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Sample records for stage special attention

  1. Unintentionality of affective attention across visual processing stages

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    Andero eUusberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective attention involves bottom-up perceptual selection that prioritizes motivationally significant stimuli. To clarify the extent to which this process is automatic, we investigated the dependence of affective attention on the intention to process emotional meaning. Affective attention was manipulated by presenting IAPS images with variable arousal and intentionality by requiring participants to make affective and non-affective evaluations. Polytomous rather than binary decisions were required from the participants in order to elicit relatively deep emotional processing. The temporal dynamics of prioritized processing were assessed using Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, 175-300 ms as well as P3-like (P3, 300 – 500 ms and Slow Wave (SW, 500 – 1500 ms portions of the Late Positive Potential. All analysed components were differentially sensitive to stimulus categories suggesting that they indeed reflect distinct stages of motivational significance encoding. The intention to perceive emotional meaning had no effect on EPN, an additive effect on P3, and an interactive effect on SW. We concluded that affective attention went from completely unintentional during the EPN to partially unintentional during P3 and SW where top-down signals, respectively, complemented and modulated bottom-up differences in stimulus prioritization. The findings were interpreted in light of two-stage models of visual perception by associating the EPN with large-capacity initial relevance detection and the P3 as well as SW with capacity-limited consolidation and elaboration of affective stimuli.

  2. A Dual-Stage Two-Phase Model of Selective Attention

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    Hubner, Ronald; Steinhauser, Marco; Lehle, Carola

    2010-01-01

    The dual-stage two-phase (DSTP) model is introduced as a formal and general model of selective attention that includes both an early and a late stage of stimulus selection. Whereas at the early stage information is selected by perceptual filters whose selectivity is relatively limited, at the late stage stimuli are selected more efficiently on a…

  3. Dynamics of general and specially trained of women-weightlifters at the stage of specialized basic training

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    Viktor Slobodyanuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the dynamics of the general and special training of women-weightlifters different groups weight categories for annual macrocycle at the stage of specialized basic training. Materials and Methods: indexes long jump, running 30 meters, push-ups, jumps on how Abalakova index and wrist strength athletes different schools of Ukraine. Results: found dynamic indicators of general and special training of women-weightlifters different groups weight categories at the stage of basic training six specialized schools in Ukraine. Conclusions: the results of the study provide an opportunity to consider certain indicators in planning differentiated training programs to improve the training process athletes for women-weightlifters at the stage of specialized basic training different groups weight categories in the annual macrocycle.

  4. Covert orienting in the split brain: Right hemisphere specialization for object-based attention.

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    Kingstone, Alan

    2015-12-18

    The present paper takes as its starting point Phil Bryden's long-standing interest in human attention and the role it can play in laterality effects. Past split-brain research has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the left hemisphere [e.g., Egly, R., Rafal, R. D., Driver, J., & Starreveld, Y. (1994). Covert orienting in the split brain reveals hemispheric specialization for object-based attention. Psychological Science, 5(6), 380-382]. The task used to isolate object-based attention in that previous work, however, has been found wanting [Vecera, S. P. (1994). Grouped locations and object-based attention: Comment on Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(3), 316-320]; and indeed, subsequent research with healthy participants using a different task has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the opposite right hemisphere (RH) [Valsangkar-Smyth, M. A., Donovan, C. L., Sinnett, S., Dawson, M. R., & Kingstone, A. (2004). Hemispheric performance in object-based attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(1), 84-91]. The present study tested the same split-brain as Egly, Rafal, et al. (1994) but used the object-based attention task introduced by Valsangkar-Smyth et al. (2004). The results confirm that object-based attention is lateralized to the RH. They also suggest that subcortical interhemispheric competition may occur and be dominated by the RH.

  5. Special Education for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder: Current Issues. CRS Report for Congress.

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    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper examines issues concerning the eligibility of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) for special education and related services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). A policy memorandum was issued by the Department of Education in September 1991, identifying those circumstances under which such children…

  6. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal § 241.10...

  7. Attention modulations on the perception of social hierarchy at distinct temporal stages: an electrophysiological investigation.

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    Feng, Chunliang; Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the preferential processing of superior-hierarchy cues. However, it remains poorly understood whether top-down controlled mechanisms modulate temporal dynamics of neurocognitive substrates underlying the preferential processing of these biologically and socially relevant cues. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related potentials from participants who were presented with superior or inferior social hierarchy. Participants performed a hierarchy-judgment task that required attention to hierarchy cues or a gender-judgment task that withdrew their attention from these cues. Superior-hierarchy cues evoked stronger neural responses than inferior-hierarchy cues at both early (N170/N200) and late (late positive potential, LPP) temporal stages. Notably, the modulations of top-down attention were identified on the LPP component, such that superior-hierarchy cues evoked larger LPP amplitudes than inferior-hierarchy cues only in the attended condition; whereas the modulations of the N170/N200 component by hierarchy cues were evident in both attended and unattended conditions. These findings suggest that the preferential perception of superior-hierarchy cues involves both relatively automatic attentional bias at the early temporal stage as well as flexible and voluntary cognitive evaluation at the late temporal stage. Finally, these hierarchy-related effects were absent when participants were shown the same stimuli which, however, were not associated with social-hierarchy information in a non-hierarchy task (Experiment 2), suggesting that effects of social hierarchy at early and late temporal stages could not be accounted for by differences in physical attributes between these social cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of the parameters of attention in basketball at the stage of preliminary basic preparation

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    Olena Mitova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the parameters of attention of basketball players aged 13–14 years old before and after the exercises of various kinds. Material and Methods: the study involved 3 teams of basketball players aged 13–14 years old from training groups. The total number of investigated people is 50. The study was carried out on the basis of Sports Children and Youth Olympic school № 5 in Dnepropetrovsk. We used the methods of theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, the method of analysis of documentary materials, pedagogical supervision, psychological testing, pulsometry, methods of mathematical statistics.The following techniques were used to determine the parameters of attention: «Mixed up line», proofreading test with Landoldt rings, proofreading test with letters. Results: during our research there was defined the predominantly low level of attention of basketball players at the stage of preliminary basic preparation. It was found out the specific nature of the load influences the decrease of the parameters in a greater degree, especially concentration, switching, and stability decline, the number of errors increases. Conclusions: on the basis of studies arises the necessity to improve monitoring systems in the Sports Children and Youth schools with usage of tests to determine the components of psychological readiness

  9. Attention.

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    Callahan, Patrick M; Terry, Alvin V

    2015-01-01

    The ability to focus one's attention on important environmental stimuli while ignoring irrelevant stimuli is fundamental to human cognition and intellectual function. Attention is inextricably linked to perception, learning and memory, and executive function; however, it is often impaired in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accordingly, attention is considered as an important therapeutic target in these disorders. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the most common behavioral paradigms of attention that have been used in animals (particularly rodents) and to review the literature where these tasks have been employed to elucidate neurobiological substrates of attention as well as to evaluate novel pharmacological agents for their potential as treatments for disorders of attention. These paradigms include two tasks of sustained attention that were developed as rodent analogues of the human Continuous Performance Task (CPT), the Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) and the more recently introduced Five-Choice Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT), and the Signal Detection Task (SDT) which was designed to emphasize temporal components of attention.

  10. Peculiarities of morphological indexes of the pushers of the nucleus at the stage of specialized basic preparation

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    Vladyslav Rozhkov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: explore peculiarities morphological indexes of the pushers of the nucleus at the stage of specialized basic preparation. Material & Methods: the study was attended by 12 core pushers 15–17 years who were at the stage of specialized basic training. We used the following methods: analysis and synthesis of scientific and technical literature, the definition of anthropometric indicators index method. Results: presented morphological indexes of the pushers of the nucleus at the stage of specialized basic preparation. Conclusions: the figures obtained showed that at the stage of specialized basic preparation the somatotype of shot-putters corresponds the somatotype of the highly qualified shot-putters.

  11. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

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    Panda Sujogya Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.

  12. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

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    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842

  13. Method of development force at the young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation

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    Khudolii O.N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The terms of effective development of force are considered for young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation. The models of urgent and moved aside training effect of the power loadings are certain for young gymnasts 7-13 years. It is set that the process of power preparation of young gymnasts can be separate on two stages. On the first stage by means of the concentrated power loadings the expressed decline of force of group of muscles is arrived at. On the second stage by means of favourable a display maximal efforts of loadings the increase of force of group of muscles is arrived at. Application of the power loadings of different orientation is given by possibility during 10-12 employments on 30-60% to increase force of group of muscles, shorten time of training on development of force in two times.

  14. Treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with Special Health Care Needs.

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    Visser, Susanna N; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Danielson, Melissa L; Ghandour, Reem M; Blumberg, Stephen J; Schieve, Laura A; Holbrook, Joseph R; Wolraich, Mark L; Cuffe, Steven P

    2015-06-01

    To describe the parent-reported prevalence of treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among a national sample of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), and assess the alignment of ADHD treatment with current American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Parent-reported data from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs allowed for weighted national and state-based prevalence estimates of medication, behavioral therapy, and dietary supplement use for ADHD treatment among CSHCN aged 4-17 years with current ADHD. National estimates were compared across demographic groups, ADHD severity, and comorbidities. Medication treatment by drug class was described. Of CSHCN with current ADHD, 74.0% had received medication treatment in the past week, 44.0% had received behavioral therapy in the past year, and 10.2% used dietary supplements for ADHD in the past year. Overall, 87.3% had received past week medication treatment or past year behavioral therapy (both, 30.7%; neither, 12.7%). Among preschool-aged CSHCN with ADHD, 25.4% received medication treatment alone, 31.9% received behavioral therapy alone, 21.2% received both treatments, and 21.4% received neither treatment. Central nervous system stimulants were the most common medication class (84.8%) among CSHCN with ADHD, followed by the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine (8.4%). These estimates provide a benchmark of clinical practice for the period directly preceding issuance of the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2011 ADHD guidelines. Most children with ADHD received medication treatment or behavioral therapy; just under one-third received both. Multimodal treatment was most common for CSHCN with severe ADHD and those with comorbidities. Approximately one-half of preschoolers received behavioral therapy, the recommended first-line treatment for this age group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Neuronal generator patterns at scalp elicited by lateralized aversive pictures reveal consecutive stages of motivated attention.

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    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Abraham, Karen S; Alschuler, Daniel M; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Skipper, Jamie; Warner, Virginia; Bruder, Gerard E; Weissman, Myrna M

    2016-11-15

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have provided evidence for an allocation of attentional resources to enhance perceptual processing of motivationally salient stimuli. Emotional modulation affects several consecutive components associated with stages of affective-cognitive processing, beginning as early as 100-200ms after stimulus onset. In agreement with the notion that the right parietotemporal region is critically involved during the perception of arousing affective stimuli, some ERP studies have reported asymmetric emotional ERP effects. However, it is difficult to separate emotional from non-emotional effects because differences in stimulus content unrelated to affective salience or task demands may also be associated with lateralized function or promote cognitive processing. Other concerns pertain to the operational definition and statistical independence of ERP component measures, their dependence on an EEG reference, and spatial smearing due to volume conduction, all of which impede the identification of distinct scalp activation patterns associated with affective processing. Building on prior research using a visual half-field paradigm with highly controlled emotional stimuli (pictures of cosmetic surgery patients showing disordered [negative] or healed [neutral] facial areas before or after treatment), 72-channel ERPs recorded from 152 individuals (ages 13-68years; 81 female) were transformed into reference-free current source density (CSD) waveforms and submitted to temporal principal components analysis (PCA) to identify their underlying neuronal generator patterns. Using both nonparametric randomization tests and repeated measures ANOVA, robust effects of emotional content were found over parietooccipital regions for CSD factors corresponding to N2 sink (212ms peak latency), P3 source (385ms) and a late centroparietal source (630ms), all indicative of greater positivity for negative than neutral stimuli. For the N2 sink, emotional effects were

  16. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

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    Hing Keung Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers. Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships.

  17. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory.

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    Ma, Hing Keung

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins) or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends) or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers). Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships.

  18. The Development of Altruism with Special Reference to Human Relationships: A 10-Stage Theory

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    Ma, Hing Keung

    2017-01-01

    All human relationships involve some form of cost and benefit and altruism forms the foundation upon which human relationships are built. In this paper, a taxonomy of human relationships in terms of altruism was constructed. In the proposed taxonomy, human relationships are categorized into three major groups: primary group, secondary group, and tertiary group. The primary group consists of members that are very closely related to each other either by genetic relatedness (e.g., parents, siblings, and cousins) or social relatedness (e.g., mate and close friends) or both. The secondary group consists of members that are socially related but also less closely related with each other (e.g., people of the same political or religious group, teachers, mentors, acquaintances, neighbors, working colleagues, and strangers). Lastly, the tertiary group consists of members of other species. A 10-stage theory of altruism with special reference to human relationships is proposed. The affective, cognitive, and relationship aspects of each stage are delineated in details. There are two developmental principles of altruism. The first principle states that the development of altruism follows the 10-stage theory and moves from Stage 1: Egoism toward the higher stages of altruism slowly. The second developmental principle states that the taxonomy of human relationships is valid at any stage of altruism development. In other words, people at any stage of altruism are more altruistic toward their kin and mate, and then close friends, extended family members, and so on. They are least altruistic toward enemies and members of non-human species. In summary, the proposed developmental principle of altruism and human relationships is logical and robust. It is formulated based on the major developmental and social psychological theories. The theory has the potential in providing a useful framework for future studies on the development and evolution of human relationships. PMID:29085818

  19. Bioenergy costs and potentials with special attention to implications for the land system

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    Popp, A.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Dietrich, J.; Klein, D.; Bauer, N.; Krause, M.; Beringer, T.; Gerten, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the coming decades, an increasing competition for global land and water resources can be expected, due to rising demand for agricultural products, goals of nature conservation, and changing production conditions due to climate change. Especially biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, is being proposed to play a substantial role in future energy systems if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements, land availability for biomass plantations, and implications for the land system. In order to explore the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low carbon transition with special attention to implications for the land system, we present a modeling framework with detailed biophysical and economic representation of the land and energy sector: We have linked the global dynamic vegetation and water balance model LPJmL (Bondeau et al. 2007, Rost et al. 2008), the global land and water use model MAgPIE (Lotze-Campen et al. 2008, Popp et al. 2010), and the global energy-economy-climate model ReMIND (Leimbach et al. 2009). In this modeling framework LPJmL supplies spatially explicit (0.5° resolution) agricultural yields as well as carbon and water stocks and fluxes. Based on this biophysical input MAgPIE delivers cost-optimized land use patterns (0.5° resolution), associated GHG emissions and rates of future yield increases in agricultural production. Moreover, shadow prices are calculated for irrigation water (as an indicator for water scarcity), food commodities, and bioenergy (as an indicator for changes in production costs) under different land use constraints such as forest conservation for climate change mitigation and as a contribution to biodiversity conservation. The energy-economy-climate model ReMIND generates the demand for

  20. Intraoperative delineation of brain tumors with special attention of photodynamic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, G.M.

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation gives an overview of the intraoperative techniques of detection of malignant gliomas with special attention of photodynamic diagnosis. The exact identification of infiltrating parts of the malignoma allows the neurosurgeon to perform a resection as complete as possible with sparing eloquent areas. The quality of the m-THPC-induced fluorescence and the influence of the fluorescence-guided resection on the extent of resection are evaluated by histology and on early postoperative MR-imagings. 22 patients suffering from malignant brain tumors receive m-THPC (Foscan: 0,15 mg/kg KG) intravenously four days before operation. After excitation with violet-blue light (370 to 440 nm) tumor-associated red fluorescence is observed either by the naked eye, either by a standard CCD camera and verified by analysis of fluorescence spectra. The surgeon removes fluorescing tissue whenever it is considered safely possible. 138 biopsis are taken of fluorescing and non fluorescing areas in order to correlate them with history. Furthermore the presence of residual enhancement on early postoperative MR-imaging and its congruence in localization with the intraoperative fluorescence are studied. Histological analysis demonstrate 87,9 % sensitivity and 95,7 % specificity for predicting the presence of malignant tissue from visible m-THPC-fluorescence. In 75 % further fluorescence-guided resection is performed. The percentage of postoperative MR-Imagings without residual enhancement after application of PDD rises distinctly. A sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 84,6 % are evaluated in the correlation between the presence of m-THPC-fluorescence after resection and the presence of residual enhancement on postoperative MRI. The anatomical localization of the residual tumor on imaging corresponds with the localization of the intraoperative residual fluorescence in all cases. m-THPC-guided resection is a safe and selective method to detect intraoperatively infiltrating

  1. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

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    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…

  2. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 2: MAIN STAGES AND PROSPECTS

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    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is to complete the description of the special mapping method which theoretical basis and principles were published in [Seminsky, 2014]. With reference to data on the Ulirba site located in Priolkhonie (Western Pribaikalie, the content of special mapping is reviewed in detail. The method is based on paragenetical analysis of abundant jointing which specific feature is the lack of any visible displacement indicators. There are three stages in the special mapping method (Fig. 3 as follows:Stage I: Preparation and analysis of previously published data on the regional fault structure (Fig. 1, А–Г, establishment of a networks of stations to conduct structural geological monitoring and mass measurements of joints, re­cord of rock data (Fig. 2, А, general state of the fault network (Fig. 1, Д–З, fracture density (Fig. 2, Б and, if any, structures of the above-jointing level (Fig. 1, Е, З; Fig. 2, А.Stage II is aimed at processing of field data and includes activities in four groups (II.1–II.4 as follows: Group II.1: construction of circle diagrams, specification of characteristics of joint systems and their typical scatters (Fig. 4, А, identification of simple (generally tipple paragenesises, and determination of dynamic settings of their formation (translocal rank (Table 1, evaluation of densities and complexity of the joint networks, analysis of their spacial patterns within the site under mapping, and identification of the most intensively destructed zones in the rock massif (Fig. 2, Б–В. Group II.2: comparison of jointing diagrams with reference ones showing joint poles (Fig. 4, Б–В; Е–З; Л–Н, and, in case of their satisfactory correlation, making a conclusion of potential formation of a specific joint pattern in the local zone of strike-slip, normal faulting or reverse faulting (Fig. 4,  Г–Д, И–К, О–П; Fig. 5; Fig. 7, Б, and determination of relative age relationships between such zones on

  3. Top-Down Control of Visual Attention by the Prefrontal Cortex. Functional Specialization and Long-Range Interactions

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    Paneri, Sofia; Gregoriou, Georgia G.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention. Among these areas, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has long been considered a source of top-down signals that bias selection in early visual areas in favor of the attended features. Here, we review recent experimental data that support the role of PFC in attention. We examine the existing evidence for functional specialization within PFC and we discuss how long-range interactions between PFC subregions and posterior visual areas may be implemented in the brain and contribute to the attentional modulation of different measures of neural activity in visual cortices. PMID:29033784

  4. Top-Down Control of Visual Attention by the Prefrontal Cortex. Functional Specialization and Long-Range Interactions

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    Sofia Paneri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention. Among these areas, the prefrontal cortex (PFC has long been considered a source of top-down signals that bias selection in early visual areas in favor of the attended features. Here, we review recent experimental data that support the role of PFC in attention. We examine the existing evidence for functional specialization within PFC and we discuss how long-range interactions between PFC subregions and posterior visual areas may be implemented in the brain and contribute to the attentional modulation of different measures of neural activity in visual cortices.

  5. Science and technology of rubber reclamation with special attention to NR based waste latex products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of reclamation of cured rubber with special emphasis on latex reclamation is depicted in this paper. The latex industry has expanded over the years to meet the world demands for gloves, condoms, latex thread, etc. Due to the strict specifications for the products and the

  6. Attention capture by contour onsets and offsets: no special role for onsets.

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    Watson, D G; Humphreys, G W

    1995-07-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the power of targets defined by the onset or offset of one of an object's parts (contour onsets and offsets) either to guide or to capture visual attention. In Experiment 1, search for a single contour onset target was compared with search for a single contour offset target against a static background of distractors; no difference was found between the efficiency with which each could be detected. In Experiment 2, onsets and offsets were compared for automatic attention capture, when both occurred simultaneously. Unlike in previous studies, the effects of overall luminance change, new-object creation, and number of onset and offset items were controlled. It was found that contour onset and offset items captured attention equally well. However, display size effects on both target types were also apparent. Such effects may have been due to competition for selection between multiple onset and offset stimuli. In Experiments 3 and 4, single onset and offset stimuli were presented simultaneously and pitted directly against one another among a background of static distractors. In Experiment 3, we examined "guided search," for a target that was formed either from an onset or from an offset among static items. In Experiment 4, the onsets and offsets were uncorrelated with the target location. Similar results occurred in both experiments: target onsets and offsets were detected more efficiently than static stimuli which needed serial search; there remained effects of display size on performance; but there was still no advantage for onsets. In Experiment 5, we examined automatic attention capture by single onset and offset stimuli presented individually among static distractors. Again, there was no advantage for onset over offset targets and a display size effect was also present. These results suggest that, both in isolation and in competition, onsets that do not form new objects neither guide nor gain automatic attention more efficiently

  7. Introduction to the JPA special issue: Can the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual put the complex person back at the center-stage of personality assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Meyer, Gregory J

    2011-03-01

    We briefly introduce this special issue, which focuses both on the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) and the practice of idiographic, depth-oriented personality assessment. The 7 articles in this issue are diverse in scope but all address these 2 important topics. To set the stage, the special issue opens with a description of the history behind, the purposes of, and the steps taken to develop the PDM, and the next article provides a compelling illustration of depth-oriented personality assessment in the context of a long-term course of psychodynamic treatment. The third and fourth articles describe how the PDM model fosters attention to dynamic processes, not just overt symptoms, and they articulate the challenges and benefits of integrating this model into both the revitalized practice of assessment and diagnosis and the research avenues that will evaluate its validity and utility. The fifth article provides a broad overview of interesting experimental research on implicit processes from personality, social, and cognitive psychology, with implications for understanding and assessing dynamic processes. The sixth article illustrates how a PDM-based assessment of an adolescent boy helpfully contributed to his psychodynamic therapy. Finally, the issue closes with an illuminating article describing a PDM-based training model for the graduated development of assessment and diagnosis skills in a doctoral program. Overall, this special issue helps show how the PDM can invigorate multimethod personality assessment by placing the complex idiographic understanding of a person at the center-stage in the assessment process.

  8. Selective attention to signs of success: social dominance and early stage interpersonal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; DeWall, C Nathan; Gailliot, Matthew T

    2008-04-01

    Results from two experiments suggest that observers selectively attend to male, but not female, targets displaying signs of social dominance. Participants overestimated the frequency of dominant men in rapidly presented stimulus arrays (Study 1) and visually fixated on dominant men in an eyetracking experiment (Study 2). When viewing female targets, participants attended to signs of physical attractiveness rather than social dominance. Findings fit with evolutionary models of mating, which imply that dominance and physical attractiveness sometimes tend to be prioritized preferentially in judgments of men versus women, respectively. Findings suggest that sex differences in human mating are observed not only at the level of overt mating preferences and choices but also at early stages of interpersonal perception. This research demonstrates the utility of examining early-in-the-stream social cognition through the functionalist lens of adaptive thinking.

  9. Fixed-dose combinations of antimicrobials: A need for special attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the issue of freely available fixed-dose combinations (FDCs of antimicrobials. Methods: A critique of two such antimicrobial FDCs was undertaken wherein the following aspects were assessed - rational and regulatory issues and justification for clinical use. Available in vitro, in vivo (animals and humans evidence from published literature was analysed. Conclusions: There are several inadequately addressed aspects of the considered FDCs which are available in Indian market. In view of the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance, this issue must get the required attention.

  10. Disruption of visual awareness during the attentional blink is reflected by selective disruption of late-stage neural processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joseph A.; McMahon, Alex R.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    Any information represented in the brain holds the potential to influence behavior. It is therefore of broad interest to determine the extent and quality of neural processing of stimulus input that occurs with and without awareness. The attentional blink is a useful tool for dissociating neural and behavioral measures of perceptual visual processing across conditions of awareness. The extent of higher-order visual information beyond basic sensory signaling that is processed during the attentional blink remains controversial. To determine what neural processing at the level of visual-object identification occurs in the absence of awareness, electrophysiological responses to images of faces and houses were recorded both within and outside of the attentional blink period during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Electrophysiological results were sorted according to behavioral performance (correctly identified targets versus missed targets) within these blink and non-blink periods. An early index of face-specific processing (the N170, 140–220 ms post-stimulus) was observed regardless of whether the subject demonstrated awareness of the stimulus, whereas a later face-specific effect with the same topographic distribution (500–700 ms post-stimulus) was only seen for accurate behavioral discrimination of the stimulus content. The present findings suggest a multi-stage process of object-category processing, with only the later phase being associated with explicit visual awareness. PMID:23859644

  11. Bulimia nervosa – its prevalence, symptoms and treatment with special attention to oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Osińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bulimia nervosa is a serious and complex health problem encountered by many professionals, including general practitioners and dentists. The aim of the study was to describe the problem of bulimia (its prevalence, symptoms, special situations, treatment, with particular emphasis on the aspect of the oral health. The paper presents the causes and factors contributing to the disease, diagnostic criteria, the onset and the possible course of the disease, dental and oral mucosa pathologies due to bulimia as well as other comorbidities (including diabetes. The paper is of descriptive nature. The research method was based on the analysis of the available literature on bulimia nervosa supplemented by our own experience. It was concluded based on the analysed sources that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of bulimia nervosa is possible only with the cooperation of many specialists: psychiatrists or paediatric psychiatrists, dentists and general practitioners as well as other doctors if necessary. Psychotherapy is a necessary and integral aspect of treatment. Early treatment onset is essential for good treatment outcomes. Due to the low sense of illness, some patients would never meet a psychiatrist if not for the intervention of a family doctor or a dentist.

  12. Age-related loss in attention-based modulation of tactile stimuli at early stages of somatosensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, David A E; Staines, W Richard

    2012-06-01

    Normal aging has been linked to impairments in gating of irrelevant sensory information and neural markers of diminished cognitive processing. Whilst much of the research in this area has focussed on visual and auditory modalities it is unclear to what degree these findings apply to somatosensation. Therefore we investigated how age impacts early event-related potentials (ERPs) arising from relevant or irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli to the fingertips. Specifically, we hypothesised that older adults would demonstrate reduced attention-based modulation of tactile ERPs generated at early stages of cortical somatosensory processing. In accord with previous research we also expected to observe diminished P300 responses to attended targets and behavioural deficits. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only (as instructed) with comparisons between two age groups: (1) Young adults (age range 20-39) and (2) Older adults (age range 62-89). ERP amplitudes for the P50, N70, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at several electrodes (C4, CP4, CP3 and FC4). The P300 in response to attended target stimuli was measured at CPZ. There was no effect of attention on the P50 and N70 however the P100, N140 and LLP were modulated with attention. In both age groups the P100 and LLP were more positive during trials where the stimuli were attended to, whilst the N140 was enhanced for non-attended stimuli. Comparisons between groups revealed a reduction in P100 attention-based modulation for the older adults versus the young adults. This effect was due to a loss of suppression of the non-attended stimuli in older subjects. Moreover, the P300 was both slower and reduced in peak amplitude for older subjects in response to attended targets. Finally, older adults demonstrated impaired performance in terms of both reduced target detection

  13. Optimization of the diabetic nephropathy treatment with attention to the special features of cellular inflammation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Дмитрівна Щербань

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Optimization of the diabetic nephropathy (DN treatment in association with hypertonic disease (HD based on the study of neutrophil chain of pathogenic cellular mechanisms of these diseases development and the special features of its clinical course.Materials and methods. There were complexly examined 86 patients with HD associated with DN and 30 patients with isolated HD. The control group was formed by 30 practically healthy persons. The activity of NO-synthases in neutrophils was detected by Green colorimetric methods using Griess reagent. The expression of ІСАМ-1 (CD54, CD11b-integrin and inducible NO-synthase on neutrophils was detected by the indirect immunocytochemical method. Oxygen-depending activity of neutrophils was assessed in NBT-test.Results. Expression of adhesive molecules of CD54and CD11b-integrin on neutrophils of peripheral blood essentially increases (р <0,001 in patients with DN in association with HD comparing with isolated HD and the control group.At associated pathology on the background of high oxygen-depending activity of neutrophils its functional reserve decreases that results in intensification of inflammatory processes in kidneys (р<0,001.In comorbid patients chronization of pathological process results in imbalance of NO-synthases system in neutrophils: on the background of decrease of activity of constituent NO-synthases the expression and activity of inducible NO-synthase increase (р<0,001 .The use of L-arginine hydrochloride in the complex therapy of patients with DN associated with HD intensifies organoprotective effect of basal therapy, results in facilitation of the clinical course, decreases albuminuria, corrects the functional indices of neutrophils and diminishes imbalance in NO-synthases system.Conclusions. In patients with DN in association with HD the neutrophil chain of cellular inflammation mechanisms are activated: expression of adhesive molecules grows, oxygen-depending metabolism is

  14. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Bauer, Nico; Krause, Michael; Beringer, Tim; Gerten, Dieter; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  15. The association between hemispheric specialization for language production and for spatial attention depends on left-hand preference strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization for language production and spatial attention and their relationships with manual preference strength (MPS) were assessed in a sample of 293 healthy volunteers, including 151 left-handers, using fMRI during covert sentence production (PROD) and line bisection judgment (LBJ) tasks, as compared to high- and low-level reference tasks. At the group level, we found the expected complementary hemispheric specialization (HS) with leftward asymmetries for PROD within frontal and temporal regions and rightward asymmetries for LBJ within frontal and posterior occipito-parieto-temporal regions. Individual hemispheric (HLI) and regional (frontal and occipital) lateralization indices (LI) were then calculated on the activation maps for PROD and LBJ. We found a correlation between the degree of rightward cerebral asymmetry and the leftward behavioral attentional bias recorded during LBJ task. This correlation was found when LBJ-LI was computed over the hemispheres, in the frontal lobes, but not in the occipital lobes. We then investigated whether language production and spatial attention cerebral lateralization relate to each other, and whether manual preference was a variable that impacted the complementary HS of these functions. No correlation was found between spatial and language LIs in the majority of our sample of participants, including right-handers with a strong right-hand preference (sRH, n=97) and mixed-handers (MH, n=97), indicating that these functions lateralized independently. By contrast, in the group of left-handers with a strong left-hand preference (sLH, n= 99), a negative correlation was found between language and spatial lateralization. This negative correlation was found when LBJ-LI and PROD-LI were computed over the hemispheres, in the frontal lobes and between the occipital lobes for LBJ and the frontal lobes for PROD. These findings underline the importance to include sLH in the study sample to reveal the underlying mechanisms of

  16. Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease stage III with special reference to tumour burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nissen, N I

    1988-01-01

    143 patients with Hodgkin's disease stage III (65 PS III, 78 CS III) were treated with radiotherapy alone (33 patients), combination chemotherapy alone (56 patients), or radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy (54 patients). They were followed till death or from 7 to 191 months. Prognostic fac...... regarding early stage disease to the effect that tumour burden is the single most important prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease....

  17. MR-specific staging of chondromalacia patellae using a special knee compressor: Comparison with arthroscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, R.; Radmer, S.; Koenig, H.; Wolf, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present study proposes a new MRI-specific staging of chondromalacia patellae (CMP) which is based on cartilage thickness decrease and signal intensity behaviour under compression as well as cartilage morphology in the plain image. The investigation was performed in 30 patients with varying knee complaints who underwent arthroscopy after MR imaging. It was demonstrated that three CMP stages can already be differentiated by MRI under compression in arthroscopically healthy cartilage. This proves a marked improvement in the early diagnosis of CMP. (orig.) [de

  18. Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease stage III with special reference to tumour burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.

    1988-01-01

    of lymphographically involved regions), histologic subtype, B-symptoms, number of involved regions, mediastinal involvement, pretreatment ESR, sex, age, laparotomy, and substage were examined in multivariate analysis. With regard to disease-free survival, total tumour burden (intraabdominal and peripheral...... regarding early stage disease to the effect that tumour burden is the single most important prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease....

  19. Seedling stage strategies as a means of habitat specialization in herbaceous plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration niche has been little investigated in studies of community assembly and plant distribution. We examined adaptive associations between seedling traits and habitat specialization. Two habitat contrasts were investigated across several evolutionary lineages of angiosperms: species...... specialized to forest vs. open habitats and to dry vs. wet habitats. We also tested whether effects of shade and drought vary independently or, alternatively, if shade may amplify effects on drought-stressed plants. Seedling response in terms of growth rate, height, slenderness, specific leaf area (SLA......) and degree of elongation (longest internode; petiole or leaf-sheath depending on species' morphology) to light and watering treatments was assessed. We used a factorial design involving three light regimes and two watering frequencies. The open-shaded habitat contrast and the dry-wet habitat contrast were...

  20. Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…

  1. Specialized learning in antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae, pit-digging predators, shortens vulnerable larval stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Hollis

    Full Text Available Unique in the insect world for their extremely sedentary predatory behavior, pit-dwelling larval antlions dig pits, and then sit at the bottom and wait, sometimes for months, for prey to fall inside. This sedentary predation strategy, combined with their seemingly innate ability to detect approaching prey, make antlions unlikely candidates for learning. That is, although scientists have demonstrated that many species of insects possess the capacity to learn, each of these species, which together represent multiple families from every major insect order, utilizes this ability as a means of navigating the environment, using learned cues to guide an active search for food and hosts, or to avoid noxious events. Nonetheless, we demonstrate not only that sedentary antlions can learn, but also, more importantly, that learning provides an important fitness benefit, namely decreasing the time to pupate, a benefit not yet demonstrated in any other species. Compared to a control group in which an environmental cue was presented randomly vis-à-vis daily prey arrival, antlions given the opportunity to associate the cue with prey were able to make more efficient use of prey and pupate significantly sooner, thus shortening their long, highly vulnerable larval stage. Whereas "median survival time," the point at which half of the animals in each group had pupated, was 46 days for antlions receiving the Learning treatment, that point never was reached in antlions receiving the Random treatment, even by the end of the experiment on Day 70. In addition, we demonstrate a novel manifestation of antlions' learned response to cues predicting prey arrival, behavior that does not match the typical "learning curve" but which is well-adapted to their sedentary predation strategy. Finally, we suggest that what has long appeared to be instinctive predatory behavior is likely to be highly modified and shaped by learning.

  2. Receipt of preventive dental care among special-needs children enrolled in Medicaid: a crisis in need of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jean M; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2008-10-01

    Although not widely recognized, tooth decay is the most common childhood chronic disease among children ages five to seventeen. Despite higher rates of dental caries and greater needs, low-income minority children enrolled in Medicaid are more likely to go untreated relative to their higher income counterparts. No research has examined this issue for children with special needs. We analyzed Medicaid enrollment and claims data for special-needs children enrolled in the District of Columbia Medicaid program to evaluate receipt of recommended preventive dental care. Use of preventive dental care is abysmally low and has declined over time. Enrollment in managed care rather than fee for service improves the likelihood that special-needs children receive recommended preventive dental services, whereas residing farther from the Metro is an impediment to receipt of dental care.

  3. The utility of sputum eosinophils and exhaled nitric oxide for monitoring asthma control with special attention to childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Marcos, L.; Brand, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    The monitoring of sputum eosinophils has received certain attention as a tool for improving asthma management both in children and in adults. The present paper reviews the technique and also the usefulness of induced sputum in the diagnosis and assessment of asthma, together with its ability to

  4. Specialization in the default mode: Task-induced brain deactivations dissociate between visual working memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jutta S; Roebroeck, Alard; Maurer, Konrad; Linden, David E J

    2010-01-01

    The idea of an organized mode of brain function that is present as default state and suspended during goal-directed behaviors has recently gained much interest in the study of human brain function. The default mode hypothesis is based on the repeated observation that certain brain areas show task-induced deactivations across a wide range of cognitive tasks. In this event-related functional resonance imaging study we tested the default mode hypothesis by comparing common and selective patterns of BOLD deactivation in response to the demands on visual attention and working memory (WM) that were independently modulated within one task. The results revealed task-induced deactivations within regions of the default mode network (DMN) with a segregation of areas that were additively deactivated by an increase in the demands on both attention and WM, and areas that were selectively deactivated by either high attentional demand or WM load. Attention-selective deactivations appeared in the left ventrolateral and medial prefrontal cortex and the left lateral temporal cortex. Conversely, WM-selective deactivations were found predominantly in the right hemisphere including the medial-parietal, the lateral temporo-parietal, and the medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, during WM encoding deactivated regions showed task-specific functional connectivity. These findings demonstrate that task-induced deactivations within parts of the DMN depend on the specific characteristics of the attention and WM components of the task. The DMN can thus be subdivided into a set of brain regions that deactivate indiscriminately in response to cognitive demand ("the core DMN") and a part whose deactivation depends on the specific task. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Changes of indicators of special physical fitness of young female tennis-players at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shevchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve performance of special physical qualities of young tennis players at the stage of initial training. Material and Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature, test of physical fitness, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 11 women aged 7–8 years in the group of initial training. In the training sessions of physical training of young tennis players the game has been used teaching method. Results: to investigate the changes in the indices of physical fitness of young tennis players 7–8 years. Analyzed the impact of the development on the physical qualities of assimilation techniques. Pointed out that for the qualitative development of physical qualities necessary to use outdoor games and relay races. Revealed that the results of the physical fitness of young tennis players after the pedagogical experiment and had risen significantly different to those in the beginning of the study (P<0,05, except for indicators exercises "run on 18 meters". Conclusions: it was found that the use of training sessions on physical preparation of mobile games and relays increase the interest and motivation for tennis lessons for children in the group of initial training.

  6. Intercommunications of indexes of speed and power qualities of sportsmen single combat on the stage of the specialized base preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Nykytenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of work is a study of interdependence between indexes specially-preparatory and general preparatory exercises of sportsmen (boxing, sporting hand-to-hand fight hopak, fencing. 42 sportsmen took part in researches. Statistical reliable intercommunications are set: a indexes of force of shots by hands with the indexes of rate of single movement; b indexes of force of shots by feet with indexes from maximal force of muscles (tractive forces; c indexes of speed of shots by hands (pricking with the indexes of distance of shove of balls by mass 300 gramme; d indexes of speed of movement a step in a battle bar with indexes: speeds of shots by hands (pricking; e indexes of frequency of shots of boxers and sportsmen hand-to-hand fight hopak with the indexes of frequency of movement (manoeuvring on feet. Facilities which it is expedient to apply in the training process of single combats on this stage of long-term preparation are certain.

  7. The importance of assessing for validity of symptom report and performance in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Introduction to the special section on noncredible presentation in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A; Berry, David T R

    2017-12-01

    Invalid self-report and invalid performance occur with high base rates in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Harrison, 2006; Musso & Gouvier, 2014). Although much research has focused on the development and validation of symptom validity tests (SVTs) and performance validity tests (PVTs) for psychiatric and neurological presentations, less attention has been given to the use of SVTs and PVTs in ADHD evaluation. This introduction to the special section describes a series of studies examining the use of SVTs and PVTs in adult ADHD evaluation. We present the series of studies in the context of prior research on noncredible presentation and call for future research using improved research methods and with a focus on assessment issues specific to ADHD evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari, Bahar; Asgary, Sedigheh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. Objective: In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products Materials and Methods: Some common brands of Iranian′s junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in...

  9. Racial Inequity in Special Education Undefined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…

  10. How do changes in media consumption affect newspaper revenue? : Suggestions on earning more revenue, with a special attention to the Nordic region

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concentrated on the changes in consumer’s newspaper consumption and its impact on newspaper’s revenue in order to find out how printed news can earn more money. This thesis has a special attention on the Nordic region newspaper industry. The aim of this thesis is to explain how changes occurred in news consumption habits of users has impacted on newspaper firms’ revenue in order to find new strategies for newspaper firms for earning more money to remain survived. The research q...

  11. Facilitating Transition from High School and Special Education to Adult Life: Focus on Youth with Learning Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Speech/Language Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascherman, Lee I; Shaftel, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings. The role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist and the importance of advocacy for these youth are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the emotional Stroop task a special case of mood induction? Evidence from sustained effects of attention under emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal; Algom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words. Color performance is more sluggish with emotion words than with neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect (ESE). The ESE is not sensitive to the order in which the two groups of words are presented, so the effect of exposure to emotion words does not extend to disrupting performance in a subsequent block with neutral words. We attribute this absence of a sustained effect to habituation engendered by excessive repetition of the experimental stimuli. In a series of four experiments, we showed that sustained effects do occur when habituation is removed, and we also showed that the massive exposure to negative stimuli within the ESE paradigm induces a commensurately negative mood. A novel perspective is offered, in which the ESE is considered a special case of mood induction.

  13. Dependence of sports results on data of physical development, morphofunctional and special power preparedness of weight-lifters at the stage of initial preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bugaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the establishment of nature of the interrelation between sports results of weight-lifters and level of their special physical and morphofunctional preparedness. Material & Methods: 48 sportsmen of group of initial preparation of the first year of training were involved to the experiment. The research was conducted on the basis of the chair of weightlifting and boxing of Kharkov state academy of physical culture and CYSS “HTZ”. Results: the correlation between indicators of morphofunctional, high-speed and power and special (competitive preparedness of weight-lifters is revealed at the stage of initial preparation. The conducted research shows that the result of competitive exercises of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation, depends on power and high-speed and power preparedness. Conclusions: it is established that the correlation between results of competitive exercises and jumps uphill from the place, in length from the place, run on 30 m can demonstrate the interrelation of power and high-speed and power preparedness of the sportsmen, specializing in weightlifting at the stage of initial preparation.

  14. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Nazari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. Objective: In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products Materials and Methods: Some common brands of Iranian′s junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in Iran. The amount of 10 g sample was considered for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography equipment with flam ionization detector. Results: In this study stearic acid (C18:0 and palmitic (C16:0 acid have the highest amount among other saturated fatty acids in all groups. In junk foods and bakery products, the most common trans-fatty acid (TFA is elaidic acid (C18:1 9t with ranging from 2.4% to 18.5% and in dairy products vaccinic acid (C18:1 11t has the high level of TFAs among others (2.1% to 11.5%. Conclusion: The amount of TFAs in Iranian junk foods and bakery products was in a high level.

  15. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Bahar; Asgary, Sedigheh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-10-01

    Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products. Some common brands of Iranian's junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in Iran. The amount of 10 g sample was considered for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography equipment with flam ionization detector. In this study stearic acid (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acid have the highest amount among other saturated fatty acids in all groups. In junk foods and bakery products, the most common trans-fatty acid (TFA) is elaidic acid (C18:1 9t) with ranging from 2.4% to 18.5% and in dairy products vaccinic acid (C18:1 11t) has the high level of TFAs among others (2.1% to 11.5%). The amount of TFAs in Iranian junk foods and bakery products was in a high level.

  16. Properties and Beneficial Uses of (BioChars, with Special Attention to Products from Sewage Sludge Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Callegari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Residual sludge disposal costs may constitute up to, and sometimes above, 50% of the total cost of operation of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP and contribute approximately 40% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with its operation. Traditionally, wastewater sludges are processed for: (a reduction of total weight and volume to facilitate their transfer and subsequent treatments; (b stabilization of contained organic material and destruction of pathogenic microorganisms, elimination of noxious odors, and reduction of putrefaction potential and, at an increasing degree; (c value addition by developing economically viable recovery of energy and residual constituents. Among several other processes, pyrolysis of sludge biomass is being experimented with by some researchers. From the process, oil with composition not dissimilar to that of biodiesels, syngas, and a solid residue can be obtained. While the advantage of obtaining sludge-derived liquid and gaseous fuels is obvious to most, the solid residue from the process, or char (also indicated as biochar by many, may also have several useful, initially unexpected applications. Recently, the char fraction is getting attention from the scientific community due to its potential to improve agricultural soils’ productivity, remediate contaminated soils, and supposed, possible mitigation effects on climate change. This paper first discusses sludge-pyrolysis-derived char production fundamentals (including relationships between char, bio-oil, and syngas fractions in different process operating conditions, general char properties, and possible beneficial uses. Then, based on current authors’ experiments with microwave-assisted sludge pyrolysis aimed at maximization of liquid fuel extraction, evaluate specific produced char characteristics and production to define its properties and most appropriate beneficial use applications in this type of setting.

  17. How to reduce avoidable admissions due to acute diabetes complications?: interrelation between primary and specialized attention in a diabetes unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Talavera Espín, N V; López-Ruiz, A; Nuñez Sánchez, Ma Á; Meoro Avilés, A; Sánchez Cañizares, C; Romero López-Reinoso, H; López Olivar, Ma D; Lapaz Jorge, Ma Á; Guirao Sastre, J Ma; San Eustaquio Tudanca, F; Soriano Palao, J

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a serious health problem. In the year 2030 it will affect 366 million people around the world. Evaluate the effectiveness of a mixed intervention and reducing the amount and seriousness of acute complications in diabetics from our Health Area. Protocols of action as well as information documents were produced. Diabetes Unit coordinated educational activities in the different support levels of the Area VII of Murcia. Information talks were provided for the people in charge of the Diabetes Unit in every Care Center and Service of the Health Area. Personalized training was provided for patients treated in the different Care levels. The study comprised three stages. Information leaflets were spread and talks offered to the patient regarding in house handling of hypo and hyper glycemia. A reduction of 39% of the emergencies due to acute non complicated diabetes was achieved, as well as a reduction of 47.6% of hospital admissions. There was a reduction of 67.8% of the amount of total hospital stays for the group of patients under 35 years who were admitted into the hospital due to type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus that didn't show any complications (GRD295). There was a reduction of more than thirty percent in the emergencies due to acute decompensations in the disease and a significant reduction in the avoidable hospital stays in the young adult, thus improving the patients' life quality and reducing the social cost of the diabetic patient.

  18. Drained peatlands used for extraction and agriculture: biogeochemical status with special attention to greenhouse gas fluxes and rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Andrey; Chistotin, Maxim; Suvorov, Gennady; Glagolev, Mikhail; Kravchenko, Irina; Minaeva, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Many peatlands previously drained for peat extraction or utilized for agriculture (directly or after partial cutoff) are left abandoned during last decades in Europe, and especially in its eastern part. In the European part of Russia alone, several million hectares of peatlands have been modified for peat extraction and agriculture by direct water level draw-down and nowadays are not under use by economic reasons. This makes up one of the most serious and urgent problems of wise use and management of peatlands in these regions with serious feedback to people, environment and economy (Quick Scan of Peatlands in Central and Eastern Europe, 2009). Drainage for agriculture leads to peat oxidation resulting in substantial emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and sometimes nitrous oxide) to the atmosphere. Together with peat fires this is the most significant negative input of peatland degradation to climate change (Assessment on Peatlands Biodiversity and Climate Change, 2008; Peatlands and Climate Change, 2008). Besides that, dehydrated peatlands often release methane. Starting from 2003, the effect of drainage and subsequent utilization of peatlands on the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane was studied in Tomsk region (West Siberia) during the summer-fall periods (Glagolev et al. 2008). The measurements were conducted by chamber method at peatlands drained for use as croplands (now partly being fallows) and peat cutting (currently abandoned or reclaimed for forest planting, haying, or pasturing), as well as at a wide range of undrained oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic mires and burnt mire areas of different regeneration stages. The statistical analysis of data from a large number of study sites indicated a higher release of carbon dioxide from disturbed peatlands compared to undrained ones. At the same time some drained peatlands had considerable methane emission rates, additionally enhanced by the intensive efflux from the surface of drainage

  19. Planning method for integration and expansion of renewable energy sources with special attention to security supply in distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda-Arias, Jose Luis

    2012-07-01

    Today's structure of power systems with competitive wholesale markets for electricity encourages the introduction of new agents and products, customers with self-generating capacity and the specialization of generators, network operators and power suppliers. Furthermore one has to take into account the variation of the fossil fuel prices in the world market, which even anticipates the closeness of its scarcity, the instability of the fulfilment of contracts, and the existence of import restrictions. In addition the implementation of policies aiming to control CO{sub 2} emissions, and efficient use of energy plus the advent of more efficient technologies have to be incorporated in new network expansion projects. These are forcing utilities and society to seek new forms of electric system expansion without affecting their economic growth. This expresses a challenge to sustain such a growth changing the vision for the power system and the required security of electricity supply, usually based on internal factors of the electric sector, without considering the connection between the current transmission and distribution networks, the uncertainties related to the competition in the electricity market and the effect of distributed generation units. The high penetration of distributed generation resources, based on renewable energy sources, is increasingly observed worldwide and it depends on the cost of the technologies, market design, and subsidies. On that account, it is necessary to find alternatives and offers to develop a sustainable strategic plan for power system expansion. Currently, efforts are oriented to develop planning models which consider the income of power generation based on renewable energy sources founded on these new requirements, bearing in mind the relationship between the competitive markets and the power system planning. In this Thesis a general planning method for the expansion of the power grids is proposed. This planning method should

  20. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  1. Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites and Attention/Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Learning Disability, and Special Education in U.S. Children Aged 6 to 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaynah Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs adversely affects child neurodevelopment, but little is known about the relationship between PAHs and clinically significant developmental disorders. We examined the relationship between childhood measures of PAH exposure and prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, learning disability (LD, and special education (SE in a nationally representative sample of 1,257 U.S. children 6–15 years of age. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2004. PAH exposure was measured by urinary metabolite concentrations. Outcomes were defined by parental report of (1 ever doctor-diagnosed ADHD, (2 ever doctor- or school representative-identified LD, and (3 receipt of SE or early intervention services. Multivariate logistic regression accounting for survey sampling was used to determine the associations between PAH metabolites and ADHD, LD, and SE. Children exposed to higher levels of fluorine metabolites had a 2-fold increased odds (95% C.I. 1.1, 3.8 of SE, and this association was more apparent in males (OR 2.3; 95% C.I. 1.2, 4.1 than in females (OR 1.8; 95% C.I. 0.6, 5.4. No other consistent pattern of developmental disorders was associated with urinary PAH metabolites. However, concurrent exposure to PAH fluorine metabolites may increase use of special education services among U.S. children.

  2. Improvement of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics by means of choreography at a stage of the specialized basic preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Kyzim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove experimentally the technique of improvement of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics by means of choreography at a stage of the specialized basic preparation. Material & Methods: the following methods of the research were used: theoretical analysis and synthesis of data of special scientific and methodical literature; pedagogical supervision; pedagogical testing; methods of mathematical statistics. 10 competitive programs of woman’s pair in acrobatics are analyzed before and after the pedagogical experiment. Results: the estimated results of the technique of execution of the competitive program of each woman’s pair separately were received on the basis of a rating scale of criterion of implementation of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics (Rules of FIG, 2013–2016. The dynamic of the level of the competitive program of each woman’s pair separately is defined. Conclusions: it is established that additional resources of choreography influence significantly the level of the competitive program of woman’s pair in acrobatics at a stage of the specialized basic preparation

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Description of tadpole stages of the Malabar Tree Toad Pedostibes tuberculosis Gunther, 1875 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Dinesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedostibes tuberculosus, the Malabar tree toad, was described 137 years ago from the Malabar region (now the coastal parts of Kerala of the Western Ghats. Since the description of this arboreal toad, not much information is available on the natural history, breeding habits and life cycle except for its description, range of distribution and advertisement call details. In the present account, the tadpole stages of this toad from Gosner tadpole Stage 21 to 45 are presented and the phytotelmatic mode of life of this toad has been confirmed by locating the tadpoles within the Ochlandra reed culm.

  4. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  5. The validity and reliability of value-added and target-setting procedures with special reference to Key Stage 3

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Ian Robin

    2003-01-01

    The validity of value-added systems of measurement is crucially dependent upon there being a demonstrably unambiguous relationship between the so-called baseline, or intake measures, and any subsequent measure of performance at a later stage. The reliability of such procedures is dependent on the relationships between these two measures being relatively stable over time. A number of questions arise with regard to both the validity and reliability of value-added procedures at any level in educ...

  6. Findings of the analysis of antineoplastic therapy in patients with thyroid cancer at early stages of special treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'jev, L. Ya.; Kulyinyich, G.V.; Radzyishevs'ka, Je.B.; Savchenko, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The object of research is to estimate risks of development of early somatic neurological complications depending on the scheme of treatment of the thyroid according to the findings obtained due to analysis of 120 case histories of the patients. Research methods: nonparametric statistics methods, multivariance statistical analysis, hidden knowledge search technology. According to the accumulated data packages the frequency of unfavorable early somatic neurological consequences was ascertained, i.e. anemia - 15.8%, sialoadenitis - 27.5%, gastritis - 2.5%, heart beat disorder - 72.5%, polyneuropathy - 83,0%. The dependence of appearing on present concomitant pathology (hypoparathyrosis, hypocalcemia, peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac failure, connective tissue diseases, varix dilatation of the lower extremities) and medical history data such as age, sex, disease stage, number of surgeries and radionuclide treatment courses, ECOG scale condition was clarified for the first time. The factors which affect appearing of immediate complications of radioactive iodine therapy at a statistically significant level were ascertained. It was specified that these factors include concomitant somatic diseases, involving cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems in particular. The further analysis of accumulated experience of treatment of thyroid cancer will make it possible to elaborate approaches to optimization choice appropriate treatment schemes and post-treatment monitoring of patients.

  7. Attention to Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    In these years digital media and wireless networks are introduced in upper secondary schools in Denmark. This implies new “attentional objects” like updates on Facebook or tweets on Twitter within instant reach of the pupils and teachers. Also it implies new kinds of attention (awareness) like when...... pupils try to listen to the teacher and simultaneously participate in online games. To this new social setting the teachers has reacted with either prohibition or unconcern. What has not been realised is that the introduction of new media profoundly challenges the way attention hitherto has functioned...... as a psychic prerequisite for the social interaction between pupils and teachers. New kinds of “split attention” arise and new kinds of social mediation (regulation and “use”) of psychic attention become necessary if teaching in the new digital medium milieu shall be beneficial. In this paper we qualify...

  8. Principles of macro-methodic of junior female gymnasts’ training to sport exercises for gymnastic all round competitions at specialized basic stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Potop

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: working out of principles of junior female gymnasts’ macro-methodic training to sport exercises for all round competitions at stage of specialized basic training. Material: in the research 19 girl-gymnasts from reserve of combined team of Romania participated. Measurements and assessment of technical fitness at training sessions and in conditions of competitions were conducted at 120 training sessions (10 sessions a week. Results: we worked out and realized experimentally and in training sessions principles of macro-methodic training to gymnastic exercises. Macro-methodic of training is presented in structure of long-term programs of training for all round competitions. Macro-methodic is presented as combination of elements of motor, technical, didactic and technological structures of sport exercises (in the present article it was described on material of vaults of Yurchenko’s type. Conclusions: macro-methodic permits to state optimal algorithm of mastering of theoretical and practical materials at training sessions. Besides, it permits to demonstrate steady growth of sport results at competitions. With it individual-age features of junior female gymnasts, tendencies and specialists’ requirements are considered.

  9. Study of junior weight lifters’ special fitness with different methods of speed-power training in preparatory period of general preparatory stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Piven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: studying of junior weight lifters’ special fitness in preparatory period of general preparatory stage. Material: 30 junior weight lifters of 12 - 14 years’ old age were involved in experiment (2 nd and 3 rd sport grades. Results: optimal indicators of training by shock method have been determined for sportsmen of experimental group. Scope of loads was: squats with barbell on shoulders - lifting 779 times (90 tons; 310 jumps in depth and jumps out. Power indicators in total of combined exercises have increased by 16.5 kg. In control group other methodic was used. In control group scope of loads was: lifting of barbell - 910 times (111 tons. Power indicators in total of combined exercises have increased by 7.2 kg. Conclusions: the following regiment of training is recommended: first 3 weeks - jumps. Dozing and load scopes shall be as follows: first two trainings - two attempts (10 times each with height of 0.5 m; third training - 3 attempts (10 times each with height of 0.5 m; forth training - 4 attempts (10 times each with height of 0.7 m. Jumps in depth shall be used 3 times weekly.

  10. Features of influence of different modes of training on the dynamics of power performance bodybuilders on stage-specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Slavityak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : study the effect of various features on the structure and orientation of exercise routines on the level of development of force capabilities bodybuilders on stage specialized basic training. Material : studies participated 60 athletes (age 18-19 years, the experience of training - 5 years. The study used a method of determining the index of the training load for the power sports. Level security features athletes determined by control testing. Control of the studied parameters was carried out for 4 months training at intervals of 1 month. Results : it was found that under conditions similar level of fitness athletes and structure your workout performance power load and the nature of their changes depend on the particular mode of training (in this study - from the application of the basic sequence variative and isolation exercises. Conclusions : the use of pilot training in integrated mode with alternating motor activity using the basic priority and isolation exercises for no more than 2 microcycles have the most significant positive impact on the increase in power performance parameters of athletes (on average by 26.5% p <0.05

  11. Timing divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  12. WWC Review of the Report "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Special Education Programming for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using a Daily Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study described in this report examined whether the use of "daily report cards" ("DRCs") in elementary school classrooms improved behavior and academic achievement among students diagnosed with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant…

  13. Inducing omnipotence or powerlessness in learners with developmental and attention difficulties through structuring technologies. Accepted for publication in EAI Special Issue (Eds. Eva Brooks)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldborg, Hanne; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2017-01-01

    at school? Using this lens, the authors examine, to what extent technology may assist teachers to create more ideal learning environments by reducing the threat for these learners and enable them to participate in learning. Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs), digital templates, timers and calendars......, become aware and understand their own role in the classroom. This paper suggests technologies for structuring and overviewing as basic assistive tools for equalizing the learning possibilities for learners with developmental and attention difficulties in an inclusive school setting....

  14. Mobile phase effects on the retention on polar columns with special attention to the dual hydrophilic interaction-reversed-phase liquid chromatography mechanism, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography on polar columns in aqueous-organic mobile phases has become increasingly popular for the separation of many biologically important compounds in chemical, environmental, food, toxicological, and other samples. In spite of many new applications appearing in literature, the retention mechanism is still controversial. This review addresses recent progress in understanding of the retention models in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. The main attention is focused on the role of water, both adsorbed by the column and contained in the bulk mobile phase. Further, the theoretical retention models in the isocratic and gradient elution modes are discussed. The dual hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography reversed-phase retention mechanism on polar columns is treated in detail, especially with respect to the practical use in one- and two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2013-09-15

    The hybrid systems were developed in the 1960s but their use increased only during the late 1990 s and in the 2000s mostly because of more stringent discharge limits for nitrogen and also more complex wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands (CWs). The early hybrid CWs consisted of several stages of vertical flow (VF) followed by several stages of horizontal flow (HF) beds. During the 1990 s, HF-VF and VF-HF hybrid systems were introduced. However, to achieve higher removal of total nitrogen or to treat more complex industrial and agricultural wastewaters other types of hybrid constructed wetlands including free water surface (FWS) CWs and multistage CWs have recently been used as well. The survey of 60 hybrid constructed wetlands from 24 countries reported after 2003 revealed that hybrid constructed wetlands are primarily used on Europe and in Asia while in other continents their use is limited. The most commonly used hybrid system is a VF-HF constructed wetland which has been used for treatment of both sewage and industrial wastewaters. On the other hand, the use of a HF-VF system has been reported only for treatment of municipal sewage. Out of 60 surveyed hybrid systems, 38 have been designed to treat municipal sewage while 22 hybrid systems were designed to treat various industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The more detailed analysis revealed that VF-HF hybrid constructed wetlands are slightly more efficient in ammonia removal than hybrid systems with FWS CWs, HF-VF systems or multistage VF and HF hybrid CWs. All types of hybrid CWs are comparable with single VF CWs in terms of NH4-N removal rates. On the other hand, CWs with FWS units remove substantially more total nitrogen as compared to other types of hybrid constructed wetlands. However, all types of hybrid constructed wetlands are more efficient in total nitrogen removal than single HF or VF constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietetic assessment of ambulatory cancer patients: with special attention to problems of patients suffering from head-neck cancers undergoing radiation thrapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    The prime objective of nutritional surveillance of cancer patients is to set up screening criteria for those who are likely to be at risk of nutrition problems and to further assess those so identified. Interventions to improve nutritional status or comfort are called for. The single most useful item with respect to screening is careful weight measurement at every visit. Subjective reports of appetite and food intake, 24-hour recalls of dietary intake, and therapy being undergone by the patient are also useful. Assessment involves obtaining the 24-hour recall data and in some cases keeping food records, and determining the patients' food likes and dislikes. Taken together, dietary, biochemical, clinical, anthropometric, and patient history data permit us to achieve greater certainty as to the problem. Usually energy intakes are problematic, but other nutrition difficlties may also be present. Intervention with respect to diet may involve therapeutic diets, special nutrition advice, or general advice. Food assistance, help with food managemnt, and general health education may also be necessary. Constant surveillance consisting of short encounters and follow-up are mandatory. Examples of these principles as they apply to head-neck cancers are presented

  17. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSES REVEAL DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS BETWEEN THE LIFE-CYCLE STAGES OF EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) AND REFLECT SPECIALIZATION TO DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL NICHES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; de Nooijer, Lennart J; Trimborn, Scarlett; de Vargas, Colomban; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe

    2011-08-01

    Coccolithophores, especially the abundant, cosmopolitan species Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W. W. Hay et H. P. Mohler, are one of the main driving forces of the oceanic carbonate pump and contribute significantly to global carbon cycling, due to their ability to calcify. A recent study indicates that termination of diploid blooms by viral infection induces life-cycle transition, and speculation has arisen about the role of the haploid, noncalcifying stage in coccolithophore ecology. To explore gene expression patterns in both life-cycle stages, haploid and diploid cells of E. huxleyi (RCC 1217 and RCC 1216) were acclimated to limiting and saturating photon flux densities. Transcriptome analyses were performed to assess differential genomic expression related to different ploidy levels and acclimation light intensities. Analyses indicated that life-cycle stages exhibit different properties of regulating genome expression (e.g., pronounced gene activation and gene silencing in the diploid stage), proteome maintenance (e.g., increased turnover of proteins in the haploid stage), as well as metabolic processing (e.g., pronounced primary metabolism and motility in the haploid stage and calcification in the diploid stage). Furthermore, higher abundances of transcripts related to endocytotic and digestive machinery were observed in the diploid stage. A qualitative feeding experiment indicated that both life-cycle stages are capable of particle uptake (0.5 μm diameter) in late-stationary growth phase. Results showed that the two life-cycle stages represent functionally distinct entities that are evolutionarily shaped to thrive in the environment they typically inhabit. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  19. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work-home balance and the European working time directive: a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-10-13

    To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work-home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Norway. Unbalanced cohort of 1300-1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46-47 h) and junior (45-46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27-35%) than junior (11-20%) doctors reported suboptimal work-home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  1. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  2. Pregnancy following bariatric requires special attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Andersen, Lise Lotte Fischer; Kjær, Mette Karie Mandrup

    2012-01-01

    In the latest years the number of pregnant women having undergone bariatric surgery before pregnancy has increased rapidly. In pregnancy, they seem to have a reduced risk of obesity-related complications but an increased risk of mechanical complications causing small bowel obstruction and complic...

  3. Visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Howe, Piers; Pedersini, Roccardo; Reijnen, Ester; Pinto, Yair; Kuzmova, Yoana; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-09-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, 'visual attention' describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act upon. They allow for concurrent selection of some (preferably, relevant) information and inhibition of other information. This selection permits the reduction of complexity and informational overload. Selection can be determined both by the 'bottom-up' saliency of information from the environment and by the 'top-down' state and goals of the perceiver. Attentional effects can take the form of modulating or enhancing the selected information. A central role for selective attention is to enable the 'binding' of selected information into unified and coherent representations of objects in the outside world. In the overview on visual attention presented here we review the mechanisms and consequences of selection and inhibition over space and time. We examine theoretical, behavioral and neurophysiologic work done on visual attention. We also discuss the relations between attention and other cognitive processes such as automaticity and awareness. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 503-514 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.127 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Capturing Attention When Attention "Blinks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Serena; Chua, Fook K.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments addressed the question of whether attention may be captured when the visual system is in the midst of an attentional blink (AB). Participants identified 2 target letters embedded among distractor letters in a rapid serial visual presentation sequence. In some trials, a square frame was inserted between the targets; as the only…

  5. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for Stage I lung cancer with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Special reference to survival and radiation-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihiko; Shiomi, Hiroya; Oh, Ryoong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate radiation-induced pneumonitis (RIP) and a related condition that we define in this report — prolonged minimal RIP (pmRIP) — after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for Stage I primary lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed 136 Stage I lung cancer patients with COPD who underwent SBRT. Airflow limitation on spirometry was classified into four Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades, with minor modifications: GOLD 1 (mild), GOLD 2 (moderate), GOLD 3 (severe) and GOLD 4 (very severe). On this basis, we defined two subgroups: COPD-free (COPD -) and COPD-positive (COPD +). There was no significant difference in overall survival or cause-specific–survival between these groups. Of the 136 patients, 44 (32%) had pmRIP. Multivariate analysis showed that COPD and the Brinkman index were statistically significant risk factors for the development of pmRIP. COPD and the Brinkman index were predictive factors for pmRIP, although our findings also indicate that SBRT can be tolerated in early lung cancer patients with COPD. (author)

  6. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  7. Delayed entry into HIV care after diagnosis in two specialized care and treatment centres in Cameroon: the influence of CD4 count and WHO staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah F. Takah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed entry into HIV care has complicated the challenges faced in sub-Saharan Africa due to the high HIV burden. A clear knowledge of the factors affecting delayed entry will be essential in directing interventions towards reducing delayed entry into HIV care. There exist very limited data on delayed entry in Cameroon despite its relevance; hence this study was conducted to determine the rate of delayed entry and its associated factors in HIV programmes in Cameroon. Methods Data used for this study was routine data obtained from the files of HIV patients who were diagnosed between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2015 at Limbe and Buea regional hospital HIV centers in the South West region of Cameroon. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results Of the 223 patients included in the study, nearly one-quarter of patients (22.4 % delayed to enter HIV care within 3 months. Those who delayed to enter care were less likely to present at first diagnosis (using HIV rapid test with symptoms such as fever > 1 month (5 % versus 30 %, p = 0.01 and weight loss > 10 % (13 % versus 48 %, p < 0.001. Alcohol consumption, WHO stage and CD4 count levels were also associated with delayed entry in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis only CD4 count greater than 500cells/μl and WHO stages I and II were independently associated with delayed entry into HIV care within 3 months. Conclusion In the South West region of Cameroon, approximately 1 out of 4 patients delay to enter HIV care. This high proportion of patients who delay to enter care correlates to the findings recorded by other studies in sub Saharan Africa. Interventions tackling delayed entry into HIV care might need to be favorably directed towards patients that have high CD4 counts and are at very early WHO clinical stages.

  8. X-ray Production by Cascading Stages of a High-Gain Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Laser II: Special Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we study the tolerance of a new approach to produce coherent x-ray by cascading several stages of a High-Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Being a harmonic generation process, a small noise in the initial fundamental signal will lead to a significant noise-to-signal (NTS) ratio in the final harmonic, so the noise issue is studied in this paper. We study two sources of noise: the incoherent undulator radiation, which is a noise with respect to the seed laser; and the noise of the seed laser itself. In reality, the electron beam longitudinal current profile is not uniform. Since the electron beam is the amplification medium for the FEL, this non- uniformity will induce phase error in the FEL. Therefore, this effect is studied. Phase error due to the wakefield and electron beam self-field is also studied. Synchrotronization of the electron beam and the seed laser is an important issue determining the success of the HGHG. We study the timing jitter induced frequency jitter in this paper. We also show that an HGHG FEL poses a less stringent requirement on the emittance than a SASE FEL does, due to a Natural Emittance Effect Reduction (NEER) mechanism. This NEER mechanism suggests a new operation mode, i.e., the HGHG FEL could adopt a high current, though unavoidable, a high emittance electron beam. Study in this paper shows that, production of hard x-rays with good longitudinal coherence by cascading stages of a HGHG FEL is promising. However, technical improvement is demanded.

  9. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  10. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  11. Wicked Problems in Special and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David

    2017-01-01

    This special paper provides a critical overview of wicked problems in special and inclusive education. Practically, this paper provides a strategic framework for future special issues in the "Journal of Special Educational Needs". Critical attention is also given to the concept of a wicked problem when applied to research in special and…

  12. Virtual Reality and Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of virtual environments for special needs is as diverse as the field of Special Education itself and the individuals it serves. Individuals with special needs often face challenges with attention, language, spatial abilities, memory, higher reasoning and knowledge acquisition. Research in the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)…

  13. Replication Research and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  14. Solitude or co-existence – or learning-together-apart with digital dialogic technologies for kids with developmental and attention difficulties (accepted for publication in EAI-Journal, Special Issue - eds. Eva Brooks)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard; Voldborg, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research into the impact of digital technological interventions for including kids with attention and developmental deficits into school class contexts. It describes, how the authors have approached the challenge of researching inclusion of kids with attention...... interventions with digital technologies, e.g. Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs), may promote inclusion through stimulating the participation in life and learning of kids with attention and developmental deficits....

  15. Germ cell tumors in patients with disorders of sex development: Risk factors, initial developmental stages and targets for early diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.C.M. Cools (Martine)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes the origin, identification and correct diagnosis of the earliest stages of malignant germ cell tumors, i.e. intra tubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGNU) and gonadoblastoma, in patients with disorders of sex development. Special attention is given to the

  16. Attentional capture and engagement during the attentional blink: A "camera" metaphor of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivony, Alon; Lamy, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    Identification of a target is impaired when it follows a previous target within 500 ms, suggesting that our attentional system suffers from severe temporal limitations. Although control-disruption theories posit that such impairment, known as the attentional blink (AB), reflects a difficulty in matching incoming information with the current attentional set, disrupted-engagement theories propose that it reflects a delay in later processes leading to transient enhancement of potential targets. Here, we used a variant of the contingent-capture rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm (Folk, Ester, & Troemel, 2009) to adjudicate these competing accounts. Our results show that a salient distractor that shares the target color captures attention to the same extent whether it appears within or outside the blink, thereby invalidating the notion that control over the attentional set is compromised during the blink. In addition, our results show that during the blink, not the attention-capturing object itself but the item immediately following it, is selected, indicating that the AB manifests as a delay between attentional capture and attentional engagement. We therefore conclude that attentional capture and attentional engagement can be dissociated as separate stages of attentional selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  18. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Special attention is paid to human capital agglomeration, which is regarded as a .... the innovation sector, on the periphery of the ... Agglomeration is an effective form of concentration of human capital, intellectual ... participants of social relations (public, entrepreneurs) or the formation of clusters, emerging.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... of specific musical terms; attention to the Quran and Ahl al-Bayt and special devotion to ... Another factor that plays a role in making the poetry of Shahriar .... world, they start reading the masterpieces of world literature and ...

  1. Stagings of Divine Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Based on a combination of performativity and historicity royal Danish ceremonilality is analysed with a special regard to coronation ceremonies as a manifestation of the idea of godgiven royal power. Point of departure is the coronation of Christian 4. in 1596 and the theme of stagings of power...

  2. Staging and treatment of ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Palo, G.; Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan

    1989-01-01

    The staging and treatment of ovarian cancer is reviewed with special attention to developments during the last decade. Pathways of spread, presurgical and surgical staging are described and discussed, as are the biologic characters of the different histologic subtypes. Principles of surgery, endoperitoneal and external radiotherapy, single-drug and multiple-drug systemic chemotherapy (therapeutic and adjuvant), intraperitoneal chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy, hormone therapy and the use of biologic response modifiers are reported and discussed with background of recent clinical trials. It is concluded that considerable progress has been made concerning diagnosis, staging and treatment of ovarian cancer. The proportion of cases in advanced stages has thus decreased and the survival rate increased. However, it is also obvious that the long-term prognosis for patients with advanced disease has not significantly improved over the last 10 years, despite introduction of multiple-drug regimens with high initial response rates. Ovarian cancer remains the most important gynecologic cause of death in the Western countries. (orig.)

  3. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  4. Capture of exogenous attention modulates the attentional blink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. Bottleneck theories propose that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty increases...... T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. Attention capture hypotheses suggest that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty, decreases saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. Studies examining how T1 difficulty affects...... with T1 contrast energy. Our results indicate that T1 capture modulates the AB. We suggest that this effect has confounded previous studies on the effect of T1 difficulty. In an electrophysiological version of the study we will further examine the implied relation between attention capture and the AB....

  5. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  6. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND..., and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the Secretary is...

  7. Attention, Joint Attention, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mundy, Peter; Newell, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Before social cognition there is joint processing of information about the attention of self and others. This joint attention requires the integrated activation of a distributed cortical network involving the anterior and posterior attention systems. In infancy, practice with the integrated activation of this distributed attention network is a major contributor to the development of social cognition. Thus, the functional neuroanatomies of social cognition and the anterior–posterior attention ...

  8. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  9. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  10. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staging piles. 264.554 Section 264.554... for Cleanup § 264.554 Staging piles. This section is written in a special format to make it easier to... staging pile? A staging pile is an accumulation of solid, non-flowing remediation waste (as defined in...

  11. The State Regulation of Innovation Activity at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qoqiauri Lamara G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of state regulation in the field of development of innovations and technologies at the present stage. The main directions of the state innovation policies in developed countries of the world are studied and analyzed. Special attention is paid to the objectives of the national strategy for development of science and innovations and to searching the ways for fulfilling this strategy. Apart from these specific problems, the work considers the issue of the state regulation and support of further introduction of innovations and increase of the so called “entrepreneurial” role of the state.

  12. Visual attention spreads broadly but selects information locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Honjyo, Hajime; Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2016-10-19

    Visual attention spreads over a range around the focus as the spotlight metaphor describes. Spatial spread of attentional enhancement and local selection/inhibition are crucial factors determining the profile of the spatial attention. Enhancement and ignorance/suppression are opposite effects of attention, and appeared to be mutually exclusive. Yet, no unified view of the factors has been provided despite their necessity for understanding the functions of spatial attention. This report provides electroencephalographic and behavioral evidence for the attentional spread at an early stage and selection/inhibition at a later stage of visual processing. Steady state visual evoked potential showed broad spatial tuning whereas the P3 component of the event related potential showed local selection or inhibition of the adjacent areas. Based on these results, we propose a two-stage model of spatial attention with broad spread at an early stage and local selection at a later stage.

  13. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  14. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  15. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  16. Special Weapons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  17. Specialized science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  18. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  19. End-stage head and neck cancer coping mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Popescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coping mechanisms are patients’ means of adapting to stressful situations and involve psychological and physical changes in behavior. Patients adapt to head and neck cancer in a variety of ways. Head and neck cancers are extremely debilitating, especially in advanced stages of the disease or in end-of-life situations. While an oncology team needs to address the needs of all oncology patients, the advanced terminal patients require special attention. Most of these patients do not cope well with their situation and have a tendency to cease social interactions. Pain is the most frequentlyexperienced medical disability in patients having an end-stage illness experience, and thus an important medical endeavor is to afford dignity to the dying patient facingan incurable disease. In such cases, the medical community should never refuse therapy or to assist a dying patient.In some instances, the patient and family may derive benefit from their religious beliefs.

  20. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  1. Television and Content Censorship: The Impact of Violent Content on the Developmental Stages in the Personality of the Nigerian Child

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Okim-Alobi; Ogbu, Silk

    2017-01-01

    Erik Erikson’s theorization of the psychosocial developmental stages of humans, reveal the fragility of children with special attention to their biological and psychosocial characterization. The adolescent age is the period where the child is adventurous, curious and eager to explore, as he becomes fascinated with the media and begins to try out behaviours and lifestyles of his opinion leaders. The Nigerian child is more or less enthralled about foreign movies, shows and musical videos charac...

  2. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease a case report, with special attention to the electroencephalogram in this disorder and to its possible relationships to kuru, scrapie and «mad cow disease»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Chapman

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 58-year-old Brazillian cattle rancher and businessman is presented. The EEG was normal, which is consistent with the fact that it was made during the first half of his illness; in a later stage suppression of normal rhythms by slow moderate voltage waves would be expected. The resemblances of kuru, scrapie and "mad cow disease» to C-J disease are discussed. In each of these 4 illnesses the patient or affected animal (scrapie and «mad cow disease" (a has a widespread spongiform encephalopathy and consequent dementia, myoclonic epilepsy and cerebellar and corticospinal symptoms, (b Each illness is caused by a virus (or virus-like organism called a PrP or prion which is unusually resistant to heat and entirely resistant to ultraviolet light and x-rays, (c This causative agent can be transmitted to other mammals by intracerebral injection or, in the proved cases of 3 of them, by the oral route. Unresolved questions about C-J disease include the following: Are C-J disease, kuru, scrapie and "mad cow disease" essentially similar illnesses caused by the same virus or by subtle variants of it? What is the incubation period of C-J disease, and does its virus exist for long periods of time in some asymptomatic persons, some of whom may never become neurologically ill? How does this virus enter the bodies of most persons with C-J disease, and why does the clinical disease characteristically occur only in middle age?

  3. MR-specific staging of chondromalacia patellae using a special knee compressor: Comparison with arthroscopic findings. MRT-spezifische Einteilung der Chondromalacia patellae unter Zuhilfenahme eines speziellen Kniekompressors: Gegenueberstellung mit dem arthroskopischen Befund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, R. (Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinik Steglitz, FU Berlin (Germany)); Radmer, S. (Orthopaedisches Fachinst., Berlin (Germany)); Koenig, H. (Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinik Steglitz, FU Berlin (Germany)); Wolf, K.J. (Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinik Steglitz, FU Berlin (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    The present study proposes a new MRI-specific staging of chondromalacia patellae (CMP) which is based on cartilage thickness decrease and signal intensity behaviour under compression as well as cartilage morphology in the plain image. The investigation was performed in 30 patients with varying knee complaints who underwent arthroscopy after MR imaging. It was demonstrated that three CMP stages can already be differentiated by MRI under compression in arthroscopically healthy cartilage. This proves a marked improvement in the early diagnosis of CMP. (orig.)

  4. Mechanism of Perceptual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...

  5. Mechanisms of Perceptual Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dosher, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    .... Attention may affect the perceived clarity of visual displays and improve performance. In this project, a powerful external noise method was developed to identify and characterize the effect of attention on perceptual performance in visual tasks...

  6. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  7. Is memory for music special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  8. Dynamics of Media Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, V.A.; Reinanda, R.; Hicks, J.; van Klinken, G.; Aziz-Alaoui, M.A.; Bertelle, C.; Liu, X.; Olivier, D.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of human attention dynamics analyses how attention is focused on specific topics, issues or people. In online social media, there are clear signs of exogenous shocks, bursty dynamics, and an exponential or powerlaw lifetime distribution. We here analyse the attention dynamics of traditional

  9. Attention and Representational Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J

    1995-01-01

    Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.

  10. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  11. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    research as a field that is fundamentally fragmented. This book takes a different perspective and presents a unified theory of visual attention: the TVA model. The TVA model explains the many aspects of visual attention by just two mechanisms for selection of information: filtering and pigeonholing......The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention....... These mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind...

  12. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  13. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  14. Special lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1998-01-01

    In his special lecture, given at the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial Session of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, October 1998, Prof. H. Yoshikawa stated that the fusion program had come to a crossroads. He was wondering whether the future would lead to cooperation between nations, striving to overcome the difficulties the world is confronted with, or if it would lead to despair

  15. Special offer

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    Staff Association

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  16. Special effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  17. Attention Mosaics: Studies of Organizational Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carvalho de Mesquita Ferreira (Luciana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOrganizational studies emphasizing the role of attention in organizational behavior depart from the idea that organizations, like individuals, have limited capacity to attend to environmental stimuli. The bounded capacity of the organizations to respond to stimuli is conditioned by the

  18. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    -based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...... literature, and we provide a corresponding axiomatization. This axiomatization also employs the auxiliary notion of attention-based relativized common belief....

  19. Pattern strabismus and torsion needs special surgical attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekunnaya, R; Mendonca, T; Sachdeva, V

    2015-01-01

    Pattern strabismus is relatively common in strabismus practice. Although it is classically used to include A and V patterns, the term has been expanded to include additional vertically incomitant horizontal strabismus. This article reviews the clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and surgical options for the patients with pattern strabismus. PMID:25412718

  20. Enteric Diseases of Poultry with Special Attention to Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Mohamed Hafez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The enteric heath of growing poultry is imperative to success of the production. The basic role of poultry production is turning feed stuffs into meat. Any changes in this turning process, due to mechanical, chemical or biological disturbance of digestive system (enteric disorders is mostly accompanied with high economic losses due to poor performance, increased mortality rates and increased medication costs. The severity of clinical signs and course of the disorders are influenced several factors such as management, nutrition and the involved agent(s. Several pathogens (viruses, bacteria and parasites are incriminated as possible cause of enteric disorders either alone (mono-causal, in synergy with other micro-organisms (multi-causal, or with non-infectious causes such as feed and /or management related factors. In addition, excessive levels of mycotoxins and biogenic amines in feed lead to enteric disorders. Also factors such as high stocking density, poor litter conditions, poor hygiene and high ammonia level and other stressful situation may reduce the resistance of the birds and increases their susceptibility to infections. Under field conditions, however, under filed conditions it is difficult to determine whether the true cause of enteric disorders, is of infectious or non-infectious origin. In recent years and since the ban of use of antimicrobial growth promoters in several countries the incidence of intestinal disorders especially those caused by clostridial infection was drastically increased. The present review described in general the several factors involved in enteric disorders and summarized the available literatures about Clostridium perfringens infection in poultry.

  1. Hemophilic osteoarthropathy with special attention to the elbow joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, R.; Adolph, J.; Peters, P.E.; Pollmann, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hemophilia is a rare disorder, whereas recurrent bleedings in the joint can result in osteoarthropathy. Radiological changes consist of osteoporosis, enlargement of the epiphyses, irregularity of the subchondral bone surface, narrowing of the joint space, cysts, erosions, joint incongruence and joint deformity. The earlier and the more frequently bleedings have occurred which have not been treated adequately, the more of the changes mentioned above are present. In children, osteoarthropathy of the elbow is present in only about 50% of cases, and in the remaining cases the degree is mostly minimal or moderate. Differential diagnosis consists of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in children, and rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis in adults. (orig.) [de

  2. Substance Use and Special Education: Should We Pay Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Katherine; Eisenberg, Marla

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to identify the relationships between Individualized Education Program (IEP) status and substance use. More than 122,000 eighth-, ninth-, and eleventh-grade students provided survey data in 2013. Analyses tested associations between IEP status and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, accounting for emotional distress and…

  3. Periodización de la formación de posgrado del médico en etapa de especialización en medicina general integral: dimensiones, variables y claves hermenéuticas Division into periods of the post degree training for the doctor in the specialization stage in General Comprehensive Medicine: volume, variables and hermeneutical keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilia Victoria Escobar Yéndez

    Full Text Available Los profesionales que ejercen la medicina general integral, han tenido a su cargo la enorme responsabilidad de transformar la atávica concepción de la medicina prevaleciente durante varios lustros en un nuevo esquema con enfoque integral del individuo, su familia y la comunidad. Para este trabajo se identificaron 3 hitos de periodización e igual número de etapas; pero también dimensiones, variables y claves hermenéuticas del proceso de formación de posgrado del médico en etapa de especialización en medicina general integral, con especial énfasis en el desarrollo de competencias investigativas.The professionals who practice the General Comprehensive Medicine, have been in charge of the enormous responsibility of transforming the atavistic idea of the prevalent medicine during several years into a new outline with a comprehensive approach to the individual, his family and the community. For this work 3 landmarks for a division into periods and the same number of stages were identified, as well as, dimensions, variables and hermeneutical keys of the post degree training process for the doctor in specialization stage in General Comprehensive Medicine, with special emphasis in the development of investigative power.

  4. Special energies and special frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrullis, M.; Englisch, H.

    1987-01-01

    ''Special frequencies'' have been asserted to be zeros of the density of frequencies corresponding to a random chain of coupled oscillators. Our investigation includes both this model and the random one-dimensional Schroedinger operator describing an alloy or its discrete analogue. Using the phase method we exactly determine a bilateral Lifsic asymptotic of the integrated density of states k(E) at special energies G s , which is not only of the classical type exp(-c/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke 1/2 ) but also exp(-c'/vertical strokeE-E s vertical stroke) is a typical behaviour. In addition, other asymptotics occur, e.g. vertical strokeE-E c vertical stroke c '', which show that k(E) need not be C ∞ . (orig.)

  5. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  6. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  7. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    OFFRE SPECIALE POUR NOS MEMBRES Les vendredis 29 juillet, 5 et 12 août, Aquaparc fermera ses portes exceptionnellement à 22h00. Pour ces évènements, des tarifs défiant toute concurrence vous sont proposés. Au programme : Clown spécialiste de la sculpture de ballons de 16h00 à 21h00 Ambiance Salsa avec danseurs professionnel : Démonstration et Cours de Salsa. Les tarifs : Pour une entrée à partir de 15h00 : Enfant : CHF 22.- Adulte : CHF 26.-  

  8. Special graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1964-01-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  9. Perspectives of special welding methods. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herden, G.; Buness, G.; Wiesner, P.

    1976-01-01

    Laser, electron, ion, and light beam welding as well as plasma arc welding are considered to be special fusion welding methods. The stage of development and possible future applications of these methods are described. (author)

  10. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting......This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  11. Aging, selective attention, and feature integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plude, D J; Doussard-Roosevelt, J A

    1989-03-01

    This study used feature-integration theory as a means of determining the point in processing at which selective attention deficits originate. The theory posits an initial stage of processing in which features are registered in parallel and then a serial process in which features are conjoined to form complex stimuli. Performance of young and older adults on feature versus conjunction search is compared. Analyses of reaction times and error rates suggest that elderly adults in addition to young adults, can capitalize on the early parallel processing stage of visual information processing, and that age decrements in visual search arise as a result of the later, serial stage of processing. Analyses of a third, unconfounded, conjunction search condition reveal qualitatively similar modes of conjunction search in young and older adults. The contribution of age-related data limitations is found to be secondary to the contribution of age decrements in selective attention.

  12. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  13. ATTENTION MAINTENANCE IN NOVICE DRIVERS: ASSESSMENT AND TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Anuj; Masserang, Kathleen M.; Divekar, Gautam; Reagan, Ian; Thomas, F. Dennis; Blomberg, Richard; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald

    2009-01-01

    All programs assessing attention maintenance inside the vehicle have required eye trackers and either a driving simulator or a specially equipped field vehicle. Ideally, one would like a way to assess attention maintenance that could be implemented on a desktop PC. Additionally, one would like to have a program that could be used to train novice drivers to maintain their attention more safely on the forward roadway. An experiment was run (a) to determine whether a program FOCAL (Focused Conce...

  14. [Thalamus and Attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Sato, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Nagai, Yoshiko

    2015-12-01

    Attention is the process by which information and selection occurs, the thalamus plays an important role in the selective attention of visual and auditory information. Selective attention is a conscious effort; however, it occurs subconsciously, as well. The lateral geniculate body (LGB) filters visual information before it reaches the cortex (bottom-up attention). The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provides a strong inhibitory input to both the LGB and pulvinar. This regulation involves focusing a spotlight on important information, as well as inhibiting unnecessary background information. Behavioral contexts more strongly modulate activity of the TRN and pulvinar influencing feedforward and feedback information transmission between the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical areas (top-down attention). The medial geniculate body (MGB) filters auditory information the TRN inhibits the MGB. Attentional modulation occurring in the auditory pathway among the cochlea, cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, and inferior colliculus is more important than that of the MGB and TRN. We also discuss the attentional consequence of thalamic hemorrhage.

  15. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  16. Special Offers

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    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for all active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  17. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  18. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    This book is an introduction to special relativity theory. After a discussion of the limits of Newton's mechanics and the pecularities in the propagation of light the Lorentz transformation is introduced. Then the measurement of space and time intervals in the framework of relativity theory is considered. Thereafter the addition of velocities and acceleration are considered in this framework. Then relativistic kinematics of particle interactions are described. Then the four-dimensional calculus in space-time coordinates is introduced. Finally an introduction is given to the treatment of the electromagnetic field in the framework of relativity theory. Every chapter contains exercise problems with solutions. This book is suited for all students who want to get some fundamental knowledge about relativity theory. (HSI) [de

  19. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  20. PRIORITIES OF PENSION REFORM IN UKRAINE AT THE PRESENT STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Rudyk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues of reforming the national pension system in modern conditions are considered. Their main elements, level of  their using in the general pension model of the country are analyzed. The financial security of the pension sector, increasing in pension costs, tendencies of increase of  their share relative to GDP for the future were assessed. Comparison of this indicator on the European countries was made. Priorities for pension reform were identified, main directions of reorganization of the solidarity pension system, the necessity of introduction of obligatory accumulative pension insurance were justified, the ways of further development of private pension provision were determined. Special attention was paid to the need to improve the legislative framework, which will be the legal basis for the successful conduction of this stage of the pension reform. Key words: pension reform, pension system, pension system, pension provision, pension system, pension assets, pension programs, financial risks, pension management.

  1. Optimization of preparation of skilled wrestlers by perfection of method of the special preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogar' G.O.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author method of the special physical preparation of skilled fighters is presented. A method carries stage-by-stage character. On the first stage effectively to conduct the accented power training. On the second stage - to perfect explosive force. Tasks of the third stage are perfection of speed force and lactate component of energy supply. On the fourth stage the special is perfected speed-power endurance. The fifth stage coincides with beginning of competition period of macrocycle.

  2. Seeing the conflict: an attentional account of reasoning errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, André; Ferreira, Mário B; Voss, Andreas; Kollei, Tanja

    2017-12-01

    In judgment and reasoning, intuition and deliberation can agree on the same responses, or they can be in conflict and suggest different responses. Incorrect responses to conflict problems have traditionally been interpreted as a sign of faulty problem-solving-an inability to solve the conflict. However, such errors might emerge earlier, from insufficient attention to the conflict. To test this attentional hypothesis, we manipulated the conflict in reasoning problems and used eye-tracking to measure attention. Across several measures, correct responders paid more attention than incorrect responders to conflict problems, and they discriminated between conflict and no-conflict problems better than incorrect responders. These results are consistent with a two-stage account of reasoning, whereby sound problem solving in the second stage can only lead to accurate responses when sufficient attention is paid in the first stage.

  3. Users’ attention behaviors and features in internet forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhong Sha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Attention resource is scarce. Organizing community activities in online forums faces the challenge of attracting users’ limited attention. Understanding how users of online forums allocate, maintain, and change their attentional focus and what features of online forms influence their attention behaviors is critical for effective information design. This paper seeks understanding of users’ attention behaviors and features when they participate in discussions in online forums. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual model was established to explore the indicator system of attention’s measurement. The related attention data were collected from Alexa Access Statistics Tool and Katie community. Then this paper computed the correlation coefficient and regression relationship between the indicators of visual attention and cognitive attention. Thereafter this paper analyzed and discussed users’ attention behaviors and features in Internet forum. Findings: Relevant bivariate correlation analysis and regression analysis discovers that Internet forum's attention is mainly as visual attention in users’ early involvement. Attention resources can be transformed. In a deep participation, users’ cognitive attention is more significant. Meanwhile cognitive attention behaviors’ further development will lead to the phenomenon that cognitive attention input is prone to increase faster in the early duration. That means in-depth discussion and interaction are more likely to appear in the early stages of participation. Research limitations/implications: There are some limitations about this study. The indicators are not comprehensive enough because factors affecting the distribution of attention resources in Internet forums are complex. We didn’t distinguish different types of Internet forums when we collected the relevant data. Future research will focus more on how to obtain comprehensive attention data. Originality/value: T his paper

  4. Iconic memory requires attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load). However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load), observers' performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  5. Iconic memory requires attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan ePersuh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change-detection paradigm (Experiment 1 or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2. In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization even when concurrently performing an easy visual search task (low load. However, when the concurrent search was made difficult (high load, observers’ performance dropped to almost chance levels, while search accuracy held at single-task levels. The effects of attentional load remained the same across paradigms. The results suggest that, without attention, participants consolidate in iconic memory only gross representations of the visual scene, information too impoverished for successful detection of perceptual change or categorization of features.

  6. Hierarchical nonlinear dynamics of human attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Tristan, Irma; Varona, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Attention is the process of focusing mental resources on a specific cognitive/behavioral task. Such brain dynamics involves different partially overlapping brain functional networks whose interconnections change in time according to the performance stage, and can be stimulus-driven or induced by an intrinsically generated goal. The corresponding activity can be described by different families of spatiotemporal discrete patterns or sequential dynamic modes. Since mental resources are finite, attention modalities compete with each other at all levels of the hierarchy, from perception to decision making and behavior. Cognitive activity is a dynamical process and attention possesses some universal dynamical characteristics. Thus, it is time to apply nonlinear dynamical theory for the description and prediction of hierarchical attentional tasks. Such theory has to include the analyses of attentional control stability, the time cost of attention switching, the finite capacity of informational resources in the brain, and the normal and pathological bifurcations of attention sequential dynamics. In this paper we have integrated today's knowledge, models and results in these directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iconic memory requires attention

    OpenAIRE

    Persuh, Marjan; Genzer, Boris; Melara, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attention plays a role in iconic memory, employing either a change detection paradigm (Experiment 1) or a partial-report paradigm (Experiment 2). In each experiment, attention was taxed during initial display presentation, focusing the manipulation on consolidation of information into iconic memory, prior to transfer into working memory. Observers were able to maintain high levels of performance (accuracy of change detection or categorization) even when co...

  8. Special Needs: Scholastic Disability Accommodations from K-12 and Transitions to Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivien

    2016-02-01

    The number of students entering post-secondary education with already diagnosed disabilities is on the rise and mirrors the percentage of children in primary and secondary public schools with registered disabilities. Requirements governed by civil rights laws fundamentally change when comparing the support schools have to provide to students during primary and secondary school with disability access in postsecondary higher education. Psychiatrists may be asked to assist with scholastic disability at any stage of education and need to know about available supports and the parameters of disability in schools. Specifically, special attention should to be made in preparation for transition to postsecondary education when prior accommodations exist.

  9. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  10. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  11. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Computer-Based Sustained Visual Attention Test for Pre-School Children: Design, Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Zahedian Nasb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustained visual attention is a prerequisite for learning and memory. The early evaluation of attention in childhood is essential for their school and career success in the future. The aim of this study was to design, development and investigation of psychometric properties (content, face and convergent validity and test-retest and internal consistency reliability of the computer - based sustained visual attention test (SuVAT for healthy preschool children aged 4-6 with their special needs. Methods: This study was carried out in two stages: in the first stage computerbased SuVAT in two versions original and parallel were developed. Then the test-retest and internal consistency reliability using intra-class correlation and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients respectively were examined; Face validity was calculated through ideas gathering from 10 preschool children and content validity evaluated using CVI and CVR method and convergent validity of SuVAT with CPT was assessed using Pearson correlation. Results: The developed test showed a good content and faces validity, and also had excellent test-retest reliability. In addition, the assessment of internal consistency indicated the high internal consistency of the test (Cronbach’s alpha=0.869. SuVAT and CPT test demonstrated a positive correlation upon the convergent validity testing. Conclusion: SuVAT with good reliability and validity could be used as an acceptable sustained attention assessment in preschool children.

  13. Attention theory and training research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  14. Virtues and Well-Being of Korean Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…

  15. Inclusion of Religion and Spirituality in the Special Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Melinda Jones

    2010-01-01

    Although traditionally not an area of service delivered by special educators, the area of religion and spirituality for persons with disabilities is receiving more attention as a quality-of-life outcome. This literature review examined the special education literature to determine the extent to which special educators are exposed to literature…

  16. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  17. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  18. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D. Barber

    2015-01-01

    While CON–DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON–DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other hand, greater DMN–occipital anti-correlation supported better attentional control in TD children.

  19. Review: Attention and Memory in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mirab-Zadeh

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have documented about attentional and memorial abnormality in individuals with autism. This study is summary of recent researches about alternations of attention and memory in autism. The most important changes of attention in autism are: 1 Arousal modulatory system dysfunction, leading to fluctuations between states over and under arousal. 2 Reduction of orienting and processing of novel stimuli. 3 Over focused attention, responding to only a subset of environmental cues. 4 Deficit in shifting attention, leading to difficulty moving their attention from one special location to another. The most important changes of memory in autism are: 1 Good rote memory 2 Cued recall is significantly better than free recall 3 Deficit in working memory 4 Deficit in implicit and explicit memory 5 Deficit in verbal memory about material that requires further encoding, organization or use of meaning or semantic cues for recalling 6 High functioning memory in some of the patients for example ability to read well, singing or recognizing musical pieces

  20. Special Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Brienne

    2017-01-01

    Special education teachers are in high demand and greatly needed to meet the needs of the growing population of students qualified for special education services under the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004. The increasing attrition rates of special education teachers are a social justice issue that needs attention. The…

  1. Interconnected levels of multi-stage marketing: A triadic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vedel, Mette; Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multi-stage marketing gains increasing attention as knowledge of and influence on the customer's customer become more critical for the firm's success. Despite this increasing managerial relevance, systematic approaches for analyzing multi-stage marketing are still missing. This paper conceptualizes different levels of multi-stage marketing and illustrates these stages with a case study. In addition, a triadic perspective is introduced as an analytical tool for multi-stage marketing research. ...

  2. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  3. Managerial Attention in International SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Jiasi

    2017-01-01

    Managerial attention affects organizational strategies and the resulting consequences. In the international business context, it is noted that how much attention managers give to the international marketplace, i.e., international attention, has profound implications for large global companies’

  4. Attention: Moral-Cognitive Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This article is an essay on the importance of attention as a personal trait. Offers a definition of attention, reviews symptoms of inattention, and identifies the categories of objects which typically hold a person's attention. (JDH)

  5. Are You Paying Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    and sustained. To study such attention practices, 16 semi-structured interviews with adult Danes are carried out. Through a thematic analysis of these interviews, the chapter explores how ways of attending relate to individual media and how patterns of daily life enable some practices and constrain others...

  6. Visual attention and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the relationship between attention and visual stability. Even though with each eye, head and body movement the retinal image changes dramatically, we perceive the world as stable and are able to perform visually guided actions. However, visual stability is not as

  7. Deep Visual Attention Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we aim to predict human eye fixation with view-free scenes based on an end-to-end deep learning architecture. Although Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made substantial improvement on human attention prediction, it is still needed to improve CNN based attention models by efficiently leveraging multi-scale features. Our visual attention network is proposed to capture hierarchical saliency information from deep, coarse layers with global saliency information to shallow, fine layers with local saliency response. Our model is based on a skip-layer network structure, which predicts human attention from multiple convolutional layers with various reception fields. Final saliency prediction is achieved via the cooperation of those global and local predictions. Our model is learned in a deep supervision manner, where supervision is directly fed into multi-level layers, instead of previous approaches of providing supervision only at the output layer and propagating this supervision back to earlier layers. Our model thus incorporates multi-level saliency predictions within a single network, which significantly decreases the redundancy of previous approaches of learning multiple network streams with different input scales. Extensive experimental analysis on various challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate our method yields state-of-the-art performance with competitive inference time.

  8. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  9. Laughter catches attention!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Barros, Carla; Dias, Marcelo; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-12-01

    In social interactions, emotionally salient and sudden changes in vocal expressions attract attention. However, only a few studies examined how emotion and attention interact in voice processing. We investigated neutral, happy (laughs) and angry (growls) vocalizations in a modified oddball task. Participants silently counted the targets in each block and rated the valence and arousal of the vocalizations. A combined event-related potential and time-frequency analysis focused on the P3 and pre-stimulus alpha power to capture attention effects in response to unexpected events. Whereas an early differentiation between emotionally salient and neutral vocalizations was reflected in the P3a response, the P3b was selectively enhanced for happy voices. The P3b modulation was predicted by pre-stimulus frontal alpha desynchronization, and by the perceived pleasantness of the targets. These findings indicate that vocal emotions may be differently processed based on task relevance and valence. Increased anticipation and attention to positive vocal cues (laughter) may reflect their high social relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Attention: oscillations and neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deco, Gustavo; Thiele, Alexander

    2009-08-01

    Attention is a rich psychological and neurobiological construct that influences almost all aspects of cognitive behaviour. It enables enhanced processing of behaviourally relevant stimuli at the expense of irrelevant stimuli. At the cellular level, rhythmic synchronization at local and long-range spatial scales complements the attention-induced firing rate changes of neurons. The former is hypothesized to enable efficient communication between neuronal ensembles tuned to spatial and featural aspects of the attended stimulus. Recent modelling studies suggest that the rhythmic synchronization in the gamma range may be mediated by a fine balance between N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate postsynaptic currents, whereas other studies have highlighted the possible contribution of the neuromodulator acetylcholine. This review summarizes some recent modelling and experimental studies investigating mechanisms of attention in sensory areas and discusses possibilities of how glutamatergic and cholinergic systems could contribute to increased processing abilities at the cellular and network level during states of top-down attention.

  11. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  12. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  13. Reliability and validity of the Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory in diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, N K; Darling-Fisher, C S

    1995-04-01

    The Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (MEPSI) is a relatively simple survey measure designed to assess the strength of psychosocial attributes that arise from progression through Erikson's eight stages of development. The purpose of this study was to employ secondary analysis to evaluate the internal-consistency reliability and construct validity of the MEPSI across four diverse samples: healthy young adults, hemophilic men, healthy older adults, and older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Special attention was given to the performance of the measure across gender, with exploratory analyses examining possible age cohort and health status effects. Internal-consistency estimates for the aggregate measure were high, whereas subscale reliability levels varied across age groups. Construct validity was supported across samples. Gender, cohort, and health effects offered interesting psychometric and theoretical insights and direction for further research. Findings indicated that the MEPSI might be a useful instrument for operationalizing and testing Eriksonian developmental theory in adults.

  14. ERP characterization of sustained attention effects in visual lexical categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara D Martin

    Full Text Available As our understanding of the basic processes underlying reading is growing, the key role played by attention in this process becomes evident. Two research topics are of particular interest in this domain: (1 it is still undetermined whether sustained attention affects lexical decision tasks; (2 the influence of attention on early visual processing (i.e., before orthographic or lexico-semantic processing stages remains largely under-specified. Here we investigated early perceptual modulations by sustained attention using an ERP paradigm adapted from Thierry et al. [1]. Participants had to decide whether visual stimuli presented in pairs pertained to a pre-specified category (lexical categorization focus on word or pseudoword pairs. Depending on the lexical category of the first item of a pair, participants either needed to fully process the second item (hold condition or could release their attention and make a decision without full processing of the second item (release condition. The P1 peak was unaffected by sustained attention. The N1 was delayed and reduced after the second item of a pair when participants released their attention. Release of sustained attention also reduced a P3 wave elicited by the first item of a pair and abolished the P3 wave elicited by the second. Our results are consistent with differential effects of sustained attention on early processing stages and working memory. Sustained attention modulated early processing stages during a lexical decision task without inhibiting the process of stimulus integration. On the contrary, working memory involvement/updating was highly dependent upon the allocation of sustained attention. Moreover, the influence of sustained attention on both early and late cognitive processes was independent of lexical categorization focus.

  15. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  16. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  17. Scene incongruity and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Clarke, Jason; Erol, Muge; Bert, John

    2017-02-01

    Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object. We offer an explanation for why the change detection results differ from the results of the other three experiments. In all four experiments, participants invariably failed to report the incongruity and routinely mis-described it by normalizing the incongruent object. None of the results supports the claim that semantic incongruity within a scene invariably captures attention and provide strong evidence of the dominant role of scene gist in determining what is perceived. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  19. Attention and Distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to examine the interrelationship between attention and distraction in the reception of video installation art, a genre which is commonly associated with "immersion" and an intensified feeling of presence in the discourses on new media art and installation art. This tends to veil......, on the other hand, the cultural formations of television, film and computers have fundamentally re-configured "aesthetic experience."...

  20. Gaming the Attention Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Daniel; Lawhead, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The future of human computation (HC) benefits from examining tasks that agents already perform and designing environments to give those tasks computational significance. We call this natural human computation (NHC). We consider the possible future of NHC through the lens of Swarm!, an application under development for Google Glass. Swarm! motivates users to compute the solutions to a class of economic optimization problems by engaging the attention dynamics of crowds. We argue that anticipati...

  1. Images of gastric cancer stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Aragon, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work has the objective to review the importance of the images in the preoperating stage of the gastric cancer. It has been emphasized in the modalities of transabdominal ultrasound as much as endoscopic and TAC since they are most valuable in the stage. Certainly the importance of conventional radiology (gastroduodenal series) is also valuable in the stage of the tumor, specially in considering the depth of the same one. In order to make this overhaul, the recent bibliography was consulted but, specially the published one by Japaneses since they follow a classification and methodology different from the used one in most of the countries that belong to the World-wide Organization of the Health. They made an overhaul of approximately 200 cases of patients who have been diagnosed and treated in the Center of Detection of Gastric Cancer of Cartago. In each case review the file, radiological, sonographic and pathological studies, and the cases were chosen that better illustrated the exposed subjects. (Author) [es

  2. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  3. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility....... By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowledge management is the intention of shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action....

  4. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  5. [Effect of divided attention on explicit and implicit aspects of recall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippich, W; Schmitt, R; Mecklenbräuker, S

    1989-01-01

    If subjects have to form word images before spelling a word from the image, results of a repetition of the spelling test reveal a reliable priming effect: Old words can be spelled faster than comparable control words, reflecting a form of implicit memory. We investigated whether this kind of repetition priming remains stable under conditions of divided attention in the study phase. The subjects had to spell meaningful words, meaningless non-words, and non-words that were meaningful with a backward spelling direction (troper, for example). In the testing stage, recognition judgments as a form of explicit memory were required, too. Divided attention in the study phase had a negative effect on explicit memory, as revealed by performance on the recognition task, but had little effect on implicit memory, as revealed by performance on the repetition of the spelling test. A further dissociation between implicit and explicit memory showed up as meaningful words were recognized much better than non-words, whereas implicit memory was uninfluenced by the meaningfulness variable. The disadvantage of backward spellings was not reduced with non-words (like troper) spelled backwards. Finally, we analyzed the relations between spelling times and recognition judgments and found a pattern of dependency for non-words only. Generally, the results are discussed within processing-oriented approaches to implicit memory with a special emphasis on controversial findings concerning the role of attention in different expressions of memory.

  6. Attention, Predation, Counterintuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Bram Stoker’s seminal horror novel Dracula (1897) has been subjected to a vast number of different critical readings, many of which are deeply flawed, e.g. by proceeding from defunct psychological theories. Incorporating recent advances in evolutionary social science, I offer a biocultural reading...... of Dracula to account for the novel’s impact and resilience. Dracula connected squarely with late-Victorian anxieties, but the novel also appeals to trans-historical adaptive dispositions. I analyze Stoker’s use of narrative strategies to grab and sustain attention, and Count Dracula as a supercharged...

  7. Attention: the claustrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Yael; Atlan, Gal; Citri, Ami

    2015-08-01

    The claustrum is a mysterious thin sheet of neurons lying between the insular cortex and the striatum. It is reciprocally connected with almost all cortical areas, including motor, somatosensory, visual, auditory, limbic, associative, and prefrontal cortices. In addition, it receives neuromodulatory input from subcortical structures. A decade ago, Sir Francis Crick and Christof Koch published an influential review proposing the claustrum as the 'seat of consciousness', spurring a revival of interest in the claustrum. We review the literature on the claustrum, emphasizing recent discoveries, and develop a detailed hypothesis describing a role for the claustrum in the segregation of attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention to memory: orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing acceptance that attention and memory interact, and that attention can be focused on an active internal mental representation (i.e., reflective attention), there has been a paucity of work focusing on reflective attention to 'sound objects' (i.e., mental representations of actual sound sources in the environment). Further research on the dynamic interactions between auditory attention and memory, as well as its degree of neuroplasticity, is important for understanding how sound objects are represented, maintained, and accessed in the brain. This knowledge can then guide the development of training programs to help individuals with attention and memory problems. This review article focuses on attention to memory with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroimaging studies that have begun to explore the mechanisms that mediate reflective attentional orienting in vision and more recently, in audition. Reflective attention refers to situations in which attention is oriented toward internal representations rather than focused on external stimuli. We propose four general principles underlying attention to short-term memory. Furthermore, we suggest that mechanisms involved in orienting attention to visual object representations may also apply for orienting attention to sound object representations.

  9. Energy, a crucial environmental subject. Special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In this issue of the magazine ArenA special attention is paid the use of energy in the Netherlands, the related problems and solutions, and the agenda for the Section Energy of the Dutch Association of Environmental Professionals (VVM) resulting from the technological, administrative and economical problems and solutions

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... are many types of attention associated with archery namely visual attention, mental attention and selective ... focus may be involved first but visual attention will play a meaningful role in the later part of .... explain the whole data set and as such by lessening huge variables with a considerably limited.

  11. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  12. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  13. Summary Stage 2018 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed January 1, 2018 and forward. 2018 version applies to every site and/or histology combination, including lymphomas and leukemias. Historically, also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  14. Evaluating the role of attention in the context of unconscious thought theory: differential impact of attentional scope and load on preference and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Mukherjee, Sumitava; Mishra, Maruti V; Kesarwani, Smriti

    2013-01-01

    Attention is a key process used to conceptualize and define modes of thought, but we lack information about the role of specific attentional processes on preferential choice and memory in multi-attribute decision making. In this study, we examine the role of attention based on two dimensions, attentional scope and load on choice preference strength and memory using a paradigm that arguably elicits unconscious thought. Scope of attention was manipulated by using global or local processing during distraction (Experiment 1) and before the information-encoding stage (Experiment 2). Load was manipulated by using the n-back task in Experiment 1. Results from Experiment 1 show that global processing or distributed attention during distraction results in stronger preference irrespective of load but better memory only at low cognitive load. Task difficulty or load did not have any effect on preference or memory. In Experiment 2, distributed attention before attribute encoding facilitated only memory but did not influence preference. Results show that attentional processes at different stages of processing like distraction and information-encoding influence decision making processes. Scope of attention not only influences preference and memory but the manner in which attentional scope influences them depends on both load and stage of information processing. The results indicate the important role of attention in processes critical for decision making and calls for a re-evaluation of the unconscious thought theory (UTT) and the need for reconceptualizing the role of attention.

  15. Evaluating the role of attention in the context of unconscious thought theory: Differential impact of attentional scope and load on preference and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan eSrinivasan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a key process used to conceptualize and define modes of thought, but we lack information on the role of specific attentional processes on preferential choice and memory in multi-attribute decision making. In this study, we examine the role of attention based on two dimensions, attentional scope and load on choice preference strength and memory using a paradigm that arguably elicits unconscious thought. Scope of attention was manipulated by using global or local processing during distraction (Experiment 1 and before the information encoding stage (Experiment 2. Load was manipulated by using the n-back task in Experiment 1. Results from Experiment 1 show that global processing or distributed attention during distraction results in stronger preference irrespective of load but better memory only at low cognitive load. Task difficulty or load did not have any effect on preference or memory. In Experiment 2, distributed attention before attribute encoding facilitated only memory but did not influence preference. Results show that attentional processes at different stages of processing like distraction and information-encoding influence decision making processes. Scope of attention not only influences preference and memory but the manner in which attentional scope influences them depends on both load and stage of information processing. The results indicate the important role of attention in processes critical for decision making and calls for a re-evaluation of the unconscious thought theory (UTT and the need for reconceptualizing the role of attention.

  16. Special boundedness properties in numerical initial value problems

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, W.

    2011-09-21

    For Runge-Kutta methods, linear multistep methods and other classes of general linear methods much attention has been paid in the literature to important nonlinear stability properties known as total-variation-diminishing (TVD), strong stability preserving (SSP) and monotonicity. Stepsize conditions guaranteeing these properties were studied by Shu and Osher (J. Comput. Phys. 77:439-471, 1988) and in numerous subsequent papers. Unfortunately, for many useful methods it has turned out that these properties do not hold. For this reason attention has been paid in the recent literature to the related and more general properties called total-variation-bounded (TVB) and boundedness. In the present paper we focus on stepsize conditions guaranteeing boundedness properties of a special type. These boundedness properties are optimal, and distinguish themselves also from earlier boundedness results by being relevant to sublinear functionals, discrete maximum principles and preservation of nonnegativity. Moreover, the corresponding stepsize conditions are more easily verified in practical situations than the conditions for general boundedness given thus far in the literature. The theoretical results are illustrated by application to the two-step Adams-Bashforth method and a class of two-stage multistep methods. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media B.V.

  17. Self-face Captures, Holds, and Biases Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Michał J; Nowicka, Maria M; Kotlewska, Ilona; Nowicka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The implicit self-recognition process may take place already in the pre-attentive stages of perception. After a silent stimulus has captured attention, it is passed on to the attentive stage where it can affect decision making and responding. Numerous studies show that the presence of self-referential information affects almost every cognitive level. These effects may share a common and fundamental basis in an attentional mechanism, conceptualized as attentional bias: the exaggerated deployment of attentional resources to a salient stimulus. A gold standard in attentional bias research is the dot-probe paradigm. In this task, a prominent stimulus (cue) and a neutral stimulus are presented in different spatial locations, followed by the presentation of a target. In the current study we aimed at investigating whether the self-face captures, holds and biases attention when presented as a task-irrelevant stimulus. In two dot-probe experiments coupled with the event-related potential (ERP) technique we analyzed the following relevant ERPs components: N2pc and SPCN which reflect attentional shifts and the maintenance of attention, respectively. An inter-stimulus interval separating face-cues and probes (800 ms) was introduced only in the first experiment. In line with our predictions, in Experiment 1 the self-face elicited the N2pc and the SPCN component. In Experiment 2 in addition to N2pc, an attentional bias was observed. Our results indicate that unintentional self-face processing disables the top-down control setting to filter out distractors, thus leading to the engagement of attentional resources and visual short-term memory.

  18. Self-face Captures, Holds, and Biases Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał J. Wójcik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implicit self-recognition process may take place already in the pre-attentive stages of perception. After a silent stimulus has captured attention, it is passed on to the attentive stage where it can affect decision making and responding. Numerous studies show that the presence of self-referential information affects almost every cognitive level. These effects may share a common and fundamental basis in an attentional mechanism, conceptualized as attentional bias: the exaggerated deployment of attentional resources to a salient stimulus. A gold standard in attentional bias research is the dot-probe paradigm. In this task, a prominent stimulus (cue and a neutral stimulus are presented in different spatial locations, followed by the presentation of a target. In the current study we aimed at investigating whether the self-face captures, holds and biases attention when presented as a task-irrelevant stimulus. In two dot-probe experiments coupled with the event-related potential (ERP technique we analyzed the following relevant ERPs components: N2pc and SPCN which reflect attentional shifts and the maintenance of attention, respectively. An inter-stimulus interval separating face-cues and probes (800 ms was introduced only in the first experiment. In line with our predictions, in Experiment 1 the self-face elicited the N2pc and the SPCN component. In Experiment 2 in addition to N2pc, an attentional bias was observed. Our results indicate that unintentional self-face processing disables the top-down control setting to filter out distractors, thus leading to the engagement of attentional resources and visual short-term memory.

  19. What does Attention in Neural Machine Translation Pay Attention to?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghader, H.; Monz, C.; Kondrak, G.; Watanabe, T.

    2017-01-01

    Attention in neural machine translation provides the possibility to encode relevant parts of the source sentence at each translation step. As a result, attention is considered to be an alignment model as well. However, there is no work that specifically studies attention and provides analysis of

  20. Altering attentional control settings causes persistent biases of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Helen C; Smith, Daniel T; Knight, David C; Ellison, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Attentional control settings have an important role in guiding visual behaviour. Previous work within cognitive psychology has found that the deployment of general attentional control settings can be modulated by training. However, research has not yet established whether long-term modifications of one particular type of attentional control setting can be induced. To address this, we investigated persistent alterations to feature search mode, also known as an attentional bias, towards an arbitrary stimulus in healthy participants. Subjects were biased towards the colour green by an information sheet. Attentional bias was assessed using a change detection task. After an interval of either 1 or 2 weeks, participants were then retested on the same change detection task, tested on a different change detection task where colour was irrelevant, or were biased towards an alternative colour. One experiment included trials in which the distractor stimuli (but never the target stimuli) were green. The key finding was that green stimuli in the second task attracted attention, despite this impairing task performance. Furthermore, inducing a second attentional bias did not override the initial bias toward green objects. The attentional bias also persisted for at least two weeks. It is argued that this persistent attentional bias is mediated by a chronic change to participants' attentional control settings, which is aided by long-term representations involving contextual cueing. We speculate that similar changes to attentional control settings and continuous cueing may relate to attentional biases observed in psychopathologies. Targeting these biases may be a productive approach to treatment.

  1. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    2011-04-01

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The results revealed a significant main effect of time and a significant interaction between gum chewing and time. The findings suggest that gum chewing differentially affects attention performance. While gum chewing has detrimental effects on sustained attention in earlier stages of the task, beneficial effects on sustained attention were observed at later stages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  3. Culture, attention, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Ellsworth, Phoebe C; Hong, Ying-yi

    2012-02-01

    This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  5. Attentional Push: Augmenting Salience with Shared Attention Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Gorji, Siavash; Clark, James J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel visual attention tracking technique based on Shared Attention modeling. Our proposed method models the viewer as a participant in the activity occurring in the scene. We go beyond image salience and instead of only computing the power of an image region to pull attention to it, we also consider the strength with which other regions of the image push attention to the region in question. We use the term Attentional Push to refer to the power of image regions to direct and man...

  6. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  7. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  8. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  9. Social Image Captioning: Exploring Visual Attention and User Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leiquan; Chu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Weishan; Wei, Yiwei; Sun, Weichen; Wu, Chunlei

    2018-02-22

    Image captioning with a natural language has been an emerging trend. However, the social image, associated with a set of user-contributed tags, has been rarely investigated for a similar task. The user-contributed tags, which could reflect the user attention, have been neglected in conventional image captioning. Most existing image captioning models cannot be applied directly to social image captioning. In this work, a dual attention model is proposed for social image captioning by combining the visual attention and user attention simultaneously.Visual attention is used to compress a large mount of salient visual information, while user attention is applied to adjust the description of the social images with user-contributed tags. Experiments conducted on the Microsoft (MS) COCO dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method of dual attention.

  10. Social Image Captioning: Exploring Visual Attention and User Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiquan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Image captioning with a natural language has been an emerging trend. However, the social image, associated with a set of user-contributed tags, has been rarely investigated for a similar task. The user-contributed tags, which could reflect the user attention, have been neglected in conventional image captioning. Most existing image captioning models cannot be applied directly to social image captioning. In this work, a dual attention model is proposed for social image captioning by combining the visual attention and user attention simultaneously.Visual attention is used to compress a large mount of salient visual information, while user attention is applied to adjust the description of the social images with user-contributed tags. Experiments conducted on the Microsoft (MS COCO dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method of dual attention.

  11. Preparatory attention in visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battistoni, E.; Stein, T.; Peelen, M.V.

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a

  12. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  13. Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the…

  14. Endogenous attention modulates early selective attention in psychopathy: An ERP investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Kiehl, Kent A; Newman, Joseph P

    2016-10-01

    Psychopathic individuals are prone to act on urges without adequate consideration of future consequences or the rights of other individuals. One interpretation of this behavior is that it reflects abnormal selective attention (i.e., a failure to process information that is incongruent with their primary focus of attention; Hiatt, Schmitt, & Newman, Neuropsychology, 18, 50-59, 2004). Unfortunately, it is unclear whether this selective attention abnormality reflects top-down endogenous influences, such as the strength or specificity of attention focus (i.e., top-down set) apart from other, more exogenous (bottom-up), effects on attention. To explore this question, we used an early visual event-related potential (N2pc) in combination with a modified visual search task designed to assess the effect of early endogenous (i.e., top-down) attention on the processing of set-congruent information. The task was administered to a sample of 70 incarcerated adult males, who were assigned to high, intermediate, and low psychopathy groups using Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003). Based on the assumption that their failure to process set-incongruent information reflects the exaggerated effects of endogenous attention, we predicted that participants with high psychopathy scores would show an exaggerated N2pc response to set-congruent information. The results supported the hypothesis and provide novel electrophysiological evidence that psychopathy is associated with exaggerated endogenous attention effects during early stages of processing. Further research is needed to examine the implications of this finding for the well-established failure of psychopathic individuals to process set-incongruent information and inhibit inappropriate responses.

  15. The Dance of Attention: Toward an Aesthetic Dimension of Attention-Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kasper

    2018-03-01

    What role does the aesthetics of bodily movement play in the understanding of attention among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? This article animates a phenomenological approach to attention and embodiment with a special focus on the relation between aesthetic or expressive bodily movement and behavioral awareness in children diagnosed with ADHD. However, beyond this it is argued that the aesthetic aspect of movement calls for an expansion of the phenomenological perspective. In this context Gilles Deleuze's notion of aesthetics as a "science of the sensible" is activated and discussed in relation to the phenomenological concept of perception. Empirically the article takes point of departure in a qualitative study conducted with a group of children with attention-deficit practicing the Afro-Brazilian marital art, capoeira. Combining ethnographic and phenomenological methods, it is demonstrated that capoeira can be considered a form of aesthetic movement that offers a transition of attention-deficit into a productive force of expression that changes the notions of sensation and movement in ADHD.

  16. Exposure to lead and specific attentional problems in schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minder, B.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Brand, E.F.J.M.; Orlebeke, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out to investigate the relationship between exposure to lead and attention in children. The participants were 43 boys, 8 to 12 years of age, attending special schools for children with educational and/or learning problems (so called LOM schools). Children with probable

  17. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of

  18. Emotion and attention: event-related brain potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Flaisch, Tobias; Stockburger, Jessica; Junghöfer, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Emotional pictures guide selective visual attention. A series of event-related brain potential (ERP) studies is reviewed demonstrating the consistent and robust modulation of specific ERP components by emotional images. Specifically, pictures depicting natural pleasant and unpleasant scenes are associated with an increased early posterior negativity, late positive potential, and sustained positive slow wave compared with neutral contents. These modulations are considered to index different stages of stimulus processing including perceptual encoding, stimulus representation in working memory, and elaborate stimulus evaluation. Furthermore, the review includes a discussion of studies exploring the interaction of motivated attention with passive and active forms of attentional control. Recent research is reviewed exploring the selective processing of emotional cues as a function of stimulus novelty, emotional prime pictures, learned stimulus significance, and in the context of explicit attention tasks. It is concluded that ERP measures are useful to assess the emotion-attention interface at the level of distinct processing stages. Results are discussed within the context of two-stage models of stimulus perception brought out by studies of attention, orienting, and learning.

  19. Attention, media and fuel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Cologne Graduate School; Gores, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Cologne Graduate School

    2012-08-15

    This study examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant causal impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on weekly panel data of local newspaper coverage, gasoline prices and Google search trends for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of the hybrid vehicle technology is robustly related to our measure of attention.

  20. Analysis of behavioral and EEG correlatives of attention in the dynamics of recovery of consciousness following severe brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sharova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the behavioral manifestations and electroencephalographic correlates of modality-nonspecific attention using a clinical model of severe brain injury (SBI.Patients and methods. 35 patients with SBI in the dynamics of post-coma recovery of mental activity (a study group and 23 healthy subjects (a control group were examined. The behavioral manifestations of NSA from coma to clear consciousness were analyzed in the patients. Changes in the pattern of EEG and in the indices of its coherence in the presence and activation of different forms of attention (an orienting response to the sound and eye opening; involuntary and voluntary visual forms, by applying specially developed computerized techniques, were investigated. The features of associated with attention changes in interhemispheric EEG coherence (IHC with the data of 3T diffusion tensor tractography of the corpus callosum (CC were compared.Results. Attention disorders were shown to be essential and an «axial disorder» in patients with SBI. There were statistically confirmed qualitative and quantitative differences attention-associated changes in the EEG pattern and IHC in reversible and chronic unconsciousness. The important favorable prognostic sign proved to be reactive changes in interhemispheric EEG relations, including frontal ones characterized by the absence of clear external manifestations of consciousness in the very earliest stages. There was a significant correlation between the preservation of CC tracts (primarily, the rostrum, anterior portion, and splenium and attention-related reactivity of IHC, which reflects the specific, though nonrigid, structural determinacy of the latter.

  1. Vertical specialization and industrial upgrading: a preliminary note

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Jiang; William Milberg

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vertical specialization is a measure of the import content of exports. Given the widely recognized importance of trade in tasks and global production networks, vertical specialization has recently gained the attention of international trade researchers and policy makers. In this note, we use measured changes in the within-country pattern of vertical specialization to gauge the relevance of task trade for industrial upgrading and economic development. We first calculate vertical speci...

  2. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  3. A study on the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil in the flapping adjustment stage during forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan; Zhang, Xingwei; Huang, Panpan; Xie, Lingwang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of a flapping airfoil in the adjustment stage between two specific flight patterns during the forward flight. Four flapping movement models in adjustment stage are firstly established by using the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, a numerical experiment is carried out by using finite volume method to solve the two-dimensional time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The attack angles are selected from -5° to 7.5° with an increase of 2.5°. The results are systematically analyzed and special attention is paid to the corresponding changes of aerodynamic forces, vortex shedding mechanism in the wake structure and thrust efficiency. Present results show that output aerodynamic performance of flapping airfoil can be improved by the increasement of amplitude and frequency in the flapping adjustment stage, which further validates and complements previous studies. Moreover, it is also show that the manner using multi-objective optimization algorithm to generate a movement model in adjustment stage, to connect other two specific plunging motions, is a feasible and effective method. Current study is dedicated to providing some helpful references for the design and control of artificial flapping wing air vehicles.

  4. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  5. Perceptual organization and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual organization--the processes structuring visual information into coherent units--and visual attention--the processes by which some visual information in a scene is selected--are crucial for the perception of our visual environment and to visuomotor behavior. Recent research points to important relations between attentional and organizational processes. Several studies demonstrated that perceptual organization constrains attentional selectivity, and other studies suggest that attention can also constrain perceptual organization. In this chapter I focus on two aspects of the relationship between perceptual organization and attention. The first addresses the question of whether or not perceptual organization can take place without attention. I present findings demonstrating that some forms of grouping and figure-ground segmentation can occur without attention, whereas others require controlled attentional processing, depending on the processes involved and the conditions prevailing for each process. These findings challenge the traditional view, which assumes that perceptual organization is a unitary entity that operates preattentively. The second issue addresses the question of whether perceptual organization can affect the automatic deployment of attention. I present findings showing that the mere organization of some elements in the visual field by Gestalt factors into a coherent perceptual unit (an "object"), with no abrupt onset or any other unique transient, can capture attention automatically in a stimulus-driven manner. Taken together, the findings discussed in this chapter demonstrate the multifaceted, interactive relations between perceptual organization and visual attention.

  6. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical Studies Research Brain Donation ...

  7. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  8. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  9. Stages and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  10. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  12. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  13. Cognitive maps and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Nadel, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive map theory suggested that exploring an environment and attending to a stimulus should lead to its integration into an allocentric environmental representation. We here report that directed attention in the form of exploration serves to gather information needed to determine an optimal spatial strategy, given task demands and characteristics of the environment. Attended environmental features may integrate into spatial representations if they meet the requirements of the optimal spatial strategy: when learning involves a cognitive mapping strategy, cues with high codability (e.g., concrete objects) will be incorporated into a map, but cues with low codability (e.g., abstract paintings) will not. However, instructions encouraging map learning can lead to the incorporation of cues with low codability. On the other hand, if spatial learning is not map-based, abstract cues can and will be used to encode locations. Since exploration appears to determine what strategy to apply and whether or not to encode a cue, recognition memory for environmental features is independent of whether or not a cue is part of a spatial representation. In fact, when abstract cues were used in a way that was not map-based, or when they were not used for spatial navigation at all, they were nevertheless recognized as familiar. Thus, the relation between exploratory activity on the one hand and spatial strategy and memory on the other appears more complex than initially suggested by cognitive map theory.

  14. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  15. Interactions between attention, context and learning in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Ito, M; Kapadia, M; Westheimer, G

    2000-01-01

    Attention in early visual processing engages the higher order, context dependent properties of neurons. Even at the earliest stages of visual cortical processing neurons play a role in intermediate level vision - contour integration and surface segmentation. The contextual influences mediating this process may be derived from long range connections within primary visual cortex (V1). These influences are subject to perceptual learning, and are strongly modulated by visuospatial attention, which is itself a learning dependent process. The attentional influences may involve interactions between feedback and horizontal connections in V1. V1 is therefore a dynamic and active processor, subject to top-down influences.

  16. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the omentum. The cancer ... lymph nodes behind the peritoneum. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to the ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  3. The Evolution of Special Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education in Malaysia across four chronological stages: before and during the early colonial period (before 1900), pre-independence (1900-1957), post-independence (1957-1990) and modern Malaysia (1990 to the present), through document analysis. By placing current issues and trends within a historical…

  4. 77 FR 36409 - ``Specially Designed'' Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ....''' The EAR defines ``development'' as ``related to all stages prior to serial production, such as: design, design research, design analyses, design concepts, assembly and testing of prototypes, pilot production... specific types of equipment for manufacturing semiconductor devices or materials, and specially designed...

  5. Special Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... characterized by historically developed specialization, a special geographical location ... We are listed under Research Associations category. ... product, service or technology providing economic and/or public benefit, additional in ...... the region's competitiveness // International Business Management.

  7. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Campos,Juan A.; Aznar-Casanova,J. Antonio; Bezerra,Izabela; Torro-Alves,Nelson; Sánchez,Manuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  8. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...

  9. Exogenous spatial attention influences figure-ground assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, Shaun P; Flevaris, Anastasia V; Filapek, Joseph C

    2004-01-01

    In a hierarchical stage account of vision, figure-ground assignment is thought to be completed before the operation of focal spatial attention. Results of previous studies have supported this account by showing that unpredictive, exogenous spatial precues do not influence figure-ground assignment, although voluntary attention can influence figure-ground assignment. However, in these studies, attention was not summoned directly to a region in a figure-ground display. In three experiments, we addressed the relationship between figure-ground assignment and visuospatial attention. In Experiment 1, we replicated the finding that exogenous precues do not influence figure-ground assignment when they direct attention outside of a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment if it is directed to one of the regions in a figure-ground stimulus. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that exogenous attention can influence figure-ground assignment in displays that contain a Gestalt figure-ground cue; this result suggests that figure-ground processes are not entirely completed prior to the operation of focal spatial attention. Exogenous spatial attention acts as a cue for figure-ground assignment and can affect the outcome of figure-ground processes.

  10. Attention without awareness: Attentional modulation of perceptual grouping without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Perceptual grouping is the process through which the perceptual system combines local stimuli into a more global perceptual unit. Previous studies have shown attention to be a modulatory factor for perceptual grouping. However, these studies mainly used explicit measurements, and, thus, whether attention can modulate perceptual grouping without awareness is still relatively unexplored. To clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping, the present study aims to explore how attention interacts with perceptual grouping without awareness. The task was to judge the relative lengths of two centrally presented horizontal bars while a railway-shaped pattern defined by color similarity was presented in the background. Although the observers were unaware of the railway-shaped pattern, their line-length judgment was biased by that pattern, which induced a Ponzo illusion, indicating grouping without awareness. More importantly, an attentional modulatory effect without awareness was manifested as evident by the observer's performance being more often biased when the railway-shaped pattern was formed by an attended color than when it was formed by an unattended one. Also, the attentional modulation effect was shown to be dynamic, being more pronounced with a short presentation time than a longer one. The results of the present study not only clarify the relationship between attention and perceptual grouping but also further contribute to our understanding of attention and awareness by corroborating the dissociation between attention and awareness.

  11. The interplay of attention and consciousness in visual search, attentional blink and working memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffone, Antonino; Srinivasan, Narayanan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-05-05

    Despite the acknowledged relationship between consciousness and attention, theories of the two have mostly been developed separately. Moreover, these theories have independently attempted to explain phenomena in which both are likely to interact, such as the attentional blink (AB) and working memory (WM) consolidation. Here, we make an effort to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, a theory of consciousness based on the notion of global workspace (GW) and, on the other, a synthesis of theories of visual attention. We offer a theory of attention and consciousness (TAC) that provides a unified neurocognitive account of several phenomena associated with visual search, AB and WM consolidation. TAC assumes multiple processing stages between early visual representation and conscious access, and extends the dynamics of the global neuronal workspace model to a visual attentional workspace (VAW). The VAW is controlled by executive routers, higher-order representations of executive operations in the GW, without the need for explicit saliency or priority maps. TAC leads to newly proposed mechanisms for illusory conjunctions, AB, inattentional blindness and WM capacity, and suggests neural correlates of phenomenal consciousness. Finally, the theory reconciles the all-or-none and graded perspectives on conscious representation.

  12. Gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces based on covert attention and feature attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M. S.; Schmidt, N. M.; Blankertz, B.

    2011-10-01

    There is evidence that conventional visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on event-related potentials cannot be operated efficiently when eye movements are not allowed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to develop a visual speller that does not require eye movements. Three different variants of a two-stage visual speller based on covert spatial attention and non-spatial feature attention (i.e. attention to colour and form) were tested in an online experiment with 13 healthy participants. All participants achieved highly accurate BCI control. They could select one out of thirty symbols (chance level 3.3%) with mean accuracies of 88%-97% for the different spellers. The best results were obtained for a speller that was operated using non-spatial feature attention only. These results show that, using feature attention, it is possible to realize high-accuracy, fast-paced visual spellers that have a large vocabulary and are independent of eye gaze.

  13. The interplay of attention and consciousness in visual search, attentional blink and working memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffone, Antonino; Srinivasan, Narayanan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Despite the acknowledged relationship between consciousness and attention, theories of the two have mostly been developed separately. Moreover, these theories have independently attempted to explain phenomena in which both are likely to interact, such as the attentional blink (AB) and working memory (WM) consolidation. Here, we make an effort to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, a theory of consciousness based on the notion of global workspace (GW) and, on the other, a synthesis of theories of visual attention. We offer a theory of attention and consciousness (TAC) that provides a unified neurocognitive account of several phenomena associated with visual search, AB and WM consolidation. TAC assumes multiple processing stages between early visual representation and conscious access, and extends the dynamics of the global neuronal workspace model to a visual attentional workspace (VAW). The VAW is controlled by executive routers, higher-order representations of executive operations in the GW, without the need for explicit saliency or priority maps. TAC leads to newly proposed mechanisms for illusory conjunctions, AB, inattentional blindness and WM capacity, and suggests neural correlates of phenomenal consciousness. Finally, the theory reconciles the all-or-none and graded perspectives on conscious representation. PMID:24639586

  14. Right hemisphere control of visuospatial attention in near space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Trippier, Sarah; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Lourenco, Stella F

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, the right cerebral hemisphere has been considered to be specialized for spatial attention and orienting. A large body of research has demonstrated dissociable representations of the near space immediately surrounding the body and the more distance far space. In this study, we investigated whether right hemisphere activations commonly reported for tasks involving spatial attention (such as the line bisection and landmark tasks) are specific to stimuli presented in near space. In separate blocks of trials, participants judged either whether a vertical transector was to the left or right of the centre of a line (landmark task) or whether the line was red or blue (colour task). Stimuli were seen from four distances (30, 60, 90, 120 cm). We used EEG to measure an ERP component (the 'line-bisection effect') specific to the direction of spatial attention (i.e., landmark minus colour). Consistent with previous results, spatial attention produced a right-lateralized negativity over occipito-parietal channels. The magnitude of this negativity was inversely related to viewing distance, being largest in near space and reduced in far space. These results suggest that the right occipito-temporal cortex may be specialized not just for the orientation of spatial attention generally, but specifically for orienting attention in the near space immediately surrounding the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated NREM Sleep Staging Using the Electro-oculogram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Molina, G.; Abtahi, S.F.; Lagares-Lemos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic sleep staging from convenient and unobtrusive sensors hasreceived considerable attention lately because this can enable a large range of potential applications in the clinical and consumer fields. In this paper the focus is on achieving non REM sleep staging from ocular electrodes. From

  16. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija

    2012-01-01

    stage affects the classification ability of single financial ratios and financial distress prediction models in short-term financial distress prediction. The study shows that the auditor's GC task could be supported by paying attention to the financial distress process stage. The implications...... of these findings for auditors and every stakeholder of business firms are considered....

  17. Attention in a bayesian framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise Emma; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    , and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental...... selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which...... can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena....

  18. Selective attention within the foveola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Martina; Rucci, Michele; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-10-01

    Efficient control of attentional resources and high-acuity vision are both fundamental for survival. Shifts in visual attention are known to covertly enhance processing at locations away from the center of gaze, where visual resolution is low. It is unknown, however, whether selective spatial attention operates where the observer is already looking-that is, within the high-acuity foveola, the small yet disproportionally important rod-free region of the retina. Using new methods for precisely controlling retinal stimulation, here we show that covert attention flexibly improves and speeds up both detection and discrimination at loci only a fraction of a degree apart within the foveola. These findings reveal a surprisingly precise control of attention and its involvement in fine spatial vision. They show that the commonly studied covert shifts of attention away from the fovea are the expression of a global mechanism that exerts its action across the entire visual field.

  19. Developments in special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-01-01

    We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  20. Advertising, Attention, and Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Focke, Florens; Ruenzi, Stefan; Ungeheuer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of product market advertising on investor attention and financial market outcomes. Using daily advertising data allows us to identify short-term effects of advertising. We measure daily investor attention based the company's number of Wikipedia page views. We show that TV and newspaper advertising positively impacts short-term investor attention. It also positively impacts turnover and liquidity, but the effects are not economically significant. Most importantly, ass...

  1. Measuring the amplification of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Blaser, Erik; Sperling, George; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    1999-01-01

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red–green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to ...

  2. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-05-01

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  4. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, Sarit; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-07

    Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test-interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  5. The attention habit: how reward learning shapes attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-04-01

    There is growing consensus that reward plays an important role in the control of attention. Until recently, reward was thought to influence attention indirectly by modulating task-specific motivation and its effects on voluntary control over selection. Such an account was consistent with the goal-directed (endogenous) versus stimulus-driven (exogenous) framework that had long dominated the field of attention research. Now, a different perspective is emerging. Demonstrations that previously reward-associated stimuli can automatically capture attention even when physically inconspicuous and task-irrelevant challenge previously held assumptions about attentional control. The idea that attentional selection can be value driven, reflecting a distinct and previously unrecognized control mechanism, has gained traction. Since these early demonstrations, the influence of reward learning on attention has rapidly become an area of intense investigation, sparking many new insights. The result is an emerging picture of how the reward system of the brain automatically biases information processing. Here, I review the progress that has been made in this area, synthesizing a wealth of recent evidence to provide an integrated, up-to-date account of value-driven attention and some of its broader implications. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

  7. The staging area concept for item control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Accounting for special nuclear material contained in fabricated nuclear fuel rod items has been completely automated at the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division facility in Columbia, South Carolina. Experience with the automated system has shown substantial difficulty in maintaining current knowledge of the precise locations of rods pulled out of the ''normal'' processing cycle. This has been resolved by creation of two tightly controlled staging areas for handling and distribution of all ''deviant'' rods by two specially trained expeditors. Thus, coupling automated data collection with centralized expert handling and distribution has created a viable system for control of large numbers of fuel rods in a major fabrication plant

  8. Engaging Students Regarding Special Needs in Technology and Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David W.

    2015-01-01

    In 1984, James Buffer and Michael Scott produced the book "Special Needs Guide for Technology Education" (Buffer and Scott, 1984). This was a pivotal offering insofar as it set the stage for technology education educators, at the time, to think about and be provided with information regarding students with special needs in their…

  9. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  10. Paying More Attention to Attention: Improving the Performance of Convolutional Neural Networks via Attention Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Zagoruyko, Sergey; Komodakis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Attention plays a critical role in human visual experience. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that attention can also play an important role in the context of applying artificial neural networks to a variety of tasks from fields such as computer vision and NLP. In this work we show that, by properly defining attention for convolutional neural networks, we can actually use this type of information in order to significantly improve the performance of a student CNN network by forcin...

  11. Dynamic crossmodal links revealed by steady-state responses in auditory-visual divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ritske; Toffanin, Paolo; Harbers, Marten

    2010-01-01

    Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were smaller, but still significant, in detection than in discrimination. The auditory steady-state response (SSR) showed no effects of attention at frontocentral locations, but did so at occipital locations where it was evident only when attention was divided between audition and vision. Similarly, the visual SSR at occipital locations was substantially enhanced when attention was divided across modalities. Both effects were equally present in detection and discrimination. We suggest that both effects reflect a common cause: An attention-dependent influence of auditory information processing on early cortical stages of visual information processing, mediated by enhanced effective connectivity between the two modalities under conditions of divided attention. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  13. From classic to current: a look back on attention research in the American Journal of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounts, Jeffrey R W

    2012-01-01

    This review examines attention research appearing in The American Journal of Psychology over the journal's rich 125-year history. In particular, the review examines studies focused on selective attention's role in modulating the influence of distraction and the methods used to capture the nature of selective attention. Special attention is given to classic articles by Treisman (1964a, 1964b), Neisser (1963), and Eriksen and Rohrbaugh (1970), whose methods and results are examined in detail in light of current theory and research in selective attention.

  14. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  15. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  16. Practicing the Attentional Dwell Away?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented about 200-500 ms later than the first. The phenomenon...... is known as the attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro, 1994). Previous studies of attentional dwell time have all used naive subjects running few (.... The results suggest that the majority of subjects may learn to optimize their performance reducing the attentional dwell time effect substantially. Further, the reduction in the attentional dwell time effect seems to be closely linked to the ability of the subject to inhibit eye movements while performing...

  17. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design....../methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...

  18. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  19. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-06-01

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  1. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Clinical presentation and staging of Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallamini, Andrea; Hutchings, Martin; Ramadan, Safaa

    2016-01-01

    , sometimes HL is a subtle disease, difficult to diagnose for the paucity of symptoms, the absence of physical findings, or for concomitant immunologic disorders: a compete overview of the common and rare patterns of HL clinical presentation will be also offered. The future perspective of PET scan use......In the present chapter the authors present a brief overview of the diagnostic methods proposed over time for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) spread detection, moving from surgical procedures, through standard radiological and functional imaging techniques to the present state of the art for HL staging...... tomography (FDG-PET) scan in the armamentarium of staging procedures will be presented and commented, with a special emphasis on the utility of special procedures, such as bone marrow trephine biopsy, which is deemed no longer needed in the PET era. While the HL diagnosis is straightforward in most cases...

  3. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  4. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope . Stage II In stage II , cancer has spread: to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis . Also, ... spread to one lymph node in the groin . Cancer has also spread: to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis . Also, ...

  5. The Attentional Blink is Modulated by First Target Contrast: Implications of an Attention Capture Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. The bottleneck theory proposes that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty...... increases T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. The attention capture hypothesis suggests that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty decreases T1 saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. In two experiments we find support...... for an attention capture hypothesis. In Experiment 1 we find that AB magnitude increases with T1 contrast – but only when T1 is unmasked. In Experiment 2 we add Gaussian noise to targets and vary T1 contrast but keep T1 ‘s SNR constant. Again we find that AB magnitude increases with T1 contrast....

  6. The attentional blink is modulated by first target contrast: Implications of an attention capture hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Andersen, Tobias S

    2011-01-01

    When two targets (T1 & T2) are presented in rapid succession, observers often fail to report T2 if they attend to T1. The bottleneck theory proposes that this attentional blink (AB) is due to T1 occupying a slow processing stage when T2 is presented. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty...... increases T1 processing time, this should cause a greater AB. The attention capture hypothesis suggests that T1 captures attention, which cannot be reallocated to T2 in time. Accordingly, if increasing T1 difficulty decreases T1 saliency, this should cause a smaller AB. In two experiments we find support...... for an attention capture hypothesis. In Experiment 1 we find that AB magnitude increases with T1 contrast – but only when T1 is unmasked. In Experiment 2 we add Gaussian noise to targets and vary T1 contrast but keep T1 ‘s SNR constant. Again we find that AB magnitude increases with T1 contrast....

  7. SOCIAL-PEDAGOGICAL WORK WITH CHILDREN WHO ARE FORCEDLY RE-SETTLED FROM THE ZONE OF MILITARY CONFLICT TO THE SPECIALLY CREATED SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Tsybulko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The normative documents, statistic data concerning the people, who are forcedly resettled, are analysed in the article. The aim of the article is to describe the organizational stages of social workers; to determine the features of each stage, to consider the most effective methods and forms of each of the identified stages. Separate facts of creating towns for settlers are studied; information, given in scientific sociological and psychological works, is generalized. The stages of social activity of educators with children of compelled settlers (preparatory, organizational-active and analytical-corrective are determined on the basis of the carried out analysis. The essence of the activity, the methods and forms, the efficiency in realization of work with children, who are forcedly resettled, will be higher upon condition of drawing parents into corresponding forms and kinds of social pedagogical work. The author singles out three stages of work: the preparatory, organizational and activity, analytical and corrective stage. The methods and techniques of social work that shold be applied on each stage are disclosed. The author emphasizes, that not only professionals in the field of education but also representatives of state institutions – organs of executive power, health service, town centers of social service for family, children and youth, public organizations, charity funds and volunteers, which have corresponding specialization or special training, should be drown into realization of proposed stages of work with children-settlers. The author comes to the conclusion that in sprite of existence of already organized work with settlers’ families in Ukraine, more attention should be paid just to work with children because this generation creates the future of our country.

  8. Survey on radioprotective attention in the nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayamori, Ryo; Satoh, Shizuma; Sakai, Kunio; Kitabatake, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Yoki

    1978-01-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 2965 nurses and practical nurses in 37 institutions in Niigata prefecture in April, 1977, and the degree of radioprotective knowledge and attention in the nurses were investigated. Answers in 2205 cases were effective. The mean rate of those who answered that they knew International Committee of Radiation Protection and the permissible dose in the abdomen of female who had a possibility to be pregnant and hereditary (significant) dose was 22.2%. Out of the nurses working in the institutions dealing with radiation, the rate of those who wore film-badge was 15.7%, and that of those who received special health examinations was 1.39%. 654 nurses answered that it was better to fix the nurses in the institutions dealing with radiation. An actual condition of radioprotective education in nurse education was analysed, and private opinions on its future direction were described. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Survey on radioprotective attention in the nurses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayamori, R; Satoh, S; Sakai, K; Kitabatake, T; Yoshizawa, Y [Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    1978-05-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 2965 nurses and practical nurses in 37 institutions in Niigata prefecture in April, 1977, and the degree of radioprotective knowledge and attention in the nurses were investigated. Answers in 2205 cases were effective. The mean rate of those who answered that they knew International Committee of Radiation Protection and the permissible dose in the abdomen of female who had a possibility to be pregnant and hereditary (significant) dose was 22.2%. Out of the nurses working in the institutions dealing with radiation, the rate of those who wore film-badge was 15.7%, and that of those who received special health examinations was 1.39%. 654 nurses answered that it was better to fix the nurses in the institutions dealing with radiation. An actual condition of radioprotective education in nurse education was analysed, and private opinions on its future direction were described.

  10. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  11. Selective attention without a neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Bogadhi, Amarender R; Herman, James P; Bollimunta, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Selective attention refers to the ability to restrict neural processing and behavioral responses to a relevant subset of available stimuli, while simultaneously excluding other valid stimuli from consideration. In primates and other mammals, descriptions of this ability typically emphasize the neural processing that takes place in the cerebral neocortex. However, non-mammals such as birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish, which completely lack a neocortex, also have the ability to selectively attend. In this article, we survey the behavioral evidence for selective attention in non-mammals, and review the midbrain and forebrain structures that are responsible. The ancestral forms of selective attention are presumably selective orienting behaviors, such as prey-catching and predator avoidance. These behaviors depend critically on a set of subcortical structures, including the optic tectum (OT), thalamus and striatum, that are highly conserved across vertebrate evolution. In contrast, the contributions of different pallial regions in the forebrain to selective attention have been subject to more substantial changes and reorganization. This evolutionary perspective makes plain that selective attention is not a function achieved de novo with the emergence of the neocortex, but instead is implemented by circuits accrued and modified over hundreds of millions of years, beginning well before the forebrain contained a neocortex. Determining how older subcortical circuits interact with the more recently evolved components in the neocortex will likely be crucial for understanding the complex properties of selective attention in primates and other mammals, and for identifying the etiology of attention disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  13. Attentional modulation of reflex cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Silva, Mitchell; Davenport, Paul W; Van Diest, Ilse; Dupont, Lieven J; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2014-07-01

    Reflex cough is a defensive response generated in the brainstem in response to chemical and mechanical stimulation of the airways. However, converging evidence shows that reflex cough is also influenced by central neural control processes. In this study, we investigate whether reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus on either external stimuli or internal cough-related stimuli. Healthy volunteers (N = 24; seven men; age range, 18-25 years) completed four blocks of citric acid-induced cough challenges while, simultaneously, auditory stimuli were presented. Within each block, four concentrations were administered (30, 100, 300 and 1,000 mM, randomized). During two subsequent blocks, participants focused their attention externally (counting tones). During the other two blocks, participants focused their attention internally (counting coughs). The order of attentional focus was counterbalanced across participants. Ratings of the urge to cough were collected after each challenge. Cough frequency was determined by audio recording. Cough frequency was higher when participants focused their attention internally vs externally (P Reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus. Internally focused attention may be a mechanism involved in excessive (idiopathic) cough, while an external focus may be introduced as part of treatments targeting excessive cough.

  14. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  15. Attention affects visual perceptual processing near the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2010-09-01

    Specialized, bimodal neural systems integrate visual and tactile information in the space near the hand. Here, we show that visuo-tactile representations allow attention to influence early perceptual processing, namely, figure-ground assignment. Regions that were reached toward were more likely than other regions to be assigned as foreground figures, and hand position competed with image-based information to bias figure-ground assignment. Our findings suggest that hand position allows attention to influence visual perceptual processing and that visual processes typically viewed as unimodal can be influenced by bimodal visuo-tactile representations.

  16. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  17. Neurophysiological correlates of attention behavior in early infancy: Implications for emotion regulation during early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B.; Swingler, Margaret M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build upon early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior, and whether infant's attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion in early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that, greater EEG power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10 months were associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention, and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present in the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10-months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infant's attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities in childhood. PMID:26381926

  18. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Rodrigo C; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  19. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  20. Assessing attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Maria; Martella, Diana; Ruggiero, Maria Cleonice; Maccari, Lisa; Paloscia, Claudio; Rosa, Caterina; Pasini, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and interactions of attentional systems in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by considering the effects of reinforcement and auditory warning on each component of attention. Thirty-six drug-naïve children (18 children with ADHD/18 typically developing children) performed two revised versions of the Attentional Network Test, which assess the efficiency of alerting, orienting, and executive systems. In feedback trials, children received feedback about their accuracy, whereas in the no-feedback trials, feedback was not given. In both conditions, children with ADHD performed more slowly than did typically developing children. They also showed impairments in the ability to disengage attention and in executive functioning, which improved when alertness was increased by administering the auditory warning. The performance of the attentional networks appeared to be modulated by the absence or the presence of reinforcement. We suggest that the observed executive system deficit in children with ADHD could depend on their low level of arousal rather than being an independent disorder. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Early vision and visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT, based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constructs of FIT, like types of visual search and the role of the attention. The following review describes the main studies of early vision and visual attention.

  2. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Eurostat and the Ministry of Economic Development. 4. .... regard to the application of special national schemes for small enterprises. ... 2013) mentions a two-year exemption from the tax on joint stock companies and local taxes. ... specialized support programs are developed, such as the introduction of the ...

  4. Special Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  5. Measuring the amplification of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, E; Sperling, G; Lu, Z L

    1999-09-28

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red-green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to green) alters the perceived direction of motion and is found to be equivalent to increasing the physical redness (or greenness) by 25-117%, depending on the observer and color. Whereas attention to a color drastically alters the salience of that color, it leaves color appearance unchanged. A computational model, which embodies separate, parallel pathways for object perception and for salience, accounts for 99% of the variance of the experimental data.

  6. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as methylphenidate (Ritalin) or dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), which are stimulants that decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity and increase attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the generic versions ...

  7. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed...... and apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects...

  8. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  9. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Feature ranking and rank aggregation for automatic sleep stage classification: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdi, Shirin; Gharbali, Ali Abdollahi; Fonseca, José Manuel

    2017-08-18

    Nowadays, sleep quality is one of the most important measures of healthy life, especially considering the huge number of sleep-related disorders. Identifying sleep stages using polysomnographic (PSG) signals is the traditional way of assessing sleep quality. However, the manual process of sleep stage classification is time-consuming, subjective and costly. Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the sleep stage classification, researchers have been trying to develop automatic classification algorithms. Automatic sleep stage classification mainly consists of three steps: pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. Since classification accuracy is deeply affected by the extracted features, a poor feature vector will adversely affect the classifier and eventually lead to low classification accuracy. Therefore, special attention should be given to the feature extraction and selection process. In this paper the performance of seven feature selection methods, as well as two feature rank aggregation methods, were compared. Pz-Oz EEG, horizontal EOG and submental chin EMG recordings of 22 healthy males and females were used. A comprehensive feature set including 49 features was extracted from these recordings. The extracted features are among the most common and effective features used in sleep stage classification from temporal, spectral, entropy-based and nonlinear categories. The feature selection methods were evaluated and compared using three criteria: classification accuracy, stability, and similarity. Simulation results show that MRMR-MID achieves the highest classification performance while Fisher method provides the most stable ranking. In our simulations, the performance of the aggregation methods was in the average level, although they are known to generate more stable results and better accuracy. The Borda and RRA rank aggregation methods could not outperform significantly the conventional feature ranking methods. Among

  11. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  12. Enhanced attention amplifies face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Evangelista, Emma; Ewing, Louise; Peters, Marianne; Taylor, Libby

    2011-08-15

    Perceptual adaptation not only produces striking perceptual aftereffects, but also enhances coding efficiency and discrimination by calibrating coding mechanisms to prevailing inputs. Attention to simple stimuli increases adaptation, potentially enhancing its functional benefits. Here we show that attention also increases adaptation to faces. In Experiment 1, face identity aftereffects increased when attention to adapting faces was increased using a change detection task. In Experiment 2, figural (distortion) face aftereffects increased when attention was increased using a snap game (detecting immediate repeats) during adaptation. Both were large effects. Contributions of low-level adaptation were reduced using free viewing (both experiments) and a size change between adapt and test faces (Experiment 2). We suggest that attention may enhance adaptation throughout the entire cortical visual pathway, with functional benefits well beyond the immediate advantages of selective processing of potentially important stimuli. These results highlight the potential to facilitate adaptive updating of face-coding mechanisms by strategic deployment of attentional resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective attention. In our first experiment we measured thresholds for determining the walking direction of a masked point-light figure, and performance on a range of attention-related tasks in the same set of observers. Mask-density thresholds for the direction discrimination task varied quite considerably from observer to observer and this variation was highly correlated with performance on both Stroop and flanker interference tasks. Other components of attention, such as orienting, alerting and visual search efficiency, showed no such relationship. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between the ability to determine the orientation of unmasked point-light actions and Stroop interference, again finding a strong correlation. Our results are consistent with previous research suggesting that biological motion processing may requite attention, and specifically implicate networks of attention related to executive control and selection.

  14. Stages of Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ultrasound monitor . The picture can be printed to be looked at later. MRI (magnetic resonance ... procedures may be used in the staging process: Bone scan : A procedure to check if there are ...

  15. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  16. Selective Attention, Diffused Attention, and the Development of Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei (Sophia); Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants’ attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cuing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. PMID:27721103

  17. Selective attention, diffused attention, and the development of categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei Sophia; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2016-12-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants' attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cueing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  19. Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    OpenAIRE

    Otipková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Title: Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The aim of the work was to determine the level of fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of the pupils with diagnosis ADHD at schools specialized on these pupils and compare it with the fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of children without this diagnosis at common elementary school. Further work objective was to determine the level of gross motor skills of lower limbs ...

  20. Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Alves, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2012-03-01

    The present study analyses the modulatory effects of affective pictures in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP) and the human startle response on both the peripheral (eye blink EMG) and central neurophysiological levels (Probe P3), during passive affective pictures viewing. The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low). The data shows that EPN may be sensitive to specific stimulus characteristics (affective relevant pictures versus neutral pictures) associated with early stages of attentional processing. In later stages, the heightened attentional resource allocation as well as the motivated significance of the affective stimuli was found to elicit enhanced amplitudes of slow wave processes thought to be related to enhanced encoding, namely LPP,. Although pleasant low arousing pictures were effective in engaging the resources involved in the slow wave processes, the highly arousing affective stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant) were found to produce the largest enhancement of the LPP, suggesting that high arousing stimuli may are associated with increased motivational significance. Additionally the response to high arousing stimuli may be suggestive of increased motivational attention, given the heightened attentional allocation, as expressed in the P3 probe, especially for the pleasant pictures. The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  2. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  3. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  4. First Stage Acceptance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    This photograph shows the intense smoke and fire created by the five F-1 engines from a test firing of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) in the S-1C test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  5. The effects of sad prosody on hemispheric specialization for words processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Rotem; Arzouan, Yossi; Armony-Sivan, Rinat

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effect of sad prosody on hemispheric specialization for word processing using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. A dichotic listening task combining focused attention and signal-detection methods was conducted to evaluate the detection of a word spoken in neutral or sad prosody. An overall right ear advantage together with leftward lateralization in early (150-170 ms) and late (240-260 ms) processing stages was found for word detection, regardless of prosody. Furthermore, the early stage was most pronounced for words spoken in neutral prosody, showing greater negative activation over the left than the right hemisphere. In contrast, the later stage was most pronounced for words spoken with sad prosody, showing greater positive activation over the left than the right hemisphere. The findings suggest that sad prosody alone was not sufficient to modulate hemispheric asymmetry in word-level processing. We posit that lateralized effects of sad prosody on word processing are largely dependent on the psychoacoustic features of the stimuli as well as on task demands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function.

  7. Cognitive Control and Attentional Selection in Adolescents with ADHD versus ADD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Laurie; Henderson, John; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    An important research question is whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is related to early- or late-stage attentional control mechanisms and whether this differentiates a nonhyperactive subtype (ADD). This question was addressed in a sample of 145 ADD/ADHD and typically developing comparison adolescents (aged 13-17). Attentional…

  8. Electrophysiological evidence for spatiotemporal flexibility in the ventrolateral attention network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ristic

    Full Text Available Successful completion of many everyday tasks depends on interactions between voluntary attention, which acts to maintain current goals, and reflexive attention, which enables responding to unexpected events by interrupting the current focus of attention. Past studies, which have mostly examined each attentional mechanism in isolation, indicate that volitional and reflexive orienting depend on two functionally specialized cortical networks in the human brain. Here we investigated how the interplay between these two cortical networks affects sensory processing and the resulting overt behavior. By combining measurements of human performance and electrocortical recordings with a novel analytical technique for estimating spatiotemporal activity in the human cortex, we found that the subregions that comprise the reflexive ventrolateral attention network dissociate both spatially and temporally as a function of the nature of the sensory information and current task demands. Moreover, we found that together with the magnitude of the early sensory gain, the spatiotemporal neural dynamics accounted for the high amount of the variance in the behavioral data. Collectively these data support the conclusion that the ventrolateral attention network is recruited flexibly to support complex behaviors.

  9. The influence of magnetic field strength in ionization stage on ion transport between two stages of a double stage Hall thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Song Maojiang; Li Hong; Liu Hui; Han Ke

    2012-01-01

    It is futile for a double stage Hall thruster to design a special ionization stage if the ionized ions cannot enter the acceleration stage. Based on this viewpoint, the ion transport under different magnetic field strengths in the ionization stage is investigated, and the physical mechanisms affecting the ion transport are analyzed in this paper. With a combined experimental and particle-in-cell simulation study, it is found that the ion transport between two stages is chiefly affected by the potential well, the potential barrier, and the potential drop at the bottom of potential well. With the increase of magnetic field strength in the ionization stage, there is larger plasma density caused by larger potential well. Furthermore, the potential barrier near the intermediate electrode declines first and then rises up while the potential drop at the bottom of potential well rises up first and then declines as the magnetic field strength increases in the ionization stage. Consequently, both the ion current entering the acceleration stage and the total ion current ejected from the thruster rise up first and then decline as the magnetic field strength increases in the ionization stage. Therefore, there is an optimal magnetic field strength in the ionization stage to guide the ion transport between two stages.

  10. Special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Kilmister, Clive William

    1970-01-01

    Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

  11. Special Issue to publish

    OpenAIRE

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  12. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  13. Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume 1" was published in 1918 in English and is considered a seminal work along with "The Montessori Method." In the foreword to this book, Mario Montessori writes: "...the refulgent figure of the child, Dr. Montessori pointed out, who had found his own path to mental health, who…

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... pects of cognitive processing such as memory, attention ... theory, sufficient psychological learning, skills and resources are needed in order to recall ... assist coaches to emphasise on the tactical development of their players.

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... cluster sampling and a Motivational Strategies Learning (MSLQ) test, interest and ... such as interest, self-regulation, self-efficacy, learner emotions, and ... that need more attention from individual understanding, family and.

  16. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Keywords: electronic banking, electronic service quality, customer. 1. ... banking system, the leading banks in this direction can provide huge ... It is necessary to pay more attention to factors such as customer training in the.

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... ... trend in terms of its effectiveness to attract students' attention in classrooms. ... CDIO framework and the experiment was conducted at a pilot plant in ... Students as respondents to the survey were divided into groups of 12, ...

  18. AEA special meeting report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User;Rob McLean

    makes sense and is more appropriate deserves deep evaluative attention. • A practical ... Discussion Point I – How does scale affect program design? What needs to be ... decision-making regarding scaling-up potential. Discussion leads:.

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... Composite material can be divided into two categories based on the matrix and on the ... without needing much care and attention. ... bamboo can still be found driving many new innovations and in abundant of applications.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... were collected using Kim Karad's working memory test and Stroop's selective and divided attention test. ... (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychological Disorders, 2013)). ..... Morgan A.B., Lilienfeld S.O. (2009).

  1. One hundred years of the special theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    Special theory of relativity is considered here as an episode from non-Euclidean geometry. Special attention is drawn to the fact that the replacement of the fifth Euclidean postulate with the Lobachevsky postulate about the parallel straight lines in the velocity space of a material point leads to the replacement of the postulate about one and the same time rate with the postulate about one and the same light velocity in all inertial reference systems

  2. Attentional mechanisms of social perception are biased in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Sabrina; Bartholomaeus, Marie; Peter, Ulrike; Lupke, Ulrike; Gamer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of social phobia have reported an increased vigilance to social threat cues but also an avoidance of socially relevant stimuli such as eye gaze. The primary aim of this study was to examine attentional mechanisms relevant for perceiving social cues by means of abnormalities in scanning of facial features in patients with social phobia. In two novel experimental paradigms, patients with social phobia and healthy controls matched on age, gender and education were compared regarding their gazing behavior towards facial cues. The first experiment was an emotion classification paradigm which allowed for differentiating reflexive attentional shifts from sustained attention towards diagnostically relevant facial features. In the second experiment, attentional orienting by gaze direction was assessed in a gaze-cueing paradigm in which non-predictive gaze cues shifted attention towards or away from subsequently presented targets. We found that patients as compared to controls reflexively oriented their attention more frequently towards the eyes of emotional faces in the emotion classification paradigm. This initial hypervigilance for the eye region was observed at very early attentional stages when faces were presented for 150ms, and persisted when facial stimuli were shown for 3s. Moreover, a delayed attentional orienting into the direction of eye gaze was observed in individuals with social phobia suggesting a differential time course of eye gaze processing in patients and controls. Our findings suggest that basic mechanisms of early attentional exploration of social cues are biased in social phobia and might contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... In this research, two questionnaires of knowledge management and employees' ... development, human resources are the most important tool and capital of ... foster talent, to improve public and specialized awareness, and to ...

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... delivery system which are primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, ..... services are usually delivered by nurse practitioners, medical assistants, ... The quaternary care is a highly specialized care with a target to cure.

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... quantitative method used, data analysis and findings of Telehealth ... The users' acceptance of wireless sensor devise (Motes) for ..... access to specialized health care: the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Bulletin ...

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    . Special ... is 4000 pps, in 1 ms there are 4 sampling intervals. Fig. .... Although this type of radar is simple, generally it is not very sensitive because of increased ... processing) to determine the true sign of Doppler frequency.

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.

  8. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Products Special Blood Donation Procedures Precautions and Adverse Reactions During Blood Transfusion (See Overview of Blood Transfusion .) Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole ...

  9. Israeli Special Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... special experience of urban environments in the development process. ... Internet and social networking, and eventually poor performance of the police .... was shown that different regions have different levels of fear of crime.

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    Published online: 1 May 2018. ABSTRACT ... CMOS technology with many special features that can overcome all the limitations in CMOS. QCA is of high speed, small size ... is done depending on position of single electrons. This shows that ...

  12. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  13. de Sitter special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R; Almeida, J P Beltran; Pereira, J G

    2007-01-01

    A special relativity based on the de Sitter group is introduced, which is a theory that might hold up in the presence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant. Like ordinary special relativity, it retains the quotient character of spacetime, and a notion of homogeneity. As a consequence, the underlying spacetime will be a de Sitter spacetime, whose associated kinematics will differ from that of ordinary special relativity. The corresponding modified notions of energy and momentum are obtained, and the exact relationship between them, which is invariant under a re-scaling of the involved quantities, explicitly exhibited. Since the de Sitter group can be considered a particular deformation of the Poincare group, this theory turns out to be a specific kind of deformed (or doubly) special relativity. Some experimental consequences, as well as the causal structure of spacetime-modified by the presence of the de Sitter horizon-are briefly discussed

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-18

    Jul 18, 2016 ... and 1340s, centralization and organizational unity in the early 1350s, ... appropriate productivity in specialized costs of welfare and social ..... and finally the lack of compliance with commitments by the government to the social.

  15. Sport Specialization, Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  16. Supramodal Executive Control of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO eSPAGNA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human attentional system can be subdivided into three functional networks of alerting, orienting, and executive control. Although these networks have been extensively studied in the visuospatial modality, whether the same mechanisms are deployed across different sensory modalities remains unclear. In this study we used the attention network test for visuospatial modality, in addition to two auditory variants with spatial and frequency manipulations to examine cross-modal correlations between network functions. Results showed that among the visual and auditory tasks the effects of executive control, but not effects of alerting and orienting were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that while alerting and orienting functions rely more upon modality specific processes, the executive control of attention coordinates complex behavior via supramodal mechanisms.

  17. Grasp cueing and joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Fischer, Martin H

    2008-10-01

    We studied how two different hand posture cues affect joint attention in normal observers. Visual targets appeared over lateralized objects, with different delays after centrally presented hand postures. Attention was cued by either hand direction or the congruency between hand aperture and object size. Participants pressed a button when they detected a target. Direction cues alone facilitated target detection following short delays but aperture cues alone were ineffective. In contrast, when hand postures combined direction and aperture cues, aperture congruency effects without directional congruency effects emerged and persisted, but only for power grips. These results suggest that parallel parameter specification makes joint attention mechanisms exquisitely sensitive to the timing and content of contextual cues.

  18. No iconic memory without attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Arien; Erol, Muge; Clarke, Jason; Bert, John

    2016-02-01

    The experiments reported extend the findings of our earlier paper, (Mack, Erol, & Clarke, 2015) and allow us to reject Bachmann and Aru's critique of our conclusion (2015) that IM requires attention. They suggested our manipulations, which diverted attention from a letter reporting task in a dual task procedure where the task-cue occurred after the array disappeared, might only have affected access to IM and not the "existence of the phenomenal experience". By further decreasing the probability of reporting letters to only 10% and adding a final trial in which the letter matrix was either completely absent or distorted, we found more than half our subjects were unaware of its absence, or distortion i.e., were inattentionally blind. We take this as powerful evidence against the existence of any phenomenal experience component of iconic memory and consistent with the view that iconic memory demands attention and that conscious perception does as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Timing attention : Cuing target onset interval attenuates the attentional blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, S; Johnson, A

    Three experiments tested whether the attentional blink (AB; a deficit in reporting the second of two targets when it occurs 200-500 msec after the first) can be attenuated by providing information about the target onset asynchrony (TOA) of the second target relative to the first. Blocking the TOA

  20. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  1. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  2. When attention wanders: Pupillometric signatures of fluctuations in external attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Mahiko; Brown, Kevin; Battaglini, Luca; Smallwood, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Attention is not always directed to events in the external environment. On occasion our thoughts wander to people and places distant from the here and now. Sometimes, this lack of external attention can compromise ongoing task performance. In the current study we set out to understand the extent to which states of internal and external attention can be determined using pupillometry as an index of ongoing cognition. In two experiments we found that periods of slow responding were associated with elevations in the baseline pupil signal over three and a half seconds prior to a behavioural response. In the second experiment we found that unlike behavioural lapses, states of off-task thought, particularly those associated with a focus on the past and with an intrusive quality, were associated with reductions in the size of the pupil over the same window prior to the probe. These data show that both states of large and small baseline pupil size are linked to states when attention is not effectively focused on the external environment, although these states have different qualities. More generally, these findings illustrate that subjective and objective markers of task performance may not be equivalent and underscore the importance of developing objective indicators that can allow these different states to be understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  4. The Online Specialization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Hong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the online specialization problem, where items arrive in an online fashion for processing by one of n different methods. Each method has two costs: a processing cost (paid once for each item processed, and a set-up cost (paid only once, on the method's first use. There are n possible types of items; an item's type determines the set of methods available to process it. Each method has a different degree of specialization. Highly specialized methods can process few item types while generic methods may process all item types. This is a generalization of ski-rental and closely related to the capital investment problem of Y. Azar, Y. Bartal, E. Feuerstein, A. Fiat, S. Leonardi, and A. Rosen. On capital investment. In Algorithmica, 25(1:22-36, 1999. We primarily study the case where method i+1 is always more specialized than method i and the set-up cost for a more specialized method is always higher than that of a less specialized method. We describe an algorithm with competitive ratio O(log(n, and also show an Ω(log(n lower bound on the competitive ratio for this problem; this shows our ratio is tight up to constant factors.

  5. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  6. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  7. Host-Parasite Interactions from the Inside: Plant Reproductive Ontogeny Drives Specialization in Parasitic Insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Boivin

    Full Text Available Host plant interactions are likely key drivers of evolutionary processes involved in the diversification of phytophagous insects. Granivory has received substantial attention for its crucial role in shaping the interaction between plants and their seed parasites, but fine-scale mechanisms explaining the role of host plant reproductive biology on specialization of seed parasites remain poorly described. In a comparative approach using plant histological techniques, we tested the hypotheses that different seed parasite species synchronize their life cycles to specific stages in seed development, and that the stage they target depends on major differences in seed development programs. In a pinaceous system, seed storage products are initiated before ovule fertilization and the wasps target the ovule's nucellus during megagametogenesis, a stage at which larvae may benefit from the by-products derived from both secreting cells and dying nucellar cells. In a cupressaceous system, oviposition activity peaks later, during embryogenesis, and the wasps target the ovule's megagametophyte where larvae may benefit from cell disintegration during embryogenesis. Our cytohistological approach shows for the first time how, despite divergent oviposition targets, different parasite species share a common strategy that consists of first competing for nutrients with developing plant structures, and then consuming these developed structures to complete their development. Our results support the prediction that seed developmental program is an axis for specialization in seed parasites, and that it could be an important parameter in models of their ecological and taxonomic divergence. This study provides the basis for further investigating the possibility of the link between plant ontogeny and pre-dispersal seed parasitism.

  8. Attention processes in chronic fatigue syndrome: attentional bias for health-related threat and the role of attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ruihua; Moss-Morris, Rona; Risdale, Anna; Lynch, Jeannette; Jeevaratnam, Preshan; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) propose that attention processes, specifically, enhanced selective attention to health-threat related cues, may play an important role in symptom maintenance. The current study investigated attentional bias towards health-threat stimuli in CFS. It also examined whether individuals with CFS have impaired executive attention, and whether this was related to attentional bias. 27 participants with CFS and 35 healthy controls completed a Visual Probe Task measuring attentional bias, and an Attention Network Test measuring executive attention, alerting and orienting. Participants also completed self-report measures of CFS and mood symptoms. Compared to the control group, the CFS group showed greater attentional bias for health-threat words than pictures; and the CFS group was significantly impaired in executive attention. Furthermore, CFS individuals with poor executive attention showed greater attentional bias to health-threat related words, compared not only to controls but also to CFS individuals with good executive attention. Thus, this study revealed a significant relationship between attentional bias and executive attention in CFS: attentional bias to threat was primarily evident in those with impaired executive attention control. Taking account of individual differences in executive attention control in current intervention models may be beneficial for CFS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in otoacoustic emissions during selective auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) measured during behavioral tasks can have different magnitudes when subjects are attending selectively or not attending. The implication is that the cognitive and perceptual demands of a task can affect the first neural stage of auditory processing-the sensory receptors themselves. However, the directions of the reported attentional effects have been inconsistent, the magnitudes of the observed differences typically have been small, and comparisons across studies have been made difficult by significant procedural differences. In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring selective auditory attention (dichotic or diotic listening), selective visual attention, or relative inattention. Within subjects, the differences in nSFOAE magnitude between inattention and attention conditions were about 2-3 dB for both auditory and visual modalities, and the effect sizes for the differences typically were large for both nSFOAE magnitude and phase. These results reveal that the cochlear efferent reflex is differentially active during selective attention and inattention, for both auditory and visual tasks, although they do not reveal how attention is improved when efferent activity is greater.

  10. Changes in otoacoustic emissions during selective auditory and visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) measured during behavioral tasks can have different magnitudes when subjects are attending selectively or not attending. The implication is that the cognitive and perceptual demands of a task can affect the first neural stage of auditory processing—the sensory receptors themselves. However, the directions of the reported attentional effects have been inconsistent, the magnitudes of the observed differences typically have been small, and comparisons across studies have been made difficult by significant procedural differences. In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring selective auditory attention (dichotic or diotic listening), selective visual attention, or relative inattention. Within subjects, the differences in nSFOAE magnitude between inattention and attention conditions were about 2–3 dB for both auditory and visual modalities, and the effect sizes for the differences typically were large for both nSFOAE magnitude and phase. These results reveal that the cochlear efferent reflex is differentially active during selective attention and inattention, for both auditory and visual tasks, although they do not reveal how attention is improved when efferent activity is greater. PMID:25994703

  11. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    OpenAIRE

    I. Brezina; Z. Čičková; J. Pekár; M. Reiff

    2010-01-01

    The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algor...

  12. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...

  13. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, ...

  14. Saúde do trabalhador e a atenção odontológica: entre um novo modelo de atenção e a superespecialização Worker's Health and Dentistry Attention: between a new care model and over-specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elias Lamas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Suplantar práticas e conceitos incoerentes com as propostas construídas no campo da saúde nas últimas décadas no País é um embate a ser travado pelos serviços de saúde que prestam assistência aos trabalhadores. Este trabalho discute a atuação profissional do cirurgião-dentista e contextualiza o reconhecimento e a regulamentação da nova especialidade da Odontologia do Trabalho, a partir de uma revisão da história das políticas públicas em saúde e da evolução dos conceitos de atenção à saúde do trabalhador. A própria discussão em torno da regulamentação da especialidade da Odontologia do Trabalho reverbera toda uma histórica incompatibilidade entre a racionalidade liberal e a criação de um novo modelo de atenção à saúde do trabalhador. Uma intervenção atenta às conquistas históricas registradas no arcabouço jurídico-institucional que compreenda as especificidades da re-estruturação produtiva no perfil epidemiológico do trabalhador deve fazer parte da construção desta especialidade e das práticas nesta linha de cuidado.To overcome practices and concepts which are incoherent with the new proposals built for the health area in the last decades is a challenge to be faced by health services providing care for workers in Brazil. The present study discuss the professional work of dentists, contextualizing and acknowledging the regulation of the new specialization called 'Occupational Dentistry' from a review of the history of health public policies and the development of concepts of workers' health care. The discussion over its regulation is marked by historical contradiction between a liberal rationality and the construction of a new care model. An intervention that takes into account the historical achievements guaranteed by law of the specificities of the third industrial revolution (change in the productive chain in the workers' epidemiological profile, must be part of the construction of this

  15. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  16. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Hannah J.; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resoluti...

  17. System for assessing classroom attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Raca Mirko; Dillenbourg Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a preview of our system for automatically evaluating attention in the classroom. We demonstrate our current behaviour metrics and preliminary observations on how they reflect the reactions of people to the given lecture. We also introduce foundations of our hypothesis on peripheral awareness of students during lectures.

  18. Joint Attention and Anthropological Difference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 59-70 ISSN 1718-0198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : joint attention * anthropological difference * phenomenology * great apes * shared intentionality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  19. Attention: A Machine Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We review a statistical machine learning model of top-down task driven attention based on the notion of ‘gist’. In this framework we consider the task to be represented as a classification problem with two sets of features — a gist of coarse grained global features and a larger set of low...

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  1. Cumulative Development of Attentional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.

    1982-01-01

    Describes current work in selective attention within a framework of research conducted over the past century. Presents evidence that findings at the level of performance, subjective experience, and neural systems can be linked, even though these findings are not yet reducible to a single theory. (Author/GC)

  2. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  3. Attention & Cognitive Style, FY 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    A study is presented which concentrates on the development of a cognitive style assessment instrument for 3- to 8-year-olds and on a series of studies designed to evaluate the role of stylistic and attentional processes in the development of various competencies in young children. This report incorporates a manual for users, a technical report on…

  4. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  5. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  6. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  7. Modelling of Attentional Dwell Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    . This confinement of attentional resources leads to the impairment in identifying the second target. With the model, we are able to produce close fits to data from the traditional two target dwell time paradigm. A dwell-time experiment with three targets has also been carried out for individual subjects...... and the model has been extended to fit these data....

  8. The attentional blink in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Ariella V; Levi, Dennis M

    2008-10-31

    Amblyopia is a disorder of visual acuity in one eye, thought to arise from suppression by the other eye during development of the visual cortex. In the attentional blink, the second of two targets (T2) in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) stream is difficult to detect and identify when it appears shortly but not immediately after the first target (T1). We investigated the attentional blink seen through amblyopic eyes and found that it was less finely tuned in time than when the 12 amblyopic observers viewed the stimuli with their preferred eyes. T2 performance was slightly better through amblyopic eyes two frames after T1 but worse one frame after T1. Previously (A. V. Popple & D. M. Levi, 2007), we showed that when the targets were red letters in a stream of gray letters (or vice versa), normal observers frequently confused T2 with the letters before and after it (neighbor errors). Observers viewing through their amblyopic eyes made significantly fewer neighbor errors and more T2 responses consisting of letters that were never presented. In normal observers, T1 (on the rare occasions when it was reported incorrectly) was often confused with the letter immediately after it. Viewing through their amblyopic eyes, observers with amblyopia made more responses to the letter immediately before T1. These results suggest that childhood suppression of the input from amblyopic eyes disrupts attentive processing. We hypothesize reduced connectivity between monocularly tuned lower visual areas, subcortical structures that drive foveal attention, and more frontal regions of the brain responsible for letter recognition and working memory. Perhaps when viewing through their amblyopic eyes, the observers were still processing the letter identity of a prior distractor when the color flash associated with the target was detected. After T1, unfocused temporal attention may have bound together erroneously the features of succeeding letters, resulting in the appearance of

  9. Effects of methylphenidate on attentional set-shifting in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ai-hua; Yu, Lin; Wang, Yu-wei; Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Le-jin; Lei, Ge-Fei

    2012-02-28

    Although deficits of attentional set-shifting have been reported in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is rarely examined in animal models. This study compared spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; a genetic animal model of ADHD) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (normoactive control strains), on attentional set-shifting task (ASST) performance. Furthermore, the dose-effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on attentional set-shifting of SHR were investigated. In experiment 1, ASST procedures were conducted in SHR, WKY and SD rats of 8 each at the age of 5 weeks. Mean latencies at the initial phase, error types and numbers, and trials to criteria at each stage were recorded. In experiment 2, 24 SHR rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 8 each-- MPH-L (lower dose), MPH-H (higher dose), and SHR-vehicle groups. From 3 weeks, they were administered 2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg MPH or saline respectively for 14 consecutive days. All rats were tested in the ASST at the age of 5 weeks. The SHRs generally exhibited poorer performance on ASST than the control WKY and SD rats. Significant strain effects on mean latency [F (2, 21) = 639.636, p attentional set-shifting. Our study provides evidence that MPH may improve the SHR's performance on attentional set-shifting and lower dose is more effective than higher dose.

  10. Regulation of Specialized Metabolism by WRKY Transcription Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluttenhofer, Craig; Yuan, Ling

    2015-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are well known for regulating plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. However, much less is known about how WRKY TFs affect plant-specialized metabolism. Analysis of WRKY TFs regulating the production of specialized metabolites emphasizes the values of the family outside of traditionally accepted roles in stress tolerance. WRKYs with conserved roles across plant species seem to be essential in regulating specialized metabolism. Overall, the WRKY family plays an essential role in regulating the biosynthesis of important pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, biofuel, and industrial components, warranting considerable attention in the forthcoming years. PMID:25501946

  11. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  12. "Stage 40" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill River Union High School, North Clarendon, VT.

    The policies, purposes, and guidelines of "Stage 40," an educational repertory company for students, are presented in this paper, which also explains how the company functions. The paper discusses the company's history, the relationship between the company and academics, and the responsibilities of a company member. Letters by the board…

  13. Stage theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)

  14. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  15. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  16. Modeling selective attention using a neuromorphic analog VLSI device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, G

    2000-12-01

    Attentional mechanisms are required to overcome the problem of flooding a limited processing capacity system with information. They are present in biological sensory systems and can be a useful engineering tool for artificial visual systems. In this article we present a hardware model of a selective attention mechanism implemented on a very large-scale integration (VLSI) chip, using analog neuromorphic circuits. The chip exploits a spike-based representation to receive, process, and transmit signals. It can be used as a transceiver module for building multichip neuromorphic vision systems. We describe the circuits that carry out the main processing stages of the selective attention mechanism and provide experimental data for each circuit. We demonstrate the expected behavior of the model at the system level by stimulating the chip with both artificially generated control signals and signals obtained from a saliency map, computed from an image containing several salient features.

  17. Visual perception and attention in acquisition of motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Oliva Aravena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article present a qualitative analysis, relating visual perception to attention in the acquisition of motor abilities process. Research shows that the visual system is already in an advanced stage, right from the moment the baby is born, and that normal eye sight is attained at the age of 5 and continues to improve. On the other hand, attention is an flexible process, subordinated to a cognitive strategy and its relation to eye sight is only functional. The understanfing of the capacity of selective attention is necessary to the teacher or coach for it will help him/her to take decisions on how to teach, which aspects of his/her teaching should be emphasized or inhibited, in the learning process, and wich teaching strategies he/she should use.

  18. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  19. Nicotine During Pregnancy: Changes induced in neurotransmission, which could heighten proclivity to addict and induce maladaptive control of attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    , and it is likely these alterations participate in postnatal deficits in attention control and facilitate development of drug addiction. This review discusses the alterations in neuronal development within the brain's major neurotransmitter systems, with special emphasis placed on alterations within...

  20. Stages of Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Imbs, Jean; Wacziarg, Romain

    2000-01-01

    This Paper studies the evolution of sectoral labour concentration in relation to the level of per capita income. We show that various measures of sectoral concentration follow a U-shaped pattern across a wide variety of data sources: countries first diversify, in the sense that labour is spread more equally across sectors, but there exists, relatively late in the development process, a point at which they start to specialize again. We introduce a model with endogenous costs of trading interna...

  1. Special protective concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouniol, P.

    2001-01-01

    Concrete is the most convenient material when large-scale radiation protection is needed. Thus, special concretes for nuclear purposes are used in various facilities like reactors, reprocessing centers, storage sites, accelerators, hospitals with nuclear medicine equipment, food ionization centers etc.. The recent advances made in civil engineering for the improvement of concrete durability and compactness are for a large part transposable to protection concretes. This article presents the basic knowledge about protection concretes with the associated typological and technological aspects. A large part is devoted to the intrinsic properties of concretes and to their behaviour in irradiation and temperature conditions: 1 - definition and field of application of special protective concretes; 2 - evolution of concepts and technologies (durability of structures, techniques of formulation, new additives, market evolution); 3 - design of protective structures (preliminary study, radiation characteristics, thermal constraints, damping and dimensioning, mechanical criteria); 4 - formulation of special concretes (general principles, granulates, hydraulic binders, pulverulent additives, water/cement ratio, reference composition of some special concretes); 5 - properties of special concretes (damping and thermo-mechanical properties); 6 - induced-irradiation and temperature phenomena (activation, radiolysis, mineralogical transformations, drying, shrinking, creep, corrosion of reinforcement). (J.S.)

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... Research organization and stages. The work was conducted at ..... Rivman D.V., Ustinov V.S. Viktimologiya [Victimology]. St. Petersburg: Piter ... Culture in the Asia-Pacific Region Countries (Comparative Study)]. Available at:.

  3. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... mparative study between Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve .... algorithm has been implemented using Neuro-Fuzzy to identify FFB ripeness stage. This ..... In International Conference on Machine Learning, 2015, pp.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... the toxicity test revealed that the bee showed no sensitivity to this ... natural products of the hive known for their therapeutic properties (honey, pollen, wax, propolis ..... flowering stage of the Chrea region, Blida (altitude 946m).

  5. Some special dream...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rius

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is the analysis and observation of a two-year-old girl. Developmental Psychology is the discipline that studies this development (ontogeny. J.PIAGET explains development though stages, continuous structured process of equilibration, passing on to a higher stage. H. WALLON stresses the importance of this period in the development of the individual and mentions a process which also takes place through stages, but in this case discontinuous ones with crises and significant gaps. S. FREUD adopts the psychoanalytic approach to explain the primary and secondary processes in order to understand the components of our psyche. J. BOWLBY incorporates terms such as attachment and attachment bonds to explain forms of behaviour during early childhood. The integration of all these approaches enables us toreach a global view of the children during this stage

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... timization of lighting systems and optical elements, through which the stage of ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a ... Zemax contains a huge database concerning the characteristics of various.

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... defecation problems and abdominal pain were more detected in patients with ovarian cancer. (p=0.05). ... lung, breast, colon, and pancreatic cancer (1-4). ... Diagnosis of ovarian cancer in early stages is very important and.

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-24

    Feb 24, 2018 ... general of their children. ... healthy and positive attitude and supportive parents who expect ... good financial habits at an early stage will help them best to finish their education and ..... I watch movies or entertainment shows.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... SIMULATION OF BRAIN TUMOR GROWTH MODEL USING ... developed by using MATLAB software and some numerical simulation d. The findings ..... On the convergence of two-stage iterative processes for solving linear.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... process is constructing the electrical distribution system model in ... By integrating the online database with the MATLAB software, the .... Base case simulation was executed at the early stage of optimization process to record ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... conditions of LEDs at the design stage, taking into account a cooling system in ... model, Multisim software was selected by "National Instruments" company. ... The result of numerical methods is only an approximate solution.

  12. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  13. Stage control of tablets manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today in Ukraine tuberculosis is the wide-spread infectious disease causing the death in most cases; about 700 thousand persons are suffering from it. In Ukraine epidemic of tuberculosis is progressing and spreading. In spite of all protective measures three inhabitants of our country contract tuberculosis per hour, every hour one patient dies and in common about 1.5% of the population is ill with tuberculosis. Isoniazid is antituberculous drug of the first line and it is the most effective one. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis requests long-lasting administration of antituberculous drugs that causes high risk of side effects. To prevent or lessen side effects of antituberculous medicines antioxidants use in complex therapy is perspective. Fulfilled investigations showed efficacy of combining two medical substances – isoniazid andthiotriazolin – in one dosage form. Objective.The aim of our investigation is working out the methods of standardization, in particularquantitative determination of isoniazid andthiotriazolin content in tablet mass by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and Methods.During in-process investigations combined tableted remedy containing isoniazid andthiotriazolin and proper amount of adjuvants has been developed (it contains active substances isoniazid – 0.2 g,thiotriazolin – 0.05 g and adjuvants up to the 0.4 g of the tablet. During stage control of tablets manufacturingspecial attention is paid to the control of tablet mass quality. Especially it concerns quantitative determination of active substances in it. More and more attention is paid to modern physical-chemical methods of standardization in up-to-date analysis of drug products, such as ultraviolet spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC etc. In previous scientific investigations we proved the possibility of standardization of active substances artificial compound by HPLC method and optimal conditions of analysis performing

  14. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Home Adaptation AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of... specially adapted housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain... regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation...

  15. Towards a trust and attention based management concept : paying attention to attention first

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henny van Lienden; Marco Oteman

    2014-01-01

    Last year in Klagenfurt a poster was presented, in which a first attempt was made to combine institutional economic theory with organizational theory under the motto: transaction costs can be influenced! A framework of 4 theories was constructed of Social Capital theory, Attention Theory, Proactive

  16. Paying attention to attention: evidence for an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Maloney, Erin A; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms supporting our comprehension of magnitude information represents a key goal in cognitive psychology. A major phenomenon employed in the pursuit of this goal has been the physical size congruity effect-namely, the observation that comparing the relative numerical sizes of two numbers is influenced by their relative physical sizes. The standard account of the physical size congruity effect attributes it to the automatic influence of the comparison of irrelevant physical magnitudes on numerical judgments. Here we develop an alternative account of this effect on the basis of the operation of attention in the typical size congruity display and the temporal dynamics of number comparison. We also provide a test of a number of predictions derived from this alternative account by combining a physical size congruity manipulation with a manipulation designed to alter the operation of attention within the typical size congruity display (i.e., a manipulation of the relative onsets of the digits). This test provides evidence consistent with an attentional contribution to the size congruity effect. Implications for our understanding of magnitude and the interactions between attention and magnitude are discussed.

  17. Art Is Not Special

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Martin; Nadal, Marcos

    2018-01-01

    The assumption that human cognition requires exceptional explanations holds strong in some domains of behavioral and brain sciences. Scientific aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, abound with claims for art-specific cognitive or neural processes. This assumption fosters...... a conceptual structure disconnected from other fields and biases the sort of processes to be studied. More generally, assuming that art is special is to cling to the idea that some aspect of our species’ mental constitution makes us unique, special, and meaningful. This assumption continues to relegate...... scientific aesthetics to the periphery of science and hampers a naturalized view of the human mind....

  18. Specialization, Outsourcing and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. By using a simple theoretical model, we argue that, if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains...... arising from an increase in the extent of the market for intermediate goods, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsurcing affect wages as predicted...... by the theory.Keywords: Outsourcing, Comparative advantage, Specialization, Wages.JEL Classification: F16, J31, C23....

  19. Editorial safety science special issue road safety management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Hagezieker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The articles presented in this Special Issue on Road Safety Management represent an illustration of the growing interest in policy-related research in the area of road safety. The complex nature of this type of research combined with the observation that scientific journals pay limited attention to

  20. Investigating the Experiences of Special School Visual Arts Teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the practical learning problems their students experience, the teachers maintained that studying ... 2009, the Hong Kong Education Bureau adopted a new ... arts is one of the elective subjects available to special ... methodology, since it is attentive to how things reveal .... educational backgrounds and their teaching careers.

  1. Volunteer motivation in special events for people with disabilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been little research attention in the South African context on volunteer motivation for special events for people with disabilities. This study explored the key factors that motivated volunteers to volunteer their services at three major sport events for people with disabilities in South Africa. A 28-item questionnaire was ...

  2. Understanding Game-Based Learning Cultures: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This special issue expands our understanding of teaching and learning through video game play, with specific attention to culture. The issue gives insight into the ways educators, researchers, and developers should be discussing and designing for impactful learner-centered game-based learning experiences. The issue features forward-thinking…

  3. Killing vectors in empty space algebraically special metrics. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, A.

    1976-01-01

    Empty space algebraically special metrics possessing an expanding degenerate principal null vector and Killing vectors are investigated. Attention is centered on that class of Killing vector (called nonpreferred) which is necessarily spacelike in the asymptotic region. A detailed analysis of the relationship between the Petrov--Penrose classification and these Killing vectors is carried out

  4. Initial Clinical Experience in Multiple Myeloma Staging by Means of Whole-Body Resonance Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J. I.; Concepcion, L.; Alonso, S.; Sanchez, B.; Manzi, F.

    2003-01-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) exploratory technique equivalent to serial bone X-ray, and to compare their precision in the staging of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Multiple acquisition T1-weights TSE and STIR sequences in the coronal plane were performed. Ten healthy volunteers and 11 multiple myeloma diagnosed patients were included. The visualization of bony structures was particularly noted,with special attention given to those which would normally be included in a serial bone X-ray. In the case of the patients, a comparison was made between diagnostic capacities of the MR sequences. MR highlighters significantly more (p<0.05) bony elements than did the serial bone X-ray. This was greatly due to a sequential displacement of the scanner bed, allowing for field-of-views which were minimally from head to third proximal of the leg. Magnetic resonance detected a significantly higher number (p<0.05) of lesions. It was, in turn, capable of revealing greater lesion extensions, even to the point of implying staging classification changes in 18% of the patients. The utilization of whole-body MR techniques in multiple myeloma patients is feasible and clinically beneficial. MR is both more sensitive and more specific than serial bone X-ray for evaluation of bony lesions in MM. It is currently serving as a valid alternative in a growing numbers of patients. (Author) 10 refs

  5. A Real Attention-Getter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  7. Early vision and visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2003-01-01

    The question whether visual perception is spontaneous, sudden or is running through several phases, mediated by higher cognitive processes, was raised ever since the early work of Gestalt psychologists. In the early 1980s, Treisman proposed the feature integration theory of attention (FIT), based on the findings of neuroscience. Soon after publishing her theory a new scientific approach appeared investigating several visual perception phenomena. The most widely researched were the key constru...

  8. Spatial attention during saccade decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonikaitis, Donatas; Klapetek, Anna; Deubel, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral measures of decision making are usually limited to observations of decision outcomes. In the present study, we made use of the fact that oculomotor and sensory selection are closely linked to track oculomotor decision making before oculomotor responses are made. We asked participants to make a saccadic eye movement to one of two memorized target locations and observed that visual sensitivity increased at both the chosen and the nonchosen saccade target locations, with a clear bias toward the chosen target. The time course of changes in visual sensitivity was related to saccadic latency, with the competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets resolved faster before short-latency saccades. On error trials, we observed an increased competition between the chosen and nonchosen targets. Moreover, oculomotor selection and visual sensitivity were influenced by top-down and bottom-up factors as well as by selection history and predicted the direction of saccades. Our findings demonstrate that saccade decisions have direct visual consequences and show that decision making can be traced in the human oculomotor system well before choices are made. Our results also indicate a strong association between decision making, saccade target selection, and visual sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that saccadic decisions can be tracked by measuring spatial attention. Spatial attention is allocated in parallel to the two competing saccade targets, and the time course of spatial attention differs for fast-slow and for correct-erroneous decisions. Saccade decisions take the form of a competition between potential saccade goals, which is associated with spatial attention allocation to those locations. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... impact force during landing on the force platform [13]. The jumping movement cause participants to lift their lower limb higher before landing thus cause the impact to be greater. Badminton players need to place a greater attention to the greater impact and eccentric force produced during JFL because this ...

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... attention is paid to preparing the future pedagogues to organization of the ... efficiency of using modern information and pedagogical .... The analysis of the Professional Standard of a pedagogue, adopted .... comprehensive education, one of the main meta-discipline results is “forming and developing.

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Performance evaluation is a process, beginning with human birth, always trying to amend and promote ... society, evaluation of organizations and managers' performance has received more attention than ... evaluation and feedback of the quality of bank's activity, the current research has been conducted.

  13. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Non-finite forms of the verb attract more and more attention of modern researchers. The target of research is morphological and syntactical features of adjectives in ... Now, in the world of globalization and integration, there is close ... translation theory, comparative linguistics, and typology can be used while ...

  14. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... into account national-cultural, pragmatic and grammatical features. ... Also a close attention is paid to the cultural component that promotes the idea of tolerance and cultural integration [Galiulina I.R., 2016; Yarmakeev I.E., 2016] etc. ..... postulates within the framework of the courtesy theory by P. Brown and ...

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-07

    Mar 7, 2018 ... sexual function in patients undergoing therapy for gynecologic cancers in Imam ... relationships among objects), attention, and other functions ... temporary cessation of menses(24, 25)An internet-based evaluation of patients diagnosed with ..... their views on the physician's role in meeting those needs.

  16. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... that contain one or more neutral line (polarity dividing lines) in the photospheric magnetic ... driving the solar burst cannot be taken directly due to limited ... disk, which is close to the central meridian, got attention from space ...

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... CASE STUDY: THE CITY OF BIRJAND'S HAKIM NAZARI STREET ... to the attention paid to the human aspect of development, having ... result of which was the appearance of the cities with congruent regional segregation, .... Such operations can be practiced for one single street or the entire network of.

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... The issues of information placement are considered on the website of the educational ... At present, a considerable attention is paid to the automation of educational ... schedule from any device quickly, since the system is the WEB service, which allows ... the system adaptation for its use on mobile devices.

  19. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  20. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the direction...

  1. The pharmacology of visuospatial attention and inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logemann, H.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Attention and inhibition are of vital importance in everyday functioning. Problems of attention and inhibition are central to disorders such as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Both bias and disengagement key components of visuospatial attention. Bias refers to neuronal signals that

  2. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  3. Special Libraries and Multitype Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, JoAn S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the history of multitype library networks; examines the reasons why special libraries and other network participants have resisted the inclusion of special libraries in these networks; and discusses the benefits to both special libraries and to other libraries in the network that would result from special library participation. (17…

  4. Special Needs: A Philosophical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to illuminate a central concept and idea in special education discourse, namely, "special needs". It analyses philosophically what needs are and on what grounds they are defined as "special" or "exceptional". It also discusses whether sorting needs into ordinary and special is discriminatory. It is argued that individualistic…

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... the Russian philosophical and sociological thought. The thoughts of the Russian scientist ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are ...

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... innovation is defined as: accepting ideas or behaviors in the organization that are novel and unfamiliar. Innovation can be in form ...

  7. Special Libraries in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Alice

    1979-01-01

    Distinguishes five main categories of special libraries in Singapore: those of private organizations, foreign governments, government departments, statutory boards, and regional organizations. Statistical data are provided for library holdings, professional staff employment, and subject profiles, and suggestions for improving various aspects of…

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... Perak, Malaysia was observed under ral waste in powder and xtract generated optimum produce highest length of fectively improved shoot ed faster effect on C. ed positive result for the shed light on how the Z. C. nutans. This study ld application. pagation; Zea mays stem. Research Article. Special Issue ...

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... International License. ... confirmatory factor analysis which is a technique to study the structure of a ... School as a social institution is part of a special community that has ... specifies the amount of support that teacher thinks that students ..... social adjustment and academic performance in third grade female ...

  10. Special irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  11. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... they have no special development plan and their authorities actually do not know about the ... Keywords: Converted villages to city centers, urban network, SWOT analysis, ... rural areas and can decrease regional differences in developing ... Small scale cities are necessary for integration of rural and urban.

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Scienc. ISSN 1112-9867 ... (0.9623, 0.3857) and (0.9975, ity, temperature, CO, UVB and. 10 concentration. In by using ANN or Fit model. Research Article. Special Issue .... The EM algorithm is a simple computational implementation to find the posterior mode. Fig.

  13. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  14. Special Operation. Module 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-04-18

    Apr 18, 2018 ... WORLD THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL ... It has been explored by many a Russian and foreign researcher. ... attempt to focus, instead of going back to the analysis of past experience, on the subject from ... intercultural interaction between various nations, was given special ...

  16. Procurement with specialized firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms' cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low (high)

  17. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue .... of use. Three critical success factors of e-learning (instructor characteristics, student characteristics .... Total of 95 questionnaires were used for further data analysis.

  18. Overview of Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Harman, Donna; Allan, James; Kelly, Diane; Belkin, Nicholas J.; Bennet, Paul; Callan, Jamie; Clarke, Charles; Diaz, Fernando; Dumais, Susan; Ferro, Nicola; Harman, Donna; Ruthven, Ian; Sakai, Tetsuya; Smucker, Mark D.; Zobel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of SIGIR Forum marks the 40th anniversary of the ACM SIGIR Conference by showcasing papers selected for the ACM SIGIR Test of Time Award from the years 1978-2001. These papers document the history and evolution of IR research and practice, and illustrate the intellectual impact

  19. Special Issue Editorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While this special issue focuses on work in the South African context, ... practice) with youth addresses the key imperatives of (un)employment, age, ... patterns of male control over sexual encounters and women's sexuality are emergent ... in the paper by Ngabaza, Bojarczuk, Masuku and Roelfse, titled, 'Empowering young.

  20. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  1. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... such as the athletes. This is done through gene doping, ... reduced risk of injury and drug abuse, talent selection through DNA and special training ..... GJB2 gene among Malays with non-syndromic hearing loss. International ...

  3. 19 (Special Issue)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    19 (Special Issue). Tanzania Dental Journal 2017. 1. PRESIDENTS SPEECH AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TANZANIA DENTAL. ASSOCIATION 31ST SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE AND .... awareness on oral health issues, high tooth decay, gum diseases and predominant tooth extraction as consistently reported ...

  4. Special Interest Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degi, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)

  5. Assertiveness with 'Special' Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Shelley K.; Stillman-Powell, Patricia

    The author examines issues related to adult assertiveness in controlling and setting limits for handicapped children. Reasons for adults not wishing to be in charge include feelings of guilt, lack of consistency in enforcing rules, and a sense of sympathy for special children. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and suggestions for…

  6. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... because Amir al- Mu'minin's(peace be upon him) name is related to human perfection and. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ...

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... We are listed under Research Associations. D THAT USES A ... Clinical Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, Yokohama, Aoba ... Special Issue ..... advisable to run the prognosis results at least one hundred times with the Euclidean and ... They are some of the topics left for future research. 5.

  8. Summary Staging Manual 2000 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed 2001-2017. 2000 version applies to every anatomic site. It uses all information in the medical record. Also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  9. A specialized vessel for specialized work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, J.; De Beenhouwer, S.; Strong, R.; Eversdijk, B. [Tideway BV (Netherlands); Breen, L. [Petro-Canada, St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the challenges associated with the construction and development of the Terra Nova Field, situated on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. In particular, the paper describes how pipelines were protected and stabilized in this harsh environment where the presence of icebergs is common in the springtime. Pipelines were covered with a berm of well-graded quarry stone. The job was executed by the specialized dynamically positioned fall-pipe vessel (DPFPV) called Seahorse. Tideway Marine of the Netherlands operates the Seahorse, which has 2 storage bunkers to carry a total of 18,000 metric tons of rock. Conveyor belts transport the stones from the storage bunkers to a fall-pipe, an open tubular hanging under the vessel which allows the rocks to be dumped in water depths ranging from 20 metres to 1,000 metres. This paper demonstrates that rock dumping is an effective and flexible solution to stabilize and protect pipelines. Dimensions and configuration of the rock can be optimized according to unique specifications of a project. The insulation properties of the rock reduce the amount of insulation foam required for hot flowlines. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Does imminent threat capture and hold attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan; Verschuere, Bruno; De Houwer, Jan

    2004-09-01

    According to models of attention and emotion, threat captures and holds attention. In behavioral tasks, robust evidence has been found for attentional holding but not for attentional capture by threat. An important explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects is that the visual stimuli used posed no genuine threat. The present study investigated whether visual cues that signal an aversive white noise can elicit attentional capture and holding effects. Cues presented in an attentional task were simultaneously provided with a threat value through an aversive conditioning procedure. Response latencies showed that threatening cues captured and held attention. These results support recent views on attention to threat, proposing that imminent threat captures attention in everyone. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Future Perspectives for Management of Stage A Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2018-05-07

    Patients with Stage A heart failure (HF) show no HF symptoms but have related comorbid diseases with a high risk of progressing to HF. Screening for comorbid diseases warrants closer attention because of the growing interest in addressing Stage A HF as the best means of preventing eventual progression to overt HF such as Stages C and D. The identification of individuals of Stage A HF is potentially useful for the implementation of HF-prevention strategies; however, not all Stage A HF patients develop left ventricular (LV) structural heart disease or symptomatic HF, which lead to advanced HF stages. Therefore, Stage A HF requires management with the long-term goal of avoiding HF development; likewise, Stage B HF patients are ideal targets for HF prevention. Although the early detection of subclinical LV dysfunction is, thus, essential for delaying the progression to HF, the assessment of subclinical LV dysfunction can be challenging. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) as assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography has recently been reported to be a sensitive marker of early subtle LV myocardial abnormalities, helpful for the prediction of the outcomes for various cardiac diseases, and superior to conventional echocardiographic indices. GLS reflects LV longitudinal myocardial systolic function, and can be assessed usually by means of two-dimensional speckle-tracking. This article reviews the importance of the assessment of subclinical LV dysfunction in Stage A HF patients by means of GLS, and its current potential to prevent progression to later stage HF.

  12. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  13. Subjective cognitive impairment: functional MRI during a divided attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, J; Dannhauser, T; Cutinha, D J; Shergill, S S; Walker, Z

    2011-10-01

    Individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) have persistent memory complaints but normal neurocognitive performance. For some, this may represent a pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given that attentional deficits and associated brain activation changes are present early in the course of AD, we aimed to determine whether SCI is associated with brain activation changes during attentional processing. Eleven SCI subjects and 10 controls completed a divided attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. SCI and control groups did not differ in sociodemographic, neurocognitive or behavioural measures. When group activation during the divided attention task was compared, the SCI group demonstrated increased activation in left medial temporal lobe, bilateral thalamus, posterior cingulate and caudate. This pattern of increased activation is similar to the pattern of decreased activation reported during divided attention in AD and may indicate compensatory changes. These findings suggest the presence of early functional changes in SCI; longitudinal studies will help to further elucidate the relationship between SCI and AD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between attentional bias toward safety and driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tingting; Qu, Weina; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-11-01

    As implicit cognitive processes garner more and more importance, studies in the fields of healthy psychology and organizational safety research have focused on attentional bias, a kind of selective allocation of attentional resources in the early stage of cognitive processing. However, few studies have explored the role of attentional bias on driving behavior. This study assessed drivers' attentional bias towards safety-related words (ABS) using the dot-probe paradigm and self-reported daily driving behaviors. The results revealed significant negative correlations between attentional bias scores and several indicators of dangerous driving. Drivers with fewer dangerous driving behaviors showed greater ABS. We also built a significant linear regression model between ABS and the total DDDI score, as well as ABS and the number of accidents. Finally, we discussed the possible mechanism underlying these associations and several limitations of our study. This study opens up a new topic for the exploration of implicit processes in driving safety research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attention and reach-to-grasp movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cathy; Bharmal, Aamir; Kiss, Zelma H; Suchowersky, Oksana; Haffenden, Angela M

    2010-08-01

    The role of attention in grasping movements directed at common objects has not been examined in Parkinson's disease (PD), though these movements are critical to activities of daily living. Our primary objective was to determine whether patients with PD demonstrate automaticity in grasping movements directed toward common objects. Automaticity is assumed when tasks can be performed with little or no interference from concurrent tasks. Grasping performance in three patient groups (newly diagnosed, moderate, and advanced/surgically treated PD) on and off of their medication or deep brain stimulation was compared to performance in an age-matched control group. Automaticity was demonstrated by the absence of a decrement in grasping performance when attention was consumed by a concurrent spatial-visualization task. Only the control group and newly diagnosed PD group demonstrated automaticity in their grasping movements. The moderate and advanced PD groups did not demonstrate automaticity. Furthermore, the well-known effects of pharmacotherapy and surgical intervention on movement speed and muscle activation patterns did not appear to reduce the impact of attention-demanding tasks on grasping movements in those with moderate to advanced PD. By the moderate stage of PD, grasping is an attention-demanding process; this change is not ameliorated by dopaminergic or surgical treatments. These findings have important implications for activities of daily living, as devoting attention to the simplest of daily tasks would interfere with complex activities and potentially exacerbate fatigue.

  16. Developmental Stages in Receptive Grammar Acquisition: A Processability Theory Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…

  17. Modal intersection types, two-level languages, and staged synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Rehof, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    -linguistic framework for staged program synthesis, where metaprograms are automatically synthesized which, when executed, generate code in a target language. We survey the basic theory of staged synthesis and illustrate by example how a two-level language theory specialized from λ∩ ⎕ can be used to understand......A typed λ-calculus, λ∩ ⎕, is introduced, combining intersection types and modal types. We develop the metatheory of λ∩ ⎕, with particular emphasis on the theory of subtyping and distributivity of the modal and intersection type operators. We describe how a stratification of λ∩ ⎕ leads to a multi...... the process of staged synthesis....

  18. Eye-movement evidence of the time-course of attentional bias for threatening pictures in test-anxious students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.; Beuckelaer, A. de; Yu, L.; Zhou, R

    2017-01-01

    Protocols for measuring attentional bias to threat in test-anxiety, a special form of trait-anxiety, are rarely found in the literature. In our eye-tracking study, we introduced a new protocol, and studied the time-course of attention to test-related pictures with varying threat levels in 22 high

  19. Attention Training in Autism as a Potential Approach to Improving Academic Performance: A School-Based Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Mayra Muller; Shalev, Lilach; Kossyvaki, Lila; Mevorach, Carmel

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an attention intervention program (Computerized Progressive Attentional Training; CPAT) in improving academic performance of children with ASD. Fifteen 6-10 year olds with ASD attending a mainstream and a special school were assigned to an experimental (CPAT; n = 8) and active control (computer games; n =…

  20. TiO(2) doping by hydroxyurea at the nucleation stage: towards a new photocatalyst in the visible spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azouani, R; Tieng, S; Chhor, K; Bocquet, J-F; Eloy, P; Gaigneaux, E M; Klementiev, K; Kanaev, A V

    2010-10-07

    We report an original method of preparation of OCN-doped TiO(2) for photocatalysis in the visible spectral range. The preparation is achieved by a sol-gel route using titanium tetraisopropoxide precursor. Special attention was paid to fluid micromixing, which enables homogeneous reaction conditions in the reactor bulk and monodispersity of the produced clusters/nanoparticles. The dopant hydroxyurea (HyU, CH(4)N(2)O(2)) is injected into the reactive fluid at the nucleation stage, which lasts tens of milliseconds. The doping results in a strong yellow coloration of the nanocolloids due to the absorption band in the spectral range 380-550 nm and accelerates the aggregation kinetics of both nuclei at the induction stage and sub-nuclei units (clusters) at the nucleation stage. FTIR, Raman and UV-visible absorption analyses show the formation of a stable HyU-TiO(2) complex. EXAFS spectra indicate no appreciable changes of the first-shell Ti atom environment. The doping agent takes available surface sites of TiO(2) clusters/nanoparticles attaining ∼10% molar loading. The reaction kinetics then accelerates due to a longer collisional lifetime between nanoparticles induced by the formation of a weak [double bond, length as m-dash]OTi bond. The OCN-group bonding to titanium atoms produces a weakening of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bond and a strengthening of the C-N and N-O bonds.