expression in Wolbachia during the nematode's development. For example, during female worm development we find that Wolbachia upregulate genes involved in ATP production and purine biosynthesis, as well as genes involved in the oxidative stress response.This global transcriptional analysis has highlighted specific pathways to which both Wolbachia and B. malayi contribute concurrently over the life cycle of the parasite, paving the way for the development of novel intervention strategies.

  4. Stage-specific effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of dental pulp cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth FGF2 increased expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of DMP1-GFP+ functional odontoblasts and DSPP-Cerulean+ odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization, expression of markers of dentinogenesis, and expression of DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells and provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration. PMID:25823776

  5. Stage specific requirement of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α in embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qian

    Full Text Available Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα is a cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase for platelet-derived growth factors. Correct timing and level of Pdgfra expression is crucial for embryo development, and deletion of Pdgfra caused developmental defects of multiple endoderm and mesoderm derived structures, resulting in a complex phenotypes including orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib deformities, and omphalocele in mice. However, it is not clear if deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic stages differentially affects these structures.To address the temporal requirement of Pdgfra in embryonic development.We have deleted the Pdgfra in Pdgfra-expressing tissues at different embryonic stages in mice, examined and quantified the developmental anomalies.Current study showed that (i conditional deletion of Pdgfra at different embryonic days (between E7.5 and E10.5 resulted in orofacial cleft, spina bifida, rib cage deformities, and omphalocele, and (ii the day of Pdgfra deletion influenced the combinations, incidence and severities of these anomalies. Deletion of Pdgfra caused apoptosis of Pdgfra-expressing tissues, and developmental defects of their derivatives.Orofacial cleft, spina bifida and omphalocele are among the commonest skeletal and abdominal wall defects of newborns, but their genetic etiologies are largely unknown. The remarkable resemblance of our conditional Pdgfra knockout embryos to theses human congenital anomalies, suggesting that dysregulated PDGFRA expression could cause these anomalies in human. Future work should aim at defining (a the regulatory elements for the expression of the human PDGFRA during embryonic development, and (b if mutations / sequence variations of these regulatory elements cause these anomalies.

  6. Influence of Neuroblastoma Stage on Serum-Based Detection of MYCN Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaret, Valerie; Hogarty, Michael D; London, Wendy B; McGrady, Patrick; Iacono, Isabelle; Brejon, Stephanie; Swerts, Katrien; Noguera, Rosa; Gross, Nicole; Rousseau, Raphael; Puisieux, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Background MYCN oncogene amplification has been defined as the most important prognostic factor for neuroblastoma, the most common solid extracranial neoplasm in children. High copy numbers are strongly associated with rapid tumor progression and poor outcome, independently of tumor stage or patient age, and this has become an important factor in treatment stratification. Procedure By Real Time Quantitative PCR analysis, we evaluated the clinical relevance of circulating MYCN DNA of 267 patients with locoregional or metastatic neuroblastoma in children less than 18 months of age. Results For patients in this age group with INSS stage 4 or 4S NB and stage 3 patients, serum-based determination of MYCN DNA sequences had good sensitivity (85%, 83% and 75% respectively) and high specificity (100%) when compared to direct tumor gene determination. In contrast, the approach showed low sensitivity patients with stage 1 and 2 disease. Conclusion Our results show that the sensitivity of the serum-based MYCN DNA sequence determination depends on the stage of the disease. However, this simple, reproducible assay may represent a reasonably sensitive and very specific tool to assess tumor MYCN status in cases with stage 3 and metastatic disease for whom a wait and see strategy is often recommended. PMID:19301388

  7. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Hefzi, Hooman; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gao, Xin; Gojobori, Takashi; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Lewis, Nathan E.; Jamshidi, Neema

    2018-01-01

    and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species

  8. Molecular Differentiation of Risk for Disease Progression: Delineating Stage-Specific Therapeutic Targets for Disease Management in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worsham, Maria J; Raju, Usha; Chase, Gary; Lu, Mei

    2004-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to 1a: identify an informative set of specific genetic alterations that underlie the pathogenesis of disease progression to serve as targets for management of disease at the earliest stages and 1b...

  9. Molecular Differentiation of Risk for Disease Progression: Delineating Stage-Specific Therapeutic Targets for Disease Management in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Worsham, Maria J; Raju, Usha; Lu, Mei

    2006-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to 1a: identify an informative set of specific genetic alterations that underlie the pathogenesis of disease progression to serve as targets for management of disease at the earliest stages and 1b...

  10. Impact of Surgical Route in Influencing the Risk of Lymphatic Complications After Ovarian Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Borghi, Chiara; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Chiappa, Valentina; Scaffa, Cono; Perotto, Stefania; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Montanelli, Luca; Di Donato, Violante; Infantino, Carmelo; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    Lymphatic complications are a common occurrence after staging surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer (eEOC). We investigated whether the introduction of minimally invasive surgery influences the risk of developing lymphoceles and lymphorrhea in patients undergoing staging for eEOC. For this purpose, data of consecutive patients affected by eEOC undergoing staging surgery between January 1980 and January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, and a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. This systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Review. Among 341 patients included in the present study, 47 severe postoperative complications occurred (13.7%), including 40 lymphatic complications: 31 symptomatic lymphoceles (9%) and 9 cases of lymphorrhea (2.6%), respectively. Laparoscopic staging correlated with a lower risk of developing any severe lymphatic complications in comparison with open surgery (p = .02). In particular, the laparoscopic approach and para-aortic node involvement were associated with a trend toward lower lymphoceles (odds ratio, .13; 95% confidence interval, .07-2.20; p = .05) and a trend toward higher risk of lymphorrhea developing (odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval, .93-17.3; p = .06), respectively. In conclusion, the implementation of a minimally invasive approach might result in a slight reduction of lymphatic complications after eEOC staging. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of the selection from incremental stages on lactate minimum intensity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Eiji Miyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to assess the influence of stage selection from the incremental phase and the use of peak lactate after hyperlactatemia induction on the determination of the lactate minimum intensity (iLACmin. Twelve moderately active university students (23±5 years, 78.3±14.1 kg, 175.3±5.1 cm performed a maximal incremental test to determine the respiratory compensation point (RCP (initial intensity at 70 W and increments of 17.5 W every 2 minutes and a lactate minimum test (induction with the Wingate test, the incremental test started at 30 W below RCP with increments of 10 W every 3 minutes on a cycle ergometer. The iLACmin was determined using second order polynomial adjustment applying five exercise stage selection: 1 using all stages (iLACmin P; 2 using all stages below and two stages above iLACminP (iLACminA; 3 using two stages below and all stages above iLACminP (iLACminB; 4 using the largest and same possible number of stages below and above the iLACminP (iLACminI; 5 using all stages and peak lactate after hyperlactatemia induction (iLACminD. No differences were found between the iLACminP (138.2±30.2 W, iLACminA (139.1±29.1 W, iLACminB (135.3±14.2 W, iLACminI (138.6±20.5 W and iLACmiD (136.7±28.5 W protocols, and a high level of agreement between these intensities and iLACminP was observed. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and lactate corresponding to these intensities was not different and was strongly correlated. However, the iLACminB presented the lowest success rate (66.7%. In conclusion, stage selection did not influence the determination of iLACmin but modified the success rate

  12. Tissue and stage-specific distribution of Wolbachia in Brugia malayi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Fischer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most filarial parasite species contain Wolbachia, obligatory bacterial endosymbionts that are crucial for filarial development and reproduction. They are targets for alternative chemotherapy, but their role in the biology of filarial nematodes is not well understood. Light microscopy provides important information on morphology, localization and potential function of these bacteria. Surprisingly, immunohistology and in situ hybridization techniques have not been widely used to monitor Wolbachia distribution during the filarial life cycle. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A monoclonal antibody directed against Wolbachia surface protein and in situ hybridization targeting Wolbachia 16S rRNA were used to monitor Wolbachia during the life cycle of B. malayi. In microfilariae and vector stage larvae only a few cells contain Wolbachia. In contrast, large numbers of Wolbachia were detected in the lateral chords of L4 larvae, but no endobacteria were detected in the genital primordium. In young adult worms (5 weeks p.i., a massive expansion of Wolbachia was observed in the lateral chords adjacent to ovaries or testis, but no endobacteria were detected in the growth zone of the ovaries, uterus, the growth zone of the testis or the vas deferens. Confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that numerous Wolbachia are aligned towards the developing ovaries and single endobacteria were detected in the germline. In inseminated females (8 weeks p.i. Wolbachia were observed in the ovaries, embryos and in decreasing numbers in the lateral chords. In young males Wolbachia were found in distinct zones of the testis and in large numbers in the lateral chords in the vicinity of testicular tissue but never in mature spermatids or spermatozoa. CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistology and in situ hybridization show distinct tissue and stage specific distribution patterns for Wolbachia in B. malayi. Extensive multiplication of Wolbachia occurs in the

  13. Factors influencing late stage of breast cancer at presentation in a district Hospital - Segamat Hospital, Johor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M L; Ling, D Y; Nanu P, K P; Nording, H; Lim, C H

    2015-06-01

    In Malaysia, late stage presentation of breast cancer (stage III or IV) has been a healthcare problem that varies geographically throughout the country. This study aims to understand the factors influencing late stage of breast cancer at presentation among Malaysian women in Segamat Hospital, Johor, which is a district hospital. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on secondary data of all newly diagnosed breast cancer women from 1st August 2011 to 28th February 2014. Secondary data includes age, ethnicity, marital status, family history, education level, occupation, presenting symptom, duration of symptom, tumour size, tumour pathology, tumour grading, oestrogen, progesterone and HER-2 receptor status were collected and analysed using SPSS version 20.0.0. In total, data from 52 women was analysed and two women were excluded for incompleteness as these women defaulted. Late stage at presentation was 59.6% of all new cases (17.3% stage III and 42.3% stage IV). The commonest age group of all women diagnosed with breast cancer was in the 5th decade. Majority of them were Malay, married and housewives with no family history of breast cancer. The statistically significant factors associated with late stage at presentation include Malay ethnicity (p=0.019), presenting symptoms other than breast lump (p=0.047), and duration of breast lump more than 3 months (p=0.009). The study demonstrated presentation at late stage of breast cancer is a major health concern among Malaysian women in district hospital. This may be attributed to different sociocultural beliefs, strong belief in complementary and alternative medicine, lack of awareness, and difficult accessibility to healthcare services.

  14. Life-stage-specific physiology defines invasion extent of a riverine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Beauchamp, David A.; Olden, Julian D.

    2015-01-01

    -history stage that likely sets the distributional limits of all other life-history stages. We anticipate the framework developed here could be employed to identify how similar stage-specific environmental sensitivity determines distribution in many other ectothermic species.

  15. Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in rat seminiferous tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in testis were examined in Wistar rats by both inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a microdissection technique and in situ elemental imaging of micro-PIXE analysis. The young adult animals (10 weeks old) contained higher levels of zinc and manganese in the seminiferous tubules at stages VII-VIII than stages XI through VI and IX-X and the levels were higher than those of the immature and old animals. Copper and selenium levels at stages VII-VIII of the young adult animals were also higher than those of the immature and old animals. In stages VII and VIII, zinc was higher in the central area of the seminiferous epithelium, where spermatozoa were localized, demonstrating a cell-specific property. (author)

  16. The influence of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy during preoperative staging of non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilesen, A.P.J.; Hoefnagel, S.J.M.; Busch, O.R.C.; Bennink, R.J.; Gouma, D.J.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) influences the preoperative staging and clinical management of non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-pNETs). Materials and methods: All SRS examinations performed between 2002–2013 were selected. Patients with NF-pNET were included if both computed tomography (CT) and SRS was performed during preoperative staging. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and SRS for detecting NF-pNET metastases was analysed. Altered TNM classification and changed clinical management were calculated. Changed management was defined as a change from surgical resection into systemic treatment or vice versa. NF-pNETs were defined as tumours without clinical symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion. Results: Overall, 62 patients with NF-pNET were included with a mean age of 57 years (SD: 12.4) 2 . In 28 patients (45%), CT and SRS were correct and in agreement in the detection of primary tumour/metastases. In 34 patients (55%), one of the techniques was incorrect and therefore, there was no agreement. SRS altered the TNM classification in 14 patients (23%) and clinical management in nine patients (15%). In patients without metastases on CT, SRS detected lymph node metastases in one patient. The sensitivity to detect the primary tumour with CT was 95% and with SRS was 73%. In detecting metastases, the sensitivity and specificity were both 85% for CT versus 80% and 90% for SRS. Conclusion: Overall, CT and SRS were in agreement in the detection of NF-pNET. In NF-pNET without suspicious metastatic lesions on CT, SRS has limited value. SRS may be indicated to confirm lesions suspicious for neuroendocrine tumours metastases. - Highlights: • In 28 patients (45%), CT and SRS were correct and in agreement in the detection of primary tumor/metastases. • In 34 patients (55%) one of the modalities was incorrect and therefore, there was no agreement. • Sensitivity to detect the primary tumor with CT and SRS were 95% versus 73

  17. Comparative Influences of Precipitation and River Stage on Groundwater Levels in Near-River Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incheol Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable performance of foundations of various urban buildings and infrastructures is strongly affected by groundwater level (GWL, as GWL causes changes in the stress state within soil. In the present study, the components affecting GWL were investigated, focusing on the effects of precipitation and river stage. These components were analyzed using a six-year database established for hydrological and groundwater monitoring data. Five study regions for which daily measured precipitation, river stage, and GWL data were available were compared. Different periods of precipitation, geographical characteristics, and local surface conditions were considered in the analysis. The results indicated that key influence components on GWL are different depending on the hydrological, geological, and geographical characteristics of the target regions. River stage had the strongest influence on GWL in urban areas near large rivers with a high ratio of paved surface. In rural areas, where the paved surface area ratio and soil permeability were low, the moving average showed a closer correlation to GWL than river stage. A moving average-based method to predict GWL variation with time was proposed for regions with a low ratio of paved surface area and low permeability soils.

  18. The influence of stages of maturity on the agronomic traits of fibre flax introduced varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Butorac

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The harvest time of fibre flax is influenced by climatic conditions, varieties, stages of maturity and the crop’s final use. In addition, the time of harvesting of fibre flax affects the quality of the fibres. Fibre flax can be harvested in few stages of maturity. So, this paper presents the influence of three stages of maturity (green, yellow and full ripening on the agronomic traits (stem yield, stem yield after retting, total fibre yield, share of total fibre, long fibre yield, share of long fibre of five fibre flax varieties. Varieties trials with fibre flax were set up in two years (2010-2011 and in two locations: at the experimental fields of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb on eutric cambisol and of the College of Agriculture at Križevci on pseudogley on level terrain. The trials were carried out according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. According to the results of the two-years research into the agronomic traits of fibre flax, significant differences were established among the varieties and among the stages of maturity under study. The varieties Agatha, Viola and Electra recorded higher values of investigated traits. All varieties achieved higher values of investigated traits at Križevci (production on heavier soil in which some of winter moisture remained available in spring months. The highest values of investigated traits were recorded when the fibre flax were harvested in the green ripening.

  19. Influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures in multi-stage fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, the limited-entry method is widely used to promote uniform growth of multiple fractures. However, this method's effectiveness may be lost because the perforations will be eroded gradually during the fracturing period. In order to study the influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures, we combined the solid–fluid coupled model of hydraulic fracture growth with an empirical model of perforation erosion to implement numerical simulation. The simulations show clearly that the erosion of perforation will significantly deteriorate the non-uniform growth of multiple fractures. Based on the numerical model, we also studied the influences of proppant concentration and injection rates on perforation erosion in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The results indicate that the initial erosion rates become higher with the rising proppant concentration, but the growth of multiple hydraulic fractures is not sensitive to the varied proppant concentration. In addition, higher injection rates are beneficial significantly to the limited-entry design, leading to more uniform growth of fractures. Thus, in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing enough high injection rates are proposed to keep uniform growths. Keywords: Unconventional oil and gas reservoir, Horizontal well, Perforation friction, Perforation erosion, Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, Numerical simulation, Mathematic model, Uniform growth of fractures

  20. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    OpenAIRE

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized tha...

  1. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC-MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more sensitive to DPH. Our observations highlight the importance of understanding the influence of time of day on intrinsic locomotor activity, and the age-specific hazards of aquatic contaminants to fish behavior. PMID:26431593

  2. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly de...

  3. Antimalarial drug targets in Plasmodium falciparum predicted by stage-specific metabolic network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huthmacher Carola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite enormous efforts to combat malaria the disease still afflicts up to half a billion people each year of which more than one million die. Currently no approved vaccine is available and resistances to antimalarials are widely spread. Hence, new antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. Results Here, we present a computational analysis of the metabolism of Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria pathogen. We assembled a compartmentalized metabolic model and predicted life cycle stage specific metabolism with the help of a flux balance approach that integrates gene expression data. Predicted metabolite exchanges between parasite and host were found to be in good accordance with experimental findings when the parasite's metabolic network was embedded into that of its host (erythrocyte. Knock-out simulations identified 307 indispensable metabolic reactions within the parasite. 35 out of 57 experimentally demonstrated essential enzymes were recovered and another 16 enzymes, if additionally the assumption was made that nutrient uptake from the host cell is limited and all reactions catalyzed by the inhibited enzyme are blocked. This predicted set of putative drug targets, shown to be enriched with true targets by a factor of at least 2.75, was further analyzed with respect to homology to human enzymes, functional similarity to therapeutic targets in other organisms and their predicted potency for prophylaxis and disease treatment. Conclusions The results suggest that the set of essential enzymes predicted by our flux balance approach represents a promising starting point for further drug development.

  4. The NIMA Kinase Is Required To Execute Stage-Specific Mitotic Functions after Initiation of Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Meera; Lad, Alisha A.

    2014-01-01

    The G2-M transition in Aspergillus nidulans requires the NIMA kinase, the founding member of the Nek kinase family. Inactivation of NIMA results in a late G2 arrest, while overexpression of NIMA is sufficient to promote mitotic events independently of cell cycle phase. Endogenously tagged NIMA-GFP has dynamic mitotic localizations appearing first at the spindle pole body and then at nuclear pore complexes before transitioning to within nuclei and the mitotic spindle and back at the spindle pole bodies at mitotic exit, suggesting that it functions sequentially at these locations. Since NIMA is indispensable for mitotic entry, it has been difficult to determine the requirement of NIMA for subaspects of mitosis. We show here that when NIMA is partially inactivated, although mitosis can be initiated, a proportion of cells fail to successfully generate two daughter nuclei. We further define the mitotic defects to show that normal NIMA function is required for the formation of a bipolar spindle, nuclear pore complex disassembly, completion of chromatin segregation, and the normal structural rearrangements of the nuclear envelope required to generate two nuclei from one. In the remaining population of cells that enter mitosis with inadequate NIMA, two daughter nuclei are generated in a manner dependent on the spindle assembly checkpoint, indicating highly penetrant defects in mitotic progression without sufficient NIMA activity. This study shows that NIMA is required not only for mitotic entry but also sequentially for successful completion of stage-specific mitotic events. PMID:24186954

  5. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models (GeMMs of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1, choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5 metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.

  6. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.

    2018-01-04

    Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1), choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5) metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.

  7. The influence of magnetic field strength in ionization stage on ion transport between two stages of a double stage Hall thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Song Maojiang; Li Hong; Liu Hui; Han Ke

    2012-01-01

    It is futile for a double stage Hall thruster to design a special ionization stage if the ionized ions cannot enter the acceleration stage. Based on this viewpoint, the ion transport under different magnetic field strengths in the ionization stage is investigated, and the physical mechanisms affecting the ion transport are analyzed in this paper. With a combined experimental and particle-in-cell simulation study, it is found that the ion transport between two stages is chiefly affected by the potential well, the potential barrier, and the potential drop at the bottom of potential well. With the increase of magnetic field strength in the ionization stage, there is larger plasma density caused by larger potential well. Furthermore, the potential barrier near the intermediate electrode declines first and then rises up while the potential drop at the bottom of potential well rises up first and then declines as the magnetic field strength increases in the ionization stage. Consequently, both the ion current entering the acceleration stage and the total ion current ejected from the thruster rise up first and then decline as the magnetic field strength increases in the ionization stage. Therefore, there is an optimal magnetic field strength in the ionization stage to guide the ion transport between two stages.

  8. Shaft Position Influence on Technical Characteristics of Universal Two-Stages Helical Speed Reducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мilan Rackov

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Purchasers of speed reducers decide on buying those reducers, that can the most approximately satisfy their demands with much smaller costs. Amount of used material, ie. mass and dimensions of gear unit influences on gear units price. Mass and dimensions of gear unit, besides output torque, gear unit ratio and efficiency, are the most important parameters of technical characteristics of gear units and their quality. Centre distance and position of shafts have significant influence on output torque, gear unit ratio and mass of gear unit through overall dimension of gear unit housing. Thus these characteristics are dependent on each other. This paper deals with analyzing of centre distance and shaft position influence on output torque and ratio of universal two stages gear units.

  9. Developmental Stage-Specific Manifestations of Absent TPO/c-MPL Signalling in Newborn Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Viola; Ramsey, Haley; Liu, Zhi-Jian; Italiano, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Karin; Bihorel, Sihem; Mager, Donald; Hu, Zhongbo; Slayton, William B; Kile, Benjamin T; Sola-Visner, Martha; Ferrer-Marin, Francisca

    2017-12-01

    Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopaenia (CAMT) is a disorder caused by c-MPL mutations that impair thrombopoietin (TPO) signalling, resulting in a near absence of megakaryocytes (MKs). While this phenotype is consistent in adults, neonates with CAMT can present with severe thrombocytopaenia despite normal MK numbers. To investigate this, we characterized MKs and platelets in newborn c-MPL –/– mice. Liver MKs in c-MPL –/– neonates were reduced in number and size compared with wild-type (WT) age-matched MKs, and exhibited ultrastructural abnormalities not found in adult c-MPL –/– MKs. Platelet counts were lower in c-MPL –/– compared with WT mice at birth and did not increase over the first 2 weeks of life. In vivo biotinylation revealed a significant reduction in the platelet half-life of c-MPL –/– newborn mice (P2) compared with age-matched WT pups, which was not associated with ultrastructural abnormalities. Genetic deletion of the pro-apoptotic Bak did not rescue the severely reduced platelet half-life of c-MPL –/– newborn mice, suggesting that it was due to factors other than platelets entering apoptosis early. Indeed, adult GFP+ (green fluorescent protein transgenic) platelets transfused into thrombocytopenic c-MPL –/– P2 pups also had a shortened lifespan, indicating the importance of cell-extrinsic factors. In addition, neonatal platelets from WT and c-MPL –/– mice exhibited reduced P-selectin surface expression following stimulation compared with adult platelets of either genotype, and platelets from c-MPL –/– neonates exhibited reduced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) activation in response to thrombin compared with age-matched WT platelets. Taken together, our findings indicate that c-MPL deficiency is associated with abnormal maturation of neonatal MKs and developmental stage-specific defects in platelet function.

  10. Sexual Maturity and Life Stage Influences Toxic Metal Accumulation in Croatian Brown Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Orct, Tatjana; Reljić, Slaven; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2018-02-01

    The influence of reproductive and (early) life stages on toxic metal levels was investigated in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the largest mammalian predator species in Croatia. The purpose was to examine critical clusters in a population that might be at a higher risk of adverse health effects caused by metals as environmental contaminants. Levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in muscle, liver and kidney cortex of 325 male and 139 female bears, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were analysed according to distinct bear life stages (young: cub, yearling, subadult; mature: adult). Metal levels did not differ among sexes in young animals (< 4 years), except for mercury in muscles (higher in females), and adult females had higher cadmium and mercury. A trend of renal cadmium accumulation with age in immature male animals disappeared once they reached maturity, whereas for females this trend has only slowly declined in mature compared to immature bears. In early life stage (< 1 year), bear cubs had lower cadmium, comparable mercury, and higher lead in the kidneys than the bears of the following age category (yearlings). Due to a higher proportion of renal lead transfer from the mother to the cub compared with cadmium, it may be that the high burden of cadmium found in kidneys of older females has lower toxicological concern for their cubs than the lead content. Sex, reproductive, and life stages of bears were confirmed as important in assessing toxic metal burden.

  11. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE FDG-PET/CT ON THE DIAGNOSE AND STAGING OF COLORECTAL CANCER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Y. Kolev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC, preoperative evaluation and staging should focus on techniques that might alter the preoperative or intraoperative surgical plan. Conventional imaging methods (CT, MRI have low accuracy for identifying the depth of tumour infiltration and have limited ability to detect regional lymph node involvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of FDG-PET in the initial staging of patients with CC in comparison with conventional staging methods and to determine its impact on therapeutic management.METHODS: In First Clinic of Surgery at University Hospital “St. Marina” one hundred and four patients with a diagnosis of CRC (53 males and 51 females; mean age 66.76± 12.36 years, selected prospectively. All patients were studied for staging using a standard procedure (CT and FDG-PET. The reference method was histology. The effect of FDG-PET on the diagnose and the operative treatment was studied.RESULTS: In 14 patients, surgery was contraindicated by FDG-PET owing to the extent of disease (only 6/14 suspected by CT. FDG-PET revealed four synchronous tumours. For N staging, both procedures showed a relatively high specificity but a low diagnostic accuracy (PET 56%, CT 60% and sensitivity (PET 21%, CT 25%. For M assessment, diagnostic accuracy was 92% for FDGPET and 87% for CT. FDG-PET results led to modification of the therapy approach in 17.85% of the patients with rectal cancer and in 14.8% of the patients with colon cancer.CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional techniques, FDGPET appears to be useful in pre-surgical staging of CC, revealing unsuspected disease and impacting on the treatment approach.

  13. A Treatment Stage Specific Approach to Improving Quality of Life for Women with Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avis, Nancy E; Miller, Brigitte

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on quality of life among women with ovarian cancer. The primary objective of the study is to identify the issues that are of greatest concern to women in each of three treatment stages...

  14. Dramatic impact of blood transfusion on cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy irrespective of tumor stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Alexander; Grimm, Tobias; Schneevoigt, Birte-Swantje; Wittmann, Georg; Kretschmer, Alexander; Jokisch, Friedrich; Grabbert, Markus; Apfelbeck, Maria; Schulz, Gerald; Gratzke, Christian; Stief, Christian G; Karl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion on cancer-specific outcome. Follow-up data were collected from 722 patients undergoing radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) between 2004 and 2014. Median follow-up was 26 months (interquartile range 12-61 months). Outcome was analyzed in relation to the amount of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion and different tumor stages. The primary endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS) after cystectomy. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used. Intraoperative blood transfusion was given in 36% (263/722) and postoperative blood transfusion in 18% (132/722). In patients with and without intraoperative blood transfusion, 5 year CSS was 48% and 67%, respectively (p blood transfusion, 5 year CSS was 48% and 63%, respectively (p transfused red blood cell (RBC) units [intraoperatively: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.15, p = .023; postoperatively: HR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21, p transfusions was also found in favorable subgroups (pT1 tumor, hemoglobin ≥13 mg/dl, p = .004) and in a high-volume surgeon subgroup (n = 244, p Blood transfusions during and after radical cystectomy were independent prognostic factors for CSS in this retrospective study. Therefore, efforts should be made to reduce the necessity of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion in cystectomy patients.

  15. cDNA fingerprinting of osteoprogenitor cells to isolate differentiation stage-specific genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Candeliere, G A; Rao, Y; Floh, A; Sandler, S D; Aubin, J E

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA fingerprinting strategy was developed to identify genes based on their differential expression pattern during osteoblast development. Preliminary biological and molecular staging of cDNA pools prepared by global amplification PCR allowed discrim-inating choices to be made in selection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to be isolated. Sequencing of selected ESTs confirmed that both known and novel genes can be isolated from any developmental stage of interest, e.g. from primitive progen...

  16. Influence of Shaft Torsional Stiffness on Dynamic Response of Four-Stage Main Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic response analysis has potential for increasing fatigue life of the components in the transmission of a multistage main transmission system. The calculated data can demonstrate the influence of shaft torsional stiffness on dynamic characteristics of the system. Detecting key shafts of the system and analyzing their sensitivity are important for the design of four-stage helicopter gear box. Lumped mass method is applied for dynamic modeling and Fourier method is used to solve differential equation of the system. Results of the analysis indicate that key shafts can be designed carefully to improve the performance of the transmission system.

  17. Life stage influences the resistance and resilience of black mangrove forests to winter climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; From, Andrew S.; McCoy, Megan L.; McLeod, Jennie L.; Kelleway, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In subtropical coastal wetlands on multiple continents, climate change-induced reductions in the frequency and intensity of freezing temperatures are expected to lead to the expansion of woody plants (i.e., mangrove forests) at the expense of tidal grasslands (i.e., salt marshes). Since some ecosystem goods and services would be affected by mangrove range expansion, there is a need to better understand mangrove sensitivity to freezing temperatures as well as the implications of changing winter climate extremes for mangrove-salt marsh interactions. In this study, we investigated the following questions: (1) how does plant life stage (i.e., ontogeny) influence the resistance and resilience of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forests to freezing temperatures; and (2) how might differential life stage responses to freeze events affect the rate of mangrove expansion and salt marsh displacement due to climate change? To address these questions, we quantified freeze damage and recovery for different life stages (seedling, short tree, and tall tree) following extreme winter air temperature events that occurred near the northern range limit of A. germinans in North America. We found that life stage affects black mangrove forest resistance and resilience to winter climate extremes in a nonlinear fashion. Resistance to winter climate extremes was high for tall A. germinans trees and seedlings, but lowest for short trees. Resilience was highest for tall A. germinans trees. These results suggest the presence of positive feedbacks and indicate that climate-change induced decreases in the frequency and intensity of extreme minimum air temperatures could lead to a nonlinear increase in mangrove forest resistance and resilience. This feedback could accelerate future mangrove expansion and salt marsh loss at rates beyond what would be predicted from climate change alone. In general terms, our study highlights the importance of accounting for differential life stage responses and

  18. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    workday hours, and these time of day PMR activity profiles were similar across ages examined (4–10 dpf). 10 dpf zebrafish larvae were consistently more sensitive to DPH than either the 4 or 7 dpf larvae with an environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more sensitive to DPH. Our observations highlight the importance of understanding the influence of time of day on intrinsic locomotor activity, and the age-specific hazards of aquatic contaminants to fish behavior.

  19. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofco, Lauren A. [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Cruz, Luis Colon [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Haddad, Samuel P. [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Behra, Martine L. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan W., E-mail: Bryan_Brooks@baylor.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States)

    2016-01-15

    workday hours, and these time of day PMR activity profiles were similar across ages examined (4–10 dpf). 10 dpf zebrafish larvae were consistently more sensitive to DPH than either the 4 or 7 dpf larvae with an environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more sensitive to DPH. Our observations highlight the importance of understanding the influence of time of day on intrinsic locomotor activity, and the age-specific hazards of aquatic contaminants to fish behavior.

  20. Antigen processing influences HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunodominance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Wee, Edmund; Burgevin, Anne

    2009-01-01

    -associated antigen proteins p17 and p24 correlated with epitope abundance, which was strongly influenced by proteasomal digestion profiles, affinity for the transporter protein TAP, and trimming mediated by the endoplasmatic reticulum aminopeptidase ERAAP, and was moderately influenced by HLA affinity. Structural...

  1. The Evolution of Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity Influencing Factors in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Petra PETRU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the main influencing factors of the probability of becoming an early-stage entrepreneur in Romania. The analyzed factors are: gender, age, education, household income, work status, network, opportunity perception, perception regarding the trust in own entrepreneurial skills, perception on the society’s appreciation regarding the principle of equality in life standard, perception on the society’s appreciation regarding the entrepreneurial career, perception on the proper promotion of entrepreneurial successes by mass media. We estimate a logit model for each year of the 2007-2009 period and we study the main influencing perceptional and sociodemographic factors, based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM Adult Population Survey database for Romania.

  2. Stage-specific and culture-specific coping strategies used by mainland Chinese immigrants during resettlement in Hong Kong: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the stage-specific and culture-specific coping strategies used by Mainland Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong to handle psychosocial stressors experienced during the resettlement stage of the migration process. While direct action coping strategies of problem-solving and compromise were used by immigrants to deal with recurring, daily resettlement difficulties, cognitive strategies of positive comparisons and positive and optimistic thinking were utilized to change the meanings of these difficulties. Emotion-focused coping of acceptance and avoidance strategies were culture-specific, and were useful in reducing the stress associated with the resettlement difficulties encountered. It was also found that strategies such as acceptance, compromise and avoidance might have deleterious effects on the longer-term adjustment of immigrants. Implications for services and counseling for the immigrants were suggested.

  3. Specific features of the flow structure in a reactive type turbine stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikov, V. A.; Semakina, E. Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The results of experimental studies of the gas dynamics for a reactive type turbine stage are presented. The objective of the studies is the measurement of the 3D flow fields in reference cross sections, experimental determination of the stage characteristics, and analysis of the flow structure for detecting the sources of kinetic energy losses. The integral characteristics of the studied stage are obtained by averaging the results of traversing the 3D flow over the area of the reference cross sections before and behind the stage. The averaging is performed using the conservation equations for mass, total energy flux, angular momentum with respect to the axis z of the turbine, entropy flow, and the radial projection of the momentum flux equation. The flow parameter distributions along the channel height behind the stage are obtained in the same way. More thorough analysis of the flow structure is performed after interpolation of the experimentally measured point parameter values and 3D flow velocities behind the stage. The obtained continuous velocity distributions in the absolute and relative coordinate systems are presented in the form of vector fields. The coordinates of the centers and the vectors of secondary vortices are determined using the results of point measurements of velocity vectors in the cross section behind the turbine stage and their subsequent interpolation. The approach to analysis of experimental data on aerodynamics of the turbine stage applied in this study allows one to find the detailed space structure of the working medium flow, including secondary coherent vortices at the root and peripheral regions of the air-gas part of the stage. The measured 3D flow parameter fields and their interpolation, on the one hand, point to possible sources of increased power losses, and, on the other hand, may serve as the basis for detailed testing of CFD models of the flow using both integral and local characteristics. The comparison of the numerical and

  4. Microsatellite instability is associated with reduced disease specific survival in stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, H M; Ryan, E; Balasubramanian, I; Kennelly, R; Geraghty, R; Sclafani, F; Fennelly, D; McDermott, R; Ryan, E J; O'Donoghue, D; Hyland, J M P; Martin, S T; O'Connell, P R; Gibbons, D; Winter, Des; Sheahan, K

    2016-11-01

    Up to 15% of colorectal cancers exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI), where errors in replication go unchecked due to defects in the mismatch repair system. This study aimed to determine survival in a large single-centre series of 1250 consecutive colorectal cancers subjected to universal MSI testing. Clinical and pathological features of patients with colorectal cancer identified on prospectively maintained colorectal and pathology databases at St. Vincent's University Hospital from 2004 to May 2012 were examined. Mismatch repair (MMR) status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier curves, the log-rank test and Cox regression were used to associate survival with clinical and pathological characteristics. Of the 1250 colorectal cancers in the study period, 11% exhibited MSI (n = 138). Patients with MSI tumours had significantly lower rates of lymph node and distant metastases (MSI N+ rate: 24.8% compared with MSS N+ rate: 46.2%, p colon cancer. However, patients with Stage III MSI colon cancers had a worse DSS than those with MSS tumours. Stage III MSI tumours exhibited higher rates of lymphovascular invasion and perineural invasion than Stage I/II MSI tumours. MSI is associated with a reduced risk of nodal and distant metastases, with an improved DSS in Stage I/II colon cancer. However, when MSI tumours progress to Stage III these patients had worse outcomes and pathological features. New strategies for this cohort of patients may be required to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Factors influencing subject selection in upper secondary education (Key Stage 4 for males and females in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Vaughan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Research to date has investigated the potential factors that influence students’ decisions in opting to study certain subjects during their upper secondary education. Trends in subject selection at this level (Key Stage 4 have been maintained over time and have consistently displayed comparable differences for males and females. It is recognised that males typically opt for subjects such as physical education and science, while females are traditionally noted as favouring the arts and humanities. These educational decisions may impact on future occupational directions. In light of recent initiatives, such as the English Baccalaureate, it is of interest to explore whether such measures have had an influence on this noted gender gap. Participants and procedure The present study investigates the potential predictors of subject selection, while controlling for gender, offering a specific focus on the education system in England. Attention is given to students’ perceived academic ability and attitude toward school, and how such factors may guide subject choice. Participants (N = 276 were students currently in the process of selecting optional modules for Key Stage 4 study. Results The findings demonstrate that female students are less likely than their male counterparts to opt for physical education (PE and business studies/information and communication technology (ICT as preferred modules, in comparison to ‘creative and performance’ subjects (reference category. Higher levels of reported masculinity were also shown to relate to the up-take of PE at Key Stage 4. Conclusions The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to existing research and practical contributions to the educational arena.

  6. Determination of specific growth stages of plant cell suspension cultures by monitoring conductivity changes in the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlbrock, K; Ebel, J; Oaks, A; Auden, J; Liersch, M

    1974-03-01

    Conductivity changes in the medium of cultured soybean (Glycine max L.) cells were shown to be strictly correlated with nitrate uptake and growth of the cultures. A continuous record of the conductivity was used as a simple and reliable method of determining specific growth stages and concomitant peaks in the activities of nitrate reductase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase.

  7. Influence of cigarette smoking on hormone and lipid metabolism in women in late reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkup M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Małgorzata Szkup,1 Anna Jurczak,2 Beata Karakiewicz,3 Artur Kotwas,3 Jacek Kopeć,4 Elżbieta Grochans1 1Department of Nursing, 2Department of Clinical Nursing, 3Department of Public Health, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland; 4School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Background: The aim of the study was to analyze lipid and hormone metabolism, body mass index (BMI, and age parameters in late reproductive stage women in relation to cigarette smoking.Methods: The study enrolled 345 healthy late reproductive stage women living in Poland; 13.33% were smokers. The first part of the study assessed lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides and hormone metabolism (estradiol [E2], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], and anti-Müllerian hormone [AMH] levels in women in the early phase of the follicular menstrual cycle. The second part of study was carried out using the diagnostic survey method, with a standardized questionnaire (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders [PRIME-MD] and the authors’ own research tools.Results: The women were aged 42.3±4.5 years (mean ± SD. The BMI (24.8±4.04 kg/m2 did not differ significantly between the groups. The women who smoked cigarettes had a statistically significantly (p<0.05 lower level of HDL as well as higher LDL and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. Differences were also shown in hormone levels: non-smoking participants had statistically significantly higher levels of E2 and FSH (p<0.05. In the group of non-smoking women, age was a predictor exerting a significant positive impact on the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and AMH (p<0.05. BMI contributed to a decline in HDL and triglyceride levels. In the group of smoking women, age significantly positively influenced the level of E2, and negatively influenced AMH

  8. Two flagellar BAR domain proteins in Trypanosoma brucei with stage-specific regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číčová, Z.; Dejung, M.; Skalický, Tomáš; Eisenhuth, N.; Hanselmann, S.; Morriswood, B.; Figueiredo, L.M.; Butter, F.; Janzen, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, 25 October (2016), č. článku 35826. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : variant surface glycoprotein * attachment zone filament * blood stream forms * life cycle stages * paraflagellar rod * stable transformation * cell morphogenesis * ortholog groups * psi blast * membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  9. Influence of upstream stator on rotor flutter stability in a low pressure steam turbine stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.; He, L. [University of Durham (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Bell, D. [ALSTOM Power Ltd., Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional blade flutter prediction is normally based on an isolated blade row model, however, little is known about the influence of adjacent blade rows. In this article, an investigation is presented into the influence of the upstream stator row on the aero-elastic stability of rotor blades in the last stage of a low pressure (LP) steam turbine. The influence of the upstream blade row is computed directly by a time-marching, unsteady, Navier-Stokes flow solver in a stator-rotor coupled computational domain. The three-dimensional flutter solution is obtained, with adequate mesh resolution, in a single passage domain through application of the Fourier-Transform based Shape-Correction method. The capability of this single-passage method is examined through comparison with predictions obtained from a complete annulus model, and the results demonstrate a good level of accuracy, while achieving a speed up factor of 25. The present work shows that the upstream stator blade row can significantly change the aero-elastic behaviour of an LP steam turbine rotor. Caution is, therefore, advised when using an isolated blade row model for blade flutter prediction. The results presented also indicated that the intra-row interaction is of a strong three-dimensional nature. (author)

  10. Stage-specific control of neural crest stem cell proliferation by the small rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Herzog, Dominik; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    -renewal and proliferation of later stage, but not early migratory NCSCs. This stage-specific requirement for small Rho GTPases is due to changes in NCSCs that, during development, acquire responsiveness to mitogenic EGF acting upstream of both Cdc42 and Rac1. Thus, our data reveal distinct mechanisms for growth control......The neural crest (NC) generates a variety of neural and non-neural tissues during vertebrate development. Both migratory NC cells and their target structures contain cells with stem cell features. Here we show that these populations of neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are differentially...

  11. Specificity and flexibility of social influence on spatial choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael F; Saxon, Marie E; Heslin, Kelsey A

    2018-03-21

    Rats searched for food in a situation that allowed them to determine which locations contained food after searching a small number of them, but not which of the baited locations contained more-preferred food rather than a less-preferred food. During some experimental trials, the latter information was available from the choices of model rats making choices together with the subject rats, because some of the model rats tended to choose the locations baited with more-preferred food. On the surface, the results suggest that social influence specified the locations of more-preferred food to the subject rats. However, more detailed analysis and data from a second experiment indicate that the social influence can be explained by a general tendency to approach another rat making choices, acquired if rats are exposed to a contingency between social approach and increased foraging success.

  12. Tactic-specific differences in seminal fluid influence sperm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Poli, Federica; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-03-22

    Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that of rivals. As a consequence males may be expected to allocate their investment in both sperm and seminal fluid in relation to the potential level of competition. Grass goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) is an external fertilizer with guard-sneaker mating tactics, where sperm competition risk varies according to the tactic adopted. Here, we experimentally manipulated grass goby ejaculates by separately combining sperm and seminal fluid from territorial and sneaker males. While sperm of sneaker and territorial males did not differ in their performance when they interacted with their own seminal fluid only, sperm of sneakers increased their velocity and fertilization rate in the presence of territorial males' seminal fluid. By contrast, sneaker males' seminal fluid had a detrimental effect on the performance of territorial males' sperm. Sperm velocity was unaffected by the seminal fluid of males employing the same tactic, suggesting that seminal fluid's effect on rival-tactic sperm is not based on a self/non-self recognition mechanism. Our findings show that cross interactions of sperm and seminal fluid may influence the fertilization success of competing ejaculates with males investing in both sperm and seminal fluid in response to sperm competition risk.

  13. The influence of particle size on intermediate and final stages of molybdenum sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskokovic, D.; Novakovic, B.; Petrovic, V.; Ristic, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of initial particle size on kinetics of molybdenum sintering was investigated. Three fractions of monodispersed molybdenum powder (2, 5 and 10 μm) were used as well as a polydispersed powder with mean particle size of 12 μm. Decrease in particle size accelerates to a great extent densification and grain growth processes. During sintering of 10 μm powder and to a smaller extent in the case of polydispersed powder, Zeners's relation was confirmed. Quantitative equations for the intermediate sintering stages could not be fitted to the investigated particulate systems, even though the grain growth process could be described by cubic law and though the volume diffusion coefficient and the surface energy were known with great reliability. (Auth.)

  14. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Radish as Influenced by the Variety and Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of the variety and vegetative stage on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of radish. Samples of seeds, sprouts (day-3, day-5 and day-7 and roots of three varieties (red, white and black of radish (Raphanussativus were collected and tested for the above-mentioned parameters. Determination of total phenolic content was performed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. The total phenolic content ranged between 4.75 and 19.44 mg GAE/g DW and the antioxidant capacity between 12 and 75%. The highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in radish sprouts and the lowest in radish roots, and among samples in the black radish variety. 

  15. Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling metabolism and stage-specific growth of Plasmodium falciparum HB3 during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2014-10-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum goes through a complex life cycle, including a roughly 48-hour-long intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) in human red blood cells. A better understanding of the metabolic processes required during the asexual blood-stage reproduction will enhance our basic knowledge of P. falciparum and help identify critical metabolic reactions and pathways associated with blood-stage malaria. We developed a metabolic network model that mechanistically links time-dependent gene expression, metabolism, and stage-specific growth, allowing us to predict the metabolic fluxes, the biomass production rates, and the timing of production of the different biomass components during the IDC. We predicted time- and stage-specific production of precursors and macromolecules for P. falciparum (strain HB3), allowing us to link specific metabolites to specific physiological functions. For example, we hypothesized that coenzyme A might be involved in late-IDC DNA replication and cell division. Moreover, the predicted ATP metabolism indicated that energy was mainly produced from glycolysis and utilized for non-metabolic processes. Finally, we used the model to classify the entire tricarboxylic acid cycle into segments, each with a distinct function, such as superoxide detoxification, glutamate/glutamine processing, and metabolism of fumarate as a byproduct of purine biosynthesis. By capturing the normal metabolic and growth progression in P. falciparum during the IDC, our model provides a starting point for further elucidation of strain-specific metabolic activity, host-parasite interactions, stress-induced metabolic responses, and metabolic responses to antimalarial drugs and drug candidates.

  17. Stage-Specific Changes in Plasmodium Metabolism Required for Differentiation and Adaptation to Different Host and Vector Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubhav; Philip, Nisha; Hughes, Katie R; Georgiou, Konstantina; MacRae, James I; Barrett, Michael P; Creek, Darren J; McConville, Malcolm J; Waters, Andrew P

    2016-12-01

    Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) encounter markedly different (nutritional) environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design.

  18. Stage-Specific Changes in Plasmodium Metabolism Required for Differentiation and Adaptation to Different Host and Vector Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Srivastava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp. encounter markedly different (nutritional environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design.

  19. Stage-Specific Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Map the Progression of Myeloid Transformation to Transplantable Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotini, Andriana G; Chang, Chan-Jung; Chow, Arthur; Yuan, Han; Ho, Tzu-Chieh; Wang, Tiansu; Vora, Shailee; Solovyov, Alexander; Husser, Chrystel; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Perumal, Deepak; Klimek, Virginia M; Spyridonidis, Alexandros; Rampal, Raajit K; Silverman, Lewis; Reddy, E Premkumar; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Parekh, Samir; Greenbaum, Benjamin D; Leslie, Christina S; Kharas, Michael G; Papapetrou, Eirini P

    2017-03-02

    Myeloid malignancy is increasingly viewed as a disease spectrum, comprising hematopoietic disorders that extend across a phenotypic continuum ranging from clonal hematopoiesis to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we derived a collection of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines capturing a range of disease stages encompassing preleukemia, low-risk MDS, high-risk MDS, and secondary AML. Upon their differentiation, we found hematopoietic phenotypes of graded severity and/or stage specificity that together delineate a phenotypic roadmap of disease progression culminating in serially transplantable leukemia. We also show that disease stage transitions, both reversal and progression, can be modeled in this system using genetic correction or introduction of mutations via CRISPR/Cas9 and that this iPSC-based approach can be used to uncover disease-stage-specific responses to drugs. Our study therefore provides insight into the cellular events demarcating the initiation and progression of myeloid transformation and a new platform for testing genetic and pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bringing Clouds into Our Lab! - The Influence of Turbulence on the Early Stage Rain Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mehmet Altug; Kunnen, Rudie; Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2015-11-01

    We are investigating a droplet-laden flow in an air-filled turbulence chamber, forced by speaker-driven air jets. The speakers are running in a random manner; yet they allow us to control and define the statistics of the turbulence. We study the motion of droplets with tunable size (Stokes numbers ~ 0.13 - 9) in a turbulent flow, mimicking the early stages of raindrop formation. 3D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) together with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) methods are chosen as the experimental method to track the droplets and collect data for statistical analysis. Thereby it is possible to study the spatial distribution of the droplets in turbulence using the so-called Radial Distribution Function (RDF), a statistical measure to quantify the clustering of particles. Additionally, 3D-PTV technique allows us to measure velocity statistics of the droplets and the influence of the turbulence on droplet trajectories, both individually and collectively. In this contribution, we will present the clustering probability quantified by the RDF for different Stokes numbers. We will explain the physics underlying the influence of turbulence on droplet cluster behavior. This study supported by FOM/NWO Netherlands.

  1. Stage-specific gene expression during urediniospore germination in Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qingmei

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is an obligate biotrophic pathogen that causes leaf stripe rust on wheat. Although it is critical to understand molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in the wheat stripe rust fungus for developing novel disease management strategies, little is known about its genome and gene functions due to difficulties in molecular studies with this important pathogen. To identify genes expressed during early infection stages, in this study we constructed a cDNA library with RNA isolated from urediniospores of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici germinated for 10 h. Results A total of 4798 ESTs were sequenced from the germinated urediniospore library and assembled into 315 contigs and 803 singletons. About 23.9% and 13.3% of the resulting 1118 unisequences were homologous to functionally characterized proteins and hypothetical proteins, respectively. The rest 62.8% unisequences had no significant homologs in GenBank. Several of these ESTs shared significant homology with known fungal pathogenicity or virulence factors, such as HESP767 of the flax rust and PMK1, GAS1, and GAS2 of the rice blast fungus. We selected six ESTs (Ps28, Ps85, Ps87, Ps259, Ps261, and Ps159 for assaying their expression patterns during urediniospore germination and wheat infection by quantitative real-time PCR. All of them had the highest transcript level in germinated urediniospores and a much less transcript level in un-germinated urediniospores and infected wheat tissues (1–7 dpi. The transcript level of Ps159 increased at later infection stages (6–7 dpi. Our data indicated that these genes were highly expressed in germinated urediniospores and may play important roles in fungal-plant interactions during early infection stages in the wheat stripe rust fungus. Conclusion Genes expressed in germinated urediniospores of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici were identified by EST analysis. Six of them were confirmed by quantitative real

  2. Stage-specific effects of X-irradiation on Yeast meiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, L.W.; Byers, B.

    1993-01-01

    Previous work has shown that cdc 13 causes meiotic arrest of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following DNA replication by a RAD9-dependent mechanism. In the present work, the authors have further investigated the implicit effects of chromosomal lesions on progression through meiosis by exposing yeast cells to X-irradiation at various times during sporulation. They find that exposure of RAD9 cells to X-irradiation early in meiosis prevents sporulation, arresting the cells at a stage prior to premeiotic DNA replication. rad9 meiotic cells are much less responsive to X-irradiation damage, completing sporulation after treatment with doses sufficient to cause arrest of RAD9 strains. These findings thereby reveal a RAD9-dependent checkpoint function in meiosis that is distinct from the G 2 arrest previously shown to result from cdc 13 dysfunction. Analysis of the spores that continued to be produced by either RAD9 or rad9 cultures that were X-irradiated in later stages of sporulation revealed most spores to be viable, even after exposure to radiation doses sufficient to kill most vegetative cells. This finding demonstrates that the lesions induced by X-irradiation at later times fail to trigger the checkpoint function revealed by cdc 13 arrest and suggests that the lesions may be subject to repair by serving as intermediates in the recombination process. Strains mutant for chromosomal synapsis and recombination, and therefore defective in meiotic disjunction, were tested for evidence that X-ray-induced lesions might alleviate inviability by promoting recombination. Enhancement of spore viability when spo 11 (but not hop 1) diploids were X-irradiated during meiosis indicates that induced lesions may partially substitute for SPO 11-dependent functions that are required for the initiation of recombination. 74 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Specific Features of Neonatal Artificial Ventilation in Different Stages of Correction of Visceroabdominal Disproportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dmitriyev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to optimize artificial ventilation on the basis of studies of lung mechanical properties in neonatal infants with visceroabdominal disproportion in the perioperative period. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 57 neonates, including 42 (73.7% with gastroschisis and 15 (26.3% with omphalocele. All the patients received intensive care, artificial ventilation using a Bear Cub apparatus in the control modes by the volume (A/C, SIMV/PSV with continuous monitoring of hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics (dynamic compliance, resistance, pressure-volume loop, and flow-volume by applying a graphics monitor. Intraabdominal pressure (IAP was measured by the Crohn method. Results. The investigation showed an association between the changes in IAP in different stages of the study and those in respiratory parameters in newborns. Preoperative adaptation of the respiratory system was noted in all the neonates. Within the first 24 hours of the first-stage correction of visceroabdominal disproportion, both groups showed a gradual reduction in dynamic compliance by 3.4 times, a rise in resistance by 2.42 times with PIP being increased up to high figures — 20—22 cm H2O, as well as maximum value changes on the graphics monitor. The mechanical properties of the lung returned to relatively normal values at 72 hours of extension. Conclusion. Elevation of IAP to high values causes changes in respiratory mechanics and is a rather informative criterion for correction of ventilation parameters. Furthermore, a marked perioperative IAP increase (more than 10—11 mm Hg maximally affects the mechanical properties of the lung in neonatal infants with visceroab-dominal disproportion. Key words: visceroabdominal disproportion, intraabdominal pressure, compliance, respiratory mechanics, resistance.

  4. Stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age, race, and ethnicity, United States, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Siegel, David A; King, Jessica B

    2018-05-01

    Current literature shows different findings on the contemporary trends of distant-stage prostate cancer incidence, in part, due to low study population coverage and wide age groupings. This study aimed to examine the stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age (5-year grouping), race, and ethnicity using nationwide cancer registry data. Data on prostate cancer cases came from the 2004-2014 United States Cancer Statistics data set. We calculated stage-specific incidence and 95% confidence intervals by age (5-year age grouping), race, and ethnicity. To measure the changes in rates over time, we calculated annual percentage change (APC). We identified 2,137,054 incident prostate cancers diagnosed during 2004-2014, with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 453.8 per 100,000. Distant-stage prostate cancer incidence significantly decreased during 2004-2010 (APC = -1.2) and increased during 2010-2014 (APC = 3.3). Significant increases in distant prostate cancer incidence also occurred in men aged older than or equal to 50 years except men aged 65-74 and older than or equal to 85 years, in men with white race (APC = 3.9), and non-Hispanic ethnicity (APC = 3.5). Using data representing over 99% of U.S. population, we found that incidence rates of distant-stage prostate cancer significantly increased during 2010-2014 among men in certain ages, in white, and with non-Hispanic ethnicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Instar- and stage-specific photoperiodic diapause response of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight)(Hemiptera:Miridae) is a polyphagous pest of numerous western crops. This pest overwinters in a relatively short duration adult diapause, but many details regarding diapause induction and maintenance remain unstudied. Instar-specific responses t...

  6. Stage-specific analysis of plasma protein profiles in ovarian cancer: Difference in-gel electrophoresis analysis of pooled clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. Non-specific symptoms early in disease and the lack of specific biomarkers hinder early diagnosis. Multi-marker blood screening tests have shown promise for improving identification of early stage disease; however, available tests lack sensitivity, and specificity. Materials and Methods: In this study, pooled deeply-depleted plasma from women with Stage 1, 2 or 3 ovarian cancer and healthy controls were used to compare the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE protein profiles and identify potential novel markers of ovarian cancer progression. Results/Discussion: Stage-specific variation in biomarker expression was observed. For example, apolipoprotein A1 expression is relatively low in control and Stage 1, but shows a substantial increase in Stage 2 and 3, thus, potential of utility for disease confirmation rather than early detection. A better marker for early stage disease was tropomyosin 4 (TPM4. The expression of TPM4 increased by 2-fold in Stage 2 before returning to "normal" levels in Stage 3 disease. Multiple isoforms were also identified for some proteins and in some cases, displayed stage-specific expression. An interesting example was fibrinogen alpha, for which 8 isoforms were identified. Four displayed a moderate increase at Stage 1 and a substantial increase for Stages 2 and 3 while the other 4 showed only moderate increases. Conclusion: Herein is provided an improved summary of blood protein profiles for women with ovarian cancer stratified by stage.

  7. Stage-specific gene expression during sexual development in Phytophthora infestans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritius, Anna-Liisa; Cvitanich, Cristina; Judelson, Howard S.

    2002-01-01

    Eight genes that are upregulated during sexual development in the heterothallic oomycete, Phytophthora infestans, were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization. Two genes showed very low but detectable expression in vegetative hyphae and became induced about 40- to >100-fold early...... revealed that the predicted products of three of the genes had similarity to proteins that influence RNA stability, namely a ribonuclease activator, the pumilio family of RNA-binding proteins and RNase H. The products of two other mating-induced genes resembled two types of Phytophthora proteins previously...

  8. Anxious and egocentric: how specific emotions influence perspective taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew R; Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal; Brooks, Alison Wood; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-04-01

    People frequently feel anxious. Although prior research has extensively studied how feeling anxious shapes intrapsychic aspects of cognition, much less is known about how anxiety affects interpersonal aspects of cognition. Here, we examine the influence of incidental experiences of anxiety on perceptual and conceptual forms of perspective taking. Compared with participants experiencing other negative, high-arousal emotions (i.e., anger or disgust) or neutral feelings, anxious participants displayed greater egocentrism in their mental-state reasoning: They were more likely to describe an object using their own spatial perspective, had more difficulty resisting egocentric interference when identifying an object from others' spatial perspectives, and relied more heavily on privileged knowledge when inferring others' beliefs. Using both experimental-causal-chain and measurement-of-mediation approaches, we found that these effects were explained, in part, by uncertainty appraisal tendencies. Further supporting the role of uncertainty, a positive emotion associated with uncertainty (i.e., surprise) produced increases in egocentrism that were similar to anxiety. Collectively, the results suggest that incidentally experiencing emotions associated with uncertainty increase reliance on one's own egocentric perspective when reasoning about the mental states of others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Regulation of somatic embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). A molecular approach to the characterization of specific developmental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabala, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1998-12-31

    Embryo development is a complex process involving a set of strictly regulated events. The regulation of these events is poorly understood especially during the early stages of embryo development. Somatic embryos go through the same developmental stages as zygotic embryos making them an ideal model system for studying the regulation of embryo development. We have used embryogenic cultures of Picea abies to study some aspects of the regulation of embryo development in gymnosperms. The bottle neck during somatic embryogenesis is the switch from the proliferation stage to the maturation stage. This switch is initiated by giving somatic embryos a maturation treatment i.e. the embryos are treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Somatic embryos which respond to ABA by forming mature somatic embryos were stimulated to secret a 70 kDa protein, AF70. The af70 gene was isolated and characterised. The expression of the af70 gene was constitutive in embryos but was highly ABA-induced in seedlings. Moreover, expression of this gene was stimulated during cold acclimation of Picea abies seedlings. A full length Picea abies cDNA clone Pa18, encoding a protein with the characteristics of plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), was isolated and characterised. The Pa18 gene is constitutively expressed in embryogenic cultures of Picea abies representing different stages of development as well as in nonembryogenic callus and seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that Pa18 gene is expressed in all embryonic cells of proliferating somatic embryos but the expression of the gene in mature somatic and zygotic embryos is restricted to the outer cell layer. Southern blot analysis at different stringencies was consistent with a single gene. An alteration in expression of Pa18 causes disturbance in the formation of the proper outer cell layer in the maturing somatic embryos. In addition to its influence on embryo development the Pa18 gene product also inhibits growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens 195

  10. Stage-specific sampling by pattern recognition receptors during Candida albicans phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid E M Heinsbroek

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a medically important pathogen, and recognition by innate immune cells is critical for its clearance. Although a number of pattern recognition receptors have been shown to be involved in recognition and phagocytosis of this fungus, the relative role of these receptors has not been formally examined. In this paper, we have investigated the contribution of the mannose receptor, Dectin-1, and complement receptor 3; and we have demonstrated that Dectin-1 is the main non-opsonic receptor involved in fungal uptake. However, both Dectin-1 and complement receptor 3 were found to accumulate at the site of uptake, while mannose receptor accumulated on C. albicans phagosomes at later stages. These results suggest a potential role for MR in phagosome sampling; and, accordingly, MR deficiency led to a reduction in TNF-alpha and MCP-1 production in response to C. albicans uptake. Our data suggest that pattern recognition receptors sample the fungal phagosome in a sequential fashion.

  11. The Influence of a Failed Irrigation and Debridement on the Outcomes of a Subsequent 2-Stage Revision Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodzo, Scott R; Boyle, Keely K; Nocon, Allina A; Henry, Michael W; Mayman, David J; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-08-01

    Previous work has suggested a failed irrigation and debridement (I&D) before a 2-stage exchange negatively impacts the outcome of the subsequent 2-stage revision. This was a retrospective review of 132 patients who underwent a 2-stage exchange without prior I&D (2-Stage), and 45 patients had a failed I&D before their 2-stage exchange (I&D+2Stage) between April 2009 and April 2015. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics, presenting inflammatory laboratory values, type of antibiotic spacer used, surgical details, microbiology data, length of postoperative antibiotic treatment, and reoperation. A logistic regression was used to assess the association between I&D and reoperation. The I&D+2Stage group had an 82.2% success rate, and the 2-Stage group had an 82.5% success rate (P = .95). The odds of reoperation for infection with the use of greater than 2 grams of vancomycin was 0.33 (P = .01, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.79) as compared with having less than 2 grams of vancomycin in the construct. Spacer type, having a prior I&D to the 2-stage procedure, being infected with an antibiotic resistant organism, total grams of aminoglycoside were not associated with a risk of failure. Success rates between the I&D+2Stage group and the 2-Stage group were similar. The use of greater than 2 grams of vancomycin in the spacer construct decreased the odds of reoperation. I&D before a 2-stage exchange may not negatively influence the outcomes of a subsequent 2-stage revision procedure and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of two-stage turbine characteristic and its influence on turbo-compound engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rongchao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Yin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical model was built to study the interactions between two turbines in series. • The impacts of HP VGT and LP VGT on turbo-compound engine performance were investigated. • The fuel reductions obtained by HP VGT at 1900 rpm and 1000 rpm are 3.08% and 7.83% respectively. • The optimum value of AR ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 as the turbo-compound engine speed decreases. - Abstract: Turbo-compounding is an effective way to recover waste heat from engine exhaust and reduce fuel consumption for internal combustion engine (ICE). The characteristics of two-stage turbine, including turbocharger turbine and power turbine, have significant effects on the overall performance of turbo-compound engine. This paper investigates the interaction between two turbines in a turbo-compound engine and its impact on the engine performance. Firstly an analytical model is built to investigate the effects of turbine equivalent flow area on the two-stage turbine characteristics, including swallowing capacity and load split. Next both simulation and experimental method are carried out to study the effects of high pressure variable geometry turbine (HP VGT), low pressure variable geometry turbine (LP VGT) and combined VGT on the engine overall performance. The results show that the engine performance is more sensitive to HP VGT compared with LP VGT at all the operation conditions, which is caused by the larger influences of HP VGT on the total expansion ratio and engine air–fuel ratio. Using the HP VGT method, the fuel reductions of the turbo-compound engine at 1900 rpm and 1000 rpm are 3.08% and 7.83% respectively, in comparison with the baseline engine. The corresponding optimum values of AR are 2.0 and 2.5

  13. Quantitative proteomics links metabolic pathways to specific developmental stages of the plant-pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhili; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Liu, Xili; Bulone, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is a plant pathogen responsible for important losses to vegetable production worldwide. Its asexual reproduction plays an important role in the rapid propagation and spread of the disease in the field. A global proteomics study was conducted to compare two key asexual life stages of P. capsici, i.e. the mycelium and cysts, to identify stage-specific biochemical processes. A total of 1200 proteins was identified using qualitative and quantitative proteomics. The transcript abundance of some of the enriched proteins was also analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-three proteins exhibited different levels of abundance between the mycelium and cysts. The proteins enriched in the mycelium are mainly associated with glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (or citric acid) cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway, providing the energy required for the biosynthesis of cellular building blocks and hyphal growth. In contrast, the proteins that are predominant in cysts are essentially involved in fatty acid degradation, suggesting that the early infection stage of the pathogen relies primarily on fatty acid degradation for energy production. The data provide a better understanding of P. capsici biology and suggest potential metabolic targets at the two different developmental stages for disease control. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Multiple factors influence compliance with colorectal cancer staging recommendations: an exploratory study

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    Khalifa Mahmoud A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with colorectal cancer (CRC retrieval by surgeons, and assessment by pathologists of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs predicts the need for adjuvant treatment and improved survival. Different interventions (educational presentation, engaging clinical opinion leaders, performance data sent to hospital executives to improve compliance with this practice had variable results. This exploratory study examined factors hypothesized to have influenced the outcome of those interventions. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 surgeons and pathologists at eleven hospitals. Clinicians were identified by intervention organizers, public licensing body database, and referral from interviewees. An interview guide incorporating open-ended questions was pilot-tested on one surgeon and pathologist. A single investigator conducted all interviews by phone. Transcripts were analyzed independently by two investigators using a grounded approach,ho then compared findings to resolve differences. Results Improvements in LN staging practice may have occurred largely due to educational presentations that created awareness, and self-initiated changes undertaken by pathologists. Executives that received performance data may not have shared this with staff, and opinion leaders engaged to promote compliance may not have fulfilled their roles. Barriers to change that are potentially amenable to quality improvement included perceptions about the practice (perceived lack of evidence for the need to examine at least 12 LNs and associated responsibilities (blaming other profession, technical issues (need for pathology assistants, better clearing solutions and laboratory facilities, and a lack of organizational support for multidisciplinary interaction (little communication between surgeons and pathologists or quality improvement (no change leaders or capacity for monitoring. Conclusion Use of an exploratory approach provided an in

  15. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascarella, Marc A.; Stoffolano, John G.; Stanek, Edward J.; Kostecki, Paul T.; Calabrese, Edward J

    2003-07-01

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle.

  16. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascarella, Marc A.; Stoffolano, John G.; Stanek, Edward J.; Kostecki, Paul T.; Calabrese, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle

  17. Influence of lactation stages and rain periods on subclinical mastitis in meat producing ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Zafalon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mastitis negatively influences the survival and weight gain of ovines for meat production. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in sheep for meat production, the occurrence of subclinical mastitis in ewes at the end of lactation and beginning of the consecutive lactation and to assess the composition and cellular characteristics of milk as a function of different rainfall indices. Mammary halves (821 of Santa Ines (479 and Morada Nova (342 ewes were examined. Milk samples were collected in two different moments of lactation: at weaning and postpartum of the consecutive lactation. Sample collection periods were called "dry" or "rainy" according to the rainfall index in the month immediately before the month of collection. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis at weaning in the Santa Ines and Morada Nova ewes were 16.4 and 12.6% in the dry period, and 17.7 and 23.5% in the rainy period, respectively. In the consecutive lactation period, the occurrences were 26.7 and 27.7% in the dry period and 41.8 and 39.1% in the rainy period, for the Santa Ines and Morada Nova ewes, respectively. Postpartum stage was critical for the occurrence of subclinical mastitis, as compared to that at the end of the previous lactation. Occurrence of the disease negatively influenced the SCC in the milk at the beginning of lactation and changed its composition, mainly in the rainiest periods, probably due to a difficulty in maintaining hygiene in the environment where the animals remained.

  18. [Influence of different processing methods and mature stages on 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Na; Xie, Xiao-Liang; Yang, Tai-Xin; Zhang, Cun-Li; Jia, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Ming; Wen, Chun-Xiu

    2014-04-01

    To study the different mature stages and the best processing methods on the quality of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds. The content of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol in Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds was determined by HPLC. The sample of different mature stages such as immature, near mature and fully mature and processed by different methods were studied. Fully mature Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds were better than the immatured, and the best processing method was dried under 60degrees C, the content of 3,29-dibenzoyl rarounitriol reached up to 131.63microlg/mL. Different processing methods and different mature stages had a significant influence on the quality of Trichosanthes kirilowii seeds.

  19. Hap2, a novel gene in Babesia bigemina is expressed in tick stages, and specific antibodies block zygote formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Camacho-Nuez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane fusion in fertilization processes. The identification and characterization of HAP-2 protein in Babesia would be very significant to understand the biology of the parasite and to develop a transmission-blocking vaccine in the future. Results To isolate and sequence the hap2 gene DNA from an infected bovine with Babesia bigemina was purified. The hap2 gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The sequences of hap2 from four geographically different strains showed high conservation at the amino acid level, including the typical structure with a signal peptide and the HAP2/GSC domain. Antisera anti-HAP2 against the conserved extracellular region of the HAP2 amino acid sequence were obtained from rabbits. The expression of hap2 in the host and vector tissues was analyzed by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the protein was examined by western blot and immunofluorescence. Based on the RT-PCR and WB results, HAP2 is expressed in both, sexual stages induced in vitro, and in infected ticks as well. We did not detect any expression in asexual erythrocytic stages of B. bigemina, relevantly anti-HAP2 specific antibodies were able to block zygotes formation in vitro. Conclusion Babesia bigemina HAP2 is expressed only in tick-infecting stages, and specific antibodies block zygote formation. Further studies regarding the function of HAP2 during tick infection may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of sexual reproduction of the parasite.

  20. Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer:Examining the Influence of Personality Traits and Interpersonal Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eSaita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of seventy-two Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire, interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale, and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit. Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  1. INFLUENCE OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT ON SCALE DEPOSITION IN MULTI-STAGE FLASH THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman E Al-Rawajfeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation represents a major operational problem encountered in thermal desalination plants. In current installed plants, and to allow for a reasonable safety margin, sulfate scale deposition limits the top brine temperature (TBT in multi-stage flash (MSF distillers up to 110-112oC. This has significant effect on the unit capital, operational and water production cost. In this work, the influence of nanofiltration (NF pretreatment on the scale deposition potential and increasing TBT in MSF thermal desalination plants is modeled on the basis of mass transfer with chemical reaction of solutes in the brine. Full and partial NF-pretreatment of the feed water were investigated. TBT can be increased in MSF by increasing the percentage of NF-treated feed. Full NF pretreatment of the make-up allows TBT in the MSF plant to be raised up to 175oC in the case of di hybrid NF-MSF and up to 165oC in the case of tri hybrid NF-RO-MSF. The significant scale reduction is associated with increasing flashing range, unit recovery, unit performance, and will lead to reduction in heat transfer surface area, pumping power and therefore, water production cost.

  2. Quality of life of cancer patients - definition, stages of survival and factors of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the review is to represent the state of assessment of quality of life of cancer patients in the investigation of different authors. It is important to know the basic ideas of quality of life during the complex treatment of cancer patients, in order to choose such methods that will lead to an improvement of their living. The definition of the concept 'quality of life', the stages that patients pass and the influencing factors should be familiar to the therapists. Today patients live longer after a complex treatment - it is important how and what challenges they are facing together with their relatives and the medical staff. The attempts to define and measure the quality of life of cancer patients date from the last ten years. This is a social demand to get such medical care, which should be at a certain level leading not only to a longer survival but this life to be of a higher quality. The patients' perceptions and preferences concerning quality of life must be given greater emphasis in cancer treatment decision making which will better his state after a competent explanation of therapists. A quality of life of every patient is as an individual problem as a part of the social health. A classification of the problem of quality of life will enlarge the oncological therapeutic concept

  3. Estimation of age- and stage-specific Catalan breast cancer survival functions using US and Catalan survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background During the last part of the 1990s the chance of surviving breast cancer increased. Changes in survival functions reflect a mixture of effects. Both, the introduction of adjuvant treatments and early screening with mammography played a role in the decline in mortality. Evaluating the contribution of these interventions using mathematical models requires survival functions before and after their introduction. Furthermore, required survival functions may be different by age groups and are related to disease stage at diagnosis. Sometimes detailed information is not available, as was the case for the region of Catalonia (Spain). Then one may derive the functions using information from other geographical areas. This work presents the methodology used to estimate age- and stage-specific Catalan breast cancer survival functions from scarce Catalan survival data by adapting the age- and stage-specific US functions. Methods Cubic splines were used to smooth data and obtain continuous hazard rate functions. After, we fitted a Poisson model to derive hazard ratios. The model included time as a covariate. Then the hazard ratios were applied to US survival functions detailed by age and stage to obtain Catalan estimations. Results We started estimating the hazard ratios for Catalonia versus the USA before and after the introduction of screening. The hazard ratios were then multiplied by the age- and stage-specific breast cancer hazard rates from the USA to obtain the Catalan hazard rates. We also compared breast cancer survival in Catalonia and the USA in two time periods, before cancer control interventions (USA 1975–79, Catalonia 1980–89) and after (USA and Catalonia 1990–2001). Survival in Catalonia in the 1980–89 period was worse than in the USA during 1975–79, but the differences disappeared in 1990–2001. Conclusion Our results suggest that access to better treatments and quality of care contributed to large improvements in survival in Catalonia. On

  4. Highly abundant and stage-specific mRNAs in the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, H S; Michelmore, R W

    1990-01-01

    Germinating spores of the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew) contain several unusually abundant species of mRNA. Thirty-nine cDNA clones corresponding to prevalent transcripts were isolated from a library synthesized using poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores; these clones represented only five distinct classes. Each corresponding mRNA accounted for from 0.4 to 9 percent by mass of poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores and together represented greater than 20 percent of the mRNA. The expression of the corresponding genes, and a gene encoding Hsp70, was analyzed in spores during germination and during growth in planta. The Hsp70 mRNA and mRNA from one abundant cDNA clone (ham34) were expressed constitutively. Two clones (ham9 and ham12) hybridized only to mRNA from spores and germinating spores. Two clones (ham37 and ham27) showed hybridization specific to germinating spores. Quantification of the number of genes homologous to each cDNA clone indicated that four clones corresponded to one or two copies per haploid genome, and one hybridized to an approximately 11-member family of genes. A sequence of the gene corresponding to ham34 was obtained to investigate its function and to identify sequences conferring high levels of gene expression for use in constructing vectors for the transformation of B. lactucae.

  5. Variable Extent of Lineage-Specificity and Developmental Stage-Specificity of Cohesin and CCCTC-Binding Factor Binding Within the Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Loguercio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF is largely responsible for the 3D architecture of the genome, in concert with the action of cohesin, through the creation of long-range chromatin loops. Cohesin is hypothesized to be the main driver of these long-range chromatin interactions by the process of loop extrusion. Here, we performed ChIP-seq for CTCF and cohesin in two stages each of T and B cell differentiation and examined the binding pattern in all six antigen receptor (AgR loci in these lymphocyte progenitors and in mature T and B cells, ES cells, and fibroblasts. The four large AgR loci have many bound CTCF sites, most of which are only occupied in lymphocytes, while only the CTCF sites at the end of each locus near the enhancers or J genes tend to be bound in non-lymphoid cells also. However, despite the generalized lymphocyte restriction of CTCF binding in AgR loci, the Igκ locus is the only locus that also shows significant lineage-specificity (T vs. B cells and developmental stage-specificity (pre-B vs. pro-B in CTCF binding. We show that cohesin binding shows greater lineage- and stage-specificity than CTCF at most AgR loci, providing more specificity to the loops. We also show that the culture of pro-B cells in IL7, a common practice to expand the number of cells before ChIP-seq, results in a CTCF-binding pattern resembling pre-B cells, as well as other epigenetic and transcriptional characteristics of pre-B cells. Analysis of the orientation of the CTCF sites show that all sites within the large V portions of the Igh and TCRβ loci have the same orientation. This suggests either a lack of requirement for convergent CTCF sites creating loops, or indicates an absence of any loops between CTCF sites within the V region portion of those loci but only loops to the convergent sites at the D-J-enhancer end of each locus. The V region portions of the Igκ and TCRα/δ loci, by contrast, have CTCF sites in both orientations, providing many options for

  6. Short report: Influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Clare; Jobson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity. Chinese international and British undergraduate university students (N=64) completed the autobiographical memory test, Hopkins symptom checklist-25, twenty statements test, trauma history questionnaire, and impact of events scale-revised. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more specific memories than the Chinese group. The high trauma exposure group provided significantly fewer specific autobiographical memories than the low trauma exposure group. The interaction was not significant. The findings suggest that even in cultures where specificity is not as evident in autobiographical remembering style, trauma exposure appears to exert similar influence on autobiographical memory specificity.

  7. Factors influencing the toxicity of Headline® fungicides to terrestrial stage toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2017-10-01

    Amphibians are susceptible to exposure from contaminants via multiple pathways. Pyraclostrobin fungicides have been shown to be toxic to terrestrial amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations; however, these studies did not account for factors that may influence exposure and effects, such as fungicide formulation, age of the individual, exposure route, and physiological state of the individual. We examined Headline® and Headline AMP® fungicide toxicity to adult Anaxyrus cognatus and Anaxyrus woodhousii by direct overspray, as well as acute toxicity of Headline AMP to juvenile A. cognatus through direct overspray, previously exposed soils, and diet. We also assessed effects of hydration state on fungicide toxicity in juvenile A. cognatus and sublethal effects of fungicide exposure on prey-orientation ability of juvenile A. cognatus. Neither formulation of Headline caused mortality of adult A. cognatus and A. woodhousii at up to 5 times the maximum label rate in North American corn (1052 and 879 mL formulation/ha for Headline AMP and Headline fungicides, respectively, corresponding to 1.52 and 2.2 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively). Exposures of juvenile A. cognatus to Headline AMP via direct overspray and previously exposed soils (2 types) resulted in median lethal rate (LR50) values of 2.4, 3.34, and 3.61 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively. Dietary Headline AMP exposure was not toxic, prey-orientations were not influenced by exposure, and effects were similar between dehydrated and hydrated treatments (LR50 = 2.4 and 2.3 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively). These results, combined with exposure concentrations reported in previous studies, suggest that risk of acute mortality for amphibians in terrestrial environments is low and is dictated by body size and site-specific factors influencing exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2679-2688. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Stage-Specific Transcriptome and Proteome Analyses of the Filarial Parasite Onchocerca volvulus and Its Wolbachia Endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Cotton, James A.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Grote, Alexandra; Harsha, Bhavana; Holroyd, Nancy; Mhashilkar, Amruta; Molina, Douglas M.; Randall, Arlo Z.; Shandling, Adam D.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Ghedin, Elodie; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv). In so doing, we have identified stage-specific pathways important to the parasite’s adaptation to its human host during its early development. Further, we generated a protein array that, when screened with well-characterized human samples, identified novel diagnostic biomarkers of O. volvulus infection and new potential vaccine candidates. This immunomic approach not only demonstrates the power of this postgenomic discovery platform but also provides additional tools for onchocerciasis control programs. PMID:27881553

  9. Influences of flow loss and inlet distortions from radial inlets on the performances of centrifugal compressor stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Feng Hui; Mao, Yi Jun; Tan, Ji Jian

    2016-01-01

    Radial inlets are typical upstream components of multistage centrifugal compressors. Unlike axial inlets, radial inlets generate additional flow loss and introduce flow distortions at impeller inlets. Such distortions negatively affect the aerodynamic performance of compressor stages. In this study, industrial centrifugal compressor stages with different radial inlets are investigated via numerical simulations. Two reference models were built, simulated, and compared with each original compressor stage to analyze the respective and coupling influences of flow loss and inlet distortions caused by radial inlets on the performances of the compressor stage and downstream components. Flow loss and inlet distortions are validated as the main factors through which radial inlets negatively affect compressor performance. Results indicate that flow loss inside radial inlets decreases the performance of the whole compressor stage but exerts minimal effect on downstream components. By contrast, inlet distortions induced by radial inlets negatively influence the performance of the whole compressor stage and exert significant effects on downstream components. Therefore, when optimizing radial inlets, the reduction of inlet distortions might be more effective than the reduction of flow loss. This research provides references and suggestions for the design and improvement of radial inlets

  10. Influences of flow loss and inlet distortions from radial inlets on the performances of centrifugal compressor stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Feng Hui; Mao, Yi Jun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Tan, Ji Jian [Dept. of Research and Development, Shenyang Blower Works Group Co., Ltd., Shenyang (China)

    2016-11-15

    Radial inlets are typical upstream components of multistage centrifugal compressors. Unlike axial inlets, radial inlets generate additional flow loss and introduce flow distortions at impeller inlets. Such distortions negatively affect the aerodynamic performance of compressor stages. In this study, industrial centrifugal compressor stages with different radial inlets are investigated via numerical simulations. Two reference models were built, simulated, and compared with each original compressor stage to analyze the respective and coupling influences of flow loss and inlet distortions caused by radial inlets on the performances of the compressor stage and downstream components. Flow loss and inlet distortions are validated as the main factors through which radial inlets negatively affect compressor performance. Results indicate that flow loss inside radial inlets decreases the performance of the whole compressor stage but exerts minimal effect on downstream components. By contrast, inlet distortions induced by radial inlets negatively influence the performance of the whole compressor stage and exert significant effects on downstream components. Therefore, when optimizing radial inlets, the reduction of inlet distortions might be more effective than the reduction of flow loss. This research provides references and suggestions for the design and improvement of radial inlets.

  11. Influence of behavior and mating success on brood-specific contribution to fish recruitment in ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkos, Joseph J; Wahl, David H; Philipp, David P

    2011-10-01

    One source of uncertainty in predicting the response of populations to exploitation is individual differences within a population in both vulnerability to capture and contribution to population renewal. For species with parental care, individuals engaged in nesting behavior are often targeted for exploitation, but predicting outcomes of this nonrandom vulnerability will depend in part on an understanding of how parental traits are related to potential for brood contribution to the population. Variation in brood-specific contribution to recruitment of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a fish species with extended parental care, was quantified to determine if differences in mating success, parental care behaviors, and timing of reproduction influenced offspring recruitment. Dependence of these relationships on brood predation was tested in communities that differed in the presence of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, an important nest predator. Daily snorkel surveys were conducted in experimental ponds during spring to monitor male spawning and parental care behaviors in populations of largemouth bass. Tissue samples collected from larvae in nests were used to develop brood-specific DNA fingerprints for determining nest origins of fall recruits. Largemouth bass spawning period in bluegill ponds was longer and more variable in duration, with lower, more variable mating success, than in ponds without bluegill. In all populations, only one or two broods provided the majority of recruits, and these were broods produced during the earliest days of spawning by the oldest, largest males. In bluegill ponds, brood contribution from earliest nests also increased with brood size. Earliest nesters were the oldest males, and recruits from these nests were often above average in body size. Offspring needed to be guarded to at least swim-up larval stage to contribute any recruits. Termination of parental protection before offspring were free swimming mainly occurred with broods

  12. Stage-specific adhesion of Leishmania promastigotes to sand fly midguts assessed using an improved comparative binding assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Wilson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The binding of Leishmania promastigotes to the midgut epithelium is regarded as an essential part of the life-cycle in the sand fly vector, enabling the parasites to persist beyond the initial blood meal phase and establish the infection. However, the precise nature of the promastigote stage(s that mediate binding is not fully understood.To address this issue we have developed an in vitro gut binding assay in which two promastigote populations are labelled with different fluorescent dyes and compete for binding to dissected sand fly midguts. Binding of procyclic, nectomonad, leptomonad and metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania infantum and L. mexicana to the midguts of blood-fed, female Lutzomyia longipalpis was investigated. The results show that procyclic and metacyclic promastigotes do not bind to the midgut epithelium in significant numbers, whereas nectomonad and leptomonad promastigotes both bind strongly and in similar numbers. The assay was then used to compare the binding of a range of different parasite species (L. infantum, L. mexicana, L. braziliensis, L. major, L. tropica to guts dissected from various sand flies (Lu. longipalpis, Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti. The results of these comparisons were in many cases in line with expectations, the natural parasite binding most effectively to its natural vector, and no examples were found where a parasite was unable to bind to its natural vector. However, there were interesting exceptions: L. major and L. tropica being able to bind to Lu. longipalpis better than L. infantum; L. braziliensis was able to bind to P. papatasi as well as L. major; and significant binding of L. major to P. sergenti and L. tropica to P. papatasi was observed.The results demonstrate that Leishmania gut binding is strictly stage-dependent, is a property of those forms found in the middle phase of development (nectomonad and leptomonad forms, but is absent in the early blood meal and final stages (procyclic

  13. Influence of breed, year season and lactation stage on the buffalo milk mineral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the milk mineral composition of buffalo raised in Corrientes, Argentina, as well as to investigate variations attributed to breed, lactation period and time of the year. Milk samples (n = 105 were collected from 25 Murrah, Mediterranean, Jafarabadi and half-breed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes of second and fifth lactation. Animals were located in a dairy farm area with subtropical wet climate with 1.690 mm annual rains and annual mean temperature of 22°C. Mean records were: Ca (1.12 ± 0.40 g.kg-1, P (0.99 ± 0.32 g.kg-1, Mg (0.08± 0.02 g.kg-1, K (0.92 ± 0.25 g.kg-1, Na (0.35 ± 0.11 g.kg-1, Cu (0.35 ± 0.16 mg.kg-1, Mn (0.27 ± 0.10 mg.kg-1, Zn (4.10 ± 1.40 mg.kg-1 y Fe (1.61 ± 0.61 mg.kg-1. These parameters did not reveal significant differences attributable to breed, except for Mg. The time of the year affected the composition of the minerals, except for the Mg and Zn. The nursing stages affect the Ca, P, K and Cu concentrations. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the mineral content in the milk of buffaloes, it is considerably influenced by regional factors.

  14. Different patterns in the prognostic value of age for bladder cancer-specific survival depending on tumor stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiajun; Lu, Xiaozhe

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pathological features and long-term survival of bladder cancer (BCa) in young patients with elderly counterparts. Using the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data, we identified 93115 patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2003. Patients were categorized into young (50 years and under) and elderly groups (over 50 years of age). The overall and five-year bladder cancer specific survival (BCSS) data were obtained using Kaplan-Meier plots. Multivariable Cox regression models were built for the analysis of long-term survival outcomes and risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups in primary site, pathologic grading, histologic type, AJCC stage (pstage patients. The study findings show different patterns in the prognostic value of age for determining BCSS, depending on the tumor stages. Compared with elderly patients, young patients with bladder cancer surgery appear to have unique characteristics and a higher overall and cancer specific survival rate.

  15. Influence of Maturation Stage on Agility Performance Gains After Plyometric Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Arazi, Hamid; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Moran, Jason; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-09-01

    Asadi, A, Arazi, H, Ramirez-Campillo, R, Moran, J, and Izquierdo, M. Influence of maturation stage on agility performance gains after plyometric training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2609-2617, 2017-Although plyometric training (PT) improves change of direction (COD) ability, the influence of age on COD gains after PT is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify the age-related pattern of improvement in COD ability after PT in youths. A computerized search within 6 databases was performed, selecting studies based on specific inclusion criteria: experimental trials published in English-language journals, PT focused on the lower-body, COD ability measurements reported before and after training, and male participants aged 10 to 18 years. Sixteen articles with a total of 30 effect sizes (ESs) in the experimental groups and 13 ESs in the control groups were included. For the analyses, subjects were categorized into 3 age groups: 10-12.9 years of age (PRE), 13-15.9 years of age (MID), and 16-18 years of age (POST). Independent of age, PT improved COD ability in youths (ES = 0.86, time gains [TG = -0.61]). However, a tendency toward greater COD ability gains was observed in older subjects (MID, ES = 0.95; POST, ES = 0.99) compared with younger subjects (PRE, ES = 0.68). Pearson product-moment correlation (r) indicated that 2-weekly sessions of PT-induced meaningful COD ability gains (for ES, r = 0.436; for TG, r = -0.624). A positive relationship was found between training intensity and ES (r = 0.493). In conclusion, PT improves COD ability in youths, with meaningfully greater effects in older youths. Two PT sessions per week, with 1,400 moderate-intensity jumps for 7 weeks, seems to be an adequate dose.

  16. The influence of the CHIEF pathway on colorectal cancer-specific mortality.

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    Martha L Slattery

    Full Text Available Many components of the CHIEF (Convergence of Hormones, Inflammation, and Energy Related Factors pathway could influence survival given their involvement in cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion stimulation. We used ARTP (Adaptive Rank Truncation Product to test if genes in the pathway were associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Colon cancer (n = 1555 and rectal cancer (n = 754 cases were followed over five years. Age, center, stage at diagnosis, and tumor molecular phenotype were considered when calculating ARTP p values. A polygenic risk score was used to summarize the magnitude of risk associated with this pathway. The JAK/STAT/SOC was significant for colon cancer survival (PARTP = 0.035. Fifteen genes (DUSP2, INFGR1, IL6, IRF2, JAK2, MAP3K10, MMP1, NFkB1A, NOS2A, PIK3CA, SEPX1, SMAD3, TLR2, TYK2, and VDR were associated with colon cancer mortality (PARTP < 0.05; JAK2 (PARTP  = 0.0086, PIK3CA (PARTP = 0.0098, and SMAD3 (PARTP = 0.0059 had the strongest associations. Over 40 SNPs were significantly associated with survival within the 15 significant genes (PARTP < 0.05. SMAD3 had the strongest association with survival (HRGG 2.46 95% CI 1.44,4.21 PTtrnd = 0.0002. Seven genes (IL2RA, IL8RA, IL8RB, IRF2, RAF1, RUNX3, and SEPX1 were significantly associated with rectal cancer (PARTP < 0.05. The HR for colorectal cancer-specific mortality among colon cancer cases in the upper at-risk alleles group was 11.81 (95% CI 7.07, 19. 74 and was 10.99 (95% CI 5.30, 22.78 for rectal cancer. These results suggest that several genes in the CHIEF pathway are important for colorectal cancer survival; the risk associated with the pathway merits validation in other studies.

  17. Influence of one- or two-stage methods for polymerizing complete dentures on adaptation and teeth movements

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    Moises NOGUEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The quality of complete dentures might be influenced by the method of confection. Objective To evaluate the influence of two different methods of processing muco-supported complete dentures on their adaptation and teeth movements. Material and method Denture confection was assigned in two groups (n=10 for upper and lower arches according to polymerization method: 1 conventional one-stage - a wax trial base was made, teeth were arranged and polymerized; 2 two-stage method - the base was waxed and first polymerized. With the denture base polymerized, the teeth were arranged and then, performed the final polymerization. Teeth movements were evaluated in the distances between incisive (I-I, pre-molars (P-P, molars (M-M, left incisor to left molar (LI-LM and right incisor to right molar (RI-RM. For the adaptation analysis, dentures were cut in three different positions: (A distal face of canines, (B mesial face of the first molars, and (C distal face of second molars. Result Denture bases have shown a significant better adaptation when polymerized in the one-stage procedure for both the upper (p=0.000 and the lower (p=0.000 arches, with region A presenting significant better adaptation than region C. In the upper arch, significant reduction in the distance between I-I was observed in the one-stage technique, while the two-stage technique promoted significant reduction in the RI-RM distance. In the lower arch, one-stage technique promoted significant reduction in the distance for RI-RM and two-stage promoted significant reduction in the LI-LM distance. Conclusion Conventional one-stage method presented the better results for denture adaptation. Both fabrication methods presented some alteration in teeth movements.

  18. Relative Influence of Prior Life Stages and Habitat Variables on Dragonfly (Odonata: Gomphidae Densities among Lake Sites

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    Alysa Remsburg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aquatic species have discrete life stages, making it important to understand relative influences of the different habitats occupied within those populations. Although population demographics in one stage can carry over to spatially separated life stages, most studies of habitat associations have been restricted to a single life stage. Among Gomphidae dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera, recruitment via adult oviposition establishes initial population sizes of the aquatic larvae. However, spatial variability in larval survivorship could obscure the relationship between adult and larval densities. This study uses surveys conducted during 2005 and 2006 of Gomphidae larval, emergence, and adult stages from 22 lake sites in northern Wisconsin, USA, to investigate (1 whether the Gomphidae density of each life stage correlated spatially with that of the preceding life stage and (2 what habitat factors help explain variation in densities at each life stage. Results indicated that adult densities from the previous season helped predict densities of early-instar larvae. This finding suggests that oviposition site selection controlled the local larval distribution more than larval survivorship or movement. Late-instar larval densities helped predict densities of emerging Gomphidae later the same season, suggesting that variation in survivorship of final-instar larvae among sites is small relative to the variation in larval recruitment. This study demonstrates that locations with higher densities of odonates in the water also have higher densities of odonates on land. In addition to the densities of Gomphidae in previous life stages, water clarity helped predict larval densities, and riparian wetland vegetation helped predict emergent dragonfly densities.

  19. Assessment of liver fibrosis stage influence on clinical course of periodontal diseases in patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    О. М. Slaba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim. To assess the influence of liver fibrosis stage on the clinical course of periodontal diseases in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Material and Methods. 122 patients with chronic hepatitis C, treated at the 7th department ofLvivRegionalInfectiousDiseasesHospital during 2013 – 2015 were included into dental investigation. The periodontal disease was diagnosed in accordance with the classification of M. F. Danilevsky (1994. The clinical condition of periodontium was assessed by the papillary marginal alveolar index (PMA in the modification ofParma, by the periodontal index – PI (AL Russel, 1956, by the Muhlemann and Son index – the degree of bleeding in the region of the gingival papilla (PBI. The stage of liver fibrosis was determined according to the medical history. The significance of the difference between two or more relative indicators was calculated using the Fisher test with the Metropolis algorithm. The correlation dependence between the clinical condition of periodontal tissues and the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis C was studied using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results. The highest percentage of patients with stage of liver fibrosis F0 (70.00 ± 15.28 % was registered in patients with healthy periodont, the lowest - in patients with generalized periodontitis of the third stage (7.89 ± 4.37 %. The highest frequency of patients with the stage of liver fibrosis F3 (73.68 ± 7.14 % was also observed in persons suffering from generalized periodontitis stage III (73.68 ± 7.14 %. Conclusions. The distribution of periodontal lesion severity statistically significant (p < 0.001 depended on the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Direct (R = 0.70; p < 0.001 strong correlation between the clinical state of periodontal tissues and the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient has been determined

  20. Penetration Peg Formation and Invasive Hyphae Development Require Stage-Specific Activation of MoGTI1 in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Guanghui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Jiang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae causes one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated rice. Complex infection-related morphogenesis and production of various effectors are known to be important for successful colonization and disease development. In this study, we characterized the activation of the MoGTI1 transcription factor and its role in infection-related morphogenesis and effector gene expression. The Mogti1 mutant was nonpathogenic, although it was normal in appressorium formation and turgor generation. Close examination showed that Mogti1 was defective in penetration and growth of normal invasive hyphae. Deletion of MoGTI1 affected the expression of the majority of effector genes. The expression of MoGti1 appeared to be controlled by the Mps1 but not Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the mps1 and Mogti1 mutants had similar phenotypes in plant infection and cell wall integrity defects. However, lack of MAPK phosphorylation sites and dispensability of the putative MAPK docking site suggested that MoGti1 is not a direct target of Mps1. Site-specific mutagenesis analyses showed that the putative protein kinase A phosphorylation site was not essential for localization of MoGti1 to the nucleus but important for its normal function. Although the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation site of MoGti1 is dispensable during vegetative growth and appressorium formation, the S77A mutation affected penetration and invasive growth. Localization of MoGti1(S77A)-green fluorescent protein to the nucleus in late stages of appressorium formation and during invasive growth was not observed, suggesting a stage-specific CDK phosphorylation of MoGti1. Overall, our data indicate that Mps1 may indirectly regulate the expression of MoGti1 in maintaining cell wall integrity, conidiation, and plant infection. MoGti1 is likely a stage-specific target of CDK and plays a crucial role in effector gene expression and morphogenesis related to the

  1. Two-stage exchange knee arthroplasty: does resistance of the infecting organism influence the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurd, Mark F; Ghanem, Elie; Steinbrecher, Jill; Parvizi, Javad

    2010-08-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection after TKA is a challenging complication. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty is the accepted standard of care, but reported failure rates are increasing. It has been suggested this is due to the increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant infections. We asked the following questions: (1) What is the reinfection rate after two-stage exchange arthroplasty? (2) Which risk factors predict failure? (3) Which variables are associated with acquiring a resistant organism periprosthetic joint infection? This was a case-control study of 102 patients with infected TKA who underwent a two-stage exchange arthroplasty. Ninety-six patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 34.5 months; range, 24-90.1 months). Cases were defined as failures of two-stage exchange arthroplasty. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty was successful in controlling the infection in 70 patients (73%). Patients who failed two-stage exchange arthroplasty were 3.37 times more likely to have been originally infected with a methicillin-resistant organism. Older age, higher body mass index, and history of thyroid disease were predisposing factors to infection with a methicillin-resistant organism. Innovative interventions are needed to improve the effectiveness of two-stage exchange arthroplasty for TKA infection with a methicillin-resistant organism as current treatment protocols may not be adequate for control of these virulent pathogens. Level IV, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Brugia malayi excreted/secreted proteins at the host/parasite interface: stage- and gender-specific proteomic profiling.

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    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known about the filarial proteins that interact with the human host. Although the filarial genome has recently been completed, protein profiles have been limited to only a few recombinants or purified proteins of interest. Here, we describe a large-scale proteomic analysis using microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to identify the excretory-secretory (ES products of the L3, L3 to L4 molting ES, adult male, adult female, and microfilarial stages of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi. The analysis of the ES products from adult male, adult female, microfilariae (Mf, L3, and molting L3 larvae identified 852 proteins. Annotation suggests that the functional and component distribution was very similar across each of the stages studied; however, the Mf contributed a higher proportion to the total number of identified proteins than the other stages. Of the 852 proteins identified in the ES, only 229 had previous confirmatory expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the available databases. Moreover, this analysis was able to confirm the presence of 274 "hypothetical" proteins inferred from gene prediction algorithms applied to the B. malayi (Bm genome. Not surprisingly, the majority (160/274 of these "hypothetical" proteins were predicted to be secreted by Signal IP and/or SecretomeP 2.0 analysis. Of major interest is the abundance of previously characterized immunomodulatory proteins such as ES-62 (leucyl aminopeptidase, MIF-1, SERPIN, glutathione peroxidase, and galectin in the ES of microfilariae (and Mf-containing adult females compared to the adult males. In addition, searching the ES protein spectra against the Wolbachia database resulted in the identification of 90 Wolbachia-specific proteins, most of which were metabolic enzymes that have not been shown to be immunogenic. This proteomic analysis extends our knowledge of the ES and provides insight into the host-parasite interaction.

  3. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer: influence of care structures' characteristics on a controversial clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Eléonore; Phelip, Jean-Marc; Guilhot, Jean-Noel; Matysiak, Michel; Vermorel, Michel; Roblin, Xavier

    2007-11-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer is a controversial practice and is not recommended by the French Consensus Conference outside of therapeutic trial. To assess, within a well-defined population, the influence of hospital characteristics in this practice. In the Rhône-Alpes region (10% of the French population), 534 patients presenting with colon cancer stage II were operated on in 81 hospitals in the year 2000. The influence of hospital characteristics on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 19.5% of patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Younger age, T4 tumour, hospital volume lower than 20 colon cancer surgeries [odds ratio (OR) 2.96; Pclinical complications at diagnosis were independently associated with higher rates of chemotherapy. On the other hand, a number of examined lymph nodes lower than recommendations did not have any influence on chemotherapy use. Hospital characteristics had independently influenced the practice of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer. The more important institutional factor was the hospital procedure volume. The decisions of the multidisciplinary committees appeared at times paradoxical; a more comprehensive evaluation of this practice is needed.

  4. Virus-specific regulatory T cells ameliorate encephalitis by repressing effector T cell functions from priming to effector stages.

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    Jingxian Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the presence of pathogen-specific Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Treg in infected animals, but little is known about where and how these cells affect the effector T cell responses and whether they are more suppressive than bulk Treg populations. We recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific Tregs (M133 Treg and conventional CD4 T cells (M133 Tconv in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Here, we provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. M133 Tregs inhibited the proliferation but not initial activation of M133 Tconv in draining lymph nodes (DLN. Further, M133 Tregs inhibited migration of M133 Tconv from the DLN. In addition, M133 Tregs diminished microglia activation and decreased the number and function of Tconv in the infected brain. Thus, virus-specific Tregs inhibited pathogenic CD4 T cell responses during priming and effector stages, particularly those recognizing cognate antigen, and decreased mortality and morbidity without affecting virus clearance. These cells are more suppressive than bulk Tregs and provide a targeted approach to ameliorating immunopathological disease in infectious settings.

  5. Flow cytometric purification of Colletotrichum higginsianum biotrophic hyphae from Arabidopsis leaves for stage-specific transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Hiroyuki; Dolf, Andreas; Endl, Elmar; O'Connell, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Generation of stage-specific cDNA libraries is a powerful approach to identify pathogen genes that are differentially expressed during plant infection. Biotrophic pathogens develop specialized infection structures inside living plant cells, but sampling the transcriptome of these structures is problematic due to the low ratio of fungal to plant RNA, and the lack of efficient methods to isolate them from infected plants. Here we established a method, based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), to purify the intracellular biotrophic hyphae of Colletotrichum higginsianum from homogenates of infected Arabidopsis leaves. Specific selection of viable hyphae using a fluorescent vital marker provided intact RNA for cDNA library construction. Pilot-scale sequencing showed that the library was enriched with plant-induced and pathogenicity-related fungal genes, including some encoding small, soluble secreted proteins that represent candidate fungal effectors. The high purity of the hyphae (94%) prevented contamination of the library by sequences derived from host cells or other fungal cell types. RT-PCR confirmed that genes identified in the FACS-purified hyphae were also expressed in planta. The method has wide applicability for isolating the infection structures of other plant pathogens, and will facilitate cell-specific transcriptome analysis via deep sequencing and microarray hybridization, as well as proteomic analyses.

  6. Conflict-Specific Aging Effects Mainly Manifest in Early Information Processing Stages-An ERP Study with Different Conflict Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Margarethe; Frühholz, Sascha; Herrmann, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied by alterations of cognitive control functions such as conflict processing. Recent research suggests that aging effects on cognitive control seem to vary with degree and source of conflict, and conflict specific aging effects on performance measures as well as neural activation patterns have been shown. However, there is sparse information whether and how aging affects different stages of conflict processing as indicated by event related potentials (ERPs) such as the P2, N2 and P3 components. In the present study, 19 young and 23 elderly adults performed a combined Flanker conflict and stimulus-response-conflict (SRC) task. Analysis of the reaction times (RTs) revealed an increased SRC related conflict effect in elderly. ERP analysis furthermore demonstrated an age-related increase of the P2 amplitude in response to the SRC task. In addition, elderly adults exhibited an increased P3 amplitude modulation induced by incongruent SRC and Flanker conflict trials.

  7. Stage-specific functions of the small Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 for adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadodaria, Krishna C; Brakebusch, Cord; Suter, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the generation, maturation, and integration of new granule cells generated throughout life in the mammalian hippocampus remain poorly understood. Small Rho GTPases, such as Cdc42 and Rac1, have been implicated previously in neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC......) proliferation and neuronal maturation during embryonic development. Here we used conditional genetic deletion and virus-based loss-of-function approaches to identify temporally distinct functions for Cdc42 and Rac1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We found that Cdc42 is involved in mouse NSPC proliferation......, initial dendritic development, and dendritic spine maturation. In contrast, Rac1 is dispensable for early steps of neuronal development but is important for late steps of dendritic growth and spine maturation. These results establish cell-autonomous and stage-specific functions for the small Rho GTPases...

  8. A developmental stage-specific switch from DAZL to BOLL occurs during fetal oogenesis in humans, but not mice.

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    Jing He

    Full Text Available The Deleted in Azoospermia gene family encodes three germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins (DAZ, DAZL and BOLL that are essential for gametogenesis in diverse species. Targeted disruption of Boll in mice causes male-specific spermiogenic defects, but females are apparently fertile. Overexpression of human BOLL promotes the derivation of germ cell-like cells from genetically female (XX, but not male (XY human ES cells however, suggesting a functional role for BOLL in regulating female gametogenesis in humans. Whether BOLL is expressed during oogenesis in mammals also remains unclear. We have therefore investigated the expression of BOLL during fetal oogenesis in humans and mice. We demonstrate that BOLL protein is expressed in the germ cells of the human fetal ovary, at a later developmental stage than, and almost mutually-exclusive to, the expression of DAZL. Strikingly, BOLL is downregulated, and DAZL re-expressed, as primordial follicles form, revealing BOLL expression to be restricted to a narrow window during fetal oogenesis. By quantifying the extent of co-expression of DAZL and BOLL with markers of meiosis, we show that this window likely corresponds to the later stages of meiotic prophase I. Finally, we demonstrate that Boll is also transiently expressed during oogenesis in the fetal mouse ovary, but is simultaneously co-expressed within the same germ cells as Dazl. These data reveal significant similarities and differences between the expression of BOLL homologues during oogenesis in humans and mice, and raise questions as to the validity of the Boll(-/- mouse as a model for understanding BOLL function during human oogenesis.

  9. Influence of hope, social support, and self-esteem in early stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Valerie T; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W; Fisher, Kathleen; Richards, Kathy C

    2018-02-01

    Background People in the early stages of dementia adjust to the illness through stages of awareness, coping, and evaluation. Studies have found that hope, social support, and self-esteem facilitate coping, adjustment, and adaptation in chronic illness. Objective The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships between hope, social support, and self-esteem in individuals with early stage dementia. Methods Data were obtained from 53 individuals with early stage dementia. The scores on the Herth Hope Index, Social Support Questionnaire Short-Form, and the State Self-Esteem Scale were analyzed using linear regression. Results Hope was moderately associated with self-esteem ( r = .49, p self-esteem and was a key component in predicting self-esteem. No significant relationship was found between social support and self-esteem. Conclusion Findings suggest that hope may be an important factor to help individuals manage potential threats to self-esteem in the experience of early stage dementia. Strategies to inspire hope and then enhance self-esteem are promising for individuals living with early stage dementia.

  10. Influence of a preliminary tensile plastic strain on the first stages of oxidation of a Ni80-Cr20 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Jean-Francois

    1992-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the influence of surface, and maybe also volume, defects created by a uniaxial mechanical strain on the chemical reactivity of metal and alloy surface (adsorption, desorption, segregation, surface chemical reaction), and more particularly on their early stages of oxidation. A tensile micro-machine has been designed and manufactured to study the influence of a mechanical strain on the first stages of oxidation of sample ribbons of Ni80-Cr20 alloy. Tests have been performed under low oxygen pressures. In order to analyze the surface, each reaction is monitored by Auger electron spectrometry, and many samples are transferred to another apparatus to examine the oxide distribution. Results are interpreted in terms of evolution of nickel, chromium and oxygen Auger signals which have been recorded during oxidation experiments. The first layers of the sample alloy are simply modelled and some theoretical calculations are developed which correlate with experimental values [fr

  11. The Developmental Stage of Adult Human Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Influences Transplant Efficacy for Vision Rescue

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    Richard J. Davis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common cause of central visual loss in the elderly. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell loss occurs early in the course of AMD and RPE cell transplantation holds promise to slow disease progression. We report that subretinal transplantation of RPE stem cell (RPESC-derived RPE cells (RPESC-RPE preserved vision in a rat model of RPE cell dysfunction. Importantly, the stage of differentiation that RPESC-RPE acquired prior to transplantation influenced the efficacy of vision rescue. Whereas cells at all stages of differentiation tested rescued photoreceptor layer morphology, an intermediate stage of RPESC-RPE differentiation obtained after 4 weeks of culture was more consistent at vision rescue than progeny that were differentiated for 2 weeks or 8 weeks of culture. Our results indicate that the developmental stage of RPESC-RPE significantly influences the efficacy of RPE cell replacement, which affects the therapeutic application of these cells for AMD.

  12. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: Influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Gil, A. M.; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Félix Lara, J.; Pardo, F.; Rosario Salinas, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids...

  13. Production system and harvesting stage influence on nitrate content and quality of butterhead lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fairuz Yosoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables such as lettuce grown under different production systems may accumulate different concentrations of nitrate which may reach to the levels potentially toxic to humans. Moreover, nitrate accumulation varies in various plant parts and physiological age of the plant. Therefore, to determine the effect of production system and harvesting stage on nitrate accumulation and quality of butterhead lettuce, a study was conducted considering two lettuce production systems namely hydroponic and organic, and four different harvesting stages such as 35, 38, 41 and 44 days after transplanting (DAT. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD with four replications. Hydroponic and organic systems performed similar in terms of yield, quality and nitrate content of butterhead lettuce. Delaying harvesting can not only increase yield but also can minimize nitrate accumulation and health hazard risk as well. Delay in harvesting stage may result in quality deterioration of lettuce and increased production cost. Thus, a compromise is necessary to consider 41 DAT as the optimum stage to harvest butterhead lettuce with significantly higher reduction of nitrate content in both outer adult leaf blades and young leaves of hydroponic lettuce. Fresh weight, firmness and color of butterhead lettuce at this stage were still acceptable.

  14. Medical and Non-Medical Factors Influencing Utilization of Delayed Pushing in the Second Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREY, Heather A.; TUULI, Methodius G.; CORTEZ, Sarah; ODIBO, Anthony O.; ROEHL, Kimberly A.; SHANKS, Anthony L.; MACONES, George A.; CAHILL, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors impacting selection to delayed pushing in the second stage of labor. Study design This case-control study was a secondary analysis of a large retrospective cohort study. Cases included women who delayed pushing for 60 minutes or more in the second stage of labor. Controls began pushing prior to 60 minutes from the time of diagnosis of complete dilation. Demographic, labor, and nonmedical factors were compared among cases and controls. Logistic regression modelling was used to identify factors independently associated with delayed pushing. Results We identified 471 women who delayed pushing and 4,819 controls. Nulliparity, maternal body mass index > 25, high fetal station at complete dilation, regional anesthesia use, and start of second stage during staffing shift change were independent factors associated with increased use of delayed pushing. On the other hand, black race and second stage management during night shift were associated with lower odds of employing delayed pushing. Delayed pushing was more commonly employed in nulliparous women, but 38.9% of multiparous women also delayed pushing. Conclusion We identified multiple factors associated with use of delayed pushing. This study helps to define current patterns of second stage labor management. PMID:23208765

  15. Medical and nonmedical factors influencing utilization of delayed pushing in the second stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; Cortez, Sarah; Odibo, Anthony O; Roehl, Kimberly A; Shanks, Anthony L; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate factors impacting selection to delayed pushing in the second stage of labor. This case-control study was a secondary analysis of a large retrospective cohort study. Cases included women who delayed pushing for 60 minutes or more in the second stage of labor. Controls began pushing prior to 60 minutes from the time of diagnosis of complete dilation. Demographic, labor, and nonmedical factors were compared among cases and controls. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with delayed pushing. We identified 471 women who delayed pushing and 4819 controls. Nulliparity, maternal body mass index > 25, high fetal station at complete dilation, regional anesthesia use, and start of second stage during staffing shift change were independent factors associated with increased use of delayed pushing. On the other hand, black race and second-stage management during night shift were associated with lower odds of employing delayed pushing. Delayed pushing was more commonly employed in nulliparous women, but 38.9% of multiparous women also delayed pushing. We identified multiple factors associated with use of delayed pushing. This study helps to define current patterns of second-stage labor management. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Detection of EGFR mutations with mutation-specific antibodies in stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viteri Santiago

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunohistochemistry (IHC with mutation-specific antibodies may be an ancillary method of detecting EGFR mutations in lung cancer patients. Methods EGFR mutation status was analyzed by DNA assays, and compared with IHC results in five non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines and tumor samples from 78 stage IV NSCLC patients. Results IHC correctly identified del 19 in the H1650 and PC9 cell lines, L858R in H1975, and wild-type EGFR in H460 and A549, as well as wild-type EGFR in tumor samples from 22 patients. IHC with the mAb against EGFR with del 19 was highly positive for the protein in all 17 patients with a 15-bp (ELREA deletion in exon 19, whereas in patients with other deletions, IHC was weakly positive in 3 cases and negative in 9 cases. IHC with the mAb against the L858R mutation showed high positivity for the protein in 25/27 (93% patients with exon 21 EGFR mutations (all with L858R but did not identify the L861Q mutation in the remaining two patients. Conclusions IHC with mutation-specific mAbs against EGFR is a promising method for detecting EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients. However these mAbs should be validated with additional studies to clarify their possible role in routine clinical practice for screening EGFR mutations in NSCLC patients.

  17. Influence of recipient cytoplasm cell stage on transcription in bovine nucleus transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Steven D.; Soloy, Eva; Kanka, Jiri

    1996-01-01

    Nucleus transfer for the production of multiple embryos derived from a donor embryo relies upon the reprogramming of the donor nucleus so that it behaves similar to a zygotic nucleus. One indication of nucleus reprogramming is the RNA synthetic activity. In normal bovine embryogenesis, the embryo....... NTE were produced using either a MII phase (nonactivated) cytoplasts at 32 hr of maturation or S-phase (activated) cytoplasts activated with calcium ionophore A23187 and cycloheximide treatment approximately 8 hr prior to fusion with a blastomere from an in-vitro-produced morula stage embryo at 32 hr...... of maturation. Control in-vitro-produced embryos were 3H-uridine-labelled and fixed at the 2-, 4-, early 8-, and late 8-cell stages. NTE were similarly prepared at 1, 3, and 20 hr postfusion and at the 2-, 4-, and 8-cell stages. In the control embryos, RNA synthesis was absent in the 2-, 4-, and early 8-cell...

  18. Racing with friends: Resistance to peer influence, gist and specific risk beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Jessica H; Curry, Allison E

    2016-11-01

    Studies assessing young drivers' risk appraisals with their driving behavior have shown both positive and inverse associations, possibly due to differences in survey items that cue gist appraisals about risk (i.e., beliefs that are focused on meaning) or specific appraisals (i.e., beliefs that are focused on discrete instances). Prior research has indicated that gist-based reasoning is protective against engaging in risk behavior and that use of gist appraisals increases with development. Additionally, although much of adolescents' risk-taking occurs in groups, almost no research examines how adolescents' resistance to peer influence may relate to their specific and gist beliefs about socially-bound risk behavior, as well as their future engagement in such behavior. One hundred and thirty-two adolescent drivers participated in a prospective self-report study on racing behavior. Surveys measured specific and gist risk appraisals, resistance to peer influence, and racing behavior at two time points three months apart. We hypothesized that stronger specific appraisals would be associated with greater likelihood of racing, and stronger gist appraisals would be protective. Further, we hypothesized that resistance to peer influence would be positively associated with gist appraisals and negatively associated with specific risk appraisals; and would also be inversely associate with racing. Specific risk appraisals and gist appraisals were predictive of racing behavior as hypothesized. Resistance to peer influence did not predict racing, but was associated with each type of risk appraisal as predicted at Time 1, although the association between specific risk and resistance to peer influence was non-significant at the second time point. Gist beliefs and the ability to resist influence from friends might be indicative of an underlying strength of one's own beliefs about the self as a non-risk taking person who stands up for his or her beliefs, which is protective against

  19. BP reactivity to public speaking in stage 1 hypertension: influence of different task scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Bratti, Paolo; Palomba, Daniela; Bonso, Elisa; Saladini, Francesca; Benetti, Elisabetta; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the blood pressure (BP) reaction to public speaking performed according to different emotionally distressing scenarios in stage 1 hypertension. METHODS. We assessed 64 hypertensive and 30 normotensive subjects. They performed three speech tasks with neutral, anger and anxiety scenarios. BP was assessed with the Finometer beat-to-beat non-invasive recording system throughout the test procedure. For all types of speech, the systolic BP response was greater in the hypertensive than the normotensive subjects (all p public speaking is increased in stage 1 hypertension. A speech with anxiety or anger scenario elicits a greater diastolic BP reaction than tasks with neutral content.

  20. Sustained expression of a neuron-specific isoform of the Taf1 gene in development stages and aging in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambaldorj, Jamiyansuren; Makino, Satoshi; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Tamiya, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We identified the mouse homologue of neuron-specific TAF1 (N-Taf1). ► Taf1 mRNA was expressed in most tissues and cell lines. ► N-Taf1 mRNA was expressed in the brain and Neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. ► Taf1 and N-Taf1 showed different expression profile in development stage and aging. -- Abstract: TATA-box binding protein associated factor 1 (TAF1) protein is the largest and the essential component of the TFIID complex in the pathway of RNA polymerase II–mediated gene transcription, and it regulates transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1), which we reported previously, may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the mouse homologue of N-TAF1 (N-Taf1) protein. By carrying out of real time RT-PCR, we investigated the expression analysis of the N-Taf1 mRNA in mouse tissues and cell lines. As well as the human N-TAF1, the N-Taf1 showed limited expression in the brain and neuroblastoma, whereas Taf1 expressed elsewhere. Furthermore, in mouse embryo head or mouse brain, mRNA expression of TAF1 changes dramatically during development but N-Taf1 showed sustained expression. Our result suggests that the N-Taf1 gene has an important role in non-dividing neuronal cell rather than in cell division and proliferation during neurogenesis.

  1. Sustained expression of a neuron-specific isoform of the Taf1 gene in development stages and aging in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambaldorj, Jamiyansuren [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Biosciences, Graduate School, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Central Scientific Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Makino, Satoshi, E-mail: smakino@genetix-h.com [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192 (Japan); Munkhbat, Batmunkh [Central Scientific Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Tamiya, Gen [Advanced Molecular Epidemiology Research Institute, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the mouse homologue of neuron-specific TAF1 (N-Taf1). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 mRNA was expressed in most tissues and cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Taf1 mRNA was expressed in the brain and Neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 and N-Taf1 showed different expression profile in development stage and aging. -- Abstract: TATA-box binding protein associated factor 1 (TAF1) protein is the largest and the essential component of the TFIID complex in the pathway of RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription, and it regulates transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1), which we reported previously, may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the mouse homologue of N-TAF1 (N-Taf1) protein. By carrying out of real time RT-PCR, we investigated the expression analysis of the N-Taf1 mRNA in mouse tissues and cell lines. As well as the human N-TAF1, the N-Taf1 showed limited expression in the brain and neuroblastoma, whereas Taf1 expressed elsewhere. Furthermore, in mouse embryo head or mouse brain, mRNA expression of TAF1 changes dramatically during development but N-Taf1 showed sustained expression. Our result suggests that the N-Taf1 gene has an important role in non-dividing neuronal cell rather than in cell division and proliferation during neurogenesis.

  2. Dual effect of fetal bovine serum on early development depends on stage-specific reactive oxygen species demands in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Eun Mun

    Full Text Available Despite the application of numerous supplements to improve in vitro culture (IVC conditions of mammalian cells, studies regarding the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS on mammalian early embryogenesis, particularly in relation to redox homeostasis, are lacking. Herein, we demonstrated that early development of in vitro-produced (IVP porcine embryos highly depends on the combination of FBS supplementation timing and embryonic reactive oxygen species (ROS requirements. Interestingly, FBS significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels in parthenogenetically activated (PA embryos regardless of the developmental stage. However, the beneficial effect of FBS on early embryogenesis was found only during the late phase (IVC 4-6 days treatment group. In particular, developmental competence parameters, such as blastocyst formation rate, cellular survival, total cell number and trophectoderm proportion, were markedly increased by FBS supplementation during the late IVC phase. In addition, treatment with FBS elevated antioxidant transcript levels during the late IVC phase. In contrast, supplementation with FBS during the entire period (1-6 days or during the early IVC phase (1-2 days greatly impaired the developmental parameters. Consistent with the results from PA embryos, the developmental competence of in vitro fertilization (IVF or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos were markedly improved by treatment with FBS during the late IVC phase. Moreover, the embryonic stage-specific effects of FBS were reversed by the addition of an oxidant and were mimicked by treatment with an antioxidant. These findings may increase our understanding of redox-dependent early embryogenesis and contribute to the large-scale production of high-quality IVP embryos.

  3. Stage-specific activity of potential antimalarial compounds measured in vitro by flow cytometry in comparison to optical microscopy and hypoxanthine uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E Contreras

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of new antimalarial agents using older methods of monitoring sensitivity to antimalarial drugs are laborious and poorly suited to discriminate stage-specific activity. We used flow cytometry to study the effect of established antimalarial compounds, cysteine protease inhibitors, and a quinolone against asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Cultured P. falciparum parasites were treated for 48 h with different drug concentrations and the parasitemia was determined by flow cytometry methods after DNA staining with propidium iodide. P. falciparum erythrocytic life cycle stages were readily distinguished by flow cytometry. Activities of established and new antimalarial compounds measured by flow cytometry were equivalent to results obtained with microscopy and metabolite uptake assays. The antimalarial activity of all compounds was higher against P. falciparum trophozoite stages. Advantages of flow cytometry analysis over traditional assays included higher throughput for data collection, insight into the stage-specificity of antimalarial activity avoiding use of radioactive isotopes.

  4. Influence of caffeine on information processing stages in well rested and fatigued subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, L.M.; Snel, J.; Kok, A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the effects of caffeine on different information processing stages using choice reaction time (RT) tasks. A 200-mg dose at the beginning and a maintenance dose of 50 mg caffeine or lactose half-way through the session were administered to 15 well-rested and 15 fatigued university students

  5. Influence of Life Cycle Stage on Family Social Climate and Attitudes Toward the Residential Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Marjorie

    The existing physical forms of housing are not always compatible with prevalent social patterns. To investigate the relationship between family system characteristics and attitudes about residential space, 64 Indiana families in 4 stages of the family life cycle (early years with no children, crowded years with at least one preschool child, peak…

  6. Influence of species and stage of maturity on intake and partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Four silage diets were studied in a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. The treatments consisted of two grass species (P. maximum or D. eriantha) and two growth stages (boot or full bloom) at harvest. Four multi- cannulated sheep fitted with ruminal, abomasal and ileal cannulas were randomly allocated to one of the four.

  7. Stage specific effects of soluble copper and copper oxide nanoparticles during sea urchin embryo development and their relation to intracellular copper uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Ramos-Torres, Karla M; Rahimoff, René; Cherr, Gary N

    2017-08-01

    The effects of exposure to either soluble copper (copper sulfate) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) during specific early developmental stages of sea urchin embryos were analyzed. Soluble copper caused significant malformations in embryos (skeletal malformations, delayed development or gut malformations) when present at any given stage, while cleavage stage was the most sensitive to nano-CuO exposure causing skeletal malformations and decreased total antioxidant capacity. The stage specificity was linked to higher endocytic activity during the first hours of development that leads to higher accumulation of copper in specific cells critical for development. Results indicate that nano-CuO results in higher accumulation of copper inside of embryos and this intracellular copper is more persistent as compared to soluble copper. The possible implications later in development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Shaft Position Influence on Technical Characteristics of Universal Two-Stages Helical Speed Reducers

    OpenAIRE

    Мilan Rackov; Zeljko Kanovic; Sinisa Kuzmanovic; Ruzica Trbojevic

    2005-01-01

    Purchasers of speed reducers decide on buying those reducers, that can the most approximately satisfy their demands with much smaller costs. Amount of used material, ie. mass and dimensions of gear unit influences on gear units price. Mass and dimensions of gear unit, besides output torque, gear unit ratio and efficiency, are the most important parameters of technical characteristics of gear units and their quality. Centre distance and position of shafts have significant influence on output t...

  9. Prognostic influence of clinical stage for distant failure in conservation treatment of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjan, N.A.; Murray, K.J.; Walker, A.P.; Derus, S.B.; Komaki, R.U.; Cox, J.D.; Wilson, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    One-hundred twelve patients with clinical stage I-II mammary carcinoma treated with radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery from 1975 through 1985 were evaluated. Median follow-up was 21 months (range, 2-80 months). This study demonstrates the importance of evaluating patients on the basis of tumor and axillary node findings rather than by clinical stage alone. In the authors' series, all T1 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieved the same excellent local and distant control as node-negative T1 and T2 patients. Distant failure occurred in 70% of T2 N1 patients despite systemic chemotherapy given to the majority of patients. The significance of these data regarding future trials are discussed

  10. Age- and stage-dependent variations of muscle-specific gene expression in brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churova, Maria V; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Ruchev, Mikhail; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the features of muscle-specific genes expression during development of brown trout Salmo trutta inhabiting the river Krivoy ruchey (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Gene expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs - MyoD1 paralogs (MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MyoD1c), Myf5, myogenin), myostatin paralogs (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MSTN-2a), fast skeletal myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were measured in the white muscles of brown trout parr of ages 0+ (under-yearling), 1+ (yearling) and 2+ (two year old) and smolts of age 2+. Multidirectional changes in MyoD1 and MSTN paralogs expression along with myogenin, Myf 5 and MyHC expression levels in white muscles in parr of trout with age were revealed. The expression of MyoD1c, myogenin, MSTN-2a was the highest in 0+ parr and then decreased. MyoD1a/b expression levels didn't differ between age groups. The simultaneous elevation of MyHC, Myf5, MSTN-1a, and MSTN-1b was found in trout yearlings. In smolts, expression levels of MSTN paralogs, MyHC, Myf5, MyoD1a was lower than in parr. But in contrast, the MyoD1c and myogenin mRNA levels was higher in smolts. The study revealed that there are definite patterns in simultaneous muscle-specific genes expression in age groups of parr and smolts. As MyoD and MSTN paralogs expression changed differently in dependence on age and stage, it was suggested that paralogs of the same gene complementarily control myogenesis during development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Carbohydrate Moiety of Secreted Stage-Specific Glycoprotein 4 Participates in Host Cell Invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi Extracellular Amastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar T. V. Florentino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease. It is known that amastigotes derived from trypomastigotes in the extracellular milieu are infective in vitro and in vivo. Extracellular amastigotes (EAs have a stage-specific surface antigen called Ssp-4, a GPI-anchored glycoprotein that is secreted by the parasites. By immunoprecipitation with the Ssp-4-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb 2C2 and 1D9, we isolated the glycoprotein from EAs. By mass spectrometry, we identified the core protein of Ssp-4 and evaluated mRNA expression and the presence of Ssp-4 carbohydrate epitopes recognized by mAb1D9. We demonstrated that the carbohydrate epitope recognized by mAb1D9 could promote host cell invasion by EAs. Although infectious EAs express lower amounts of Ssp-4 compared with less-infectious EAs (at the mRNA and protein levels, it is the glycosylation of Ssp-4 (identified by mAb1D9 staining only in infectious strains and recognized by galectin-3 on host cells that is the determinant of EA invasion of host cells. Furthermore, Ssp-4 is secreted by EAs, either free or associated with parasite vesicles, and can participate in host-cell interactions. The results presented here describe the possible role of a carbohydrate moiety of T. cruzi surface glycoproteins in host cell invasion by EA forms, highlighting the potential of these moieties as therapeutic and vaccine targets for the treatment of Chagas’ disease.

  12. A Carbohydrate Moiety of Secreted Stage-Specific Glycoprotein 4 Participates in Host Cell Invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi Extracellular Amastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, Pilar T. V.; Real, Fernando; Orikaza, Cristina M.; da Cunha, Julia P. C.; Vitorino, Francisca N. L.; Cordero, Esteban M.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Mortara, Renato A.

    2018-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease. It is known that amastigotes derived from trypomastigotes in the extracellular milieu are infective in vitro and in vivo. Extracellular amastigotes (EAs) have a stage-specific surface antigen called Ssp-4, a GPI-anchored glycoprotein that is secreted by the parasites. By immunoprecipitation with the Ssp-4-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) 2C2 and 1D9, we isolated the glycoprotein from EAs. By mass spectrometry, we identified the core protein of Ssp-4 and evaluated mRNA expression and the presence of Ssp-4 carbohydrate epitopes recognized by mAb1D9. We demonstrated that the carbohydrate epitope recognized by mAb1D9 could promote host cell invasion by EAs. Although infectious EAs express lower amounts of Ssp-4 compared with less-infectious EAs (at the mRNA and protein levels), it is the glycosylation of Ssp-4 (identified by mAb1D9 staining only in infectious strains and recognized by galectin-3 on host cells) that is the determinant of EA invasion of host cells. Furthermore, Ssp-4 is secreted by EAs, either free or associated with parasite vesicles, and can participate in host-cell interactions. The results presented here describe the possible role of a carbohydrate moiety of T. cruzi surface glycoproteins in host cell invasion by EA forms, highlighting the potential of these moieties as therapeutic and vaccine targets for the treatment of Chagas’ disease. PMID:29692765

  13. Stage-Specific Fatty Acid Fluxes Play a Regulatory Role in Glycerolipid Metabolism during Seed Development in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Bharatula Sri Krishna; Kumar, Sumit; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Sastry, Pidaparty Seshadri; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2015-12-23

    The present study describes the changes in lipid profile as well as fatty acid fluxes during seed development in Jatropha curcas L. Endosperm from 34, 37, and 40 days after anthesis (DAA), incubated with [(14)C]acetate, showed significant synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) at seed maturation. The fatty acid methyl ester profile showed PC from 34 DAA was rich in palmitic acid (16:0), whereas PC from 37 and 40 DAA was rich in oleic acid (18:1n-9). Molecular species analysis of diacylglycerol (DAG) indicated DAG (16:0/18:2n-6) was in abundance at 34 DAA, whereas DAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6) was significantly high at 40 DAA. Triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis revealed TAG (16:0/18:2n-6/16:0) was abundant at 34 DAA, whereas TAG (18:1n-9/18:2n-6/18:1n-9) formed the majority at 40 DAA. Expression of two types of diacylglycerol acyltransferases varied with seed maturation. These data demonstrate stage-specific distinct pools of PC and DAG synthesis during storage TAG accumulation in Jatropha seed.

  14. Stage-specific appearance of cytoplasmic microtubules around the surviving nuclei during the third prezygotic division of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Yuan, Jin-Qiang; Gao, Xin; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2012-12-01

    There are six micronuclear divisions during conjugation of Paramecium caudatum: three prezygotic and three postzygotic divisions. Four haploid nuclei are formed during the first two meiotic prezygotic divisions. Usually only one meiotic product is located in the paroral cone (PC) region at the completion of meiosis, which survives and divides mitotically to complete the third prezygotic division to yield a stationary and a migratory pronucleus. The remaining three located outside of the PC degenerate. The migratory pronuclei are then exchanged between two conjugants and fuse with the stationary pronuclei to form synkarya, which undergo three successive divisions (postzygotic divisions). However, little is known about the surviving mechanism of the PC nuclei. In the current study, stage-specific appearance of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) was indicated during the third prezygotic division by immunofluorescence labeling with anti-alpha tubulin antibodies surrounding the surviving nuclei, including the PC nuclei and the two types of prospective pronuclei. This suggested that cMTs were involved in the formation of a physical barrier, whose function may relate to sequestering and protecting the surviving nuclei from the major cytoplasm, where degeneration of extra-meiotic products occurs, another important nuclear event during the third prezygotic division.

  15. Counterbalancing angiogenic regulatory factors control the rate of cancer progression and survival in a stage-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liang; Duncan, Michael B; Pahler, Jessica; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Martino, Margot; Lively, Julie; Mundel, Thomas; Soubasakos, Mary; Rubin, Kristofer; Takeda, Takaaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Lawler, Jack; Hynes, Richard O; Hanahan, Douglas; Kalluri, Raghu

    2011-06-14

    Whereas the roles of proangiogenic factors in carcinogenesis are well established, those of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors (EAIs) remain to be fully elaborated. We investigated the roles of three EAIs during de novo tumorigenesis to further test the angiogenic balance hypothesis, which suggests that blood vessel development in the tumor microenvironment can be governed by a net loss of negative regulators of angiogenesis in addition to the well-established principle of up-regulated angiogenesis inducers. In a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer, administration of endostatin, thrombospondin-1, and tumstatin peptides, as well as deletion of their genes, reveal neoplastic stage-specific effects on angiogenesis, tumor progression, and survival, correlating with endothelial expression of their receptors. Deletion of tumstatin and thrombospondin-1 in mice lacking the p53 tumor suppressor gene leads to increased incidence and reduced latency of angiogenic lymphomas associated with diminished overall survival. The results demonstrate that EAIs are part of a balance mechanism regulating tumor angiogenesis, serving as intrinsic microenvironmental barriers to tumorigenesis.

  16. Counterbalancing angiogenic regulatory factors control the rate of cancer progression and survival in a stage-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liang; Duncan, Michael B.; Pahler, Jessica; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Martino, Margot; Lively, Julie; Mundel, Thomas; Soubasakos, Mary; Rubin, Kristofer; Takeda, Takaaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Lawler, Jack; Hynes, Richard O.; Hanahan, Douglas; Kalluri, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the roles of proangiogenic factors in carcinogenesis are well established, those of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors (EAIs) remain to be fully elaborated. We investigated the roles of three EAIs during de novo tumorigenesis to further test the angiogenic balance hypothesis, which suggests that blood vessel development in the tumor microenvironment can be governed by a net loss of negative regulators of angiogenesis in addition to the well-established principle of up-regulated angiogenesis inducers. In a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer, administration of endostatin, thrombospondin-1, and tumstatin peptides, as well as deletion of their genes, reveal neoplastic stage-specific effects on angiogenesis, tumor progression, and survival, correlating with endothelial expression of their receptors. Deletion of tumstatin and thrombospondin-1 in mice lacking the p53 tumor suppressor gene leads to increased incidence and reduced latency of angiogenic lymphomas associated with diminished overall survival. The results demonstrate that EAIs are part of a balance mechanism regulating tumor angiogenesis, serving as intrinsic microenvironmental barriers to tumorigenesis. PMID:21622854

  17. Influence of Meiotic Stages on Developmental Competence of Goat’ Oocyte After Vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ihsan, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    This objective of this research was to investigate effect of goat oocyte meiotic stages on developmental competence after cryopreservation. Ovaries were collected from slaugterhouse and oocytes was aspirated from2-6 mm of follicles. Oocyte with compacted cumulus cells and evenly granulated ooplasm were selected for this experiment. The lenght of in vitro maturation before vitrification was 8 or 22 h in IVM media TCM 199 + FCS 10 % + PMSG 10 IU + hCG 10 IU at 38.5 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2 in air and were vitrified. After vitrification process, GVBD and MII oocyte were matured for 18 or 4 h to fullfill 26 h maturation requirement and then oocytes were subjected to IVF and culture. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rate were to asses their developmental competence. Cleavage rates were obtained for both GVBD ( 56.78 %) and MII (69.64 % ) oocytes (PGoat oocytes in different maturation stages response to vitrification differently and MII stages have better developmental competence than GVBD.

  18. The C. elegans tailless/Tlx homolog nhr-67 regulates a stage-specific program of linker cell migration in male gonadogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mihoko; Sternberg, Paul W

    2009-12-01

    Cell migration is a common event during organogenesis, yet little is known about how migration is temporally coordinated with organ development. We are investigating stage-specific programs of cell migration using the linker cell (LC), a migratory cell crucial for male gonadogenesis of C. elegans. During the L3 and L4 larval stages of wild-type males, the LC undergoes changes in its position along the migratory route, in transcriptional regulation of the unc-5 netrin receptor and zmp-1 zinc matrix metalloprotease, and in cell morphology. We have identified the tailless homolog nhr-67 as a cell-autonomous, stage-specific regulator of timing in LC migration programs. In nhr-67-deficient animals, each of the L3 and L4 stage changes is either severely delayed or never occurs, yet LC development before the early L3 stage or after the mid-L4 stage occurs with normal timing. We propose that there is a basal migration program utilized throughout LC migration that is modified by stage-specific regulators such as nhr-67.

  19. Do stage-specific functional responses of consumers dampen the effects of subsidies on trophic cascades in streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2014-07-01

    Resource subsidies often weaken trophic cascades in recipient communities via consumers' functional response to the subsidies. Consumer populations are commonly stage-structured and may respond to the subsidies differently among the stages yet less is known about how this might impact the subsidy effects on the strength of trophic cascades in recipient systems. We show here, using a large-scale field experiment, that the stage structure of a recipient consumer would dampen the effects of terrestrial invertebrate subsidies on the strength of trophic cascade in streams. When a high input rate of the terrestrial invertebrates was available, both large and small fish stages switched their diet to the terrestrial subsidy, which weakened the trophic cascade in streams. However, when the input rate of the terrestrial invertebrates was at a moderate level, the terrestrial subsidy did not weaken the trophic cascade. This discrepancy was likely due to small fish stages being competitively excluded from feeding on the subsidy by larger stages of fish and primarily foraging on benthic invertebrates under the moderate input level. Although previous studies using single fish stages have clearly demonstrated that the terrestrial invertebrate input equivalent to our moderate input rate weakened the trophic cascade in streams, this subsidy effect might be overestimated given small fish stage may not switch their diet to the subsidy under competition with large fish stage. Given the ubiquity of consumer stage structure and interaction among consumer stages, the effects we saw might be widespread in nature, requiring future studies that explicitly involve consumer's stage structure into community ecology. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  20. Stage specificity and dose-response relationships for chromosome aberrations induced in mouse primary spermatocytes following X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Utsugi, T.

    1986-05-01

    In this study, dose-response relationships were examined for chromosome aberrations observed at diakinesis-metaphase I of spermatocytes with X-irradiation at various stages of meiosis (diplotene, mid-pachytene, zygotene and leptotene). The frequencies of cells with X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations increased with dose at all stages in the applied range of 0.5-3.0 Gy and tended to increase as the irradiated stages descended after leptotene stage. In three stages, the frequencies increased exponentially with dose, but the rates of induction of chromosome breaks were markedly different depending on the stages at which spermatocytes were irradiated with X-rays. The rate of induction was the highest at diplotene and the lowest at leptotene, suggesting that diplotene spermatocytes had the highest radiosensitivity to the induction of chromosome breaks, followed by pachytene, zygotene and leptotene spermatocytes in that order. The dose-response relationships fitted well to linear equations for deletion-type aberrations at each stage, and to linear-quadratic equations for exchange-type aberrations at all stages except for leptotene. At leptotene, the chromatid exchanges were hardly observed, the aberrations being mainly consisted of iso-chromatid fragments. On the contrary, chromatid exchanges and iso-chromatide deletions were mainly observed at later stages (zygotene-diplotene).

  1. Influence of shear flow on the specific volume and the crystalline morphology of isotactic polypropylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, M.H.E.; Peters, G.W.M.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of shear flow on the temperature evolution of the specific volume and the crystalline morphology of two iPP's, differing in weight-averaged molar mass w, was investigated at nonisothermal conditions and elevated pressures, using a custom-designed dilatometer. These conditions are

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood specific gravity in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Groover; M. Devey; T. Fiddler; J. Lee; R. Megraw; T. Mitchel-Olds; B. Sherman; S. Vujcic; C. Williams; D. Neale

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) . QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (>2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among...

  3. Characterization of odor-active volatiles in apples: influence of cultivars and maturity stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehinagic, Emira; Royer, Gaëlle; Symoneaux, Ronan; Jourjon, Frédérique; Prost, Carole

    2006-04-05

    The aroma and texture of three different apple cultivars, harvested at three maturity stages, were analyzed by sensory and instrumental analysis. The emphasis was on the identification of the most potent odorant volatiles, and the challenge was to separate the few most important flavor compounds, which may be trace chemicals, from the vast number of nonodorant compounds present in apple aroma extracts. Thirty-six odorant compounds were detected, 24 of which were common to all extracts. A significant correlation coefficient was found between the aroma intensity scores and overall quantity of the odorant volatiles, which shows that the development of sensory aroma is similar to that of odorant volatiles. This study also showed that the parameters measured by penetrometry and compression were highly correlated with sensory textural attributes. The determination of the optimal maturity stage for different apple cultivars by the usual parameters, such as color, diameter, total soluble solids, and titrable acidity, may not be sufficient to determine the optimal sensory quality for consumers. Moreover, the sensory quality of fruits changes during maturation in a different way from one cultivar to another, and this should be taken into account.

  4. Sleep and memory. I: The influence of different sleep stages on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, V S

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to the sleep stages role in memory is discussed in the context of the two opposite patterns of behavior-search activity and renunciation of search. Search activity is activity designed to change the situation (or the subjects attitudes to it) in the absence of a definite forecast of the results of such activity, but with the constant consideration of these results at all stages of activity. Search activity increases general adaptability and body resistance while renunciation of search decreases adaptability and requires REM sleep for its compensation. Unprepared learning, which is often accompanied by failures on the first steps of learning, is suggested to produce renunciation of search, which decreases learning ability, suppress retention, and increase REM sleep requirement. A prolonged REM sleep deprivation before training causes learned helplessness and disturbs the learning process, while short REM sleep deprivation cause the "rebound" of the compensatory search activity that interferes with passive avoidance. REM sleep deprivation performed after a training session can increase distress caused by a training procedure, with the subsequent negative outcome on retention.

  5. Does reactor staging influence microbial structure and functions in biofilm systems? The case of pre-denitrifying MBBRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Torresi, Elena; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    -stage MBBR system (S1+S2+S3), fed with pre-clarified wastewater, was operated at laboratory-scale with (i) controlled biomass exposure to organic substrate (COD); and (ii) enhanced the physical retention of biomass, thus inducing adaptation to different substrate exposure conditions. During long...... (exposed to lowest availability). These findings indicate that the exposure to tiered substrate availability influenced the capacity of utilizing a different range of carbon sources in each MBBR, thus impacting denitrification and pharmaceutical biotransformation. Preliminary analysis on the microbial...

  6. Factors which influence on force of boxers` and footballers` shots on the stage of base pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitenko S.A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available On the stage of base pre-treatment factors which influence on force of shots the hands of boxers and feet of footballers as a criterion of competition activity efficiency are certain. Connections are certain between force of shots by hands and feet. The objective test of the specialized sense determination of boxers` and footballers` shots is offered. It is recommended to develop maximal and explosive force of all parts of sportsman body at implementation preparatory exercises with the further transfer of physical qualities on implementation of the special exercises.

  7. Are Negative Peer Influences Domain Specific? Examining the Influence of Peers and Parents on Externalizing and Drug Use Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ronald B; Criss, Michael M; Harrist, Amanda W; Zapata-Roblyer, Martha

    2017-10-01

    Most studies tend to characterize peer influences as either positive or negative. In a sample of 1815 youth from 14 different schools in Caracas, Venezuela, we explored how two types of peer affiliations (i.e., deviant and drug-using peers) differentially mediated the paths from positive parenting to youth's externalizing behavior and licit and illicit drug use. We used Zero Inflated Poisson models to test the probability of use and the extent of use during the past 12 months. Results suggested that peer influences are domain specific among Venezuelan youth. That is, deviant peer affiliations mediated the path from positive parenting to youth externalizing behaviors, and peer drug-using affiliations mediated the paths to the drug use outcomes. Mediation effects were partial, suggesting that parenting explained unique variance in the outcomes after accounting for both peer variables, gender, and age. We discuss implications for the development of screening tools and for prevention interventions targeting adolescents from different cultures.

  8. Prostate-specific antigen lowering effect of metabolic syndrome is influenced by prostate volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Suk; Heo, Nam Ju; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the influence of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen levels by considering prostate volume and plasma volume. We retrospectively analyzed 4111 men who underwent routine check-ups including prostate-specific antigen and transrectal ultrasonography. The definition of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Prostate-specific antigen mass density (prostate-specific antigen × plasma volume / prostate volume) was calculated for adjusting plasma volume and prostate volume. We compared prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen mass density levels of participants with metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome group, n = 1242) and without metabolic syndrome (non-prostate-specific antigen metabolic syndrome group, n = 2869). To evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome on prostate-specific antigen, linear regression analysis for the natural logarithm of prostate-specific antigen was used. Patients in the metabolic syndrome group had significantly older age (P prostate volume (P prostate-specific antigen (non-metabolic syndrome group vs metabolic syndrome group; 1.22 ± 0.91 vs 1.15 ± 0.76 ng/mL, P = 0.006). Prostate-specific antigen mass density in the metabolic syndrome group was still significantly lower than that in the metabolic syndrome group (0.124 ± 0.084 vs 0.115 ± 0.071 μg/mL, P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, prostate volume and plasma volume using linear regression model, the presence of metabolic syndrome was a significant independent factor for lower prostate-specific antigen (prostate-specific antigen decrease by 4.1%, P = 0.046). Prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with metabolic syndrome seem to be lower, and this finding might be affected by the prostate volume. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Characterization and chondrocyte differentiation stage-specific expression of KRAB zinc-finger protein gene ZNF470

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, Thomas M.; Kazmi, Najam H.; Huynh, Tru D.; Kollar, John; Xu, Laura; Hunyady, Aaron B.; Johnstone, Brian

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to identify novel transcriptional regulators of chondrogenesis-related gene expression, we have cloned and characterized cDNA for zinc-finger protein 470 (ZNF470), the human ortholog of which encodes a 717 amino acid residue protein containing 17 Cys 2 His 2 zinc-finger domains, as well as KRAB-A and KRAB-B motifs. The cDNA library used to isolate the initial ZNF470 clone was prepared from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells at an intermediate stage of chondrogenic differentiation. We have determined the intron-exon structure of the human ZNF470 gene, which has been mapped to a zinc-finger cluster in a known imprinted region of human chromosome 19q13.4. ZNF470 is expressed at high levels in human testis and is expressed at low or undetectible levels in other adult tissues. Human ZNF470 expressed in mammalian cells as an EGFP fusion protein localizes predominantly to the nucleus, consistent with a role in transcriptional regulation. ZNF470, analyzed by quantitative real time PCR, was transiently expressed before the maximal expression of COL2A1 during chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. We have also characterized the bovine ortholog of human ZNF470, which encodes a 508 amino acid residue protein having 10 zinc-finger domains. A bovine ZNF470 cDNA clone was used to examine expression of ZNF470 in bovine articular chondrocytes treated with retinoic acid to stimulate dedifferentiation. Bovine ZNF470 expression was undetectable in freshly isolated bovine articular chondrocytes, but was dramatically upregulated in dedifferentiated retinoic acid-treated chondrocytes. These results, in two model systems, suggest a possible role for ZNF470 in the regulation of chondrogenesis-specific gene expression

  10. Evaluation of concomitant use of non-specific immunopotentiator on 172 cases of primary lung cancer (Stage III, IV) treated with radiation combined with chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Shuji; Imajo, Yoshinari; Hamada, Fumio; Miyaji, Chihiro

    1982-01-01

    The clinical effect of concomitant use of non-specific immunopotentiator OK-432 and/or PSK was studied about 172 cases of primary lung cancer (Stage III, IV). In 91 cases in stage III, fifty percent survival period was found to be 11.5 months for 63 cases with OK-432 and/or PSK, and 7.5 months for 28 cases without immunotherapy, respectively. In 81 cases in stage IV, fifty percent survival period was found to be 6.7 months for 45 cases with OK-432 and/or PSK, and 3.3 months for 36 cases without immunotherapy, respectively. (author)

  11. Strain-specific Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition among Malian children immunized with a blood-stage malaria vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available The blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A, comprised of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 and the adjuvant system AS02A, had strain-specific efficacy against clinical malaria caused by P. falciparum with the vaccine strain 3D7 AMA1 sequence. To evaluate a potential correlate of protection, we measured the ability of participant sera to inhibit growth of 3D7 and FVO strains in vitro using high-throughput growth inhibition assay (GIA testing. Sera from 400 children randomized to receive either malaria vaccine or a control rabies vaccine were assessed at baseline and over two annual malaria transmission seasons after immunization. Baseline GIA against vaccine strain 3D7 and FVO strain was similar in both groups, but more children in the malaria vaccine group than in the control group had 3D7 and FVO GIA activity ≥15% 30 days after the last vaccination (day 90 (49% vs. 16%, p<0.0001; and 71.8% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.02. From baseline to day 90, 3D7 GIA in the vaccine group was 7.4 times the mean increase in the control group (p<0.0001. In AMA1 vaccinees, 3D7 GIA activity subsequently returned to baseline one year after vaccination (day 364 and did not correlate with efficacy in the extended efficacy time period to day 730. In Cox proportional hazards regression models with time-varying covariates, there was a slight suggestion of an association between 3D7 GIA activity and increased risk of clinical malaria between day 90 and day 240. We conclude that vaccination with this AMA1-based malaria vaccine increased inhibition of parasite growth, but this increase was not associated with allele-specific efficacy in the first malaria season. These results provide a framework for testing functional immune correlates of protection against clinical malaria in field trials, and will help to guide similar analyses for next-generation malaria vaccines. Clinical trials registry: This clinical trial was registered on clinicaltrials

  12. Experimental investigation of different refining stages influences on optical and ultrasonic signals in paper pulp suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Niemi

    2010-01-01

    An important parameter to control in papermaking is the fiber mass fraction in the pulp suspension. Poor control to an unstable process that compromises the production, quality and the energy efficiency in the pulp mill. Using optical or ultrasound measurement techniques can obtain estimation of the mass fraction. Refining is an important operation in preparing the fibers for the paper machine. Refining influence the properties of the fiber by crushing the fiber, roughens the fiber surface and occasionally cut fibers and removes parts of the outer fiber wall leading to an increasing amount of short fibers (fines). A freeness tester was used for verify the changes in fiber properties at four different refining levels. The result shows that for unbleached softwood pulp the used measurement techniques either were not observable or minor. The results indicate that refining can potentially influence accurate consistency estimation for unbleached softwood pulp but for bleached hardwood pulp the influence is believed to be minor using the investigating measurement techniques

  13. Influence of maintained hemodialysis on viral load in patients with end-stage renal disease with HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Huifang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection who underwent hemodialysis, the viral load of HBV DNA is relatively low and stable. For this phenomenon, some studies suggest that hemodialysis can reduce the HBV DNA load. The mechanism, which remains unclear, may be as follows: when HBV DNA enters the dialysate through the dialysis membrane, it was adsorbed onto the dialysis membrane; some virus particles were destroyed, and antiviral substances were produced in the course of hemodialysis. At present, there is no consensus on the mechanism responsible for the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load of HBV DNA. This article reviews the factors involved in the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load in ESRD patients with HBV infection and the recent progress.

  14. Donor life stage influences juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata attraction to conspecific chemical cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Schmucker, Andrew K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hansen, Michael J.; Li, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential role of conspecific chemical cues in inland juvenile American eel Anguilla rostrata migrations by assessing glass eel and 1 year old elver affinities to elver washings, and elver affinity to adult yellow eel washings. In two-choice maze assays, glass eels were attracted to elver washings, but elvers were neither attracted to nor repulsed by multiple concentrations of elver washings or to yellow eel washings. These results suggest that A. rostrata responses to chemical cues may be life-stage dependent and that glass eels moving inland may use the odour of the previous year class as information to guide migration. The role of chemical cues and olfaction in eel migrations warrants further investigation as a potential restoration tool.

  15. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p

  16. Influence of irrigation during the growth stage on yield and quality in mango (Mangifera indica L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Guoyin; Liu, Debing; Chen, Yeyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although being one of the few drought-tolerant plants, mango trees are irrigated to ensure optimum and consistent productivity in China. In order to better understand the effects of soil water content on mango yield and fruit quality at fruit growth stage, irrigation experiments were investigated and the object was to determine the soil water content criteria at which growth and quality of mango would be optimal based on soil water measured by RHD-JS water-saving irrigation system through micro-sprinkling irrigation. Five soil water content treatments (relative to the percentage of field water capacity) for irrigation (T1:79%-82%, T2:75%-78%, T3:71%-74%, T4: 65%-70%, T5:63%-66%) were compared in 2013. Amount of applied irrigation water for different treatments varied from 2.93m3 to 1.08 m3. The results showed that mango fruit production and quality at fruit growth stage were significantly affected under different irrigation water amounts. Variation in soil water content not only had effects on fruit size, but also on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield and irrigation water use efficiency were obtained from the T4 treatment. Irrigation water amount also affected fruit quality parameters like fruit total soluble solids, soluble sugar, starch, titratable acid and vitamin C content. Comprehensive evaluation of the effect of indexs of correlation on irrigation treatment by subordinate function showed that when the soil moisture content were controlled at about 65-70% of the field water moisture capacity, water demand in the growth and development of mango could be ensured, and maximum production efficiency of irrigation and the best quality of fruit could be achieved. In conclusion, treatment T4 was the optimum irrigation schedule for growing mango, thus achieving efficient production of mango in consideration of the compromise among mango yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency.

  17. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cytological and transcriptional dynamics analysis of host plant revealed stage-specific biological processes related to compatible rice-Ustilaginoidea virens interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinquan Chao

    Full Text Available Rice false smut, a fungal disease caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is becoming a severe detriment to rice production worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular response of rice to attacks by the smut pathogen. In this article, we define the initial infection process as having three stages: initial colonization on the pistil (stage 1, S1, amplification on the anther (stage 2, S2 and sporulation in the anther chambers (stage 3, S3. Based on the transcriptome of rice hosts in response to U. virens in two separate years, we identified 126, 204, and 580 specific regulated genes in their respective stages S1, S2, and S3, respectively, by excluding common expression patterns in other openly biotic/abiotic databases using bioinformatics. As the disease progresses, several stage-specific biological processes (BP terms were distinctively enriched: "Phosphorylation" in stage S1, "PCD" in S2, and "Cell wall biogenesis" in S3, implying a concise signal cascade indicative of the tactics that smut pathogens use to control host rice cells during infection. 113 regulated genes were coexpressed among the three stages. They shared highly conserved promoter cis-element in the promoters in response to the regulation of WRKY and Myb for up-regulation, and ABA and Ca2+ for down regulation, indicating their potentially critical roles in signal transduction during rice-U. virens interaction. We further analyzed seven highly regulated unique genes; four were specific to pollen development, implying that pollen-related genes play critical roles in the establishment of rice susceptibility to U. virens. To my knowledge, this is the first report about probing of molecular response of rice to smut pathogen infection, which will greatly expand our understanding of the molecular events surrounding infection by rice false smut.

  19. Influence of Educational Level, Stage, and Histological Type on Survival of Oral Cancer in a Brazilian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Thinali Sousa; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlânio; Sousa, Eric Fernandes; da Cunha, Maria do PSS; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mortality rate associated with oral cancer is estimated at approximately 12,300 deaths per year, and the survival rate is only 40% to 50% for diagnosed patients and is closely related to the duration of time between disease perception and its diagnosis and treatment. Socioeconomic risk factors are determinants of the incidence and mortality related to oral cancer. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 573 records of patients with oral cancer at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital – Cancer Institute of Ceará from 2000 to 2009 to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on survival and epidemiological behavior of this neoplasia in a Brazilian population. In this study, patients with oral cancer were males greater than 60 years of age, presented squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of mouth and were characterized by low education levels. A total of 573 lesions were found in oral cavities. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the histological type, tumor stage, and low degree of education significantly influenced survival. A lower patient survival rate was correlated with a more advanced stage of disease and a worse prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a higher mortality when compared with other histological types of malign neoplasia. PMID:26817864

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ACCURACY OF PRE-CONTRACT STAGE ESTIMATION OF FINAL CONTRACT PRICE IN NEW ZEALAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Ji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing and prioritising the factors that may influence the final contract price when responding to a call for tenders is crucial for proper risk analysis and reliable forecasting; it could make or mar the ability to achieve expected profit margin in an era of lump sum fixed price contracts where clients often contest variation claims. In New Zealand, these factors have not been researched; hence estimators rely only on judgement to ‘guess-estimate’ in their price forecasting. This study aimed to fill the knowledge gap by investigating the priority factors. 150 responses from professional members of the New Zealand Institute of Quantity Surveyors were analysed using multi-attribute method. Results showed thirty-seven factors which could influence the final contract price; the three most influential being poor tender documentation, complexity of design & construction, and completeness of project information. Other factors relating to project, client and contractor characteristics, design consultants and tendering conditions, estimating practice and external factors were reported. Concordance analysis indicated high level of agreement amongst survey participants in the rank-ordering of the relative importance of the identified factors. The findings could assist quantity surveyors to prepare more reliable contract price estimates at the pre-contract stage. It would also improve construction-stage cost control.

  1. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields. PMID:25136557

  2. Batch pervaporative fermentation with coupled membrane and its influence on energy consumption in permeate recovery and distillation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Juan A.; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    In the ethanol production process from sugarcane molasses, the distillation process is a high-energy demand stage. The distillation energy efficiency is strongly associated with the alcoholic fermentation performance in the process. The final ethanol concentration in the alcoholic wines has a direct impact on consumption of thermal energy in ethanol separation. In this paper, ethanol production with a H-SBMF (Hybrid-Simple Batch Membrane Fermenter) using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) pervaporation membrane was modelled and simulated, in order to determine its influence on energy consumption in distillation. Steam in distillation and electrical energy needs in permeate recovery were mainly influenced by membrane adaptation. The H-SBMF achieved a higher ethanol production in the range of 10–13% compared to the conventional batch fermenter, and an increase in productivity of 150%. The distillation system consisted of two sets of columns: the ethanol recovery column and the rectification column. The permeate recovery system (i.e. vacuum and compression) was regarded in order to evaluate the electrical energy requirement, and the thermal energy demand was evaluated. A decrease in steam consumption was evidenced by the adaptation of the membrane to the fermenter. Higher energy efficiencies were achieved in distillation with larger membrane areas, achieving almost 17% steam reduction. - Highlights: • Higher and faster ethanol productions were achieved by fermenter hybridization. • Multi-stage permeate compression and inter-stage heat recovery were assumed. • Energy demand was studied based on an integrated fermentation and distillation scheme. • High-energy efficiency was attained in the distillation to produce hydrated alcohol.

  3. Review of Factors Influencing Women's Choice of Mastectomy Versus Breast Conserving Therapy in Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jeffrey; Groot, Gary; Boden, Catherine; Busch, Angela; Holtslander, Lorraine; Lim, Hyun

    2018-01-03

    We have performed a narrative synthesis. A literature search was conducted between January 2000 and June 2014 in 7 databases. The initial search identified 2717 articles; 319 underwent abstract screening, 67 underwent full-text screening, and 25 final articles were included. This review looked at early stage breast cancer in women only, excluding ductal carcinoma in situ and advanced breast cancer. A conceptual framework was created to organize the central constructs underlying women's choices: clinicopathologic factors, physician factors, and individual factors with subgroups of sociodemographic, geographic, and personal beliefs and preferences. This framework guided our review's synthesis and analysis. We found that larger tumor size and increasing stage was associated with increased rates of mastectomy. The results for age varied, but suggested that old and young extremes of diagnostic age were associated with an increased likelihood of mastectomy. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with higher breast conservation therapy (BCT) rates. Resident rural location and increasing distance from radiation treatment facilities were associated with lower rates of BCT. Individual belief factors influencing women's choice of mastectomy (mastectomy being reassuring, avoiding radiation, an expedient treatment) differed from factors influencing choice of BCT (body image and femininity, physician recommendation, survival equivalence, less surgery). Surgeon factors, including female gender, higher case numbers, and individual surgeon practice, were associated with increased BCT rates. The decision-making process for women with early stage breast cancer is complicated and affected by multiple factors. Organizing these factors into central constructs of clinicopathologic, individual, and physician factors may aid health-care professionals to better understand this process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Life stage-specific effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil and temperature on the snail Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) disclose the pitfalls for the aquatic risk assessment under global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, Anne; Albrand, Jennifer; Oehlmann, Jörg; Müller, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    It can be suggested that the combined stress of pesticide pollution and suboptimal temperature influences the sensitivity of life stages of aquatic invertebrates differently. The embryo, juvenile, half- and full-life-cycle toxicity tests performed with the snail Physella acuta at different concentrations (0.06–0.5 or 1.0 mg L −1 ) of the model fungicide pyrimethanil at 15, 20 and 25 °C revealed, that pyrimethanil caused concentration-dependent effects at all test temperatures. Interestingly, the ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil was higher at lower (suboptimal) temperature for embryo hatching and F 1 reproduction, but its ecotoxicity for juvenile growth and F 0 reproduction increased with increasing temperature. The life-stage specific temperature-dependent ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil and the high fungicide susceptibility of the invasive snail clearly demonstrate the complexity of pesticide–temperature interactions and the challenge to draw conclusions for the risk of pesticides under the impact of global climate change. -- Highlights: ► Physella acuta reacts highly sensitively to exposure to pyrimethanil. ► The ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil is life-stage specific. ► Pyrimethanil and temperature stress influenced the development interactively. -- The aquatic risk of pesticides under climate change cannot be adequately assessed by recent strategies for the regular risk assessment of agrochemicals

  5. Influence of the mode of preparation of the UO3 trioxide on its specific surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauteron, J.

    1960-01-01

    As the specific surface of uranium trioxide UO 3 closely depends on the preparation mode and conditions, the authors report and discuss several results obtained on uranium trioxides produced either by precipitation of uranyl nitrate (with oxygenated water, liquid or gaseous ammoniac, and ammonium carbonate), then by calcination at 350 C, or by thermal decomposition of the uranyl nitrate. The authors also studied the influence of calcination temperature of ammonium uranate on the specific surface of the obtained oxide (between 200 and 900 deg.) [fr

  6. Methodological principles of radiation influence upon specific function of female organism and gynecological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvelev, Yu.V.; Kira, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    1025 women permanently residing at the territory subjected to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl NPP accident underwent dispensary examination in 1991-1992. Study of ionizing radiation influence on specific functions (menstrual, reproductive, secretory and gynecological) of female organism is carried out. It is found that the highest percentage in the structure of gynecological diseases is accounted for inflammatory diseases of uterine appendages and neck of the uterus. 1 tab

  7. Lactate promotes specific differentiation in bovine granulosa cells depending on lactate uptake thus mimicking an early post-LH stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Baufeld

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LH-induced folliculo-luteal transformation is connected with alterations of the gene expression profile in cells of the granulosa layer. It has been described that hypoxic conditions occur during luteinization, thus favoring the formation of L-lactate within the follicle. Despite being a product of anaerobic respiration, L-lactate has been shown to act as a signaling molecule affecting gene expression in neuronal cells. During the present study, we tested the hypothesis that L-lactate may influence differentiation of follicular granulosa cells (GC. Methods In a bovine granulosa cell culture model effects of L- and D-lactate, of increased glucose concentrations and of the lactate transport inhibitor UK5099 were analyzed. Steroid hormone production was analyzed by RIA and the abundance of key transcripts was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results L-lactate decreased the production of estradiol and significantly affected selected genes of the folliculo-luteal transition as well as genes of the lactate metabolism. CYP19A1, FSHR, LHCGR were down-regulated, whereas RGS2, VNN2, PTX3, LDHA and lactate transporters were up-regulated. These effects could be partly or completely reversed by pre-treatment of the cells with UK5099. The non-metabolized enantiomer D-lactate had even more pronounced effects on gene expression, whereas increased glucose concentrations did not affect transcript abundance. Conclusions In summary, our data suggest that L-lactate specifically alters physiological and molecular characteristics of GC. These effects critically depend on L-lactate uptake, but are not triggered by increased energy supply. Further, we could show that L-lactate has a positive feedback on the lactate metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesize that L-lactate acts as a signaling molecule in bovine and possibly other monovular species supporting differentiation during the folliculo-luteal transformation.

  8. Influence of margin status and radiation on recurrence after radical hysterectomy in Stage IB cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Lee, Hang; Hanson, Emily; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Crum, Christopher P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between margin status and local recurrence (LR) or any recurrence after radical hysterectomy (RH) in women treated with or without radiotherapy (RT) for Stage IB cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This study included 284 patients after RH with assessable margins between 1980 and 2000. Each margin was scored as negative (≥1 cm), close (>0 and <1 cm), or positive. The outcomes measured were any recurrence, LR, and relapse-free survival. Results: The crude rate for any recurrence was 11%, 20%, and 38% for patients with negative, close, and positive margins, respectively. The crude rate for LR was 10%, 11%, and 38%, respectively. Postoperative RT decreased the rate of LR from 10% to 0% for negative, 17% to 0% for close, and 50% to 25% for positive margins. The significant predictors of decreased relapse-free survival on univariate analysis were the depth of tumor invasion (hazard ratio [HR] 2.14/cm increase, p = 0.007), positive margins (HR 3.92, p = 0.02), tumor size (HR 1.3/cm increase, p = 0.02), lymphovascular invasion (HR 2.19, p = 0.03), and margin status (HR 0.002/increasing millimeter from cancer for those with close margins, p = 0.03). Long-term side effects occurred in 8% after RH and 19% after RH and RT. Conclusion: The use of postoperative RT may decrease the risk of LR in patients with close paracervical margins. Patients with other adverse prognostic factors and close margins may also benefit from the use of postoperative RT. However, RT after RH may increase the risk of long-term side effects

  9. Tracing changes in mantle and crustal influences in individual cone-building stages at Mt. Shasta using U-Th and Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Allison M.; Johnson, Clark M.; Beard, Brian L.

    2015-10-01

    230Th-excess is rare in most arc lavas, but common in the Cascades, yet the origin of such excesses remains unclear. At Mt. Shasta, age-corrected (230Th/232Th) and (238U/232Th) activity ratios range from 1.108 to 1.290 and from 0.987 to 1.309 (27.3% 230Th-excess to 6.1% 238U-excess), respectively. Although small degrees of zircon crystallization (ancestral cone (Sand Flat) was followed by four cone-building stages, three of which lie in the age range of U-series geochronology. Lavas within individual eruptive stages have relatively constant (230Th/232Th)0 ratios that are interpreted to reflect specific mixtures of mantle (m) and lower crustal (lc) melts that are characteristic of a specific stage (Mm:lc). High (230Th/232Th)0 ratios identify higher proportions of lower crust in the Misery Hill stage (Mm:lc = ∼ 85 : 15), whereas low (230Th/232Th)0 ratios reflect the more mantle-like composition of the Shastina lavas (Mm:lc = ∼ 95 : 5); in the case of Shastina lavas, very low 87Sr/86Sr ratios, down to 0.7029, support a substantial mantle contribution. Changes in (230Th/232Th)0 ratios correlate with eruptive volume, where the most voluminous stage (Misery Hill) is inferred to have the largest proportion of crustal melt and highest (230Th/232Th)0 ratios. Variable (230Th/238U)0 ratios within, and between, eruptive groups likely reflect a combination of residence time in the lower crust and differential assimilation of bulk, non-garnet-bearing crust that had (230Th/238U) = 1. The volume-(230Th/232Th)0 relations are accompanied by correlations with 87Sr/86Sr ratios, where the most radiogenic Sr is associated with the largest eruptive volumes, indicating that the largest magmatic episodes produced the largest amount of lower crustal interaction. The new U-Th and Sr isotope measurements of this study, along with U-series data for other Cascade centers suggest that interaction with the lower crust exerts greater control on Cascade magma chemistry than previously

  10. Individuality in harpsichord performance: disentangling performer- and piece-specific influences on interpretive choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Asselin, Pierre-Yves; McAdams, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research has examined issues related to individuality in music performance, few studies have attempted to quantify markers of individuality that transcend pieces and musical styles. This study aims to identify such meta-markers by discriminating between influences linked to specific pieces or interpretive goals and performer-specific playing styles, using two complementary statistical approaches: linear mixed models (LMMs) to estimate fixed (piece and interpretation) and random (performer) effects, and similarity analyses to compare expressive profiles on a note-by-note basis across pieces and expressive parameters. Twelve professional harpsichordists recorded three pieces representative of the Baroque harpsichord repertoire, including three interpretations of one of these pieces, each emphasizing a different melodic line, on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Four expressive parameters were analyzed: articulation, note onset asynchrony, timing, and velocity. LMMs showed that piece-specific influences were much larger for articulation than for other parameters, for which performer-specific effects were predominant, and that piece-specific influences were generally larger than effects associated with interpretive goals. Some performers consistently deviated from the mean values for articulation and velocity across pieces and interpretations, suggesting that global measures of expressivity may in some cases constitute valid markers of artistic individuality. Similarity analyses detected significant associations among the magnitudes of the correlations between the expressive profiles of different performers. These associations were found both when comparing across parameters and within the same piece or interpretation, or on the same parameter and across pieces or interpretations. These findings suggest the existence of expressive meta-strategies that can manifest themselves across pieces, interpretive goals, or expressive devices.

  11. Individuality in harpsichord performance: Disentangling performer- and piece-specific influences on interpretive choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eGingras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a growing body of research has examined issues related to individuality in music performance, few studies have attempted to quantify markers of individuality that transcend pieces and musical styles. This study aims to identify such meta-markers by discriminating between influences linked to specific pieces or interpretive goals and performer-specific playing styles, using two complementary statistical approaches: linear mixed models (LMMs to estimate fixed (piece and interpretation and random (performer effects, and similarity analyses to compare expressive profiles on a note-by-note basis across pieces and expressive parameters. Twelve professional harpsichordists recorded three pieces representative of the Baroque harpsichord repertoire, including three interpretations of one of these pieces, each emphasizing a different melodic line, on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Four expressive parameters were analyzed: articulation, note onset asynchrony, timing, and velocity. LMMs showed that piece-specific influences were much larger for articulation than for other parameters, for which performer-specific effects were predominant, and that piece-specific influences were generally larger than effects associated with interpretive goals. Some performers consistently deviated from the mean values for articulation and velocity across pieces and interpretations, suggesting that global measures of expressivity may in some cases constitute valid markers of artistic individuality. Similarity analyses detected significant associations among the magnitudes of the correlations between the expressive profiles of different performers. These associations were found both when comparing across parameters and within the same piece or interpretation, or on the same parameter and across pieces or interpretations. These findings suggest the existence of expressive meta-strategies that can manifest themselves across pieces, interpretive goals, or

  12. Inbreeding depression in an insect with maternal care: influences of family interactions, life stage and offspring sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J; Kölliker, M

    2013-10-01

    Although inbreeding is commonly known to depress individual fitness, the severity of inbreeding depression varies considerably across species. Among the factors contributing to this variation, family interactions, life stage and sex of offspring have been proposed, but their joint influence on inbreeding depression remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that these three factors jointly shape inbreeding depression in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Using a series of cross-breeding, split-clutch and brood size manipulation experiments conducted over two generations, we first showed that sib mating (leading to inbred offspring) did not influence the reproductive success of earwig parents. Second, the presence of tending mothers and the strength of sibling competition (i.e. brood size) did not influence the expression of inbreeding depression in the inbred offspring. By contrast, our results revealed that inbreeding dramatically depressed the reproductive success of inbred adult male offspring, but only had little effect on the reproductive success of inbred adult female offspring. Overall, this study demonstrates limited effects of family interactions on inbreeding depression in this species and emphasizes the importance of disentangling effects of sib mating early and late during development to better understand the evolution of mating systems and population dynamics. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Tissue- and stage-specific Wnt target gene expression is controlled subsequent to beta-catenin recruitment to cis-regulatory modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, Y.; de Paiva Alves, E.; Veenstra, G.J.C.; Hoppler, S.

    2016-01-01

    Key signalling pathways, such as canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, operate repeatedly to regulate tissue- and stage-specific transcriptional responses during development. Although recruitment of nuclear beta-catenin to target genomic loci serves as the hallmark of canonical Wnt signalling,

  14. Specifics of system of external influences on the life cycle of a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksanin Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very important issue today which includes the harmonious and effective development of the system ‘man –environment’. Construction is a branch of material production, which has a significant negative impact on the world around us. It is necessary to plan and operate processes of construction at all stages of the life cycle of a building without exception, to prevent of ecological threats. The article describes the concept of ‘life cycle’ as applied to various fields of knowledge, analyzes existing in the scientific literature division of the life cycle of buildings in the periods, proposes own approach to the division of periods of the life cycle on the basis of resource-saving. The article proposes the creation of a unified organizational system for the effective management of all periods with the constituent phases and formulates the main external influences on the building life cycle.

  15. Specifics of system of external influences on the life cycle of a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksanin Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very important issue today which includes the harmonious and effective development of the system ‘man–environment’. Construction is a branch of material production, which has a significant negative impact on the world around us. It is necessary to plan and operate processes of construction at all stages of the life cycle of a building without exception, to prevent of ecological threats. The article describes the concept of ‘life cycle’ as applied to various fields of knowledge, analyzes existing in the scientific literature division of the life cycle of buildings in the periods, proposes own approach to the division of periods of the life cycle on the basis of resource-saving. The article proposes the creation of a unified organizational system for the effective management of all periods with the constituent phases and formulates the main external influences on the building life cycle.

  16. Haematobia irritans dataset of raw sequence reads from Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing of specific tissues and life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illumina HiSeq technology was used to sequence the transcriptome from various dissected tissues and life stages from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. These samples include eggs (0, 2, 4, and 9 hours post-oviposition), adult fly gut, adult fly legs, adult fly malpighian tubule, adult fly ovary, adu...

  17. High-resolution mapping of genes involved in plant stage-specific partial resistance of barley to leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, F.K.S.; Bouchon, R.; Kuijken, R.; Loriaux, A.; Boyd, C.; Niks, R.E.; Marcel, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Partial resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Rphq11 and rphq16 against Puccinia hordei isolate 1.2.1 were previously mapped in seedlings of the mapping populations Steptoe/Morex and Oregon Wolfe Barleys, respectively. In this study, QTL mapping was performed at adult plant stage for the two

  18. Factors influencing general practitioner referral of patients developing end-stage renal failure: a standardised case-analysis study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Montgomery, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To understand why treatment referral rates for ESRF are lower in Ireland than in other European countries, an investigation of factors influencing general practitioner referral of patients developing ESRF was conducted. METHOD: Randomly selected general practitioners (N = 51) were interviewed using 32 standardised written patient scenarios to elicit referral strategies. Main outcome measures: General practitioner referral levels and thresholds for patients developing end-stage renal disease; referral routes (nephrologist vs other physicians); influence of patient age, marital status and co-morbidity on referral. RESULTS: Referral levels varied widely with the full range of cases (0-32; median = 15) referred by different doctors after consideration of first laboratory results. Less than half (44%) of cases were referred to a nephrologist. Patient age (40 vs 70 years), marital status, co-morbidity (none vs rheumatoid arthritis) and general practitioner prior specialist renal training (yes or no) did not influence referral rates. Many patients were not referred to a specialist at creatinine levels of 129 micromol\\/l (47% not referred) or 250 micromol\\/l (45%). While all patients were referred at higher levels (350 and 480 micromol\\/l), referral to a nephrologist decreased in likelihood as scenarios became more complex; 28% at 129 micromol\\/l creatinine; 28% at 250 micromol\\/l; 18% at 350 micromol\\/l and 14% at 480 micromol\\/l. Referral levels and routes were not influenced by general practitioner age, sex or practice location. Most general practitioners had little current contact with chronic renal patients (mean number in practice = 0.7, s.d. = 1.3). CONCLUSION: The very divergent management patterns identified highlight the need for guidance to general practitioners on appropriate management of this serious condition.

  19. Influence of mild traumatic brain injury during pediatric stage on short-term memory and hippocampal apoptosis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Sook; Oh, Hyean-Ae; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Kim, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of neurological deficit in the brain, which induces short- and long-term brain damage, cognitive impairment with/without structural alteration, motor deficits, emotional problems, and death both in children and adults. In the present study, we evaluated whether mild TBI in childhood causes persisting memory impairment until adulthood. Moreover, we investigated the influence of mild TBI on memory impairment in relation with hippocampal apoptosis. For this, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the experiments. The animals were randomly divided into two groups: sham-operation group and TBI-induction group. The mild TBI model was created with an electromagnetic contusion device activated at a velocity of 3.0 m/sec. The results showed that mild TBI during the pediatric stage significantly decreased memory retention. The numbers of TUNEL-positive and caspase-3-positive cells were increased in the TBI-induction group compared to those in the sham-operation group. Defective memory retention and apoptosis sustained up to the adult stage. The present results shows that mild TBI induces long-lasting cognitive impairment from pediatric to adult stages in rats through the high level of apoptosis. The finding of this study suggests that children with mild TBI may need intensive treatments for the reduction of long-lasting cognitive impairment by secondary neuronal damage.

  20. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Programmed Death-1 expression on Epstein Barr virus specific CD8+ T cells varies by stage of infection, epitope specificity, and T-cell receptor usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Greenough

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programmed Death-1 (PD-1 is an inhibitory member of the CD28 family of molecules expressed on CD8+ T cells in response to antigenic stimulation. To better understand the role of PD-1 in antiviral immunity we examined the expression of PD-1 on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells during acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM and convalescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using flow cytometry, we observed higher frequencies of EBV-specific CD8+ T cells and higher intensity of PD-1 expression on EBV-specific CD8+ T cells during AIM than during convalescence. PD-1 expression during AIM directly correlated with viral load and with the subsequent degree of CD8+ T cell contraction in convalescence. Consistent differences in PD-1 expression were observed between CD8+ T cells with specificity for two different EBV lytic antigen epitopes. Similar differences were observed in the degree to which PD-1 was upregulated on these epitope-specific CD8+ T cells following peptide stimulation in vitro. EBV epitope-specific CD8+ T cell proliferative responses to peptide stimulation were diminished during AIM regardless of PD-1 expression and were unaffected by blocking PD-1 interactions with PD-L1. Significant variability in PD-1 expression was observed on EBV epitope-specific CD8+ T cell subsets defined by V-beta usage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations suggest that PD-1 expression is not only dependent on the degree of antigen presentation, but also on undefined characteristics of the responding cell that segregate with epitope specificity and V-beta usage.

  2. Influence of developmental stage and genotype on liver mRNA levels among wild, domesticated, and hybrid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Sakhrani, Dionne; Danzmann, Roy G; Devlin, Robert H

    2013-10-02

    Release of domesticated strains of fish into nature may pose a threat to wild populations with respect to their evolved genetic structure and fitness. Understanding alterations that have occurred in both physiology and genetics as a consequence of domestication can assist in evaluating the risks posed by introgression of domesticated genomes into wild genetic backgrounds, however the molecular causes of these consequences are currently poorly defined. The present study has examined levels of mRNA in fast-growing pure domesticated (D), slow-growing age-matched pure wild (Wa), slow-growing size-matched pure wild (Ws), and first generation hybrid cross (W/D) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to investigate the influence of genotype (domesticated vs. wild, and their interactions in hybrids) and developmental stage (age- or size-matched animals) on genetic responses (i.e. dominant vs. recessive) and specific physiological pathways. Highly significant differences in mRNA levels were found between domesticated and wild-type rainbow trout genotypes (321 mRNAs), with many mRNAs in the wild-domesticated hybrid progeny showing intermediate levels. Differences were also found between age-matched and size-matched wild-type trout groups (64 mRNAs), with unique mRNA differences for each of the wild-type groups when compared to domesticated trout (Wa: 114 mRNAs, Ws: 88 mRNAs), illustrating an influence of fish developmental stage affecting findings when used as comparator groups to other genotypes. Analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs (found for both wild-type trout to domesticated comparisons) among the genotypes indicates that 34.8% are regulated consistent with an additive genetic model, whereas 39.1% and 26.1% show a recessive or dominant mode of regulation, respectively. These molecular data are largely consistent with phenotypic data (growth and behavioural assessments) assessed in domesticated and wild trout strains. The present molecular data are concordant with

  3. Characterisation of the Broadly-Specific O-Methyl-transferase JerF from the Late Stages of Jerangolid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the characterisation of the O-methyltransferase JerF from the late stages of jerangolid biosynthesis. JerF is the first known example of an enzyme that catalyses the formation of a non-aromatic, cyclic methylenolether. The enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli and the cell-free extracts were used in bioconversion experiments. Chemical synthesis gave access to a series of substrate surrogates that covered a broad structural space. Enzymatic assays revealed a broad substrate tolerance and high regioselectivity of JerF, which makes it an attractive candidate for an application in chemoenzymatic synthesis with particular usefulness for late stage application on 4-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one-containing natural products.

  4. Hap2, a novel gene in Babesia bigemina is expressed in tick stages, and specific antibodies block zygote formation

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Nuez, Minerva; Hernández-Silva, Diego Josimar; Castañeda-Ortiz, Elizabeth Jacqueline; Paredes-Martínez, María Elena; Rocha-Martínez, Marisol Karina; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth; Mercado-Curiel, Ricardo Francisco; Aguilar-Tipacamu, Gabriela; Mosqueda, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Background Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane...

  5. Can the localization of primary colonic tumors be improved by staging CT without specific bowel preparation compared to optical colonoscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerlein, Sebastian; Grimm, Lars J.; Davenport, Matthew S.; Haystead, Clare M.; Miller, Chad M.; Neville, Amy M.; Jaffe, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the ability of staging computed tomography (CT) without bowel preparation to accurately localize colonic tumors compared to optical colonoscopy. Methods: The local institutional review board approved this retrospective and HIPAA-compliant study. Forty-six patients with colonic adenocarcinoma, preoperative colonoscopy, and staging CT within 60 days of resection were included. Patients underwent contrast enhanced CT imaging without bowel preparation or oral contrast. The colon was divided into four segments with the operative reports used as the standard. Rectal and cecal cancers were excluded. CT scans were reviewed by 5 readers in a segmental binary fashion using a 5-point confidence scale in two sessions blinded and unblinded to the colonoscopy report. Results: At surgery 49 tumors were found in 46 patients. Readers detected 86.1%, 74.3%, and 66.9% of lesions with 92.0%, 94.1%, and 95.4% accuracy for confidence scores of ≥3, ≥4, and 5. CT interobserver agreement was good (κ = 0.82) for the unblinded and moderate (κ = 0.60) for the blinded read. Colonoscopic localization was only 78.7% accurate with 2 tumors undiscovered. Colonoscopic accuracy was low in the descending colon (57.1%) and the transverse colon (55.6%). Conclusions: Preoperative staging CT is more accurate than colonoscopy in the localization of colonic tumors

  6. Molecular identification of Malaysian Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) using life stage specific mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R; Tan, T C; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian, A M

    2013-06-01

    DNA identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. One of the potential benefits that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. Conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. This could be overcome by DNA-based identification methods using mitochondrial DNA which does not demand intact or undamaged specimens. Mitochondrial DNA is usually isolated from whole blow fly and legs. Alternate sources for mitochondrial DNA isolation namely, egg, larva, puparium and empty puparium were explored in this study. The sequence of DNA obtained for each sample for every life cycle stage was 100% identical for a particular species, indicating that the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, pupa, empty puparium and adult from the same species and obtained from same generation will exhibit similar DNA sequences. The present study also highlighted the usefulness of collecting all life cycle stages of blow fly during crime scene investigation with proper preservation and subsequent molecular analysis. Molecular identification provides a strong basis for species identification and will prove an invaluable contribution to forensic entomology as an investigative tool in Malaysia.

  7. A climatological model for risk computations incorporating site- specific dry deposition influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1991-07-01

    A gradient-flux dry deposition module was developed for use in a climatological atmospheric transport model, the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). The atmospheric pathway model computes long-term average contaminant air concentration and surface deposition patterns surrounding a potential release site incorporating location-specific dry deposition influences. Gradient-flux formulations are used to incorporate site and regional data in the dry deposition module for this atmospheric sector-average climatological model. Application of these formulations provide an effective means of accounting for local surface roughness in deposition computations. Linkage to a risk computation module resulted in a need for separate regional and specific surface deposition computations. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Laterality of Facial Expressions of Emotion: Universal and Culture-Specific Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas K. Mandal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that (a the perception and expression of facial emotion are lateralized to a great extent in the right hemisphere, and, (b whereas facial expressions of emotion embody universal signals, culture-specific learning moderates the expression and interpretation of these emotions. In the present article, we review the literature on laterality and universality, and propose that, although some components of facial expressions of emotion are governed biologically, others are culturally influenced. We suggest that the left side of the face is more expressive of emotions, is more uninhibited, and displays culture-specific emotional norms. The right side of face, on the other hand, is less susceptible to cultural display norms and exhibits more universal emotional signals.

  9. Laterality of facial expressions of emotion: Universal and culture-specific influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Manas K; Ambady, Nalini

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that (a) the perception and expression of facial emotion are lateralized to a great extent in the right hemisphere, and, (b) whereas facial expressions of emotion embody universal signals, culture-specific learning moderates the expression and interpretation of these emotions. In the present article, we review the literature on laterality and universality, and propose that, although some components of facial expressions of emotion are governed biologically, others are culturally influenced. We suggest that the left side of the face is more expressive of emotions, is more uninhibited, and displays culture-specific emotional norms. The right side of face, on the other hand, is less susceptible to cultural display norms and exhibits more universal emotional signals. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  10. Validation of the CPS + EG Staging System for Disease-Specific Survival in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsattar, Jad M; Al-Hilli, Zahraa; Hoskin, Tanya L; Heins, Courtney N; Boughey, Judy C

    2016-10-01

    CPS + EG staging, which incorporates estrogen receptor (ER) status and tumor grade with pretreatment clinical stage (CS) and post-treatment pathologic stage (PS), has been reported to have better correlation with outcome than classic TNM staging for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Our goal was to evaluate the performance of CPS + EG staging system in an external cohort treated with NAC. We reviewed patients with stages I-IIIC breast cancer treated with NAC and surgery at our institution between 1988 and 2014. ER status, Nottingham grade, treatment, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) CS before NAC and PS after NAC, and follow-up data were collected. The discrimination of CPS + EG and pathologic AJCC stage were assessed using area under the curve (AUC) for survival data. A total of 769 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up of 2.6 (range 0.0-19.4) years; 103 patients died of breast cancer. Overall, the 5-year breast cancer cause-specific survival was 81.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 77.6-85.5]. The 5-year, cause-specific survival by CPS + EG score was 93.8 % score 0, 89.9 % score 1, 90.7 % score 2, 84.8 % score 3, 67.7 % score 4, and 43.4 % score 5/6. CPS + EG score was significantly associated with cause-specific survival (p < 0.001) with an AUC of 0.69 (95 % CI 0.62-0.77) at 5 years. This was higher than the AUC of 0.63 (95 % CI 0.56-0.70) for AJCC PS (p = 0.10). This study validates the CPS + EG staging system using Nottingham grade in an external cohort. Addition of tumor biology and treatment response shows promise in improving survival estimates for patients treated with NAC.

  11. Identification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for macrophages at intermediate stages in the tumoricidal activation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulnock, D.M.; Lambert, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Macrophage activation for tumor cell killing is a multistep pathway in which responsive macrophages interact sequentially with priming and triggering stimuli in the acquisition of full tumoricidal activity. A number of mediators have been identified which have activating capability, including in particular IFN-gamma and bacterial LPS. Although the synergistic functional response of normal macrophages to sequential incubation with these activation signals has been well-established, characterization of the intermediate stages in the activation pathway has been difficult. We have developed a model system for examination of various aspects of macrophage activation, through the use of the murine macrophage tumor cell line, RAW 264.7. These cells, like normal macrophages, exhibit a strict requirement for interaction with both IFN-gamma and LPS in the development of tumor cytolytic activity. In addition, these cells can be stably primed by the administration of gamma-radiation. In the studies reported here, we have used RAW 264.7 cells treated with IFN-gamma alone or with IFN-gamma plus LPS to stimulate the production of rat mAb probes recognizing cell surface changes occurring during the activation process. In this way we have identified three Ag associated with intermediate stages of the activation process. One Ag, TM-1, is expressed on RAW 264.7 cells primed by IFN-gamma or gamma-radiation. This surface Ag thus identifies cells at the primed cell intermediate stage of the tumoricidal activation pathway regardless of the mechanism of activation. A second Ag, TM-2, is expressed on IFN-treated RAW 264.7 cells but not on RAW 264.7 cells primed with gamma-radiation alone. Expression of this Ag can be induced by treatment of irradiated cells with IFN-gamma, but is not induced by IFN-gamma treatment of a noncytolytic cell line, WEHI-3

  12. The specific role of radiotherapy in the management of prostate carcinoma at different stages of tumor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.

    1987-01-01

    The study described here was based on the case reports of 135 patients of the Radiological Department at Kiel's University Hospital, who were treated for carcinomas of the prostate at any time during the period between 1965 and 1980. It was the aim of these evaluations to define the particular role of radiotherapy in the management of carcinomas of the prostate and to compare it to that of other methods of treatment (hormones, surgery). Percutaneous local irradiation of the carcinoma or irradiation of metastases were the criteria of inclusion into this retrospective study. The stage of the tumour was a decisive factor in the final analysis of the results. (orig.) [de

  13. Action-Specific Influences on Perception and Post-Perceptual Processes: Present Controversies and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbeck, John W.; Witt, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The action-specific perception account holds that people perceive the environment in terms of their ability to act in it. In this view, for example, decreased ability to climb a hill due to fatigue makes the hill visually appear to be steeper. Though influential, this account has not been universally accepted, and in fact a heated controversy has emerged. The opposing view holds that action capability has little or no influence on perception. Heretofore, the debate has been quite polarized, with efforts largely being focused on supporting one view and dismantling the other. We argue here that polarized debate can impede scientific progress and that the search for similarities between two sides of a debate can sharpen the theoretical focus of both sides and illuminate important avenues for future research. In this paper, we present a synthetic review of this debate, drawing from the literatures of both approaches, to clarify both the surprising similarities and the core differences between them. We critically evaluate existing evidence, discuss possible mechanisms of action-specific effects, and make recommendations for future research. A primary focus of future work will involve not only the development of methods that guard against action-specific post-perceptual effects, but also development of concrete, well-constrained underlying mechanisms. The criteria for what constitutes acceptable control of post-perceptual effects and what constitutes an appropriately specific mechanism vary between approaches, and bridging this gap is a central challenge for future research. PMID:26501227

  14. House owners' perceptions and factors influencing their choice of specific heating systems in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Thomas; Menrad, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of global climate changes and several legal obligations, the target of this paper is to analyze the buying behavior of house owners in Germany with respect to heating systems and the main factors influencing choice when purchasing a specific heating system (e.g., oil heating or wood pellet heating). To investigate these issues, a Germany-wide written survey was conducted and the completed questionnaires of 775 respondents analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Of 29 different variables influencing the purchase of a heating system, 12 statistically significant variables have been identified which characterize the owners of oil heating, a heat pump, gas heating and wood pellet heating. The membership of different ecological clusters primarily segregates the owners of a specific heating system, but the assessment of the different combustibles also plays a major role in this context. Suppliers of heating systems can use the results of this study to fine-tune their marketing strategies. With respect to policy issues only limited room for additional economic incentives can be identified to promote replacement of fossil-fuel based heating systems in favor of renewable ones. -- Highlights: •Current regulations support renewable heating systems insufficiently in Germany. •We developed a model to characterize the purchasers of different heating systems. •Ecological attitudes differentiate the purchasers of the different heating systems. •Economic reasons are mainly important for owners of gas and oil heating systems

  15. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  16. Influence of depth on sex-specific energy allocation patterns in a tropical reef fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, J.; McCormick, M. I.; Hoey, A. S.

    2007-09-01

    The effect of depth on the distribution and sex-specific energy allocation patterns of a common coral reef fish, Chrysiptera rollandi (Pomacentridae), was investigated using depth-stratified collections over a broad depth range (5-39 m) and a translocation experiment. C. rollandi consistently selected rubble habitats at each depth, however abundance patterns did not reflect the availability of the preferred microhabitat suggesting a preference for depth as well as microhabitat. Reproductive investment (gonado-somatic index), energy stores (liver cell density and hepatocyte vacuolation), and overall body condition (hepato-somatic index and Fulton’s K) of female fish varied significantly among depths and among the three reefs sampled. Male conspecifics displayed no variation between depth or reef. Depth influenced growth dynamics, with faster initial growth rates and smaller mean asymptotic lengths with decreasing depth. In female fish, relative gonad weight and overall body condition (Fulton’s K and hepato-somatic index) were generally higher in shallower depths (≤10 m). Hepatic lipid storage was highest at the deepest sites sampled on each reef, whereas hepatic glycogen stores tended to decrease with depth. Depth was found to influence energy allocation dynamics in C. rollandi. While it is unclear what processes directly influenced the depth-related patterns in energy allocation, this study shows that individuals across a broad depth gradient are not all in the same physiological state and may contribute differentially to the population reproductive output.

  17. An Atlas for Schistosoma mansoni Organs and Life-Cycle Stages Using Cell Type-Specific Markers and Confocal Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alexis; Williams, David L.; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a tropical disease caused by trematode parasites (Schistosoma) that affects hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. Currently only a single drug (praziquantel) is available to treat this disease, highlighting the importance of developing new techniques to study Schistosoma. While molecular advances, including RNA interference and the availability of complete genome sequences for two Schistosoma species, will help to revolutionize studies of these animals, an array of tools for visualizing the consequences of experimental perturbations on tissue integrity and development needs to be made widely available. To this end, we screened a battery of commercially available stains, antibodies and fluorescently labeled lectins, many of which have not been described previously for analyzing schistosomes, for their ability to label various cell and tissue types in the cercarial stage of S. mansoni. This analysis uncovered more than 20 new markers that label most cercarial tissues, including the tegument, the musculature, the protonephridia, the secretory system and the nervous system. Using these markers we present a high-resolution visual depiction of cercarial anatomy. Examining the effectiveness of a subset of these markers in S. mansoni adults and miracidia, we demonstrate the value of these tools for labeling tissues in a variety of life-cycle stages. The methodologies described here will facilitate functional analyses aimed at understanding fundamental biological processes in these parasites. PMID:21408085

  18. Transport of Cd and Zn to seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) during specific stages of plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of excess Cd in the seeds of cereal and other crops compromises their commercial value and presents a potential risk to human health. Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] is a moderate accumulator of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn, and the seeds are consumed throughout the world, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. The study here examined the transport of Cd into Indian mustard plants and to seeds as a function of external Cd and the stage of the life cycle (vegetative growth, flowering and seed set) to identify critical developmental windows where transport from roots to seeds was the greatest. Plants were also treated simultaneously with Zn to determine if Zn fertilization mitigated the transport of Cd to seeds. Plants treated with Cd during the seed set accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, exceeding 8 mg kg(-1) dry weight in some instances. Cadmium accumulated during vegetative growth was not highly redistributed to seeds. No effects of Zn were observed with regard to Cd redistribution to seeds. This may be because of the relatively small Zn : Cd ratios tested. However, the results suggest that if Zn fertilization is to be used to reduce the Cd accumulation in seeds of this species, that plants should be treated during the seed set stage. As the seeds of Indian mustard consistently accumulated Cd to concentrations that exceed acceptable limits for food crops, additional study of Cd redistribution in this species is warranted.

  19. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  20. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenggang; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-12-01

    Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s). In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC), a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs), spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  1. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s. In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC, a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs, spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  2. Role of specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients for the assessment of tumor stage and residual disease following tumor resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcic, Gregor; Jelenc, Franc; Cerkovnik, Petra; Stegel, Vida; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the detection of tumor-specific KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS) and B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutations in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients at all stages and adenomas was used for the estimation of disease stage prior to surgery and for residual disease following surgery. A total of 65 CRC patients were enrolled. The primary tumor tested positive for the specific mutations (KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61, 117 or 146 and BRAF mutations in codon 600) in 35 patients. In all these patients, the specimen of normal bowel resected with the tumor was also tested for the presence of the same mutations in order to exclude the germ-line mutations. Only patients who tested positive for the specific mutation in the primary tumor were included in further analysis for the presence of tumor-specific mutation in the peripheral blood. No statistically significant differences were found between the detection rates of tumor mutations in the blood and different tumor stages (P=0.491). However, statistically significant differences in the proportions of patients with detected tumor-specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood were found when comparing the groups of patients with R0 and R2 resections (P=0.038). Tumor-specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood were more frequently detected in the patients with an incomplete surgical clearance of the tumor due to macroscopic residual disease (R2 resections). Therefore, the study concludes that the follow-up of somatic KRAS- and BRAF-mutated DNA in the peripheral blood of CRC patients may be useful in assessing the surgical clearance of the disease. PMID:27900004

  3. Multiplex zymography captures stage-specific activity profiles of cathepsins K, L, and S in human breast, lung, and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binbin; Platt, Manu O

    2011-07-14

    Cathepsins K, L, and S are cysteine proteases upregulated in cancer and proteolyze extracellular matrix to facilitate metastasis, but difficulty distinguishing specific cathepsin activity in complex tissue extracts confounds scientific studies and employing them for use in clinical diagnoses. Here, we have developed multiplex cathepsin zymography to profile cathepsins K, L, and S activity in 10 μg human breast, lung, and cervical tumors by exploiting unique electrophoretic mobility and renaturation properties. Frozen breast, lung, and cervix cancer tissue lysates and normal organ tissue lysates from the same human patients were obtained (28 breast tissues, 23 lung tissues, and 23 cervix tissues), minced and homogenized prior to loading for cathepsin gelatin zymography to determine enzymatic activity. Cleared bands of cathepsin activity were identified and validated in tumor extracts and detected organ- and stage-specific differences in activity. Cathepsin K was unique compared to cathepsins L and S. It was significantly higher for all cancers even at the earliest stage tested (stage I for lung and cervix (n = 6, p zymography, yielded 100% sensitivity and specificity for 20 breast tissue samples tested (10 normal; 10 tumor) in part due to the consistent absence of cathepsin K in normal breast tissue across all patients. To summarize, this sensitive assay provides quantitative outputs of cathepsins K, L, and S activities from mere micrograms of tissue and has potential use as a supplement to histological methods of clinical diagnoses of biopsied human tissue.

  4. Life-stage-specific differences in exploitation of food mixtures: diet mixing enhances copepod egg production but not juvenile development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Breteler, W.K.; Schogt, N.

    2006-01-01

    , the copepods failed to moult past the first copepodite stage, and the mortality was high. In sharp contrast, mixing two nutritionally poor food species often resulted in egg production which was not significantly different from nutritionally high quality food, although hatching success in many mixtures was low......Development, egg production and hatching success of the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus were measured in food mixtures to test their ability to obtain a complete nutrition by combining different nutritionally poor food species. In all the food mixtures used....... Whereas egg production was significantly correlated with particulate organic nitrogen in the diet, and independent of the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), hatching increased with increasing DHA and EPA concentration. Growth and juvenile...

  5. Stage-specific hypermutability of the regA locus of Volvox, a gene regulating the germ-soma dichotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, D.L.; Baran, G.J.; Harper, J.F.; Huskey, R.J.; Huson, K.S.; Zagris, N.

    1987-01-01

    Mutation at the regA locus confers on somatic cells of Volvox (which otherwise undergo programmed death) ability to redifferentiate as reproductive cells. Stable mutations at the regA locus, but not at other loci, were induced at high frequency when embryos at one particular stage were exposed to either UV irradiation, novobiocin, nalidixic acid, bleomycin, 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, or 5-fluorouracil. All treatments led to some mutations that were not expressed until the second generation after treatment. The sensitive period was after somatic and reproductive cells of the next generation had been set apart, but before they had undergone cytodifferentiation. Hypermutability occurs in presumptive reproductive cells (in which regA is normally not expressed) somewhat before regA normally acts in somatic cells. We postulate that hypermutability of regA in the reproductive cells at this time reflects a change of state that the locus undergoes as it is inactivated

  6. Socio-cognitive influences on the domain-specificity of prosocial behavior in the second year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha; Schuhmacher, Nils; Collard, Jenny

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to explain the domain-specificity of early prosocial behavior in different domains (i.e., helping, comforting, and cooperation) by simultaneously assessing specific socio-cognitive factors (i.e., self-other-differentiation and joint attentional skills) that were hypothesized to be differentially related to the three domains of prosocial behavior. Based on a longitudinal study design, observational and parental report data were collected when toddlers (N=42) from German urban middle-class families were 15 and 18 months of age. At 15 months, regression analyses indicated differential relationships between socio-cognitive development and prosocial behavior (i.e., joint attentional skills were positively related with helping and, as hypothesized, both joint attentional skills and self-other differentiation were positively related with cooperation). Furthermore, self-other differentiation at 15 months predicted increases in coordination between 15 and 18 months. Finally, between 15 and 18 months, parental reports of socio-cognitive measures increased significantly while behavioral measures of both socio-cognitive concepts and prosocial behavior were stable across time. In sum, these results support the theoretical assumption of domain-specific socio-cognitive influences that constitute differential development of prosocial behavior. Implications of the results for theory and future studies are discussed from different perspectives with a focus on an interference interpretation calling for the integration of socialization approaches to the study of prosocial development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Outline specifications of cogeneration plant; continued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Specifications are presented for the electrical equipment, site preparation, building construction and mechanical systems for a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota campus. This power plant will supply steam and electrical power to a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  8. Expression of nodule-specific genes in alfalfa root nodules blocked at an early stage of development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickstein, R.; Bisseling, T.; Reinhold, V.N.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    To help dissect the molecular basis of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we used in vitro translation and Northern blot analysis of nodule RNA to examine alfalfa-specific genes (nodulins) expressed in two types of developmentally defective root nodules elicited by Rhizobium meliloti. Fix- nodules were

  9. Stimulation of the substantia nigra influences the specification of memory-guided saccades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamed, Safraaz; Garrison, Tiffany J.; Shires, Joel

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of sensory information, we rely on past experience or memories to guide our actions. Because previous experimental and clinical reports implicate basal ganglia nuclei in the generation of movement in the absence of sensory stimuli, we ask here whether one output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (nigra), influences the specification of an eye movement in the absence of sensory information to guide the movement. We manipulated the level of activity of neurons in the nigra by introducing electrical stimulation to the nigra at different time intervals while monkeys made saccades to different locations in two conditions: one in which the target location remained visible and a second in which the target location appeared only briefly, requiring information stored in memory to specify the movement. Electrical manipulation of the nigra occurring during the delay period of the task, when information about the target was maintained in memory, altered the direction and the occurrence of subsequent saccades. Stimulation during other intervals of the memory task or during the delay period of the visually guided saccade task had less effect on eye movements. On stimulated trials, and only when the visual stimulus was absent, monkeys occasionally (∼20% of the time) failed to make saccades. When monkeys made saccades in the absence of a visual stimulus, stimulation of the nigra resulted in a rotation of the endpoints ipsilaterally (∼2°) and increased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades. When the visual stimulus was present, stimulation of the nigra resulted in no significant rotation and decreased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades slightly. Based on these measurements, stimulation during the delay period of the memory-guided saccade task influenced the metrics of saccades much more than did stimulation during the same period of the visually guided saccade task. Because these effects

  10. Profiling MHC II immunopeptidome of blood-stage malaria reveals that cDC1 control the functionality of parasite-specific CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draheim, Marion; Wlodarczyk, Myriam F; Crozat, Karine; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Tomavo, Stanislas; Hassan, Ali; Salvioni, Anna; Demarta-Gatsi, Claudia; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Dalod, Marc; Berry, Antoine; Silvie, Olivier; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    In malaria, CD4 Th1 and T follicular helper (T FH ) cells are important for controlling parasite growth, but Th1 cells also contribute to immunopathology. Moreover, various regulatory CD4 T-cell subsets are critical to hamper pathology. Yet the antigen-presenting cells controlling Th functionality, as well as the antigens recognized by CD4 T cells, are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the MHC II immunopeptidome presented by DC during blood-stage malaria in mice. We establish the immunodominance hierarchy of 14 MHC II ligands derived from conserved parasite proteins. Immunodominance is shaped differently whether blood stage is preceded or not by liver stage, but the same ETRAMP-specific dominant response develops in both contexts. In naïve mice and at the onset of cerebral malaria, CD8α + dendritic cells (cDC1) are superior to other DC subsets for MHC II presentation of the ETRAMP epitope. Using in vivo depletion of cDC1, we show that cDC1 promote parasite-specific Th1 cells and inhibit the development of IL-10 + CD4 T cells. This work profiles the P. berghei blood-stage MHC II immunopeptidome, highlights the potency of cDC1 to present malaria antigens on MHC II, and reveals a major role for cDC1 in regulating malaria-specific CD4 T-cell responses. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Disentangling the influence of parasite genotype, host genotype and maternal environment on different stages of bacterial infection in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew D; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-08-22

    Individuals naturally vary in the severity of infectious disease when exposed to a parasite. Dissecting this variation into genetic and environmental components can reveal whether or not this variation depends on the host genotype, parasite genotype or a range of environmental conditions. Complicating this task, however, is that the symptoms of disease result from the combined effect of a series of events, from the initial encounter between a host and parasite, through to the activation of the host immune system and the exploitation of host resources. Here, we use the crustacean Daphnia magna and its parasite Pasteuria ramosa to show how disentangling genetic and environmental factors at different stages of infection improves our understanding of the processes shaping infectious disease. Using compatible host-parasite combinations, we experimentally exclude variation in the ability of a parasite to penetrate the host, from measures of parasite clearance, the reduction in host fecundity and the proliferation of the parasite. We show how parasite resistance consists of two components that vary in environmental sensitivity, how the maternal environment influences all measured aspects of the within-host infection process and how host-parasite interactions following the penetration of the parasite into the host have a distinct temporal component.

  12. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  13. The Prognostic Influence of BRAF Mutation and other Molecular, Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Stage IV Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Maria L; Saetta, Angelica A; Chatziandreou, Ilenia; Lazaris, Andreas C; Patsouris, Efstratios; Tsavaris, Nikolaos

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic influence of BRAF mutation and other molecular, clinical and laboratory parameters in stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). 60 patients were included in this retrospective analysis, and 17 variables were examined for their relation with treatment response and survival. KRAS mutation was identified in 40.3 % of cases, BRAF and PIK3CA in 8.8 % and 10.5 % respectively. 29.8 % of patients responded to treatment. Median survival time was 14.3 months. Weight loss, fever, abdominal metastases, blood transfusion, hypoalbuminaimia, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations, CRP and DNA Index were associated with survival. In multivariate analysis, male patients had 3.8 times higher probability of response, increased DNA Index was inversely correlated with response and one unit raise of DNA Index augmented 6 times the probability of death. Our findings potentiate the prognostic role of BRAF, PIK3CA mutations and ploidy in advanced CRC.

  14. Specific proof of various stages of Osler's disease of the brain via high field magnetic resonance tomography (1. 5 Tesla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billet, F; Bluemm, R G; Beyer, H K

    1988-08-01

    MR is a sensitive noninvasive examination method for diagnosing parenchymatous cryptic arteriovenous malformations and sequels of cerebral haemorrhage. In a patient with recurring nosebleed and brain stem syndrome eleven so-called cryptic arteriovenous malformations or their haemorrhage sequels were diagnosed via magnetic resonance tomography. Basing on these specific findings, nosebleeding, and a positive family anamnesis, the findings could be classified as belonging to manifestations of Osler's disease (hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia). This rare disease is characterised by a triad of signs: telangiectasias, recurring bleeding, and heredity. In this article the specific MR image is compared with the CT pattern and the results are discussed against the background of literature on Osler's disease which is also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber disease.

  15. Characterization and staging of central bile duct stenosis-Evaluation of the hepatocyte specific contrast agent gadoxetate disodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, Kristina I., E-mail: ringe.kristina@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Ringe, Bastian P., E-mail: ringe.bastian@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Bektas, Hueseyin, E-mail: bektas.hueseyin@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Opherk, Jan P., E-mail: opherk.p@gmx.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Reichelt, Angela, E-mail: reichelt.angela@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Lotz, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.lotz@med.uni-goettingen.de [Georg-August University Goettingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Robert-Koch Str. 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Wacker, Frank, E-mail: wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Bernhard C., E-mail: meyer.bernhard@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To assess the value of gadoxetate disodium for characterization and staging of central bile duct stenosis (CBDS). Materials and methods: This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved. 14 patients (8 male, 6 female; 36-80 years) with clinical suspicion of CBDS underwent preoperative MRI. To estimate the value of hepatocyte phase images (10, 20, 120 min p.i.), only T2w images (T2), only post-contrast images (CM), or both image datasets were assessed in three reading sessions by 3 readers. Agreement of each reading session with the intraoperative findings in terms of CBDS etiology and tumor extension (weighted kappa statistic) was calculated. Results: CBDS was caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma (n = 9), gallbladder carcinoma (n = 4) and pancreatic carcinoma (n = 1). Characterization of CBDS etiology was correct by use of: T2w images in 57%, 64%, 50%; CM images in 64%, 57%, 50%; both in 71%, 64%, 64%. Agreement comparing reading sessions and intraoperative findings regarding tumor extension was fair up to moderate ({kappa}-range = 0.21-0.54) as a result of common underestimation. Interobserver agreement for tumor extension was fair ({kappa}-range = 0.31-0.33). Conclusions: By means of combined evaluation of T2 and CM images a more reliable characterization of CBDS was possible. Even though CBDS tended to be underestimated assessment of exact tumor extension was improved by contrast administration.

  16. Stage-specific damage to synaptonemal complexes and metaphase chromosomes induced by X rays in male mouse germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, L.C.; Sontag, M.R.; Allen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) reveal mutagen-induced effects in germ cell meiotic chromosomes. The study was aimed at characterizing relationships between SC and metaphase I chromosome damage following radiation exposure at various stages of spermatogenesis. Male mice were irradiated with doses of 0, 2, or 4 Gy, and spermatocytes were harvested at times consistent with earlier exposures as spermatogonial stem cells, preleptotene cells (premeiotic DNA synthesis), or meiotic prophase cells. After stem-cell exposure, twice as many rearrangements were observed in SCs as in metaphase I chromosomes. Irradiation during premeiotic DNA synthesis resulted in dose-related increases in SC breakage and rearrangements (including novel forms) and in metaphase chromosomal aberrations. Following prophase exposure, various types and levels of SC and metaphase damage were observed. Irradiation of zygotene cells led to high frequencies of chromosome multivalents in metaphase I without a correspondingly high level of damage in preceding prophase SCs. Thus, irradiation of premeiotic and meiotic cells results in variable relationships between SC and metaphase chromosome damage

  17. Perceptually specific and perceptually non-specific influences on rereading benefits for spatially transformed text: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2012-12-01

    The present study used eye tracking methodology to examine rereading benefits for spatially transformed text. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either applying the same type of transformation to the word during the first and second presentations (i.e., the congruent condition), or employing two different types of transformations across the two presentations of the word (i.e., the incongruent condition). Perceptual specificity effects were demonstrated such that fixation times for the second presentation of the target word were shorter for the congruent condition compared to the incongruent condition. Moreover, we demonstrated an additional perceptually non-specific effect such that second reading fixation times were shorter for the incongruent condition relative to a baseline condition that employed a normal typography (i.e., non-transformed) during the first presentation and a transformation during the second presentation. Both of these effects (i.e., perceptually specific and perceptually non-specific) were similar in magnitude for high and low frequency words, and both effects persisted across a 1 week lag between the first and second readings. We discuss the present findings in the context of the distinction between conscious and unconscious memory, and the distinction between perceptually versus conceptually driven processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels on Helicobacter Pylori infections in patients with end-stage renal failure on regular hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, H.; Baradaran, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D influence the occurrence of infection with Helicobacter Pylori (H.Pylori) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The study subjects were patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing maintenance dialysis at the hemodialysis section, Hajar Medical, Educational and Therapeutic Center, Shahrekord, Iran. The serum 25-OH vitamin D level and serum H. Pylori specific antibody titers were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. A total of 36 patients were studied including 21 males and 15 females. The mean age of study group was 47(+ 1 7) years. The mean level of serum 25-OH vitamin D was 0.5+-18.7 nmol/L (median: 3.5) while the mean value of serum H.Pylori specific IgG antibody titer was 7.7 (+-9.9) u/ml (median: 2 u/ml). Thus, a significant positive correlation was found between the levels of serum 25-OH vitamin D and serum H.Pylori specific IgG antibody titers (data adjusted for age, urea reduction rate, duration and dose of dialysis) (r=0.36, p=0.043). Our study suggests that vitamin D may positively affect the chronic inflammatory status of dialysis patients and may potentiate the immune response in such patients. Because of this immuno-modulatory effect, vitamin D analogs may offer new means to control the inflammatory status in patients on maintenance dialysis. (author)

  19. Characterization of antigen-specific, Ia-restricted, L3T4+ cytolytic T lymphocytes and assessment of thymic influence on their self specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, H.; Munitz, T.I.; Singer, A.

    1985-01-01

    The goals of the present study were: (a) to generate antigen-specific L3T4+ cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL), (b) to determine their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction specificity, and (c) to assess the influence of thymic MHC determinants on their self specificity. The authors found that L3T4+ CTL specific for either trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified self determinants or minor histocompatibility antigens could be generated from Lyt-2- responder T cells provided that the response cultures were supplemented with supernatants rich in helper factors. Such antigen-specific L3T4+ CTL were Ia-restricted by the criteria that they lysed only Ia+ target cells and that their lysis of Ia+ target cells was specifically inhibited by anti-Ia monoclonal antibodies. The relative frequency of L3T4+ pCTL was found to be only 5-10% of the total anti-TNP pCTL present in the spleens of normal mice. Finally, the authors utilized radiation bone marrow chimeras to assess the influence of the thymic haplotype on the self-Ia specificity of L3T4+ CTL. Both bulk culture and limiting dilution experiments revealed that the self-Ia specificity of L3T4+ anti-TNP CTL from F1----parent and A----B allogeneic chimeras was not markedly skewed toward the haplotype of the chimeric thymus. These results contrast with those obtained previously for L3T4+ anti-TNP Th cells and demonstrate that in the radiation bone marrow chimera model of T cell differentiation, the self specificity of Th cells but not pCTL is markedly influenced by the haplotype of the chimeric thymus

  20. Joint-Angle Specific Strength Adaptations Influence Improvements in Power in Highly Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Matthew R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05. Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05; however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.

  1. Language-specific dysgraphia in Korean patients with right brain stroke: influence of unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Wook; Park, Kyoung Ha; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Korean language-specific dysgraphia and unilateral spatial neglect in 31 right brain stroke patients. All patients were tested for writing errors in spontaneous writing, dictation, and copying tests. The dysgraphia was classified into visuospatial omission, visuospatial destruction, syllabic tilting, stroke omission, stroke addition, and stroke tilting. Twenty-three (77.4%) of the 31 patients made dysgraphia and 18 (58.1%) demonstrated unilateral spatial neglect. The visuospatial omission was the most common dysgraphia followed by stroke addition and omission errors. The highest number of errors was made in the copying and the least was in the spontaneous writing test. Patients with unilateral spatial neglect made a significantly higher number of dysgraphia in the copying test than those without. We identified specific dysgraphia features such as a right side space omission and a vertical stroke addition in Korean right brain stroke patients. In conclusion, unilateral spatial neglect influences copy writing system of Korean language in patients with right brain stroke.

  2. Stage-specific synthesis and fucosylation of plasma membrane proteins by mouse pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerton, G.L.; Millette, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Little is known about the ability of mammalian spermatogenic cells to synthesize plasma membrane components in the presence or absence of Sertoli cells. In this study, purified populations (greater than 90%) of pachytene spermatocytes or round spermatids were isolated by unit gravity sedimentation and cultured for 20-24 h in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine or [ 3 H] fucose. Cell viabilities remained over 90% during the course of these experiments. Plasma membranes were purified from these cells and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Qualitatively, the same plasma membrane proteins were synthesized by both cell types with the exception of the major Concanavalin A-binding glycoprotein, p151; the synthesis of p151 is greatly diminished or inhibited after meiosis. [3H]Fucose was incorporated into at least 6 common glycoproteins of both cells. Eight components fucosylated with molecular weights from 35,000 to 120,000 were specific to pachytene spermatocyte membranes. One fast-migrating fucosylated component may represent an uncharacterized lipid whose synthesis is terminated after meiosis. Round spermatids specifically fucosylated two components with molecular weights of 45,000 and 80,000. These results demonstrate the viability of germ cells of the male mouse in short-term culture and show that they are capable of synthesizing and fucosylating plasma membrane components in the absence of Sertoli cells

  3. Influence of some design and operating parameters of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive on the technical specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of several design and operating parameters of conveyor on the individual components of the stretching tension in the belt of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was analyzed. The analysis of influence a number design and operating parameters on the technical specifications of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was done. Recommendations on the choice of rational parameters were formulated.

  4. Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences: Sex-Specific Differences in Parental Influences among Ninth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Hausheer, Robin; Esp, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Parents impact adolescent substance abuse, but sex-specific influences are not well-understood. This study examined parental influences on adolescent drinking behavior in a sample of ninth-grade students (N = 473). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated parental monitoring, disapproval of teen alcohol use, and quality of parent-teen general…

  5. Cyclosporin A treatment of Leishmania donovani reveals stage-specific functions of cyclophilins in parasite proliferation and viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Lok Yau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclosporin A (CsA has important anti-microbial activity against parasites of the genus Leishmania, suggesting CsA-binding cyclophilins (CyPs as potential drug targets. However, no information is available on the genetic diversity of this important protein family, and the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of CsA on intracellular amastigotes are only poorly understood. Here, we performed a first genome-wide analysis of Leishmania CyPs and investigated the effects of CsA on host-free L. donovani amastigotes in order to elucidate the relevance of these parasite proteins for drug development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multiple sequence alignment and cluster analysis identified 17 Leishmania CyPs with significant sequence differences to human CyPs, but with highly conserved functional residues implicated in PPIase function and CsA binding. CsA treatment of promastigotes resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth with an IC50 between 15 and 20 microM as demonstrated by proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed striking morphological changes in CsA treated promastigotes reminiscent to developing amastigotes, suggesting a role for parasite CyPs in Leishmania differentiation. In contrast to promastigotes, CsA was highly toxic to amastigotes with an IC50 between 5 and 10 microM, revealing for the first time a direct lethal effect of CsA on the pathogenic mammalian stage linked to parasite thermotolerance, independent from host CyPs. Structural modeling, enrichment of CsA-binding proteins from parasite extracts by FPLC, and PPIase activity assays revealed direct interaction of the inhibitor with LmaCyP40, a bifunctional cyclophilin with potential co-chaperone function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evolutionary expansion of the Leishmania CyP protein family and the toxicity of CsA on host-free amastigotes suggest important roles of PPIases in parasite biology and implicate

  6. Gametogenesis in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: a microarrays-based analysis identifies sex and stage specific genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolwenn M Dheilly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca, Lophotrochozoa is an alternative and irregular protandrous hermaphrodite: most individuals mature first as males and then change sex several times. Little is known about genetic and phenotypic basis of sex differentiation in oysters, and little more about the molecular pathways regulating reproduction. We have recently developed and validated a microarray containing 31,918 oligomers (Dheilly et al., 2011 representing the oyster transcriptome. The application of this microarray to the study of mollusk gametogenesis should provide a better understanding of the key factors involved in sex differentiation and the regulation of oyster reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression was studied in gonads of oysters cultured over a yearly reproductive cycle. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering showed a significant divergence in gene expression patterns of males and females coinciding with the start of gonial mitosis. ANOVA analysis of the data revealed 2,482 genes differentially expressed during the course of males and/or females gametogenesis. The expression of 434 genes could be localized in either germ cells or somatic cells of the gonad by comparing the transcriptome of female gonads to the transcriptome of stripped oocytes and somatic tissues. Analysis of the annotated genes revealed conserved molecular mechanisms between mollusks and mammals: genes involved in chromatin condensation, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and meiosis regulation, transcription, translation and apoptosis were expressed in both male and female gonads. Most interestingly, early expressed male-specific genes included bindin and a dpy-30 homolog and female-specific genes included foxL2, nanos homolog 3, a pancreatic lipase related protein, cd63 and vitellogenin. Further functional analyses are now required in order to investigate their role in sex differentiation in oysters

  7. An analytical method for assessing stage-specific drug activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria: implications for ex vivo drug susceptibility testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas H Kerlin

    Full Text Available The emergence of highly chloroquine (CQ resistant P. vivax in Southeast Asia has created an urgent need for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of drug resistance in these parasites, the development of robust tools for defining the spread of resistance, and the discovery of new antimalarial agents. The ex vivo Schizont Maturation Test (SMT, originally developed for the study of P. falciparum, has been modified for P. vivax. We retrospectively analysed the results from 760 parasite isolates assessed by the modified SMT to investigate the relationship between parasite growth dynamics and parasite susceptibility to antimalarial drugs. Previous observations of the stage-specific activity of CQ against P. vivax were confirmed, and shown to have profound consequences for interpretation of the assay. Using a nonlinear model we show increased duration of the assay and a higher proportion of ring stages in the initial blood sample were associated with decreased effective concentration (EC(50 values of CQ, and identify a threshold where these associations no longer hold. Thus, starting composition of parasites in the SMT and duration of the assay can have a profound effect on the calculated EC(50 for CQ. Our findings indicate that EC(50 values from assays with a duration less than 34 hours do not truly reflect the sensitivity of the parasite to CQ, nor an assay where the proportion of ring stage parasites at the start of the assay does not exceed 66%. Application of this threshold modelling approach suggests that similar issues may occur for susceptibility testing of amodiaquine and mefloquine. The statistical methodology which has been developed also provides a novel means of detecting stage-specific drug activity for new antimalarials.

  8. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum life stages exposed to elevated temperatures during heat treatments of a pilot flour mill: influence of sanitation, temperatures attained among mills floors, and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to three, 24 hour heat treatments using forced-air gas heaters. Two sanitation levels, dusting of wheat flour an...

  9. Species-specific effects of epigeic earthworms on microbial community structure during first stages of decomposition of organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community diversity and

  10. Species-specific effects of epigeic earthworms on microbial community structure during first stages of decomposition of organic matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested.To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus.Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community

  11. Improving the ecological relevance of toxicity tests on scleractinian corals: Influence of season, life stage, and seawater temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedouin, Laetitia; Wolf, Ruth E.; Phillips, Jeff; Gates, Ruth D.

    2016-01-01

    Metal pollutants in marine systems are broadly acknowledged as deleterious: however, very little data exist for tropical scleractinian corals. We address this gap by investigating how life-history stage, season and thermal stress influence the toxicity of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Our results show that under ambient temperature, adults and larvae appear to tolerate exposure to unusually high levels of copper (96 h-LC50 ranging from 167 to 251 μg Cu L−1) and lead (from 477 to 742 μg Pb L−1). Our work also highlights that warmer conditions (seasonal and experimentally manipulated) reduce the tolerance of adults and larvae to Cu toxicity. Despite a similar trend observed for the response of larvae to Pb toxicity to experimentally induced increase in temperature, surprisingly adults were more resistant in warmer condition to Pb toxicity. In the summer adults were less resistant to Cu toxicity (96 h-LC50 = 175 μg L−1) than in the winter (251 μg L−1). An opposite trend was observed for the Pb toxicity on adults between summer and winter (96 h-LC50 of 742 vs 471 μg L−1, respectively). Larvae displayed a slightly higher sensitivity to Cu and Pb than adults. An experimentally induced 3 °C increase in temperature above ambient decreased larval resistance to Cu and Pb toxicity by 23–30% (96 h-LC50 of 167 vs 129 μg Cu L−1 and 681 vs 462 μg Pb L−1).

  12. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N=278,097 were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs and incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17 and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08. Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18 and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  13. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Sub site-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, K. A.; Stroup, A. M.; Sherman, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic sub site and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by sub site (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05-1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20-1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10-1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in sub site-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity.

  14. cGAS-mediated control of blood-stage malaria promotes Plasmodium-specific germinal center responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, William O; Butler, Noah S; Lindner, Scott E; Akilesh, Holly M; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan Hi; Hamerman, Jessica A; Gale, Michael; Liles, W Conrad; Pepper, Marion

    2018-01-25

    Sensing of pathogens by host pattern recognition receptors is essential for activating the immune response during infection. We used a nonlethal murine model of malaria (Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) to assess the contribution of the pattern recognition receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to the development of humoral immunity. Despite previous reports suggesting a critical, intrinsic role for cGAS in early B cell responses, cGAS-deficient (cGAS-/-) mice had no defect in the early expansion or differentiation of Plasmodium-specific B cells. As the infection proceeded, however, cGAS-/- mice exhibited higher parasite burdens and aberrant germinal center and memory B cell formation when compared with littermate controls. Antimalarial drugs were used to further demonstrate that the disrupted humoral response was not B cell intrinsic but instead was a secondary effect of a loss of parasite control. These findings therefore demonstrate that cGAS-mediated innate-sensing contributes to parasite control but is not intrinsically required for the development of humoral immunity. Our findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of pathogen burden in investigations examining how the innate immune system affects the adaptive immune response.

  15. Influence of two-stage annealing treatment on critical current of bronze-processed multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S.; Osamura, K.; Ryoji, M.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of changes of volume fraction of Nb/sub 3/Sn, grain size and upper critical magnetic field due to two-stage annealing treatment (low temperature annealing to form fine grains + high temperature annealing to raise upper critical magnetic field) on overall critical current and critical current density were studied at magnetic field of 3-15 T. When annealing temperature was low (773-923 K) and the volume fraction of Nb/sub 3/Sn was low in first stage annealing, second stage annealing could raise the overall critical current over the range of the applied magnetic field due to increase in upper critical magnetic field H/sub c2/ and volume fraction of Nb/sub 3/Sn accompanying with reduction in Sn concentration in the bronze matrix, which played a role to reduce residual strain in Nb/sub 3/Sn, leading to high H/sub c2/ although the loss in pinning force arose from the coarsening of the grains. When the annealing temperature was high (973 K) and the Nb/sub 3/Sn was formed until the Sn was consumed in the first stage, second stage annealing could not raise the critical current due to increase in grain size and no effective increase in H/sub c2/. The critical current density at low magnetic fields below several Teslas was reduced by the second stage annealing due to increase in grain size but that at high fields was raised due to increase in high H/sub c2/. The reverse two-stage annealing treatment (high temperature annealing in the first stage+low temperature annealing in the second stage) reduced the H/sub c2/ slightly with increasing second stage annealing temperature and time. The critical current density at low magnetic fields was determined mainly by the grain size and that at high fields was determined by the combination of the upper critical field and grain size

  16. Mutational specificity of alkylating agents and the influence of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsfall, M.J.; Gordon, A.J.; Burns, P.A.; Zielenska, M.; van der Vliet, G.M.; Glickman, B.W. (York Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Alkylating treatments predominantly induce G:C = greater than A:T transitions, consistent with the predicted significance of the miscoding potential of the O6-alG lesion. However, the frequency and distribution of these events induced by any one compound may be diagnostic. SN1 agents that act via an alkyldiazonium cation, such as the N-nitroso compounds, preferentially generate G:C = greater than A:T transitions at 5'-RG-3' sites, while the more SN2 alkylsulfates and alkylalkane-sulfonates do not. The precise nature of this site bias and the possibility of strand bias are target dependent. The extent of this site bias and the contribution of other base substitutions are substituent size dependent. A similar 5'-RT-3' effect is seen for A:T = greater than G:C transitions, presumably directed by O4-alT lesions. The 5'-RG-3' effect, at least, likely reflects a deposition specificity arising from some aspect of helix geometry, although it may be further exaggerated by alkylation-specific repair. Excision repair appears to preferentially reduce the occurrence of ethylation-induced G:C = greater than A:T and A:T = greater than G:C transitions at sites flanked by A:T base pairs. This may be due to an enhancement of the helical distortion imposed by damage at such positions. A similar effect is not seen for methylation-induced mutations and in the case of propyl adducts, the influence of excision repair on the ultimate distribution of mutation cannot be as easily defined with respect to neighbouring sequence. 199 references.

  17. SOX9 governs differentiation stage-specific gene expression in growth plate chondrocytes via direct concomitant transactivation and repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Y L Leung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage and endochondral bone development require SOX9 activity to regulate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation, and transition to a non-mitotic hypertrophic state. The restricted and reciprocal expression of the collagen X gene, Col10a1, in hypertrophic chondrocytes and Sox9 in immature chondrocytes epitomise the precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression as chondrocytes progress through phases of differentiation, but how this is achieved is not clear. Here, we have identified a regulatory element upstream of Col10a1 that enhances its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vivo. In immature chondrocytes, where Col10a1 is not expressed, SOX9 interacts with a conserved sequence within this element that is analogous to that within the intronic enhancer of the collagen II gene Col2a1, the known transactivation target of SOX9. By analysing a series of Col10a1 reporter genes in transgenic mice, we show that the SOX9 binding consensus in this element is required to repress expression of the transgene in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. Forced ectopic Sox9 expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vitro and in mice resulted in down-regulation of Col10a1. Mutation of a binding consensus motif for GLI transcription factors, which are the effectors of Indian hedgehog signaling, close to the SOX9 site in the Col10a1 regulatory element, also derepressed transgene expression in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. GLI2 and GLI3 bound to the Col10a1 regulatory element but not to the enhancer of Col2a1. In addition to Col10a1, paired SOX9-GLI binding motifs are present in the conserved non-coding regions of several genes that are preferentially expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes and the occurrence of pairing is unlikely to be by chance. We propose a regulatory paradigm whereby direct concomitant positive and negative transcriptional control by SOX9 ensures differentiation phase-specific gene expression in chondrocytes. Discrimination between

  18. Stage-specific regulation of four HD-ZIP III transcription factors during polar pattern formation in Larix leptolepis somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shui-gen; Li, Wan-feng; Han, Su-ying; Yang, Wen-hua; Qi, Li-wang

    2013-06-15

    Polar auxin transport provides a developmental signal for cell fate specification during somatic embryogenesis. Some members of the HD-ZIP III transcription factors participate in regulation of auxin transport, but little is known about this regulation in somatic embryogenesis. Here, four HD-ZIP III homologues from Larix leptolepis were identified and designated LaHDZ31, 32, 33 and 34. The occurrence of a miR165/166 target sequence in all four cDNA sequences indicated that they might be targets of miR165/166. Identification of the cleavage products of LaHDZ31 and LaHDZ32 in vivo confirmed that they were regulated by miRNA. Their mRNA accumulation patterns during somatic embryogenesis and the effects of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on their transcript levels and somatic embryo maturation were investigated. The results showed that the four genes had higher transcript levels at mature stages than at the proliferation stage, and that NPA treatment down-regulated the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ31, 32 and 33 at cotyledonary embryo stages, but had no effect on the mRNA abundance of LaHDZ34. We concluded that these four members of Larix HD-ZIP III family might participate in polar auxin transport and the development of somatic embryos, providing new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A new computerized cognitive and social cognition training specifically designed for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder in early stages of illness: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Jodar, Merce; Pousa, Esther; Hernandez Rambla, Carla; García, Rebeca; Palao, Diego

    2015-08-30

    People with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders at early stages of the illness present cognitive and social cognition deficits that have a great impact in functional outcomes. Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) has demonstrated consistent effect in cognitive performance, symptoms and psychosocial functioning. However, any CRT intervention or social cognition training have been specifically designed for patients in the early stages of psychosis. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the efficacy of a new computerized cognitive and social cognition program for patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder with recent diagnosis. A comprehensive assessment of clinical, social and non-social cognitive and functional measures was carried out in 53 randomized participants before and after the 4-months treatment. Significant results were observed in Spatial Span Forwards, Immediate Logical Memory and Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) total score. None of these results were explained by medication, premorbid social functioning or psychopathological symptoms. No impact of the intervention was observed in other cognitive and social cognition outcome neither in clinical and functional outcomes. This new computerized intervention may result effective ameliorating visual attention, logical memory and emotional processing in patients in the early stages of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Species-and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, John H.; Hopkins, William A.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    Information on species-and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged. - Results suggest that metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to non-contaminated habitats

  1. Species-and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, John H. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)]. E-mail: hopkins@srel.edu; Jackson, Brian P. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    Information on species-and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged. - Results suggest that metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to non-contaminated habitats.

  2. Species- and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, J.H.; Hopkins, W.A.; Jackson, B.P. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US)

    2005-07-01

    Information on species- and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged.

  3. Influence of specific and non-specific endothelin receptor antagonists on renal morphology in rats with surgical renal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, A; Amann, K; Wagner, J; Gehlen, F; Münter, K; Ritz, E

    1996-03-01

    Studies in experimental models of chronic renal failure suggest an important role for the endothelin system in the development of renal scarring. Endothelin receptor (ETR) anatagonists interfere with progression, but it has not been resolved (i) whether this is true for all models of renal damage, (ii) to what extent the effect is modulated by systemic blood pressure and (iii) whether the effect is similar for ETAR and ETA/ETBR antagonists. 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) by surgical ablation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparison of ACE inhibitor Trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day), ETAR antagonist BMS 182874 (30 mg/kg/day) and ETAR/ETBR antagonist Ro 46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) by gavage. Duration of the experiment eight weeks. Systolic blood pressure by tail plethysmography. Perfusion fixation of kidneys and morphometric analysis ET-1 and ETA/ETBR by quantitative PCR. SNX caused a significant (P < 0.01) increase of systolic blood pressure (170 +/- 8.6 mmHg) compared to sham operated controls (131 +/- 5.3 mmHg). Blood pressure was significantly (P < 0.001) lower with Trandolapril (128 +/- 5.3 mmHg), but not with BMS 182874 (153 +/- 5.9 mmHg) or Ro 46-2005 (167 +/- 7.6 mmHg). Compared to sham operated rats (0.03 +/- 0.01) glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the untreated SNX group (0.9 +/- 0.15). Significantly lower GSI was found in Trandolapril treated (0.29 +/- 0.04), BMS 182874 treated (0.36 +/- 0.05), and Ro 46-2005 treated animals (0.45 +/- 0.11). The effect of BMS 182874 was accompanied by lower tubulointerstitial damage index. Mean glomerular volume was dramatically increased (P < 0.001) in SNX rats as compared to sham operated animals. This glomerular enlargement was partially prevented by Trandolapril (P < 0.05), but not by either ETR antagonist. ET-1 mRNA tended to be higher in SNX irrespective of treatment, while ETAR and ETBR mRNA were significantly lower. Both specific (ETAR) and non-specific (ETA/ETBR) endothelin antagonists

  4. Parental care influences leukocyte telomere length with gender specificity in parents and offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokido, Masanori; Suzuki, Akihito; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kuwahata, Fumikazu; Takahashi, Nana; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2014-10-03

    There have been several reports suggesting that adverse childhood experiences such as physical maltreatment and long institutionalization influence telomere length. However, there has been no study examining the relationship of telomere length with variations in parental rearing. In the present study, we examined the relationship of leukocyte telomere length with parental rearing in healthy subjects. The subjects were 581 unrelated healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument consisting of the care and protection factors. Leukocyte relative telomere length was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR method for a ratio of telomere/single copy gene. In the multiple regression analyses, shorter telomere length in males was related to lower scores of paternal care (β = 0.139, p care (β = 0.195, p parental care and telomere length which covers both lower and higher ends of parental care, and that the effects of parental care on telomere length are gender-specific in parents and offsprings.

  5. The Constitutional Influence on Organ Transplants with Specific Reference to Organ Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Labuschagne

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the influence of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 on the law pertaining to organ transplants with specific reference to methods of organ procurement. These methods include a system of opting-in, presumed consent, required request, required response, the sale of organs, and organ procurement from prisoners. It is argued, in view of the acute shortage of organs, that the various organ procurement methods are in need of review in the context of the question of whether they are acceptable and sustainable within the constitutional framework. To this end, the article deals with the application, limitation and interpretation of the rights in the Bill of Rights and its interface with the various organ procurement methods in the context of a discussion of applicable legislation and relevant case law. It is argued that a constitutional analysis of the topic is indicative that the State has indeed failed to provide a proper or satisfactory legislative and regulatory framework to relieve the critical shortage of human organs available for transplantation, by ultimately failing to uphold the applicable constitutional rights and values as discussed.

  6. Nonlinear responses within the medial prefrontal cortex reveal when specific implicit information influences economic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Michael; Schwindt, Wolfram; Kugel, Harald; Plassmann, Hilke; Kenning, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individual economic decisions are influenced by implicit memory contributions. Twenty-two participants were asked to make binary decisions between different brands of sensorily nearly undistinguishable consumer goods. Changes of brain activity comparing decisions in the presence or absence of a specific target brand were detected by fMRI. Only when the tar get brand was the participant's favorite one did the authors find reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal, posterior parietal, and occipital cortices and the left premotor area (Brodmann areas [BA] 9, 46, 7/19, and 6). Simultaneously, activity was increased in the inferior precuneus and posterior cingulate (BA 7), right superior frontal gyrus (BA 10), right supramarginal gyrus (BA 40), and, most pronounced, in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (BA 10). For products mainly distinguishable by brand information, the authors revealed a nonlinear winner-take-all effect for a participant's favorite brand characterized, on one hand, by reduced activation in brain areas associated with working memory and reasoning and, on the other hand, increased activation in areas involved in processing of emotions and self-reflections during decision making.

  7. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Ross

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.

  8. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen R; Vreeman, Vivian M; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space) were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.

  9. Input Distribution Influences Degree of Auxiliary Use by Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B; Deevy, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a protracted period of inconsistent use of tense/agreement morphemes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether this inconsistent use could be attributed to the children's misinterpretations of particular syntactic structures in the input. In Study 1, preschool-aged children with SLI and typically developing peers heard sentences containing novel verbs preceded by auxiliary was or sentences in which the novel verb formed part of a nonfinite subject-verb sequence within a larger syntactic structure (e.g., We saw the dog relling ). The children were then tested on their use of the novel verbs in contexts that obligated use of auxiliary is . The children with SLI were less accurate than their peers and more likely to produce the novel verb without is if the verb had been heard in a nonfinite subject-verb sequence. In Study 2, children with SLI and typically developing peers were tested on their comprehension of sentences such as The cow sees the horse eating. The children with SLI were less accurate than their peers and were disproportionately influenced by the nonfinite subject-verb clause at the end of the sentence. We interpret these findings within the framework of construction learning.

  10. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eZhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyllanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g. in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called hinge region of nisin (residues NMK was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, -1, -2 exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures.

  11. Influence of Language Load on Speech Motor Skill in Children With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Ward, Caitlin; Oleson, Jacob

    2018-03-15

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular deficits in the generation of sequenced action: the quintessential procedural task. Practiced imitation of a sequence may become rote and require reduced procedural memory. This study explored whether speech motor deficits in children with SLI occur generally or only in conditions of high linguistic load, whether speech motor deficits diminish with practice, and whether it is beneficial to incorporate conditions of high load to understand speech production. Children with SLI and typical development participated in a syntactic priming task during which they generated sentences (high linguistic load) and, then, practiced repeating a sentence (low load) across 3 sessions. We assessed phonetic accuracy, speech movement variability, and duration. Children with SLI produced more variable articulatory movements than peers with typical development in the high load condition. The groups converged in the low load condition. Children with SLI continued to show increased articulatory stability over 3 practice sessions. Both groups produced generated sentences with increased duration and variability compared with repeated sentences. Linguistic demands influence speech motor production. Children with SLI show reduced speech motor performance in tasks that require language generation but not when task demands are reduced in rote practice.

  12. Clinical effect of concomitant use of non-specific immunopotentiator on 172 cases of primary lung cancer (stage 3, 4) treated with radiation combined with chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyoshi, Yukio; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Imajo, Yoshinari

    1981-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979, 209 cases of primary lung cancer admitted the department of radiology were treated with radiation combined with chemotherapy. The clinical effect of concomitant use of non-specific immunopotentiator OK-432 and PSK was studied about stage 3, and stage 4. Survival curves were evaluated between the patients with OK-432 and/or PSK and those without immunotherapy. In 91 cases in stage 3, fifty percent survival period was found to be 12.2 months for 27 cases with OK-432, 14.4 months for 12 cases with combined use of OK-432 and PSK, 9.0 months for 24 cases with PSK, and 7.5 months for 28 cases without immunotherapy, respectively. Noticeable prolongation of fifty percent survival period was observed in the cases with combined use of OK-432 and PSK, OK-432, and PSK, inorder, as compared with those without immunotherapy. One-year survival rate was 51.9% for cases with OK-432, 66.7% with combined use OK-432 and PSK, 34.8% with PSK, and 25.0% without immunotherapy, respectively. In 81 cases in stage 4, fifty percent survival period was found to be 7.0 months for 24 cases with OK-432, 5.0 months for 8 cases with combined use of OK-432 and PSK, 7.6 months for 13 cases with PSK, and 3.3 months for 36 cases without immunotherapy, respectively. One-year survival rate was 16.7% for cases with OK-432, 25.0% with combined use of OK-432 and PSK, 15.4% with PSK and 5.6% without immunotherapy, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  13. Influence of beta instabilities on the early stages of nucleation and growth of alpha in beta titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Soumya

    Microstructural evolution in beta Titanium alloys is an important factor that governs the properties exhibited by them. Intricate understanding of complex phase transformations in these alloys is vital to tailor their microstructures and in turn their properties to our advantage. One such important subject of study is the nucleation and growth of alpha precipitates triggered by the compositional instabilities in the beta matrix, instilled in them during non equilibrium heat treatments. The present work is an effort to investigate such a phenomenon. Here studies have been conducted primarily on two different beta-Titanium alloys of commercial relevance- Ti5553 (Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe), an alloy used in the aerospace industry for landing gear applications and, TNZT (Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta), a potential load bearing orthopedic implant alloy. Apart from the effect of thermal treatment on these alloys, the focus of this work is to study the interplay between different alpha and beta stabilizers present in them. For this, advanced nano-scale characterization tools such as High Resolution STEM, High Resolution TEM, EFTEM and 3D Atom Probe have been used to determine the structure, distribution and composition of the non equilibrium instabilities such as beta' and o, and also to investigate the subsequent nucleation of stable alpha. Thus in this work, very early stages of phase separation via spinodal decomposition and second phase nucleation in titanium alloys are successfully probed at an atomic resolution. For the first time, atomically resolved HRSTEM 'Z'-contrast image is recorded showing modulated structures within the as-quenched beta matrix. Also in the same condition HRTEM results showed the presence of nanoscale alpha regions. These studies are revalidated by conventional selected area diffraction and 3D atom probe reconstruction results. Also TEM dark field and selected are diffraction studies are conducted to understand the effect of quenching and subsequent aging of

  14. Influence of Cu(NO32 initiation additive in two-stage mode conditions of coal pyrolytic decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larionov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage process (pyrolysis and oxidation of brown coal sample with Cu(NO32 additive pyrolytic decomposition was studied. Additive was introduced by using capillary wetness impregnation method with 5% mass concentration. Sample reactivity was studied by thermogravimetric analysis with staged gaseous medium supply (argon and air at heating rate 10 °C/min and intermediate isothermal soaking. The initiative additive introduction was found to significantly reduce volatile release temperature and accelerate thermal decomposition of sample. Mass-spectral analysis results reveal that significant difference in process characteristics is connected to volatile matter release stage which is initiated by nitrous oxide produced during copper nitrate decomposition.

  15. Gender-specific influences of balance, speed, and power on agility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Mirkov, Dragan; Cavar, Mile; Sattler, Tine

    2013-03-01

    The quick change of direction (i.e., agility) is an important athletic ability in numerous sports. Because of the diverse and therefore hardly predictable manifestations of agility in sports, studies noted that the improvement in speed, power, and balance should result in an improvement of agility. However, there is evident lack of data regarding the influence of potential predictors on different agility manifestations. The aim of this study was to determine the gender-specific influence of speed, power, and balance on different agility tests. A total of 32 college-aged male athletes and 31 college-aged female athletes (age 20.02 ± 1.89 years) participated in this study. The subjects were mostly involved in team sports (soccer, team handball, basketball, and volleyball; 80% of men, and 75% of women), martial arts, gymnastics, and dance. Anthropometric variables consisted of body height, body weight, and the body mass index. Five agility tests were used: a t-test (T-TEST), zig-zag test, 20-yard shuttle test, agility test with a 180-degree turn, and forward-backward running agility test (FWDBWD). Other tests included 1 jumping ability power test (squat jump, SQJ), 2 balance tests to determine the overall stability index and an overall limit of stability score (both measured by Biodex Balance System), and 2 running speed tests using a straight sprint for 10 and 20 m (S10 and S20, respectively). A reliability analysis showed that all the agility tests were reliable. Multiple regression and correlation analysis found speed and power (among women), and balance (among men), as most significant predictors of agility. The highest Pearson's correlation in both genders is found between the results of the FWDBWD and S10M tests (0.77 and 0.81 for men and women, respectively; p Power, measured using the SQJ, is significantly (p balance measures were significantly related to the agility performance for men but not for women. In addition to demonstrating a known relationship

  16. [Gender-specific influences on incidence, screening, treatment, and outcome of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Meyer, F

    2013-08-01

    This overview comments on potential gender-specific differences in incidence, anatomic site, screening, treatment, and outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). For the literature review, the Medline database (PubMed) was searched under the key words "colorectal carcinoma AND gender" and "gender differences AND colorectal cancer". Publications of the last 9 years (2005-2013) were firstly retrieved. CRC is more commonly observed in men than in women, with the higher tumour risk for men being limited to the distal colon and rectum. Risk factors for the development of CRC include overweight and obesity, this relationship is more pronounced for men than for women. The extent to which gender is a prognostic factor for patient survival is controversial. A better survival of women compared to men is found especially in the younger age groups, from which can be derived a protective effect of oestrogens on the development of CRC. As for the frequency with which men and women undergo a screening of CRC, sometimes higher screening rates have been reported for men than women, however, the socio-economic status of persons invited to participate has much more influence on screening attendance than gender. An analysis of surgical procedures indicates that it is more difficult to perform the low anterior resection of the rectum in men than women, with the result that men managed by less experienced surgeons are more likely to receive abdominoperineal excision. Furthermore, the risk of anastomotic leakage is higher in men than women. The essential gender difference, however, is the longer life expectancy of women compared to men which has been not always clearly (risk adjusted) elaborated in the studies available so far. This difference alone can already explain at a high rate the poorer prognosis of right-sided colon cancers compared to left-sided cancers. Comparable levels of CRC risk are reached in women as compared to men at a higher age. This may influence the

  17. The Influence of Cyst Emptying, Lymph Node Resection and Chemotherapy on Survival in Stage IA and IC1 Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Mosgaard, Berit Jul; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine if survival in stage I ovarian cancer is influenced by cyst emptying, lymph node resection and chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A survival analysis of 607 patients with ovarian cancer in stage IA, IA with cyst emptying (IAempty) and IC1 was performed. RESULTS......: There was no difference in five-year survival between IA (87%) and IC1 (87%) (p=0.899), between IA and IAempty (86%) (p=0.500) nor between IA+IAempty (87%) and IC1 without IAempty (84%) (p=0.527). Five-year survival rate (5YSR) was significantly higher after lymph node resection in stage IA (94% vs. 85%; p=0.01) and IA......+IC1 (93% vs. 85%; p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, lymph node resection improved prognosis significantly for all sub-stages, whereas stage and chemotherapy did not affect survival. CONCLUSION: In stage IA ovarian cancer, controlled cyst emptying without spill does not worsen prognosis. Lymph node...

  18. Removal of pharmaceuticals in pre-denitrifying MBBR – Influence of organic substrate availability in single- and three-stage configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Torresi, Elena; Loreggian, L.

    2017-01-01

    kinetics were observed, with highest and lowest rates/rate constants in the first (S1) and the last (S3) staged sub-reactors, respectively. These observations were confirmed by removal efficiency data obtained during continuous-flow operation, with limited removal (... and highest removal in S1 within the three-stage MBBR. Notably, biotransformation rate constants obtained for non-recalcitrant pharmaceuticals correlated with mean specific denitrification rates, maximum specific growth rates and observed growth yield values. Overall, these findings suggest that: (i) the long......-term exposure to tiered substrate accessibility in the three-stage configuration shaped the denitrification and biotransformation capacity of biofilms, with significant reduction under substrate limitation; (ii) biotransformation of pharmaceuticals may have occurred as a result of cometabolism by heterotrophic...

  19. The influence of physician recommendation on prostate-specific antigen screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheril, Daniel; Dalela, Deepansh; Sammon, Jesse; Sood, Akshay; Sun, Maxine; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Abdollah, Firas

    2015-10-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, and little is known regarding a physician's effect on a patient's decision to undergo screening. This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of a patient's understanding of the risks and benefits of screening compared to the final recommendation of the provider on the patient's decision to undergo PSA screening. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, men older than 55 years who did not have a history of prostate cancer/prostate "problem" and who reported a PSA test within the preceding year were considered to have undergone screening. The percentages of men informed and not informed of the risks and benefits of screening and the percentage men receiving recommendations for PSA screening from their provider were reported. Multivariable complex-sample logistic regression calculated the odds of undergoing screening. In all, 75% of men were informed of screening benefits; however, 32% were informed of screening risks. After being informed of both, 56% of men opted for PSA screening if the provider recommended it, compared with only 21% when not recommended. Men receiving a recommendation to undergo PSA testing had higher odds of undergoing screening (odds ratio [OR] = 4.98, 95% CI: 4.53-5.48) compared with those who were only informed about screening benefits (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 2.18-2.65) or risks (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.98). Significant limitations include recall and nonresponse bias. Patients' decision to undergo or forgo PSA screening is heavily influenced by the recommendation of their physician; it is imperative that physicians are cognizant of their biases and facilitate a shared decision-making process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subsurface earthworm casts can be important soil microsites specifically influencing the growth of grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G; Wechselberger, Katharina F; Gorfer, Markus; Hann, Patrick; Frank, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Drapela, Thomas

    Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) deposit several tons per hectare of casts enriched in nutrients and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and create a spatial and temporal soil heterogeneity that can play a role in structuring plant communities. However, while we begin to understand the role of surface casts, it is still unclear to what extent plants utilize subsurface casts. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using large mesocosms (volume 45 l) to test whether (1) soil microsites consisting of earthworm casts with or without AMF (four Glomus taxa) affect the biomass production of 11 grassland plant species comprising the three functional groups grasses, forbs, and legumes, (2) different ecological groups of earthworms (soil dwellers- Aporrectodea caliginosa vs. vertical burrowers- Lumbricus terrestris ) alter potential influences of soil microsites (i.e., four earthworms × two subsurface microsites × two AMF treatments). Soil microsites were artificially inserted in a 25-cm depth, and afterwards, plant species were sown in a regular pattern; the experiment ran for 6 months. Our results show that minute amounts of subsurface casts (0.89 g kg -1 soil) decreased the shoot and root production of forbs and legumes, but not that of grasses. The presence of earthworms reduced root biomass of grasses only. Our data also suggest that subsurface casts provide microsites from which root AMF colonization can start. Ecological groups of earthworms did not differ in their effects on plant production or AMF distribution. Taken together, these findings suggest that subsurface earthworm casts might play a role in structuring plant communities by specifically affecting the growth of certain functional groups of plants.

  1. The influence of different maternal pushing positions on birth outcomes at the second stage of labor in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraloglu, Ozlem; Kansu-Celik, Hatice; Tasci, Yasemin; Karakaya, Burcu Kısa; Yilmaz, Yasar; Cakir, Ebru; Yakut, Halil Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effects on neonatal and maternal outcomes of different pushing positions during the second stage of labor in nulliparous women. This prospective study included 102 healthy, pregnant, nulliparous women who were randomly allocated to either of two positions: a squatting using bars (n = 51), or a supine position modified to 45 degree of semi-fowler (n = 51) during the second stage of labor. Duration of the second stage of labor, maternal pain, postpartum blood loss, abnormal fetal heart rate patterns that required intervention, and newborn outcomes were compared between the two groups. The trial showed that women who adopted the squatting position using bars experienced a significant reduction in the duration of the second stage of labor; they were less likely to be induced, and their Visual Analog Scale score was lower than those who were allocated the supine position modified to 45 degree of semi-fowler during second stage of labor (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences with regard to postpartum blood loss, neonatal birth weight, Apgar score at one and five minutes, or admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. In healthy nulliparous women, adopting a squatting position using bars was associated with a shorter second stage of labor, lower Visual Analog Scale score, more satisfaction, and a reduction in oxytocin requirements compared with adopting the supine position. For Turkish women, the squatting position is easy to adopt as it is more appropriate in terms of Turkish social habits and traditions.

  2. Overexpression and cosuppression of xylem-related genes in an early xylem differentiation stage-specific manner by the AtTED4 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Kuninori; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2018-02-01

    Tissue-specific overexpression of useful genes, which we can design according to their cause-and-effect relationships, often gives valuable gain-of-function phenotypes. To develop genetic tools in woody biomass engineering, we produced a collection of Arabidopsis lines that possess chimeric genes of a promoter of an early xylem differentiation stage-specific gene, Arabidopsis Tracheary Element Differentiation-related 4 (AtTED4) and late xylem development-associated genes, many of which are uncharacterized. The AtTED4 promoter directed the expected expression of transgenes in developing vascular tissues from young to mature stage. Of T2 lines examined, 42%, 49% and 9% were judged as lines with the nonrepeat type insertion, the simple repeat type insertion and the other repeat type insertion of transgenes. In 174 T3 lines, overexpression lines were confirmed for 37 genes, whereas only cosuppression lines were produced for eight genes. The AtTED4 promoter activity was high enough to overexpress a wide range of genes over wild-type expression levels, even though the wild-type expression is much higher than AtTED4 expression for several genes. As a typical example, we investigated phenotypes of pAtTED4::At5g60490 plants, in which both overexpression and cosuppression lines were included. Overexpression but not cosuppression lines showed accelerated xylem development, suggesting the positive role of At5g60490 in xylem development. Taken together, this study provides valuable results about behaviours of various genes expressed under an early xylem-specific promoter and about usefulness of their lines as genetic tools in woody biomass engineering. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genetics and molecular mapping of genes for race-specific all-stage resistance and non-race-specific high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat cultivar Alpowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F; Chen, X M

    2007-05-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred control of the disease. The spring wheat cultivar 'Alpowa' has both race-specific, all-stage resistance and non-race-specific, high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistances to stripe rust. To identify genes for the stripe rust resistances, Alpowa was crossed with 'Avocet Susceptible' (AVS). Seedlings of the parents, and F(1), F(2) and F(3) progeny were tested with races PST-1 and PST-21 of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici under controlled greenhouse conditions. Alpowa has a single partially dominant gene, designated as YrAlp, conferring all-stage resistance. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques were used to identify molecular markers linked to YrAlp. A linkage group of five RGAP markers and two SSR markers was constructed for YrAlp using 136 F(3) lines. Amplification of a set of nulli-tetrasomic Chinese Spring lines with RGAP markers Xwgp47 and Xwgp48 and the two SSR markers indicated that YrAlp is located on the short arm of chromosome 1B. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the non-race-specific HTAP resistance, the parents and 136 F(3) lines were tested at two sites near Pullman and one site near Mount Vernon, Washington, under naturally infected conditions. A major HTAP QTL was consistently detected across environments and was located on chromosome 7BL. Because of its chromosomal location and the non-race-specific nature of the HTAP resistance, this gene is different from previously described genes for adult-plant resistance, and is therefore designated Yr39. The gene contributed to 64.2% of the total variation of relative area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) data and 59.1% of the total variation of infection type data recorded at the heading-flowering stages. Two RGAP markers, Xwgp36 and Xwgp45 with the highest R (2) values

  4. Influence of some design and operating parameters of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive on the technical specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkachev E.N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of several design and operating parameters of conveyor on the individual components of the stretching tension in the belt of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was analyzed. The analysis of influence a number design and operating parameters on the technical specifications of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive was done. Recommendations on the choice of rational parameters were formulated.

  5. The influence of surface integrin binding patterns on specific biomaterial-cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, Maggi Marie

    aim, the response of surface-bound integrins to flow-related shear stress was examined. Based on fluorescent analysis, total alphavbeta 3, alpha1beta1, and alpha5beta 1 appeared to increase on stainless steel after 90-minute low shear stress exposure, whereas only alpha5beta1 appeared to increase when exposed to high shear. 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) exhibited increased total binding of alpha5beta1 and alphaMbeta2, when exposed to either shear stress level. Exposure to either shear stress regimen appeared to increase binding of all integrins on the combinational surface. These responses to shear stress suggest differential integrin binding affinity compared to stainless steel. Using antibodies specific to the integrin subunits, the apparent increase in surface-bound integrins was found to be related to a surface disassociation of alpha and beta subunits. The third aim evaluated human aortic endothelial cells and acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) cell binding to the tested biomaterial surfaces under both static and flow conditions. Both stainless steel and the combinational surface had increased endothelial cell binding compared to monocyte attachment. Pre-incubation of the surface with the specific integrins significantly inhibited human aortic endothelial cell binding. Aim four was designed to investigate the influence of surface bound integrins on human aortic endothelial cell migration under shear stress. If biomaterial surface integrin binding patterns are specific, then pre-bound surface integrins should competitively inhibit binding of cellular integrins to the surface. Cell migration distance on to alphavbeta3, alpha 1beta1, and alpha5beta1 pre-incubated stainless steel was decreased ten-fold, and decreased by three-fold on both 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-coglycolide) and combinational surfaces compared to the respective bare surfaces. In contrast, migration distance on to alphaMbeta2 pre-coated stainless steel and combinational surface was

  6. Sex-specific influences of mtDNA mitotype and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiological traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen C Aw

    Full Text Available Here we determine the sex-specific influence of mtDNA type (mitotype and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiology in two Drosophila melanogaster lines. In many species, males and females differ in aspects of their energy production. These sex-specific influences may be caused by differences in evolutionary history and physiological functions. We predicted the influence of mtDNA mutations should be stronger in males than females as a result of the organelle's maternal mode of inheritance in the majority of metazoans. In contrast, we predicted the influence of diet would be greater in females due to higher metabolic flexibility. We included four diets that differed in their protein: carbohydrate (P:C ratios as they are the two-major energy-yielding macronutrients in the fly diet. We assayed four mitochondrial function traits (Complex I oxidative phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, and mtDNA copy number and four physiological traits (fecundity, longevity, lipid content, and starvation resistance. Traits were assayed at 11 d and 25 d of age. Consistent with predictions we observe that the mitotype influenced males more than females supporting the hypothesis of a sex-specific selective sieve in the mitochondrial genome caused by the maternal inheritance of mitochondria. Also, consistent with predictions, we found that the diet influenced females more than males.

  7. The influence of a change in medicare reimbursement on the effectiveness of stage III or greater decubitus ulcer home health nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Melody K

    2005-02-01

    This study was designed to describe and evaluate the influence of a change in a Medicare reimbursement on the effectiveness of home health nursing care for stage III or greater decubitus ulcer patients. This health policy originated from the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and took its full effect with initiation of the Prospective Payment System (PPS) on October 1, 2000. A quantitative quasi-experimental design used OASIS data from the state of Virginia to evaluate 555 stage III or greater decubitus ulcer patients, age 65 or older. Comparisons were investigated between pre-PPS, 2000, and post-PPS, 2001, outcomes related to reported ulcer healing, lengths of stay, and discharge disposition. Results demonstrated significant differences for the outcomes studied. In addition, sanitation, ulcer healing, and discharge disposition were linked as predictors for length of stay. Results demonstrated that PPS has affected nursing care effectiveness for stage III or greater decubitus ulcer home health patients.

  8. Immigration and early life stages recruitment of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to an estuarine nursery: The influence of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity between coastal spawning grounds and estuarine nurseries is a critical step in the life cycle of many fish species. Larval immigration and transport-associated physical-biological processes are determinants of recruitment success to nursery areas. The recruitment of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus, to estuarine nurseries located at the southern edge of the species distribution range, has been usually investigated during its juvenile stages, while estuarine recruitment during the earlier planktonic life stage remains largely unstudied. The present study investigated the patterns of flounder larval recruitment and the influence of environmental factors on the immigration of the early life stages to the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), integrating data on fish larvae and post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm length), collected over 7 years. Late-stage larvae arrived at the estuary between February and July and peak abundances were observed in April. Post-settlement individuals (< 50 mm) occurred later between April and October, whereas newly-settled ones (< 20 mm) were found only in May and June. Variables associated with the spawning, survival and growth of larvae in the ocean (sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a and inland hydrological variables) were the major drivers of flounder occurrence in the estuarine nursery. Although the adjacent coastal area is characterized by a current system with strong seasonality and mesoscale variability, we did not identify any influence of variables related with physical processes (currents and upwelling) on the occurrence of early life stages in the estuary. A wider knowledge on the influence of the coastal circulation variability and its associated effects upon ocean-estuarine connectivity is required to improve our understanding of the population dynamics of marine spawning fish that use estuarine nurseries.

  9. Global and stage specific patterns of Krüppel-associated-box zinc finger protein gene expression in murine early embryonic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corsinotti

    Full Text Available Highly coordinated transcription networks orchestrate the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cell and the earliest steps of mammalian development. KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins represent the largest group of transcription factors encoded by the genomes of higher vertebrates including mice and humans. Together with their putatively universal cofactor KAP1, they have been implicated in events as diverse as the silencing of endogenous retroelements, the maintenance of imprinting and the pluripotent self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, although the genomic targets and specific functions of individual members of this gene family remain largely undefined. Here, we first generated a list of Ensembl-annotated KRAB-containing genes encoding the mouse and human genomes. We then defined the transcription levels of these genes in murine early embryonic cells. We found that the majority of KRAB-ZFP genes are expressed in mouse pluripotent stem cells and other early progenitors. However, we also identified distinctively cell- or stage-specific patterns of expression, some of which are pluripotency-restricted. Finally, we determined that individual KRAB-ZFP genes exhibit highly distinctive modes of expression, even when grouped in genomic clusters, and that these cannot be correlated with the presence of prototypic repressive or activating chromatin marks. These results pave the way to delineating the role of specific KRAB-ZFPs in early embryogenesis.

  10. Factors influencing career progress for early stage clinician-scientists in emerging Asian academic medical centres: a qualitative study in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Marcus E H; Thumboo, Julian

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To explore the factors that influence career progress for early stage clinician-scientists and to identify ways to mitigate these factors in the context of emerging Asian academic medical centres (AMCs). Design Qualitative interviews and thematic data analysis based on grounded theory. Setting and participants Five focus group interviews comprising 29 early career clinician-scientists who have received their first national-level career development award in Singapore. Results Clinical priorities represented an overarching concern with many reporting the difficulty in delineating responsibilities between clinical care and research. Additionally, there was a prevailing perception of the lack of support for research at the institutional level. Participants tended to identify mentors through their own efforts in a relatively haphazard manner, often owing to the dearth of role models and perceived inadequacy of reward systems for mentoring. Support from mentors was thought to be limited in terms of targeted scientific guidance and long-term commitments to the relationship. Most of the participants expressed concerns about how they could secure the next level of funding with diminishing confidence. Notably, the work-life balance was neither conceptualised as a ‘barrier’ to successful pursuit of research career nor was it translated into the reason for leaving the dual clinical-research career pathway. Conclusions Results revealed specific limitations presented by the research environment in newly emerging Asian AMCs. To retain a vibrant clinician-scientist workforce, additional measures are needed, aiming to improve institutional culture of research, build mentoring networks, adopt effective tools for tracking career progress and provide a clear and viable career progression path for clinician-scientist. Further research might explore the cross-cultural differences in managing work-life balance in academic medicine. PMID:29502093

  11. Factors influencing career progress for early stage clinician-scientists in emerging Asian academic medical centres: a qualitative study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Marcus E H; Thumboo, Julian

    2018-03-03

    To explore the factors that influence career progress for early stage clinician-scientists and to identify ways to mitigate these factors in the context of emerging Asian academic medical centres (AMCs). Qualitative interviews and thematic data analysis based on grounded theory. Five focus group interviews comprising 29 early career clinician-scientists who have received their first national-level career development award in Singapore. Clinical priorities represented an overarching concern with many reporting the difficulty in delineating responsibilities between clinical care and research. Additionally, there was a prevailing perception of the lack of support for research at the institutional level. Participants tended to identify mentors through their own efforts in a relatively haphazard manner, often owing to the dearth of role models and perceived inadequacy of reward systems for mentoring. Support from mentors was thought to be limited in terms of targeted scientific guidance and long-term commitments to the relationship. Most of the participants expressed concerns about how they could secure the next level of funding with diminishing confidence. Notably, the work-life balance was neither conceptualised as a 'barrier' to successful pursuit of research career nor was it translated into the reason for leaving the dual clinical-research career pathway. Results revealed specific limitations presented by the research environment in newly emerging Asian AMCs. To retain a vibrant clinician-scientist workforce, additional measures are needed, aiming to improve institutional culture of research, build mentoring networks, adopt effective tools for tracking career progress and provide a clear and viable career progression path for clinician-scientist. Further research might explore the cross-cultural differences in managing work-life balance in academic medicine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  12. Nbn and atm cooperate in a tissue and developmental stage-specific manner to prevent double strand breaks and apoptosis in developing brain and eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M G Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Nibrin (NBN or NBS1 and ATM are key factors for DNA Double Strand Break (DSB signaling and repair. Mutations in NBN or ATM result in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome and Ataxia telangiectasia. These syndromes share common features such as radiosensitivity, neurological developmental defects and cancer predisposition. However, the functional synergy of Nbn and Atm in different tissues and developmental stages is not yet understood. Here, we show in vivo consequences of conditional inactivation of both genes in neural stem/progenitor cells using Nestin-Cre mice. Genetic inactivation of Atm in the central nervous system of Nbn-deficient mice led to reduced life span and increased DSBs, resulting in increased apoptosis during neural development. Surprisingly, the increase of DSBs and apoptosis was found only in few tissues including cerebellum, ganglionic eminences and lens. In sharp contrast, we showed that apoptosis associated with Nbn deletion was prevented by simultaneous inactivation of Atm in developing retina. Therefore, we propose that Nbn and Atm collaborate to prevent DSB accumulation and apoptosis during development in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner.

  13. Life history traits influence the strength of distance- and density-dependence at different life stages of two Amazonian palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Juanita; Carasco, Cecilia; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Simpson, Beryl B; Economo, Evan P

    2017-07-01

    Natural enemies are known to be important in regulating plant populations and contributing to species coexistence (Janzen-Connell effects). The strength of Janzen-Connell effects (both distance- and density-effects) varies across species, but the life history traits that may mediate such a variation are not well understood. This study examined Janzen-Connell effects across the life stages (seed through adult stages) of two sympatric palm species with distinct phenologies and shade tolerances, two traits that may mediate the strength and timing of Janzen-Connell effects. Populations of two common palm species, Attalea phalerata and Astrocaryum murumuru , were studied in Manu National Park, Peru. Seed predation experiments were conducted to assess Janzen-Connell effects at the seed stage. In the post-seed stages, spatial point pattern analyses of the distributions of individuals and biomass were used to infer the strength of distance- and density-effects. Seed predation was both negative distance- and density-dependent consistent with the Janzen-Connell effects. However, only seedling recruitment for asynchronously fruiting Attalea phalerata was depressed near adults while recruitment remained high for synchronously fruiting Astrocaryum murumuru , consistent with weak distance-effects. Negative density-effects were strong in the early stages for shade-intolerant Attalea phalerata but weak or absent in shade-tolerant Astrocaryum murumuru. Distance- and density-effects varied among the life stages of the two palm species in a manner that corresponded to their contrasting phenology and shade tolerance. Generalizing such connections across many species would provide a route to understanding how trait-mediated Janzen-Connell effects scale up to whole communities of species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Surgery confounds biology: the predictive value of stage-, grade- and prostate-specific antigen for recurrence after radical prostatectomy as a function of surgeon experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Savage, Caroline J; Bianco, Fernando J; Klein, Eric A; Kattan, Michael W; Secin, Fernando P; Guilloneau, Bertrand D; Scardino, Peter T

    2011-04-01

    Statistical models predicting cancer recurrence after surgery are based on biologic variables. We have shown previously that prostate cancer recurrence is related to both tumor biology and to surgical technique. Here, we evaluate the association between several biological predictors and biochemical recurrence across varying surgical experience. The study included two separate cohorts: 6,091 patients treated by open radical prostatectomy and an independent replication set of 2,298 patients treated laparoscopically. We calculated the odds ratios for biological predictors of biochemical recurrence-stage, Gleason grade and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-and also the predictive accuracy (area under the curve, AUC) of a multivariable model, for subgroups of patients defined by the experience of their surgeon. In the open cohort, the odds ratio for Gleason score 8+ and advanced pathologic stage, though not PSA or Gleason score 7, increased dramatically when patients treated by surgeons with lower levels of experience were excluded (Gleason 8+: odds ratios 5.6 overall vs. 13.0 for patients treated by surgeons with 1,000+ prior cases; locally advanced disease: odds ratios of 6.6 vs. 12.2, respectively). The AUC of the multivariable model was 0.750 for patients treated by surgeons with 50 or fewer cases compared to 0.849 for patients treated by surgeons with 500 or more. Although predictiveness was lower overall for the independent replication set cohort, the main findings were replicated. Surgery confounds biology. Although our findings have no direct clinical implications, studies investigating biological variables as predictors of outcome after curative resection of cancer should consider the impact of surgeon-specific factors. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  15. NF-Y recruits both transcription activator and repressor to modulate tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of human γ-globin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguo Zhu

    Full Text Available The human embryonic, fetal and adult β-like globin genes provide a paradigm for tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene regulation. The fetal γ-globin gene is expressed in fetal erythroid cells but is repressed in adult erythroid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional switch during erythroid development is not completely understood. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays to dissect the molecular assemblies of the active and the repressed proximal γ-globin promoter complexes in K562 human erythroleukemia cell line and primary human fetal and adult erythroid cells. We found that the proximal γ-globin promoter complex is assembled by a developmentally regulated, general transcription activator NF-Y bound strongly at the tandem CCAAT motifs near the TATA box. NF-Y recruits to neighboring DNA motifs the developmentally regulated, erythroid transcription activator GATA-2 and general repressor BCL11A, which in turn recruit erythroid repressor GATA-1 and general repressor COUP-TFII to form respectively the NF-Y/GATA-2 transcription activator hub and the BCL11A/COUP-TFII/GATA-1 transcription repressor hub. Both the activator and the repressor hubs are present in both the active and the repressed γ-globin promoter complexes in fetal and adult erythroid cells. Through changes in their levels and respective interactions with the co-activators and co-repressors during erythroid development, the activator and the repressor hubs modulate erythroid- and developmental stage-specific transcription of γ-globin gene.

  16. Influence of irradiation at different stages of mitotic cycle upon production of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoshina, M.M.; Poryadkova, N.A.; Luchnik, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and microexchanges in Chinese hamster cells has been studied by means of the method of differential staining of chromatids on irradiation at different stages of the mitotic cycle. It is shown that the irradiation enhances frequency of SCE and microexchanges if it is carried out before the end of DNA replication synthesis. Comparison of frequency depenedence of radiation-induced microexchanges and SCE at different stages of the mitotic cycle results in the conclusion that the microexchanges are none other than small SCE

  17. INFLUENCE OF AXIAL COMPRESSOR STAGE SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION ON THRUST-ECONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARGO AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Volyanskaya

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  The article considers the research results of D-27 gas turbine engine thrust-economical characteristics change due to of axial compressor flow path optimization. The applied procedure of optimization takes into account a difference in the shapes of axial compressor stage blades at rest and design mode, redistribution of kinetic energy losses along the blade height. The estimation of parameters of a gas flow in the stage flow path is made by the solution of Navier-Stokes equation complete set.

  18. Radiation dose response in patients with favorable localized prostate cancer (Stage T1-T2, biopsy Gleason ≤6, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen ≤10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Klein, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiation dose response as determined by biochemical relapse-free survival in patients with favorable localized prostate cancers, i.e., Stage T1-T2, biopsy Gleason score (bGS) ≤6, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (iPSA) ≤10 ng/mL. Methods and Materials: A total of 292 patients with favorable localized prostate cancer were treated with radiotherapy alone between 1986 and 1999. The median age was 69 years. Sixteen percent of cases (n=46) were African-American. The distribution by clinical T stage was as follows: T1/T2A, 243 (83%); and T2B/T2C, 49 (17%). The distribution by iPSA was as follows: ≤4 ng/mL, 49 (17%); and >4 ng/mL, 243 (83%). The mean iPSA level was 6.2 (median, 6.4). The distribution by bGS was as follows: ≤5 in 89 cases (30%) and 6 in 203 cases (70%). The median radiation dose was 70.0 Gy (range, 63.0-78.0 Gy). Doses of ≤70.0 Gy were delivered in 175 cases, 70.2-72.0 Gy in 24 cases, 74 Gy in 30 cases, and 78 Gy in 63 cases. For patients receiving 2 =5.7), and radiation dose (p=0.021, χ 2 =5.3) were independent predictors of outcome. Age (p=0.94), race (p=0.89), stage (p=0.45), biopsy GS (p=0.40), and radiation technique (p=0.45) were not. Conclusion: There is a clear radiation dose response in patients with favorable localized prostate cancers (i.e., Stage T1-T2, biopsy Gleason score ≤6, and iPSA ≤10 ng/mL). At least 74 Gy should be delivered to the prostate and periprostatic tissues. With our cohort of patients, longer follow-up will be needed to assess the importance of doses exceeding 74 Gy

  19. PSA Nadir of <0.5 ng/mL Following Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Prostate Adenocarcinoma is Associated With Freedom From Prostate-Specific Antigen Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Eric C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Because limited information exists regarding whether the rate or magnitude of PSA decline following brachytherapy predicts long-term clinical outcomes, we evaluated whether achieving a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (nPSA) <0.5 ng/mL following brachytherapy is associated with decreased PSA failure and/or distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed our database of early-stage prostate adenocarcinoma patients who underwent brachytherapy, excluding those receiving androgen-deprivation therapy and those with <2 years follow-up. Median and mean pretreatment PSA were 6 ng/mL and 7.16 ng/mL, respectively. By clinical stage, 775 were low risk ({<=}T2a), 126 were intermediate risk (T2b), and 20 were high risk (>T2b). By Gleason score, 840 were low risk ({<=}6), 71 were intermediate risk (7), and 10 were high risk (>7). Patients were treated with brachytherapy only (I-125, n = 779, or Pd-103, n = 47), or brachytherapy + external-beam radiation therapy (n = 95). Median follow-up was 6.3 years. We noted whether nPSA <0.5 ng/mL was achieved and the time to achieve this nadir and tested for associations with pretreatment risk factors. We also determined whether this PSA endpoint was associated with decreased PSA failure or distant metastasis. Results: Absence of high-risk factors in clinical stage ({<=}T2b), Gleason score ({<=}7), and pretreatment PSA ({<=}20 ng/mL) was significantly associated with achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL had significantly higher long-term freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) than nonresponders (5-year FFBF: 95.2 {+-} 0.8% vs. 71.5 {+-} 6.7%; p < 0.0005). Among responders, those who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had higher FFBF than those requiring >5 years (5-year FFBF: 96.7 {+-} 0.7% vs. 80.8 {+-} 4.6%; p < 0.0005). On multivariate analysis, patients who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had significantly higher FFBF than other

  20. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    , and systems 'hosting' these multiple and complex mobilities are designed and how they are staging these in terms of their physical layout. By analysing specific cases of ‘mobilities design’ related to the four modes of moving; Walk, Bike, Train, and Car, the book uncover important and until now neglected...... is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments, the project...

  1. What Is the Influence of Morphological Knowledge in the Early Stages of Reading Acquisition Among Low SES Children? A Graphical Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Colé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Children from low-SES families are known to show delays in aspects of language development which underpin reading acquisition such as vocabulary and listening comprehension. Research on the development of morphological skills in this group is scarce, and no studies exist in French. The present study investigated the involvement of morphological knowledge in the very early stages of reading acquisition (decoding, before reading comprehension can be reliably assessed. We assessed listening comprehension, receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, morphological awareness as well as decoding, word reading and non-verbal IQ in 703 French first-graders from low-SES families after 3 months of formal schooling (November. Awareness of derivational morphology was assessed using three oral tasks: Relationship Judgment (e.g., do these words belong to the same family or not? heat-heater … ham-hammer; Lexical Sentence Completion [e.g., Someone who runs is a …? (runner]; and Non-lexical Sentence Completion [e.g., Someone who lums is a…? (lummer]. The tasks differ on implicit/explicit demands and also tap different kinds of morphological knowledge. The Judgement task measures the phonological and semantic properties of the morphological relationship and the Sentence Completion tasks measure knowledge of morphological production rules. Data were processed using a graphical modeling approach which offers key information about how skills known to be involved in learning to read are organized in memory. This modeling approach was therefore useful in revealing a potential network which expresses the conditional dependence structure between skills, after which recursive structural equation modeling was applied to test specific hypotheses. Six main conclusions can be drawn from these analyses about low SES reading acquisition: (1 listening comprehension is at the heart of the reading acquisition process; (2 word reading depends directly on phonemic awareness and

  2. Influence of model specifications on the reliabilities of genomic prediction in a Swedish-Finnish red breed cattle population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rius-Vilarrasa, E; Strandberg, E; Fikse, W F

    2012-01-01

    Using a combined multi-breed reference population, this study explored the influence of model specification and the effect of including a polygenic effect on the reliability of genomic breeding values (DGV and GEBV). The combined reference population consisted of 2986 Swedish Red Breed (SRB) and ...

  3. Adherence to cancer treatment guidelines: influence of general and cancer-specific guideline characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Jong, J.D. de; Spronk, I.; Ho, V.K.; Brink, M.; Korevaar, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Guideline adherence remains a challenge in clinical practice, despite guidelines’ ascribed potential to improve patient outcomes. We studied the level of adherence to recommendations from Dutch national cancer treatment guidelines, and the influence of general and

  4. Influence of Niche-Specific Nutrients on Secondary Metabolism in Vibrionaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giubergia, Sonia; Phippen, Christopher; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2016-01-01

    was responsible for the antibacterial activity of Vibrio furnissii and Vibrio fluvialis These results suggest a role of chitin in the regulation of secondary metabolism in vibrios and demonstrate that considering bacterial ecophysiology during development of screening strategies will facilitate bioprospecting......Many factors, such as the substrate and the growth phase, influence biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in microorganisms. Therefore, it is crucial to consider these factors when establishing a bioprospecting strategy. Mimicking the conditions of the natural environment has been suggested...... as a means of inducing or influencing microbial secondary metabolite production. The purpose of the present study was to determine how the bioactivity of Vibrionaceae was influenced by carbon sources typical of their natural environment. We determined how mannose and chitin, compared to glucose, influenced...

  5. Influence of Different Palatoplasties on the Facial Morphology of Early Mixed Dentition Stage Children With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, Wakako; Yashiro, Kohtaro; Otsuki, Koichi; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    To compare the maxillofacial morphology in the early mixed dentition phase between two patient groups with unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate who underwent different types of palatoplasty. Cross-sectional study. An institutional study. Seventy-one patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) treated at Osaka University Dental Hospital, Japan, were divided into two groups: 33 patients were treated by early two-stage palatoplasty by the modified Furlow Technique (ETS), and 38 patients were treated by one-stage Wardill-Kilner push-back palatoplasty (PB). Intergroup comparisons were performed. The dental, skeletal, and soft-tissue features were evaluated. For intergroup comparisons, Mann-Whitney U test was used for the statistical analyses. No significant differences existed between the ETS and PB groups regarding the skeletal features except for the mandibular ridge height. Meanwhile, the upper central incisor and upper lip of the ETS group showed a more anterior position than those in the PB group. Early two-stage Furlow palatoplasty leads to more protruded upper lip, providing more anteriorly positioned upper incisors compared with PB, at least at the early mixed dentition stage.

  6. Influence of temporal and spatial factors on abundance and richness of fish early stages in shallow tropical estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arévalo-Frías, W.; Mendoza-Carranza, M.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate determination of abundance and richness of fish early stages in estuarine zones is critical to support management and protection plans; it is therefore necessary to consider all influential factors. Habitat diversity, seasonality, moon phase and diel variations, and their interactions are

  7. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  8. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  9. Influence of stage of maturity of grass silages on protein digestion and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.W.; Bruchem, van J.; Bongers, L.J.G.M.; Tamminga, S.

    1994-01-01

    In four change-over experiments, wilted grass silages, differing in growth stage at harvesting and as a consequence in cell wall content, were fed ad libitum to dairy cows in early and late lactation. Ruminal degradation rate of the crude protein fraction of the silages was investigated using nylon

  10. Starch degradation in rumen fluid as influenced by genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage of maize, grown under controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the major component of maize kernels, contributing significantly to the feeding value of forage maize when fed to ruminants. The effects of genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage on starch content in the kernels and on in vitro starch degradability in rumen fluid were

  11. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eTombesi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L (a hard-to-root specie leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation.

  12. Influence of Spartina alterniflora invasion stages on macrobenthic communities on a tidal flat in Wenzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Ming Ge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal habitats in eastern China are being substantially altered by the invasion of Spartina alterniflora. The species richness, density, Margalef's diversity index (R and Shannon's diversity index (H' of macrobenthic communities on a tidal flat in Wenzhou Bay, China, were analyzed with the factors of invasion stage and season, in 2007. A significant effect of invasion stage, season, and the interaction between them on communities was detected. The macrobenthic community was more complex in the patch of initial S. alterniflora invasion than in the patches of some other invasion stages. Macrobenthic communities were classified by cluster and ordination in accordance with the habitat character of the S. alterniflora invasion stage. Our research demonstrated that the S. alterniflora invasion stage affected the macrobenthic communities significantly. The results indicated that biodiversity increased in the initial stage of invasion (invasion age 1-2 years and then decreased in the stage of invasion underway (invasion age 3-4 years and in the stage of invasion completed (invasion age 5-6 years; this phenomenon was related to the change in the S. alterniflora canopy which accompanied the invasion stages.Muitos habitats costeiros vêm sendo alterados substancialmente pela invasão de Spartina alterniflora no leste da China. Em 2007, em uma planície de maré situada em Wenzhou Bay, foram analisadas riqueza de espécies, densidade e diversidade da macrofauna bêntica em relação a diferentes estágios da invasão da gramínea e à estação do ano. Para as medidas de diversidade foram usados os índices de Margalef (R e de Shannon (H'. Foram detectados efeitos significativos do estágio de invasão e época do ano sobre a macrofauna. As comunidades macrofaunais foram mais complexas nas manchas onde a invasão de S. alterniflora estava no seu início, quando considerados os locais onde as manchas estavam em estágios mais avançados. Através das

  13. Maternal di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure during pregnancy causes fetal growth restriction in a stage-specific but gender-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ru; Zhao, Ling-Li; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is male developmental toxicant that impairs testis development with reduced anogenital distance. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal DEHP exposure during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a gender-specific manner and to identify the critical window of DEHP-induced fetal IUGR. Pregnant mice were administered with DEHP (0, 50 or 200mg/kg) by gavage. Fetal IUGR was observed not only in males but also in females when litters were exposed to DEHP on gestational day (GD)0-GD17. Interestingly, fetal weight and crown-rump length were reduced, markedly in dams with DEHP on GD13-GD17, slightly in dams with on GD7-GD12, but not in dams with on GD0-GD6. Further analysis showed that maternal DEHP exposure on GD7-GD12 inhibited cell proliferation, lowered placental weight, and reduced blood sinusoid area in placental labyrinth layer. These results suggest that maternal DEHP exposure induces IUGR in a stage-specific but gender-independent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide and extraction stage on purification of Thorium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M-V-Purwani; Moch-Setyadji

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of thorium oxalate concentrate as processing product of monazite using Tri Octyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) has been done. The most impurities contained in thorium oxalate concentrate are Ce (cerium) and La (lanthanum). The purpose of this study is to purify Th by separating Ce and La using extraction process. The extraction is done by batch and multistage. The solution of feed or water phase is 10 grams of Th oxalate concentrate dissolved in 10.08 M HNO 3 so that the volume becomes 100 mL and the organic phase is TOPO in kerosene. Stripping in each stage conducted three times, first stripping use water, second stripping use 5 % oxalic acid and the third stripping use water. Extraction time at every stage is 15 minutes and stripping time at every stage is 5 minutes with ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase = 1 : 1 . The parameters were studied % TOPO - kerosene and number of extraction stage. The optimum usage of TOPO in kerosene is 5 %. On extraction I obtained Ce concentrate and on extraction II and III obtained Th concentrates. The extraction II efficiency of Th is 39.76 % and extraction III efficiency of Th is 26.33 % . Coefficient of distribution (Kd) of Th in stage II is 0.7587 and Kd of Th in stage III is 1.0096. Total extraction efficiency of Th is 80.08 %, total extraction efficiency of Ce is 56.12 %, and total extraction efficiency of La is 1.54 %. The separation factor of Th – Ce in extraction I is 1.00 and separation factor of Th – La in extraction I is 92.0, separation factor of Th – Ce in extraction II is 250.24, and separation factor of Th – La in extraction II is ∞. Separation factor of Th – Ce in extraction III is 124.22 and separation factor of Th – La in extraction III is ∞. Total separation factor of Th – Ce is 1.4270 and total separation factor of Th – La is 4.0459. The content of Th oxalate in stripping product from the extraction II is 97.06 % and in stripping product from the extraction III is 98

  15. Certain laws governing the influence of high molecular polymer additives on specific electrical conductivity and viscosity of zincate alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrenko, V.Ye.; Toropetsera, T.N.; Zubov, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of polymer additives of different nature: polyelectrolyte, copolymer of ethylene with maleic anhydride, polymethacrylic acid and nonpolyectrolyte copolymer of vinyl alcohol with vinyleneglycol and polyvinyleneglycol on specific electrical conductance and viscosity of the zincate alkaline solution. It is indicated that with an increase in the content of additives, the specific conductance of the solution diminishes according to a linear law, while the viscosity rises. The additives of polyelectrolyte nature reduce more strongly the specific conductance and increase the viscosity than the nonpolyelectrolyte additives. From a comparison of the data on specific conductance and viscosity the following conclusion is drawn: the more the polymer ''structures'' the zincate alkaline solution, the more strongly it reduces its specific electrical conductance.

  16. Influence of kondo effect on the specific heat jump of anisotropic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoksan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A calculation for the specific heat jump of an anisotropic superconductor with Kondo impurities is presented. The impurities are treated within the Matsuura - Ichinose - Nagaoka framework and the anisotropy effect is described by the factorizable model of Markowitz and Kadanoff. We give explicit expressions for the change in specific heat jump due to anisotropy and impurities which can be tested experimentally.

  17. Influence of Kondo effect on the specific heat jump of anisotropic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoksan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A calculation for the specific heat jump of an anisotropic superconductor with Kondo impurities is presented. The impurities are treated within the Matsuura - Ichinose - Nagaoka framework and the anisotropy effect is described by the factorizable model of Markowitz and Kadanoff. Explicit expressions are given for the change in specific heat jump due to anisotropy and impurities which can be tested experimentally. (author)

  18. Perceived Risk Influence on the Consumer Attitude to Private Labels in the Product’s Life Cycle Growth Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between purchasing risk associated with private labels and consumer attitudes towards private labels in different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief literature review of the relevant constructs. The second part describes the research and summarizes its results. Descriptive research was conducted on the Croatian market relating to private labels in three different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle: liquid soap, chocolate and facial care products. The results confirm negative correlation between perceived risk and attitudes towards private labels in all analysed categories.

  19. Influence of spatial beam inhomogeneities on the parameters of a petawatt laser system based on multi-stage parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, S A; Trunov, V I; Pestryakov, Efim V; Leshchenko, V E

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a technique for investigating the evolution of spatial inhomogeneities in high-power laser systems based on multi-stage parametric amplification. A linearised model of the inhomogeneity development is first devised for parametric amplification with the small-scale self-focusing taken into account. It is shown that the application of this model gives the results consistent (with high accuracy and in a wide range of inhomogeneity parameters) with the calculation without approximations. Using the linearised model, we have analysed the development of spatial inhomogeneities in a petawatt laser system based on multi-stage parametric amplification, developed at the Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ILP SB RAS). (control of laser radiation parameters)

  20. Factors influencing patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease to opt for conservative management: a practitioner research study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Sheila; Noble, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives. This study explored decision-making experiences of patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease when opting for conservative management of their renal failure.Background. Dialysis is an invasive treatment, and for some older patients, there is an associated treatment burden of dialysis-related symptoms. An alternative choice is conservative management, but little is known about those who make this decision and how they are supported through the process.Design. Qualitative...

  1. Design of problem-specific evolutionary algorithm/mixed-integer programming hybrids: two-stage stochastic integer programming applied to chemical batch scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urselmann, Maren; Emmerich, Michael T. M.; Till, Jochen; Sand, Guido; Engell, Sebastian

    2007-07-01

    Engineering optimization often deals with large, mixed-integer search spaces with a rigid structure due to the presence of a large number of constraints. Metaheuristics, such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), are frequently suggested as solution algorithms in such cases. In order to exploit the full potential of these algorithms, it is important to choose an adequate representation of the search space and to integrate expert-knowledge into the stochastic search operators, without adding unnecessary bias to the search. Moreover, hybridisation with mathematical programming techniques such as mixed-integer programming (MIP) based on a problem decomposition can be considered for improving algorithmic performance. In order to design problem-specific EAs it is desirable to have a set of design guidelines that specify properties of search operators and representations. Recently, a set of guidelines has been proposed that gives rise to so-called Metric-based EAs (MBEAs). Extended by the minimal moves mutation they allow for a generalization of EA with self-adaptive mutation strength in discrete search spaces. In this article, a problem-specific EA for process engineering task is designed, following the MBEA guidelines and minimal moves mutation. On the background of the application, the usefulness of the design framework is discussed, and further extensions and corrections proposed. As a case-study, a two-stage stochastic programming problem in chemical batch process scheduling is considered. The algorithm design problem can be viewed as the choice of a hierarchical decision structure, where on different layers of the decision process symmetries and similarities can be exploited for the design of minimal moves. After a discussion of the design approach and its instantiation for the case-study, the resulting problem-specific EA/MIP is compared to a straightforward application of a canonical EA/MIP and to a monolithic mathematical programming algorithm. In view of the

  2. Nuclear and cellular expression data from the whole 16-cell stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and a cell type-specific expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palovaara, J.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    SuperSeries contain expression data from the nuclei of cell types involved in patterning events, with focus on root apical stem cell formation, at 16-cell stage, early globular stage and late globular stage in the early Arabidopsis embryo (atlas). Expression data comparing nuclear and cellular RNA

  3. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsier, N; Wiart, J; Dahdouh, S; Angelini, E D; Bloch, I; Serrurier, A; De la Plata, J-P; Anquez, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain. (paper)

  4. The influence of ripening stage and cultivation system on the total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of yellow passion fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoris, Mariana S; De Marchi, Renata; Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the influence of both ripening stage and cultivation system on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of passion fruit pulp. TPC extraction was optimized using a 2³ central composed design. The variables were fruit pulp volume, methanol volume and extraction solution volume. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, and TAA using the ABTS radical reaction. The conditions to extract TPC were 2 mL passion fruit pulp and 9 mL extraction solution containing 40% methanol:water (v/v). TPC values increased in the passion fruit pulp during ripening for both cultivation systems, ranging from 281.8 to 361.9 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the organic pulp and from 291.0 to 338.6 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the conventional pulp. TPC values increased during ripening for both organic and conventional passion fruit. The same was true for TAA values for conventional passion fruit. For organic passion fruit, however, TAA values were highest at the initial ripening stages. These results suggest that antioxidant compounds exert strong influence on the initial ripening stages for organic passion fruit, when TPC still did not reach its maximum level. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The presence of proliferative breast disease with atypia does not significantly influence outcome in early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowble, B.; Hanlon, A.L.; Patchefsky, A.; Freedman, G.; Hoffman, J.P.; Sigurdson, E.R.; Goldstein, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the benign background breast-tissue change of atypical hyperplasia (AH) on outcome in patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty women with Stage I--II breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation from 1982-1994 had pathologic assessment of their background adjacent benign breast tissue. The median follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.1-15). The median age was 55 years (range 24-88). Of these, 23% had positive axillary nodes; 25% received adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF or CAF) with (9%) or without (17%) tamoxifen. Of the total, 24% received adjuvant tamoxifen alone. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 131 patients with atypical hyperplasia (ductal, 99 patients; lobular, 20 pts; and type not specified, 12 pts), and 329 patients with no proliferative changes or proliferative changes without atypia. Result: A statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups for method of detection, primary tumor size, presence of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), pathologic nodal status, region(s) treated with radiation, and type of adjuvant therapy. Patients with atypical hyperplasia (AH) had smaller primary tumors (T1 80% vs. 70%) more often detected solely by mammography (51% vs. 36%) with negative axillary nodes (87% vs. 73%) and radiation treatment to the breast only (93% vs. 78%). LCIS was observed in 9% of the patients with AH and 3% of those without AH. Patients with AH more often received tamoxifen alone (32% vs. 21%), rather than chemotherapy (15% vs. 29%). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups for race, age, menopausal status, family history, histology, histologic subtype DCIS when present, the presence or absence of an extensive intraductal component, final margin status, estrogen or progesterone receptor status, use of re-excision, or total radiation dose to the

  6. High environmental ammonia exposure has developmental-stage specific and long-term consequences on the cortisol stress response in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tegan A; Bonham, Luke A; Bernier, Nicholas J

    2017-12-01

    The capacity for early life environmental stressors to induce programming effects on the endocrine stress response in fish is largely unknown. In this study we determined the effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on the stress response in larval zebrafish, assessed the tolerance of embryonic and larval stages to HEA, and evaluated whether early life HEA exposure has long-term consequences on the cortisol response to a novel stressor. Exposure to 500-2000μM NH 4 Cl for 16h did not affect the gene expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system components in 1day post-fertilization (dpf) embryos, but differentially increased crfa, crfb and CRF binding protein (crfbp) expression and stimulated both dose- and time-dependent increases in the whole body cortisol of 5dpf larvae. Pre-acclimation to HEA at 1dpf did not affect the cortisol response to a subsequent NH 4 Cl exposure at 5dpf. In contrast, pre-acclimation to HEA at 5dpf caused a small but significant reduction in the cortisol response to a second NH 4 Cl exposure at 10dpf. While continuous exposure to 500-2000μM NH 4 Cl between 0 and 5dpf had a modest effect on mean survival time, exposure to 400-1000μM NH 4 Cl between 10 and 14dpf decreased mean survival time in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, pre-acclimation to HEA at 5dpf significantly decreased the risk of mortality to continuous NH 4 Cl exposure between 10 and 14dpf. Finally, while HEA at 1dpf did not affect the cortisol stress response to a novel vortex stressor at 5dpf, the same HEA treatment at 5dpf abolished vortex stressor-induced increases in whole body cortisol at 10 and 60dpf. Together these results show that the impact of HEA on the cortisol stress response during development is life-stage specific and closely linked to ammonia tolerance. Further, we demonstrate that HEA exposure at the larval stage can have persistent effects on the capacity to respond to stressors in later life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Influence of Alternate Bearing on Leaf and Fruit Mineral Composition at Different Developmental Stages of Date Palm Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. El-Mardi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of leaflets and fruits at different stages were collected from 6 “on-palms” and 6 “off-palms” (15-16 years of the Fard Cultivar. Samples were dried, ashed and digested. Macro and micronutrient concentrations of K, Ca, Mg,Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mg were determined by ICP-AES and N was measured by Kjeldhal method. Significant changes in the elemental concentrations of leaf and fruit occurred between Kimri (green color and Bisir (yellowish-red color development stages. Potassium and Mg concentration was reduced in leaf and fruit. Calcium and Na were reduced in the fruit and increased in the leaf. Iron, Zn and Mn were not significantly different between Bisir and Kimi. However, Fe in the fruit and leaf increased between Kimri and Bisir and decreased from Bisir to Rutab stages. The concentration of Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn was higher in the leaf than fruit. In contrast K, Zn and Cu were higher in the fruit. Higher Ca and Mg in leaves through the developmental stages were associated with higher concentration of K in the fruit than the leaf. These variations in the leaf and fruit elemental concentration were associated with physiological and biochemical changes during fruit development. Significant differences in the fruit elemental concentrations between the “on” (high yield producing and “off” (low yield producing palms during the developmental stages were in Ca, K, Mn and Fe and in the leaf in Mg and K. However, the general trend during Rutab (honey color, soft tissue indicates that “off-palm” leaves have higher N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn than “on-palm” leaves. Potassium and Na were higher in the “on-palm” leaves than “off-palm” leaves. But in the fruit, Rutab Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn content followed similar trends as in the “off-palm” leaves; in contrast to leaves, K and Na were higher in “off-palms” fruits and Cu and Mn higher in “on-palm” fruits. The results indicate the need for further research.

  8. Testing Unsuccessfully: A Specification of the Underlying Mechanisms Supporting Its Influence on Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Justin B.; Ball, B. Hunter; Brewer, Gene A.; DeWitt, Michael R.; Marsh, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to examine how unsuccessful retrieval influences learning and subsequent memory. We used a cued-recall paradigm that produces many unsuccessful retrieval attempts (followed by feedback) and allows comparisons to be made between later memory for these trials and trials that only required reading or studying the…

  9. The influence of age-specific migration on housing growth in the rural Midwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohan Lee; Claire A. Montgomery; Jeff Kline

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource policymakers and planners increasingly rely on regional and national-level spatial data describing projections of future housing growth, to anticipate development impacts on natural resources and identify policy and planning needs. Such projections have not always been well-grounded in demographic and other factors that influence population and thus...

  10. [The influence of hypothyroidism on the conversion and binding of thyroid hormones in patients with end-stage renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubczak, Iwanna; Niemczyk, Longin; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Saracyn, Marek; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2017-03-21

    Hypothyroidism in patients with renal failure (RF) causes many metabolic and clinical problems, and both these diseases can mutually exacerbate their disturbances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothyroidism, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on conversion of thyroid hormones (TH) in patients with ESRD treated with chronic hemodialysis (HD). The study was performed in 74 patients, including 41 women (K) and 33 men (M) aged 28-83 y.o. in 4 groups: G1 - 12 people with ESRD treated with HD and with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism without substitution (6 K and M 6) aged 66,83±12,90 y.o., G2 - 26 patients with ESRD treated with HD without hypothyroidism (10 F, 16 M) aged 58,85±15,52 y.o., G3 - 11 hypothyroid patients without RF (9 K, 2 M) aged 54,73±21,26 y.o., G4 - 25-persons from control group of healthy subjects (16 M, 9 M) aged 51,24±12,58 y.o. In all subjects the concentration of TSH and TH (T4, T3, fT4, TSH, FT3, rT3) were measured and values of conversion factors (T3/T4, FT3/ fT4, rT3/fT4 and rT3/fT3) and binding TH to protein factors (fT4/T4 and fT3/T3) were calculated. Lower concentration of T3 (p=0.012), fT3 (phypothyroidism than in healthy subjects. Renal failure with concomitant hypothyroidism intensify the disturbances of T4 to T3 conversion (p=0.034) and hypothyroidism with concomitant renal failure disrupts binding of T3 to proteins (p=0.001). FT3 to fT4 ratio in renal failure with concomitant hypothyroidism group was significantly lower than in each other group. rT3 concentrations were the highest in healthy subjects. Concomitance of hypothyroidism and end-stage renal disease reduces the conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine, but does not increase the production of rT3. Hypothyroidism significantly increases the disorders of thyroid hormones in end-stage renal disease. There is decreased tendency to bind of thyroid hormone to protein in hypothyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease.

  11. Pretreatment Staging Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients With Inflammatory Breast Cancer Influences Radiation Treatment Field Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gary V.; Niikura, Naoki; Yang Wei; Rohren, Eric; Valero, Vicente; Woodward, Wendy A.; Alvarez, Ricardo H.; Lucci, Anthony; Ueno, Naoto T.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is increasingly being utilized for staging of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The purpose of this study was to define how pretreatment PET/CT studies affected postmastectomy radiation treatment (PMRT) planning decisions for IBC. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of 62 patients diagnosed with IBC between 2004 and 2009, who were treated with PMRT in our institution and who had a staging PET/CT within 3 months of diagnosis. Patients received a baseline physical examination, staging mammography, ultrasonographic examination of breast and draining lymphatics, and chest radiography; most patients also had a bone scan (55 patients), liver imaging (52 patients), breast MRI (46 patients), and chest CT (25 patients). We compared how PET/CT findings affected PMRT, assuming that standard PMRT would target the chest wall, level III axilla, supraclavicular fossa, and internal mammary chain (IMC). Any modification of target volumes, field borders, or dose prescriptions was considered a change. Results: PET/CT detected new areas of disease in 27 of the 62 patients (44%). The areas of additional disease included the breast (1 patient), ipsilateral axilla (1 patient), ipsilateral supraclavicular (4 patients), ipsilateral infraclavicular (1 patient), ipsilateral IMC (5 patients), ipsilateral subpectoral (3 patients), mediastinal (8 patients), other distant/contralateral lymph nodes (15 patients), or bone (6 patients). One patient was found to have a non-breast second primary tumor. The findings of the PET/CT led to changes in PMRT in 11 of 62 patients (17.7%). These changes included additional fields in 5 patients, adjustment of fields in 2 patients, and higher doses to the supraclavicular fossa (2 patients) and IMC (5 patients). Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed IBC, pretreatment PET/CT provides important information concerning involvement of locoregional lymph nodes

  12. The influence of pelvic lymph node disease on survival for stage I and II carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.J.; Toplis, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred and eighteen patients were referred to the Oxford Radiotherapy Department in the 5 years 1973-77 with stages I and II tumours of the uterine cervix. One hundred and eighty-one underwent pre-operative intracavitary radiotherapy followed by Wertheim hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Twenty-three per cent of these patients had metastatic disease in pelvic lymph nodes. Fifty-five per cent of patients with positive pelvic nodes died of carcinoma of the cervix compared with 9% of negative node cases. Prognostic factors are discussed and management of carcinoma of the cervix reviewed. (author)

  13. The Influence of Culture-Specific Personality Traits on the Development of Delinquency in At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tat Seng; Ku, Lisbeth; Zaroff, Charles Mark

    2016-04-01

    The association between culture-specific personality variables and family factors, and juvenile delinquency, was assessed in a sample of 402 adolescents of Chinese ethnicity between 12 and 17 years of age (Mage = 15.13, SD = 1.41; 135 girls), a subgroup of whom were considered at risk for juvenile delinquency owing to addictive behavior tendencies. Culture-specific personality variables were assessed using the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-Adolescent version Interpersonal Relatedness factor. The General Function subscale of the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device was utilized to assess the influence of perceived levels of family functioning. Both culture-specific personality variables and non-culture-specific familial factors were significantly and negatively associated with self-reported juvenile delinquency (p delinquency (p < .001). Implications of the current results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Influence of memory theme and posttraumatic stress disorder on memory specificity in British and Iranian trauma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Laura; Cheraghi, Sepideh

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture, memory theme and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on autobiographical memory specificity in Iranian and British trauma survivors. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test and PTSD Diagnostic Scale. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more personal-themed memories than the Iranian group, while the Iranian group provided significantly more social-themed memories than the British group. The British group also provided a significantly greater proportion of specific personal-themed and social-themed memories than the Iranian group. Overall, in both cultural groups memory specificity was found to be significantly correlated with PTSD symptoms. These findings provide further evidence that regardless of memory theme, specificity of autobiographical memories function to differentiate the self from others and reaffirm the independent self. They also further highlight that pan-culturally an overgeneral retrieval style may be employed by those with PTSD symptoms.

  15. The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

  16. Influence of tumor characteristics on the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography in staging cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, PAM; van Westreenen, HL; Geersing, GJ; van Dullemen, HM; Plukker, JTM

    Background and Study Aims: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most accurate method of assessing the locoregional extent of cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of tumor-related factors such as length and location on the

  17. Influence of comorbidity on the effect of adjuvant treatment and age in patients with early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, L H; Dalton, S O; Jensen, M-B

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of comorbidity at breast cancer diagnosis increases with age and is likely to influence the likelihood of receiving treatment according to guidelines. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of breast cancer treatment on mortality, taking age at diagnosis and comorbidity...

  18. Influence of tumor characteristics on the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography in staging cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, PAM; van Westreenen, HL; Geersing, GJ; van Dullemen, HM; Plukker, JTM

    2004-01-01

    Background and Study Aims: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most accurate method of assessing the locoregional extent of cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of tumor-related factors such as length and location on the

  19. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Fonck, Myrthe; van Hal, Jurgen; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Berg, Matty P.

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to

  20. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, J.; Fonck, M.; van Hal, J.R.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Berg, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATING OPERATIONS ON GENERALIZATION PROBES OF SPECIFIC MANDS BY CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Fragale, Christina L; O'Reilly, Mark F; Aguilar, Jeannie; Pierce, Nigel; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of motivating operations on the generalization of newly taught mands across settings and communication partners for 3 children with autism. Two conditions were implemented prior to generalization probes. In the first condition, participants were given access to a preferred item until they rejected the item (i.e., abolishing operation). In the second condition, the item was not available to participants prior to generalization probes (i.e., establishing operation)...

  2. Patient-specific factors influence somatic variation patterns in von Hippel?Lindau disease renal tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Suzanne S.; Mitchell, Asia D.; Heskett, Michael B.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Peto, Myron; Wang, Nicholas J.; S?nmez, Kemal; Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer development is presumed to be an evolutionary process that is influenced by genetic background and environment. In laboratory animals, genetics and environment are variables that can largely be held constant. In humans, it is possible to compare independent tumours that have developed in the same patient, effectively constraining genetic and environmental variation and leaving only stochastic processes. Patients affected with von Hippel?Lindau disease are at risk of developing multiple...

  3. Life Stage-specific Proteomes of Legionella pneumophila Reveal a Highly Differential Abundance of Virulence-associated Dot/Icm effectors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurass, Philipp; Gerlach, Thomas; Becher, Dörte; Voigt, Birgit; Karste, Susanne; Bernhardt, Jörg; Riedel, Katharina; Hecker, Michael; Flieger, Antje

    2016-01-01

    their phase specific function. The distinct temporal or spatial presence of such proteins might have important implications for functional assignments in the future or for use as life-stage specific markers for pathogen analysis. PMID:26545400

  4. Situation-specific social norms as mediators of social influence on snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Papadakis, Thalia; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2018-02-01

    Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life. We applied ecological momentary assessment to study 61 individuals in the normal-obese weight range (M BMI = 24.97 kg/m²; SD = 4.07) over a 14-day monitoring period. We used a combination of event-based snacking reports and randomly timed assessments. The presence of others eating and momentary perceptions of injunctive norms (facets of perceived appropriateness and encouragement) were measured for both assessment types. Mediated, multilevel logistic regression showed that social cues predict snacking (OR = 3.06), and that momentary perceptions of appropriateness (a*b = 0.14) and encouragement (a*b = 0.18) partially mediated these effects. Perceptions of momentary norms mediated the effects of social influence on everyday snacking, which highlights the importance of the social environment for understanding eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Influence of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a growth promoter in the stage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the algae Ascphyllum nodosum was assessed as a growth promoter in the breeding stage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and its immunostimulant effect with regard to fungal diseases as the Saprolegnia sp. 6000 fingerlings of 77 days of age were used, with an average weight of 0.15 g, distributed under a DCA. For the analysis of the results, it was applied the analysis of variance and separation of averages (Duncan to p<0.05, orthogonal comparisons and chi square. The seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum added as nutritional supplement in the growth stage with a level of 2% and 98% of concentrated food was the one that reached the best zoo technical and economic results: initial weight 0.84 g, daily weight gain 0.30 g, final weight 34.60 g., nutritive conversion 0.19, mortality 4.60%, and the cost of production per kilo of meat is $35.24. Regarding the mycotic challenge (fungus Saprolegnia sp., the administration of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum on the percentages of 2%, 2.5% and 3% as nutritional supplement, provided resistance to the fingerlings.

  6. Influence of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy on the Surgical Strategy According to the Clinical T Stage of Patients With Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Ja; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lim, Seok-Byung; Lee, Jong Seok; Park, Seong Ho; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathologic responses and changes to surgical strategies following preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in rectal cancer patients according to their clinical T stage (cT). The use of PCRT has recently been extended to less advanced disease. The authors enrolled 650 patients with cT2 to 4 mid and low rectal cancer who received both PCRT and surgical resection. The rate of total regression and the proportion of local excision were compared according to the cT category. The 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was compared using the log-rank test according to patient cT category, pathologic stage, and type of surgical treatment. Patients with cT2 were older (P = 0.001), predominately female (P = 0.028), and had low-lying rectal cancer (P = 0.008). Pathologic total regression was achieved most frequently in cT2 patients (54% of cT2 versus 17.6% of cT3 versus 8.2% of cT4; P rectal cancer, optimal surgical treatment may be achieved with the tailored use of PCRT. PMID:26717384

  7. The influence of gene expression profiling on decisional conflict in decision making for early-stage breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Karen V; Bombard, Yvonne; Deal, Ken; Trudeau, Maureen; Leighl, Natasha; Marshall, Deborah A

    2016-07-01

    Women with early-stage breast cancer, of whom only 15% will experience a recurrence, are often conflicted or uncertain about taking chemotherapy. Gene expression profiling (GEP) of tumours informs risk prediction, potentially affecting treatment decisions. We examined whether receiving a GEP test score reduces decisional conflict in chemotherapy treatment decision making. A general population sample of 200 women completed the decisional conflict scale (DCS) at baseline (no GEP test score scenario) and after (scenario with GEP test score added) completing a discrete choice experiment survey for early-stage breast cancer chemotherapy. We scaled the 16-item DCS total scores and subscores from 0 to 100 and calculated means, standard deviations and change in scores, with significance (p change their chemotherapy decision after receiving GEP testing information. Total score and all subscores (uncertainty, informed, values clarity, support, and effective decision) decreased significantly in the respondent subgroup who were unsure about taking chemotherapy initially but changed to no chemotherapy (n =33). In the subgroup of respondents (n = 25) who chose chemotherapy initially but changed to unsure, effective decision subscore increased significantly. In the overall sample, changes in total and all subscores were non-significant. GEP testing adds value for women initially unsure about chemotherapy treatment with a decrease in decisional conflict. However, for women who are confident about their treatment decisions, GEP testing may not add value. Decisions to request GEP testing should be personalised based on patient preferences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral Therapy, Microbiological Findings, and Comorbidity Influence the Outcome of Prosthetic Joint Infections Undergoing 2-Stage Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Tiziana; Pagliano, Pasquale; Balato, Giovanni; Mariconda, Massimo; Rotondo, Renato; Esposito, Silvano

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage exchange. Patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange and observed over a 5-year period (2009-2013) were included. Cure was defined by the disappearance of infection after a 96-week follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, and the multivariate analysis. One-hundred twenty-two patients with PJI were included (median age, 69 years [range, 36-80 years]; 48% males, 47 hip PJI, and 75 knee PJI). Known comorbidities related to an increased risk of infection were reported in 43 patients (35%). Microbiological definition was obtained in 101 (83%) patients, and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 44 (36%) patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 41 (34%) patients. A favorable outcome was obtained in 102 of 122 patients (84%). After univariate analysis, bacterial growth from operative specimens (P = .007), growth of Gram-positive bacteria (P rate can be reduced with appropriate treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of socioeconomic status on stage specific prostate cancer survival and mortality before and after introduction of PSA test in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula, Heikki A; Kaipia, Antti J; Ryynänen, Heidi; Seppä, Karri; Pitkäniemi, Janne M; Malila, Nea K; Boström, Peter J

    2018-03-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has an impact on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Men with high SES have higher incidence and lower mortality of PCa versus lower SES males. PCa cases diagnosed in Finland in 1985-2014 (N = 95,076) were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Information on education level (EL) was obtained from Statistics Finland. EL was assessed with three-tiered scale: basic, upper secondary and higher education. PCa stage at diagnosis was defined as localized, metastatic or unknown. Years of diagnosis 1985-1994 were defined as pre-PSA period and thereafter as post-PSA period. We report PCa-specific survival (PCSS) and relative risks (RR) for PCa specific mortality (PCSM) among cancer cases in Finland, where healthcare is 100% publicly reimbursed and inequality in healthcare services low. Men with higher EL had markedly better 10-year PCSS: 68 versus 63% in 1985-1994 and 90 versus 85% in 1995-2004 compared to basic EL in localized PCa. The RR for PCSM among men with localized PCa and higher EL compared to basic EL was 0.76(95%confidence interval (CI) 0.66-0.88) in 1985-1994 and 0.61(95%CI 0.53-0.70) in 1995-2004. Variation in PCSS and PCSM between EL categories was evident in metastatic PCa, too. The difference in PCSM between EL categories was larger in the first 10-year post-PSA period than before that but decreased thereafter in localized PCa, suggesting PSA testing became earlier popular among men with high EL. In summary, higher SES/EL benefit PCa survival both in local and disseminated disease and the effect of EL was more pronounced in early post-PSA period. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Differentiation stage-specific regulation of primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cycling by exogenous and endogenous inhibitors in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, J D; Clark-Lewis, I; Eaves, A C; Eaves, C J

    1999-12-01

    Nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice transplanted with human cord blood or adult marrow cells and injected 6 weeks posttransplant with 2 daily doses of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), or a nonaggregating form of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) showed unique patterns of inhibition of human progenitor proliferation 1 day later. TGF-beta(1) was active on long-term culture initiating cells (LTC-IC) and on primitive erythroid and granulopoietic colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC), but had no effect on mature CFC. MCP-1 inhibited the cycling of both types of HPP-CFC but not LTC-IC. MIP-1alpha did not inhibit either LTC-IC or granulopoietic HPP-CFC but was active on erythroid HPP-CFC and mature granulopoietic CFC. All of these responses were independent of the source of human cells transplanted. LTC-IC of either human cord blood or adult marrow origin continue to proliferate in NOD/SCID mice for many weeks, although the turnover of all types of human CFC in mice transplanted with adult human marrow (but not cord blood) is downregulated after 6 weeks. Interestingly, administration of either MIP-1beta, an antagonist of both MIP-1alpha and MCP-1 or MCP-1(9-76), an antagonist of MCP-1 (and MCP-2 and MCP-3), into mice in which human marrow-derived CFC had become quiescent, caused the rapid reactivation of these progenitors in vivo. These results provide the first definition of stage-specific inhibitors of human hematopoietic progenitor cell cycling in vivo. In addition they show that endogenous chemokines can contribute to late graft failure, which can be reversed by the administration of specific antagonists.

  11. Overlapping genetic and child-specific nonshared environmental influences on listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Overlapping Genetic and Child-Specific Nonshared Environmental Influences on Listening Comprehension, Reading Motivation, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Victoria J.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic and environmental influences on observed associations between listening comprehension, reading motivation, and reading comprehension. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 284 pairs of twins at a mean age of 9.81 years. Genetic and nonshared environmental factors accounted for statistically significant variance in listening and reading comprehension, and nonshared environmental factors accounted for variance in reading motivation. Furthermore, listening comprehension demonstrated unique genetic and nonshared environmental influences but also had overlapping genetic influences with reading comprehension. Reading motivation and reading comprehension each had unique and overlapping nonshared environmental contributions. Therefore, listening comprehension appears to be related to reading primarily due to genetic factors whereas motivation appears to affect reading via child-specific, nonshared environmental effects. PMID:26321677

  13. Laminin binding protein, 34/67 laminin receptor, carries stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 epitope defined by monoclonal antibody Raft.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Yohko U.; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Nakamura, Kyoko; Takenouchi, Hisami; Taguchi, Tomoko; Okita, Hajime; Umezawa, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Junichiro

    2005-01-01

    We previously produced monoclonal antibodies against the detergent-insoluble microdomain, i.e., the raft microdomain, of the human renal cancer cell line ACHN. Raft.2, one of these monoclonal antibodies, recognizes sialosyl globopentaosylceramide, which has the stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 epitope. Although the mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line F9 does not express SSEA-4, some F9 cells stained with Raft.2. Western analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identified the Raft.2 binding molecule as laminin binding protein (LBP), i.e., 34/67 laminin receptor. Weak acid treatment or digestion with Clostridium perfringens sialidase reduced Raft.2 binding to LBP on nitrocellulose sheets and [ 14 C]galactose was incorporated into LBP, indicating LBP to have a sialylated carbohydrate moiety. Subcellular localization analysis by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and examination by confocal microscopy revealed LBP to be localized on the outer surface of the plasma membrane. An SSEA-4-positive human EC cell line, NCR-G3 cells, also expressed Raft.2-binding LBP

  14. A glutaredoxin in the mitochondrial intermembrane space has stage-specific functions in the thermo-tolerance and proliferation of African trypanosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Ebersoll

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2 is a dithiol glutaredoxin that is specifically located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Bloodstream form parasites lacking Grx2 or both, Grx2 and the cytosolic Grx1, are viable in vitro and infectious to mice suggesting that neither oxidoreductase is needed for survival or infectivity to mammals. A 37 °C to 39 °C shift changes the cellular redox milieu of bloodstream cells to more oxidizing conditions and induces a significantly stronger growth arrest in wildtype parasites compared to the mutant cells. Grx2-deficient cells ectopically expressing the wildtype form of Grx2 with its C31QFC34 active site, but not the C34S mutant, regain the sensitivity of the parental strain, indicating that the physiological role of Grx2 requires both active site cysteines. In the procyclic insect stage of the parasite, Grx2 is essential. Both alleles can be replaced if procyclic cells ectopically express authentic or C34S, but not C31S/C34S Grx2, pointing to a redox role that relies on a monothiol mechanism. RNA-interference against Grx2 causes a virtually irreversible proliferation defect. The cells adopt an elongated morphology but do not show any significant alteration in the cell cycle. The growth retardation is attenuated by high glucose concentrations. Under these conditions, procyclic cells obtain ATP by substrate level phosphorylation suggesting that Grx2 might regulate a respiratory chain component.

  15. Task Specificity and the Influence of Memory on Visual Search: Comment on Vo and Wolfe (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from Vo and Wolfe (2012b) suggest that the application of memory to visual search may be task specific: Previous experience searching for an object facilitated later search for that object, but object information acquired during a different task did not appear to transfer to search. The latter inference depended on evidence that a…

  16. Influence of Language Load on Speech Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Ward, Caitlin; Oleson, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular deficits in the generation of sequenced action--the quintessential procedural task. Practiced imitation of a sequence may become rote and require reduced procedural memory. This study explored whether speech motor deficits in children with SLI occur generally or only in…

  17. Relational and item-specific influences on generate-recognize processes in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Melissa J; McDaniel, Mark A; Strosser, Garrett L; Ramirez, Juan M; Castleberry, Erica H; Arnett, Kristen H

    2014-02-01

    The generate-recognize model and the relational-item-specific distinction are two approaches to explaining recall. In this study, we consider the two approaches in concert. Following Jacoby and Hollingshead (Journal of Memory and Language 29:433-454, 1990), we implemented a production task and a recognition task following production (1) to evaluate whether generation and recognition components were evident in cued recall and (2) to gauge the effects of relational and item-specific processing on these components. An encoding task designed to augment item-specific processing (anagram-transposition) produced a benefit on the recognition component (Experiments 1-3) but no significant benefit on the generation component (Experiments 1-3), in the context of a significant benefit to cued recall. By contrast, an encoding task designed to augment relational processing (category-sorting) did produce a benefit on the generation component (Experiment 3). These results converge on the idea that in recall, item-specific processing impacts a recognition component, whereas relational processing impacts a generation component.

  18. A dilatometer to measure the influence of cooling rate and melt shearing on specific volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, M.H.E.; Peters, G.W.M.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a dilatometer to investigate the specific volume of polymers as a function of pressure (to 100 MPa), temperature (to 260 oC), cooling rate (to 80 C/s), and shear rate (to 77 1/s). The dilatometeris based on the principle of con¯ned compression and comprises of a pressure cell used in

  19. Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, Å.K; Liénard, M.A.; Groot, A.T.; Hedenström, E; Löfstedt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major

  20. For your local eyes only: Culture-specific face typicality influences perceptions of trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Oikawa, M.; Oikawa, H.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel,

  1. Great expectations: Specific lexical anticipation influences the processing of spoken language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieuwland Mante S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently several studies have shown that people use contextual information to make predictions about the rest of the sentence or story as the text unfolds. Using event related potentials (ERPs we tested whether these on-line predictions are based on a message-level representation of the discourse or on simple automatic activation by individual words. Subjects heard short stories that were highly constraining for one specific noun, or stories that were not specifically predictive but contained the same prime words as the predictive stories. To test whether listeners make specific predictions critical nouns were preceded by an adjective that was inflected according to, or in contrast with, the gender of the expected noun. Results When the message of the preceding discourse was predictive, adjectives with an unexpected gender inflection evoked a negative deflection over right-frontal electrodes between 300 and 600 ms. This effect was not present in the prime control context, indicating that the prediction mismatch does not hinge on word-based priming but is based on the actual message of the discourse. Conclusion When listening to a constraining discourse people rapidly make very specific predictions about the remainder of the story, as the story unfolds. These predictions are not simply based on word-based automatic activation, but take into account the actual message of the discourse.

  2. Disregarding population specificity: its influence on the sex assessment methods from the tibia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotěrová, A.; Velemínská, J.; Dupej, J.; Brzobohatá, Hana; Pilný, A.; Brůžek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2017), s. 251-261 ISSN 0937-9827 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : forensic anthropology population data * sex determination * tibia * population specificity * discriminant function analysis * GAME method Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 2.382, year: 2016

  3. Influence of timing of two-stage palate closure on early phonological and lexical development in children with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Numerous studies have indicated that early closure of the palatal cleft has a positive influence on the phonological development in children with cleft palate. So far, however, substantial evidence for this assumption has been lacking due to a variety of weaknesses...... of the studies conducted, including the lack of randomized clinical trials (RCT) (Peterson-Falzone 1996). A  prospective RCT was conducted to add to the knowledge of the influence of timing of hard palate closure on early phonological and lexical development from 1 to 3 years. METHODS Fourty-one children...... were video-recorded during a play interaction with a parent, and the video-recordings were transcribed in IPA. At 36 months, a naming test was administered. RESULTS At 18 months, the phonological development in the early group was more similar to that of the control group, than that of the late group...

  4. The influence of dairy cows` body condition during various stages of the reproductive cycle upon their fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Fritze, Hans - Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The feeding of dairy cows and its influence upon their fertility is gaining increasing weight in the literature. Of particular importance is the energy supply during the early period of lactation. Due to the rapid increase of milk production and the relatively slower increase of food processing capacity, the degree and duration of this period of negative energy balance has particular consequences upon the fertility. For the period of one year the body condition of 284 cows was evaluated on...

  5. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, Mark; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Neugebauer, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks

  6. Influence of Neighborhood-level Factors on Social Support in Early-stage Breast Cancer Patients and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Pérez, Maria; Struthers, Jim; Sefko, Julianne A.; Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Low social support has been linked to negative health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Objective We examined associations between perceived social support, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, and neighborhood-level social support in early-stage breast cancer patients and controls. Methods This two-year longitudinal study in the United States included information collected from telephone interviews and clinical records of 541 early-stage patients and 542 controls recruited from 2003 to 2007. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SS). Residential addresses were geocoded and used to develop measures including neighborhood social support (based on MOS-SS scores from nearby controls) and neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (a composite index of census tract characteristics). Latent trajectory models were used to determine effects of neighborhood conditions on the stable (intercept) and changing (slope) aspects of social support. Results In a model with only neighborhood variables, greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with patients’ lower stable social support (standardized estimate = −0.12, p = .027); neighborhood-level social support was associated with social support change (standardized estimate = 0.17, p = .046). After adding individual-level covariates, there were no direct neighborhood effects on social support. In patients, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with support indirectly through marriage, insurance status, negative affect, and general health. In controls, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with support indirectly through marriage (p social support differed in patients and controls. Psychosocial and neighborhood interventions may help patients with low social support, particularly patients without partnered relationships in deprived areas. PMID:27017091

  7. Which prognostic factors influence the outcome of patients with surgically staged endometrial cancer treated with adjuvant radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greven, Kathryn M.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Case, Douglas; Purser, Phillip; Lanciano, Rachelle M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the fact that retrospective reviews have documented pelvic failure rates ranging from 15-20% in patients with high-risk uterine-confined endometrial cancer who have received no or 'inadequate' RT, the role of RT has been questioned. We sought to analyze pelvic control and disease-free survival for a large data base of women with corpus cancers managed with initial surgery followed by adjuvant irradiation. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1993, 294 patients received adjuvant postoperative RT from one of three academic radiation practices. RT consisted of vaginal brachytherapy alone in 28 patients, pelvic RT in 173 patients, pelvic RT with vaginal brachytherapy in 97 patients, and whole abdominal RT in 2 patients. Lymph nodes were evaluated in 49%. The median number of pelvic and periaortic LN in the pathology specimen were 6 and 4, respectively. Median follow up was 63 months. Results: 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate and pelvic control rates were 86 and 95%, respectively. Patient-related, treatment-related, and tumor-related characteristics were assessed for the effect on time to relapse. Unfavorable histology, older age, and capillary space invasion were univariately associated with decreased DFS and pelvic control. Pathologic Stage II patients had significantly worse DFS than Stage I patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, capillary space invasion, and histology were jointly predictive of disease free survival. Conclusion: The excellent pelvic control and disease-free survival of patients with uterine-confined disease in this series suggest that adjuvant RT should continue for patients with high risk disease. This analysis of a large group of postoperatively treated patients will provide a basis for determining alternative treatment strategies for patients who have an increased risk of disease recurrence despite RT

  8. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: influence of reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Mark; Gilchrist, H Grant; Neugebauer, Ewa

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks.

  9. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and selenium in common eider ducks in the eastern Canadian arctic: Influence of reproductive stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, Mark [Environment Canada, Prairie and Northern Wildlife Research Centre, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 (Canada)]. E-mail: mark.wayland@ec.gc.ca; Gilchrist, H. Grant [Canadian Wildlife Service, Prairie and Northern Region, Suite 301, 5204-50th St., Yellowknife, NT, X1A 1E2 (Canada); Neugebauer, Ewa [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Dr., Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Concentrations and total organ content of mercury, selenium and cadmium, as well as liver, kidney and body mass were determined in female common eiders from 1997 to 2000 at the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary in the eastern Canadian arctic. In 1997 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the pre-nesting period when they eat copious amounts of food and gain substantial weight in preparation for the rigours of nesting. In 1998 and 1999, female eiders were collected during the mid to late stages of the nesting period when they eat very little, if at all, and, as a consequence undergo dramatic weight loss. Total body mass, liver mass and kidney mass were highest in pre-nesting birds, especially in 1997. They were significantly lower in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast, mercury and cadmium concentrations were lowest in pre-nesting birds collected in 1997 and 1999 and increased to significantly higher concentrations in nesting birds collected in 1998 and 2000. In contrast to these results, the total contents of mercury in liver and cadmium in kidney did not change significantly over the 4-year period. Hepatic selenium concentrations were relatively stable over the 4-year study period while changes in the total content of selenium in the liver paralleled changes in liver mass and body mass. The results suggest that mercury and cadmium concentrations in female common eiders change in response to normal changes in body and organ mass that occur during the reproductive period. Thus, it may be important to consider body condition or reproductive stage when using common eiders (and perhaps other species of sea ducks) in biomonitoring studies or when interpreting concentrations of metals in tissues in terms of the risk they pose to these ducks.

  10. The influence of micrometastases on prognosis and survival in stage I-II colon cancer patients: the Enroute⊕ Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruijt Hans FM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of lymph node metastases remains the most reliable prognostic predictor and the gold indicator for adjuvant treatment in colon cancer (CC. In spite of a potentially curative resection, 20 to 30% of CC patients testing negative for lymph node metastases (i.e. pN0 will subsequently develop locoregional and/or systemic metastases within 5 years. The presence of occult nodal isolated tumor cells (ITCs and/or micrometastases (MMs at the time of resection predisposes CC patients to high risk for disease recurrence. These pN0micro+ patients harbouring occult micrometastases may benefit from adjuvant treatment. The purpose of the present study is to delineate the subset of pN0 patients with micrometastases (pN0micro+ and evaluate the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in pN0micro+ CC patients. Methods/design EnRoute+ is an open label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial. All CC patients (age above 18 years without synchronous locoregional lymph node and/or systemic metastases (clinical stage I-II disease and operated upon with curative intent are eligible for inclusion. All resected specimens of patients are subject to an ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping procedure (SLNM following curative resection. The investigation for micrometastases in pN0 patients is done by extended serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin in sentinel lymph nodes which are tumour negative upon standard pathological examination. Patients with ITC/MM-positive sentinel lymph nodes (pN0micro+ are randomized for adjuvant chemotherapy following the CAPOX treatment scheme or observation. The primary endpoint is 3-year disease free survival (DFS. Discussion The EnRoute+ study is designed to improve prognosis in high-risk stage I/II pN0 micro+ CC patients by reducing disease recurrence by adjuvant chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01097265

  11. Comprehensive microarray-based analysis for stage-specific larval camouflage pattern-associated genes in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futahashi Ryo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body coloration is an ecologically important trait that is often involved in prey-predator interactions through mimicry and crypsis. Although this subject has attracted the interest of biologists and the general public, our scientific knowledge on the subject remains fragmentary. In the caterpillar of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus, spectacular changes in the color pattern are observed; the insect mimics bird droppings (mimetic pattern as a young larva, and switches to a green camouflage coloration (cryptic pattern in the final instar. Despite the wide variety and significance of larval color patterns, few studies have been conducted at a molecular level compared with the number of studies on adult butterfly wing patterns. Results To obtain a catalog of genes involved in larval mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, we constructed expressed sequence tag (EST libraries of larval epidermis for P. xuthus, and P. polytes that contained 20,736 and 5,376 clones, respectively, representing one of the largest collections available in butterflies. A comparison with silkworm epidermal EST information revealed the high expression of putative blue and yellow pigment-binding proteins in Papilio species. We also designed a microarray from the EST dataset information, analyzed more than five stages each for six markings, and confirmed spatial expression patterns by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Hence, we succeeded in elucidating many novel marking-specific genes for mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, including pigment-binding protein genes, the melanin-associated gene yellow-h3, the ecdysteroid synthesis enzyme gene 3-dehydroecdysone 3b-reductase, and Papilio-specific genes. We also found many cuticular protein genes with marking specificity that may be associated with the unique surface nanostructure of the markings. Furthermore, we identified two transcription factors, spalt and ecdysteroid signal-related E75, as genes

  12. Pm55, a developmental-stage and tissue-specific powdery mildew resistance gene introgressed from Dasypyrum villosum into common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Sun, Bingxiao; Chen, Juan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Feng, Yigao; Lan, Caixia; Chen, Peidu

    2016-10-01

    Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm55 was physically mapped to chromosome arm 5VS FL 0.60-0.80 of Dasypyrum villosum . Pm55 is present in T5VS·5AL and T5VS·5DL translocations, which should be valuable resources for wheat improvement. Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major wheat disease worldwide. Exploiting novel genes effective against powdery mildew from wild relatives of wheat is a promising strategy for controlling this disease. To identify novel resistance genes for powdery mildew from Dasypyrum villosum, a wild wheat relative, we evaluated a set of Chinese Spring-D. villosum disomic addition and whole-arm translocation lines for reactions to powdery mildew. Based on the evaluation data, we concluded that the D. villosum chromosome 5V controls post-seedling resistance to powdery mildew. Subsequently, three introgression lines were developed and confirmed by molecular and cytogenetic analysis following ionizing radiation of the pollen of a Chinese Spring-D. villosum 5V disomic addition line. A homozygous T5VS·5AL translocation line (NAU421) with good plant vigor and full fertility was further characterized using sequential genomic in situ hybridization, C-banding, and EST-STS marker analysis. A dominant gene permanently named Pm55 was located in chromosome bin 5VS 0.60-0.80 based on the responses to powdery mildew of all wheat-D. villosum 5V introgression lines evaluated at both seeding and adult stages. This study demonstrated that Pm55 conferred growth-stage and tissue-specific dependent resistance; therefore, it provides a novel resistance type for powdery mildew. The T5VS·5AL translocation line with additional softness loci Dina/Dinb of D. villosum provides a possibility of extending the range of grain textures to a super-soft category. Accordingly, this stock is a new source of resistance to powdery mildew and may be useful in both resistance mechanism studies and soft wheat improvement.

  13. Specific Factors Influence the Success of Autologous and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thissiane L. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, both autologous and allogeneic, requires a rapid and durable engraftment, with neutrophil (>500/µL and platelet (>20,000/µL reconstitution. Factors influencing engraftment after autologous or allogeneic HSCT were investigated in 65 patients: 25 autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (PBSCT and 40 allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT patients. The major factor affecting engraftment was the graft source for HSCT. Neutrophil and platelet recovery were more rapid in autologous PBSCT than in allogeneic BMT [neutrophil occurring in median on day 10.00 (09.00/11.00 and 19.00 (16.00/23.00 and platelet on day 11.00 (10.00/13.00 and 21.00 (18.00/25.00, respectively; p < 0.0001]. The type of disease also affected engraftment, where multiple myeloma (MM and lymphoma showed faster engraftment when compared with leukemia, syndrome myelodysplastic (SMD and aplastic anemia (AA and MM presented the best overall survival (OS in a period of 12 months. Other factors included the drug used in the conditioning regimen (CR, where CBV, melphalan (M-200 and FluCy showed faster engraftment and M-200 presented the best OS, in a period of 12 months and age, where 50–59 years demonstrated faster engraftment. Sex did not influence neutrophil and platelet recovery.

  14. Influence of encoding instructions and response bias on cross-cultural differences in specific recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Laura E; Amado, Selen; Gutchess, Angela H

    2017-10-01

    Prior cross-cultural research has reported cultural variations in memory. One study revealed that Americans remembered images with more perceptual detail than East Asians (Millar et al. in Cult Brain 1(2-4):138-157, 2013). However, in a later study, this expected pattern was not replicated, possibly due to differences in encoding instructions (Paige et al. in Cortex 91:250-261, 2017). The present study sought to examine when cultural variation in memory-related decisions occur and the role of instructions. American and East Asian participants viewed images of objects while making a Purchase decision or an Approach decision and later completed a surprise recognition test. Results revealed Americans had higher hit rates for specific memory, regardless of instruction type, and a less stringent response criterion relative to East Asians. Additionally, a pattern emerged where the Approach decision enhanced hit rates for specific memory relative to the Purchase decision only when administered first; this pattern did not differ across cultures. Results suggest encoding instructions do not magnify cross-cultural differences in memory. Ultimately, cross-cultural differences in response bias, rather than memory sensitivity per se, may account for findings of cultural differences in memory specificity.

  15. The evaluation-mediation hypothesis: does the specification of potential side effects influence the perceived risk of medication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: starting from the assumptions of support theory, this project analyzed the extent to which the specification of potential side effects influences the perceived risk associated, with a particular medication. Respondents were presented with an instruction leaflet for a medication which indicated (a) the overall probability that a side effect will occur or (b) the probability of occurrence of several specific side effects. Support theory predicts that the cognitive availability of potential side effects and therefore the perceived risk increases as a function of the specificity with which the side effects are presented. In contrast the evaluation-mediation hypothesis predicts that a more detailed presentation of potential side effects enhances the perceived quality of the information leaflet and thereby leads to a reduction of perceived risk. Support for the evaluation-mediation hypothesis was found in a series of studies which included the editing hypothesis and the elaboration likelihood model as additional explanations: the more detailed the information about potential side effects, the lower the estimated risk of suffering a side effect on taking the medication. As predicted, the influence of presentation specificity on perceived risk was mediated almost exclusively by the perceived quality of the information leaflet. A current series of studies seeks to support the evaluation-mediation hypothesis in a completely different domain, the perceived risk of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. (author)

  16. The Influence of Geopolitical Factors on the Tax Policy of Russia at the Contemporary Stage of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorletskiy Aleksandr Igorevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems analyzed in the article are new to the domestic financial and tax research due to their emergent character. The article considers the influence of geopolitical factors on the tax policy of the Russian Federation and marks the most visible implemented or prospective changes in the Russian tax system under the influence of the facts and circumstances related to the geopolitical component of modern development. The focus is made on the three factors of geopolitical nature, the influence of which on public finances and taxes of Russia has already been or may be the most noticeable in the future. These factors include the growth of military spending on the backdrop of escalating tensions in the political relations between Russia and Western countries; the exchange of trade and economic sanctions between Russia and Western countries; the pursuit of enhanced tax sovereignty of the regions in the framework of the current centralized model of fiscal federalism. The possible consequences of the policy of sanctions imposed as the result of the new round of geopolitical confrontation between Russia and Western countries are analyzed. Among these consequences we should name the use of tax incentives to compensate the losses of exporters; the use of tax regulators at the financial market; the search for new sources of tax revenues for regional budgets; anti-offshore policy in relation to the Russian tax residents; the limitation of the benefits of using the consolidated groups of taxpayers; the possibility of creating a special (free economic zone in Crimea with the regime of preferential taxation. It is proved that the manifestation of geopolitics requires the serious understanding of its consequences in all spheres, including the system of public finances and taxes.

  17. The influence of motivating operations on generalization probes of specific mands by children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragale, Christina L; O'Reilly, Mark F; Aguilar, Jeannie; Pierce, Nigel; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of motivating operations on the generalization of newly taught mands across settings and communication partners for 3 children with autism. Two conditions were implemented prior to generalization probes. In the first condition, participants were given access to a preferred item until they rejected the item (i.e., abolishing operation). In the second condition, the item was not available to participants prior to generalization probes (i.e., establishing operation). The effects of these conditions on the generalization of newly taught mands were evaluated in a multielement design. Results indicated differentiated responding during generalization probes in which more manding with the target mand was observed following the presession no-access condition than in the presession access condition. These results support the consideration of motivating operations when assessing generalization of target mands to various untrained contexts.

  18. Specific factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potančok, Martin; Voříšek, Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare facilities use a number of information system/information and communication technologies. Each healthcare facility faces a need to choose sourcing strategies most suitable to ensure provision of information system/information and communication technology services, processes and resources. Currently, it is possible to observe an expansion of sourcing possibilities in healthcare informatics, which creates new requirements for sourcing strategies. Thus, the aim of this article is to identify factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities. The identification was based on qualitative research, namely, a case study. This study provides a set of internal and external factors with their impact levels. The findings also show that not enough attention is paid to these factors during decision-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-α/β influences West Nile virus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat; Ng, Mah-Lee

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-α. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-α/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-α/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  20. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-{alpha}/{beta} influences West Nile virus production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Ng, Mah-Lee, E-mail: micngml@nus.edu.sg [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)

    2009-11-06

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-{alpha}. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  1. Specific macrophage subtypes influence the progression of rhabdomyolysis-induced kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliere, Julie; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Zakaroff-Girard, Alexia; Martins, Frédéric; Iacovoni, Jason S; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Pipy, Bernard; Chauveau, Dominique; Schanstra, Joost P; Bascands, Jean-Loup

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis can be life threatening if complicated by AKI. Macrophage infiltration has been observed in rat kidneys after glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis, but the role of macrophages in rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI remains unknown. Here, in a patient diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis, we detected substantial macrophage infiltration in the kidney. In a mouse model of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI, diverse renal macrophage phenotypes were observed depending on the stage of the disease. Two days after rhabdomyolysis, F4/80(low)CD11b(high)Ly6b(high)CD206(low) kidney macrophages were dominant, whereas by day 8, F4/80(high)CD11b(+)Ly6b(low)CD206(high) cells became the most abundant. Single-cell gene expression analyses of FACS-sorted macrophages revealed that these subpopulations were heterogeneous and that individual cells simultaneously expressed both M1 and M2 markers. Liposomal clodronate-mediated macrophage depletion significantly reduced the early infiltration of F4/80(low)CD11b(high)Ly6b(high)CD206(low) macrophages. Furthermore, transcriptionally regulated targets potentially involved in disease progression, including fibronectin, collagen III, and chemoattractants that were identified via single-cell analysis, were verified as macrophage-dependent in situ. In vitro, myoglobin treatment induced proximal tubular cells to secrete chemoattractants and macrophages to express proinflammatory markers. At day 30, liposomal clodronate-mediated macrophage depletion reduced fibrosis and improved both kidney repair and mouse survival. Seven months after rhabdomyolysis, histologic lesions were still present but were substantially reduced with prior depletion of macrophages. These results suggest an important role for macrophages in rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI progression and advocate the utility of long-term follow-up for patients with this disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Can Previewing Sport-Specific Video Influence Reactive-Agility Response Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Ryan; Meir, Rudi; Zhou, Shi

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a video-based warm-up could provide an acute performance benefit to response time for athletes in a sport-specific agility task. In addition, 2 learning strategies, explicit and implicit, were compared for their effectiveness in facilitating an improvement in sport-specific agility. Thirty representative male junior rugby union players (age 14-16 y, mean age 14.6 ± 1.09 y) were placed in 3 experimental groups (explicit, implicit, and control) and completed 2 intervention sessions. Testing sessions included preintervention testing, completion of the video-based warm-up intervention, and postintervention testing. A 3D motion-analysis system was used to assess response time in the testing battery. The athletes' response times on the pre- to postintervention tests were compared to determine the effectiveness of the video-based warm-up. A 2-way general linear model with repeated-measures analysis indicated that both the explicit (P = .030, d = 0.28) and implicit (P = .049, d = 0.33) groups significantly improved their response time by the intervention compared with the control group (P = .367, d = 0.08). The mean postintervention response time for the explicit group improved by 19.1% (from 0.246 s pre to 0.199 s post), and the implicit group improved by 15.7% (from 0.268 s to 0.226 s). Findings suggest that a video-based warm-up may provide an acute benefit to sport-specific agility performance for junior athletes.

  3. Influence of a cocoa-enriched diet on specific immune response in ovalbumin-sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Permanyer, Joan; Franch, Angels; Castell, Margarida

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies in young rats have reported the impact of 3 weeks of high cocoa intake on healthy immune status. The present article describes the effects of a longer-term cocoa-enriched diet (9 weeks) on the specific immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in adult Wistar rats. At 4 weeks after immunization, control rats produced anti-OVA antibodies, which, according their amount and isotype, were arranged as follows: IgG1 > IgG2a > IgM > IgG2b > IgG2c. Both cocoa diets studied (4% and 10%) down-modulated OVA-specific antibody levels of IgG1 (main subclass associated with the Th2 immune response in rats), IgG2a, IgG2c and IgM isotypes. Conversely, cocoa-fed rats presented equal or higher levels of anti-OVA IgG2b antibodies (subclass linked to the Th1 response). Spleen and lymph node cells from OVA-immunized control and cocoa-fed animals proliferated similarly under OVA stimulation. However, spleen cells from cocoa-fed animals showed decreased interleukin-4 secretion (main Th2 cytokine), and lymph node cells from the same rats displayed higher interferon-gamma secretion (main Th1 cytokine). These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the number of anti-OVA IgG-secreting cells in spleen. In conclusion, cocoa diets induced attenuation of antibody synthesis that may be attributable to specific down-regulation of the Th2 immune response.

  4. Personalized disease-specific protein corona influences the therapeutic impact of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Raheb, Jamshid; Akhavan, Omid; Arjmand, Sareh; Mashinchian, Omid; Rahman, Masoud; Abdolahad, Mohammad; Serpooshan, Vahid; Laurent, Sophie; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2015-05-01

    The hard corona, the protein shell that is strongly attached to the surface of nano-objects in biological fluids, is recognized as the first layer that interacts with biological objects (e.g., cells and tissues). The decoration of the hard corona (i.e., the type, amount, and conformation of the attached proteins) can define the biological fate of the nanomaterial. Recent developments have revealed that corona decoration strongly depends on the type of disease in human patients from which the plasma is obtained as a protein source for corona formation (referred to as the `personalized protein corona'). In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO) sheets can trigger different biological responses in the presence of coronas obtained from various types of diseases. GO sheets were incubated with plasma from human subjects with different diseases/conditions, including hypofibrinogenemia, blood cancer, thalassemia major, thalassemia minor, rheumatism, fauvism, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and pregnancy. Identical sheets coated with varying protein corona decorations exhibited significantly different cellular toxicity, apoptosis, and uptake, reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and nitrogen oxide levels. The results of this report will help researchers design efficient and safe, patient-specific nano biomaterials in a disease type-specific manner for clinical and biological applications.The hard corona, the protein shell that is strongly attached to the surface of nano-objects in biological fluids, is recognized as the first layer that interacts with biological objects (e.g., cells and tissues). The decoration of the hard corona (i.e., the type, amount, and conformation of the attached proteins) can define the biological fate of the nanomaterial. Recent developments have revealed that corona decoration strongly depends on the type of disease in human patients from which the plasma is obtained as a protein source for corona formation (referred

  5. Developmental stage-dependent influence of environmental factors on growth of rural Sundanese children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the growth trajectories and the relative relevance levels of nutrition, disease, and hormonal status at various developmental stages among children in adverse environments to provide population-based empirical evidence for the life history theory. Three years of longitudinal anthropometric data in 1-year intervals were obtained from 418 boys and girls aged 0 to 12 years at recruitment. Following the final measurement, the main survey, which included blood and feces sampling, 3-h interval food consumption recall surveys for energy and nutrient intakes and anthropometry, was performed. Blood and feces were used for detecting, respectively, anemia and hormonal (IGF-I and IGFBP-3) levels as well as intestinal helminthiasis (Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm). The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) the growth velocity of the subject children lagged behind international standards during childhood and juvenility but caught up during early adolescence; 2) diseases, both intestinal helminths and anemia, had significant effects on growth in childhood but not at older ages; and 3) hormonal status significantly affected growth in the children, with its highest significance in early adolescence. A larger growth than international standards in early adolescence likely follows programmed hormonal mechanisms after the onset of puberty. The onset of puberty might be associated with adequate amounts of nutrient intake and be mediated by hormonal function, because the IGF-IZ score was significantly correlated with energy and protein intakes at the transitional period from juvenility to adolescence, when puberty occurs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pyrolysis of Pinus pinaster in a two-stage gasifier: Influence of processing parameters and thermal cracking of tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassinou, Wanignon Ferdinand; Toure, Siaka [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire-UFR-S.S.M.T. Universite de Cocody, 22BP582 Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Van de Steene, Laurent; Volle, Ghislaine; Girard, Philippe [CIRAD-Foret, TA 10/16, 73, avenue J.-F. Breton, 34398 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-01-15

    A new two-stage gasifier with fixed-bed has recently been installed on CIRAD facilities in Montpellier. The pyrolysis and the gasifier units are removable. In order to characterise the pyrolysis products before their gasification, experiments were carried out, for the first time only with the pyrolysis unit and this paper deals with the results obtained. The biomass used is Pinus pinaster. The parameters investigated are: temperature, residence time and biomass flow rate. It has been found that increasing temperature and residence time improve the cracking of tars, gas production and char quality (fixed carbon rate more than 90%, volatile matter rate less than 4%). The increase of biomass flow rate leads to a bad char quality. The efficiency of tar cracking, the quality and the heating value of the charcoal and the gases, indicate that: temperature between 650 C and 750 C, residence time of 30 min, biomass flow rate between 10 and 15 kg/h should be the most convenient experimental conditions to get better results from the experimental device and from the biomass pyrolysis process. The kinetic study of charcoal generation shows that the pyrolysis process, in experimental conditions, is a first-order reaction. The kinetic parameters calculated are comparable with those found by other researchers. (author)

  7. The influence of environmental conditions on early life stages of flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustups, Didzis; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Bergstrom, Ulf; Makarchouk, Andrej; Sics, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a temperate marine fish that is well adapted to the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. There are two sympatric flounder populations in the Baltic Sea, pelagic and demersal spawners, which differ in their spawning habitat and egg characteristics. In the present study, pelagic spawning flounder of the central Baltic Sea was studied. We examined whether variations in hydrological regime can explain fluctuations in flounder early life stages that have occurred over the past 30 years (1970-2005). Using generalized additive modeling to explain the abundance of flounder eggs and larvae in a Latvian ichthyoplankton dataset, we evaluate the hypothesis that the available reproductive volume, defined as the water column with dissolved oxygen larger than 1 ml/l and salinity between 10.6 and 12 PSU, affects the survival of flounder ichthyoplankton and determines recruitment success. Both reproductive volume and spawning stock biomass were significant factors determining flounder ichthyoplankton abundance. Different measures of water temperature did not contribute significantly to the variability of eggs or larvae. However, recruitment did not correlate to the supply of larvae. The findings presented in this study on the relationship between flounder reproduction, spawning stock biomass and reproductive volume, as well as the lack of correlation to recruitment, are valuable for the understanding of flounder ecology in the Baltic Sea, and for developing the management of the species.

  8. The influence of elastic strain on the early stages of decomposition in Cu–1.7at% Fe

    KAUST Repository

    Rademacher, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    The initial stage of decomposition of homogenized Cu-1.7 at% Fe at 722 K was investigated by means of field ion microscopy (FIM), atom probe tomography (APT) and computer-assisted field ion image tomography (cFIIT). The agglomeration of atoms depending on time could be investigated and the growth of precipitates with a diameter of few nanometers was observed during ongoing nucleation. For the cFIIT measurements, an improved reconstruction algorithm was developed. Employing cFIIT in combination with FIM images, alignments of precipitates mainly in < 100 > directions were found. Besides, a general experimental concept to evaluate strain-related effects on the position of the proximate precipitate will be introduced. These analyses of the APT and cFIIT data show tendencies of a preferred < 100 > directed configuration as well. This effect can be associated with the elastic anisotropy of the Cu matrix (f.c.c.) to accommodate the volume misfit of precipitates. In accordance with previous model calculations, a preferred nucleation in < 100 > directions with respect to existing clusters can be concluded. For such cluster arrangements strain energy reduction is largest for precipitates adapting their sizes. Thus, additional stabilization against coarsening can be inferred for < 100 > alignments which result in the observed effects. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Comparative incidences of decompression illness in repetitive, staged, mixed-gas decompression diving: is 'dive fitness' an influencing factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Martin Dj; Akroyd, Jim; Williams, Guy D

    2008-06-01

    Wreck diving at Bikini Atoll consists of a relatively standard series of decompression dives with maximum depths in the region of 45-55 metres' sea water (msw). In a typical week of diving at Bikini, divers can perform up to 12 decompression dives to these depths over seven days; on five of those days, divers can perform two decompression dives per day. All the dives employ multi-level, staged decompression schedules using air and surface-supplied nitrox containing 80% oxygen. Bikini is serviced by a single diving operator and so a relatively precise record exists both of the actual number of dives undertaken and of the decompression illness incidents both for customer divers and the dive guides. The dive guides follow exactly the dive profiles and decompression schedules of the customers. Each dive guide will perform nearly 400 decompression dives a year, with maximum depths mostly around 50 msw, compared with an average of 10 (maximum of 12) undertaken typically by each customer diver in a week. The incidence of decompression illness for the customer population (presumed in the absence of medical records) is over ten times higher than that for the dive guides. The physiological reasons for such a marked difference are discussed in terms of customer demographics and dive-guide acclimatization to repetitive decompression stress. The rates of decompression illness for a range of diving populations are reviewed.

  10. Individual and hospital-specific factors influencing medical graduates' time to medical specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Karl-Arne; Hagen, Terje P

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies of gender differences in relation to medical specialization have focused more on social variables than hospital-specific factors. In a multivariate analysis with extended Cox regression, we used register data for socio-demographic variables (gender, family and having a child born during the study period) together with hospital-specific variables (the amount of supervision available, efficiency pressure and the type of teaching hospital) to study the concurrent effect of these variables on specialty qualification among all 2474 Norwegian residents who began specialization in 1999-2001. We followed the residents until 2010. A lower proportion of women qualified for a specialty in the study period (67.9% compared with 78.7% of men, p specialization qualification (p specialization: working at university hospitals (regional) or central hospitals was associated with a reduction in the time taken to complete the specialization, whereas an increased patient load and less supervision had the opposite effect. Multivariate analysis showed that the smaller proportion of women who qualified for a specialty was explained principally by childbirth and by the number of children aged under 18 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The specificity of targeted vaccines for APC surface molecules influences the immune response phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnveig Grødeland

    Full Text Available Different diseases require different immune responses for efficient protection. Thus, prophylactic vaccines should prime the immune system for the particular type of response needed for protection against a given infectious agent. We have here tested fusion DNA vaccines which encode proteins that bivalently target influenza hemagglutinins (HA to different surface molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC. We demonstrate that targeting to MHC class II molecules predominantly induced an antibody/Th2 response, whereas targeting to CCR1/3/5 predominantly induced a CD8(+/Th1 T cell response. With respect to antibodies, the polarizing effect was even more pronounced upon intramuscular (i.m delivery as compared to intradermal (i.d. vaccination. Despite these differences in induced immune responses, both vaccines protected against a viral challenge with influenza H1N1. Substitution of HA with ovalbumin (OVA demonstrated that polarization of immune responses, as a consequence of APC targeting specificity, could be extended to other antigens. Taken together, the results demonstrate that vaccination can be tailor-made to induce a particular phenotype of adaptive immune responses by specifically targeting different surface molecules on APCs.

  12. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR TOURISM. SPECIFIC ASPECTS WHICH INFLUENCE THE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF THE QUALITY OF THEIR LEARNING EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA IRIMIEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Education and Training for Tourism. Specific Aspects which Influence the Students’ Perception of the Quality of Their Learning Experience. Quality in education has been defined in various ways, each definition representing a different approach. Karl Popper defines human rationality by the adequacy of one’s action to a specific situation. Furthermore, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu argues that the actions that people undertake are based on their previous life experiences and on their social and professional status. Vocational Education and Training (VET addresses young people and adults whose social status can influence their level of satisfaction with the quality of the educational process. The present article seeks to present the results of a questionnaire-based survey applied to the students who have attended the travel agent and tourism manager courses at the Centre for Tourism Training of the Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca. The data illustrate the strong influence of the variable age and previous educational experience on the subjects' satisfaction regarding some aspects of the training activities.

  13. About influencing specificity of space flights on the information, perceived by astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisniakova, L.; Prisniakov, V.

    Research of influence of gravitational fields on character of decision-making by the cosmonaut in reply to the information acting to him is the purpose of the report. The magnitude of perceived consciously of flow of the information for all sensory systems (visual, acoustical, somatosensory, chemical, kinaesthetical, balance of a head and time) is analysed. The coefficient of transformation of the incoming information from an environment to the person and the information realized by him has been received equal κ =105. As the susceptibility of the cosmonaut to the incoming of information to him depends on his temperament, the hypothesis about modification of his temperament and accordingly about modification of character of activity of the cosmonaut during duration of flight is voiced. B.Tsukanov's hypothesis is used, that as a measure of mobility of nervous system (temperament) of the person it is possible to use of the magnitude of subjectively experienced time τz. The formula for definition τz is offered using the period of an of alpha waves. The known data of authors, on the one hand, about communication of a time constant of information processing in memory of person T with frequency of alpha waves f and on the other hand, on its relationship with overloads j were used. This dependence of the period of fluctuations of alpha waves Tα from overloads (or microgravitation) enable to find magnitude of change of individually experienced time τ z at action of distinct from normal gravitational fields. The increase of this value of magnitude in case of presence of overloads can lead to to uncontrollable change of behaviour of cosmonauts in connection by erroneous perception of time and space. Acknowledgement to this is display by pilots - verifiers of "loss of orientation''.This result essentially supplements an explanation of this effect which was considered by authors in Houston on the basis of the analysis of the basic psychophysical law. Dependence of change

  14. Influence of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT on therapy management in patients with stage III/IV malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuele, Susann-Cathrin; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Pfannenberg, Christina [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Garbe, Claus [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Skin Cancer Programme, Department of Dermatology, Tuebingen (Germany); Fougere, Christian la [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the influence of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in comparison to CT alone on treatment decisions in patients with advanced melanoma and to analyse the 5-year survival data in comparison to literature data. Therapy management in 64 consecutive patients (primary staging n = 52; surveillance n = 12) with stage III/IV melanoma who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT between 2004 and 2005 in our department was retrospectively analysed. Treatment decisions were made by two dermatooncologists for each patient twice, first based on the CT results and then based on the PET/CT results. Therapy changes based on the PET/CT results were classified as ''major'' (e.g. change from metastasectomy to systemic therapy) or ''minor'' (e.g. change from first to second line chemotherapy). The 5-year survival data of different patient cohorts were calculated. In the 52 patients in the primary staging group, the results of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT led to therapy change in 59 % and a major therapy change in 52 %. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT led to the avoidance of futile operations in 13 patients with suspicious lesions on CT that were deemed nontumorous on PET/CT. In the 12 patients in the surveillance group, the results of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT led to therapy change in 33 % and a major change in 17 %. The 5-year survival rates were 30 % in the entire cohort, 34 % in the primary staging group, and 17 % in the surveillance group. A significant overall survival benefit was observed in patients in whom {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT excluded metastases or in whom metastases could be completely removed compared with patients who were not eligible for surgery (41 % vs. 10 %). Primary staging of patients with stage III/IV melanoma should be performed with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, leading to higher diagnostic accuracy and enabling individualized therapeutic management, especially optimal patient selection for metastasectomy. This strategy may extend long-term survival even in patients

  15. Сriminological crime prevention: the concept, the specifics, the structure, the object of precautionary influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Голіна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. Crime is one of the oldest existing forms of social life, despite the burning desire of human to destroy it. World history persuades explicitly that cruel, inhumane punishment punishments are inefficient to prevent crime. It’s necessary to rebuild human behavior, and this is possible through the elimination of various stimuli that enhance human passions and lead to irrational, destructive behavior. Recent research and publications analysis. Theory of combating crime primarily through its prevention has been substantively enriched during XIX-XXI centuries through scientific works of domestic and foreign criminologists and other researchers, which laid the philosophical, sociological, moral, psychological, social, anthropological, organizational, managerial, economic, educational, penitentiary and other types of crime prevention (Yu. M. Antonyan, A. Herry, A. Quetelet, C. Lombroso, D. Drill, E. Durkheim, G. Tarde, E. Ferry, R. Garofalo, A. Kystyakivskyi, M. Gernet, A. Gertsenzon, E. Sutherland, N. Kuznetsov, V. Kudryavtsev, A. Sakharov, I. Karpets, A. Zelinsky, V. Dryomin, O. Tulyakov, O. Litvinov, A. Zakalyuk, V. Shakun, B. Golovkin etc.. Paper objective is providing a thorough analysis of a range of issues, related to the criminological crime prevention as an essential part of special criminological crime prevention. Paper main body. Crime is a complex social phenomenon whose causes and conditions are usually associated with a genetic predisposition to decline form normal behavior, along with the defects and imperfections of the society. Crime prevention is state social policy aimed at overcoming dangerous criminal contradictions in social relations in order to reach positive resolution and the gradual elimination (so-called general social prevention along with proactive practice of combating criminal offenses at various stages. Crime prevention can be divided into several types: prevention in advance, restrictive prevention

  16. Determinants of diet quality in pregnancy: sociodemographic, pregnancy-specific, and food environment influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Danielle M; Gilliland, Jason A; Evers, Susan E; Wilk, Piotr; Campbell, M Karen

    2013-01-01

    To advance the knowledge of determinants of diet quality in pregnancy by focusing on both personal characteristics and the food environment. Cross-sectional study in which participants from the Prenatal Health Project were linked to a geographic dataset by home address. Access to fast food, convenience stores, and grocery stores was measured using a geographic information system (ArcGIS9.3). Pregnant women (n = 2,282) were recruited between 2002 and 2005 in London, Ontario, Canada. Dietary quality was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the Canadian Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were calculated with the predictor variables on the Canadian Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Pregnant women who were born in Canada, common-law, nulliparous, less physically active, smokers, more anxious, or lacking family support had lower diet quality on average. Presence of fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 500 m of participants' homes was not associated with diet quality after controlling for personal variables. The food environment does not seem to have a large influence on diet quality in pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine other potential reasons for low diet quality among pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to spell from reading: general knowledge about spelling patterns influences memory for specific words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacton, Sébastien; Borchardt, Gaëlle; Treiman, Rebecca; Lété, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Adults often learn to spell words during the course of reading for meaning, without intending to do so. We used an incidental learning task in order to study this process. Spellings that contained double n, r and t which are common doublets in French, were learned more readily by French university students than spellings that contained less common but still legal doublets. When recalling or recognizing the latter, the students sometimes made transposition errors, doubling a consonant that often doubles in French rather than the consonant that was originally doubled (e.g., tiddunar recalled as tidunnar). The results, found in three experiments using different nonwords and different types of instructions, show that people use general knowledge about the graphotactic patterns of their writing system together with word-specific knowledge to reconstruct spellings that they learn from reading. These processes contribute to failures and successes in memory for spellings, as in other domains.

  18. Influence of the effectiveness of raw materials on the reliability of thermoelectric cooling devices. Part I: single-stage TEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikov V. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the reliability of information systems depends on the reliability improvement of their component elements, including cooling devices, providing efficiency of thermally loaded components. Thermoelectric devices based on the Peltier effect have significant advantages compared with air and liquid systems for thermal modes of the radio-electronic equipment. This happens due to the absence of moving parts, which account for the failure rate. The article presents research results on how thermoelectric efficiency modules affect the failure rate and the probability of non-failure operation in the range of working temperature of thermoelectric coolers. The authors investigate a model of relative failure rate and the probability of failure-free operation single-stage thermoelectric devices depending on the main relevant parameters: the operating current flowing through the thermocouple and resistance, temperature changes, the magnitude of the heat load and the number of elements in the module. It is shown that the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of the primary material for a variety of thermocouple temperature changes causes the following: maximum temperature difference increases by 18%; the number of elements in the module decreases; cooling coefficient increases; failure rate reduces and the probability of non-failure operation of thermoelectric cooling device increases. Material efficiency increase by 1% allows reducing failure rate by 2,6—4,3% in maximum refrigeration capacity mode and by 4,2—5,0% in minimal failure rate mode when temperature difference changes in the range of 40—60 K. Thus, the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of initial materials of thermocouples can significantly reduce the failure rate and increase the probability of failure of thermoelectric coolers depending on the temperature difference and the current operating mode.

  19. Influence of a specific SH-blocking reagent, p-chloromercuribenzoate, on the cyclosis in Paramecium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K

    1970-12-01

    Using basic saline medium, influence of p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) on cyclosis in Paramecium caudatum (200-210..mu.. in body length) was investigated with additional attention to elimination of water by the anterior contractile vacuole. 10/sup -4/M PCMB caused cessation of the flow of cyclosis and systolic arrest of the contractile vacuole immediately after bathing the animal in it. In 10/sup -5/M PCMB, both the speed of cyclosis and rate of the water excretion fell gradually, the former reaching zero in about 6 minutes and the latter in about 10 minutes in a diastolic condition of the vacuole. In 5 x 10/sup -6/M PCMB, both activities declined to a minimum and then returned to normal in about 6 hours, thereafter remaining normal during prolonged immersion in the solution. The PCMB-induced inactivation of cyclosis and vacuolar output of water was reversed by cysteine, being completely restored in about 2 hours, when the animal was transferred to 10/sup -3/M cysteine after 3 minutes exposure to 10/sup -4/M PCMB, and in about an hour when transferred to 10/sup -4/M cysteine after 6 or 15 minutes exposure to 10/sup -5/M PCMB. In the early phase of any of the recovery processes, the contractile vacuole developed larger and intervals between its pulsations were lengthened, occasionally attended with supernormal excretion of water. Such irregularity regarding the maximum volume and pulsation frequency of the contractile vacuole was obtained also in the animal, rate of water excretion of which was reduced in 5 x 10/sup -6/M PCMB.

  20. Nesting behaviour influences species-specific gas exchange across avian eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Maurer, Golo; Thomas, Gavin H; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip

    2014-09-15

    Carefully controlled gas exchange across the eggshell is essential for the development of the avian embryo. Water vapour conductance (G(H2O)) across the shell, typically measured as mass loss during incubation, has been demonstrated to optimally ensure the healthy development of the embryo while avoiding desiccation. Accordingly, eggs exposed to sub-optimal gas exchange have reduced hatching success. We tested the association between eggshell G(H2O) and putative life-history correlates of adult birds, ecological nest parameters and physical characteristics of the egg itself to investigate how variation in G(H2O) has evolved to maintain optimal water loss across a diverse set of nest environments. We measured gas exchange through eggshell fragments in 151 British breeding bird species and fitted phylogenetically controlled, general linear models to test the relationship between G(H2O) and potential predictor parameters of each species. Of our 17 life-history traits, only two were retained in the final model: wet-incubating parent and nest type. Eggs of species where the parent habitually returned to the nest with wet plumage had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of parents that returned to the nest with dry plumage. Eggs of species nesting in ground burrows, cliffs and arboreal cups had significantly higher G(H2O) than those of species nesting on the ground in open nests or cups, in tree cavities and in shallow arboreal nests. Phylogenetic signal (measured as Pagel's λ) was intermediate in magnitude, suggesting that differences observed in the G(H2O) are dependent upon a combination of shared ancestry and species-specific life history and ecological traits. Although these data are correlational by nature, they are consistent with the hypothesis that parents constrained to return to the nest with wet plumage will increase the humidity of the nest environment, and the eggs of these species have evolved a higher G(H2O) to overcome this constraint and still

  1. The influence of CD 4+t cells, hiv disease stage and zidovudine on hiv isolation in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brites

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-l isolation was attempted on 72 individuais, including persons with knoum HIV infection and five without proven HIV infection but with indeterminate Western blot patterns, as well as on low-risk HIV seronegative persons. The ahility to detect HIV- 1 frorn culture supernatant by p24 antigen capture assay was evaluated by segregating patients by absolute CD4+ cell counts, clinicai stage of disease, p24 antigenemia and zidovudine use. The likelihood of a p24 positive HIV culture was highest among patients with CD4+ T-cell counts below 200/ul and patients with advanced clinical disease. Use of zidovudine did not affect the rate ofHIV positwity in cultures.Tentativa de isolamento do vírus tipo 1 da imunodeficiência adquirida (VIH-1 foi realizada em 72 indivíduos sendo 51 pacientes com sorologia positiva para o VIH-1, confirmada por Western blot; 5 doadores de sangue com padrão indeterminado ao Western blot; 3 indivíduos com diagnóstico clínico de AIDS, porém com sorologia negativa, e 13 profissionais de saúde soronegativos. Os pacientes foram estratificados de acordo com a contagem de células CD4+, estágio clínico , antigenemia (p24 e uso de zidovudine. As culturas para o VIH-1 foram positivas em 45/50 (90% tentativas. Houve uma correlação inversa entre o número de células CD4+ e a freqüência de isolamento do VIH-1. As culturas foram positivas em 84% dos indivíduos com CD4+ <200, contra 48% d positividade naqueles com contagem de célula CD4+ acima deste valor. O uso de zidovudine não interferiu na positividade das culturas. Concluímo. que a sensibilidade dos métodos de culture qualitativo e quantitativo é similar para a detecção do VIH-1. A taxa de positividade das culturas não foi afetada pelo uso prévio de zidovudine, mas foi diretamente proporcional ao grau de imunodeficiência dos pacientes.

  2. Economy of Standards: European Association of Urology Guideline Changes Influence Treatment Costs in Stage I Testicular Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Axel; Baumgart, André; Worst, Thomas; Heinzelbecker, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to calculate direct medical costs (DMC) during the first year of diagnosis and to evaluate the impact of guideline changes on treatment costs in clinical stage (CS) I testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) patients in a German healthcare system. Healthcare expenditures as DMC during the first year of diagnosis for 307 TGCT patients in CS I treated at our institution from 1987 to 2013 were calculated from the statutory health insurance perspective using patient level data. Three periods were defined referring to the first European Association of Urology (EAU) guideline in 2001 as well as to subsequent major guideline changes in 2005 and 2010. Data source for cost calculations were the German Diagnosis Related Groups system for inpatient stays (version 2014) and the German system for reimbursement of outpatient care (EBM - Einheitlicher Bewertungsmaßstab, edition 2014). During our 25 years of study period, mean DMC in the first year after diagnosis for the entire cohort of TGCT patients in CS I almost halved from EUR 13.000 to EUR 6.900 (p < 0.001). From 1987 to 2001, DMC for CS I seminomatous germ cell tumor (SGCT) patients were EUR 13.790 ± 4.700. From 2002 to 2010, mean costs were EUR 10.900 ± 5.990, and from 2011 to 2013, mean costs were EUR 5.190 ± 3.700. For CS I non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) patients, from 1987 to 2001, mean DMC were EUR 11.650 ± 5.690. From 2002 to 2010, mean costs were EUR 11.230 ± 5.990, and from 2011 to 2013, mean costs were EUR 11.170 ± 7.390. Follow-up examinations became less frequent over time, which caused a significant cost reduction for NSGCT (p = 0.042) while costs remained stable for SGCT. When adding costs of relapse treatment, active surveillance (AS) was the most cost-effective adjuvant treatment option in CS I NSGCT whereas one course carboplatin or AS caused similar expenditures in SGCT patients. The introduction of the EAU guidelines in 2001 caused a decrease in DMC in CS I seminoma patients

  3. For Your Local Eyes Only: Culture-Specific Face Typicality Influences Perceptions of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Oikawa, Masanori; Oikawa, Haruka; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Recent findings show that typical faces are judged as more trustworthy than atypical faces. However, it is not clear whether employment of typicality cues in trustworthiness judgment happens across cultures and if these cues are culture specific. In two studies, conducted in Japan and Israel, participants judged trustworthiness and attractiveness of faces. In Study 1, faces varied along a cross-cultural dimension ranging from a Japanese to an Israeli typical face. Own-culture typical faces were perceived as more trustworthy than other-culture typical faces, suggesting that people in both cultures employ typicality cues when judging trustworthiness, but that the cues, indicative of typicality, are culture dependent. Because perceivers may be less familiar with other-culture typicality cues, Study 2 tested the extent to which they rely on available facial information other than typicality, when judging other-culture faces. In Study 2, Japanese and Israeli faces varied from either Japanese or Israeli attractive to unattractive with the respective typical face at the midpoint. For own-culture faces, trustworthiness judgments peaked around own-culture typical face. However, when judging other-culture faces, both cultures also employed attractiveness cues, but this effect was more apparent for Japanese participants. Our findings highlight the importance of culture when considering the effect of typicality on trustworthiness judgments.

  4. The hypoxic proteome is influenced by gene-specific changes in mRNA translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koritzinsky, Marianne; Seigneuric, Renaud; Magagnin, Michael G.; Beucken, Twan van den; Lambin, Philippe; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypoxia causes a rapid reduction in mRNA translation efficiency. This inhibition does not affect all mRNA species to the same extent and can therefore contribute significantly to hypoxia-induced differential protein expression. Our aim in this study was to characterize changes in gene expression during acute hypoxia and evaluate the contribution of regulation via mRNA translation on these changes. For each gene, the contribution of changes in mRNA abundance versus mRNA translation was determined. Materials and methods: DU145 prostate carcinoma cells were exposed to 4 h of hypoxia ( 2 ). Efficiently translated mRNAs were isolated by sedimentation through a sucrose gradient. Affymetrix microarray technology was used to evaluate both the transcriptional and translational contribution to gene expression. Results were validated by quantitative PCR. Results: One hundred and twenty genes were more than 4-fold upregulated by hypoxia in the efficiently translated fraction of mRNA, in comparison to only 76 genes at the level of transcription. Of the 50 genes demonstrating the largest changes in translation, 11 were found to be more than 2-fold over represented in the translated fraction in comparison to their overall transcriptional level. The gene with the highest translational contribution to its induction was CITED-2, which is a negative regulator of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Conclusions: Gene-specific regulation of mRNA translation contributes significantly to differential gene expression during hypoxia

  5. [Separate factors influencing the interaction of carbohydrate- containing liposomes with galactose-specific lectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, V M; Vidershaĭn, G Ia

    1984-11-01

    Some natural (Gal-Cer, Lac-Cer, desyalylated gangliosides) and synthetic (HMGal) glycolipids differing in the length of the bridge linking the terminal galactose with the hydrophobic moiety were incorporated into the liposome membranes. The precipitation of the thus obtained vesicles induced by galactose-specific lectin RCA was studied. It was shown that when the amount of the glycolipids used for the incorporation into the liposomes (1 mol. %) was the same, the vesicles with HMGal or Gal-Cer incorporated into them did not precipitate in the presence of lectin, whereas the liposomes with incorporated Lac-Cer or desyalylated gangliosides did precipitate. It was thus concluded that in order for galactose-containing liposomes precipitation by lectin RCA1 to be induced, galactose should be separated from the liposome membrane with a distance not less than 7 A. The nature of lectin-induced nonspecific precipitation of ganglioside-containing liposomes, ganglioside mycelles and cardiolipin-lecithine liposomes containing lactosylceramide was investigated. Some nonspecific ionic interactions of negatively charged liposomes and ganglioside mycelles with lectin were observed, which disappeared with a rise in the NaCl concentration up to 150-200 mM.

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation and risk to three waterbird foraging guilds is influenced by foraging ecology and breeding stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; De La Cruz, Susan E.W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated mercury (Hg) in five waterbird species representing three foraging guilds in San Francisco Bay, CA. Fish-eating birds (Forster's and Caspian terns) had the highest Hg concentrations in thier tissues, but concentrations in an invertebrate-foraging shorebird (black-necked stilt) were also elevated. Foraging habitat was important for Hg exposure as illustrated by within-guild differences, where species more associated with marshes and salt ponds had higher concentrations than those more associated with open-bay and tidal mudflats. Importantly, Hg concentrations increased with time spent in the estuary. Surf scoter concentrations tripled over six months, whereas Forster's terns showed an up to 5-fold increase between estuary arrival and breeding. Breeding waterbirds were at elevated risk of Hg-induced reproductive impairment, particularly Forster's terns, in which 48% of breeding birds were at high risk due to their Hg levels. Our results highlight the importance of habitat and exposure timing, in addition to trophic position, on waterbird Hg bioaccumulation and risk. - The influence of foraging habitat, trophic position, and exposure timing on mercury bioaccumulation and risk to reproduction is evaluated in three waterbird guilds.

  7. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence Of Specific Mechanical Energy On Cornmeal Viscosity Measured By An On-line System During Twin-screw Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Y.K.; Martinez-Bustos F.; Park T.S.; Kokini J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of specific mechanical energy (SME) on cornmeal viscosity during the twin-screw extrusion at feed moisture contents of 25 and 30% and screw speeds in the range from 100 to 500 rpm was measured. Cornmeal was extruded in a co-rotating, intermeshing twin-screw coupled to a slit die rheometer. One approach to the on-line rheological measurement is to use a slit die with the extruder. In the present work it was show that shear viscosity decreased as a function of SME. The viscosity o...

  9. The influence of plant spacing in the early stages of selection of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torró, I.; Bretó, P.; García-Yzaguirre, A.

    2016-11-01

    The cultural practices of the early generations in a pedigree breeding programme may influence its success. The main objective of this study was to compare two selection environments in rice: Widely spaced planting in the field and dense planting in concrete basins. Both methods had yielded commercial varieties in the past. Two F2 populations (J and MS), derived from two crosses sharing the same female parent, were transplanted to both environments. Phenotypic traits were evaluated and their narrow sense heritabilities (h2) estimated in the F3 and in the F4 progenies of selected plants, all grown in the field. Growth potential was more apparent in the field for most traits, especially those related to yield, but broad sense heritabilities were higher in the basins for ten traits, being higher in the field for the other five. In population F2MS, field selection resulted in F3 plants which retained a higher tillering ability than those derived from basins selection. Most traits showed low h2 values: Additive variance was only relevant in panicle length (in both populations), plant height and mean panicle weight (in the J population). However, response to one generation of selection (from F3 to F4) also showed fixable variation in panicle number. In addition, this selection reduced plant height, increased culm diameter and internode length (in both populations), and improved pulling resistance (against lodging) in population J. It may be concluded that both practices can be used for selection in the F2, although different responses might be expected in yield related traits. (Author)

  10. INFLUENCE OF QUARTZ CERAMICS SINGLE-STAGE PROCESSING BY GEL-FORMING WATER SOLUTIONS ON ITS STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Evstropiev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main research results of the influence of quartz ceramics processing by silicon- and aluminum-containing gel- forming water solutions on its durability and porosity are given. Aqueous-alcoholic solutions based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, Si(C2H5O4 with additives of aluminum nitrate are proposed for impregnation of porous quartz ceramics samples. Ceramic samples are being impregnated with solutions at the room temperature for 12 minutes. After impregnation they are being exposed to drying at the room temperature for 24 hours and heat treatment in the electric muffle furnace. The made experiments show that impregnation of quartz ceramics porous samples by gel-forming solutions leads to durability growth of not burned samples by 6-7 times even without additional heat treatment. High-temperature heat treatment of previously impregnated ceramic samples leads to decomposition of aluminum nitrate and removal of fossils, and also to hardening of the formed additional bonds between material particles. It considerably improves strength characteristics of quartz ceramics as well. Thus, the possibility of considerable hardening of porous quartz ceramics and stability growth of its strength properties by preliminary impregnation of silicon- and aluminum-bearing gel-forming solutions even without additional heat treatment is experimentally shown. It is revealed that impregnation of porous quartz ceramic samples by these solutions leads only to insignificant reduction of porosity of samples. Subsequent heat treatment of the impregnated porous ceramic samples at the temperatures, equal to 900-1200oC, results in additional significant increase in their mechanical durability.

  11. Protein profile of basal prostate epithelial progenitor cells--stage-specific embryonal antigen 4 expressing cells have enhanced regenerative potential in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfner, Thomas; Klein, Corinna; Eisen, Christian; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Haferkamp, Axel; Sprick, Martin R

    2016-04-01

    The long-term propagation of basal prostate progenitor cells ex vivo has been very difficult in the past. The development of novel methods to expand prostate progenitor cells in vitro allows determining their cell surface phenotype in greater detail. Mouse (Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CD49f(+) Trop2(high)-phenotype) and human (Lin(-) CD49f(+) TROP2(high)) basal prostate progenitor cells were expanded in vitro. Human and mouse cells were screened using 242 anti-human or 176 antimouse monoclonal antibodies recognizing the cell surface protein profile. Quantitative expression was evaluated at the single-cell level using flow cytometry. Differentially expressed cell surface proteins were evaluated in conjunction with the known CD49f(+)/TROP2(high) phenotype of basal prostate progenitor cells and characterized by in vivo sandwich-transplantation experiments using nude mice. The phenotype of basal prostate progenitor cells was determined as CD9(+)/CD24(+)/CD29(+)/CD44(+)/CD47(+)/CD49f(+)/CD104(+)/CD147(+)/CD326(+)/Trop2(high) of mouse as well as human origin. Our analysis revealed several proteins, such as CD13, Syndecan-1 and stage-specific embryonal antigens (SSEAs), as being differentially expressed on murine and human CD49f(+) TROP2(+) basal prostate progenitor cells. Transplantation experiments suggest that CD49f(+) TROP2(high) SSEA-4(high) human prostate basal progenitor cells to be more potent to regenerate prostate tubules in vivo as compared with CD49f(+) TROP2(high) or CD49f(+) TROP2(high) SSEA-4(low) cells. Determination of the cell surface protein profile of functionally defined murine and human basal prostate progenitor cells reveals differentially expressed proteins that may change the potency and regenerative function of epithelial progenitor cells within the prostate. SSEA-4 is a candidate cell surface marker that putatively enables a more accurate identification of the basal PESC lineage. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by

  12. The influence of role-specific self-concept and sex-role identity on career choices in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale R.

    Despite much effort on the part of educators the number of females who choose science careers remains low. This research focuses on two factors which may be influencing females in their choice of careers. These factors are role-specific self-concept in science and self perception in terms of stereotypical masculine and feminine characteristics. In addition logical ability and mathematics and science courses were also examined as factors in career choice. Females preferring science related careers and females preferring nontraditional careers such as police, military and trades were found to have a positive role-specific self-concept and a masculine perception of themselves. Females preferring traditional careers such as teacher or hairdresser had a poor role-specific self-concept and a more feminine perception of themselves. Males as a group were found to have a more positive role-specific self-concept than females. Logical ability was also related to a science career preference for both males and females. Males expected to take more higher level math courses than females, while females preferring science careers expected to take the most higher level science courses.

  13. Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical origin, cultivar and ripening stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nalda; Saavedra, Jorge; Tapia, Francisco; Sepúlveda, Betsabet; Aparicio, Ramón

    2016-01-30

    This study involved two commercial orchards located in Limarí Valley and Molina from two important Chilean production zones of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The investigation evaluated the effects of climate, soil composition, agricultural practices (fertilization and irrigation) and variety (considering two harvests) on the compounds responsible for the flavor of EVOO (volatiles and phenols) and how these compounds can explain the differences in chemical profiles by geographical origin, cultivar and fruit ripeness stage. Varieties from the Limarí Valley presented the highest content of phenolic compounds. A significant relationship (P Chilean regions have much more influence than cultivars on the concentration of sensory quality compounds. Difference in latitude between orchards increases the importance of the geographical origin on the virgin olive oil chemical composition while full irrigation decreases the impact of the cultivar. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Keratin 34betaE12/keratin7 expression is a prognostic factor of cancer-specific and overall survival in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen Ege; Holst, Rene

    2016-01-01

    proliferation, migration, and possibly cancer invasion, factors impacting prognosis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from a retrospective Danish cohort of 177 patients with completely resected NSCLC, stage I-IIIA tumors, were analyzed for keratin 7 (K7...... that stage II-IIIA (HR 2.3), 34βE12+/K7+ (HR 1.6), and 34βE12-/K7+ (HR 2.0) were prognostic factors of poor CSS (p overall survival (p ...: Keratin 34βE12/K7 expression is a prognostic parameter in resected early stage NSCLC that allows identification of high-risk NSCLC patients with poor cancer-specific and overall survival....

  15. Social influence on associative learning: double dissociation in high-functioning autism, early-stage behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-05-01

    Most of our learning activity takes place in a social context. I examined how social interactions influence associative learning in neurodegenerative diseases and atypical neurodevelopmental conditions primarily characterised by social cognitive and memory dysfunctions. Participants were individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 18), early-stage behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 16) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 20). The leading symptoms in HFA and bvFTD were social and behavioural dysfunctions, whereas AD was characterised by memory deficits. Participants received three versions of a paired associates learning task. In the game with boxes test, objects were hidden in six candy boxes placed in different locations on the computer screen. In the game with faces, each box was labelled by a photo of a person. In the real-life version of the game, participants played with real persons. Individuals with HFA and bvFTD performed well in the computer games, but failed on the task including real persons. In contrast, in patients with early-stage AD, social interactions boosted paired associates learning up to the level of healthy control volunteers. Worse performance in the real life game was associated with less successful recognition of complex emotions and mental states in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Spatial span did not affect the results. When social cognition is impaired, but memory systems are less compromised (HFA and bvFTD), real-life interactions disrupt associative learning; when disease process impairs memory systems but social cognition is relatively intact (early-stage AD), social interactions have a beneficial effect on learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Habitat heterogeneity influences restoration efficacy: Implications of a habitat-specific management regime for an invaded marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Long; Gao, Yang; Wang, Cheng-Huan; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Zhao, Bin

    2013-07-01

    Invasive species have to be managed to prevent adverse consequences. Spartina alterniflora has invaded many marshes where salinity and inundation are often key factors affecting vegetation. The former was surface clipped twice and native Phragmites australis was planted in invaded zones to examine the effects of habitat properties on the efficacy of invader control and native restoration. The results showed that two clipping treatments almost eliminated S. alterniflora in the zones with long inundation periods of 80 h/15 d but stimulated compensatory growth of S. alterniflora in the zones with short inundation periods. Transplanted P. australis performed better over time in zones with low salinity (removal of the above-ground parts of S. alterniflora should be used only in the middle tidal zones and that native vegetation should be planted in zones above the mean high water level while the others zones in the saltmarsh should be restored to mud flats. Usually, invasive plants can flourish in highly heterogeneous habitats, which can influence management efficacy by influencing the re-growth of treated invaders and the performance of restored native species. Therefore, habitat-specific management regimes for invasive species can be expected to be more efficient because of their dependence on specific habitats.

  17. Influence of two barrier membranes on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs. Part 2: augmentation using bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihatovic, Ilja; Becker, Jürgen; Golubovic, Vladimir; Hegewald, Andrea; Schwarz, Frank

    2012-03-01

    To assess the influence of two barrier membranes and two bone graft substitutes on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs. Saddle-type defects were prepared in the lower jaws of 6 fox hounds and randomly filled with a natural bone mineral (NBM) and a biphasic calcium phosphate (SBC) and allocated to either an in situ gelling polyethylene glycol (PEG) or a collagen membrane (CM). At 8 weeks, modSLA titanium implants were inserted and left to heal in a submerged position. At 8+2 weeks, respectively, dissected blocks were processed for histomorphometrical analysis (e.g., mineralized tissue [MT], bone-to-implant contact [BIC]). The mean MT values (mm2) and BIC values (%) tended to be higher in the PEG groups (MT: NBM [3.4±1.7]; SBC [4.2±2]/BIC: NBM [67.7±16.9]; SBC [66.9±17.8]) when compared with the corresponding CM groups (MT: NBM [2.5±0.8]; SBC [2.3±1.6]/BIC: NBM [54.1±22.6]; SBC [61±8.7]). These differences, however, did not reach statistical significance. It was concluded that all augmentation procedures investigated supported bone regeneration and staged osseointegration of modSLA titanium implants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. The influence of p H and UV visible absorption on hydrolysis stage and gel behavior of glasses synthesized by sol-gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosravi Saghezchi, M.; Sarpoolaky, H.; Heshmatpour, F.

    2008-01-01

    Lead-containing glass borosilicate was synthesized by Sol-gel technique using metal alkoxide such as tetra ethyleorthosilicate, Al-sec-butoxide and trimethyl borate. The sol containing tetra ethyle ortho silicate converts to gel during drop wise addition of Al-alkoxide while inorganic lead salt was added in the last stage of gelation to prepare the alcogels. The specimens were dried at room temperature to set then heated at 600 d eg C quickly to avoid crystallization preparing a glass containing 63 weight percent lead oxide. The influence of p H on absorption behavior of the sols studied by UV visible technique so the characteristic of the gel, alcogel and xerogel were studied in the different acidic concentrations. The UV spectrums show that the higher the acidity of the hydrolysis stages, the higher the absorbance. The results showed the sample with 63 weight percent lead was found fully amorphous. Microstructure and phase analysis of the glass powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis

  19. Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber thinning and the homo-interface model: Influence of Mo back contact and 3-stage process on device characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, E.; Arzel, L.; Tomassini, M.; Barreau, N., E-mail: nicolas.barreau@univ-nantes.fr [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Zabierowski, P. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, PL 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Fuertes Marrón, D. [Instituto de Energía Solar–ETSIT, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-21

    Thinning the absorber layer is one of the possibilities envisaged to further decrease the production costs of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin films solar cell technology. In the present study, the electronic transport in submicron CIGSe-based devices has been investigated and compared to that of standard devices. It is observed that when the absorber is around 0.5 μm-thick, tunnelling enhanced interface recombination dominates, which harms cells energy conversion efficiency. It is also shown that by varying either the properties of the Mo back contact or the characteristics of 3-stage growth processing, one can shift the dominating recombination mechanism from interface to space charge region and thereby improve the cells efficiency. Discussions on these experimental facts led to the conclusions that 3-stage process implies the formation of a CIGSe/CIGSe homo-interface, whose location as well as properties rule the device operation; its influence is enhanced in submicron CIGSe based solar cells.

  20. Evaluating the influence of plant-specific physiological parameterizations on the partitioning of land surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, Mauro; Langensiepen, Matthias; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Schickling, Anke; Simmer, Clemens; Kollet, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation has a significant influence on the partitioning of radiative forcing, the spatial and temporal variability of soil water and soil temperature. Therefore plant physiological properties play a key role in mediating and amplifying interactions and feedback mechanisms in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Because of the direct impact on latent heat fluxes, these properties may also influence weather generating processes, such as the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In land surface models, plant physiological properties are usually obtained from literature synthesis by unifying several plant/crop species in predefined vegetation classes. In this work, crop-specific physiological characteristics, retrieved from detailed field measurements, are included in the bio-physical parameterization of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is a component of the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP). The measured set of parameters for two typical European mid-latitudinal crops (sugar beet and winter wheat) is validated using eddy covariance measurements (sensible heat and latent heat) over multiple years from three measurement sites located in the North Rhine-Westphalia region, Germany. We found clear improvements of CLM simulations, when using the crop-specific physiological characteristics of the plants instead of the generic crop type when compared to the measurements. In particular, the increase of latent heat fluxes in conjunction with decreased sensible heat fluxes as simulated by the two new crop-specific parameter sets leads to an improved quantification of the diurnal energy partitioning. These findings are cross-validated using estimates of gross primary production extracted from net ecosystem exchange measurements. This independent analysis reveals that the better agreement between observed and simulated latent heat using the plant-specific physiological properties largely stems from an improved simulation of the

  1. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Akoth Ogada

    Full Text Available Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant, as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.

  2. Is splash erosion potential species specific? Measuring of splash erosion potential under forest in different succession stages along a biodiversity gradient in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, C.; Kühn, P.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    is 2.5 times higher than in open field despite the fact that only 60 percent of open field rainfall reaches the ground. The results also indicate that sand loss is a function of the age of the specific forest stand and the variability of sand loss under different species with respect to space and time. These and future results will help managing afforestation projects in giving implications which of the species (resp. species compositions) may reduce most effectively potential splash erosion. References: Brandt, C. J. (1989): The size distribution of throughfall drops under vegetation canopies. Catena 16, p. 507-524. Calder, I. R. (2001): Canopy processes: implications for transpiration, interception and splash induced erosion, ultimately for forest management and water resources. Plant Ecology 153, p. 203-214. Ellison, W. D. (1947): Soil Erosion Studies - Part II. Soil Detachment Hazard by Raindrop Splash. Agricultural Engineering 28, p. 197-201. Foot, K.; Morgan, R. P. C. (2005): The role of leaf inclination, leaf orientation and plant canopy architecture in soil particle detachment by raindrops. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 30, p. 1509-1520. Nanko, K.; Hotta, N. & Suzuki, M. (2006): Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on throughfall drop size distribution. Journal of Hydrology 329, p. 422-431. Vis, M. (1986): Interception, drop size distributions and rainfall kinetic energy in four colombian forest ecosystems. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 11, p. 591-603.

  3. Influence of anatomy and basic density on specific cutting force for wood from Corymbia citriodora Hill & Johnson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz-E. de L. Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of xylem tissue cell structure, determined through biometry and basic density of the wood from Corymbia citriodora Hill & Johnson on consumption of specific 90º-0º longitudinal cutting force.Area of study: The study area was in the region of the Vale do Rio Doce - Minas Gerais, Brazil.Material and methods: A diametrical board with dimensions of 60 x 18 x 5 cm (length x width x thickness, respectively, with more than 1.3 m from the ground, was removed. In machining trials, a 400 mm diameter circular saw was used, with 24 “WZ” teeth, feed rate of 10 m.min-1, cutting speed of 61 m.s-1, and maximum instantaneous torque of 92.5 N.m. During cutting, test specimens were removed with alternated and parallel 1.5 cm edges in 6 radial positions, which were used for biometric determination of cell structure and basic density.Main results: It was observed that wood basic density, vessel diameter, fiber wall thickness, fiber wall fraction and fiber wall portion were directly proportional to the specific cutting force. In contrast, vessel frequency and fiber lumen diameter proved to be inversely proportional to cutting force.Research highlights: This work provides important values of quantification of influence of xylem tissue cell structure, determined through biometry and physical properties of the wood that may be used to prediction of consumption of specific cutting force.Keywords: wood machining; wood properties; optimization of the process.

  4. The EG95 Antigen of Echinococcus spp. Contains Positively Selected Amino Acids, which May Influence Host Specificity and Vaccine Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Karen Luisa; Gottstein, Bruno; Ayala, Francisco Jose

    2009-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease of humans and various herbivorous domestic animals (intermediate hosts) transmitted by the contact with wild and domestic carnivores (definitive hosts), mainly foxes and dogs. Recently, a vaccine was developed showing high levels of protection against one parasite haplotype (G1) of Echinococcus granulosus, and its potential efficacy against distinct parasite variants or species is still unclear. Interestingly, the EG95 vaccine antigen is a secreted glycosylphosphatydilinositol (GPI)-anchored protein containing a fibronectin type III domain, which is ubiquitous in modular proteins involved in cell adhesion. EG95 is highly expressed in oncospheres, the parasite life cycle stage which actively invades the intermediate hosts. After amplifying and sequencing the complete CDS of 57 Echinococcus isolates belonging to 7 distinct species, we uncovered a large amount of genetic variability, which may influence protein folding. Two positively selected sites are outside the vaccine epitopes, but are predicted to alter protein conformation. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses indicate that EG95 isoform evolution is convergent with regard to the number of beta-sheets and alpha-helices. We conclude that having a variety of EG95 isoforms is adaptive for Echinococcus parasites, in terms of their ability to invade different hosts, and we propose that a mixture of isoforms could possibly maximize vaccine efficacy. PMID:19401778

  5. Population and life-stage-specific effects of two herbicide formulations on the aquatic development of European common frogs (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan; Viertel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination is suggested to contribute to amphibian population declines. However, the effects of a contaminant on a particular amphibian species can differ among populations. The authors investigated the toxic effects of 2 herbicide formulations on different populations and on representative developmental stages of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Larvae from forest populations were more sensitive to a commonly used glyphosate-based herbicide compared with individuals from agrarian land. Median lethal concentrations correlated with measured glyphosate levels in the breeding ponds, which may be a sign of evolved tolerances. The reverse result was observed for a less commonly used cycloxydim-based herbicide. Effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide were stronger for earlier larval stages compared with later larval stages. Hence, applications in early spring (when early larvae are present in breeding ponds) pose greater risk concerning acute toxic effects on R. temporaria. With regard to late larval stages, short exposure (96 h) of prometamorphic larvae prolonged time to metamorphosis, but only at the highest test concentration that did not significantly induce mortality. This could be due to impairment of the thyroid axis. Notably, nearly all test concentrations of the 2 herbicides provoked growth retardation. Further research on how evolved or induced tolerances are acquired, actual contamination levels of amphibian habitats, and potential endocrine effects of glyphosate-based herbicides is necessary. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:190-200. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. A study on specific heat capacities of Li-ion cell components and their influence on thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, André; Herberger, Sabrina; Seegert, Philipp; Wetzel, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Thermal models of Li-ion cells on various geometrical scales and with various complexity have been developed in the past to account for the temperature dependent behaviour of Li-ion cells. These models require accurate data on thermal material properties to offer reliable validation and interpretation of the results. In this context a thorough study on the specific heat capacities of Li-ion cells starting from raw materials and electrode coatings to representative unit cells of jelly rolls/electrode stacks with lumped values was conducted. The specific heat capacity is reported as a function of temperature and state of charge (SOC). Seven Li-ion cells from different manufactures with different cell chemistry, application and design were considered and generally applicable correlations were developed. A 2D thermal model of an automotive Li-ion cell for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) application illustrates the influence of specific heat capacity on the effectivity of cooling concepts and the temperature development of Li-ion cells.

  7. A Comparison of Alternative Specifications of the College Attendance Equation with an Extension to two-stage Selectivity-Correction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmer, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Estimates a college-attendance equation for a common set of students (from the High School and Beyond Survey) using three popular econometric specifications: the multinomial logit, the ordered probit, and the bivariate probit. Estimated marginal effects do not differ significantly across the three specifications. Choice of specification may not…

  8. The Quality of Deliberation in Two Committees of the European Parliament: The Neglected Influence of the Situational Context and the Policymaking Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Roger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we try to answer two empirical research questions. First, we assess the deliberative quality of discussions in two committees of the EU Parliament. In order to do so, we use a slightly revised version of the DQI. Second, we identify and empirically measure those variables that systematically influence the quality of deliberation in interviews with debate actors. We argue that the quality of deliberation in EU committees is influenced by two normative values: deliberation (common good orientation and responsiveness (particular interest orientation, with the guiding value determined by the particular situation. Using a multidimensional concept of deliberation, we empirically test the impact of situational variables on specific aspects of deliberative quality. In addition, we take into account the temporal dimension of deliberation.

  9. Social media influencers - why we cannot ignore them : An exploratory study about how consumers perceive the influence of social media influencers during the different stages of the purchase decision process

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Social media is connecting individuals all over the world, where the power of interaction and information sharing has shifted from companies to consumers. Since companies now have a harder time reaching out to consumers, social media influencers have been used as a solution to influence the purchase decisions of consumers and thereby drive purchases. However, while social media influencers are said to have an impact on the purchase decisions of consumers, less is actually known about the infl...

  10. Herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript sequence downstream of the promoter influences type-specific reactivation and viral neurotropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertke, Andrea S; Patel, Amita; Krause, Philip R

    2007-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency in sensory nerve ganglia during acute infection and may later periodically reactivate to cause recurrent disease. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) reactivates more efficiently than HSV-2 from trigeminal ganglia while HSV-2 reactivates more efficiently than HSV-1 from lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to cause recurrent orofacial and genital herpes, respectively. In a previous study, a chimeric HSV-2 that expressed the latency-associated transcript (LAT) from HSV-1 reactivated similarly to wild-type HSV-1, suggesting that the LAT influences the type-specific reactivation phenotype of HSV-2. To further define the LAT region essential for type-specific reactivation, we constructed additional chimeric HSV-2 viruses by replacing the HSV-2 LAT promoter (HSV2-LAT-P1) or 2.5 kb of the HSV-2 LAT sequence (HSV2-LAT-S1) with the corresponding regions from HSV-1. HSV2-LAT-S1 was impaired for reactivation in the guinea pig genital model, while its rescuant and HSV2-LAT-P1 reactivated with a wild-type HSV-2 phenotype. Moreover, recurrences of HSV-2-LAT-S1 were frequently fatal, in contrast to the relatively mild recurrences of the other viruses. During recurrences, HSV2-LAT-S1 DNA increased more in the sacral cord compared to its rescuant or HSV-2. Thus, the LAT sequence region, not the LAT promoter region, provides essential elements for type-specific reactivation of HSV-2 and also plays a role in viral neurotropism. HSV-1 DNA, as quantified by real-time PCR, was more abundant in the lumbar spinal cord, while HSV-2 DNA was more abundant in the sacral spinal cord, which may provide insights into the mechanism for type-specific reactivation and different patterns of central nervous system infection of HSV-1 and HSV-2.

  11. Spatiotemporal influence of temperature, air quality, and urban environment on cause-specific mortality during hazy days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hung Chak; Wong, Man Sing; Yang, Lin; Shi, Wenzhong; Yang, Jinxin; Bilal, Muhammad; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2018-03-01

    Haze is an extreme weather event that can severely increase air pollution exposure, resulting in higher burdens on human health. Few studies have explored the health effects of haze, and none have investigated the spatiotemporal interaction between temperature, air quality and urban environment that may exacerbate the adverse health effects of haze. We investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of haze effects and explored the additional effects of temperature, air pollution and urban environment on the short-term mortality risk during hazy days. We applied a Poisson regression model to daily mortality data from 2007 through 2014, to analyze the short-term mortality risk during haze events in Hong Kong. We evaluated the adverse effect on five types of cause-specific mortality after four types of haze event. We also analyzed the additional effect contributed by the spatial variability of urban environment on each type of cause-specific mortality during a specific haze event. A regular hazy day (lag 0) has higher all-cause mortality risk than a day without haze (odds ratio: 1.029 [1.009, 1.049]). We have also observed high mortality risks associated with mental disorders and diseases of the nervous system during hazy days. In addition, extreme weather and air quality contributed to haze-related mortality, while cold weather and higher ground-level ozone had stronger influences on mortality risk. Areas with a high-density environment, lower vegetation, higher anthropogenic heat, and higher PM 2.5 featured stronger effects of haze on mortality than the others. A combined influence of haze, extreme weather/air quality, and urban environment can result in extremely high mortality due to mental/behavioral disorders or diseases of the nervous system. In conclusion, we developed a data-driven technique to analyze the effects of haze on mortality. Our results target the specific dates and areas with higher mortality during haze events, which can be used for development of

  12. Factors influencing on the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in size-specific dust from air conditioner filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxin; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Ningbao; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Dongping; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-11-01

    Size-specific concentrations and bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from air conditioner filters were measured, and the factors influencing the PBDE bioaccessibility were determined. Generally, the PBDE concentrations increased with decreasing dust particle size, and BDE209 (deca-BDE) was generally the predominant congener. The bioaccessibility ranged from 20.3% to 50.8% for tri- to hepta-BDEs, and from 5.1% to 13.9% for BDE209 in dust fractions of varied particle size. The bioaccessibility of most PBDE congeners decreased with increasing dust particle size. The way of being of PBDE (adsorbed to dust surface or incorporated into polymers) in dust significantly influenced the bioaccessibility. There was a significant negative correlation between the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and organic matter (OM) contents in dust. Furthermore, tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility increased with increasing polarity of OMs, while with decreasing aromaticity of OMs. The tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility significantly positively correlated with the surface areas and pore volumes of dust. Using multiple linear regression analysis, it was found that the OM contents and pore volumes of dust were the most important factors to influence the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and they could be used to estimate the bioaccessibility of tri- to hepta-BDEs according to the following equation: bioaccessibility (%)=45.05-0.49 × OM%+1.79 × pore volume. However, BDE209 bioaccessibility did not correlate to any of these factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of HIV disease events/stages on smoking attitudes and behaviors: project STATE (Study of Tobacco Attitudes and Teachable Events).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Fletcher, Faith E; Buchberg, Meredith K; Li, Yisheng; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-02-11

    Given the increase in life expectancy among HIV-positive individuals attributable to antiretroviral therapies, cigarette smoking now represents one of the most salient health risks confronting the HIV-positive population. Despite this risk, very few efforts to date have been made to target persons living with HIV for smoking cessation treatment, and no efforts have been made to explore the role of cognitions and HIV disease events/stages on smoking outcomes. The purpose of the study, Project STATE (Study of Tobacco Attitudes and Teachable Events), is to prospectively examine the relationship between HIV events/stages, perceived impact of HIV disease, attitudes about cigarette smoking, and smoking behaviors. This study employs a prospective design. Patients are recruited at the time of their first physician visit at a large inner city HIV-clinic--Thomas Street Health Center (TSHC). Consenting participants then complete a baseline assessment. All participants are offered standard care smoking cessation treatment. Follow-up assessments are completed on four subsequent occasions: 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-baseline. These follow-up assessments are scheduled to coincide with routine clinic appointments with their TSHC physicians. In addition, each participant is given a prepaid cell phone at the time of enrollment and asked to complete brief phone assessments weekly for the first three months of the study period. By evaluating events/stages of HIV disease as potential teaching moments for smoking cessation, findings from this study could be used to develop treatments tailored to an individual's stage of HIV disease. This study design will enable us to carefully track changes in smoking behavior over time, and to link these changes to both the course of HIV disease and/or to the participant's' perceived impact of HIV. By identifying optimal time points for intervention, the findings from this study will have the potential to maximize the efficiency and efficacy of

  14. MR-specific staging of chondromalacia patellae using a special knee compressor: Comparison with arthroscopic findings. MRT-spezifische Einteilung der Chondromalacia patellae unter Zuhilfenahme eines speziellen Kniekompressors: Gegenueberstellung mit dem arthroskopischen Befund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, R. (Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinik Steglitz, FU Berlin (Germany)); Radmer, S. (Orthopaedisches Fachinst., Berlin (Germany)); Koenig, H. (Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinik Steglitz, FU Berlin (Germany));