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Sample records for stage separation system

  1. Development of RLV-TD Stage Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ganesh; Rao, Y. Naga Sreenivasa; Prakash, P.; Subramanian, U. A.; Purushothaman, P.; Premdas, M.; Abraham, Baby; Kishorenath, V.; Jayachandran, T.

    2017-12-01

    Hyper Sonic Experiment (HEX-01), with main focus on the aero thermodynamic characterization and end to end autonomous mission management, is the first in a series of demonstrators planned by ISRO for the development of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). This paper gives the evolution of the split collet based separation system used in the separation of the spent booster stage from the RLV-Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (TDV). The separation mechanism is very compact, yet has a very high load bearing capacity. The design details and the challenges faced during flight qualification of the system are discussed in this paper. There are a lot of promising areas where this system can be used.

  2. Structural integration of separation and reaction systems: I. Integration of stage-wise processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural integration of separation processes, using multifunctional equipment, has been studied on four stage-wise liquid-liquid separations extraction, absorption, distillation, adsorption and on some combinations of these processes. It was shown for stage - wise processes that the ultimate aim of equipment integration is 3-way integration (by components by steps and by stages and that membrane multiphase contactors present concerning the equipment optimal solutions in many cases. First, by using partially integrated equipment and, later by developing fully integrated systems it was experimentally confirmed that structural 3-way integration produces much higher degrees of component separations and component enrichments in compact and safe equipment.

  3. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent.

  4. Multicomponent isotope separation in matched abundance ratio cascades composed of stages with large separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Halle, E.

    1987-06-01

    The concept of the matched abundance ratio cascade and the system of equations for performing multicomponent productivity calculations upon them has proven extremely useful for analyzing the behavior of gaseous diffusion plants in which the stage separation factors are very nearly equal to unity. Recent interest in the gas centrifuge process, in which the separation factor of a single centrifuge can be relatively large, makes desirable the extension of the theory of the matched abundance ratio cascade to cascades composed of stages with large separation factors. Equations permit the calculation of the productivity for simple cascades composed of stages with large separation factors. The concentration gradient of each of the isotopic species present can be calculated and the cascade description can be determined. An illustrative example dealing with the separation of the isotopes of tungsten in a cascade composed of gas centrifuges is included

  5. Reliability Omnipotent Analysis For First Stage Separator On The Separation Process Of Gas, Oil And Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sony Tjahyani, D. T.; Ismu W, Puradwi; Asmara Santa, Sigit

    2001-01-01

    Reliability of industry can be evaluated based on two aspects which are risk and economic aspects. From these points, optimation value can be determined optimation value. Risk of the oil refinery process are fire and explosion, so assessment of this system must be done. One system of the oil refinery process is first stage separator which is used to separate gas, oil and water. Evaluation of reliability for first stage separator system has been done with FAMECA and HAZap method. The analysis results, the probability of fire and explosion of 1.1x10 - 2 3 /hour and 1.2x10 - 1 1 /hour, respectively. The reliability value of the system is high because each undesired event is anticipated with safety system or safety component

  6. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  7. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  8. ITER isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.; Sherman, R.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1990-09-01

    This document presents the results of a study that examined the technical operating and economic viability of an alternative Isotope Separation System (ISS) design based on the distributed design concept. In the distributed design, the ISS is broken up into local independently operable subsystems matched to local processing requirements. The distributed design accepts the same feeds and produces essentially the same products as the reference design. The distributed design consists of two separate, independent subsystems. The first, called ISS-H, receives only protium-dominated streams and waste water from tritium extraction. It has two cryogenic distillation columns and can produce a 50 percent D, 50 percent T product since it lacks D/T separation capability. A final 80 percent T 2 concentration product can be obtained by blending the 50 percent T 2 stream from ISS-H with the more than 99 percent T 2 stream from the second subsystem, ISS-D. The second subsystem receives only deuterium-dominated feeds, which also contain some protium. ISS-D is as complex as the reference design, but smaller. Although each subsystem has some advantages, such as only two cryogenic distillation columns in ISS-H and better than 99 percent steady state T 2 product in ISS-D, the combined subsystems do not offer any real advantage compared to the reference IISS. The entire distributed ISS design has been simulated using Ontario Hydro's FLOSHEET steady state process simulator. Dynamic analysis has not been done for the distributed design. (10 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.)

  9. Optimization of separate hydrogen and methane production from cassava wastewater using two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) system under thermophilic operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intanoo, Patcharee; Rangsanvigit, Pramoch; Malakul, Pomthong; Chavadej, Sumaeth

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the separate hydrogen and methane productions from cassava wastewater by using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under thermophilic operation. Recycle ratio of the effluent from methane bioreactor-to-feed flow rate was fixed at 1:1 and pH of hydrogen UASB unit was maintained at 5.5. At optimum COD loading rate of 90 kg/m3 d based on the feed COD load and hydrogen UASB volume, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit mainly contained H2 and CO2 which provided the maximum hydrogen yield (54.22 ml H2/g COD applied) and specific hydrogen production rate (197.17 ml/g MLVSSd). At the same optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained CH4 and CO2 without H2 which were also consistent with the maximum methane yield (164.87 ml CH4/g COD applied) and specific methane production rate (356.31 ml CH4/g MLVSSd). The recycling operation minimized the use of NaOH for pH control in hydrogen UASB unit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Equilibrium-Staged Separations Using Matlab and Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binous, Housam

    2008-01-01

    We show a new approach, based on the utilization of Matlab and Mathematica, for solving liquid-liquid extraction and binary distillation problems. In addition, the author shares his experience using these two softwares to teach equilibrium staged separations at the National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology. (Contains 7 figures.)

  11. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis presents theory, modeling, design, fabrication, experiments and results for microfluidic magnetic separators. A model for magnetic bead movement in a microfluidic channel is presented, and the limits of the model are discussed. The effective magnetic field gradient is defined, a...... in microfluidic systems, and recommendations are given for the choice of magnetic design based on the desired application......., and it is argued that it is a good measure, when comparing the performance of magnetic bead separators. It is described how numeric modelling is used to aid the design of microfluidic magnetic separation systems. An example of a design optimization study is given. A robust fabrication scheme has been developed...... for fabrication of silicon based systems. This fabrication scheme is explained, and it is shown how, it is applied with variations for several designs of magnetic separators. An experimental setup for magnetic separation experiments has been developed. It has been coupled with an image analysis program...

  12. The CEBAF RF separator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Arnold, G.; Fugitt, J.; Harwood, L.; Kazimi, R.; Lahti, G.; Mammosser, J.; Nelson, R.; Piller, C.; Turlington, L.

    1996-01-01

    The 4 GeV CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is arranged in a five-pass racetrack configuration, with two superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. The 1497 MHz continuous electron beam is composed of three interlaced variable-intensity 499 MHz beams that can be independently directed from any of the five passes to any of the three experimental halls. Beam extraction is made possible by a system of nine warm sub-harmonic separator cavities capable of delivering a 100 urad kick to any pass at a maximum machine energy of 6 GeV. Each separator cavity is a half-wavelength, two cell design with a high transverse shunt impedance and a small transverse dimension. The cavities are powered by 1 kW solid state amplifiers operating at 499 MHz. Cavity phase and gradient control are provided through a modified version of the same control module used for the CEBAF SRF cavity controls. The system has recently been tested while delivering beam to Hall C. In this paper we present a description of the RF separator system and recent test results with beam. (author)

  13. Metadata management staging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Django application providing a user-interface for building a file and metadata management system. An evolution of our Node.js and CouchDb metadata management system. This one focuses on server functionality and uses a well-documented, rational and REST-ful API for data access.

  14. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-08-07

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G: (gobsmax ), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. A Two-Stage MMSE Beamformer for Underdetermined Signal Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koldovský, Zbyněk; Tichavský, Petr; Phan, A. H.; Cichocki, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 12 (2013), s. 1227-1230 ISSN 1070-9908 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/1947 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : beamforming * underdetermined mixtures * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/koldovsky-0424112.pdf

  16. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  17. A NOVEL CO2 SEPARATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Copeland; Gokhan Alptekin; Mike Cesario; Steven Gebhard; Yevgenia Gershanovich

    1999-01-01

    Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current CO{sub 2} separation systems is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity.

  18. Distributed systems design using separable communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capel, A.C.; Yan, G.

    1980-01-01

    One of the promises of distributed systems is the ability to design each process function largely independently of the others, and in many cases locate the resulting hardware in close proximity to the application. The communications architecture for such systems should be approached in the same way, using separable communications facilities to meet individual sets of requirements while at the same time reducing the interactions between functions. Where complete physical separation is not feasible and hardware resource sharing is required, the protocols should be designed emphasizing the logical separation of communication paths. This paper discusses the different types of communications for process control applictions and the parameters which need to be characterized in designing separable communications for distributed systems. (auth)

  19. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  20. Isotope separation in crossed-jet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, R.J.; Anderson, J.B.

    1978-11-01

    The separation of isotopes in crossed-jet systems was investigated with Monte Carlo calculations of the separation effects for jets of Ne/Ar and /sup 235/UF/sub 6///sup 238/UF/sub 6/ mixtures entering a hydrogen stream. For the ideal condition of uniform stream velocities at zero temperature, the separation factor ..cap alpha.. was found to be 16.0 for Ne/Ar and 1.17 for /sup 235/UF/sub 6///sup 238/UF/sub 6/. For less ideal but more practical conditions, Monte Carlo calculations of the complete crossed-jet systems gave separation factors as high as 3.3 for Ne/Ar and ..cap alpha.. = 1.046 - 1.078 for /sup 235/UF/sub 6///sup 238/UF/sub 6/.

  1. Control of stage by stage changing linear dynamic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barseghyan V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control problems of linear dynamic systems stage by stage changing and the optimal control with the criteria of quality set for the whole range of time intervals are considered. The necessary and sufficient conditions of total controllability are also stated. The constructive solving method of a control problem is offered, as well as the definitions of conditions for the existence of programmed control and motions. The explicit form of control action for a control problem is constructed. The method for solving optimal control problem is offered, and the solution of optimal control of a specific target is brought.

  2. About the theory of initial stage of oil accumulation in a dome-separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimaltdinov, I. K.; Kildibaeva, S. R.

    2015-05-01

    A mathematical model was developed for accumulation of oil in a cylindrical tank (the dome-separator) designed for capturing of oil from oil leakage at the sea bottom. Two key stages were described, and time dependencies for interface evolution and alcohol layer temperature were calculated.

  3. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  4. Aerodynamic Analyses and Database Development for Ares I Vehicle First Stage Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Pei, Jing; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Holland, Scott D.; Covell, Peter F.; Klopfer, Goetz, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic analysis and database development for the first stage separation of the Ares I A106 Crew Launch Vehicle configuration. Separate databases were created for the first stage and upper stage. Each database consists of three components: isolated or free-stream coefficients, power-off proximity increments, and power-on proximity increments. The power-on database consists of three parts, all plumes firing at nominal conditions, the one booster deceleration motor out condition, and the one ullage settling motor out condition. The isolated and power-off incremental databases were developed using wind tunnel test data. The power-on proximity increments were developed using CFD solutions.

  5. End-To-End Simulation of Launch Vehicle Trajectories Including Stage Separation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Cindy W.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Pamadi, Bandu N.

    2012-01-01

    The development of methodologies, techniques, and tools for analysis and simulation of stage separation dynamics is critically needed for successful design and operation of multistage reusable launch vehicles. As a part of this activity, the Constraint Force Equation (CFE) methodology was developed and implemented in the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of POST2/CFE to simulate a complete end-to-end mission. The vehicle configuration selected was the Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) Langley Glide Back Booster (LGBB) bimese configuration, an in-house concept consisting of a reusable booster and an orbiter having identical outer mold lines. The proximity and isolated aerodynamic databases used for the simulation were assembled using wind-tunnel test data for this vehicle. POST2/CFE simulation results are presented for the entire mission, from lift-off, through stage separation, orbiter ascent to orbit, and booster glide back to the launch site. Additionally, POST2/CFE stage separation simulation results are compared with results from industry standard commercial software used for solving dynamics problems involving multiple bodies connected by joints.

  6. LLRF System for the CEBAF Separator Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plawski, Tomasz E. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curt [JLAB; Seidman, David J. [JLAB; Wissmann, Mark J. [JLAB

    2014-12-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of four new 748.5 MHz normal conducting deflecting cavities in the 5th pass extraction region. This system will work together with the existing 499 MHz RF Separator in order to allow simultaneous delivery of the beam to four CEBAF experimental halls. The RF system employs two digital LLRF systems controlling four cavities in a vector sum. Cavity tune information of the individual cavities is also obtained using a multiplexing scheme of the forward and reflected RF signals. In this paper we will present detailed LLRF design and the current status of the CEBAF 748.5/499 MHz beam extraction system.

  7. Comparison of new AJCC staging system with old AJCC staging system in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Se Mie; Wu, Hong Gyun; Park, Charn II [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the reliability of the new version of the AJCC staging system (1997) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in comparison with the AJCC staging system of 1992. Between 1983 and 1996, 185 patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with radiation therapy at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology Seoul National University Hospital. For these patients, AJCC staging system of 1992 was compared with the 1997 version, by reviewing hospital records, computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 5-year overall survival rates according to the 1992 and 1997 AJCC staging systems were 100%, and 100% at stage I; 100%, and 68.8% at stage ll;61.4%, and 63.8% at stage III; 61.1%, and 63.2% at stage IV. 5-year overall survival rates of each classification showed significant differences between stages (p=0.0049 for the old version, p=0.01 for the new), but no significant difference was found between the staging systems except at stage II. The new AJCC staging system allows staging as reliably as the 1992 version, but the adequacy of the newly modified staging classification should be confirmed by further clinical examination.

  8. The CEBAF separator cavity resonance control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wissmann; C. Hovater; A. Guerra; T. Plawski

    2005-01-01

    The CEBAF energy upgrade will increase the maximum beam energy from 6 GeV to 12 GeV available to the experimental halls. RF deflection cavities (separators) are used to direct the electron beam to the three halls. The resulting increase in RF separator cavity gradient and subsequent increase in RF power needed for these higher energies will require the cavities to have active resonance control. Currently, at the present 4 to 6 GeV energies, the cavities are tuned mechanically and then stabilized with Low Conductivity Water (LCW) which is maintained at a constant temperature of 95 Fahrenheit. This approach is no longer feasible and an active resonance control system that controls both water temperature and flow has been designed and built. The system uses a commercial PLC with embedded PID controls to regulate water temperature and flow to the cavities. The system allows the operator to remotely adjust temperature/flow and consequently cavity resonance for the full range of beam energies. Ultimately, closed loop control will be maintained by monitoring each cavity's reflected power. This paper describes this system

  9. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Ken [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Martin, Leigh [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lumetta, Gregg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of used nuclear fuel is the separation of transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanides. This separation is essential if actinide transmutation options are to be pursued in advanced fuel cycles, as lanthanides compete with actinides for neutrons in both thermal and fast reactors, thus limiting efficiency. The separation is difficult because the chemistry of Am3+ and Cm3+ is nearly identical to that of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln3+). The prior literature teaches that two approaches offer the greatest probability of devising a successful group separation process based on aqueous processes: 1) the application of complexing agents containing ligand donor atoms that are softer than oxygen (N, S, Cl-) or 2) changing the oxidation state of Am to the IV, V, or VI state to increase the essential differences between Am and lanthanide chemistry (an approach utilized in the PUREX process to selectively remove Pu4+ and UO22+ from fission products). The latter approach offers the additional benefit of enabling a separation of Am from Cm, as Cm(III) is resistant to oxidation and so can easily be made to follow the lanthanides. The fundamental limitations of these approaches are that 1) the soft(er) donor atoms that interact more strongly with actinide cations than lanthanides form substantially weaker bonds than oxygen atoms, thus necessitating modification of extraction conditions for adequate phase transfer efficiency, 2) soft donor reagents have been seen to suffer slow phase transfer kinetics and hydro-/radiolytic stability limitations and 3) the upper oxidation states of Am are all moderately strong oxidants, hence of only transient stability in media representative of conventional aqueous separations systems. There are examples in the literature of both approaches having been described. However, it is not clear at present that any extant process is sufficiently robust for application at the scale

  10. SCADA System of Physicochemical Variables in a Mixture Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Bustamante Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research project developed by professors from Universidad de los Llanos and Colciencias Young Researcher, whose aim is to implement the necessary instrumentation to monitor and control with a SCADA system of physicochemical variables for a mixture separation process in oily water, thereby seeking to minimize environmental damage in water sources. The project was divided into three methodological stages: the establishment of interest variables, the design and implementation of the SCADA system, and the testing for results validation. This system has sensors to capture and transfer data to a PLC (S71200 for each of the system variables such as temperature, level, flow and pH. It also has HMI interface for interacting with the system. The SCADA system greatly facilitates process monitoring and establishes the possibility of remote action, just by providing the programmable logic controller (PLC to an Ethernet network.

  11. The CEBAF Separator Cavity Resonance Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Mark J; Hovater, Curt; Plawski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The CEBAF energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12GeV will increase the range of beam energies available to the experimental halls. RF deflection cavities (separators) are used to direct the electron beam to the three experimental halls. Consequently with the increase in RF separator cavity gradient needed for the higher energies, RF power will also increase requiring the cavities to have active resonance control. At the 6 GeV energy, the cavities are tuned mechanically and then stabilized with Low Conductivity Water (LCW), which is maintained at constant temperature of 95o Fahrenheit. This is no longer feasible and an active resonance control system, that controls both water temperature and flow has been built. The system uses a commercial PLC with embedded PID controls to control water temperature and flow to the cavities. The system allows the operator to remotely adjust temperature/flow and consequently cavity resonance for the full range of beam energies. Ultimately closed loop control will be maintained by monit...

  12. Surgical management of stage I and II vulvar cancer:The role of the separated incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijono Andrijono

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar cancer is a gynecological cancer whose incidence rate is relatively low. Patients generally were admitted at advanced stage, and radiation therapy at advanced stage does not provide favorable prognosis. Two main modalities in the treatment of vulvar cancer are surgery and radiation therapy. However, radiation can be performed in early stage vulvar cancer but surgery is thought to have more benefits, such as in side effect on the ovary/ reproductive function disorder, patient's hygiene factor, and the ease in performing therapy if recurrence occurs. There are various techniques of vulvar cancer surgery, such as radical vulvectomy with butterfly incision (RVBI and radical vulvectomy with separated incision (RVSI. The objective of this study was to identify the benefits of radical vulvectomy with separated incision in comparison with radical vulvectomy with butterfly incision in terms of the length of surgery, wound recovery, infection incidence, length of hospital stay. This study was a clinical trial performed during the period of 1990-2000. Fifteen cases of vulvar cancer were found and underwent surgery. Fourteen cases were at stage II and 14 cases were histologically defined as squamous-cell carcinoma and 1 case was adenocarcinoma. The average length of surgery in RVSI was 168 minutes, this was shorter than that in VRBI which reached an average of 275 minutes. The incidence of infection in RVSI group was 3 of 11 cases (27.27%, while in RVBI group all cases had infection in surgical wound. Failure of surgical wound approximation was 1 of 12 cases (9.99%, while in RVBI all cases experienced the failure such that cosmetic surgery was required. Length of postoperative care in RVSI group was 12.3 days, while in RVBI 21.5 days. Thus, complications in VRBI were lower, and length of surgery and length of postoperative care were shorter. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 103-8 Keywords: vulvar cancer, separated incision

  13. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation

  14. Estimation of Supersonic Stage Separation Aerodynamics of Winged-Body Launch Vehicles Using Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to estimate the longitudinal stage separation aerodynamic characteristics of a generic, bimese, winged multi-stage launch vehicle configuration at supersonic speeds in the NASA LaRC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The Mach 3 staging was dominated by shock wave interactions between the orbiter and booster vehicles throughout the relative spatial locations of interest. The inference space was partitioned into several contiguous regions within which the separation aerodynamics were presumed to be well-behaved and estimable using central composite designs capable of fitting full second-order response functions. The underlying aerodynamic response surfaces of the booster vehicle in belly-to-belly proximity to the orbiter vehicle were estimated using piecewise-continuous lower-order polynomial functions. The quality of fit and prediction capabilities of the empirical models were assessed in detail, and the issue of subspace boundary discontinuities was addressed. Augmenting the central composite designs to full third-order using computer-generated D-optimality criteria was evaluated. The usefulness of central composite designs, the subspace sizing, and the practicality of fitting lower-order response functions over a partitioned inference space dominated by highly nonlinear and possibly discontinuous shock-induced aerodynamics are discussed.

  15. 14 CFR 25.1707 - System separation: EWIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ensure adequate physical separation and electrical isolation so that a fault in any one airplane power... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System separation: EWIS. 25.1707 Section 25... System separation: EWIS. (a) Each EWIS must be designed and installed with adequate physical separation...

  16. Blind speech separation system for humanoid robot with FastICA for audio filtering and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo; Santoso Gunawan, Alexander Agung

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, there are many developments in building intelligent humanoid robot, mainly in order to handle voice and image. In this research, we propose blind speech separation system using FastICA for audio filtering and separation that can be used in education or entertainment. Our main problem is to separate the multi speech sources and also to filter irrelevant noises. After speech separation step, the results will be integrated with our previous speech and face recognition system which is based on Bioloid GP robot and Raspberry Pi 2 as controller. The experimental results show the accuracy of our blind speech separation system is about 88% in command and query recognition cases.

  17. ITER isotope separation system conceptual design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.; Dinner, P.J.; Murdoch, D.K.; Leger, D.

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents integrated Isotope Separation System (ISS) designs for ITER based on requirements for plasma exhaust processing, neutral beam injection deuterium cleanup, pellet injector propellant detritiation, waste water detritiation, and breeding blanket detritiation. Specific ISS designs are developed for a machine with an aqueous lithium salt blanket (ALSB) and a machine with a solid ceramic breeding blanket (SBB). The differences in the ISS designs arising from the different blanket concepts are highlighted. It is found that the ISS designs for the two blanket concepts considered are very similar, with the only major difference being the requirements for an additional large water distillation column for ALSB water detritiation. The fact that the cryogenic distillation portions of the two ISS designs are almost identical, indicates that the cryogenic distillation cascade design is very flexible and can readily accommodate significant changes in processing requirements without requiring significant redesign. The front-end process for extraction of tritium from the ALSB is based on flash evaporation to separate the blanket water from the dissolved Li salt, with the tritiated water then being fed to the ISS for detritiation. This technology is considered to be relatively well understood in comparison to front-end processes for SBB detritiation. In the design of the cryogenic distillation portion of the ISS, it was found that the tritium inventory could be very large (> 600g) unless specific design measures were taken to reduce it. In the designs which are presented, the tritium inventory has been reduced to about 180g, which is less than the ITER single-failure release limit of 200g. Further design optimization and isolation of components is expected to reduce the inventory further

  18. A Systematic Approach for the Design and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems with Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a systematic model-based analysis and the results obtained from it for an integrated design and analysis of reaction-separation systems with recycle. The methodology (systematic approach) consists of three stages where stage 1 identifies the limiting values...

  19. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  20. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Three processes are discussed for separating tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems: separation in the gas phase using Pd-25 wt percent Ag alloy diffusion membranes; electrolytic separation in the aqueous phase using ''bipolar'' electrodes; and the countercurrent exchange of tritium-containing hydrogen gas with water on catalytic surfaces combined with separation by direct electrolysis

  1. 15 N separation in the Nitrox system under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.; Baldea, A.; Teaca, C.; Horga, R.; Abrudean, M.

    1999-01-01

    The basic isotope exchange reaction responsible for the separation of 15 N in Nitrox system is that between gaseous nitrogen oxides and aqueous nitric acid with single stage separation factor α = 1.055 for M.l -1 nitric acid, at 25 deg. C and atmospheric pressure. The rate of nitrogen isotope exchange between NO and HNO 3 has been measured as a function of nitric oxide pressure 0.1 - 0.4 MPa for 1 and 2 M.l -1 . It is concluded that 15 N/ 14 N exchange rate in NO-HNO 3 system has a linear dependence on NO pressure as indicated by rate measurements at different NO partial pressure and constant overall pressure, by adding helium in reactor. Using the rate law: R = [HNO 3 ] 2 [N 2 O 3 ] the 15 N/ 14 N exchange rates for nitric acid concentrations 1.5 - 10 M.l -1 were calculated. In order to know what happens in 15 N separation at higher pressure, when the isotopic transport between two phases is improved, a stainless steel laboratory experimental setup with 1000 mm long x 18 mm i,d. column, packed with triangular wire springs 1.8 x 1.8 x 0.2 mm was utilised. At 0.15 MPA and 2.36 ml.cm -2 . min -1 flow rate HETP was 7% smaller than at atmospheric pressure and 1.5 times smaller flow rate. HETP at 3.14 ml . cm -2 . min -1 flow rate and 0.18 MPa is practically equal with that obtained at atmospheric pressure and 2 times smaller flow rate. The operation of the 15 N separation setup at 0.18 MPa, instead of atmospheric pressure, will permit to double the 10 M.l -1 nitric acid flow rate and of 15 N production of the given column. (authors)

  2. Formalized methodology for the separation of three component electrolytic systems: Partial separation of the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suljkanović Midhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a formalized methodology for salt's separation from three component electrolytic systems. The methodology is based on the multi-variant modelling block of a generalized crystallization process, with options for simulating the boundary conditions of feasible equilibrium processes and the elements of crystallization techniques. The following techniques are considered: cooling crystallization, adiabatic evaporative-cooling crystallization, salt-out crystallization, isothermal crystallization, and a combination of the mentioned techniques. The multi-variant options of the crystallization module are based on different variable sets with assigned values for solving mathematical models of generalized crystallization processes. The first level of the methodology begins with the determination of salt crystallization paths from a hypothetical electrolytic AX-BX-H2O system, following by an examination of salt-cooling crystallization possibilities. The second level determines feasible processes by the communication of a feed-system with the environment through a stream of evaporated water, or introduced water with introduced crystallized BX salt. The third level determines the value intervals of the variables for feasible processes. The methodological logic and possibilities for the created process simulator are demonstrated on examples of sodium sulphate separation from the NaCl-Na2SO4-H2O system, using different salt concentrations within the feed system.

  3. Enantiomer separation in a cascaded micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdevest, P.E.M.; Hoenders, M.H.J.; Riet, van 't K.; Padt, van der A.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing demand for optically pure compounds (enantiomers) stimulates the development of new enantiomer separation processes on an industrial scale. The separation of enantiomers by ultrafiltration of enantioselective micelles was studied in a cascaded system. The feasibility of this

  4. Separation Systems Data Base: a users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1978-11-01

    A data base designed specifically for the retrieval of information needed in chemical separations problems is described. Included are descriptions of the basic methods of searching and retrieving information from the data base, the procedure for entering records into the data base, a listing of additional references concerning the computer information process and an example of a typical record. The initial entries are concerned primarily with liquid-liquid extraction methods for metal ions and salts. However, the data base is constructed so that almost any separation process can be accommodated

  5. System and method of plasma particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.; Halpern, G.M.; Thomas, W.R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Several examples of the design are described to ionize flowing uranium or UF 6 vapour through laser beam and to conduct the thus produced flowing plasma into the region of a magnetic field gradient separating the isotopes. (GG/LH) [de

  6. 46 CFR 153.292 - Separation of piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.292 Separation of piping systems. Cargo piping systems must be arranged so that operations necessary to provide separate systems can be accomplished in a cargo handling...

  7. A simplified staging system based on the radiological findings in different stages of ochronotic spondyloarthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebaraj, Isaac; Chacko, Binita Riya; Chiramel, George Koshy; Matthai, Thomas; Parameswaran, Apurve

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a group of 26 patients with ochronotic spondyloarthropathy who were on regular treatment and follow-up at a tertiary level hospital and proposes a simplified staging system for ochronotic spondyloarthropathy based on radiographic findings seen in the thoracolumbar spine. This proposed classification makes it easy to identify the stage of the disease and start the appropriate management at an early stage. Four progressive stages are described: an inflammatory stage (stage 1), the stage of early discal calcification (stage 2), the stage of fibrous ankylosis (stage 3), and the stage of bony ankylosis (stage 4). To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of radiological description of spinal ochronosis, and emphasizes the contribution of the spine radiograph in the diagnosis and staging of the disease

  8. An optimal two-stage phase II design utilizing complete and partial response information separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panageas, Katherine S; Smith, Alex; Gönen, Mithat; Chapman, Paul B

    2002-08-01

    Phase II clinical trials in oncology are performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a new treatment regimen. A common measure of efficacy for these trials is the proportion of patients who obtain a response measured by tumor shrinkage. It is standard practice to classify this response into the following categories: (1) complete response (CR); (2) partial response (PR); (3) stable disease; and (4) progression of disease. Tumor response is then treated as a binary variable whereby patients who achieve either a CR or a PR are considered responders and all others nonresponders. A two-stage design that allows for early termination of the trial if the treatment shows little efficacy such as Gehan or Simon gives equal weight to a CR and a PR. However, a CR, defined as complete disappearance of the tumor, is more likely than a PR to signal an important antitumor effect and result in a survival advantage. We argue that CRs and PRs should be considered separately, and hence we propose a two-stage design with a multilevel endpoint (i.e., CR, PR, and nonresponders). This design is an extension of Simon's optimal two-stage design and is based on a trinomial model. For most scenarios the proposed design results in an improvement in expected sample size compared to Simon's optimal design. Design optimization was performed by a direct search based on enumerating exact trinomial probabilities. Sample size tables are provided for parameter sets commonly used in the oncologic setting. Software is available by contacting the authors.

  9. Estimation of Separation Buffers for Wind-Prediction Error in an Airborne Separation Assistance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Allen, B. Danette

    2009-01-01

    Wind prediction errors are known to affect the performance of automated air traffic management tools that rely on aircraft trajectory predictions. In particular, automated separation assurance tools, planned as part of the NextGen concept of operations, must be designed to account and compensate for the impact of wind prediction errors and other system uncertainties. In this paper we describe a high fidelity batch simulation study designed to estimate the separation distance required to compensate for the effects of wind-prediction errors throughout increasing traffic density on an airborne separation assistance system. These experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assurance systems. In this experiment, wind-prediction errors were varied between zero and forty knots while traffic density was increased several times current traffic levels. In order to accurately measure the full unmitigated impact of wind-prediction errors, no uncertainty buffers were added to the separation minima. The goal of the study was to measure the impact of wind-prediction errors in order to estimate the additional separation buffers necessary to preserve separation and to provide a baseline for future analyses. Buffer estimations from this study will be used and verified in upcoming safety evaluation experiments under similar simulation conditions. Results suggest that the strategic airborne separation functions exercised in this experiment can sustain wind prediction errors up to 40kts at current day air traffic density with no additional separation distance buffer and at eight times the current day with no more than a 60% increase in separation distance buffer.

  10. Technology and staging effects on two-stage-to-orbit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    Horizontal takeoff and landing two-stage systems with an airbreathing first stage and rocket second stage are evaluated for staging Mach numbers that range from 5 to 14. All systems are evaluated with advanced technologies being developed in the NASP Program and sized to the same mission requirements. With these advanced technologies, the two-stage systems are heavier than the single stage. The weights of the two-stage systems are closely related to staging. Using a rocket on the first stage to accelerate from the turboramjet limit of Mach 6 to Mach 10 signiificantly decreases dry weight as compared to the Mach 6-staged system. The optimum dry weight staging Mach number for the scramjet two-stage system is Mach 12. At a 40 percent weight growth (current technology level), the scramjet two-stage systems are half the weight and less sensitive to weight changes than the single stage, but still require substantial technology development in the areas of inlets, nozzles, ramjet propulsion, active cooling, and high-temperature structures.

  11. Stages in the energetics of baroclinic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlanski, Isidoro; Sheldon, John P.

    1995-10-01

    The results from several idealized and case studies are drawn together to form a comprehensive picture of "downstream baroclinic evolution" using local energetics. This new viewpoint offers a complementary alternative to the more conventional descriptions of cyclone development. These additional insights are made possible largely because the local energetics approach permits one to define an energy flux vector which accurately describes the direction of energy dispersion and quantifies the role of neighboring systems in local development. In this view, the development of a system's energetics is divided into three stages. In Stage 1, a pre-existing disturbance well upstream of an incipient trough loses energy via ageostrophic geopotential fluxes directed downstream through the intervening ridge, generating a new energy center there. In Stage 2, this new energy center grows vigorously, at first due to the convergence of these fluxes, and later by baroclinic conversion as well. As the center matures, it begins to export energy via geopotential fluxes to the eastern side of the trough, initiating yet another energy center. In Stage 3, this new energy center continues to grow while that on the western side of the trough decays due to a dwinding supply of energy via fluxes from the older upstream system and also as a consequence of its own export of energy downstream. As the eastern energy center matures, it exports energy further downstream, and the sequence begins anew. The USA "Blizzard of'93" is used as a new case study to test the limits to which this conceptual sequence might apply, as well as to augment the current limited set of case studies. It is shown that, despite the extraordinary magnitude of the event, the evolution of the trough associated with the Blizzard fits the conceptual picture of downstream baroclinic evolution quite well, with geopotential fluxes playing a critical rôle in three respects. First, fluxes from an old, decaying system in the

  12. A new submarine oil-water separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong

    2017-12-01

    In order to solve the oil field losses of environmental problems and economic benefit caused by the separation of lifting production liquid to offshore platforms in the current offshore oil production, from the most basic separation principle, a new oil-water separation system has been processed of adsorption and desorption on related materials, achieving high efficiency and separation of oil and water phases. And the submarine oil-water separation device has been designed. The main structure of the device consists of gas-solid phase separation device, period separating device and adsorption device that completed high efficiency separation of oil, gas and water under the adsorption and desorption principle, and the processing capacity of the device is calculated.

  13. Optimization of a MSW separation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.R.; Nixon, W.B.

    1999-07-01

    The maximum recovery of recyclables from municipal solid waste (MSW) using six material recovery facility (MRF) technologies is determined. Two waste streams at Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany are analyzed; stationary container wastes and commingled recyclables. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) tools are applied to the criteria of mass recovery rate and benefit-cost ratio. Recovery is determined using the recovery factor transfer function (RFTF) of Diaz et al. Each technology, or unit operation, in a sequence is independent because particle size distribution of each waste component is considered. Benefit-cost is based on revenue from sold recyclables, tipping fees to landfill unseparated waste, and manual labor and amortized equipment costs. Six unit operations are considered: magnet, eddy current separator (ECS), magnet, air classifier, screen, manual sort, and shredder. Process trains of up to six operations are considered. The result is a tradeoff between 69% that recovery of commingled recyclables only and recovery of stationary container waste only at a benefit-cost of 0.54 and are dominated by the 35% recovery of 35% of both waste streams at a benefit-cost of 0.34. Hand sort recovers the most mass and is cost effective, followed by ECS, then magnet. The modeling technique can be applied to any MRF configuration and waste stream. This is expected to help MRFs increase recovery and revenue while decreasing costs. This is important when the prices for recyclables are low as they are now.

  14. A multi-stage oil-water-separating process design for the sea oil spill recovery robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-ge; Wu, Jian-guo; Lin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiao-ming

    2018-03-01

    Oil spill have the most common pollution to the marine ecological environment. In the late stage of physical method recovery, because of the thin oil and the strong sea breeze, the recovery vessels has low efficiency and high energy consumption. This paper develops a multi-stage oil-water-separating process carried by the sea oil spill recovery robot in severe conditions. This design consists of three separation process, among which both the first and third process adopt corrugated sheets horizontal oil-water separator, while the second is hydraulic rotary breaker. This design also equiptment with rectifier and cyclone separator and other important components. This process has high flexibility and high recovery efficiency. The implement effect is significant.

  15. Design and synthesis of reactive separation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a rapid upturn in interest in reactive distillation. The chemical process industry recognizes the favorable economics of carrying out reaction simultaneously with distillation for certain classes of reacting systems, and many new processes have been built based on this technology. Interest is also increasing by academics and software vendors. Systematic design methods for reactive distillation systems have only recently begun to emerge. In this report we survey the available design techniques and point out the contributions made by our group at the University of Massachusetts.

  16. The CEBAF RF Separator System Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, J.; Mark Augustine; Al Guerra; Richard Nelson; Robert Terrell; Mark Wissmann

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator uses RF deflecting cavities operating at the third sub-harmonic (499 MHz) of the accelerating frequency (1497 MHz) to ''kick'' the electron beam to the experimental halls. The cavities operate in a TEM dipole mode incorporating mode enhancing rods to increase the cavity's transverse shunt impedance [1]. As the accelerators energy has increased from 4 GeV to 6 GeV the RF system, specifically the 1 kW solid-state amplifiers, have become problematic, operating in saturation because of the increased beam energy demands. Two years ago we began a study to look into replacement for the RF amplifiers and decided to use a commercial broadcast Inductive Output Tube (IOT) capable of 30 kW. The new RF system uses one IOT amplifier on multiple cavities as opposed to one amplifier per cavity as was originally used. In addition, the new RF system supports a proposed 12 GeV energy upgrade to CEBAF. We are currently halfway through the upgrade with three IOTs in operation and the remaining one nearly installed. This paper reports on the new RF system and the IOT performance

  17. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  18. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. (Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Cussler, E.L. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Koros, W.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); Riley, R.L. (Separation Systems Technology, San Diego, CA (USA)); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-03-01

    Membrane based separation technology, a relative newcomer on the separations scene, has demonstrated the potential of saving enormous amounts of energy in the processing industries if substituted for conventional separation systems. Over 1 quad annually, out of 2.6, can possibly be saved in liquid-to-gas separations, alone, if membrane separation systems gain wider acceptance, according to a recent DOE/OIP (DOE/NBM-80027730 (1986)) study. In recent years great strides have been made in the field and offer even greater energy savings in the future when substituted for other conventional separation techniques such as distillation, evaporation, filtration, sedimentation, and absorption. An assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in the seven major membrane areas. This encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, micorfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and and pervaporation; and one emerging technology: facilitated transport. Particular attention was paid to identifying the innovative processes currently emerging, and even further improvements which could gain wider acceptance for the more mature membrane technology. The topics that were pointed out as having the greatest research emphasis are pervaporation for organic-organic separations; gas separation; micorfiltration; an oxidant-resistant reverse osmosis membrane; and a fouling-resistant ultrafiltration membrane. 35 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...

  20. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Removal or reduction of tritium content in a wide variety of effluent streams has been extensively studied in the United States. This paper specifically reviews three processes involving tritium separation in the gaseous phase and the aqueous phase. Diffusion through a selective Pd-25Ag alloy membrane at temperatures up to 600 0 C and at pressures up to 700 kg/cm 2 has resulted in successful separation of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures with an associated separation factor of 1.65 (and gives a calculated separation factor for hydrogen-tritium mixtures of 2.0). Use of a single palladium bipolar membrane in an electrolysis system has been found to yield a hydrogen-deuterium separation factor of 4 and a hydrogen-tritium factor of 6 to 11 without the production of gaseous hydrogen. Finally, countercurrent catalytic exchange between tritium-containing hydrogen gas and water has yielded a separation factor of 6.3. The specific advantages of each of these systems will be discussed in terms of their potential applications. In all cases, further investigations are necessary to scale the systems to handle large quantities of feed material in a continuous mode and to minimize energy requirements. Such separative systems must necessarily be cascaded to yield gaseous or aqueous product streams suitable for recycling to the tritium producing systems, for storage or for discharge to the environment. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Design study of fuel circulating system using Pd alloy membrane isotope separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamada, T.; Aizawa, T.; Kasahara, T.; Yamanaka, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is expected that the method of permeating through Pd-alloy membrances is effective for isotope separation and the refining of fuel gas. In this paper, the design study of the Fuel Circulating System (FCS) using Pb-alloy membranes is described. The study is mainly focused on the main vacuum, fuel gas refining, isotope separating, and tritium containment systems. In the fuel gas refining system, impurities are effectively removed by using Pd-alloy membranes. For the isotope separation system, the diffusion method through Pd-alloy membranes was adopted. From the standpoint of the safety and economy, a three-stage tritium containment system was adopted to control tritium release to the environment as low as possible. The principal conclusion drawn from the design study was as follows. In the FCS, while cryogenic distillation method appears to be practicable, Pd-alloy membrane method is attractive for isotope separation and the refining of fuel gas. For a large amount of tritium inventory, handling and control technologies should be completed by the experimental evaluation and development of the components and materials used for the FCS. A three-stage containment system was adopted to control tritium release to environment as low as possible. Consideration to prevent tritium escape will be necessary for fuel gas refiners and isotope separators. (Kato, T.)

  2. Separation of Nanoparticles in Aqueous Multiphase Systems through Centrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Akbulut, Ozge

    2012-08-08

    This paper demonstrates the use of aqueous multiphase systems (MuPSs) as media for rate-zonal centrifugation to separate nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. The properties of MuPSs do not change with time or during centrifugation; this stability facilitates sample collection after separation. A three-phase system demonstrates the separation of the reaction products (nanorods, nanospheres, and large particles) of a synthesis of gold nanorods, and enriches the nanorods from 48 to 99% in less than ten minutes using a benchtop centrifuge. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, J.M.; Jacobsen, M.W.; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae...... into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. Results: We used two sets...... supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more...

  4. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. (Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Cussler, E.L. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Koros, W.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); Riley, R.L. (Separation Systems Technology, San Diego, CA (USA)); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-04-01

    Industrial separation processes consume a significant portion of the energy used in the United States. A 1986 survey by the Office of Industrial Programs estimated that about 4.2 quads of energy are expended annually on distillation, drying and evaporation operations. This survey also concluded that over 0.8 quads of energy could be saved in the chemical, petroleum and food industries alone if these industries adopted membrane separation systems more widely. Membrane separation systems offer significant advantages over existing separation processes. In addition to consuming less energy than conventional processes, membrane systems are compact and modular, enabling easy retrofit to existing industrial processes. The present study was commissioned by the Department of Energy, Office of Program Analysis, to identify and prioritize membrane research needs in light of DOE's mission. Each report will be individually cataloged.

  5. Variable Step-Size Method Based on a Reference Separation System for Source Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional variable step-size methods are effective to solve the problem of choosing step-size in adaptive blind source separation process. But the initial setting of learning rate is vital, and the convergence speed is still low. This paper proposes a novel variable step-size method based on reference separation system for online blind source separation. The correlation between the estimated source signals and original source signals increases along with iteration. Therefore, we introduce a reference separation system to approximately estimate the correlation in terms of mean square error (MSE, which is utilized to update the step-size. The use of “minibatches” for the computation of MSE can reduce the complexity of the algorithm to some extent. Moreover, simulations demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits superior convergence and better steady-state performance over the fixed step-size method in the noise-free case, while converging faster than classical variable step-size methods in both stationary and nonstationary environments.

  6. Development of compact tritium confinement system using gas separation membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop more compact and cost-effective tritium confinement system for fusion reactor, a new system using gas separation membranes has been studied at the Tritium Process Laboratory in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The preliminary result showed that the gas separation membrane system could reduce processing volume of tritium contaminated gas to more than one order of magnitude compared with the conventional system, and that most of tritiated water vapor (humidity) could be directly recovered by water condenser before passing through dryer such as molecular sieves. More detail investigations of gas separation characteristics of membrane were started to design ITER Atmospheric Detritiation System (ADS). Furthermore, a scaled polyimide membrane module (hollow-filament type) loop was just installed to investigate the actual tritium confinement performance under various ITER-ADS conditions. (author)

  7. Development of a relatively cheap and simple automated separation system for a routine separation procedure based on extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro Zoriy; Reinhold Flucht; Mechthild Burow; Peter Ostapczuk; Reinhard Lennartz; Myroslav Zoriy

    2010-01-01

    A robust analytical method has been developed in our laboratory for the separation of radionuclides by means of extraction chromatography using an automated separation system. The proposed method is both cheap and simple and provides the advantageous, rapid and accurate separation of the element of interest. The automated separation system enables a shorter separation time by maintaining a constant flow rate of solution and by avoiding clogging or bubbling in the chromatographic column. The present separation method was tested with two types of samples (water and urine) using UTEVA-, TRU- and Sr-specific resins for the separation of U, Th, Am, Pu and Sr. The total separation time for one radionuclide ranged from 60 to 100 min with the separation yield ranging from 68 to 98% depending on the elements separated. We used ICP-QMS, multi-low-level counter and alpha spectroscopy to measure the corresponding elements. (author)

  8. Inertial waste separation system for zero G WMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The design, operation, and flight test are presented for an inertial waste separation system. Training personnel to use this system under simulated conditions is also discussed. Conclusions indicate that before the system is usable in zero gravity environments, a mirror for the user's guidance should be installed, the bounce cycle and bag changing system should be redesigned, and flange clips should be added to improve the user's balance.

  9. Development of Wireless Dimming Control System for LED Stage Light

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Hui Qin; Bai Shi Lei

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the existing wire dimming system of LED stage light which uses the heavy light operating console to adjust the brightness of stage light, a portable wireless dimming control system for LED stage lighting is proposed, fabricated and tested in this paper. The scheme with the core of ATmega16L microcontroller is composed of wireless transmission and reception units, constant current driving circuit of LED, and the control circuit between this two modules. Through the system present...

  10. A PC based control system for the CERN ISOLDE separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, R.; Bret, A.; Deloose, I.; Pace, A.; Shering, G.

    1992-01-01

    The control system of the two isotope separators of CERN, named ISOLDE, is being completely redesigned with the goal of having a flexible, high performance and inexpensive system. A new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware available for the huge Personal Computer (PC) market is being implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the separators. 8 MS-DOS TM i386-based PCs with about 80 acquisition/control boards are used to access the equipments while 3 other PCs running Microsoft Windows TM and Microsoft Excel TM are used as consoles, the whole through a Novell TM Local Area Network with a PC Disk Server used as a database. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming work load and costs that are expected to build the system before the start of the separators in March 1992. (author)

  11. Automated synthesis of photovoltaic-quality colloidal quantum dots using separate nucleation and growth stages

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2013-11-26

    As colloidal quantum dot (CQD) optoelectronic devices continue to improve, interest grows in the scaled-up and automated synthesis of high-quality materials. Unfortunately, all reports of record-performance CQD photovoltaics have been based on small-scale batch syntheses. Here we report a strategy for flow reactor synthesis of PbS CQDs and prove that it leads to solar cells having performance similar to that of comparable batch-synthesized nanoparticles. Specifically, we find that, only when using a dual-temperature-stage flow reactor synthesis reported herein, are the CQDs of sufficient quality to achieve high performance. We use a kinetic model to explain and optimize the nucleation and growth processes in the reactor. Compared to conventional single-stage flow-synthesized CQDs, we achieve superior quality nanocrystals via the optimized dual-stage reactor, with high photoluminescence quantum yield (50%) and narrow full width-half-maximum. The dual-stage flow reactor approach, with its versatility and rapid screening of multiple parameters, combined with its efficient materials utilization, offers an attractive path to automated synthesis of CQDs for photovoltaics and, more broadly, active optoelectronics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED COMPACT MULTIPHASE SEPARATION SYSTEM (CMSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram S. Mohan; Ovadia Shoham

    2004-12-31

    The petroleum industry has relied in the past mainly on conventional vessel-type separators, which are bulky, heavy and expensive, to process wellhead production of oil-water-gas flow. Economic and operational pressures continue to force the petroleum industry to seek less expensive and more efficient separation alternatives in the form of compact separators. The compact dimensions, smaller footprint and lower weight of compact separators have a potential for cost savings to the industry, especially in offshore and subsea applications. Also, compact separators reduce the inventory of hydrocarbons significantly, which is critical for environmental and safety considerations. This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the part July 09, 2003--October 08, 2004, related to the Budget Period I (July 09, 2003--October 08, 2004) of the DOE project titled ''Design and Development of Integrated Compact Multiphase Separation System (CMSS{copyright})''. An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The initial phase of the project (Budget Period I--07/09/2003 to 10/08/2004) focuses on the development of additional individual compact separation components, such as the horizontal pipe separator (HPS{copyright}), for obtaining clean oil stream from oil-water mixture, flow conditioning components, such as the helical pipe (HP) and slug damper (SD{copyright}), for dissipating slugs upstream of the compact separators. The project will also design and test an upstream slug generator (SG).

  13. Separations systems data base: a users' manual. Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    A separations systems data base (SEPSYS), designed specifically for the retrieval of information needed in chemical separations problems (i.e., how to perform a given separation under given conditions), is described. Included are descriptions of the basic methods of searching and retrieving information from the data base, the procedure for entering records into the data base, a listing of additional references concerning the computer information process, and an example of a typical record. The initial entries are concerned primarily with liquid-liquid extraction and liquid-solid ion exchange methods for metal ions and salts; however, the data base is constructed so that almost any separation process can be accommodated. Each record is indexed with information provided under the following fields: author; title; publication source; data of publication; organization sponsoring the work; brief abstract of the work; abstract number if the work has been so referenced, and/or abstractors initials; type of separation system used (e.g., flotation); specific or generic name of the separation agent used (e.g., acetylacetone); list of substances separated (e.g., gold, copper); qualitative description of the supporting medium or matrix containing the substances before separation (e.g., nitrate); type of literature where the record was printed (e.g., book); and type of information that the article contains. Each of these fields may be searched independently of the others (or in combination), and the last six fields contain specific key words that are listed in the report. Definitions are provided for the 36 information terms

  14. Signatures of natural selection between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis in European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, J M; Jacobsen, M W; Bekkevold, D; Lobón-Cervià, J; Jónsson, B; Bernatchez, L; Hansen, M M

    2015-08-13

    Species showing complex life cycles provide excellent opportunities to study the genetic associations between life cycle stages, as selective pressures may differ before and after metamorphosis. The European eel presents a complex life cycle with two metamorphoses, a first metamorphosis from larvae into glass eels (juvenile stage) and a second metamorphosis into silver eels (adult stage). We tested the hypothesis that different genes and gene pathways will be under selection at different life stages when comparing the genetic associations between glass eels and silver eels. We used two sets of markers to test for selection: first, we genotyped individuals using a panel of 80 coding-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed in American eel; second, we investigated selection at the genome level using a total of 153,423 RAD-sequencing generated SNPs widely distributed across the genome. Using the RAD approach, outlier tests identified a total of 2413 (1.57%) potentially selected SNPs. Functional annotation analysis identified signal transduction pathways as the most over-represented group of genes, including MAPK/Erk signalling, calcium signalling and GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signalling. Many of the over-represented pathways were related to growth, while others could result from the different conditions that eels inhabit during their life cycle. The observation of different genes and gene pathways under selection when comparing glass eels vs. silver eels supports the adaptive decoupling hypothesis for the benefits of metamorphosis. Partitioning the life cycle into discrete morphological phases may be overall beneficial since it allows the different life stages to respond independently to their unique selection pressures. This might translate into a more effective use of food and niche resources and/or performance of phase-specific tasks (e.g. feeding in the case of glass eels, migrating and reproducing in the case of silver eels).

  15. Characteristics of multi-stage AGMD-DCMD cascade system for oxygen isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Woo; Choi, Hwa Rim; Chang, Dae Sik; Kim, Taek Soo; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young

    2005-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) appears to be useful for the separation of the light isotopes such as oxygen and hydrogen isotopes contained in water, because membrane permeation units are compact and simple, and more importantly its energy consumption is low compared to conventional water fractional distillation.1-4 Permeation fluxes and the degree of oxygen isotope separation of AGMD (Air Gap Membrane Distillation) and VEMD (Vacuum Enhanced Membrane Distillation) processes were measured by using the hot water feed. Even though VEMD shows slightly higher isotopic separation degree with higher permeation flux, it is very difficult to apply VEMD to multi-stage cascade system. Since local oxygen isotope separation coefficient for a single membrane unit is low, multi-stage membrane cascade system is required to increase isotopic concentration further in product. Although AGMD is suitable for constructing the membrane cascading system, permeation flux for AGMD is still too low to apply to the isotope production system. In this investigation, we increased permeation flux of AGMD using AGMD-DCMD (Direct Contact Membrane Distillation) combined process. Permeation flux and degree of isotope separation of AGMD-DCMD combined process were measured by using 10 stages cascade system

  16. High-Voltage Power Supply System for Laser Isotope Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketaily, E.C.; Buckner, R.P.; Uhrik, R.L.

    1979-06-26

    This report presents several concepts for Laser High-Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) Systems for a Laser Isotope Separation facility. Selection of equipments and their arrangement into operational systems is based on proven designs and on application concepts now being developed. This report has identified a number of alternative system arrangements and has provided preliminary cost estimates for each. The report includes a recommendation for follow-on studies that will further define the optimum Laser HVPS Systems. Brief descriptions are given of Modulator/Regulator circuit trade-offs, system control interfaces, and their impact on costs.

  17. Separation and Depleted Uranium Fragments from Gun Test Catchment. Volume 2. Catchment System and Separations Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-30

    excluding pumps and valves . On the other hand, all components are standard, proven items. This system appears to effect an efficient uranium separation...pumps and valves , would be required. The chief disadvantages of using water lie in its inherent properties as a liquid: a. There is an uncertainty in...The maximum flux density of 1.0 T ( telsa ) could be produced in the air’ gap; however, the machine was normally run at 0.75 by the use of a different

  18. [Helicobacter pylori gastritis: assessment of OLGA and OLGIM staging systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slama, Sana; Ben Ghachem, Dorra; Dhaoui, Amen; Jomni, Mohamed Taieb; Dougui, Mohamed Hédi; Bellil, Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis presents a risk of cancer related to atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Two recent classifications OLGA (Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment) and OLGIM (Operative Link on Gastritic Intestinal Metaplasia assessment) have been proposed to identify high-risk forms (stages III and IV). The aim of this study is to evaluate the OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in H pylori gastritis. A descriptive study of 100 cases of chronic H pylori gastritis was performed. The revaluation of Sydney System parameters of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, of gastric antrum and corpus, allowed identifying respectively the stages of OLGA and OLGIM systems. The progressive risk of our H pylori gastritis was 6% according to OLGA staging and 7% according to OLGIM staging. Significant correlation was revealed between age and OLGA staging. High-risk gastritis according to OLGIM staging was significantly associated with moderate to severe atrophy. High-risk forms according to OLGA staging were associated in 80% of the cases to intestinal metaplasia. OLGA and OLGIM systems showed a highly significant positive correlation between them with a mismatch at 5% for H pylori gastritis. The OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in addition to Sydney System, allow selection of high risk forms of chronic gastritis requiring accurate observation.

  19. Attainability and minimum energy of multiple-stage cascade membrane Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-08-12

    Process design and simulation of multi-stage membrane systems have been widely studied in many gas separation systems. However, general guidelines have not been developed yet for the attainability and the minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane system. Such information is important for conceptual process design and thus it is the topic of this work. Using a well-mixed membrane model, it was determined that the attainability curve of multi-stage systems is defined by the pressure ratio and membrane selectivity. Using the constant recycle ratio scheme, the recycle ratio can shift the attainability behavior between single-stage and multi-stage membrane systems. When the recycle ratio is zero, all of the multi-stage membrane processes will decay to a single-stage membrane process. When the recycle ratio approaches infinity, the required selectivity and pressure ratio reach their absolute minimum values, which have a simple relationship with that of a single-stage membrane process, as follows: View the MathML sourceSn=S1, View the MathML sourceγn=γ1, where n is the number of stages. The minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane process is primarily determined by the membrane selectivity and recycle ratio. A low recycle ratio can significantly reduce the required membrane selectivity without substantial energy penalty. The energy envelope curve can provide a guideline from an energy perspective to determine the minimum required membrane selectivity in membrane process designs to compete with conventional separation processes, such as distillation.

  20. The Importance of Positive Immunomagnetic Cell Separation Prior to Autologous Hematopoetic Stem Cell Transplantation for Advanced Stage Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedek István

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the method of immunomagnetic stem cell separation with the ISOLEX 300i device (Isolex® 300i Magnetic Cell Selection System, Nextell Therapeutics Inc. Irvine California 21618 USA and the results obtained using this method in patients admitted to the Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Clinic of Tîrgu Mureş, Romania. Cell selection has a great importance in separating stem cells from tumor cells, therefore contributing to the success of autologous stem cell transplantation.

  1. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Chad L [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM; Miller, A Keith [Albuquerque, NM; Cornelius, Christopher J [Blackburg, VA

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  2. Separable identification of nonlinear aggregate power system loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosehart, William; Westwick, David; Jazayeri, Pouyan [Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada); Aguado, Jose; Martin, Sebastian [University of Malaga, Malaga (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    An identification algorithm for a power system load model is proposed in this paper. The overall non-convex identification problem is separated into convex and non-convex subproblems, allowing for a global optimum to be found. Numerical experiments using data from both simulated and physical systems illustrate the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Experiments are performed to investigate the robustness of the algorithm. (author)

  3. Third-order superintegrable systems separating in polar coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Frederick; Winternitz, Pavel, E-mail: tremblaf@crm.umontreal.c, E-mail: wintern@crm.umontreal.c [Centre de Recherches Mathematiques and Departement de Mathematiques et de Statistique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2010-04-30

    A complete classification of quantum and classical superintegrable systems in E{sub 2} is presented that allow the separation of variables in polar coordinates and admit an additional integral of motion of order 3 in the momentum. New quantum superintegrable systems are discovered for which the potential is expressed in terms of the sixth Painleve transcendent or in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function.

  4. Combined electrophoretic-separation and electrospray method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.D.; Olivares, J.A.

    1989-06-27

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary zone electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5--100 kVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., [+-]2--8 kVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit. 10 figs.

  5. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics’ Hydrogen Isotope Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmayda, W.T., E-mail: wshm@lle.rochester.edu; Wittman, M.D.; Earley, R.F.; Reid, J.L.; Redden, N.P.

    2016-11-01

    The University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics has commissioned a hydrogen Isotope Separation System (ISS). The ISS uses two columns—palladium on kieselguhr and molecular sieve—that act in a complementary manner to separate the hydrogen species by mass. The 4-sL per day throughput system is compact and has no moving parts. The columns and the attendant gas storage and handling subsystems are housed in a 0.8 -m{sup 3} glovebox. The glovebox uses a helium cover gas that is continuously processed to extract oxygen and water vapor that permeates through the glovebox gloves and any tritium that is released while attaching or detaching vessels to add feedstock to or drawing product from the system. The isotopic separation process is automated and does not require manual intervention. A total of 315 TBq of tritium was extracted from 23.6 sL of hydrogen with tritium purities reaching 99.5%. Deuterium was the sole residual component in the processed gas. Raffinate contained 0.2 TBq of activity was captured for reprocessing. The total emission from the system to the environment was 0.4 GBq over three weeks.

  6. Mixing and Phase Separation in Liquid Crystal/matrix Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George W.

    We review mixing and phase separation (demixing) in mixtures of low molecular weight liquid crystals (LCs) and organic matrices, with emphasis on aspects relevant to the formation of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films. These films, which contain a myriad of micron-sized LC droplets, are of interest because of their electro-optic properties. Film formation is simple: A liquid crystal and a liquid polymer precursor are initially mixed to form a single phase. Subsequently the polymer is hardened, and LC microdroplets phase-separate from the matrix. Although matrix hardening can be achieved in several ways, this review focuses on curing, during which cross-linking reactions lead to an increased matrix molecular weight. Topics discussed include: phase behavior of the binary system before, during, and after cure and LC/matrix solubilities. The Flory-Huggins model for phase separation (as modified by several workers) has provided a theoretical basis for the studies. Principal experimental tools have been calorimetry and light scattering. Uncured LC/matrix binaries possess phase diagrams with an upper critical solution temperature. Such systems, when heated through the mixing temperature, exhibit a decrease in specific heat, the (negative) excess specific heat of mixing, °Cmix. A plot of °Cmix vs. LC concentration exhibits a minimum, from which we can estimate LC and uncured-matrix solubilities. Matrix cure plays a major role in the phase separation process: In partially-cured samples, °Cmix transitions persist until cure is nearly complete, at which time a fraction of the LC is permanently phase-separated, with the rest remaining dissolved in the matrix. The kinetics of phase separation can be determined by calorimetry or light scattering. Cure rates have been shown to control LC microdroplet size, with fast cures leading to small droplets. Calorimetry of the fully cured system also allows us to determine the solubility of liquid crystal in the polymer matrix, as

  7. Separating stages of arithmetic verification: An ERP study with a novel paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancini, Chiara; Soltész, Fruzsina; Szűcs, Dénes

    2015-08-01

    In studies of arithmetic verification, participants typically encounter two operands and they carry out an operation on these (e.g. adding them). Operands are followed by a proposed answer and participants decide whether this answer is correct or incorrect. However, interpretation of results is difficult because multiple parallel, temporally overlapping numerical and non-numerical processes of the human brain may contribute to task execution. In order to overcome this problem here we used a novel paradigm specifically designed to tease apart the overlapping cognitive processes active during arithmetic verification. Specifically, we aimed to separate effects related to detection of arithmetic correctness, detection of the violation of strategic expectations, detection of physical stimulus properties mismatch and numerical magnitude comparison (numerical distance effects). Arithmetic correctness, physical stimulus properties and magnitude information were not task-relevant properties of the stimuli. We distinguished between a series of temporally highly overlapping cognitive processes which in turn elicited overlapping ERP effects with distinct scalp topographies. We suggest that arithmetic verification relies on two major temporal phases which include parallel running processes. Our paradigm offers a new method for investigating specific arithmetic verification processes in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incorporating Tumor Characteristics to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Breast Cancer Staging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Clarke, Christina A; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Hunt, Kelly K; Giordano, Sharon H

    2017-11-01

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) breast cancer staging system provides important prognostic information. The recently published eighth edition incorporates biological markers and recommends the use of a complex "prognostic stage." In this study, we assessed the relationship between stage, breast cancer subtype, grade, and outcome in a large population-based cohort and evaluated a risk score system incorporating tumor characteristic to the AJCC anatomic staging system. Patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer stage I-IV between 2005-2008 were identified in the California Cancer Registry. For patients with stage I-III disease, pathologic stage was recorded. For patients with stage IV disease, clinical stage was utilized. Five-year breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) rates were determined for each potential tumor size-node involvement-metastases (TNM) combination according to breast cancer subtype. A risk score point-based system using grade, estrogen receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status was designed to complement the anatomic AJCC staging system. Survival probabilities between groups were compared using log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards models were used. Among 43,938 patients, we observed differences in 5-year BCSS and OS for each TNM combination according to breast cancer subtype. The most favorable outcomes were seen for hormone receptor-positive tumors followed closely by HER2-positive tumors, with the worst outcomes observed for triple negative breast cancer. Our risk score system separated patients into four risk groups within each stage category (all p  system incorporates biological factors into the AJCC anatomic staging system, providing accurate prognostic information. This study demonstrates that stage, but also breast cancer subtype and grade, define prognosis in a large population of breast cancer patients. It shows that a point-based risk score system that incorporates

  9. Infinite-order symmetries for quantum separable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.; Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Pogosyan, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    A calculus to describe the (in general) infinite-order differential operator symmetries of a nonrelativistic Schroedinger eigenvalue equation that admits an orthogonal separation of variables in Riemannian n space is developed. The infinite-order calculus exhibits structure not apparent when one studies only finite-order symmetries. The search for finite-order symmetries can then be reposed as one of looking for solutions of a coupled system of PDEs that are polynomial in certain parameters. Among the simple consequences of the calculus is that one can generate algorithmically a canonical basis for the space. Similarly, it can develop a calculus for conformal symmetries of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation if it admits R separation in some coordinate system. This leads to energy-shifting symmetries [ru

  10. Infinite-Order Symmetries for Quantum Separable Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.; Kalnins, E.G.; Kress, J.M.; Pogosyan, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a calculus to describe the (in general) infinite-order differential operator symmetries of a nonrelativistic Schroedinger eigenvalue equation that admits an orthogonal separation of variables in Riemannian n space. The infinite-order calculus exhibits structure not apparent when one studies only finite-order symmetries. The search for finite-order symmetries can then be reposed as one of looking for solutions of a coupled system of PDEs that are polynomial in certain parameters. Among the simple consequences of the calculus is that one can generate algorithmically a canonical basis for the space. Similarly, we can develop a calculus for conformal symmetries of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation if it admits R separation in some coordinate system. This leads to energy-shifting symmetries

  11. Intelligent System for Diagnosis of a Three-Phase Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ioniţă

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent systems for diagnosis have been used in a variety of domains: financial evaluation, credit scoring problem, identification of software and hardware problems of mechanical and electronic equipment, medical diagnosis, fault detection in gas-oil production plants etc. The goal of diagnosis systems is to classify the observed symptoms as being caused by some diagnosis class while advising systems perform such a classification and offer corrective remedies (recommendations. The current paper discuss the opportunity to combine more intelligent techniques and methodologies (intelligent agents, data mining and expert systems to increase the accuracy of results obtained from the diagnosis of a three-phase separator. The results indicate that the diagnosis hybrid system benefits from the advantages of each module component: intelligent agent module, data mining module and expert system module.

  12. Dual Fan Separator within the Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Tom; Converse, Dave; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Since NASA's new spacecraft in development for both LEO and Deep Space capability have considerable crew volume reduction in comparison to the Space Shuttle, the need became apparent for a smaller commode. In response the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) was designed, resulting in an 80% volume reduction from the last US commode, while enhancing performance. The ISS WMS and previous shuttle commodes have a fan supplying air flow to capture feces and a separator to capture urine and separate air from the captured air/urine mixture. The UWMS combined both rotating equipment components into a single unit, referred to at the Dual Fan Separator (DFS). The combination of these components resulted in considerable packaging efficiency and weight reduction, removing inter-component plumbing, individual mounting configurations and required only a single motor and motor controller, in some of the intended UWMS platform applications the urine is pumped to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) system. It requires the DFS to include less than 2.00% air inclusion, by volume, in the delivered urine. The rotational speed needs to be kept as low as possible in centrifugal urine separators to reduce air inclusion in the pumped fluid, while fans depend on rotational speed to develop delivered head. To satisfy these conflicting requirements, a gear reducer was included, allowing the fans to rotate at a much higher speed than the separator. This paper outlines the studies and analysis performed to develop the DFS configuration. The studies included a configuration trade study, dynamic stability analysis of the rotating bodies and a performance analysis of included labyrinth seals. NASA is considering a program to fly the UWMS aboard the ISS as a flight experiment. The goal of this activity is to advance the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of the DFS and determine if the concept is ready to be included as part of the flight experiment deliverable.

  13. Detailed modelling and optimal design of membrane separation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    The search for alternatives to traditional energy intensive separation methods such as distillation has led to the introduction of processes based on membranes. In this research, the use of detailed mathematical models for the optimal design of membrane systems is investigated. Mathematical models of hollow-fibre and spiral-wound membrane modules are presented in this thesis. The models are developed from rigorous mass, momentum and energy balances and can be used to describ...

  14. Solar Multi-stage Refrigeration Systems on the Basis of Absorber with the Internal Evaporative Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the developed schematics are presented for the alternative refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems, based on the use of absorbing cycle and solar energy for the regeneration of absorbent solution. Multi-stage principle of construction of drying and cool contours of solar systems is used with growth of concentration of absorbent on the stages of cooler. An absorber with internal evaporative cooling, allowing to remove the separate evaporated cooler, usually included after the absorber of the proper stage, is developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus of film-type, entering in the complement of drying and cool contours compatible and executed on the basis of multichannel compositions from polymeric materials. The preliminary comparative analysis of possibilities of the solar refrigeration systems and air-conditioning systems is executed.

  15. Space Launch System Booster Separation Aerodynamic Database Development and Uncertainty Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David T.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Dalle, Derek J.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Gomez, Reynaldo J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the aerodynamic database for the Space Launch System (SLS) booster separation environment has presented many challenges because of the complex physics of the ow around three independent bodies due to proximity e ects and jet inter- actions from the booster separation motors and the core stage engines. This aerodynamic environment is dicult to simulate in a wind tunnel experiment and also dicult to simu- late with computational uid dynamics. The database is further complicated by the high dimensionality of the independent variable space, which includes the orientation of the core stage, the relative positions and orientations of the solid rocket boosters, and the thrust lev- els of the various engines. Moreover, the clearance between the core stage and the boosters during the separation event is sensitive to the aerodynamic uncertainties of the database. This paper will present the development process for Version 3 of the SLS booster separa- tion aerodynamic database and the statistics-based uncertainty quanti cation process for the database.

  16. Design and Development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Guernsey, Carl S.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory mission successfully landed the largest interplanetary rover ever built, Curiosity, on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of this mission was by far the most complex landing ever attempted on a planetary body. The Descent Stage Propulsion System played an integral and critical role during Curiosity's EDL. The Descent Stage Propulsion System was a one of a kind hydrazine propulsion system designed specifically for the EDL phase of the MSL mission. It was designed, built, and tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the design and development of the MSL Descent Stage Propulsion System. Driving requirements, system design, component selection, operational sequence of the system at Mars, new developments, and key challenges will be discussed.

  17. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shwetha Ramkumar; Mahesh Iyer; Danny Wong; Himanshu Gupta; Bartev Sakadjian; Liang-Lhih Fan

    2008-09-30

    High purity hydrogen is commercially produced from syngas by the Water Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR) in high and low temperature shift reactors using iron oxide and copper catalysts respectively. However, the WGSR is thermodynamically limited at high temperatures towards hydrogen production necessitating excess steam addition and catalytic operation. In the calcium looping process, the equilibrium limited WGSR is driven forward by the incessant removal of CO{sub 2} by-product through the carbonation of calcium oxide. At high pressures, this process obviates the need for a catalyst and excess steam requirement, thereby removing the costs related to the procurement and deactivation of the catalyst and steam generation. Thermodynamic analysis for the combined WGS and carbonation reaction was conducted. The combined WGS and carbonation reaction was investigated at varying pressures, temperatures and S/C ratios using a bench scale reactor system. It was found that the purity of hydrogen increases with the increase in pressure and at a pressure of 300 psig, almost 100% hydrogen is produced. It was also found that at high pressures, high purity hydrogen can be produced using stoichiometric quantities of steam. On comparing the catalytic and non catalytic modes of operation in the presence of calcium oxide, it was found that there was no difference in the purity of hydrogen produced at elevated pressures. Multicyclic reaction and regeneration experiments were also conducted and it was found that the purity of hydrogen remains almost constant after a few cycles.

  18. Physical separations soil washing system cold test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, J.P.

    1993-07-28

    This test summary describes the objectives, methodology, and results of a physical separations soil-washing system setup and shakedown test using uncontaminated soil. The test is being conducted in preparation for a treatability test to be conducted in the North Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. It will be used to assess the feasibility of using a physical separations process to reduce the volume of contaminated soils in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The test is described in DOE-RL (1993). The setup test was conducted at an uncontrolled area located approximately 3.2 km northwest of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The material processed was free of contamination. The physical separation equipment to be used in the test was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. On May 13, 1993, soil-washing equipment was moved to the cold test location. Design assistance and recommendation for operation was provided by the EPA.

  19. Benchmark ultra-cool dwarfs in widely separated binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones H.R.A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-cool dwarfs as wide companions to subgiants, giants, white dwarfs and main sequence stars can be very good benchmark objects, for which we can infer physical properties with minimal reference to theoretical models, through association with the primary stars. We have searched for benchmark ultra-cool dwarfs in widely separated binary systems using SDSS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS. We then estimate spectral types using SDSS spectroscopy and multi-band colors, place constraints on distance, and perform proper motions calculations for all candidates which have sufficient epoch baseline coverage. Analysis of the proper motion and distance constraints show that eight of our ultra-cool dwarfs are members of widely separated binary systems. Another L3.5 dwarf, SDSS 0832, is shown to be a companion to the bright K3 giant η Cancri. Such primaries can provide age and metallicity constraints for any companion objects, yielding excellent benchmark objects. This is the first wide ultra-cool dwarf + giant binary system identified.

  20. Systems and methods for separation and purification of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Michael Joseph; Gilliam, Ryan J.; Self, Kyle; Mariansky, Gal; Leclerc, Margarete K.; Shipchandler, Riyaz Mohammed; Nagar, Jacob

    2017-11-28

    There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with an unsaturated hydrocarbon and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products. Separation and/or purification of the products as well as of the metal ions in the lower oxidation state and the higher oxidation state, is provided herein.

  1. A proposed staging system and stage-specific interventions for familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynch, Patrick M; Morris, Jeffrey S; Wen, Sijin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not possible to accurately count adenomas in many patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Nevertheless, polyp counts are critical in evaluating each patient's response to interventions. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration no longer recognizes the decrease...... classification scheme for lower GI tract polyposis. METHODS: Twenty-four colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy videos were reviewed by 26 clinicians familiar with diagnosis and treatment of FAP. The reviewers independently assigned a stage to a case using the proposed system and chose a stage-specific intervention...... in the review of individual cases of polyposis. Therefore, reliable and clinically relevant means for measuring trial outcomes can be developed. Outlier cases showing wide scatter in stage assignment call for individualized attention and may be inappropriate for enrollment in clinical trials for this reason....

  2. Disease severity staging system for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Kensuke; Furukawa, Taiki; Ando, Masahiko; Murotani, Kenta; Mishima, Michiaki; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Ogura, Takashi; Bando, Masashi; Hagiwara, Koichi; Suda, Takafumi; Chiba, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Yukihiko; Homma, Sakae

    2017-11-01

    In Japan, the classification of disease severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (J-system) has been used in making decisions on medical care subsidies. The present J-system consists of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ) and exercise desaturation in stages of I-IV. It provides a good prognostic classification in stages III and IV, but not in stages I and II. Therefore, we propose a revised system to improve discriminative ability in stages I and II. We compared the revised J-system with the present J-system using Cox proportional hazards model to predict mortality rate. We also evaluated the recently proposed GAP (Gender, Age and Physiology) system in comparison to both J-systems. Two-hundred and fifteen IPF patients were studied retrospectively. A univariate model showed that the present and revised J-systems and a modified GAP system were all significant prognostic factors. The C-statistic for discriminating prognosis was higher in the revised J-system than the modified GAP system and the present J-system (0.677, 0.652 and 0.659, respectively). The C-statistics of these models produced from the 10 000 bootstrap samples were similar to those of the original models, suggesting good internal validation (0.665 (95% CI: 0.621-0.705), 0.645 (0.600-0.686) and 0.659 (0.616-0.700), respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the revised J-system (P = 0.0038) and the modified GAP system (P = 0.0029) were independent prognostic factors. The revised J-system can provide a better mortality prediction than the present one. Both the revised J-system and the modified GAP system are independent and valuable tools for prognostication and clinical management for IPF. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Copeland

    2000-08-01

    Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).

  4. A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Copeland

    2000-03-01

    Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).

  5. A NOVEL CO{sub 2} SEPARATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Copeland

    2000-05-01

    Because of concern over global climate change, new systems are needed that produce electricity from fossil fuels and emit less CO{sub 2}. The fundamental problem with current systems which recover and concentrate CO{sub 2} from flue gases is the need to separate dilute CO{sub 2} and pressurize it to roughly 35 atm for storage or sequestration. This is an energy intensive process that can reduce plant efficiency by 9-37% and double the cost of electricity. There are two fundamental reasons for the current high costs of power consumption, CO{sub 2} removal, and concentration systems: (1) most disposal, storage and sequestering systems require high pressure CO{sub 2} (at roughly 35 atm). Thus, assuming 90% removal of the CO{sub 2} from a typical atmospheric pressure flue gas that contains 10% CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} is essentially being compressed from 0.01 atm to 35 atm (a pressure ratio of 3,500). This is a very energy intensive process. (2) The absorption-based (amine) separation processes that are used to remove the CO{sub 2} from the flue gas and compress it to 1 atm consume approximately 10 times as much energy as the theoretical work of compression because they are heat driven cycles working over a very low temperature difference. Thus, to avoid the problems of current systems, we need a power cycle in which the CO{sub 2} produced by the oxidation of the fuel is not diluted with a large excess of nitrogen, a power cycle which would allow us to eliminate the very inefficient thermally driven absorption/desorption step. In addition, we would want the CO{sub 2} to be naturally available at high pressure (approximately 3 to 6 atmospheres), which would allow us to greatly reduce the compression ratio between generation and storage (from roughly 3,500 to approximately 8).

  6. Glycoprotein profiles of macrophages at different stages of activation as revealed by lectin binding after electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimura, T; North, S M; Nicolson, G L

    1987-01-01

    Glycoprotein profiles of rat macrophages (M phi) at different stages of activation were studied by examining the reactivity of various lectins to the glycoproteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA1) revealed several components including glycoproteins of Mr 160 kDa and 65 kDa prominent in resident M phi. A pokeweed mitogen (PWM) isolectin, Pa-4, recognizes branched poly(N-acetyllactosamine)-type carbohydrate chains, and revealed a significant increase in glycoproteins of Mr ranging from 70 kDa to 150 kDa on thioglycolate-elicited M phi. Increased reactivity of PWM to thioglycolate-elicited M phi was observed by direct binding of 125I-labeled Pa-4 to intact or glutaraldehyde-fixed M phi. Histochemical staining of formaldehyde-fixed M phi in vitro with biotinylated Pa-4 was consistent with the gel analysis, that is, resident M phi had no reactivity while thioglycolate-elicited M phi showed slight reactivity. Alveolar and intratumoral M phi bound more Pa-4 than resident or thioglycolate-elicited M phi. The PWM isolectin may therefore serve as a marker for an early stage of M phi activation.

  7. A semi-automatic parachute separation system for balloon payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, M.

    At the National Scientific balloon Facility (NSBF), when operating stratospheric balloons with scientific payloads, the current practice for separating the payload from the parachute after descent requires the sending of commands, over a UHF uplink, from the chase airplane or the ground control site. While this generally works well, there have been occasions when, due to shadowing of the receive antenna or unfavorable aircraft attitude, the command has not been received and the parachute has failed to separate. In these circumstances the payload may be dragged for long distances before being recovered, with consequent danger of damage to expensive and sometimes irreplaceable scientific instrumentation. The NSBF has therefore proposed a system which would automatically separate the parachute without the necessity for commanding after touchdown. Such a system is now under development.. Mechanical automatic release systems have been tried in the past with only limited success. The current design uses an electronic system based on a tilt sensor which measures the angle that the suspension train subtends relative to the gravity vector. With the suspension vertical, there is minimum output from the sensor. When the payload touches down, the parachute tilts and in any tilt direction the sensor output increases until a predetermined threshold is reached. At this point, a threshold detector is activated which fires the pyrotechnic cutter to release the parachute. The threshold level is adjustable prior to the flight to enable the optimum tilt angle to be determined from flight experience. The system will not operate until armed by command. This command is sent during the descent when communication with the on-board systems is still normally reliable. A safety interlock is included to inhibit arming if the threshold is already high at the time the command is sent. While this is intended to be the primary system, the manual option would be retained as a back- up. A market

  8. Parachute systems for the atmospheric reentry of launcher upper stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DOBRESCU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Parachute systems can be used to control the reentry trajectory of launcher upper stages, in order to lower the risks to the population or facilitate the retrieval of the stage. Several types of parachutes deployed at subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic speeds are analyzed, modeled as single and multistage systems. The performance of deceleration parachutes depends on their drag area and deployment conditions, while gliding parachutes are configured to achieve stable flight with a high glide ratio. Gliding parachutes can be autonomously guided to a low risk landing area. Sizing the canopy is shown to be an effective method to reduce parachute sensitivity to wind. The reentry trajectory of a launcher upper stage is simulated for each parachute system configuration and the results are compared to the nominal reentry case.

  9. ITER hydrogen isotope separation system conceptual design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.; Dinner, P.J.; Murdoch, D.K.; Leger, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents integrated hydrogen Isotope Separation System (ISS) designs for ITER based on requirements for plasma exhaust processing, neutral beam injection deuterium cleanup, pellet injector propellant detritiation, waste water detritiation, and breeding blanket detritiation. Specific ISS designs are developed for a machine with an aqueous lithium salt blanket (ALSB) and a machine with a solid ceramic breeding blanket (SBB). The differences in the ISS designs arising from the different blanket concepts are highlighted. It is found that the ISS designs for the two blanket concepts considered are very similar with the only major difference being the requirement for an additional large water distillation column for ALSB water detritiation. The extraction of tritium from the ALSB is based on flash evaporation to separate the blanket water from the dissolved Li salt, with the tritiated water then being fed to the ISS for detritiation. This technology is considered to be relatively well understood in comparison to front-end processes for SBB detritiation. In the design of the cryogenic distillation portion of the ISS, it was found that the tritium inventory could be very large (> 600 g) unless specific design measures were taken to reduce it. In the designs which are presented, the tritium inventory has been reduced to about 180 g, which is less than the ITER single-failure release limit of 200 g. Further design optimization and isolation of components is expected to reduce the inventory further. (orig.)

  10. Mixture model for biomagnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, S. A.; Alazzam, A.; Mathew, B.; Hamdan, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we show that mixture model, with algebraic slip velocity relating to the magnetophoresis, provides a continuum-based, and cost-effective tool to simulate biomagnetic separations in microfluidics. The model is most effective to simulate magnetic separation protocols in which magnetic or magnetically labeled biological targets are within a naturally dilute or diluted samples. The transport of these samples is characterized as mixtures in which the dispersed magnetic microparticles establish their magnetophoretic mobility quickly in response to the acting forces. Our simulations demonstrate the coupled particle-fluid transport and the High Gradient Magnetic Capture (HGMC) of magnetic beads flowing through a microchannel. Also, we show that the mixture model and accordingly the modeling of the slip velocity model, unlike with the case with dense and/or macro-scale systems, can be further simplified by ignoring the gravitational and granular parameters. Furthermore, we show, by conducting comparative simulations, that the developed model provides an easier and viable alternative to the commonly used Lagrangian-Eulerian (particle-based) models.

  11. Analysis of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2013-02-01

    This paper analysed the performance of a membrane system over key design/operation parameters. A computation methodology is developed to solve the model of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas feeds. The model represented by a nonlinear differential algebraic equation system is solved via a combination of backward differentiation and Gauss-Seidel methods. Natural gas sweetening problem is investigated as a case study. Model parametric analyses of variables, namely feed gas quality, pressure, area, selectivity and permeance, resulted in better understanding of operating and design optima. Particularly, high selectivities and/or permeabilities are shown not to be necessary targets for optimal operation. Rather, a medium selectivity (<60 in the given example) combined with medium permeance (∼300-500×10-10mol/sm2Pa in the given case study) is more advantageous. This model-based membrane systems engineering approach is proposed for the synthesis of efficient and cost-effective multi-stage membrane networks. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Microwave transmission systems for the plasma separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Plasma Separation Process now employs a 28 GHz cw gyrotron (VGA-8000) for electron cyclotron heating. Frequency increases to 56 GHz in FY 84 and approx. 140 GHz in FY '87 are planned. The tripple miter bend waveguide system in use with the VGA-8000 will be upgraded to provide mode control. The mode output of the tube is being measured; cippled wall converters will transform the tube output (TE 01 , TE 02 , TE 03 ) to a single mode. Transmission will proceed through reduced diameter corrugated waveguide bends or bends will be eliminated by use of a horizontally mounted tube. Directional couplers will measure forward power in the dominant mode and multi-mode reflected power

  13. Separating fast and slow modes in coupled chaotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We test a simple technique based on breeding to separate fast and slow unstable modes in coupled systems with different time scales of evolution and variable amplitudes. The technique takes advantage of the earlier saturation of error growth rate of the fastest mode and of the lower value of the saturation amplitude of perturbation of either the fast or the slow modes. These properties of the coupled system allow a physically-based selection of the rescaling time interval and the amplitude of initial perturbations in the 'breeding' of unstable modes (Toth and Kalnay, 1993, 1996, 1997; Aurell et al., 1997; Boffetta et al., 1998 to isolate the desired mode. We perform tests in coupled models composed of fast and slow versions of the Lorenz (1963 model with different strengths of coupling. As examples we present first a coupled system which we denote 'weather with convection', with a slow, large amplitude model coupled with a fast, small amplitude model, second an 'ENSO' system with a 'tropical atmosphere' strongly coupled with a 'tropical ocean', and finally a triply coupled system denoted 'tropical-extratropical' in which a fast model (representing the 'extratropical atmosphere' is loosely coupled to the 'ENSO' system. We find that it is always possible to isolate the fast modes by taking the limit of small amplitudes and short rescaling intervals, in which case, as expected, the results are the same as the local Lyapunov growth obtained with the linear tangent model. In contrast, slow modes cannot be isolated with either Lyapunov or Singular vectors, since the linear tangent and adjoint models are dominated by the fast modes. Breeding is successful in isolating slow modes if rescaling intervals and amplitudes are chosen from physically appropriate scales.

  14. Main devices design of submarine oil-water separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong

    2017-11-01

    In the process of offshore oil production, in order to thoroughly separate oil from produced fluid, solve the environment problem caused by oily sewage, and improve the economic benefit of offshore drilling, from the perspective of new oil-water separation, a set of submarine oil-water separation devices were designed through adsorption and desorption mechanism of the polymer materials for crude oil in this paper. The paper introduces the basic structure of gas-solid separation device, periodic separation device and adsorption device, and proves the rationality and feasibility of this device.

  15. Central nervous system relapse of treated stage IV neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, S.; Egelhoff, J.C.; Koch, B.L.; Ball, W.S. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Morris, J.D. [Department of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in pediatrics. The long-term survival of patients with advanced-stage neurobastoma has remarkably improved secondary to aggressive treatment protocols including autologous bone marrow transplant (BMT). As a result, a different natural history of this disease is being reported with unusual, late manifestations. The central nervous system (CNS), once a rare site of disease, is being involved with increasing frequency. Appropriate neuroimaging in these patients is important. Two cases of patients with treated stage IV neuroblastoma who developed isolated CNS metastases are presented. The proposed pathogenesis and neuroradiologic manifestations of this complication are reviewed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 23 refs.

  16. Fuel cell system with separating structure bonded to electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott; Gudlavalleti, Sauri; Quek, Shu Ching; Hasz, Wayne Charles; Powers, James Daniel

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell assembly comprises a separating structure configured for separating a first reactant and a second reactant wherein the separating structure has an opening therein. The fuel cell assembly further comprises a fuel cell comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and an electrolyte interposed between the first and second electrodes, and a passage configured to introduce the second reactant to the second electrode. The electrolyte is bonded to the separating structure with the first electrode being situated within the opening, and the second electrode being situated within the passage.

  17. Continuous removal of endocrine disruptors by versatile peroxidase using a two-stage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Puig, Roberto; Lu-Chau, Thelmo A; Eibes, Gemma; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Maria T; Lema, Juan M

    2015-01-01

    The oxidant Mn(3+) -malonate, generated by the ligninolytic enzyme versatile peroxidase in a two-stage system, was used for the continuous removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from synthetic and real wastewaters. One plasticizer (bisphenol-A), one bactericide (triclosan) and three estrogenic compounds (estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol) were removed from wastewater at degradation rates in the range of 28-58 µg/L·min, with low enzyme inactivation. First, the optimization of three main parameters affecting the generation of Mn(3+) -malonate (hydraulic retention time as well as Na-malonate and H2 O2 feeding rates) was conducted following a response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, the degradation of the EDCs was proven at high (1.3-8.8 mg/L) and environmental (1.2-6.1 µg/L) concentrations. Finally, when the two-stage system was compared with a conventional enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) using the same enzyme, a 14-fold increase of the removal efficiency was observed. At the same time, operational problems found during EDCs removal in the EMR system (e.g., clogging of the membrane and enzyme inactivation) were avoided by physically separating the stages of complex formation and pollutant oxidation, allowing the system to be operated for a longer period (∼8 h). This study demonstrates the feasibility of the two-stage enzymatic system for removing EDCs both at high and environmental concentrations. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Design study of fuel circulating system using Pd-alloy membrane isotope separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, T.; Yamada, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Aizawa, T.; Kasahara, T.; Nishikawa, M.; Asami, N.

    1980-01-01

    Design study on the fuel circulating system (FCS) for a tokamak experimental fusion reactor (JXFR) has been carried out to establish the system concept, to plan the development program, and to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion system. The FCS consists of main vacuum system, fuel gas refiners, isotope separators, fuel feeders, and auxiliary systems. In the system design, Pd-alloy membrane permeation method is adopted for fuel refining and isotope separating. All impurities are effectively removed and hydrogen isotopes are sufficiently separated by Pd-alloy membrane. The isotope separation system consists of 1st (47 separators) and 2nd (46 separators) cascades for removing protium and separating deuterium, respectively. In the FCS, while cryogenic distillation method appears to be practicable, Pd-alloy membrane diffusion method is attractive for isotope separation and refining of fuel gas. The choice will have to be based on reliability, economic, and safety analyses

  19. Multi stage unreliable retrial Queueing system with Bernoulli vacation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, J.; Indhira, K.; Chandrasekaran, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we considered the Bernoulli vacation in group arrival retrial queues with unreliable server. Here, a server providing service in k stages. Any arriving group of units finds the server free, one from the group entering the first stage of service and the rest are joining into the orbit. After completion of the i th, (i=1,2,…k) stage of service, the customer may go to (i+1)th stage with probability θi , or leave the system with probability qi = 1 – θi , (i = 1,2,…k – 1) and qi = 1, (i = k). The server may enjoy vacation (orbit is empty or not) with probability v after finishing the service or continuing the service with probability 1-v. After finishing the vacation, the server search for the customer in the orbit with probability θ or remains idle for new arrival with probability 1-θ. We analyzed the system using the method of supplementary variable.

  20. Staged pyrolysis, a process for chemical separation of waste plastics; Gestufte Pyrolyse als Verfahrensprinzip zur chemischen Auftrennung von Kunststoffgemischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, A.; Hornung, U.; Schoeneberger, A.; Weichmann, J. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie; Bockhorn, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technik

    1996-12-31

    It is shown that staged pyrolysis of mixed plastics (polystyrene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyamide 6) can be carried out in spherical recirculation reactors or in cascades of spherical recirculation reactors at exact temperature levels, and that the times of residue and reaction temperatures of laboratory systems can be calculated from the formal kinetic parameters obtained in nonisothermal and isothermal investigations. (orig) [Deutsch] Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass das Prinzip der stufenweisen Pyrolyse von Kunststoffgemischen (Polystyrol, Polyethylen, Polyvinylchlorid bzw. Polyamid 6) im Kugelkreislaufreaktor und der Kaskade aus Kugelkreislaufreaktoren unter Einhaltung der exakten Temperaturniveaus realisierbar ist und die Auslegung der Laboranlage hinsichtlich der Verweilzeiten und Temperaturniveaus mit Hilfe der formalkinetischen Parameter aus nicht-isothermen und isothermen Untersuchungen moeglich ist. (orig)

  1. A fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) subsea separation and pumping system; Um controlador fuzzy para o sistema de separacao e bombeamento submarino - VASP (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Alex F.; Mendes, Jose Ricardo P.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Estevam, Valdir [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guilherme, Ivan R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao; Rigo, Jose Eduardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica no Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the designs of a fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) liquid level and separation pressure control are presented, as well as a simulation of its work to evaluate the performance of the controller designed. The VASPS is a two-phase subsea separation and pumping system, which is made up of a separation vessel, where the mixture (liquid and gas) enters and suffers the separation process through three levels, the expansion chamber, the helix and the pool. The liquid inside the pool is taken to the platform using a pump that with a choke control the pool liquid level. The pool liquid level control is necessary because if the level exceeds the maximum value allowed, the liquid can invade the space occupied by the helix and hinder the separation process. An the other hand if the level is below the minimum allowed the pump can be damaged. The separation pressure control is important for operational security and efficiency issues, because when we keep the separation pressure near an optimum value we are maximizing its efficiency. With the controller and the simulator, many simulations of the work of system were made to get results that could be used to evaluate if the designed controller solved the problem and if its performance were satisfactory. After, a PID control system was designed to be used as comparison with the results obtained with the fuzzy controller, since the PID is widely used in the industrial environment. (author)

  2. Separation review program for reactor protection system and engineered safeguard systems in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, F.J.; Walrod, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    This review program is utilized during the design of a nuclear power plant to insure separation between interdiscipline design for the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and Engineered Safeguard Systems (ESS). Color coded transparent drawings of the RPS and ESS are produced by each discipline. The separation is then reviewed by overlaying drawings of different disciplines on a light table. When this inspection shows that RPS or ESS elements have less than the established minimum separation, an analysis is performed to determine what, if any, design revision is necessary to insure proper separation. ''Hazard'' drawings are also made for determination of each type of potential hazard in each area of the plant. The review is a continuing process as the design progresses and is revised by any discipline. 5 refs

  3. Quantum separability of thermal spin one boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Oh, Sangchul; Kim, Jaewan

    2007-01-01

    Using the temperature Green's function approach we investigate entanglement between two non-interacting spin 1 bosons in thermal equilibrium. We show that, contrary to the fermion case, the entanglement is absent in the spin density matrix. Separability is demonstrated using the Peres-Horodecki criterion for massless particles such as photons in black body radiation. For massive particles, we show that the density matrix can be decomposed with separable states

  4. A Thermoelectric Generation System and Its Power Electronics Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min; Kang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-06-01

    The electricity produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG) must satisfy the requirements of specific loads given the signal level, stability, and power performance. In the design of such systems, one major challenge involves the interactions between the thermoelectric power source and the power stage and signal-conditioning circuits of the load, including DC-DC conversion, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, and other power management controllers. In this paper, a survey of existing power electronics designs for TEG systems is presented first. Second, a flat, wall-like TEG system consisting of 32 modules is experimentally optimized, and the improved power parameters are tested. Power-conditioning circuitry based on an interleaved boost DC-DC converter is then developed for the TEG system in terms of the tested power specification. The power electronics design features a combined control scheme with an MPPT and a constant output voltage as well as the low-voltage and high-current output characteristics of the TEG system. The experimental results of the TEG system with the power electronics stage and with purely resistive loads are compared. The comparisons verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design. Finally, the thermal-electric coupling effects caused by current-related heat source terms, such as the Peltier effect etc., are reported and discussed, and the potential influence on the power electronics design due to such coupling is analyzed.

  5. SLS Block 1-B and Exploration Upper Stage Navigation System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Park, Thomas B.; Smith, Austin; Anzalone, Evan; Bernard, Bill; Strickland, Dennis; Geohagan, Kevin; Green, Melissa; Leggett, Jarred

    2018-01-01

    The SLS Block 1B vehicle is planned to extend NASA's heavy lift capability beyond the initial SLS Block 1 vehicle. The most noticeable change for this vehicle from SLS Block 1 is the swapping of the upper stage from the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion stage (ICPS), a modified Delta IV upper stage, to the more capable Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). As the vehicle evolves to provide greater lift capability and execute more demanding missions so must the SLS Integrated Navigation System to support those missions. The SLS Block 1 vehicle carries two independent navigation systems. The responsibility of the two systems is delineated between ascent and upper stage flight. The Block 1 navigation system is responsible for the phase of flight between the launch pad and insertion into Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). The upper stage system assumes the mission from LEO to payload separation. For the Block 1B vehicle, the two functions are combined into a single system intended to navigate from ground to payload insertion. Both are responsible for self-disposal once payload delivery is achieved. The evolution of the navigation hardware and algorithms from an inertial-only navigation system for Block 1 ascent flight to a tightly coupled GPS-aided inertial navigation system for Block 1-B is described. The Block 1 GN&C system has been designed to meet a LEO insertion target with a specified accuracy. The Block 1-B vehicle navigation system is designed to support the Block 1 LEO target accuracy as well as trans-lunar or trans-planetary injection accuracy. This is measured in terms of payload impact and stage disposal requirements. Additionally, the Block 1-B vehicle is designed to support human exploration and thus is designed to minimize the probability of Loss of Crew (LOC) through high-quality inertial instruments and Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) logic. The preliminary Block 1B integrated navigation system design is presented along with the challenges associated with

  6. Optimal topotactic conversion of layered octosilicate to RWR-type zeolite by separating the formation stages of interlayer condensation and elimination of organic guest molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yusuke; Osada, Shimon; Hosaka, Nami; Terasawa, Taichi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-07-21

    We demonstrate that the separation of two stages of interlayer condensation under refluxing and elimination of organic guests provides the optimal conditions for the formation of RWR-type zeolite from layered octosilicate. The obtained RWR-type zeolite has higher quality than any other RWR-type zeolite reported previously.

  7. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  9. Metallurgical analysis of a failed maraging steel shear screw used in the band separation system of a satellite launch vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S. Narayana Murty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maraging steels have excellent combination of strength and toughness and are extensively used for a variety of aerospace applications. In one such critical application, this steel was used to fabricate shear screws of a stage separation system in a satellite launch vehicle. During assembly preparations, one of the shear screws which connected the separation band and band end block has failed at the first thread. Microstructural analysis revealed that the crack originated from the root of the thread and propagated in an intergranular mode. The failure is attributed to combined effect of stress and corrosion leading to stress corrosion cracking.

  10. Multimodal Therapy for Stage III Retinoblastoma (International Retinoblastoma Staging System): A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bhavna; Hasan, Fahmi; Seth, Rachna; Pathy, Sushmita; Pattebahadur, Rajesh; Sharma, Sanjay; Upadhyaya, Ashish; Azad, Rajvardhan

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of 2 chemotherapeutic drug combinations as part of multimodal therapy for orbital retinoblastoma. Prospective, comparative, study. Patients with stage III retinoblastoma (International Retinoblastoma Staging System). Demographic and clinical features were recorded at presentation. Treatment consisted of a multimodal protocol with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, enucleation, orbital external-beam radiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. For chemotherapy, patients were randomized into 2 groups: group A patients were treated with vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin (VEC) and group B patients were treated with carboplatin and etoposide, alternating with cyclophosphamide, idarubicin, and vincristine. Treatment outcomes and adverse effects were recorded. Efficacy parameters were compared between the groups. Survival probability, cause of death, and chemotherapy-related toxicity. A total of 54 children were recruited (27 in each group). The mean ± SD follow-up was 21.3±11.34 months. The overall Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.89) and 42% (95% CI, 0.24-0.59) at 1 year and 4 years, respectively. There were 9 deaths in group A and 15 deaths in group B. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability at 1 year was similar between the groups: 81% (95% CI, 0.60-0.91) and 79% (95% CI, 0.58-0.9) for groups A and B, respectively. At 4 years, the survival probability for group A was higher (63% [95% CI, 0.41-0.79] vs. 25% [95% CI, 0.08-0.46] for groups A and B, respectively), with a strong trend of better survival in group A over time (P = 0.05). The major cause of death was central nervous system relapse (8 patients in group A and 7 patients in group B). Two patients in group B died of sepsis after febrile neutropenia. Grade 3 and grade 4 hematologic toxicities were more common in group B, with a significant difference in grade 4 neutropenia (P = 0.002). This study compared the outcomes of VEC chemotherapy with a 5

  11. Changes of endocrine and ultrasound markers as ovarian aging in modifying the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) staging system with subclassification of mid reproductive age stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Luo, Aiyue; Jiang, Jingjing; Du, Xiaofang; Yang, Shuhong; Lai, Zhiwen; Shen, Wei; Lu, Yunping; Ma, Ding; Wang, Shixuan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the changes of ovarian aging markers across the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) stages and modify it with subclassification of mid reproductive age stage (MR). Healthy females were classified according to the STRAW system. Serum basal FSH, LH, E2, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were detected, FSH/LH ratio calculated, and antral follicle counts (AFCs) determined in follicular phase. Progression through the whole STRAW stages under MR stage subdivided is associated with elevations in FSH, LH, FSH/LH ratio and decreases in E2, AMH and AFCs (p age in MR stage. 0.982 ng/ml AMH and 3 antral follicles (low level of MR 25-30 years) were set as cutoffs to distinguish MR stage into early mid reproductive age (EMR) and late mid reproductive age (LMR) stages. The women in EMR stage compared with LMR could retrieve more oocytes in IVF treatment (p stage, demonstrating disparate reproductive aging period with reduced ovarian reserve in young age across the STRAW stages.

  12. Modelling, Design, Operability and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2006-01-01

    Denne afhandling præsenterer en modelbaseret metode til design og analyse af kemiske processer som involverer en enhed for Reaktion-Separation med recycling (RSR). Det centrale i denne metode er at en modelbaseret analyse af (masse og energibalance) modeller af varierende kompleksitet identificer...

  13. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  14. Chemical technology of the systems, partitioning and separation, disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    A reactor-accelerator reprocessing complex is described. The complex comprises an electronuclear transmutation installation and chemical and technological support units for maintenance of the steady-state of the blanket, separation of short-lived transmutation products to be disposed of from other components of the blanket, chemical conversion to relevant stable species of products to be disposed of for interim storage and disposal

  15. Pollution and wet cleaning of separation nozzle systems for enrichment of uranium-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, W.; Bier, W.; Linder, N.

    1980-06-01

    Operational defects in separation nozzle plants resulting in air leaking into the system may cause permanent pollution of the narrow slits of the separation elements by products of the hydrolysis of UF 6 . The deposits may deteriorate the separation performance of the separation elements to such an extent that their further use for uranium enrichment is no longer feasible. Tests performed on commercial-scale separation element tubes indicated that the deposits can be removed by a wet chemical process effectively enough to restore the full separative power of the elements. The aspects of the technical application of the cleanup process are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Fruit and vegetables should be targeted separately in health promotion programmes: differences in consumption levels, barriers, knowledge and stages of readiness for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, Colleen; Chapman, Kathy; James, Erica

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether fruit and vegetables should be treated as separate groups in health promotion programmes by examining consumption levels, barriers, knowledge and the association between stage of change and potential predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Computer-assisted telephone interview survey of the target population. Hunter and New England regions of New South Wales, Australia. A total of 1403 parents and carers of primary-school-aged children. Consumption levels and knowledge of recommended intakes and serving size were greater for fruit than for vegetables. There were some differences in the main barriers to the consumption of fruit compared with those cited for vegetables. There was little congruence between the stages of change for fruit consumption and those for vegetable consumption. For fruit, knowledge of serving size and recommended intake, perceptions of adequate consumption, changes made to family intake and educational attainment were all correlated with stage of change categorisation. For vegetables, knowledge of recommended intake, perceptions of adequate consumption and changes made to family intake were correlated with stage of change categorisation. Significant differences in consumption levels, barriers, knowledge and stages of readiness for change can be shown when fruit and vegetables are treated as separate groups. Health promotion planners may need to consider interventions that focus on improving vegetable consumption in preference to fruit consumption. Messages about the recommended number of servings and serving size must be simplified and this may be achieved by targeting messages towards vegetable consumption.

  17. Proposed Staging System for Patients With HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer Based on Nasopharyngeal Cancer N Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Garden, Adam S; William, William N; Lim, Ming Yann; Sturgis, Erich M

    2016-06-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) generally present with more advanced disease but have better survival than patients with HPV-unrelated OPC. The current American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) TNM staging system for OPC was developed for HPV-unrelated OPC. A new staging system is needed to adequately predict outcomes of patients with HPV-related OPC. Patients with newly diagnosed HPV-positive OPC (by p16 immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization) treated at our institution from January 2003 through December 2012 were included. By using recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), we developed new stage groupings with both traditional OPC regional lymph node (N) categories and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) N categories. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between stage and survival was examined by using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 661 patients with HPV-positive OPC met the inclusion criteria. With the traditional TNM staging system, there was no difference in survival between stages (P = .141). RPA with NPC N categories resulted in more balanced stage groups and better separation between groups for 5-year survival than RPA with traditional OPC N categories. With the stage groupings that were based in part on NPC N categories, the risk of death increased with increasing stage (P for trend HPV-positive OPC with respect to survival than does the current AJCC/UICC TNM staging system. Although confirmation of our findings in other patient populations is needed, we propose consideration of NPC N categories as an alternative to the traditional OPC N categories in the new AJCC/UICC TNM staging system that is currently being developed. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Evaluation of the stage IB designation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Ballman, Karla V; McCall, Linda M; Yi, Min; Sahin, Aysegul A; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Hansen, Nora; Gabram, Sheryl; Hurd, Thelma; Giuliano, Armando E; Hunt, Kelly K

    2015-04-01

    The seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for breast cancer differentiates patients with T1 tumors and lymph node micrometastases (stage IB) from patients with T1 tumors and negative nodes (stage IA). This study was undertaken to determine the utility of the stage IB designation. The following two cohorts of patients with breast cancer were identified: 3,474 patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1993 to 2007 and 4,590 patients from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0010 trial. Clinicopathologic and outcomes data were recorded, and disease was staged according to the seventh edition AJCC staging system. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Median follow-up times were 6.1 years and 9.0 years for the MD Anderson Cancer Center and ACOSOG cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, there were no significant differences between patients with stage IA and stage IB disease in 5- or 10-year RFS, DSS, or OS. Estrogen receptor (ER) status and grade significantly stratified patients with stage I disease with respect to RFS, DSS, and OS. Among patients with T1 breast cancer, individuals with micrometastases and those with negative nodes have similar survival outcomes. ER status and grade are better discriminants of survival than the presence of small-volume nodal metastases. In preparing the next edition of the AJCC staging system, consideration should be given to eliminating the stage IB designation and incorporating biologic factors. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Space Launch System, Core Stage, Structural Test Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Ray

    2017-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama are working to design, develop and implement the SLS Core Stage structural testing. The SLS will have the capability to return humans to the Moon and beyond and its first launch is scheduled for December of 2017. The SLS Core Stage consist of five major elements; Forward Skirt, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank, Intertank (IT), Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank and the Engine Section (ES). Structural Test Articles (STA) for each of these elements are being designed and produced by Boeing at Michoud Assembly Facility located in New Orleans, La. The structural test for the Core Stage STAs (LH2, LOX, IT and ES) are to be conducted by the MSFC Test Laboratory. Additionally, the MSFC Test Laboratory manages the Structural Test Equipment (STE) design and development to support the STAs. It was decided early (April 2012) in the project life that the LH2 and LOX tank STAs would require new test stands and the Engine Section and Intertank would be tested in existing facilities. This decision impacted schedules immediately because the new facilities would require Construction of Facilities (C of F) funds that require congressional approval and long lead times. The Engine Section and Intertank structural test are to be conducted in existing facilities which will limit lead times required to support the first launch of SLS. With a SLS launch date of December, 2017 Boeing had a need date for testing to be complete by September of 2017 to support flight certification requirements. The test facilities were required to be ready by October of 2016 to support test article delivery. The race was on to get the stands ready before Test Article delivery and meet the test complete date of September 2017. This paper documents the past and current design and development phases and the supporting processes, tools, and

  20. THE STUDY OF BRAKE EFFECTIVENESS HOPPER SYSTEM WITH SEPARATE BRAKING TRUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Je. Nishhenko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of tests of the hopper brake systems for the pellets having typical system and separate braking per each bogie are presented. It is shown that the brake system with separate braking has several advantages as compared to the typical one.

  1. Isolation of intracellular parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) from culture using free-flow electrophoresis: separation of the free parasites according to stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, H G; Mrema, J E; Vander Jagt, D L; Reyes, P; Rieckmann, K H

    1982-06-01

    Parasitized human erythrocytes were concentrated from continuous cultures of Plasmodium falciparum from 5-7% up to 80-95% using Plasmagel. After aggregation of the cells with phythemagglutinin, the aggregated erythrocytes were fragmented by passing them, with minimal force, through successive nylon filters of decreasing pore size (100 microns-3 microns). The mixture of liberated, free parasites, intact erythrocytes and erythrocyte membrane vesicles was separated using free-flow electrophoresis. Most of the fractions containing free parasites did not show contamination with erythrocyte constituents as determined by light and electron microscopy, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and enzymatic analysis. In addition, the various stages of free parasites of Plasmodium falciparum exhibited different electrical surface charges. Rings and trophozoites were highly negatively charged whereas schizonts and, in particular, merozoites showed low negative charges. Thus, the various stages could be isolated separate from each other.

  2. Efficient filtration system for paraffin-catalyst slurry separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodagholi Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The filtration efficiency for separating liquid paraffin (or water from a slurry consisting of 25 weight% spherical alumina in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR comprised of a cylindrical tube of 10 cm diameter and 150 cm length was studied. Various differential pressures (ΔP were applied to two separate tubular sintered metal stainless steel filter elements with nominal pore size of 4 and 16μm. The experimental results disclosed that the rate of filtrations increased on applying higher differential pressure to the filter element. Albeit this phenomenon is limited to moderate ΔPs and for ΔP more than 1 bar is neither harmful nor helpful. The highest filtration rates at ΔPs higher than 1 bar were 170 and 248 ml/minute for 4 and 16μm respectively. Using water as the liquid in slurry the rate of filtration enhanced to 4 folds, and this issue reveals impact of viscosity on filtration efficiency clearly. In all situations, the total amount of particles present in the filtrate part never exceeded a few parts per million (ppm. The statistical analysis of the SEM image of the filtrate indicated that by applying higher pressure difference to the filter element the frequency percent of larger particle size increases. The operation of filter cake removing was performed with back flashing of 300 ml of clean liquid with pressures of 3-5 bar of N2 gas.

  3. Volatiles identified from five stages of embryo development separated from a heterogeneous suspension culture of Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A H; Chamberlain, D; Wilson, G; Ryan, M F

    1991-11-01

    Five stages of embryo development were fractionated from a mature culture of Daucus carota (Gelbe Rheinsche), using a series of metal sieves. The composition of the population of embryos in each fraction was determined quantitatively from microscopic investigations. Volatiles from samples of tissue from six stages of development were trapped on activated charcoal cartridges. These volatiles, some of which may play a significant role in the interaction of the plant with the carrot root fly (Psila rosae), were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The resulting chromatograms are arranged in order of embryo development. The progressive elaboration of the volatile profile reflects the increased biosynthetic capacity of the developing embryo.

  4. Assessment of the prognostic value of the 8th AJCC staging system for patients with clinically staged prostate cancer; A time to sub-classify stage IV?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abdel-Rahman

    Full Text Available The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC staging system (8th edition for prostate cancer has been published. The current study seeks to validate the prognostic performance of the changes in the new system among clinically staged prostate cancer patients registered within the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER database.SEER database (2004-2014 has been accessed through SEER*Stat program and AJCC 7th and 8th edition stages were calculated utilizing T, N and M stages as well as baseline prostatic specific antigen (PSA and grade group. Cancer-specific and overall survival analyses according to 6th, 7th and 8th editions were conducted through Kaplan-Meier analysis. Moreover, multivariate analysis was conducted through a Cox proportional hazard model.A total of 110499 patients with prostate cancer were identified in the period from 2004-2014.For cancer- specific survival according to 8th AJCC, all pair wise P values for comparison were significant (<0.01 except for stage IIA vs. IIB; while for overall survival according to 8th AJCC, all pair wise P values for comparison were significant (<0.02 except for stage IIIA vs. IIIB. Results of c-index assessment for cancer-specific survival for the three AJCC editions were as follows: c-index for AJCC 6th edition was 0.816; c-index for AJCC 7th edition was 0.897; c-index for AJCC 8th edition was 0.907. For stage IVB prostate cancer (i.e.M1 disease, further sub-staging was proposed according to M1 sub-stage (i.e. M1a, M1b and M1c. Pair wise comparison between these proposed sub-stages was conducted for both cancer-specific and overall survival. For both cancer-specific and overall survival, all pair wise P values for comparisons were <0.0001.Compared to older staging systems (6th and 7th, the 8th system is more discriminatory. Further sub-classification of stage IV disease is suggested.

  5. How do we have to change quantum mechanics in order to describe separated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, D.

    1984-01-01

    Since it has been shown recently that quantum mechanics can not describe separated physical systems the author reanalyses the reasoning of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen, and finds that the most straight forward conclusion of this paradox is not correct. He indicates the missing elements of reality in the quantum mechanical description of separated physical systems. He shows that Bell inequalities are satisfied if the two physical systems are separated, whether the systems are quantum systems or classical systems is of no matter. An example of a classical macroscopical situation where Bell inequalities are violated is given. (Auth.)

  6. Intelligent System for Diagnosis of a Three-Phase Separator

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Ioniţă; Liviu Ioniţă

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent systems for diagnosis have been used in a variety of domains: financial evaluation, credit scoring problem, identification of software and hardware problems of mechanical and electronic equipment, medical diagnosis, fault detection in gas-oil production plants etc. The goal of diagnosis systems is to classify the observed symptoms as being caused by some diagnosis class while advising systems perform such a classification and offer corrective remedies (recommendations). The curren...

  7. How does magnetic resonance imaging influence staging according to AJCC staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared with computed tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin-Biao; Mao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tang, Ling-Long; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yan; Lin, Ai-Hua; Cui, Chun-Yan; Li, Li; Ma, Jun

    2008-12-01

    To analyze the degree and pattern of influence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on staging according to the 6th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system compared with computed tomography (CT). The MRI and CT scans and medical records of 420 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were analyzed retrospectively. The tumors of all patients were staged according to the 6th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. A significant difference (p <0.05) was found between CT and MRI in demonstrating involvement in the oropharynx (CT, 25.0% vs. MRI, 14.5%), prevertebral muscle (CT, 18.4% vs. MRI, 36.0%), parapharyngeal space (CT, 82.6% vs. MRI, 68.8%), skull base (CT, 31.0% vs. MRI, 52.6%), sphenoid sinus (CT, 13.6% vs. MRI, 16.7%), ethmoid sinus (CT, 7.1% vs. MRI, 3.3%), intracranial area (CT, 4.8% vs. MRI, 16.0%), and retropharyngeal lymph nodes (CT, 52.1% vs. MRI, 69.0%). The incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis and lymph node metastasis at each level was similar according to CT and MRI. MRI resulted in changes in 49.8% of T stage cases, 10.7% of N stage cases, and 38.6% of clinical stage cases. MRI demonstrated early primary tumor involvement more precisely and deep primary tumor infiltration more easily. The use of MRI caused dramatic changes in the results of the T stage and clinical staging and should be preferred to CT in staging NPC. Patients would benefit from changes in treatment strategies resulting from the use of MRI.

  8. The Effects of Environmental Management Systems on Source Separation in the Work and Home Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris von Borgstede

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Measures that challenge the generation of waste are needed to address the global problem of the increasing volumes of waste that are generated in both private homes and workplaces. Source separation at the workplace is commonly implemented by environmental management systems (EMS. In the present study, the relationship between source separation at work and at home was investigated. A questionnaire that maps psychological and behavioural predictors of source separation was distributed to employees at different workplaces. The results show that respondents with awareness of EMS report higher levels of source separation at work, stronger environmental concern, personal and social norms, and perceive source separation to be less difficult. Furthermore, the results support the notion that after the adoption of EMS at the workplace, source separation at work spills over into source separation in the household. The potential implications for environmental management systems are discussed.

  9. Production of monozygotic twin calves using the blastomere separation technique and Well of the Well culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, M; Matoba, S; Narita, M; Saito, N; Nagai, T; Imai, K

    2008-03-15

    The present study was conducted to establish a simple and efficient method of producing monozygotic twin calves using the blastomere separation technique. To produce monozygotic twin embryos from zona-free two- and eight-cell embryos, blastomeres were separated mechanically by pipetting to form two demi-embryos; each single blastomere from the two-cell embryo and tetra-blastomeres from the eight-cell embryo were cultured in vitro using the Well of the Well culture system (WOW). This culture system supported the successful arrangement of blastomeres, resulting in their subsequent aggregation to form a demi-embryo developing to the blastocyst stage without a zona pellucida. There was no significant difference in the development to the blastocyst stage between blastomeres separated from eight-cell (72.0%) and two-cell (62.0%) embryos. The production rates of the monozygotic pair blastocysts and transferable paired blastocysts for demi-embryos obtained from eight-cell embryos (64.0 and 45.0%, respectively) were higher than those for demi-embryos obtained from two-cell embryos (49.0 and 31.0%, PWOW culture system, yielded viable monozygotic demi-embryos, resulting in high rates of pregnancy and twinning rates after embryo transfer.

  10. Proposal for a new staging system for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagozoglu, K.H.; Dekker, H.; Rietveld, D.H.F.; de Bree, R.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Kantola, S.; Forouzanfar, T.; van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    The presented staging system seems well reproducible, facilitating the comparison of study groups dealing with the various issues of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. It is yet to be evaluated whether the presently proposed staging system is useful for management purposes.

  11. Parameter study on Japanese proposal of ITER hydrogen isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Tanaka, Shigeru; Ohokawa, Yoshinao; Ohara, Atsushi; Nagakura, Masaaki; Naito, Taisei; Nagashima, Kazuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    As part of Japanese design contribution in the ITER activity, conceptual design of an entire ITER tritium system and their safety analysis have been carried out through the three-year period since 1988. The tritium system includes the following subsystems; - Fuelling (gas puffing and pellet injection) subsystem, - Torus vacuum pumping subsystem, - Plasma exhaust gas purification subsystem, - Hydrogen isotope separation subsystem, - NBI gas processing subsystem, - Blanket tritium recovery subsystem, - Tritiated water processing subsystem, - Tritium safety subsystem. Hydrogen isotope separation system is a key subsystem in the ITER tritium system because it is connected to all above subsystems. This report describes an analytical study on the Japanese concept of hydrogen isotope separation system. (author)

  12. Sustainable wastewater management: life cycle assessment of conventional and source-separating urban sanitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, C; Jekel, M

    2008-01-01

    Conventional and source-separating urban sanitation systems are compared with regard to their ecological sustainability using the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment. A substance flow model of all relevant processes in a settlement with 5,000 inhabitants is set up and evaluated with environmental indicators for resource demand and emissions to air, water, and soil. The comparison shows that source separation does not necessarily result in a system with less environmental impacts. If the conventional system is energetically optimized and equipped with extended nutrient removal, its impact is comparable to the source-separating systems. However, source separation has the potential to offer ecological benefits depending on the system configuration. Especially the input of toxic heavy metals to agriculture with sewage sludge can be substantially lowered if separately collected urine and faeces are used as organic fertilizer. IWA Publishing 2008.

  13. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  14. Common source-multiple load vs. separate source-individual load photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of system performance is made for two possible system setups: (1) individual loads powered by separate solar cell sources; and (2) multiple loads powered by a common solar cell source. A proof for resistive loads is given that shows the advantage of a common source over a separate source photovoltaic system for a large range of loads. For identical loads, both systems perform the same.

  15. Design and synthesis of reactive separation systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    During the last decade there has been a rapid upturn in interest in reactive distillation. The chemical process industry recognizes the favorable economics of carrying out reaction simultaneously with distillation for certain classes of reacting systems, and many new processes have been built based on this technology. Interest is also increasing by academics and software vendors. Systematic design methods for reactive distillation systems have only recently begun to emerge. In this report we survey the available design techniques and point out the contributions made by our group at the University of Massachusetts.

  16. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2011-01-01

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  17. A dye laser-cryogenic helium jet system and recoil-mass-separator for studies of nuclei far from stability

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, D L; Cormier, T M; Hermann, G; Lin, B S; Martin, A G; Nicolis, N G; Stwertka, P M

    1981-01-01

    Most of the recent applications of lasers to on-line measurements of hyperfine interactions and isotope shifts have been made using high energy proton beams to produce large fluxes of a wide range of unstable atoms. On-line mass separators select the atomic species of interest. At NSRL the authors have in the final stages of development an on-line laser spectroscopy system for the upgraded MP tandem. The system is based on the use of more selective heavy-ion reactions so that mass separation is not usually required, and very sensitive detection techniques so that measurements are possible with small fluxes of atoms. A recoil mass separator is also near completion and will be used for a variety of studies of nuclei far from stability, including providing, when necessary, mass separated reaction products for study using the laser system. The heavy ion beam energy available from the upgraded MP allows production of neutron deficient nuclei by means of fusion-evaporation reactions that is limited only by the onse...

  18. Flat minimal quantizations of Stäckel systems and quantum separability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błaszak, Maciej, E-mail: blaszakm@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Domański, Ziemowit, E-mail: ziemowit@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Silindir, Burcu, E-mail: burcu.yantir@ieu.edu.tr [Department of Mathematics, Ýzmir University of Economics, 35330, Balçova, Ýzmir (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of quantization of classical Stäckel systems and the problem of separability of related quantum Hamiltonians. First, using the concept of Stäckel transform, natural Hamiltonian systems from a given Riemann space are expressed by some flat coordinates of related Euclidean configuration space. Then, the so-called flat minimal quantization procedure is applied in order to construct an appropriate Hermitian operator in the respective Hilbert space. Finally, we distinguish a class of Stäckel systems which remains separable after any of admissible flat minimal quantizations. - Highlights: • Using Stäckel transform, separable Hamiltonians are expressed by flat coordinates. • The concept of admissible flat minimal quantizations is developed. • The class of Stäckel systems, separable after minimal flat quantization is established. • Separability of related stationary Schrödinger equations is presented in explicit form.

  19. Systems and methods for preparation and separation of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, Ryan J.; Boggs, Bryan; Self, Kyle; Leclerc, Margarete K.; Gorer, Alexander; Weiss, Michael J.; Miller, John H.; Mohanta, Samaresh

    2015-12-01

    There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with hydrogen gas, an unsaturated hydrocarbon, and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products.

  20. Novel design and sensitivity analysis of displacement measurement system utilizing knife edge diffraction for nanopositioning stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, ChaBum; Lee, Sun-Kyu; Tarbutton, Joshua A

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and sensitivity analysis of a knife edge-based optical displacement sensor that can be embedded with nanopositioning stages. The measurement system consists of a laser, two knife edge locations, two photodetectors, and axillary optics components in a simple configuration. The knife edge is installed on the stage parallel to its moving direction and two separated laser beams are incident on knife edges. While the stage is in motion, the direct transverse and diffracted light at each knife edge is superposed producing interference at the detector. The interference is measured with two photodetectors in a differential amplification configuration. The performance of the proposed sensor was mathematically modeled, and the effect of the optical and mechanical parameters, wavelength, beam diameter, distances from laser to knife edge to photodetector, and knife edge topography, on sensor outputs was investigated to obtain a novel analytical method to predict linearity and sensitivity. From the model, all parameters except for the beam diameter have a significant influence on measurement range and sensitivity of the proposed sensing system. To validate the model, two types of knife edges with different edge topography were used for the experiment. By utilizing a shorter wavelength, smaller sensor distance and higher edge quality increased measurement sensitivity can be obtained. The model was experimentally validated and the results showed a good agreement with the theoretically estimated results. This sensor is expected to be easily implemented into nanopositioning stage applications at a low cost and mathematical model introduced here can be used for design and performance estimation of the knife edge-based sensor as a tool.

  1. Development of membrane moisture separator for BWR off-gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, H.; Kawamura, S.; Kumasaka, M.; Nishikubo, M.

    2001-01-01

    In BWR plant off-gas treatment systems, dehumidifiers are used to maintain noble gas adsorption efficiency in the first half of the charcoal hold-up units. From the perspective of simplifying and reducing the cost of such a dehumidification system, Japanese BWR utilities and plant fabricators have been developing a dehumidification system employing moisture separation membrane of the type already proven in fields such as medical instrumentation and precision measuring apparatus. The first part of this development involved laboratory testing to simulate the conditions found in an actual off-gas system, the results of which demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of moisture separation capability and membrane durability, and suggested favorable prospects for application in actual off-gas systems. Further, in-plant testing to verify moisture separation capability and membrane durability in the presence of actual gases is currently underway, with results so far suggesting that the system is capable of obtaining good moisture separation capability. (author)

  2. Source Separation via Spectral Masking for Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an insight into the use of spectral masking techniques in time-frequency domain, as a preprocessing step for the speech signal recognition. Speech recognition systems have their performance negatively affected in noisy environments or in the presence of other speech signals. The limits of these masking techniques for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. We show the robustness of the spectral masking techniques against four types of noise: white, pink, brown and human speech noise (bubble noise. The main contribution of this work is to analyze the performance limits of recognition systems  using spectral masking. We obtain an increase of 18% on the speech hit rate, when the speech signals were corrupted by other speech signals or bubble noise, with different signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1, 10 and 20 dB. On the other hand, applying the ideal binary masks to mixtures corrupted by white, pink and brown noise, results an average growth of 9% on the speech hit rate, with the same different signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results suggest that the masking spectral techniques are more suitable for the case when it is applied a bubble noise, which is produced by human speech, than for the case of applying white, pink and brown noise.

  3. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  4. METAHEURISTICS FOR OPTIMIZING SAFETY STOCK IN MULTI STAGE INVENTORY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Badurina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing the right level of inventory is critical in order to achieve the targeted level of customer service, but it also carries significant cost in supply chain. In majority of cases companies define safety stock on the most downstream level, i.e. the finished product level, using different analytical methods. Safety stock on upstream level, however, usually covers only those problems which companies face on that particular level (uncertainty of delivery, issues in production, etc.. This paper looks into optimizing safety stock in a pharmaceutical supply considering the three stages inventory system. The problem is defined as a single criterion mixed integer programming problem. The objective is to minimize the inventory cost while the service level is predetermined. In order to coordinate inventories at all echelons, the variable representing the so-called service time is introduced. Because of the problem dimensions, metaheuristics based on genetic algorithm and simulated annealing are constructed and compared, using real data from a Croatian pharmaceutical company. The computational results are presented evidencing improvements in minimizing inventory costs.

  5. CLASS B2108+213 : a new wide-separation gravitational lens system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKean, JP; Browne, IWA; Jackson, NJ; Koopmans, LVE; Norbury, MA; Treu, T; York, TD; Biggs, AD; Blandford, RD; de Bruyn, AG; Fassnacht, CD; Mao, S; Myers, ST; Pearson, TJ; Phillips, PM; Readhead, ACS; Rusin, D; Wilkinson, PN

    2005-01-01

    We present observations of CLASS B2108 + 213, the widest separation gravitational lens system discovered by the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey. Radio imaging using the VLA at 8.46 GHz and MERLIN at 5 GHz shows two compact components separated by 4.56 arcsec with a faint third component in between which

  6. OCT Glaucoma Staging System: a new method for retinal nerve fiber layer damage classification using spectral-domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusini, P

    2018-01-01

    PurposeTo describe a new method, the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Glaucoma Staging System, for classifying retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) damage assessed with OCT.Patients and methodsThe OCT Glaucoma Staging System was created based on data obtained from Nidek RS 3000 spectral-domain (sd)-OCT. This system uses the superior and inferior quadrant RNFL thickness values, plotted on an x-y diagram for staging structural damage severity in glaucoma. A non-linear equation and two regression lines describe the boundary lines which separate the different sectors of the diagram. These mathematical formulas have been used to create a software, which provides a quick classification of the RNFL damage. Sensitivity and specificity of the system were assessed in a different cohort including 64 patients with early OAG, and 62 normal subjects.ResultsThree hundred and two OCT tests from 98 healthy controls and 284 patients affected by either ocular hypertension or chronic open-angle glaucoma were considered in order to design the new classification system. The OCT Glaucoma Staging System classifies RNFL defects into 6 stages of increasing severity ranging from borderline to stage 5, and 3 groups according to defect localization (superior, inferior, or diffuse). Sensitivity and specificity in discriminating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes were 95.2 and 91.9%, respectively, considering borderline results as abnormal.ConclusionsThe OCT Glaucoma Staging System appears to provide a standardized and objective classification of glaucomatous RNFL damage. It can be used in day-to-day clinical practice for an easy and fast interpretation of RNFL measurements obtained with OCT.

  7. Design methodology for integrated downstream separation systems in an ethanol biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh Rohani, Navid

    Energy security and environmental concerns have been the main drivers for a historic shift to biofuel production in transportation fuel industry. Biofuels should not only offer environmental advantages over the petroleum fuels they replace but also should be economically sustainable and viable. The so-called second generation biofuels such as ethanol which is the most produced biofuel are mostly derived from lignocellulosic biomasses. These biofuels are more difficult to produce than the first generation ones mainly due to recalcitrance of the feedstocks in extracting their sugar contents. Costly pre-treatment and fractionation stages are required to break down lignocellulosic feedstocks into their constituent elements. On the other hand the mixture produced in fermentation step in a biorefinery contains very low amount of product which makes the subsequent separation step more difficult and more energy consuming. In an ethanol biorefinery, the dilute fermentation broth requires huge operating cost in downstream separation for recovery of the product in a conventional distillation technique. Moreover, the non-ideal nature of ethanol-water mixture which forms an iseotrope at almost 95 wt%, hinders the attainment of the fuel grade ethanol (99.5 wt%). Therefore, an additional dehydration stage is necessary to purify the ethanol from its azeotropic composition to fuel-grade purity. In order to overcome the constraint pertaining to vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol-water separation, several techniques have been investigated and proposed in the industry. These techniques such as membrane-based technologies, extraction and etc. have not only sought to produce a pure fuel-grade ethanol but have also aimed at decreasing the energy consumption of this energy-intensive separation. Decreasing the energy consumption of an ethanol biorefinery is of paramount importance in improving its overall economics and in facilitating the way to displacing petroleum transportation fuel

  8. Simultaneous Design of Ionic Liquids and Azeotropic Separation for Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roughton, Brock; Camarda, Kyle V.; Gani, Rafiqul

    , many separation tasks in the petrochemical and chemical industries involve separation of azeotropic mixtures. A common issue with the design and operation of these separation tasks is whether or not to use solvents? And, if solvents are to be used, what kind of solvent should be used and what would...... environmental impact would they cause? Ionic liquids show great promise for solvent-based separation, particularly for extractive distillation-based separations, due to their negligible vapor pressures and the fact that a wide range of solubilities and other properties can be obtained through structural changes....... Since a large number of azeotropes encountered include water as one of the compounds, the use of ionic liquids in solvent-based separation of water in azeotropic systems has been investigated. Along with the design of the ionic liquid being used to entrain water, the extractive distillation process has...

  9. Grating exchange system of independent mirror supported by floating rotary stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhuan; Tao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Nan, Yan

    2015-10-01

    The performance of The Grating Exchange System can satisfy the Thirty Meter Telescope - TMT for astronomical observation WFOS index requirements and satisfy the requirement of accuracy in the grating exchange. It is used to install in the MOBIE and a key device of MOBIE. The Wide Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) is one of the three first-light observing capabilities selected by the TMT Science Advisory Committee. The Multi-Object Broadband Imaging Echellette (MOBIE) instrument design concept has been developed to address the WFOS requirements as described in the TMT Science-Based Requirements Document (SRD). The Grating Exchange System uses a new type of separate movement way of three grating devices and a mirror device. Three grating devices with a mirror are able to achieve independence movement. This kind of grating exchange system can effectively solve the problem that the volume of the grating change system is too large and that the installed space of MOBIE instruments is too limit. This system adopts the good stability, high precision of rotary stage - a kind of using air bearing (Air bearing is famous for its ultra-high precision, and can meet the optical accuracy requirement) and rotation positioning feedback gauge turntable to support grating device. And with a kind of device which can carry greater weight bracket fixed on the MOBIE instrument, with two sets of servo motor control rotary stage and the mirror device respectively. And we use the control program to realize the need of exercising of the grating device and the mirror device. Using the stress strain analysis software--SolidWorks for stress and strain analysis of this structure. And then checking the structure of the rationality and feasibility. And prove that this system can realize the positioning precision under different working conditions can meet the requirements of imaging optical grating diffraction efficiency and error by the calculation and optical performance analysis.

  10. Conditions for maximum isolation of stable condensate during separation in gas-condensate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivus, N.A.; Belkina, N.A.

    1969-02-01

    A thermodynamic analysis is made of the gas-liquid separation process in order to determine the relationship between conditions of maximum stable condensate separation and physico-chemical nature and composition of condensate. The analysis was made by considering the multicomponent gas-condensate fluid produced from Zyrya field as a ternary system, composed of methane, an intermediate component (propane and butane) and a heavy residue, C/sub 6+/. Composition of 5 ternary systems was calculated for a wide variation in separator conditions. At each separator pressure there is maximum condensate production at a certain temperature. This occurs because solubility of condensate components changes with temperature. Results of all calculations are shown graphically. The graphs show conditions of maximum stable condensate separation.

  11. Ion optical system of a 255 deg double-focusing electromagnetic isotope separator at IAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Naifeng; Lu Hongyou; Cai Rentai

    1987-01-01

    The ion optical system of a 255 deg double-focusing electro-magnetic isotope separator at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE), Beijing, is described, including the analysis of ion beam focusing and the calculation of magnetic field shaping

  12. Test of the non separability of the K0anti K0 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, J.

    1984-01-01

    At present there is no experimental verification that the K 0 anti K 0 system remains a non-separate system when the particles fly apart. Furry's hypothesis may be considered as an example. An experimental test of this non-separability requires producing K 0 and anti K 0 interactions. It is shown that this is feasible for the annihilation panti p → K 0 anti K 0 with the CERN LEAR facility. (Auth.)

  13. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  14. Experimental investigation of two-stage thermoelectric generator system integrated with phase change materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Atouei, Saeed; Ranjbar, Ali Akbar; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    experimentally. In the first stage, a TEG module installed between a phase change material (PCM) heat sink, as cooling system, and an electrical heater, as the heat source. Because of the inherent characteristics of PCMs to save the thermal energy as latent heat, the PCM heat sink is used as the heat source...... of the second stage TEGs. In the second stage, five smaller TEG modules are installed around the PCM with individual heat sinks for cooling with natural convection. In order to have a comparison between a common TEG system and the proposed two-stage TEG system, a one-stage thermoelectric generator with forced...

  15. Cost analysis of lasers for a laser isotope separation system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mail, R.A.; Markovich, F.J.; Carr, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    To be of practical significance, laser isotope separation (LIS) for separation of 235 U from 238 U must exhibit attributes which make it preferable to expansion of the present facilities. Clearly the most attractive such attribute is the prospect of significant cost reductions, which preliminary studies at LLL suggest will amount to a factor of three and perhaps as much as ten. From these preliminary studies, it appears that the lasers themselves account for a very substantial portion of the capital cost of a LIS system, and a significant portion of the equipment replacement costs. Since the laser costs are so pivotal to the system cost, and the system cost is so pivotal to the choice of separation techniques, it is clear that a more detailed investigation of laser costs is required. Results are presented of a study performed by General Research Corporation (GRC) to assess the cost of lasers in a production laser isotope separation (LIS) plant

  16. Catalytic reactive separation system for energy-efficient production of cumene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, Genoveva [Nuevo Laredo, MX; Nenoff, Tina M [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to an atmospheric pressure, reactive separation column packed with a solid acid zeolite catalyst for producing cumene from the reaction of benzene with propylene. Use of this un-pressurized column, where simultaneous reaction and partial separation occur during cumene production, allow separation of un-reacted, excess benzene from other products as they form. This high-yielding, energy-efficient system allows for one-step processing of cumene, with reduced need for product purification. Reacting propylene and benzene in the presence of beta zeolite catalysts generated a selectivity greater than 85% for catalytic separation reactions at a reaction temperature of 115 degrees C and at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, up to 76% of un-reacted benzene was separated from the product; which could be recycled back to the reactor for re-use.

  17. A two-stage decentralised system combining high rate activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) and total phosphates (TP) were largely retained in the effluent with average removal percentages of 19.5 and 27.5%, respectively, encouraging reuse for plant growth. Key words: A-stage, sustainable wastewater treatment, resource recovery, developing countries, water reuse, nutrient ...

  18. Comparison of microalgae cultivation in photobioreactor, open raceway pond, and a two-stage hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh R Narala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted towards sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  19. Comparison of Microalgae Cultivation in Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond, and a Two-Stage Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narala, Rakesh R.; Garg, Sourabh; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Deme, Miklos; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M.

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO 2 accumulation in the environment, research is targeted toward sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors, while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  20. Comparison of Microalgae Cultivation in Photobioreactor, Open Raceway Pond, and a Two-Stage Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narala, Rakesh R.; Garg, Sourabh; Sharma, Kalpesh K.; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Deme, Miklos; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2016-08-02

    In the wake of intensive fossil fuel usage and CO{sub 2} accumulation in the environment, research is targeted toward sustainable alternate bioenergy that can suffice the growing need for fuel and also that leaves a minimal carbon footprint. Oil production from microalgae can potentially be carried out more efficiently, leaving a smaller footprint and without competing for arable land or biodiverse landscapes. However, current algae cultivation systems and lipid induction processes must be significantly improved and are threatened by contamination with other algae or algal grazers. To address this issue, we have developed an efficient two-stage cultivation system using the marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. This hybrid system combines exponential biomass production in positive pressure air lift-driven bioreactors with a separate synchronized high-lipid induction phase in nutrient deplete open raceway ponds. A comparison to either bioreactor or open raceway pond cultivation system suggests that this process potentially leads to significantly higher productivity of algal lipids. Nutrients are only added to the closed bioreactors, while open raceway ponds have turnovers of only a few days, thus reducing the issue of microalgal grazers.

  1. Modification of the LEP electrostatic separator systems for operation with bunch trains

    CERN Document Server

    Balhan, B; Carlier, E; Deluen, J P; Dieperink, J H; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Guinand, R; Kalbreier, Willi; Laffin, M; Lamont, M; Mertens, V; Poole, John; Verhagen, H

    1996-01-01

    To meet the LEP2 luminosity requirements for W-pair production, it is planned to operate LEP with Bunch Trains from 1995 onwards. This new mode of operation entails significant modification both to the existing separator hardware and its control system. The changes have been implemented so as to provide maximum flexibility for the realisation of the Bunch Train scheme, and also make a return to operation with Pretzel separation possible during 1995. Two LEP Interaction Points (IP) were equipped with new separators in late 1994, enabling first tests with the collision of one train of four e+ bunches with one train of e- bunches. During the 1994/95 shutdown, four separators have been installed in the two remaining experimental IPs, and eight separators in the non-experimental IP have been displaced to new positions. Details are given of optics requirements for the separator installations, the polarity of the closed orbit separator bumps, system modifications, and performance considerations. Results are presente...

  2. Separation systems for the nuclear industry: from system elaboration to its validation in radioactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draye, Micheline

    2004-01-01

    My research deals with the end of the electronuclear cycle and aims to design, create, assess and/or improve various separation Systems for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The range of roads explored is large from liquid-liquid extraction, tp membrane processes, through solid-liquid extraction. Beyond the development of various concepts for targeted radionuclides separation, the Systems efficiency and stability were studied. Evaluation of irradiation dose on separations was examined based on the needs of the nuclear industry. As an example, after highlighting the great potential of DCH18C6 for the development of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing process, we determined the structure of its degradation products using a suite of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, CG-MS and X-ray diffraction). Considering the increasing precautions taken by the nuclear industry, we deem it necessary to expand our investigations into organic stereochemistry of extracting ligands. We determined the stereochemistry of the DCH18C6 radiolysis products. Despite the capacity of the structural analytical techniques used and previously quoted, we synthesized each possible structure to assess ail the proposed fragments. These syntheses allowed us to evaluate the degradation products interference during potential DCH18C6 industrial use and to conclude that its great extraction capabilities and its remarkable chemical and radiochemical stability make the DCH18C6 a reliable candidate for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. To vary the available analytical techniques and to develop more relevant scientific approaches, some of the described work was conducted as a part of national and/or international collaborations. In this context, the study of the poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) resin stability in radioactive medium allowed us to establish a scientific collaboration with the 'Nuclear Physic Institute of Lyon' for the use of a surface analysis fine technique, the Time of Flight

  3. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: In-well vapor stripping, in-situ bioremediation, gas membrane separation system (membrane separation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides stakeholder evaluations on innovative technologies to be used in the remediation of volatile organic compounds from soils and ground water. The technologies evaluated are; in-well vapor stripping, in-situ bioremediation, and gas membrane separation

  4. A Novel System for the Separation and Destruction of Perchlorate from Contaminated Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, J.; Cumbal, N.; Fink, H.; Goergen, A.; Goldberg, D.; Merriam, K.; Caslake, L.; Kney, A. D.; Tavakoli, J.; Mylon, S. E.

    2007-12-01

    The remediation of perchlorate contaminated ground water through conventional ion-exchange technology requires frequent regeneration of the ion exchange resins and subsequent disposal of the regenerate solutions. The disposal of these wastes poses environmental challenges, and it is not an economically favorable option. This research focuses on the development of a two stage process for the separation and destruction of perchlorate from contaminated waters. The separation stage employs a transition metal-functionalized DOW3N- based ion exchangers which has shown promise as a remediation strategy for trace anionic contaminates such as perchlorate and can be successfully regenerated using mild solution conditions. Three transition metals (Fe(III), Ni(II), and Cu(II)) have been used to functionalize Dowex M4195 polymeric ligand exchangers. The resulting materials were compared with respect to their perchlorate selectivity, capacity, kinetics and regeneration efficiency through a series of batch and column experiments. In parallel studies, perchlorate reduction in batch laboratory cultures could indicate the potential to couple these two processes through the biological destruction of perchlorate in regenerant solutions. The destruction of perchlorate through functionalized zero-valent-iron (ZVI) nanoparticles may be an alternative or complimentary second stage to this process. Kinetic data from batch perchlorate reduction experiments in the presence of functionalized ZVI nanoparticles will be included.

  5. Staged abdominal closure with intramuscular tissue expanders and modified components separation technique of a giant incisional hernia after repair of a ruptured omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Tatekawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with omphalocele, several different techniques are performed for repair of the abdominal wall defect. We present the case of a staged abdominal closure of a giant incisional hernia after repair of a ruptured omphalocele. At birth, skin flap coverage associated with silo formation occurred, but the abdominal wall defect remained, resulting in a giant abdominal hernia. To expand the layers of the abdominal wall, tissue expanders were placed between the bilateral internal oblique and transverses abdominis muscles. Postoperatively, a modified components separation technique was performed. The abdominal wall was closed in the midline. Upon closure of the skin in the midline, bilateral relaxing incisions were performed, covering the remaining defect with artificial dermis. At the age of one year and 7 months, the patient had no recurrent incisional hernia nor any wound complications.

  6. A differential viscosity detector for use in miniaturized chemical separation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.T.; Chmela, Emil; van der Heyden, F.H.J.; Oosterbroek, R.E.; Tijssen, Robert; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    We present a micromachined differential viscosity detector suitable for integration into an on-chip hydrodynamic chromatography system. The general design, however, is applicable to any liquid chromatography system that is used for separation of polymers. The micromachined part of the detector

  7. Development of a Systems Engineering Model of the Chemical Separations Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lijian; Li, Jianhong; Chen, Yitung; Clarksean, Randy; Ladler, Jim; Vandergrift, George

    2002-01-01

    Work is being performed to develop a general-purpose systems engineering model for the AAA separation process. The work centers on the development of a new user interface for the AMUSE code and on the specification of a systems engineering model. This paper presents background information and an overview of work completed to date. (authors)

  8. Quantitative characterization of magnetic separators: Comparison of systems with and without integrated microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2006-01-01

    We present two new types of microfluidic passive magnetic bead separator systems as well as methods for performing quantitative characterizations of them. Both systems consist of a microfluidic channel with long rectangular magnetic elements of permalloy that are placed by the sides of the channe...

  9. Optimizing and developing a continuous separation system for the wet process separation of aluminum and polyethylene in aseptic composite packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dahai; Peng, Zheng; Liu, Yuqiang; Li, Li; Huang, Qifei; Xie, Minghui; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of milk in China is increasing as living standards rapidly improve, and huge amounts of aseptic composite milk packaging waste are being generated. Aseptic composite packaging is composed of paper, polyethylene, and aluminum. It is difficult to separate the polyethylene and aluminum, so most of the waste is currently sent to landfill or incinerated with other municipal solid waste, meaning that enormous amounts of resources are wasted. A wet process technique for separating the aluminum and polyethylene from the composite materials after the paper had been removed from the original packaging waste was studied. The separation efficiency achieved using different separation reagents was compared, different separation mechanisms were explored, and the impacts of a range of parameters, such as the reagent concentration, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio, on the separation time and aluminum loss ratio were studied. Methanoic acid was found to be the optimal separation reagent, and the suitable conditions were a reagent concentration of 2-4 mol/L, a temperature of 60-80°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 30 L/kg. These conditions allowed aluminum and polyethylene to be separated in less than 30 min, with an aluminum loss ratio of less than 3%. A mass balance was produced for the aluminum-polyethylene separation system, and control technique was developed to keep the ion concentrations in the reaction system stable. This allowed a continuous industrial-scale process for separating aluminum and polyethylene to be developed, and a demonstration facility with a capacity of 50t/d was built. The demonstration facility gave polyethylene and aluminum recovery rates of more than 98% and more than 72%, respectively. Separating 1t of aluminum-polyethylene composite packaging material gave a profit of 1769 Yuan, meaning that an effective method for recycling aseptic composite packaging waste was achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Decomposition Methodology to Solve Integrated Process Design and Controller Design Problems for Reactor-Separator-Recycle System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for a reactor-separator-recycle (RSR) system and evaluates a decomposition methodology to solve the IPDC problem. Accordingly, the IPDC problem is solved by decomposing it into four hierarchical stages: (i) pre-analysis......, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection and verification. The methodology makes use of thermodynamic-process insights and the reverse design approach to arrive at the final process-controller design decisions. The developed methodology is illustrated through...... the design of a RSR system involving consecutive reactions, A B -> C and shown to provide effective solutions that satisfy design, control and cost criteria. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it is systematic, makes use of thermodynamic-process knowledge and provides valuable insights...

  11. Advanced Design of Separated Household Waste Collection Systems on the Base of GIS Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ladanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hungarian waste management sector is under transformation now. The new (2012/CLXXXV Law on the Waste applies requirements on the players of the waste market that will result in the reorganization of the whole waste management industrial sector. The aim of the system transformation is enhancing the proportion of separately treated waste in accordance with the EU directives. Emerging waste quantities to be separately treated means challenge for the existing logistic capacities (e.g., collector vehicles; thus evaluation of their actual efficiency and utilization seems to be useful in the course of the transformation. With this object in view, a new separated waste collection system planning approach and a software module were developed on the base of a geographic information system (GIS platform. The software module was designed to help choose and localize the appropriate collection methods and define the logistically effective collector vehicle routes according to the settlement structures of urban environments.

  12. Validation of the Mayo Clinic Staging System in Determining Prognoses of Patients With Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelen, Robert J. S.; Gaspersz, Marcia P.; Labeur, Tim A.; van Vugt, Jeroen L. A.; van Dieren, Susan; Willemssen, François E. J. A.; Nio, Chung Y.; Ijzermans, Jan N. M.; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Most systems for staging perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) have been developed for the minority of patients with resectable disease. The recently developed Mayo Clinic system for staging PHC requires only clinical and radiologic variables, but has not yet been validated. We

  13. The New Changes In The 7th Ajcc/Uicc Staging System Of Gastric Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hălmaciu Ioana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze in parallel the 6th and the newest 7th AJJCC/UICC (American Joint Committee on Cancer/ International Union Against Cancer staging system in order to highlight changes brought by the new staging system.

  14. Synthetic system mimicking the energy transfer and charge separation of natural photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.

    1985-05-01

    A synthetic molecular triad consisting of a porphyrin P linked to both a quinone Q and a carotenoid polyene C has been prepared as a mimic of natural photosynthesis for solar energy conversion purposes. Laser flash excitation of the porphyrin moiety yields a charge-separated state Csup(+.)-P-Qsup(-.) within 100 ps with a quantum yield of more than 0.25. This charge-separated state has a lifetime on the microsecond time scale in suitable solvents. The triad also models photosynthetic antenna function and photoprotection from singlet oxygen damge. The successful biomimicry of photosynthetic charge separation is in part the result of multistep electron transfers which rapidly separate the charges and leave the system at high potential, but with a considerable barrier to recombination.

  15. Highly accurate and fast optical penetration-based silkworm gender separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtongdee, Chakkrit; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chanhorm, Sataporn

    2015-07-01

    Based on our research work in the last five years, this paper highlights our innovative optical sensing system that can identify and separate silkworm gender highly suitable for sericulture industry. The key idea relies on our proposed optical penetration concepts and once combined with simple image processing operations leads to high accuracy in identifying of silkworm gender. Inside the system, there are electronic and mechanical parts that assist in controlling the overall system operation, processing the optical signal, and separating the female from male silkworm pupae. With current system performance, we achieve a very highly accurate more than 95% in identifying gender of silkworm pupae with an average system operational speed of 30 silkworm pupae/minute. Three of our systems are already in operation at Thailand's Queen Sirikit Sericulture Centers.

  16. Influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time for multi-stage production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert; Altendorfer, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    In this paper the influence of different dispatching rules on the average production lead time is investigated. Two theorems based on covariance between processing time and production lead time are formulated and proved theoretically. Theorem 1 links the average production lead time to the "processing time weighted production lead time" for the multi-stage production systems analytically. The influence of different dispatching rules on average lead time, which is well known from simulation and empirical studies, can be proved theoretically in Theorem 2 for a single stage production system. A simulation study is conducted to gain more insight into the influence of dispatching rules on average production lead time in a multi-stage production system. We find that the "processing time weighted average production lead time" for a multi-stage production system is not invariant of the applied dispatching rule and can be used as a dispatching rule independent indicator for single-stage production systems.

  17. Automated ion-exchange system for the radiochemical separation of the noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Ion-exchange separation is particularly suitable for mechanisation and automated ion exchange has been applied to the activation analysis of biological and environmental samples. In this work a system has been designed for experimental studies, which can be adapted for different modes of operation. The equipment is based on a large-volume sampler for the automatic presentation of 500 ml of liquid to a sampling probe. The sample is delivered to the ion-exchange column by means of a peristaltic pump. The purpose of this work was to automate a procedure for separating the noble metals from irradiated geological samples, for neutron-activation analysis. The process of digesting the rock sample is carried out manually in 30 min and is not suited to unattended operation. The volume of the resulting liquid sample may be 100 ml and so the manual separation step may take as long as 1.25 h per sample. The reason for automating this part of the procedure is to reduce the separation time for a group of five samples and consequently to improve the sensitivity of the analysis for radionuclides with short half-lives. This paper describes the automatic ion-exchange system and the ways in which it can be used. The mode of operation for the separation of the noble metals is given in detail. The reproducibility of the system has been assessed by repeated measurements on a standard reference matte. (author)

  18. Two-stage model of development of heterogeneous uranium-lead systems in zircon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, N.N.; Zevchenkov, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of isotope systems of multiphase zircons at their two-stage distortion is considered. The results of calculations testify to the fact that linear correlations on the diagram with concordance can be explained including two-stage discovery of U-Pb systems of cogenetic zircons if zircon is considered physically heterogeneous and losing in its different part different ratios of accumulated radiogenic lead. ''Metamorphism ages'' obtained by these two-stage opening zircons are intermediate, and they not have geochronological significance while ''crystallization ages'' remain rather close to real ones. Two-stage opening zircons in some cases can be diagnosed by discordance of their crystal component

  19. Using recommender systems to support idea generation stage | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current paper presents a new use of recommendation systems in the first key activity of the Front End of innovation, and which can assist organizations to improve their ways of generating new ideas. Actually in this paper, we investigate the particular use of recommender systems in the idea generation context to ...

  20. Intensification of separation of extraction emulsions in systems with tributyl phosphate in ultrasonic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khavskij, N.N.; Kagerman'yan, V.S.; Kanevskij, I.N.; Kim, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles have been studied determining the separation of extraction emulsions appearing in the course of the aqueous and ammonia reextraction of molybdenum from tributylphosphate (TBP) in the ultrasonic field. Piezoelectric radiators with a frequency of 0.8 to 1,0 MHz are used as ultrasonic generators. The organic extract contains 7 g/1 Mo within the hydrosolvate complex. Acceleration of the separation process has been established to take place in the ultrasound region 0.25 to 1.25 W/cm 2 for the aqueous and ammonia systems. The optimal conditions for the separation process exist within 0.5 to 0.65 W/cm 2 , they being 18 minutes for the aqueous and 16 minutes for the ammonia emulsion. It is demonstrated that as a result of the superposition of the ultrasound over the emulsions being formed by TBP with water and ammonia, the separation of the aqueous emulsions increases by a factor of 5 to 6 and of the ammonia emulsions - by a factor of 50 to 80. It is advisable that the ultrasound emulsion treatment for 5 to 10 minutes be coupled with a subsequent settling. As this takes place, the total period of the phase separation will be 18 to 20 minutes. The separation rate increases with temperature. The maximum emulsion separation acceleration is observed within 25 to 30 deg C. The possibility has been revealed to realize the process of the ultrasound intensification of the emulsion separation process by using small-sized extraction equipment

  1. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  2. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [ABT Systems, LLC, Annville, PA (United States); Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  3. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Kiyoteru; Gani, Rafiqul; Kolar, P.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part 'creates' the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture ...

  4. Mathematical modelling of a flow-injection system with a membrane separation module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolev, S.D.; Kolev, Spas D.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model for a flow-injection system with a membrane separation module based on the axially dispersed plug flow model was developed. It takes into account the geometrical dimensions and dispersion properties of the main sections of the manifold, the mass transfer in the channels of the

  5. Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilt, de H.A.; Butkovskyi, A.; Tuantet, K.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Fernandes, T.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams was studied. Batch experiments with the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana grown on urine, anaerobically treated black water and synthetic urine were performed to assess the removal of six spiked

  6. Maximum Time Separation of Events in Cyclic Systems with Linear and Latest Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Fen; Hulgaard, Henrik; Cerny, Eduard

    1998-01-01

    The determination of the maximum time separations of events is important in the design, synthesis, and verification of digital systems, especially in interface timing verification. Many researchers have explored solutions to the problem with various restrictions: a) on the type of constraints...

  7. The nonlinear stage of gravitational instability in flat gaseous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Churilov, S.M.; Shukhman, I.G.

    1980-05-01

    The evolution of finite-amplitude waves in a flat, gaseous, gravitating system is considered. Constraints are placed on the physical state of the gas such that density perturbations can undergo strong growth.

  8. The experimental study of a two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lijun; Ji, Xu; Li, Ming; Leng, Congbin; Luo, Xi; Li, Haili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration. • Maximum cell efficiency of 5.21% with the mirror opening width of 57 cm. • With single cycle, maximum temperatures rise in the heating stage is 12.06 °C. • With 30 min multiple cycles, working medium temperature 62.8 °C, increased 28.7 °C. - Abstract: A two-stage photovoltaic thermal system based on solar trough concentration is proposed, in which the metal cavity heating stage is added on the basis of the PV/T stage, and thermal energy with higher temperature is output while electric energy is output. With the 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T system, the characteristic parameters of the space solar cell under non-concentrating solar radiation and concentrating solar radiation are respectively tested experimentally, and the solar cell output characteristics at different opening widths of concentrating mirror of the PV/T stage under condensation are also tested experimentally. When the mirror opening width was 57 cm, the solar cell efficiency reached maximum value of 5.21%. The experimental platform of the two-stage photovoltaic thermal system was established, with a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 15 m 2 mirror heating stage, or a 1.8 m 2 mirror PV/T stage and a 30 m 2 mirror heating stage. The results showed that with single cycle, the long metal cavity heating stage would bring lower thermal efficiency, but temperature rise of the working medium is higher, up to 12.06 °C with only single cycle. With 30 min closed multiple cycles, the temperature of the working medium in the water tank was 62.8 °C, with an increase of 28.7 °C, and thermal energy with higher temperature could be output

  9. Two-Stage Battery Energy Storage System (BESS in AC Microgrids with Balanced State-of-Charge and Guaranteed Small-Signal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage battery energy storage system (BESS is implemented to enhance the operation condition of conventional battery storage systems in a microgrid. Particularly, the designed BESS is composed of two stages, i.e., Stage I: integration of dispersed energy storage units (ESUs using parallel DC/DC converters, and Stage II: aggregated ESUs in grid-connected operation. Different from a conventional BESS consisting of a battery management system (BMS and power conditioning system (PCS, the developed two-stage architecture enables additional operation and control flexibility in balancing the state-of-charge (SoC of each ESU and ensures the guaranteed small-signal stability, especially in extremely weak grid conditions. The above benefits are achieved by separating the control functions between the two stages. In Stage I, a localized power sharing scheme based on the SoC of each particular ESU is developed to manage the SoC and avoid over-charge or over-discharge issues; on the other hand, in Stage II, an additional virtual impedance loop is implemented in the grid-interactive DC/AC inverters to enhance the stability margin with multiple parallel-connected inverters integrating at the point of common coupling (PCC simultaneously. A simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is established, and simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed BESS architecture and the corresponding control diagram.

  10. A Study on separation of accounts for introducing operation division system in KEPCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Han [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The power industry has faced deregulation and opening market which have been a global trend. As a prerequisite for introducing such competitions, forming the basis of fair competition has been a great interest. For establishing the basis of fair competition, the need of reviewing accounting system of power industry and defining and improving the problems of existing accounting system are rising as an institutional preparation. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for unified accounting system of power industry and a scheme for introducing a separation of accounts in order to assure fair competition. The separation of accounts in power industry is an essential system of fair competition since this is a process of distributing cost by sector and function under the reasonable standards by preventing internal support. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Computer simulation of phase separation and ordering processes in low-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, O.G.; Shah, P.J.; Vitting Andersen, J.

    1991-01-01

    on the nature of the conservation laws in effect. Atomic and molecular overlayers on solid surfaces and weakly-coupled atomic layers of certain three-dimensional crystals constitute a particularly suitable class of systems for studying fundamental aspects of ordering dynamics and phase separation in two...... dimensions since these systems provide a richness of ordering symmetries and degeneracies as well as they obey different conservation laws. Specific systems dealt with include the chemisorption systems O/W(110) and O/W(112), and oxygen layers in the basal CuO-planes of high-T(c) superconductors of the YBa2Cu......An account is given of recent activity in the field of dynamics of phase separation and ordering processes in two-dimensional statistical mechanical models. The fundamental questions of the dynamics involve the form of the growth law, the value of the growth exponent, the dynamical scaling...

  12. Column Extraction and Separation of Some Metal Ions by Diethylenetriamine Polysiloxane Immobilized Ligand System

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashgar, Nizam M.

    2008-01-01

    An extraction chromatographic solid porous polysiloxane functionalized by chelating diethylenetriamine ligand of the general formula P-(CH2)3-NH(CH2)2NH(CH2)2NH2, (Where P represents [Si-O]n siloxane network) has been evaluated for the separation of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The chromatographic parameters of the separation method have been optimized. The ligand system retained Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) effectively when used as a metal ion extractant by controlling the...

  13. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  14. Multi-stage catalyst systems and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH

    2009-02-10

    Catalyst systems and methods provide benefits in reducing the content of nitrogen oxides in a gaseous stream containing nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O.sub.2). The catalyst system comprises an oxidation catalyst comprising a first metal supported on a first inorganic oxide for catalyzing the oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2), and a reduction catalyst comprising a second metal supported on a second inorganic oxide for catalyzing the reduction of NO.sub.2 to nitrogen (N.sub.2).

  15. Control Issues in Single-Stage Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Mastromauro, Rosa; Liserre, Marco; Dell’Aquila, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic Systems (PVS) can be easily integrated in residential buildings hence they will be the main responsible of making low-voltage grid power flow bidirectional. Control issues on both the PV side and on the grid side have received much attention from manufacturers, competing for efficiency...

  16. Advances in high rate anaerobic treatment: staging of reactor systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Zee, van der F.P.; Tan, N.C.G.; Rebac, S.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment (AnWT) is considered as the most cost-effective solution for organically polluted industrial waste streams. Particularly the development of high-rate systems, in which hydraulic retention times are uncoupled from solids retention times, has led to a world-wide

  17. Applications of ionic liquids in biphasic separation: Aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shashi Kant; Pandey, Shubha; Pandey, Siddharth

    2017-10-10

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving much attention in many fields of analytical chemistry because of their various interesting properties which distinguish them from volatile organic compounds. They offer both directional and non-directional forces towards a solute molecule and therefore act as excellent solvents for a wide range of polar and non-polar compounds. Because of the presence of various possible interactions, ILs easily undergo biphasic separation with water and other less polar/non-polar organic solvents. Their ability to create biphasic splitting makes them a promising candidate for liquid-liquid separation processes, such as aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria. Various aspects of ILs in these separation methods are discussed in view of the origin of physical forces responsible for the biphasic interactions, the effect of structural components, temperature, pressure, pH and additives. The specific advantages of using ILs in aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria in binary and ternary systems are discussed with a view to defining their future role in separation processes by giving major emphasis on developing non-toxic ILs with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison between established and the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration staging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Puja; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Bekele, B Nebiyou; Correa, Arlene M; Mehran, Reza J; Rice, David C; Roth, Jack A; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Rice, Thomas W; Swisher, Stephen G

    2010-06-01

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal staging system for patients with gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GEJA). The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC) has organized a multi-institutional database from which a novel esophageal staging system has been organized. We used a single institution experience to validate the hypothesis that the WECC system more accurately predicts survival in GEJA patients than both the American Joint Commission on Cancer 6th edition esophageal and gastric systems. We reviewed 449 GEJA patients (Siewert I-III) treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery or surgery-alone between 1990 and 2007. A blinded statistician performed a head-to-head comparison regarding the ability of each staging system to predict survival. A subgroup analysis of patients who underwent surgery only (n = 176) was also performed. All three systems predicted survival of patients with GEJA. However, a Bayesian variable selection model found that the WECC system was better than both American Joint Commission on Cancer esophageal and gastric systems (probability 0.99 and 0.98, respectively). Subset analysis suggested that the WECC staging was also optimum for predicting survival in surgery-alone patients. While the esophageal staging system is better at predicting survival than the gastric staging system, the WECC system may be the most favorable single-system predictor of survival for patients with resected GEJA. As suggested by the WECC system, incorporating the number of positive lymph nodes within the staging system may present an advantage in predicting survival. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated 2D peptide separation on a 1D nano-LC-MS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Paul; Nielsen, Peter A; Trelle, Morten Beck

    2009-01-01

    Given the complexity of the mammalian proteome, high-resolution separation technologies are required to achieve comprehensive proteome coverage and to enhance the detection of low-abundance proteins. Among several technologies, Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) enables...... the on-line separation of highly complex peptide mixtures directly coupled with mass spectrometry-based identification. Here, we present a variation of the traditional MudPIT protocol, combining highly sensitive chromatography using a nanoflow liquid chromatography system (nano-LC) with a two......-dimensional precolumn in a vented column setup. When compared to the traditional MudPIT approach, this nanoflow variation demonstrated better first-phase separation leading to more proteins being characterized while using rather simple instrumentation and a protocol that requires less time and very little technical...

  20. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  1. Economic analyses for optimizing the construction of separate sewer in a hybrid sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Home-Ming; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Taipei located in north Taiwan uses a hybrid sewer system consisting of mostly separate sewer for the populated regions, and partly combined sewer for less populated regions. This study used the concept that Marginal Cost of Control (MCC) equals to Marginal Benefits of Control (MBC) to establish the method for studying the optimal household connection percentage, and the most cost-effective construction of the separate sewer in the hybrid sewer system. Results indicate the improvement of the receiving water quality in a cost-effective analysis manner. The most cost-effective sanitary sewer construction can be reached when the stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD₅) meets the river quality standard, which can be applied in other cities and existing systems.

  2. [Application of the 2007 lung cancer staging system by International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Nan; Zheng, Qing-feng; Feng, Yuan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yue

    2009-08-18

    To compare the prognoses of non-small cell lung cancer patients based respectively on the 6th-Edition Staging System for NSCLC (the 6th-Edition Staging System) and the new staging system by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) (new staging system). Data were collected from 136 operated NSCLC patients from Sep. 2003 through Oct. 2007. Those data were staged based respectively on the 6th-Edition Staging System and the new staging system. The 2-year no-recurrence survival rate was calculated, and life span was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method of SPSS 13.0 software. (1) In this series, using the 6th-Edition Staging System, there were 56, 23, 53 and 4 patients in stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV respectively; using the new staging system, there were 50, 31, 54 and 1 patients in stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV respectively. There were 6 patients in stage I according to the 6th-Edition Staging System who had become 6 patients in stage II according to the new staging system, 1 patient in stage II 1 in stage III, 3 patients in stage III 3 in stage II, 1 patient in stage III 1 in stage IV, and 4 patients in stage IV 4 in stage III. (2) According to the 6th-Edition Staging System, the 2-year no-recurrence survival rates for Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb,IIIa, IIIb and IV were 95.0%, 83.3%, 100.0%, 63.6%, 52.1%, 80.0% and 50.0% respectively, and according to the new staging system, the 2-year cumulative survival rates for I a, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, IIIb and IV were 95.5%, 89.3%, 68.4%, 63.6%, 52.8%, 50.0% and 0.0% respectively. After Chi square analysis, there was no distinguished difference between the 2 staging systems for the 2-year cumulative survival rate. (3) According to the 6th-Edition Staging System, the difference between the no-recurrence rate of stage I and stage II was not statistically significant (P = 0.232), and the difference between the no-recurrence rates of stage II and III was statistically significant(P = 0

  3. Aspects regarding at 13C isotope separation column control using Petri nets system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, M. L.; Ciortea, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is intended to show that Petri nets can be also applicable in the chemical industry. It used linear programming, modeling underlying Petri nets, especially discrete event systems for isotopic separation, the purpose of considering and control events in real-time through graphical representations. In this paper it is simulate the control of 13C Isotope Separation column using Petri nets. The major problem with 13C comes from the difficulty of obtaining it and raising its natural fraction. Carbon isotopes can be obtained using many methods, one of them being the cryogenic distillation of carbon monoxide. Some few aspects regarding operating conditions and the construction of such cryogenic plants are known today, and even less information are available as far as the separation process modeling and control are concerned. In fact, the efficient control of the carbon monoxide distillation process represents a necessity for large-scale 13C production. Referring to a classic distillation process, some models for carbon isotope separation have been proposed, some based on mass, component and energy balance equations, some on the nonlinear wave theory or the Cohen equations. For modeling the system it was used Petri nets because in this case it is deal with discrete event systems. In use of the non-timed and with auxiliary times Petri model, the transport stream was divided into sections and these sections will be analyzed successively. Because of the complexity of the system and the large amount of calculations required it was not possible to analyze the system as a unitary whole. A first attempt to model the system as a unitary whole led to the blocking of the model during simulation, because of the large processing times.

  4. Dynamic modeling and simulation of a two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system is already widely used in various industrial fields. However, when the researchers analyze the vibration characteristics of a mechanical system, the system is usually regarded as a single-stage one composed of two substructures. The dynamic modeling of a two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system using frequency response function–based substructuring method has not been studied. Therefore, this article presents the source-path-receiver model and the substructure property identification model of such a system. These two models make up the transfer path model of the system. And the model is programmed by MATLAB. To verify the proposed transfer path model, a finite element model simulating a vehicle system, which is a typical two-stage series-parallel vibration isolation system, is developed. The substructure frequency response functions and system level frequency response functions can be obtained by MSC Patran/Nastran and LMS Virtual.lab based on the finite element model. Next, the system level frequency response functions are substituted into the transfer path model to predict the substructural frequency response functions and the system response of the coupled structure can then be further calculated. By comparing the predicted results and exact value, the model proves to be correct. Finally, the random noise is introduced into several relevant system level frequency response functions for error sensitivity analysis. The system level frequency response functions that are most sensitive to the random error are found. Since a two-stage series-parallel system has not been well studied, the proposed transfer path model improves the dynamic theory of the multi-stage vibration isolation system. Moreover, the validation process of the model here actually provides an example for acoustic and vibration transfer path analysis based on the proposed model. And it is worth noting that the

  5. Creation of an Upper Stage Trajectory Capability Boundary to Enable Booster System Trade Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ptrick; Coulon, Adam; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of trajectory optimization is important in all space missions. The solution of this problem enables one to specify the optimum thrust steering program which should be followed to achieve a specified mission objective, simultaneously satisfying the constraints.1 It is well known that whether or not the ascent trajectory is optimal can have a significant impact on propellant usage for a given payload, or on payload weight for the same gross vehicle weight.2 Consequently, ascent guidance commands are usually optimized in some fashion. Multi-stage vehicles add complexity to this analysis process as changes in vehicle properties in one stage propagate to the other stages through gear ratios and changes in the optimal trajectory. These effects can cause an increase in analysis time as more variables are added and convergence of the optimizer to system closure requires more analysis iterations. In this paper, an approach to simplifying this multi-stage problem through the creation of an upper stage capability boundary is presented. This work was completed as part of a larger study focused on trade space exploration for the advanced booster system that will eventually form a part of NASA s new Space Launch System.3 The approach developed leverages Design of Experiments and Surrogate Modeling4 techniques to create a predictive model of the SLS upper stage performance. The design of the SLS core stages is considered fixed for the purposes of this study, which results in trajectory parameters such as staging conditions being the only variables relevant to the upper stage. Through the creation of a surrogate model, which takes staging conditions as inputs and predicts the payload mass delivered by the SLS upper stage to a reference orbit as the response, it is possible to identify a "surface" of staging conditions which all satisfy the SLS requirement of placing 130 metric tons into low-Earth orbit (LEO).3 This identified surface represents the 130 metric ton

  6. Column Extraction and Separation of Some Metal Ions by Diethylenetriamine Polysiloxane Immobilized Ligand System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizam M. El-Ashgar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An extraction chromatographic solid porous polysiloxane functionalized by chelating diethylenetriamine ligand of the general formula P-(CH23-NH(CH22NH(CH22NH2, (Where P represents [Si-O]n siloxane network has been evaluated for the separation of Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II from aqueous solutions. The chromatographic parameters of the separation method have been optimized. The ligand system retained Co(II, Cu(II and Zn(II effectively when used as a metal ion extractant by controlling the pH value. The ligand system also shows a good separation of a mixture of metal ions Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II when used as chromatographic stationary phase. The optimum separation pH values were 4.5, 4 for Co(II and Ni(II respectively, while a solution of 0.1 M HNO3 was used to elute Cu(II. Metal ions were also preconcentrated at pH 5.5. The chemisorbed metal ions were regenerated from the solid extractant using 0.5 M HCl.

  7. Single-Stage, Gelled Hydrazine System for Mars Ascent Vehicle Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm, Inc. in cooperation with Aerojet Rocketdyne is presenting an innovative approach to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The single-stage monopropellant system...

  8. Replacement of chromates in paints and corrosion protection systems [Stage 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    This technical report presents the second stage results of a multi-year project to develop chromate-free paints and corrosion protection systems. Chromate-containing coatings and paints are very effective in providing corrosion resistance and are wid...

  9. Replacement of chromates in paints and corrosion protection systems [Stage 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    This technical report presents the first stage results of a multi-year project to develop chromate-free paints and corrosion protection systems. Chromate coatings and chromate-containing paints are very effective in providing corrosion resistance and...

  10. [Comparison of differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andía Melero, Víctor Manuel; Martín de Santa-Olalla Llanes, María; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Percovich Hualpa, Juan Carlos; Motilla de la Cámara, Marta; Collado Yurrita, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging is increasingly important due to the current trends to a less intensive therapy in low-risk patients. The TNM system is most widely used, but other systems based on follow-up of several patient cohorts have been developed. When these systems have been applied to other populations, results have been discordant. Our study evaluates the suitability of several differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population. 729 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and staging data available were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 10.8 years. The TNM, EORTC, AMES, Clinical class, MACIS, Ohio, NTCTCS, and Spanish systems were applied to all histological types. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for each system were analyzed, and compared using the proportion of explained variation (PEV). The demographic and clinical characteristics of our population were similar to those of other Spanish and international cohorts reported. The best systems were NTCTCS, with 74.7% PEV, and TNM (68.3%), followed by the Ohio, MACIS, EORTC, and AMES systems with minimal differences between them, while the least adequate were the Spanish (55.2%) and Clinical class (47.1%) systems. The NTCTCS staging system was found to be better than TNM in our population but, because of its simplicity and greater dissemination, the TNM appears to be recommended for staging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Anterior temporal artery tap to identify systemic interference using short-separation NIRS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sood, Mehak; Jindal, Utkarsh; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    that are also affected by tDCS. An approach may be to use short optode separations to measure systemic hemodynamic fluctuations occurring in the superficial layers which can then be used as regressors to remove the systemic contamination. Here, we demonstrate that temporal artery tap may be used to better...... change in the mean rSO2 better correlated with the corresponding percent change in log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5 Hz-11.25 Hz frequency band after removing the systemic contamination using the temporal artery tap method. Based on our findings, we propose that anterior temporal artery tap...

  12. Waste water purification by magnetic separation technique using HTS bulk magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Kanayama, H.; Tanaka, K.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Terasawa, T.; Itoh, Y.; Yabuno, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of strong magnetic field generators composed of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet systems to the magnetic separation techniques for the waste water including thin emulsion bearing the cutting oil. Two types of the strong field generators were prepared by the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet systems, which emit the magnetic field density of 1 and 2 T in the open spaces between the magnetic poles activated by the pulsed field magnetization and the field cooling methods, respectively. A couple of water channels containing iron balls were settled in the strong field to trap the magnetized flocks in the waste water. The separation ratios of flocks containing 200 ppm magnetite powder were evaluated with respect to the flow rates of the waste water. The performances of bulk magnet system have kept showing values of around 100% until the flowing rate reached up to 18 l/min. This suggests that the magnetic separation by using bulk magnets is effective for the practical water purification systems.

  13. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  14. A computer code for calculation of solvent-extraction separation in a multicomponent system with reference to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Liuzzo, G.; Morelli, A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear technology development pointed out the need for a new assessment of the fuel cycle back-end. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear fuel reprocessing is known as one of the problems not yet satisfactorily solved, together with separation process of uranium and plutonium from fission products in highly irradiated fuels. Aim of this work is to present an improvement of the computer code for solvent extraction process calculation previously designed by the authors. The modeling of the extraction system has been modified by introducing a new method for calculating the distribution coefficients. The new correlations were based on deriving empirical functions for not only the apparent equilibrium constants, but also the solvation number. The mathematical model derived for calculating separation performance has been then tested for up to ten components and twelve theoretical stages with minor modifications to the convergence criteria. Suitable correlations for the calculation of the distribution coefficients of Uranium, Plutonium, Nitric Acid and fission products were constructed and used to successfully simulate several experimental conditions. (Author)

  15. A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Hegde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 periapical radiographs, of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian′s stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results and Discussion: The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine was found to be significant in both male and female groups. When the canine calcification stages were compared with the MP3 stages it was found that with the exception of the D stage of canine calcification the remaining stages showed a very high correlation with the modified MP3 stages. Conclusion: The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages, and the MP3 stages was found to be significant. The canine calcification could be used as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  16. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E

    2010-08-01

    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U. S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J. J.

    2000-02-17

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system.

  18. Energy and exergy performance of residential heating systems with separate mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmeureanu, Radu; Yu Wu, Xin

    2007-01-01

    The paper brings new evidence on the impact of separate mechanical ventilation system on the annual energy and exergy performance of several design alternatives of residential heating systems, when they are designed for a house in Montreal. Mathematical models of residential heating, ventilation and domestic hot water (HVAC-DHW) systems, which are needed for this purpose, are developed and furthermore implemented in the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) environment. The Coefficient of Performance and the exergy efficiency are estimated as well as the entropy generation and exergy destruction of the overall system. The equivalent greenhouse gas emissions due to the on-site and off-site use of primary energy sources are also estimated. The addition of a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery to any HVAC-DHW system discussed in the paper increases the energy efficiency; however, it decreases the exergy efficiency, which indicates a potential long-term damaging impact on the natural environment. Therefore, the use of a separate mechanical ventilation system in a house should be considered with caution, and recommended only when other means for controlling the indoor air quality cannot be applied

  19. The embryonic development of Schistosoma mansoni eggs: proposal for a new staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurberg, Arnon D; Gonçalves, Tiana; Costa, Tatiane A; de Mattos, Ana Carolina A; Pascarelli, Bernardo M; de Manso, Pedro Paulo A; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Peralta, José M; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Z; Lenzi, Henrique L

    2009-05-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-borne parasitic illness caused by neoophoran trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Using classical histological techniques and whole-mount preparations, the present work describes the embryonic development of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the murine host and compares it with eggs maintained under in vitro conditions. Two pre-embryonic stages occur inside the female worm: the prezygotic stage is characterized by the release of mature oocytes from the female ovary until its fertilization. The zygotic stage encompasses the migration of the zygote through the ootype, where the eggshell is formed, to the uterus. Fully formed eggs are laid still undeveloped, without having suffered any cleavage. In the outside environment, eight embryonic stages can be defined: stage 1 refers to early cleavages and the beginning of yolk fusion. Stage 2 represents late cleavage, with the formation of a stereoblastula and the onset of outer envelope differentiation. Stage 3 is defined by the elongation of the embryonic primordium and the onset of inner envelope formation. At stage 4, the first organ primordia arise. During stages 5 to 7, tissue and organ differentiation occurs (neural mass, epidermis, terebratorium, musculature, and miracidial glands). Stage 7 is characterized by the nuclear condensation of neurons of the central neural mass. Stage 8 refers to the fully formed larva, presenting muscular contraction, cilia, and flame-cell beating. This staging system was compared to a previous classification and could underlie further studies on egg histoproteomics (morphological localizome). The differentiation of embryonic structures and their probable roles in granulomatogenesis are discussed herein.

  20. Combustion of coked sand in a two-stage fluidized bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronella, C.J.; Seader, J.D. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    An advanced multiple-stage fluidized bed reactor system has been devised for the energy-efficient extraction and conversion, from tar sand, of bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The reactor consists of four fluidized beds arranged as stages in series with respect to flow of sand. In the first stage, tar sands are heated, causing the bitumen to pyrolyse into coke, which is deposited on the sand, and gas, which is mostly condensed into oil. The coke is partially combusted with air or enriched oxygen in the second stage, which is thermally coupled to the first stage by multiple vertical heat pipes. Combustion is completed adiabatically in the third stage and heat recovery from the sand is carried out in the fourth stage. By conducting the coke combustion in two stages in this manner, the overall reactor residence time to produce clean sand is greatly reduced from that for a single combustion stage. Laboratory experimental studies have confirmed the ability to operate and control the two thermally coupled stages. The two-phase bubbling bed model of Grace, amended to account for bubble growth in the axial direction, has been adopted to model the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the fluidized beds. The model for the first and second combustion stages is complete. Predictions for exit reactor conditions at various operating conditions are in reasonable agreement with experimental observations. The operating parameters have been found to exert a much greater influence on the predictions of the model than do the values of the physical parameters, indicating a desirable degree of reactor stability. Extension of the model to the pyrolysis and heat recovery stages will permit the optimization of the reactor configuration and operating conditions. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  1. A two-stage stochastic programming approach for operating multi-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a two-stage stochastic programming approach for joint operating multi-energy systems under uncertainty. Simulation is carried out in a test system to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed approach. The test energy system includes a gas subsystem with a gas...

  2. [Retrospective analysis of 47 cases with hilar cholangiocarcinoma using T-staging system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-hong; Zhao, Zhi-ming; Peng, Shu-you; Liu, Ying-bin; Wu, Yü-lian; Fang, He-qing; Jiang, Xian-chuan

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of T-staging system for hilar cholangiocarcinoma which was adopted in memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center of New York. The image data of these 47 patients were analyzed retrospectively from December 1997 to December 2002 whose data were according with our demand, and they were staged into three-stage according to the criteria of the T-staging system. The difference of respectability, ratio of tumor-free resection margin and actuarial survival rate were analyzed for different T-staging. And the coincident ratio of three different kinds of imaging methods was also analyzed. Twenty patients had T(1) tumors, twenty three had T(2) tumors and four had T(3) tumors. The resectability of the three stage was 60%, 39% and 0% respectively, and the difference was significant (P = 0.013). The likelihood of achieving tumor-free margin decreased progressively with increasing T stage (P = 0.018). The cumulative 1-year survival rates of T(1), T(2) and T(3) patients were 60%, 39% and 0% respectively, and the cumulative 3-year survival rate was 35%, 9% and 0% respectively, the survival of different stage patients differed markedly (P = 0.0103). The coincident ratio of combined using MRCP and color Doppler-ultrasonography was higher than that of combined using MRCP and B-ultrasonography or combined using CT/SCT and color Doppler-ultrasonography (P = 0.007). The T-staging system has a better value for preoperative assessment, and can be used to judge resectability and survival of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. It will be helpful to use MRCP and color Doppler-Ultrasonography combined to verdict the coverage of the tumor and the T-staging preoperatively.

  3. A versatile triple radiofrequency quadrupole system for cooling, mass separation and bunching of exotic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettner, Emma; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Czok, Ulrich; Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Kinsel, Wadim; Petrick, Martin; Schäfer, Thorsten; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The combination of in-flight separation with a gas-filled stopping cell has opened a new field for experiments with exotic nuclei. For instance, at the SHIP/SHIPTRAP facility at GSI in Darmstadt high-precision mass measurements of rare nuclei have been successfully performed. In order to extend the reach of SHIPTRAP to exotic nuclei that are produced together with high rates of unwanted reaction products, a novel compact radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) system has been developed. It implements ion cooling, identification and separation according to mass numbers and bunching capabilities. The system has a total length of one meter only and consists of an RFQ cooler, an RFQ mass filter and an RFQ buncher. A mass resolving power (FWHM) of 240 at a transmission efficiency of 90% has been achieved. The suppression of contaminants from neighboring masses by more than four orders of magnitude has been demonstrated at rates exceeding 106 ions/s. A longitudinal emittance of 0.45 eV μs has been achieved with the RFQ buncher, which will enable improved time-of-flight mass spectrometry downstream of the device. With this triple RFQ system the measurement of e.g. N= Z nuclides in the region up to tin will become possible at SHIPTRAP. The technology is also well suited for other rare-isotope facilities with experimental setups behind a stopping cell, such as the fragment separator FRS with the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI.

  4. Theoretical perspectives on electron transfer and charge separation events in photochemical water cleavage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, J.J.; Lenoir, P.M.; Musho, M.K.; Tembe, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    We study in this paper the dynamics induced by models for photochemical water cleavage systems, focusing on the spatial and temporal factors influencing electron transfer and charge separation processes in such systems. The reaction-diffusion theory is formulated in full generality and the consequences explored in a number of spatio-temporal regimes, viz. the spatially homogeneous system in the long-time limit (i.e. the steady state for a well-stirred system), the spatially homogeneous system in evolution, and the spatially inhomogeneous system in evolution (where, in the latter study, we consider electron transfer at the cluster surface to be governed by a rate constant that reflects the localized nature of such processes). The results of numerical simulations are presented for all three cases and used to highlight the importance of heterogeneous environments in enhancing the cage escape yield of charge separated species, and to demonstrate the dependence of the hydrogen yield on the localization of electron-transfer processes in the vicinity of the microcatalyst surface

  5. Development of Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling System Using Electrochemical Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Qu, Ming [Purdue University; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Bahar, Bamdad [Xergy Inc.; Parmelee, William [Xergy Inc.; Fackler, Scott [Xergy Inc.; Sherrer, Richard [Xergy Inc.; Zerby, Jacob [Xergy Inc.; Chouhan, Ashish [University of Delaware; Prasad, Ajay [University of Delaware

    2017-01-01

    Separate sensible and latent cooling systems offer superior energy efficiency performance compared to conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems. In this paper we describe an innovative non-vapor compression system that uses electrochemical compressor (ECC) to pump hydrogen between 2-metal hydride reservoirs to provide the sensible cooling effect. The heat rejected during this process is used to regenerate the ionic liquid (IL) used for desiccant dehumidification. The overall system design is illustrated. The Xergy version 4C electrochemical compressor, while not designed as a high pressure system, develops in excess of 2 MPa (300 psia) and pressure ratios > 30. The projected base efficiency improvement of the electrochemical compressor is expected to be ~ 20% with higher efficiency when in low capacity mode due to being throttleable to lower capacity with improved efficiency. The IL was tailored to maximize the absorption/desorption rate of water vapor at moderate regeneration temperature. This IL, namely, [EMIm].OAc, is a hydrophilic IL with a working concentration range of 28.98% when operating between 25 75 C. The ECC metal hydride system is expected to show superior performance to typical vapor compression systems. As such, the combined efficiency gains from the use of ECC and separate and sensible cooling would offer significant potential savings to existing vapor compression cooling technology. A high efficiency Window Air Conditioner system is described based on this novel configuration. The system s schematic is provided. Models compared well with actual operating data obtained by running the prototype system. Finally, a model of an LiCl desiccant system in conjunction with the ECC-based metal hydride heat exchangers is provided.

  6. Some problems concenrning the use of automated radiochemical separation systems in destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, L.G.; Toeroek, G.

    1977-01-01

    The present state of a long term program is reviewed. It was started to elaborate a remote controlled automated radiochemical processing system for the neutron activation analysis of biological materials. The system is based on wet ashing of the sample followed by reactive desorption of some volatile components. The distillation residue is passed through a series of columns filled with selective ion screening materials to remove the matrix activity. The solution is thus ''stripped'' from the interfering radioions, and it is processed to single-elements through group separations using ion-exchange chromatographic techniques. Some special problems concerning this system are treated. (a) General aspects of the construction of a (semi)automated radiochemical processing system are discussed. (b) Comparison is made between various technical realizations of the same basic concept. (c) Some problems concerning the ''reconstruction'' of an already published processing system are outlined. (T.G.)

  7. A Three-Stage Optimal Approach for Power System Economic Dispatch Considering Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Tzer Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of microgrids (MGs in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a three-stage optimal power dispatch model is proposed to solve such dispatch problems. In the proposed model, the entire power system is divided into two parts, namely, the main power grid and MGs. The optimal power dispatch problem is resolved on the basis of multi-area concepts. In stage I, the main power system economic dispatch (ED problem is solved by sensitive factors. In stage II, the optimal power dispatches of the local MGs are addressed via an improved direct search method. In stage III, the incremental linear models for the entire power system can be established on the basis of the solutions of the previous two stages and can be subjected to linear programming to determine the optimal reschedules from the original dispatch solutions. The proposed method is coded using Matlab and tested by utilizing an IEEE 14-bus test system to verify its feasibility and accuracy. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used for the ED of power systems with MGs as virtual power plants.

  8. The impact of the CO2 separation system integration with a 900 MWe power unit on its thermodynamic and economic indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łukowicz, Henryk; Mroncz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal cycle of a supercritical 900 MW e condensing power plant which meets the “capture ready” requirements. The CO 2 separation method selected for the analysis is chemical absorption using MEA (monoethanolamine) or ammonia as sorbent. The indispensable scope of the turbine system upgrade necessitated by the incorporation of the carbon dioxide separation installation is proposed. The change in indices of the power unit operation after integration with the capture installation is presented for different variants of the retrofit. If MEA is used for carbon dioxide separation, the smallest drop in electric power can be observed in the case of hard coal for added stages at the intermediate pressure part outlet. In the case of lignite, the most favourable upgrade solution in terms of the smallest drop in electric power is elimination of one low pressure part and a backpressure turbine is added at the same time. If ammonia is used as sorbent, the best upgrade solution in terms of the smallest drop in electric power is the variant with more stages added at the IP part outlet, regardless of the type of fuel. An economic analysis is conducted for the proposed variants. - Highlights: • Impact of steam extraction on the turbine operation. • Adding more stages at the intermediate pressure part outlet. • Installing a backpressure turbine. • Eliminating one of the operating low pressure parts. • Economic assessment of proposed variants.

  9. Ice Protection of Turbojet Engines by Inertia Separation of Water II : Single-offset-duct System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Glahn, Uwe

    1948-01-01

    Investigation of a single-offset-duct system designed to prevent entrance of water into a turbojet engine was conducted on a half-scale nacelle model. An investigation was made to determine ram-pressure recovery and radial velocity profiles at the compressor section and icing characteristics of such a duct system. At a design inlet velocity of 0.77, the maximum ram-pressure recovery attained with effective water-separating inlet was 77 percent, which is considerably less than attainable with a direct-ram inlet. Continuous heating of the accessory-housing surface would be required for inlets that have a small ice storage space.

  10. Separation coefficients of liquid-vapor in systems formed by yttrium chloride with some impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.T.; Nikiforova, T.V.; Nisel'son, L.A.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Using equilibrium Rayleigh distillation in the 800-950 deg C temperature range, separation coefficients of liquid-vapor for systems, formed by yttrium chloride with Co, Cr, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Li impurities are determined. The impurity concentration lies within 0.02-0.4 mass. % limits of each impurity, and total impurity concentration does not exceed 1 mass. %. The tested impurities, except for calcium, are more volatile than the base, yttrium trichloride. In most systems negative deviation from the Raoult's law is observed

  11. Artificial odor map and discrimination of odorants using the odor separating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahashi, Masahiro; Miyagi, Kazuki; Takamizawa, Tadashi; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2011-09-01

    In this research, achievement of the odor discrimination was examined. At first, odor separating system was developed which imitates the odor receptive mechanism of biological olfaction. A rough detection of odor becomes possible with this device. Therefore, this device makes it possible to measure the molecular size and the polarity of odorant and discriminate the mixed odor. Then, measuring representative odor molecules belonging to biological glomeruli clusters, odor information is extracted from time course patterns obtained by the system. The extracted features could be used for odor mapping close to the odor map created in the odor receptive mechanism which can classify odor quality by their odor cluster attributes.

  12. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2010-01-01

    of the system and the coupling between the two cylinder chambers. Based on the described controllers the different control strategies are evaluated through via simulations and experimentally on a scale model of an excavator arm. Based on the findings, the performance of the different controllers are discussed...

  13. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Choi

    Full Text Available Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0-new N3 according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560 were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node-positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage. Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative.

  14. Evaluation of the World Health Organization staging system for HIV infection and disease in Ethiopia: association between clinical stages and laboratory markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassa, E.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Hailu, E.; Girma, M.; Messele, T.; Mariam, H. G.; Yohannes, S.; Jurriaans, S.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.; Fontanet, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between the clinical axis of the World Health Organization (WHO) staging system of HIV infection and disease and laboratory markers in HIV-infected Ethiopians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Clinical manifestations and stage of HIV-positive individuals

  15. Evaluation of the HF-Radar network system around Taiwan using normalized cumulative Lagrangian separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredj, Erick; Kohut, Josh; Roarty, Hugh; Lai, Jian-Wu

    2017-04-01

    The Lagrangian separation distance between the endpoints of simulated and observed drifter trajectories is often used to assess the performance of numerical particle trajectory models. However, the separation distance fails to indicate relative model performance in weak and strong current regions, such as over continental shelves and the adjacent deep ocean. A skill score described in detail by (Lui et.al. 2011) was applied to estimate the cumulative Lagrangian separation distances normalized by the associated cumulative trajectory lengths. In contrast, the Lagrangian separation distance alone gives a misleading result. The proposed dimensionless skill score is particularly useful when the number of drifter trajectories is limited and neither a conventional Eulerian-based velocity nor a Lagrangian based probability density function may be estimated. The skill score assesses The Taiwan Ocean Radar Observing System (TOROS) performance. TOROS consists of 17 SeaSonde type radars around the Taiwan Island. The currents off Taiwan are significantly influenced by the nearby Kuroshio current. The main stream of the Kuroshio flows along the east coast of Taiwan to the north throughout the year. Sometimes its branch current also bypasses the south end of Taiwan and goes north along the west coast of Taiwan. The Kuroshio is also prone to seasonal change in its speed of flow, current capacity, distribution width, and depth. The evaluations of HF-Radar National Taiwanese network performance using Lagrangian drifter records demonstrated the high quality and robustness of TOROS HF-Radar data using a purely trajectory-based non-dimensional index. Yonggang Liu and Robert H. Weisberg, "Evaluation of trajectory modeling in different dynamic regions using normalized cumulative Lagrangian separation", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, C09013, doi:10.1029/2010JC006837, 2011

  16. Separation of Transformers for Class 1E Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to supply electric power to the safety related loads, safety and reliability of onsite power have to be ensured for the safety function performance in nuclear power plants. Even though the existing electric power system of APR1400 meets the requirements of codes regarding Class 1E system, there is a room for improvement in the design margin against the voltage drop and short circuit current. This paper discusses the amount that the voltage drop and short circuit current occur in the existing electric power system of APR1400. Additionally, this paper studies with regard to the improved model that has the extra margin against the high voltage drop and short circuit current by separation of unit auxiliary transformer (UAT and standby auxiliary transformer (SAT for the Class 1E loads. The improved model of the electric power system by separation of UAT and SAT has been suggested through this paper. Additionally, effects of reliability and cost caused by the electric power system modification are considered.

  17. Phase separation in strongly correlated electron systems with two types of charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, K.I.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Sboychakov, A.O.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A competition between the localization of the charge carriers due to Jahn-Teller distortions and the energy gain due to their delocalization in doped manganite and related magnetic oxides is analyzed based on a Kondo-lattice type model. The resulting effective Hamiltonian is, in fact, a generalization of the Falicov-Kimball model. We find that the number of itinerant charge carriers can be significantly lower than that implied by the doping level x. The phase diagram of the model in the T plane is constructed. The system exhibits magnetic ordered (antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, or canted) states as well the paramagnetic states with zero and nonzero density of the itinerant electrons. It is shown that a phase-separation is favorable in energy for a wide doping range. The characteristic size of inhomogeneities in a phase-separated state is of the order of several lattice constants. We also analyzed the two-band Hubbard model in the limit of strong on-site Coulomb repulsion. It was shown that such a system has a tendency to phase separation into the regions with different charge densities even in the absence of magnetic or any other ordering, if the ratio of the bandwidths is large enough. The work was supported by the European project CoMePhS and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 05-02-17600. (authors)

  18. STRONTIUM & TRANSURANIC (TRU) SEPARATION PROCESS IN THE DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON; SWANSON; BOECHLER

    2005-06-10

    The supernatants stored in tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102) and 241-AN-107 (AN-107) contain soluble strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and transuranic (TRU) elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) specification and with the 1997 agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on incidental waste. A precipitation process has been developed and tested with tank waste samples and simulants using strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) to separate {sup 90}Sr and TRU from these wastes. This report evaluates removing Sr/TRU from AN-102 and AN-107 supernates in the DST system before delivery to the WTP. The in-tank precipitation is a direct alternative to the baseline WTP process, using the same chemical separations. Implementing the Sr/TRU separation in the DST system beginning in 2012 provides {approx}6 month schedule advantage to the overall mission, without impacting the mission end date or planned SST retrievals.

  19. Chip electrochromatographic systems: Novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube and silica monoliths based separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shubhodeep

    2009-12-01

    Miniaturized chemical analysis systems, also know as 'lab-on-a-chip' devices have been rapidly developing over the last decade. Capillary electrochromatography (CEC), a multidimensional separation technique combining capillary electrophoresis (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC) has been of great interest for chip based applications. Preliminary work has been undertaken to develop vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and photopolymerizable silica solgel as novel stationary phase materials for 'chip CEC' separations. Patterned growth of CNTs in a specific location of the channel has been carried out using a solid phase Fe-Al catalyst as well as a vapor deposited ferrocene catalyst. Characterization of the CNT "forests" was achieved using optical microscopy, secondary electron microscopy, high resolution tunneling electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Proof-of-concept applications were demonstrated using reversed phase CEC separations as well as solid phase extraction of a glycosylated protein using concanavilin A immobilized onto the CNT bed. Photopolymerizable silica solgel materials were developed as stationary phase for microfluidic electrochromatographic separations in disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip devices. Effect on morphology and pore size of gels were studied as function of UV and solgel polymerization conditions, porogen, salt additives, geometry and hydrolyzable methoxy-ies. Structural morphologies were studied with Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM). Pore size and pore volumes were characterized by thermal porometry, nitrogen BET adsorptions and differential scanning calorimetry. Computational fluid dynamics and confocal microscopy tools were employed to study the transport of fluids and model analytes. These investigations were directed towards evolving improved strategies for rinsing of uncrosslinked monomers to form porous monoliths as well as to effect a desired separation under a set of electrochromatograhic conditions

  20. [Separation of functions in the System of Social Protection in Health, Mexico 2009: progress and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robledo, Luz María; Nigenda, Gustavo; González-Robledo, María Cecilia; Reich, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate advancements and challenges in the separation of functions within Mexico's System of Social Protection in Health. A 2009 evaluation study involving nine states and the National Commission for Social Protection in Health was carried out via semi-structured interviews with key actors and literature analysis. The main advancement has been the creation of the State Regimens for Social Protection in Health (REPSS in Spanish) which act as intermediaries between users and health service providers, making these state-level entities responsible for both managing financial resources and shaping and coordinating the health care delivery network. However, most of the REPSS studied were found to be in a state of inertia, leading to inadequate compliance with legally mandated functions. Normative, technical, political and managerial obstacles persist, impeding the successful separation of functions.

  1. Separate sensible and latent cooling system: A preliminary analysis of a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawaz, Kashif [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Separate sensible and latent cooling systems offer significant increases in the overall performance of cooling/dehumidification systems compared with conventional vapor-compression air-conditioning systems. Key to the energy efficiency of such systems is the performance of the heat and mass exchangers that provide sensible cooling and dehumidification. A novel design is proposed for dehumidification applications, deploying metal foam as a substrate coated with solid desiccants. The current report provides some preliminary information regarding the development of the technology and discusses factors such as manufacturing of desiccants, characterization of desiccants, and development of the metal foam heat exchanger. All three aspects provide the necessary infrastructure for further development and validation of the proposed concept.

  2. 5 CFR 837.802 - Benefits under another retirement system for Federal employees based on the most recent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Benefits under another retirement system for Federal employees based on the most recent separation. 837.802 Section 837.802 Administrative... system for Federal employees based on the most recent separation. (a) Generally. An annuitant who has...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: STORMWATER SOURCE AREA TREATMENT DEVICE — BAYSAVER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. BAYSAVER SEPARATION SYSTEM, MODEL 10K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the BaySaver Separation System, Model 10K was conducted on a 10 acre drainage basin near downtown Griffin, Georgia. The system consists of two water tight pre-cast concrete manholes and a high-density polyethylene BaySaver Separator Unit. The BaySaver Mod...

  4. A novel separation and calibration method for DVL and compass error in dead reckoning navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Yang, Tao; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Zhanqing

    2016-06-01

    The scale factor error δ C of the Doppler velocity log (DVL) and the heading angle error δ \\psi of a compass are so integrated in dead reckoning (DR) navigation systems that it is difficult to separate them. This paper aims to solve this problem by putting forward an online separation and calibration method for δ C and δ \\psi based on an ‘arc and linear’ trajectory. This method introduces the high-accuracy location information of a long base line (LBL) acoustic positioning system. At first, the relationship between the displacements on the ‘arc’ trajectory in directions of east and north, output by the LBL and DR systems, serves to judge the carrier direction and calibrate δ C . And then by compensating δ C , the displacement on the ‘linear’ trajectory is used to calibrate δ \\psi . Finally, a semi-physical simulation experiment is conducted to test and verify this calibration method to see how effective and accurate it is. Experimental results show that after calibration the residual error ratios of δ C and δ \\psi are 8.24% and 3.70% respectively. Therefore, online calibration of δ C and δ \\psi is realized effectively. What’s more, when the DR system is working alone in 400 s, this method reduces position error by up to 93.39%, from 18.91 m to 1.25 m.

  5. Decomposed versus integrated control of a one-stage production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, G.; Wijngaard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the case of a one-stage production system with several products and operating under tight production capacity constraints. The production schedule is cyclical, and there are long and sequence dependent setup times. The production system is regarded to consist of two components,

  6. Proposal for a new staging system for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagozoglu, K.H.; Dekker, H.A.; Rietveld, D.; de Bree, R.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Kantola, S.; Forouzanfar, T.; van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    A new staging system for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible has been retrospectively applied to a group of 31 patients. In this system clinicoradiographic signs and symptoms are incorporated in a simplified manner. For imaging purposes the use of plain radiographs such as periapical films and

  7. A two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng; Georgiadis, Michael C.; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimal design of distributed energy systems under uncertainty is studied. ► A stochastic model is developed using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method. ► The proposed system possesses inherent robustness under uncertainty. ► The inherent robustness is due to energy storage facilities and grid connection. -- Abstract: A distributed energy system is a multi-input and multi-output energy system with substantial energy, economic and environmental benefits. The optimal design of such a complex system under energy demand and supply uncertainty poses significant challenges in terms of both modelling and corresponding solution strategies. This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems. A two-stage decomposition based solution strategy is used to solve the optimization problem with genetic algorithm performing the search on the first stage variables and a Monte Carlo method dealing with uncertainty in the second stage. The model is applied to the planning of a distributed energy system in a hotel. Detailed computational results are presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. The impacts of demand and supply uncertainty on the optimal design of distributed energy systems are systematically investigated using proposed modelling framework and solution approach.

  8. A clinical staging system and treatment guidelines for maxillary osteoradionecrosis in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.-J.; Lee, J.-J.; Ting, L.-L.; Tseng, I.-Y.; Chang, H.-H.; Chen, H.-M.; Kuo, Y.-S.; Hahn, L.-J.; Kok, S.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a clinical staging system for maxillary osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Methods and Materials: The data of maxillary ORN cases among 1,758 irradiated NPC patients were analyzed. A staging system based on the degrees of bone exposure (E), infection (I), and bleeding (B) was developed. Correlations between various clinical parameters and stages of maxillary ORN and relationships between treatment modalities and outcomes at each stage were evaluated. Cumulative success of treatment and risk factors that affect treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: The incidence of maxillary ORN was 2.7% (48/1,758). TNM stage of NPC (p < 0.001), radiation dose (p = 0.029), and tooth extraction (p < 0.001) appeared to have significant influences on disease severity. Success rates between conservative therapy and surgical treatment were not significantly different for Stage I ORN but differed significantly for Stage II (p = 0.013) and Stage III (p = 0.008) lesions. Grade 3 infection and bleeding significantly jeopardized treatment success (p = 0.043 and 0.015, respectively). The risk ratios of treatment failure for Grade 3 infection and bleeding were 2.523 (p = 0.034) and 3.141 (p = 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: More serious maxillary ORN tended to occur in cases with more advanced NPC, higher radiation dose, and history of tooth extraction. Surgical treatment was usually required in Stage II and III ORN. The grades of infection and bleeding are important factors in guidance of treatment and prediction of outcomes

  9. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of energy demand for such systems will tend asymptotically to unity as the number of sub-systems increases

  10. Space Launch System Booster Separation Aerodynamic Testing in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Chan, David T.; Crosby, William A.

    2016-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a 0.009 scale model of the Space Launch System (SLS) was conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to characterize the aerodynamics of the core and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) during booster separation. High-pressure air was used to simulate plumes from the booster separation motors (BSMs) located on the nose and aft skirt of the SRBs. Force and moment data were acquired on the core and SRBs. These data were used to corroborate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations that were used in developing a booster separation database. The SRBs could be remotely positioned in the x-, y-, and z-direction relative to the core. Data were acquired continuously while the SRBs were moved in the axial direction. The primary parameters varied during the test were: core pitch angle; SRB pitch and yaw angles; SRB nose x-, y-, and z-position relative to the core; and BSM plenum pressure. The test was conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 4.25 and a unit Reynolds number of 1.5 million per foot.

  11. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO 2 and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer (∼ 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface

  12. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-03-06

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO{sub 2} and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer ({approx} 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface

  13. Economic viability and critical influencing factors assessment of black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, C; Monette, F; Glaus, M; Laflamme, C B

    2011-01-01

    The black water and grey water source-separation sanitation system aims at efficient use of energy (biogas), water and nutrients but currently lacks evidence of economic viability to be considered a credible alternative to the conventional system. This study intends to demonstrate economic viability, identify main cost contributors and assess critical influencing factors. A technico-economic model was built based on a new neighbourhood in a Canadian context. Three implementation scales of source-separation system are defined: 500, 5,000 and 50,000 inhabitants. The results show that the source-separation system is 33% to 118% more costly than the conventional system, with the larger cost differential obtained by lower source-separation system implementation scales. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that vacuum toilet flow reduction from 1.0 to 0.25 L/flush decreases source-separation system cost between 23 and 27%. It also shows that high resource costs can be beneficial or unfavourable to the source-separation system depending on whether the vacuum toilet flow is low or normal. Therefore, the future of this configuration of the source-separation system lies mainly in vacuum toilet flow reduction or the introduction of new efficient effluent volume reduction processes (e.g. reverse osmosis).

  14. Endogenous circadian system and circadian misalignment impact glucose tolerance via separate mechanisms in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Yang, Jessica N; Garcia, Joanna I; Myers, Samantha; Bozzi, Isadora; Wang, Wei; Buxton, Orfeu M; Shea, Steven A; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2015-04-28

    Glucose tolerance is lower in the evening and at night than in the morning. However, the relative contribution of the circadian system vs. the behavioral cycle (including the sleep/wake and fasting/feeding cycles) is unclear. Furthermore, although shift work is a diabetes risk factor, the separate impact on glucose tolerance of the behavioral cycle, circadian phase, and circadian disruption (i.e., misalignment between the central circadian pacemaker and the behavioral cycle) has not been systematically studied. Here we show--by using two 8-d laboratory protocols--in healthy adults that the circadian system and circadian misalignment have distinct influences on glucose tolerance, both separate from the behavioral cycle. First, postprandial glucose was 17% higher (i.e., lower glucose tolerance) in the biological evening (8:00 PM) than morning (8:00 AM; i.e., a circadian phase effect), independent of the behavioral cycle effect. Second, circadian misalignment itself (12-h behavioral cycle inversion) increased postprandial glucose by 6%. Third, these variations in glucose tolerance appeared to be explained, at least in part, by different mechanisms: during the biological evening by decreased pancreatic β-cell function (27% lower early-phase insulin) and during circadian misalignment presumably by decreased insulin sensitivity (elevated postprandial glucose despite 14% higher late-phase insulin) without change in early-phase insulin. We explored possible contributing factors, including changes in polysomnographic sleep and 24-h hormonal profiles. We demonstrate that the circadian system importantly contributes to the reduced glucose tolerance observed in the evening compared with the morning. Separately, circadian misalignment reduces glucose tolerance, providing a mechanism to help explain the increased diabetes risk in shift workers.

  15. Membrane separation system provides low-cost solution for petroleum marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, T.P.

    1994-11-01

    Gasoline tanker-truck loading facilities (bulk gasoline terminals) in the United States are required to use vapor recovery or vapor abatement equipment to minimize the impact of gasoline vapor emissions to the atmosphere. These vapors are generated as liquid product is loaded into the bottom of the delivery tankers. Installing semi-permeable membranes upstream of carbon adsorption units would allow carbon adsorption system to achieve higher recovery efficiencies and overcome the challenges posed by streams with high moisture concentrations. Such a membrane unit separates the bulk of the hydrocarbons and all of the water from the vapor stream. A dry, dilute stream is passed to the carbon bed system for final ''polishing,'' enhancing the bed's performance. The moist, hydrocarbon-rich stream that permeates, or diffuses through, the membrane walls is blended with the vapor stream desorbed from the regenerating carbon bed, and both streams subsequently are pressurized and condensed. The creative use of a membrane separator dehydrates and partially recovers hydrocarbons from the gasoline vapor stream. Due to the improved recovery efficiency of this integrated hybrid system, higher terminal throughputs can be realized with lower hydrocarbon emissions.

  16. Automated system for separation and distribution of 123I according to the GMP requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szucs, Z.; Szadai, J.; Isza, S.; Hegyesi, Gy.; Isza, P.; Kovacs, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The radioisotope of 123 I is routinely used in nuclear medicine, especially for SPECT imaging. The chemical separation of the produced radioisotope from the irradiated 123 Te target is based on the volatile behaviour of the iodine in high temperature. However, in this case, high attention and perfect operations are required from the staff. Therefore we have developed a PC-controlled automated system for dry distillation of 123 I from the irradiated target material and for its dispensation to pre-decided users. The main goal was, besides avoiding the error from human handling, to fulfill the regulations of the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the personal dosimetric aspect

  17. Multichannel microscale system for high throughput preparative separation with comprehensive collection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karger, Barry L.; Kotler, Lev; Foret, Frantisek; Minarik, Marek; Kleparnik, Karel

    2003-12-09

    A modular multiple lane or capillary electrophoresis (chromatography) system that permits automated parallel separation and comprehensive collection of all fractions from samples in all lanes or columns, with the option of further on-line automated sample fraction analysis, is disclosed. Preferably, fractions are collected in a multi-well fraction collection unit, or plate (40). The multi-well collection plate (40) is preferably made of a solvent permeable gel, most preferably a hydrophilic, polymeric gel such as agarose or cross-linked polyacrylamide.

  18. Production system and harvesting stage influence on nitrate content and quality of butterhead lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fairuz Yosoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables such as lettuce grown under different production systems may accumulate different concentrations of nitrate which may reach to the levels potentially toxic to humans. Moreover, nitrate accumulation varies in various plant parts and physiological age of the plant. Therefore, to determine the effect of production system and harvesting stage on nitrate accumulation and quality of butterhead lettuce, a study was conducted considering two lettuce production systems namely hydroponic and organic, and four different harvesting stages such as 35, 38, 41 and 44 days after transplanting (DAT. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD with four replications. Hydroponic and organic systems performed similar in terms of yield, quality and nitrate content of butterhead lettuce. Delaying harvesting can not only increase yield but also can minimize nitrate accumulation and health hazard risk as well. Delay in harvesting stage may result in quality deterioration of lettuce and increased production cost. Thus, a compromise is necessary to consider 41 DAT as the optimum stage to harvest butterhead lettuce with significantly higher reduction of nitrate content in both outer adult leaf blades and young leaves of hydroponic lettuce. Fresh weight, firmness and color of butterhead lettuce at this stage were still acceptable.

  19. A Two-stage DC-DC Converter for the Fuel Cell-Supercapacitor Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    A wide input range multi-stage converter is proposed with the fuel cells and supercapacitors as a hybrid system. The front-end two-phase boost converter is used to optimize the output power and to reduce the current ripple of fuel cells. The supercapacitor power module is connected by push......-pull-forward half bridge (PPFHB) converter with coupled inductors in the second stage to handle the slow transient response of the fuel cells and realize the bidirectional power flow control. Moreover, this cascaded structure simplifies the power management. The control strategy for the whole system is analyzed...... and designed. A 1kW prototype controlled by TMS320F2808 DSP is built in the lab. Simulation and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed two stage dc-dc converter system....

  20. Advanced Development Program for a 625 lbf thrust engine for Ares First Stage Roll Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Matt; Chenevert, Blake; Brewster, Gerry; Frei, Tom; Bullard, Brad; Fuller, Ray

    2009-01-01

    NASA's new Ares Launch Vehicle will require twelve thrusters to provide roll control of the vehicle during the first stage firing. All twelve roll control thrusters will be located at the inter-stage segment that separates the solid rocket booster first stage from the second stage. NASA selected a mono propellant hydrazine solution and as a result awarded Aerojet-General a contract in 2007 for an advanced development program for an MR-80- series 625 Ibf vacuum thrust monopropellant hydrazine thruster. This thruster has heritage dating back to the 1976 Viking Landers and most recently for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory. Prior to the Ares application, the MR-80-series thrusters had been equipped with throttle valves and not typically operated in pulse mode. The primary objective of the advanced development program was to increase the technology readiness level and retire major technical risks for the future flight qualification test program. Aerojet built on their heritage MR-80 rocket engine designs to achieve the design and performance requirements. Significant improvements to cost and lead-time were achieved by applying Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) principles. AerojetGeneral has completed Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews, followed by two successful rocket engine development test programs. The test programs included qualification random vibration and firing lite that significantly exceed the flight qualification requirements. This paper discusses the advanced development program and the demonstrated capability of the MR-80C engine. Y;

  1. An intracooling system for a novel two-stage sliding-vane air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Stefano; Valenti, Gianluca; Costanzo, Ida; Colletta, Daniele; Contaldi, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    Lube-oil injection is used in positive-displacement compressors and, among them, in sliding-vane machines to guarantee the correct lubrication of the moving parts and as sealing to prevent air leakage. Furthermore, lube-oil injection allows to exploit lubricant also as thermal ballast with a great thermal capacity to minimize the temperature increase during the compression. This study presents the design of a two-stage sliding-vane rotary compressor in which the air cooling is operated by high-pressure cold oil injection into a connection duct between the two stages. The heat exchange between the atomized oil jet and the air results in a decrease of the air temperature before the second stage, improving the overall system efficiency. This cooling system is named here intracooling, as opposed to intercooling. The oil injection is realized via pressure-swirl nozzles, both within the compressors and inside the intracooling duct. The design of the two-stage sliding-vane compressor is accomplished by way of a lumped parameter model. The model predicts an input power reduction as large as 10% for intercooled and intracooled two-stage compressors, the latter being slightly better, with respect to a conventional single-stage compressor for compressed air applications. An experimental campaign is conducted on a first prototype that comprises the low-pressure compressor and the intracooling duct, indicating that a significant temperature reduction is achieved in the duct.

  2. Development of technologies on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using high-efficiency steam injectors. (3) Separate two-phase flow analysis for multi-stage steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, T.; Iwaki, C.; Mori, M.; Ohmori, S.

    2004-01-01

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as an high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to serve also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. To develop high performance compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet using a laser doppler velocimetry. It's performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using CFD code embedded separate two-phase flow models and confirmed that the steam has a high-performance direct-contact heater that was suitable for compact feedwater heater. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant by replacing all low-pressure feedwater heaters with the four-stage SI system, having steam extraction pressures equal to those for the existing ABWR system. (author)

  3. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detailed information about the cancer stage. TNM Staging System The most common system for staging cancer in the form of solid tumor is the TNM system. Most providers and cancer centers use it to stage ...

  4. Validation of a new prognostic staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison of the biomarker-combined Japan Integrated Staging Score, the conventional Japan Integrated Staging Score and the BALAD Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Satoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Minami, Yasunori; Haji, Seiji; Osaki, Yukio; Oka, Hiroko; Seki, Toshihito; Kasugai, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yo; Matsunaga, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The conventional Japan Integrated Staging (c-JIS) score has been reported to effectively stratify patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, two new staging systems, the biomarker-combined JIS (bm-JIS) score and the BALAD score, have been proposed. Both staging systems include three tumor markers: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin specific for HCC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of these three staging systems. A total of 1,173 HCC patients were included in this study. The stratification ability and prognostic predictive power were compared between these three staging systems. These three staging systems effectively predicted the patient survival. When accounting for the best prognostic subgroup of each staging systems (i.e. score of 0), there were significant differences between the bm-JIS score and the BALAD score and, likewise, between the c-JIS score and the BALAD score. The likelihood ratio chi(2) test showed the highest value and the Akaike information criterion value was lowest in the bm-JIS score. The bm-JIS score showed good stratification ability and was thus demonstrated to be a better predictor of the prognosis than the c-JIS score and the BALAD score, especially for the patients with a good prognosis. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Reliability in the Power System Modeled in a Multi- Stage Stochastic Mixed Integer Programming Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen Nielsen, Michael Pascal

    Contributions from this article are that it takes the characteristics of the power system into account at different stages, which gives a more realistic presentation of the welfare aspects to be gained by an optimal operation/ dispatch of the power system. This article is utilizing a Multi......-Stage Stochastic Mixed Integer Programming Model that handles uncertainty in a flexible and practical way. The method applied relies on state-of-the-art modeling within this field, but the method applied in this article is extended by using decomposition....

  6. Droop Control with Improved Disturbance Adaption for PV System with Two Power Conversion Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    issues, an improved droop scheme for a two-stage PV system has been developed in the paper. The developed scheme uses the same control structure in both grid-connected and islanded modes, which together with properly tuned synchronizers, allows mode transfer to be seamlessly triggered. Moreover...... with no or insufficient storage for cushioning climatic changes. In addition, most droop-controlled literatures have assumed a single dc-ac inverter with its input dc source fixed. Front-end dc-dc converter added to a two-stage photovoltaic (PV) system has therefore usually been ignored. To address these unresolved...

  7. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    OpenAIRE

    Solmaz Aslanzadeh; Karthik Rajendran; Azam Jeihanipour; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2013-01-01

    The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system) and the other without recirculation (open system). For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; st...

  8. Separation and Detection of Toxic Gases with a Silicon Micromachined Gas Chromatography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Edward S.; Reston, Rocky R.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature gas chromatography (GC) system was designed and fabricated using silicon micromachining and integrated circuit (IC) processing techniques. The silicon micromachined gas chromatography system (SMGCS) is composed of a miniature sample injector that incorporates a 10 microliter sample loop; a 0.9 meter long, rectangular shaped (300 micrometer width and 10 micrometer height) capillary column coated with a 0.2 micrometer thick copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) stationary phase; and a dual detector scheme based upon a CuPc-coated chemiresistor and a commercially available 125 micrometer diameter thermal conductivity detector (TCD) bead. Silicon micromachining was employed to fabricate the interface between the sample injector and the GC column, the column itself, and the dual detector cavity. A novel IC thin-film processing technique was developed to sublime the CuPc stationary phase coating on the column walls that were micromachined in the host silicon wafer substrate and Pyrex (r) cover plate, which were then electrostatically bonded together. The SMGCS can separate binary gas mixtures composed of parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) when isothermally operated (55-80 degrees C). With a helium carrier gas and nitrogen diluent, a 10 microliter sample volume containing ammonia and nitrogen dioxide injected at 40 psi ((2.8 x 10(exp 5)Pa)) can be separated in less than 30 minutes.

  9. Edmonton obesity staging system among pediatric patients: a validation and obesogenic risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, M G; Chourdakis, M; Gkiouras, K; Roumeli, P; Poulimeneas, D; Apostolidou, E; Chountalas, I; Tirodimos, I; Filippou, O; Papadakou-Lagogianni, S; Dardavessis, T

    2018-01-08

    The Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics (EOSS-P) is a useful tool, delineating different obesity severity tiers associated with distinct treatment barriers. The aim of the study was to apply the EOSS-P on a Greek pediatric cohort and assess risk factors associated with each stage, compared to normal weight controls. A total of 361 children (2-14 years old), outpatients of an Athenian hospital, participated in this case-control study by forming two groups: the obese (n = 203) and the normoweight controls (n = 158). Anthropometry, blood pressure, blood and biochemical markers, comorbidities and obesogenic lifestyle parameters were recorded and the EOSS-P was applied. Validation of EOSS-P stages was conducted by juxtaposing them with IOTF-defined weight status. Obesogenic risk factors' analysis was conducted by constructing gender-and-age-adjusted (GA) and multivariate logistic models. The majority of obese children were stratified at stage 1 (46.0%), 17.0% were on stage 0, and 37.0% on stage 2. The validation analysis revealed that EOSS-P stages greater than 0 were associated with diastolic blood pressure and levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL and ALT. Reduced obesity odds were observed among children playing outdoors and increased odds for every screen time hour, both in the GA and in the multivariate analyses (all P  2 times/week was associated with reduced obesity odds in the GA analysis (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98, P linear = 0.047), it lost its significance in the multivariate analysis (P linear = 0.145). Analogous results were recorded in the analyses of the abovementioned physical activity risk factors for the EOSS-P stages. Linear relationships were observed for fast-food consumption and IOTF-defined obesity and higher than 0 EOSS-P stages. Parental obesity status was associated with all EOSS-P stages and IOTF-defined obesity status. Few outpatients were healthy obese (stage 0), while the majority exhibited several comorbidities

  10. Liver-inherent immune system: its role in blood-stage malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The liver is well known as that organ which is obligately required for the intrahepatocyte development of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria-causative agent Plasmodium. However, largely neglected is the fact that the liver is also a central player of the host defense against the morbidity- and mortality-causing blood stages of the malaria parasites. Indeed, the liver is equipped with a unique immune system that acts locally, however, with systemic impact. Its main "antipodal" functions are to recognize and to generate effective immunoreactivity against pathogens on the one hand, and to generate tolerance to avoid immunoreactivity with "self" and harmless substances as dietary compounds on the other hand. This review provides an introductory survey of the liver-inherent immune system: its pathogen recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and its major cell constituents with their different facilities to fight and eliminate pathogens. Then, evidence is presented that the liver is also an essential organ to overcome blood-stage malaria. Finally, we discuss effector responses of the liver-inherent immune system directed against blood-stage malaria: activation of TLRs, acute phase response, phagocytic activity, cytokine-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, generation of "protective" autoimmunity by extrathymic T cells and B-1 cells, and T cell-mediated repair of liver injuries mainly produced by malaria-induced overreactions of the liver-inherent immune system.

  11. Control, monitoring and data acquisition systems in pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retevoi, Carmen; Balteanu, Ovidiu Ioan

    1999-01-01

    To achieve the control, monitoring and data acquisition for a pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation we have developed a system based on computer processing which transfers and treats all the data from the physical system. It consists of six basic elements: 1. a process computer ; 2. a National Instruments Amplifier/Multiplexed - SCXI 1000 with a SCXI 1100 Module with 32 differential input channels; 3. a Honeywell Digital Process Recorder - DPR 250, with 32 universal input, 12 digital input and 12 internal relays; 4. a control system for 4 throttle valves; 5. a National Instruments Data Acquisition board - AT-MIO-16XE-10, with 8 differential channels; 6. a system consisting of up to 20 digital programming current units for carbon RTD's. All the parameters from transducers, sensors and transmitters are introduced into the multiplexer and beyond into the acquisition data board. With LabVIEW soft support (National Instrument product), we made a graphic interface which displays the plant and all the parameters and their points of measure and cumulates all these data into a file. On the other hand all the pressure flow and level values are monitored by the recorder DPR 250, which has a RS232/RS485 port for PC communication. The temperatures are measured with carbon RTD's and a system comprising 20 programming current units connected by RS485 serial bus and a RS485/RS232 converter directly to the serial port of process computer. A special program makes the voltage/temperature conversion. The control system for throttle valves comprises a central unit, which communicates by RS232 bus with 4 controllers commanding 4 stepping motors. Every stepping motor is linked by a reductor to the throttle valve. This system can operate in either manual or automatic mode. The central unit can communicate with process computer via RS232 link. In this way a process computer can receive all the parameters by means of RS232/RS245 link or directly through the multiplexer and

  12. A novel centrifugal separator: conceptual design and analysis of system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, Utsav

    2016-01-01

    In the processes related to nuclear fuel cycle, we encounter some sort of slurries, like nuclear waste slurries, which need treatment for separation of suspended solids. There are several techniques to accomplish this purpose, like using some chemical action (like that for separation of nuclear fuel ore or for separation of some specific nuclear waste), sedimentation, enhanced sedimentation or forced precipitation using some sort of additives, passage through a specifically designed constricted flow way, centrifugal separation, etc. Centrifugal separation being one of the important techniques used for separation, several centrifugal separators have been designed, developed and being used successfully for a continuously flowing slurry or mixture. The presently designed separator does the process of separation and tries to keep the species once separated isolated uniformly throughout the axial length of the separation region. Some conventional centrifugal separators are non-hermetic too. Here in this paper, a different kind of centrifugal separator has been proposed, which separates the heavier suspended matter as well as the lighter suspended matter from some liquid, that too in bulk in one go. It is very suitable for coarse separation of nuclear ore

  13. Target tracking system based on preliminary and precise two-stage compound cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiyan; Hu, Ruolan; She, Jun; Luo, Yiming; Zhou, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Early detection of goals and high-precision of target tracking is two important performance indicators which need to be balanced in actual target search tracking system. This paper proposed a target tracking system with preliminary and precise two - stage compound. This system using a large field of view to achieve the target search. After the target was searched and confirmed, switch into a small field of view for two field of view target tracking. In this system, an appropriate filed switching strategy is the key to achieve tracking. At the same time, two groups PID parameters are add into the system to reduce tracking error. This combination way with preliminary and precise two-stage compound can extend the scope of the target and improve the target tracking accuracy and this method has practical value.

  14. Integrated System for Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Kiyoteru; Gani, Rafiqul; Ishikawa, T.

    2000-01-01

    A thermodynamic insights based algorithm for integrated design and analysis of crystallization processes with electrolyte systems is presented. This algorithm consists of a thermodynamic calculation part, a process design/analysis part and a process simulation part, which are integrated through a...

  15. Control Strategy of Two Capacitor Voltages for Separate MPPTs in Photovoltaic Systems Using Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    and panel mismatch conditions. In this system, if PV modules are separately connected to the split capacitor voltage, the MPPT efficiency can be improved by the proposed control strategy. By the proposed method, the two capacitor voltages can be controlled asymmetrically to perform the separate MPPTs...

  16. Maglev six degree-of-freedom fine position stage control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Darnold, J.R.; Jordan, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL). The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for a National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) Structural Control Testbed, define the present level of research. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the systems. Specifics regarding control system electronics, including software and control algorithm structure, as well as performance design goals and test results are presented.

  17. ABC transporters and xenobiotic defense systems in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Christian; Segner, Helmut; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of oviparous fish, in contrast to (ovo) viviparous species, develop in the aquatic environment, and therefore need solute transport systems at their body surfaces for maintaining internal homeostasis and defending against potentially harmful substances. We hypothesized that solute transporters undergo changes in tissue distribution from the embryo to the larval stage. We therefore studied the mRNA profiles of eight ABC transporters (abcb1a, abcb1b, abcc1, abcc2, abcc3, abcc4, abcc5, abcg2) and three solute carriers (oatp1d, putative oatp2 putative, mate1) in different body regions (head, yolk sac epithelium, abdominal viscera, skin/muscles) of developing rainbow trout. Additionally, we investigated mRNA levels of phase I (cyp1a, cyp3a) and phase II (gstp, putative ugt1, putative ugt2) biotransformation enzymes. The study covered the developmental period from the eleuthero-embryo stage to the first-feeding larval stage (1-20days post-hatch, dph). At 1dph, transcripts of abcc2, abcc4, abcg2, cyp3a, gstp, putative mate1, and putative oatp2 occurred primarily in the yolk sac epithelium, whereas at later stages expression of these genes was predominantly observed in the abdominal viscera. The functional activity of ABC transporters in fish early life stages was assessed by rhodamine B accumulation assays. Finally, we investigated the potential impact of xenobiotics (clotrimazole, clofibric acid) on the ABC and biotransformation systems of trout early life stages. While clofibric acid had no effect, clotrimazole lead to an increased rhodamine B accumulation. The results provide evidence that the transition from the eleuthero-embryo to the larval stage is accompanied by a major alteration in tissue expression of ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Validation and ranking of established staging-systems in a large western HCC-cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark op den Winkel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCC is diagnosed in approximately half a million people per year, worldwide. Staging is a more complex issue than in most other cancer entities and, mainly due to unique geographic characteristics of the disease, no universally accepted staging system exists to date. Focusing on survival rates we analyzed demographic, etiological, clinical, laboratory and tumor characteristics of HCC-patients in our institution and applied the common staging systems. Furthermore we aimed at identifying the most suitable of the current staging systems for predicting survival. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 405 patients with HCC were identified from an electronic medical record database. The following seven staging systems were applied and ranked according to their ability to predict survival by using the Akaike information criterion (AIC and the concordance-index (c-index: BCLC, CLIP, GETCH, JIS, Okuda, TNM and Child-Pugh. Separately, every single variable of each staging system was tested for prognostic meaning in uni- and multivariate analysis. Alcoholic cirrhosis (44.4% was the leading etiological factor followed by viral hepatitis C (18.8%. Median survival was 18.1 months (95%-CI: 15.2-22.2. Ascites, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, AFP, number of tumor nodes and the BCLC tumor extension remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Overall, all of the tested staging systems showed a reasonable discriminatory ability. CLIP (closely followed by JIS was the top-ranked score in terms of prognostic capability with the best values of the AIC and c-index (AIC 2286, c-index 0.71, surpassing other established staging systems like BCLC (AIC 2343, c-index 0.66. The unidimensional scores TNM (AIC 2342, c-index 0.64 and Child-Pugh (AIC 2369, c-index 0.63 performed in an inferior fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with six other staging systems, the CLIP-score was identified as the most suitable staging system for

  19. New J-STAGE system accelerates digitization and distribution of academic journals from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryuichi; Kubota, Soichi; Aoyama, Kota; Tsuchiya, Eri; Miyagawa, Yoshiyuki

    13 years have passed since J-STAGE was launched. At present no one could deny that its user interface and functions were already out of date comparing to foreign established e-journals. So JST has developed a new system called “J-STAGE3” in order to offer better usability and give powerful dissemination of academic papers from Japan. As the result of it, they will be able to enjoy the following things: 1) integration of two databases, Journal@rchive and J-STAGE, 2) new design/interface, 3) introduction of international standard XML format, 4) advanced subscription management, 5) saving cost of publishers, and 6) improving J-STAGE online submission and review system. At the end of March 2011, we conducted a market research on current status of digitization on Japanese society journals. The report told us that digitization ratio of those was 62% in total but it was 34% in humanities/social sciences. Or it was 92% in English journals and 55% in Japanese ones. It means that we need further promotion of digitization. In this paper, we discuss functions and direction of J-STAGE3 as well as our role in promotion of digitization of Japanese society journals.

  20. Anaerobic sewage treatment in a one-stage UASB reactor and a combined UASB Digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.J.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of sewage at 15°C was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-Digester system. The latter consists of a UASB reactor complemented with a digester for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation. The UASB reactor was operated at a

  1. Three-stage enzymatic digestive system for a gut-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Pim; Ianovska, Margaryta A.; Mathwig, Klaus; Bouwmeester, Hans; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a three-stage microfluidic system as a cell-free model for digestion in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Larger-scale digestion models are currently being used for pharmacological, toxicological and nutritional studies to determine the possible

  2. Multi-stage fuzzy PID power system automatic generation controller in deregulated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayeghi, H.; Shayanfar, H.A.; Jalili, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-stage fuzzy proportional integral derivative (PID) type controller is proposed to solve the automatic generation control (AGC) problem in a deregulated power system that operates under deregulation based on the bilateral policy scheme. In each control area, the effects of the possible contracts are treated as a set of new input signals in a modified traditional dynamical model. The multi-stage controller uses the fuzzy switch to blend a proportional derivative (PD) fuzzy logic controller with an integral fuzzy logic input. The proposed controller operates on fuzzy values passing the consequence of a prior stage on to the next stage as fact. The salient advantage of this strategy is its high insensitivity to large load changes and disturbances in the presence of plant parameter variations and system nonlinearities. This newly developed strategy leads to a flexible controller with simple structure that is easy to implement, and therefore, it can be useful for the real world power systems. The proposed method is tested on a three area power system with different contracted scenarios under various operating conditions. The results of the proposed controller are compared with those of the classical fuzzy PID type controller and classical PID controller through some performance indices to illustrate its robust performance

  3. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  4. Vibration isolation and dual-stage actuation pointing system for space precision payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yongfang; Huang, Hai

    2018-02-01

    Pointing and stability requirements for future space missions are becoming more and more stringent. This work follows the pointing control method which consists of a traditional spacecraft attitude control system and a payload active pointing loop, further proposing a vibration isolation and dual-stage actuation pointing system for space precision payloads based on a soft Stewart platform. Central to the concept is using the dual-stage actuator instead of the traditional voice coil motor single-stage actuator to improve the payload active pointing capability. Based on a specified payload, the corresponding platform was designed to be installed between the spacecraft bus and the payload. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated by preliminary closed-loop control investigations in simulations. With the ordinary spacecraft bus, the line-of-sight pointing accuracy can be controlled to below a few milliarcseconds in tip and tilt. Meanwhile, utilizing the voice coil motor with the softening spring in parallel, which is a portion of the dual-stage actuator, the system effectively achieves low-frequency motion transmission and high-frequency vibration isolation along the other four degree-of-freedom directions.

  5. Investigation into periodic process of hydrogen isotope separation by counterflow method in the hydrogen-palladium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, B.M.; Selivanenko, I.L.; Vedeneev, A.I.; Golubkov, A.N.; Tenyaev, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    The key diagram and results of the investigation into working conditions of the pilot plant for hydrogen isotope separation embodying the concept of continuous counterflow separation in the hydrogen-palladium system are shown. The counterflow of phases in the plant is attained under the motion of palladium solid hydride phase relative to stationary blocks of flow rotation. The column separator is defined as section type one. The plant performs in periodic regime with accumulating vessels for light and heavy components of the separated mixture. Maximum concentration of the separated tritium ranged up to ∼ 96 % in the experiments of the deuterium-tritium separation. Minimum concentration of the residual tritium in the mixture ranged up to ∼ 0.1 %. The plant provides to reprocessing 4.5 moles of the gas a day [ru

  6. DNA repair systems and the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: varying activities at different stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorna, Alina E; Bowater, Richard P; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2010-05-25

    Mycobacteria, including most of all MTB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), cause pathogenic infections in humans and, during the infectious process, are exposed to a range of environmental insults, including the host's immune response. From the moment MTB is exhaled by infected individuals, through an active and latent phase in the body of the new host, until the time they reach the reactivation stage, MTB is exposed to many types of DNA-damaging agents. Like all cellular organisms, MTB has efficient DNA repair systems, and these are believed to play essential roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. As different stages of infection have great variation in the conditions in which mycobacteria reside, it is possible that different repair systems are essential for progression to specific phases of infection. MTB possesses homologues of DNA repair systems that are found widely in other species of bacteria, such as nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair and repair by homologous recombination. MTB also possesses a system for non-homologous end-joining of DNA breaks, which appears to be widespread in prokaryotes, although its presence is sporadic within different species within a genus. However, MTB does not possess homologues of the typical mismatch repair system that is found in most bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that DNA repair genes are expressed differentially at each stage of infection. In the present review, we focus on different DNA repair systems from mycobacteria and identify questions that remain in our understanding of how these systems have an impact upon the infection processes of these important pathogens.

  7. New current control based MPPT technique for single stage grid connected PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sachin; Agarwal, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on current control for a single stage grid connected photovoltaic system. The main advantage of this algorithm comes from its ability to predict the approximate amplitude of the reference current waveform or power that can be derived from the PV array with the help of an intermediate variable β. A variable step size for the change in reference amplitude during initial tracking helps in fast tracking. It is observed that if the reference current amplitude is greater than the array capacity, the system gets unstable (i.e. moves into the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics of the array). The proposed algorithm prevents the PV system from entering the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics. It is also capable of restoring stability if the system goes unstable due to a sudden environmental change. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a new single stage grid connected PV configuration recently developed by the authors to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. The system is operated in a continuous conduction mode to realize advantages such as low device current stress, high efficiency and low EMI. A fast MPPT tracker with single stage inverter topology operating in CCM makes the overall system highly efficient. Specific cases of the system, operating in just discontinuous current mode and discontinuous current mode and their relative merits and demerits are also discussed

  8. Semicontinuous sophorolipid fermentation using a novel bioreactor with dual ventilation pipes and dual sieve-plates coupled with a novel separation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaguang; Jia, Dan; Sun, Wanqi; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Chuanbo; Zhao, Fanglong; Lu, Wenyu

    2017-12-13

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are biosurfactants with widespread applications. The yield and purity of SLs are two important factors to be considered during their commercial large-scale production. Notably, SL accumulation causes an increase in viscosity, decrease in dissolved oxygen and product inhibition in the fermentation medium. This inhibits the further production and purification of SLs. This describes the development of a novel integrated system for SL production using Candida albicans O-13-1. Semicontinuous fermentation was performed using a novel bioreactor with dual ventilation pipes and dual sieve-plates (DVDSB). SLs were separated and recovered using a newly designed two-stage separation system. After SL recovery, the fermentation broth containing residual glucose and oleic acid was recycled back into the bioreactor. This novel approach considerably alleviated the problem of product inhibition and accelerated the rate of substrate utilization. Production of SLs achieved was 477 g l -1 , while their productivity was 1.59 g l -1  h -1 . Purity of SLs improved by 23.3%, from 60% to 74%, using DVDSB with the separation system. The conversion rate of carbon source increased from 0.5 g g -1 (in the batch fermentation) to 0.6 g g -1 . These results indicated that the integrated system could improve the efficiency of production and purity of SLs. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Uranium and thorium sequential separation from norm samples by using a SIA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, M; Nieto, A; Peñalver, A; Borrull, F; Aguilar, C

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a sequential radiochemical separation method for uranium and thorium isotopes using a novel Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) system with an extraction chromatographic resin (UTEVA). After the separation, uranium and thorium isotopes have been quantified by using alpha-particle spectrometry. The developed method has been tested by analyzing an intercomparison sample (phosphogypsum sample) from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with better recoveries for uranium and thorium than the obtained by using a classical method (93% for uranium using the new methodology and 82% with the classical method, and in the case of thorium the recoveries were 70% for the semi-automated method and 60% for the classical strategy). Afterwards, the method was successfully applied to different Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) samples, in particular sludge samples taken from a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) and also sediment samples taken from an area of influence of the dicalcium phosphate (DCP) factory located close to the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Catalonia). The obtained results have also been compared with the obtained by the classical method and from that comparison it has been demonstrated that the presented strategy is a good alternative to existing methods offering some advantages as minimization of sample handling, reduction of solvents volume and also an important reduction of the time per analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A system dynamics model to evaluate effects of source separation of municipal solid waste management: A case of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukholthaman, Pitchayanin; Sharp, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste has been considered as one of the most immediate and serious problems confronting urban government in most developing and transitional economies. Providing solid waste performance highly depends on the effectiveness of waste collection and transportation process. Generally, this process involves a large amount of expenditures and has very complex and dynamic operational problems. Source separation has a major impact on effectiveness of waste management system as it causes significant changes in quantity and quality of waste reaching final disposal. To evaluate the impact of effective source separation on waste collection and transportation, this study adopts a decision support tool to comprehend cause-and-effect interactions of different variables in waste management system. A system dynamics model that envisages the relationships of source separation and effectiveness of waste management in Bangkok, Thailand is presented. Influential factors that affect waste separation attitudes are addressed; and the result of change in perception on waste separation is explained. The impacts of different separation rates on effectiveness of provided collection service are compared in six scenarios. 'Scenario 5' gives the most promising opportunities as 40% of residents are willing to conduct organic and recyclable waste separation. The results show that better service of waste collection and transportation, less monthly expense, extended landfill life, and satisfactory efficiency of the provided service at 60.48% will be achieved at the end of the simulation period. Implications of how to get public involved and conducted source separation are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources/storages utilizing a cascaded DC-AC inverter, thereby eliminating the need for a DC-DC converter. The ability to segment the energy sources and energy storages improves the maintenance capability and system reliability of the distributed generation system, as well as achieve wide range reactive power compensation. In the absence of a DC-DC converter, single stage energy conversion can be achieved to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  12. Adaptive kanban control mechanism for a single-stage hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korugan, Aybek; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we consider a hybrid manufacturing system with two discrete production lines. Here the output of either production line can satisfy the demand for the same type of product without any penalties. The interarrival times for demand occurrences and service completions are exponentially distributed i.i.d. variables. In order to control this type of manufacturing system we suggest a single stage pull type control mechanism with adaptive kanbans and state independent routing of the production information.

  13. Multi-stage Fuzzy Power System Stabilizer Based on Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new strategy based on Multi-stage Fuzzy (MSF) PID controller for damping Power System Stabilizer (PSS) in multi-machine environment using Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping (MSFL) algorithm. The proposed technique is a new meta-heuristic algorithm which is inspired by mating procedure of the honey bee. Actually, the mentioned algorithm is used recently in power systems which demonstrate the good reflex of this algorithm. Also, finding the parameters of PID controller in powe...

  14. Evaluating the Various Cropping Systems on Cd Concentrations of Different Growth Stages of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnaz Payandeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination with heavy metals would accumulate these elements in plant tissues and decrease qualitaty and quantity of agricultural producs and thus endanger human and animal healths. Previous crop residues and rates of fertilizers applications (especially phosphorus fertilizer are the most important effective factors on accumulation of cadmium in crop tissues. Another influential factor affecting soil shrinkage is crop rotation which induces the solubility of cadmium. This research was aimed to assess the effects of conventional cropping system on cadmium concentrations in wheat at its different growth stages by using a split plot in time experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications in the 2014-2015 growing season in Shavoor Agricultural Research Station (Khuzestan province. Main plot consisted of cropping system (rice-wheat, fallow-wheat and sub plot of growth stages at three levels (tillering, flowering and ripening. Different wheat seed cadmium concentrations due to two cropping systems were different significantly at 1% probability level. Cadmium concentration in the seeds at rice-wheat cropping system (0.31 mg.kg-1 was higher than fallow-wheat system (0.27 mg.kg-1 which is higher than World Health Organization standards. Result of analysis of variance showed that the effect of cropping systems and different growth stages of wheat on root and stem cadmium concentrations were significant at 1% probability level. Rice-wheat cropping system resulted in higher cadmium concentration in root (1.09 mg.kg-1 and stem (0.73 mg.kg-1 compared to that of the fallow-wheat cropping system. Accumulation of cadmium in stem or root at different growth stages of wheat were not significant but it was totally additive, because range of variation of cadmium concentration from planting to harvest was low.

  15. A design study of hydrogen isotope separation system for ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Nishi, Masataka

    2001-03-01

    Preliminary design study of the hydrogen isotope separation system (ISS) for the fuel cycle of the ITER-FEAT, a fusion experimental reactor, was carried out based on the substantial reduction of hydrogen flow to the ISS resulting from the design study for scale reduction of the formerly-designed ITER. Three feed streams (plasma exhaust gas stream, streams from the water detritiation system and that from the neutral beam injectors) are fed to the ISS, and three product streams (high purity tritium gas, high purity deuterium gas and hydrogen gas) are made in it by the method of cryogenic distillation. In this study, an original four-column cascade was proposed to the ISS cryogenic distillation column system considering simplification and the operation scenario of the ITER-FEAT. Substantial reduction of tritium inventory in the ISS was found to be possible in the progress of investigation concerning of the corresponding flow rate of tritium product stream (T>90 %) for pellet injector which depends upon the operation condition. And it was found that tritium concentration in the released hydrogen stream into environment from the ISS could easily fluctuate with current design of column arrangement due to the small disturbance in mass flow balance in the ISS. To solve this problem, two-column system for treatment of this flow was proposed. (author)

  16. Recycling nanoparticle catalysts without separation based on a pickering emulsion/organic biphasic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huifang; Zhang, Zhiming; Yang, Hengquan; Cheng, Fangqin; Du, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    A conceptually novel methodology is explored for in situ recycling of nanoparticle catalysts based on transforming a conventional organic/aqueous biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion/organic biphasic system (PEOBS). The suggested PEOBS exists as two phases, with the nanoparticle catalyst "anchored" in the Pickering emulsion phase, but is "continuous" between the organic phase and the continuous phase of the Pickering emulsion. Aqueous hydrogenations are used to evaluate the reaction performances of PEOBS, and the underlying principles of PEOBS are preliminarily elaborated. The unique properties of PEOBS lead to many intriguing findings, which are unlikely to be achieved in the reported biphasic systems. PEOBS exhibits more than a fourfold enhancement in catalysis efficiency in comparison with a conventional biphasic system. Impressively, PEOBS enables the organic product to be facilely isolated through simple decantation and the nanoparticle catalyst can be recycled in situ without the need for "separation". Its recycling effectiveness is justified by ten reaction cycles without significant catalyst loss. The simple protocol, in conjunction with the stability to simultaneously achieve high catalysis efficiency and excellent catalyst recyclability, makes PEOBS a promising methodology to develop more sustainable nanocatalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Simulink Model of the Ares I Upper Stage Main Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchett, Bradley T.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model of the Ares I upper stage main propulsion system is formulated based on first principles. Equation's are written as non-linear ordinary differential equations. The GASP fortran code is used to compute thermophysical properties of the working fluids. Complicated algebraic constraints are numerically solved. The model is implemented in Simulink and provides a rudimentary simulation of the time history of important pressures and temperatures during re-pressurization, boost and upper stage firing. The model is validated against an existing reliable code, and typical results are shown.

  18. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems using microfabricated electromagnets - Experiments and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Hansen, Ole; Bruus, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    We present experiments and simulations of magnetic separation of magnetic beads in a microfluidic channel. The separation is obtained by microfabricated electromagnets. The results of our simulations using FEMLAB and Mathematica are compared with experimental results obtained using our own...

  19. SNC Qwksep - A simple, reliable, stiff and low-shock separation system for small sat missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavast, V. M.; Lazansky, C.; Helgesen, B. R.

    The SNC Qwksep technology is a Marman band retention system with a low shock release mechanism. The Qwksep is unique in that it combines flight heritage geometry and a Clamp Band Opening Device (CBOD), packages these features in a very small height envelope of 2 inches, and provides bolt circle interfaces for the launch vehicle and payload. The system developed targeted a specific set of requirements related to small satellites in the 600 to 1,100 pound size to demonstrate the technology as opposed to a specific product. An engineering unit was designed and built to demonstrate functionality and load capacity. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used in the design stage to predict stiffness and service load capability. The engineering unit was tested for function, stiffness, and load capacity. Test results were compared to analysis predictions and show very good correlation. The engineering unit was tested to an equivalent tensile load (Peq) of 25,000 pounds. This load envelopes the target payload launch environment. Stiffness was measured at over 3.7 × 106 pounds per inch in axial tension. Correlated analysis predicts a tensile load capacity of 33,600 pounds for a 5,000-pound nominal band tension. The engineering unit tests successfully demonstrated that the technology is a viable alternative to other systems and is ready to satisfy mission requirements in the small satellite market. Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems plans to have a new 15-inch diameter version qualified by the end of 2013.

  20. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  1. Thermodynamic stability of driven open systems and control of phase separation by electro-autocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Martin Z

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the possibility of electrochemical control of phase separation, a variational theory of thermodynamic stability is developed for driven reactive mixtures, based on a nonlinear generalization of the Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn equations. The Glansdorff-Prigogine stability criterion is extended for driving chemical work, based on variations of nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy. Linear stability is generally determined by the competition of chemical diffusion and driven autocatalysis. Novel features arise for electrochemical systems, related to controlled total current (galvanostatic operation), concentration-dependent exchange current (Butler-Volmer kinetics), and negative differential reaction resistance (Marcus kinetics). The theory shows how spinodal decomposition can be controlled by solo-autocatalytic charge transfer, with only a single faradaic reaction. Experimental evidence is presented for intercalation and electrodeposition in rechargeable batteries, and further applications are discussed in solid state ionics, electrovariable optics, electrochemical precipitation, and biological pattern formation.

  2. Comparing eye movements during position tracking and identity tracking: No evidence for separate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chien; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2018-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether people track multiple moving objects in a serial fashion or with a parallel mechanism. One recent study compared eye movements when observers tracked identical objects (Multiple Object Tracking-MOT task) versus when they tracked the identities of different objects (Multiple Identity Tracking-MIT task). Distinct eye-movement patterns were found and attributed to two separate tracking systems. However, the same results could be caused by differences in the stimuli viewed during tracking. In the present study, object identities in the MIT task were invisible during tracking, so observers performed MOT and MIT tasks with identical stimuli. Observer were able to track either position and identity depending on the task. There was no difference in eye movements between position tracking and identity tracking. This result suggests that, while observers can use different eye-movement strategies in MOT and MIT, it is not necessary.

  3. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems - FY 2010 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Leigh R.; Zalupski, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) program during FY 2010. Thermodynamic investigations into metal extraction dependencies on lactate and HDEHP have been performed. These metal distribution studies indicate a substantial deviation from the expected behavior at conditions that are typical of TALSPEAK process operational platform. These studies also identify that no thermodynamically stable mixed complexes exist in the aqueous solutions and increasing the complexity of the organic medium appears to influence the observed deviations. Following on from this, the first calorimetric measurement of the heat of extraction of americium across a liquid-liquid boundary was performed.

  4. Comparison of the pattern reversal visual evoked potential mediated by separate cone systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, B; Frederiksen, J.L.; Larsson, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    With the purpose of recording responses mediated by the 3 cone systems visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were elicited by the reversal of monochromatic checkerboards superimposed upon strong monochromatic backgrounds (yellow, purple and blue-green). The sensitivity to light of various wave lengths...... were measured as the reciprocal of the intensity necessary to elicit a VEP amplitude of 3 microV. The spectral sensitivity curves based on this VEP amplitude criterion in the presence of blue-green, purple and yellow adaptation showed peak sensitivities in the red, the green and the blue part...... of the spectrum, respectively. This indicates that the responses reflect separate modulation of the 3 different cone mechanisms. The potentials obtained with yellow adaptation differed from those obtained with purple and blue-green adaptation. The amplitude versus log intensity function was flatter...

  5. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems – FY 2010 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski

    2010-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program during FY 2010. Thermodynamic investigations into metal extraction dependencies on lactate and HDEHP have been performed. These metal distribution studies indicate a substantial deviation from the expected behavior at conditions that are typical of TALSPEAK process operational platform. These studies also identify that no thermodynamically stable mixed complexes exist in the aqueous solutions and increasing the complexity of the organic medium appears to influence the observed deviations. Following on from this, the first calorimetric measurement of the heat of extraction of americium across a liquid-liquid boundary was performed.

  6. Transient response simulation of gas separation membrane module for an atmosphere detritiation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takahiko, E-mail: t-sugiyama@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, Masahiro [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki-shi, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Munakata, Kenzo [Akita University, Tegata Gakuen-cho 1-1, Akita-shi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Ichiro [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Transient response of a gas separation membrane module for the atmosphere detritiation system was numerically simulated with a mass transfer model. The module contains thousands of hollow fiber type polyimide membranes. The simulation model took into account permeation of water vapor through the dense layer of the membrane, diffusive transfer through the porous support layer and adsorption/desorption of water vapor into the matrix of the porous layer. The slow responses of the water vapor concentration in the retentate and the permeation rate were well reproduced by the present simulation, and transient changes in a follow fiber membrane were investigated in detail. The inventory and the mean residence time of water vapor at 303 K were estimated for the commercial membrane module (UMS-B2, Ube industries, Ltd.) as 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mol and 380 s, respectively.

  7. Scout fourth stage attitude and velocity control (AVC) system feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating a guidance system in the Scout fourth stage to achieve a significant improvement in expected payload delivery accuracy is studied. The technical investigations included the determination of the AVC equipment performance requirements, establishment of qualification and acceptance test levels, generation of layouts illustrating design approaches for the upper D and payload transition sections to incorporate the hardware, and the preparation of a vendor bid package. Correction concepts, utilizing inertial velocity and attitude, were identified and evaluated. Fourth stage attitude adjustments as determined from inertial velocity variation through the first three stages and a final velocity correction based upon the measured in-plane component errors at injection were employed. Results show radical reductions in apogee-perigee deviations.

  8. Design of an Image-Servo Mask Alignment System Using Dual CCDs with an XXY Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jer Lin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mask alignment of photolithography technology is used in many applications, such as micro electro mechanical systems’ semiconductor process, printed circuits board, and flat panel display. As the dimensions of the product are getting smaller and smaller, the automatic mask alignment of photolithography is becoming more and more important. The traditional stacked XY-Θz stage is heavy and it has cumulative flatness errors due to its stacked assembly mechanism. The XXY stage has smaller cumulative error due to its coplanar design and it can move faster than the traditional XY-Θz stage. However, the relationship between the XXY stage’s movement and the commands of the three motors is difficult to compute, because the movements of the three motors on the same plane are coupling. Therefore, an artificial neural network is studied to establish a nonlinear mapping from the desired position and orientation of the stage to three motors’ commands. Further, this paper proposes an image-servo automatic mask alignment system, which consists of a coplanar XXY stage, dual GIGA-E CCDs with lens and a programmable automatic controller (PAC. Before preforming the compensation, a self-developed visual-servo provides the positioning information which is obtained from the image processing and pattern recognition according to the specified fiducial marks. To obtain better precision, two methods including the center of gravity method and the generalize Hough Transformation are studied to correct the shift positioning error.

  9. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  10. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  11. Two-stage commercial evaluation of engineering systems production projects for high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Aleksander; Kalinina, Olga; Levina, Anastasia

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the current and debatable problem of methodology of choosing the effective innovative enterprises for venture financing. A two-stage system of commercial innovation evaluation based on the UNIDO methodology is proposed. Engineering systems account for 25 to 40% of the cost of high-rise residential buildings. This proportion increases with the use of new construction technologies. Analysis of the construction market in Russia showed that the production of internal engineering systems elements based on innovative technologies has a growth trend. The production of simple elements is organized in small enterprises on the basis of new technologies. The most attractive for development is the use of venture financing of small innovative business. To improve the efficiency of these operations, the paper proposes a methodology for a two-stage evaluation of small business development projects. A two-stage system of commercial evaluation of innovative projects allows creating an information base for informed and coordinated decision-making on venture financing of enterprises that produce engineering systems elements for the construction business.

  12. Two-stage commercial evaluation of engineering systems production projects for high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bril Aleksander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the current and debatable problem of methodology of choosing the effective innovative enterprises for venture financing. A two-stage system of commercial innovation evaluation based on the UNIDO methodology is proposed. Engineering systems account for 25 to 40% of the cost of high-rise residential buildings. This proportion increases with the use of new construction technologies. Analysis of the construction market in Russia showed that the production of internal engineering systems elements based on innovative technologies has a growth trend. The production of simple elements is organized in small enterprises on the basis of new technologies. The most attractive for development is the use of venture financing of small innovative business. To improve the efficiency of these operations, the paper proposes a methodology for a two-stage evaluation of small business development projects. A two-stage system of commercial evaluation of innovative projects allows creating an information base for informed and coordinated decision-making on venture financing of enterprises that produce engineering systems elements for the construction business.

  13. The critical binary star separation for a planetary system origin of white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Xu, Siyi; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The atmospheres of between one quarter and one half of observed single white dwarfs in the Milky Way contain heavy element pollution from planetary debris. The pollution observed in white dwarfs in binary star systems is, however, less clear, because companion star winds can generate a stream of matter which is accreted by the white dwarf. Here, we (i) discuss the necessity or lack thereof of a major planet in order to pollute a white dwarf with orbiting minor planets in both single and binary systems, and (ii) determine the critical binary separation beyond which the accretion source is from a planetary system. We hence obtain user-friendly functions relating this distance to the masses and radii of both stars, the companion wind, and the accretion rate on to the white dwarf, for a wide variety of published accretion prescriptions. We find that for the majority of white dwarfs in known binaries, if pollution is detected, then that pollution should originate from planetary material.

  14. Development of the focal plane system for the SEparator for CApture Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, A. A. D.; Blackmon, J. C.; Cottingham, R.; Deibel, C. M.; Good, E.; Joerres, K.; Laminack, A.; Garrity, A.; Secar Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SEparator for CApture Reactions (SECAR) is currently under construction for the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. SECAR is designed to conduct sensitive measurements of capture reactions critical to understanding stellar explosions. We have developed a versatile focal plane system that will differentiate reaction recoils from unreacted scattered beam particles in measurements covering a large range of energies and masses. The elements of the focal plane system include two metal-foil, micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors, a variety of diagnostics, and two alternative recoil stopping detectors. The MCP detectors will measure the time-of-flight (and therefore velocity) as well as the position of the recoils. Our primary heavy ion recoil detector is a gas ionization chamber that measures position, total energy and relative energy loss and provides good atomic number discrimination at energies greater than about 0.5 MeV/u. For some cases, this gas counter will be replaced by silicon strip detectors to provide superior energy resolution. We will describe the overall design and report on construction and testing of the detector systems. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Awards DE-SC0014384 and DE-FG02-96ER40978.

  15. Continuous, high-flux and efficient oil/water separation assisted by an integrated system with opposite wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Long, Yifei; Xu, Changcheng; Tian, Haifeng; Wu, Yanxia; Zha, Fei

    2018-03-01

    To resolve the drawbacks that single-mesh involved for oil/water separation, such as batch processing mode, only one phase was purified and the quick decrease in flux et al., herein, a two-way separation T-tube device was designed by integrating a pair of meshes with opposite wettability, i.e., underwater superoleophobic and superhydrophobic/superoleophilic properties. Such integrated system can continuously separate both oil and water phase from the oil/water mixtures simultaneously through one-step procedure with high flux (above 3.675 L m-2 s-1) and high separation efficiency larger than 99.8% regardless of the heavy oil or light oil involved in the mixture. Moreover, the as-prepared two meshes still maintained high separation efficiency larger than above 98.9% even after 50 cycle-usages. It worthy mentioned that this two-way separation mode essentially solves the oil liquid accumulation problem that is the single separation membrane needs to tolerate a large hydrostatic pressure caused by the accumulated liquid. We deeply believe this two-way separation system would provide a new strategy for realizing practical applications in oil spill clean-up via a continuous mode.

  16. Performance assessment and transient optimization of multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems with building PV/T integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mohamed; Saghafifar, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    One of the popular solar air conditioning technologies is desiccant air conditioning. Nonetheless, single stage desiccant air conditioning systems' coefficient of performance (COP) are relatively low. Therefore, multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems are recommended. In this paper, an integrated double-stage desiccant air conditioning systems and PV/T collector is suggested for hot and humid climates such as the UAE. The results for the PV/T implementation in the double-stage desiccant cooling system are assessed against the PV/T results for a single-stage desiccant air conditioning system. In order to provide a valid comparative evaluation between the single and double stage desiccant air conditioning systems, an identical PV/T module, in terms of dimensions, is incorporated into these systems. The overall required auxiliary air heating is abated by 46.0% from 386.8 MWh to 209.0 MWh by replacing the single stage desiccant air conditioning system with the proposed double stage configuration during June to October. Moreover, the overall averaged solar share during the investigated months for the single and double stage systems are 36.5% and 43.3%.

  17. Portable automated separation system for routine purification and/or pre-concentration of radionuclides based on column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, M.V.; Flucht, R.; Burow, M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the purification and/or pre-concentration of radionuclides before the measurement has grown increasing interest in analytical chemistry. In this study, a new compact and portable stand-alone equipment permitting automatisation of various separation tasks is developed. The new system allows performing quick and reliable automated separation of the selected radionuclide. Since there is no need for permanent manual control of the separation procedures (automatic loading of the sample, washing and stripping solution on the column are controlled via a computer program) the system can be operated overnight. The new system posses the possibility of more variable control for the separation process via new developed user-friendly software, is shielded against the chemical vapors and could be universally equipped with any available chromatographic column. For the automated separation of U, Pu and Am isotopes (achieved recoveries were in the range of 65-95 %, depending on the element separated. The data, presented, show that the application of the module should be also straightforward for other elements: simply by changing the chromatographic columns with the resin having high chemical selectivity for the target ion. The developed separation column module, software and hardware can be readily adapted in any laboratory to meet defined analytical requirements. (author)

  18. Simplified HCC-ART score for highly sensitive detection of small-sized and early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in the widely used Okuda, CLIP, and BCLC staging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Omran, Mohamed M; Attallah, Ahmed A; Abdelrazek, Mohamed A; Farid, Khaled; El-Dosoky, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Small-sized HCC can be effectively cured by surgery with good clinical outcomes. A highly sensitive HCC α-fetoprotein routine test (HCC-ART) for HCC diagnosis as well as a simplied form of the HCC-ART were reported in the British Journal of Cancer. Here, we verified and studied the applicability of the HCC-ART to the detection of early-stage HCC. 341 cirrhotic patients and 318 HCC patients were included in this study. For each, the HCC-ART score was calculated, and then the sensitivity, specificity, and results of an ROC curve analysis were compared between the HCC-ART and AFP when these biomarkers were used to detect small-sized HCC. Different HCC-ART cutoffs were set for the detection of different tumor sizes. The HCC-ART (AUC = 0.871, 70% sensitivity, 97% specificity) and the simplified HCC-ART (AUC = 0.934, 82% sensitivity, 100% specificity) were found to have high predictive power when attempting to separate cirrhotic patients from those with small-sized HCC. The simplified HCC-ART score was superior to AFP for determining stages according to the early Okuda (0.950 AUC, 84% sensitivity, 99% specificity), CLIP (0.945 AUC, 84% sensitivity, 99% specificity), and BCLC (1.000 AUC, 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity) staging systems. The simplified HCC-ART score was more strongly correlated than AFP and other staging systems with HCC tumor size (P HCC-ART is superior to AFP for diagnosing early-stage HCC. Due to its advantages of minimal variability and a wide continuous scale for assessing HCC severity, the simplified HCC-ART has the potential to be more widely used than the original HCC-ART.

  19. Materials, Processes and Manufacturing in Ares 1 Upper Stage: Integration with Systems Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage is designed and developed based on sound systems engineering principles. Systems Engineering starts with Concept of Operations and Mission requirements, which in turn determine the launch system architecture and its performance requirements. The Ares I-Upper Stage is designed and developed to meet these requirements. Designers depend on the support from materials, processes and manufacturing during the design, development and verification of subsystems and components. The requirements relative to reliability, safety, operability and availability are also dependent on materials availability, characterization, process maturation and vendor support. This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of materials and manufacturing engineering during the various phases of Ares IUS development, including design and analysis, hardware development, test and verification. Emphasis is placed how materials, processes and manufacturing support is integrated over the Upper Stage Project, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, the paper describes the approach used to ensure compliance with materials, processes, and manufacturing requirements during the project cycle, with focus on hardware systems design and development.

  20. Thermochemistry: the key to minerals separation from biomass for fuel use in high performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overend, R.P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass use in high efficiency thermal electricity generation is limited not by the properties of the organic component of biomass, but by the behavior of the associated mineral matter at high temperatures. On a moisture and ash free basis biomass, which has an average formula of CH{sub 1.4}O{sub 0.6}N{sub 0.1}, has a relatively low heating value of 18.6 GJ/t. However, this would not limit its use in high efficiency combustion systems because adequate high temperatures could be reached to achieve high carnot cycle efficiencies. These high temperatures cannot be reached because of the fouling and slagging propensities of the minerals in biomass. The mineral composition is a function of soils and the growth habit of the biomass, however, the most important element is potassium, which either alone or in combinating with silica forms the basis of fouling and slagging behaviors. Growing plants selectively concentrate potassium in their cells, which along with nitrogen and phosphorus are the key macronutrients for plant growth. Annual plants tend to have very high potassium contents, although wood biomass exclusive of the living cambial layer (i.e. minus the bark, small branches, and leaves) has minimal potassium content and other nutrients. Under combustion conditions the potassium is mobilized, especially in the presence of chlorine, at relative low temperatures and fouls heat transfer surfaces and corrodes high performance metals used, for example, in the high temperature sections of burners and gas turbines. Recent work has demonstrated the phenomenology of ash fouling, mainly by the potassium component of biomass, as well as identifying the key species such as KOH, KCl, and sulphates that are involved in potassium transport at temperatures <800 deg C. Techniques that separate the mineral matter from the fuel components (carbon and hydrogen) at low temperatures reduce or limit the alkali metal transport phenomena and result in very high efficiency combustion

  1. Evolution of International Space Station GN&C System Across ISS Assembly Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roscoe; Frank, K. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system for the International Space Station is initially implemented by the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) which was built by the Khrunichev Space Center under direct contract to Boeing. This element (Stage 1A/R) was launched on 20 November 1998 and is currently operating on-orbit. The components and capabilities of the FGB Motion Control System (MCS) are described. The next ISS element, which has GN&C functionality will be the Service Module (SM) built by Rocket Space Corporation-Energia. This module is scheduled for launch (Stage 1R) in early 2000. Following activation of the SM GN&C system, the FGB MCS is deactivated and no longer used. The components and capabilities of the SM GN&C system are described. When a Progress vehicle is attached to the ISS it can be used for reboost operations, based on commands provided by the Mission Control Center-Moscow. When a data connection is implemented between the SM and the Progress, the SM can command the Progress thrusters for attitude control and reboosts. On Stage 5A, the U.S. GN&C system will become activated when the U.S. Laboratory is de loyed and installed (launch schedule is currently TBD). The U.S. GN&C system provides non-propulsive control capabilities to support micro-gravity operations and minimize the use of propellant for attitude control, and an independent capability for determining the ISS state vector, attitude, attitude rate. and time.. The components and capabilities of the U.S. GN&C system are described and the interactions between the U.S. and Russian Segment GN&C systems are also described.

  2. Performance Validation and Scaling of a Capillary Membrane Solid-Liquid Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S; Cook, J; Juratovac, J; Goodwillie, J; Burke, T

    2011-10-25

    Algaeventure Systems (AVS) has previously demonstrated an innovative technology for dewatering algae slurries that dramatically reduces energy consumption by utilizing surface physics and capillary action. Funded by a $6M ARPA-E award, transforming the original Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) prototype machine into a commercially viable technology has required significant attention to material performance, integration of sensors and control systems, and especially addressing scaling issues that would allow processing extreme volumes of algal cultivation media/slurry. Decoupling the harvesting, dewatering and drying processes, and addressing the rate limiting steps for each of the individual steps has allowed for the development individual technologies that may be tailored to the specific needs of various cultivation systems. The primary performance metric used by AVS to assess the economic viability of its Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) dewatering technology is algae mass production rate as a function of power consumption (cost), cake solids/moisture content, and solids capture efficiency. An associated secondary performance metric is algae mass loading rate which is dependent on hydraulic loading rate, area-specific hydraulic processing capacity (gpm/in2), filter:capillary belt contact area, and influent algae concentration. The system is capable of dewatering 4 g/L (0.4%) algae streams to solids concentrations up to 30% with capture efficiencies of 80+%, however mass production is highly dependent on average cell size (which determines filter mesh size and percent open area). This paper will present data detailing the scaling efforts to date. Characterization and performance data for novel membranes, as well as optimization of off-the-shelf filter materials will be examined. Third party validation from Ohio University on performance and operating cost, as well as design modification suggestions will be discussed. Extrapolation of current productivities

  3. Study on improvement of laser system performance for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the cost of Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), I developed the following laser technologies. (1) I developed a solid-state pulse power supply, of which output power was the almost highest value achieved for a copper vapor laser in 1989, using a GTO as a switching device and a magnetic pulse compression circuit. (2) I developed a new technique of tuning the laser wavelength to an atomic absorption band using high-speed wavelength shift of a laser diode by direct modulation. (3) I developed a new technique of stabilizing the laser wavelength at an absorption band of a target atom, by locking the sideband generated by phase modulation of a laser beam to a Fabry-Perot interferometer. (4) I proposed the Cr 4+ -doped forsterite laser system as an all solid-state laser system for the AVLIS. I obtained the slope efficiency of 25%, which was the highest value achieved in the case of pulse operation of the Cr 4+ -doped forsterite laser in 1995, using the forsterite with high Cr 4+ -ion concentration. (author)

  4. Separability in Distant Jauch-Type Hybrid Macrostates of a Quantum and a Classical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbut, Fedor

    1986-12-01

    It is assumed that for a quantum system ( Q) plus a classical one ( C) that are in a distant state the actually measurable Hermitian operators are of the form A⊗∑ k⌆K b k Q k ( A is any Hermitian operator for Q, and the decomposition ∑ k Q k =1 of the identity is, after von Neumann, characteristic for C). This leads to Jauch-type macrostates (classes of microstates or statistical operators) for Q+C. On the other hand, it is shown that in the Q+Q case the essence of quantum correlations are the conditional states (or statistical operators) of subsystem I and the reduced state ρ II. Along these lines, the correlation entities (as a complete set of invariants) for the macrostates of the Q+C system are derived, and it is shown that one can make an isomorphic transition from the σ-convex set of the latter to that of the hybrid macrostates ( ρ k , p k ) Here ρ k is the conditional state of Q under the condition that Q k occurs on C, and p k is a classical discrete probability distribution on K, taking the place of ρ II as the macrostate of C. This study indirectly throws new light on the nonseparability in the Q+Q case by contrasting it with a well-understood separability in the C+C and Q+C cases.

  5. Computed aided system for separation and classification of the abnormal erythrocytes in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsowicz, Michał; Grochowski, Michał; Kulka, Marek; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Ficek, Mateusz; Karpieńko, Katarzyna; Cićkiewicz, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.

  6. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  7. Advanced optical design and control of multi-colored SSL system for stage lighting application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita

    mixing system and provides a solution which is capable of replacing both the Fresnel lens spotlight Halogen lamp (2kW) and the commercially available LED luminaire (~160W), which have applications in stage lighting, theater lighting, TV studio lighting, etc. Since the optical design comprises LEDs...... homogeneity, which overcomes the expensive and tedious manual polishing or direct diamond turning. The tool fabrication provides an easy and inexpensive mold and hence a cost effective injection molding replication process....

  8. Two-stage SQUID system and transducers development for MiniGrail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottardi, L.; Podt, M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Bassan, M.; Karbalai-Sadegh, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Reinke, W.; Shumack, A.; Srinivas, S.; de Waard, A.; de Waard, A.; Frossati, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present measurements on a two-stage SQUID system based on a dc-SQUID as a sensor and a DROS as an amplifier. We measured the intrinsic noise of the dc-SQUID at 4.2 K. A new dc-SQUID has been fabricated. It was specially designed to be used with MiniGRAIL transducers. Cooling fins have been added

  9. Improved Duct Systems Task Report with StageGate 2 Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Neil [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Stroer, Dennis [Calcs-Plus, Venice, FL (United States)

    2007-12-31

    This report is about Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership's work with two industry partners, Davalier Homes and Southern Energy Homes, in constructing and evaluating prototype interior duct systems. Issues of energy performance, comfort, DAPIA approval, manufacturability and cost is addressed. A stage gate 2 analysis addresses the current status of project showing that there are still refinements needed to the process of incorporating all of the ducts within the air and thermal boundaries of the envelope.

  10. A predator-prey system with stage-structure for predator and nonlocal delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Z.G.; Pedersen, Michael; Zhang, Lai

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of solutions to the reaction-diffusion system under homogeneous Neumann boundary condition, which describes a prey-predator model with nonlocal delay. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of each equilibrium are derived by the Lyapunov functional...... and the results show that the introduction of stage-structure into predator positively affects the coexistence of prey and predator. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the results....

  11. A technique of building a value function at the stage of conceptual design of microprocessor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Chugaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to formalize the selection of optimal technical solutions early in the design of microprocessor-based systems, which allows developers to analyze the recommended solutions, and has, in comparison with the traditional «intuitive» approach, at least two undeniable merits. First, the accepted assumptions and limitations are clearly formed. Secondly, it is defined precisely, in what sense the decision is optimal. When designing microprocessor systems (systems hereafter, several characteristics have to be taken into account at the same time. In general, when n properties are taken into account for each of the compared systems, then the solution of the task of choosing “the best” system depends on choosing a function-criterion. Such function is called a value function in the article. A simple quadratic function is suggested as the value function, it can be interpreted as the distance in Euclidean space of systems technical data. The system, which corresponds to the point nearest to the point characterizing the master system with “limiting” characteristics, is considered the best one. This function approximates the designer’s system of preferences signifi cantly better than a “classical” linear value function. In conclusion, note that the developed recommendations allow the designer of complex technical systems to analyze the proposed solutions in the early stages of design and, in case of disagreement with them, to indicate the reasons why he considers them inadequate. The designed machine optimization of technical solutions in conjunction with the traditional engineering approach should allow more reasonable choosing the structure of systems at the stage of systems conceptual design.

  12. Comparative overview of primary sedimentation-based mechanical stage in some Romanian wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, C.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, wastewater (WW) treatment facilities are considered significant exposure pathways for solid particles, and also significant concerns of any quality conscious manufacturer. Most solid particles have some forms of organic coating either used as active material or to suspend and/or stabilize different present solid materials, having increase in toxicity that must be reduced, or sometimes even totally eliminated, especially if effluent is either discharged directly to surface water, or distributed through industrial water supplies. Representatives providing innovative technologies, comprehensive supports and expertise in wastewater and sludge treatment field are known, each one using modern treatment technology and facilities. Mechanical treatment is indispensable in primary treatment steps of both municipal and industrial WW applications, its main goal being separation of floating, settling and suspended materials (especially into a primary sedimentation-based treatment step). The aim of this work is to present comparatively the performance in solids removal of conventional mechanical WW treatment stages, especially those based on primary sedimentation, or sedimentation-like operations applied for Romanian urban WW treatment plants (serving two towns with ca 18,000 inhabitants), industrial WW treatment plants (deserving industries of vegetal food processing and organic chemicals’ manufacturing) and additional information on valorisation of separated solid material and improvement possibilities.

  13. Influence of specially directed exercises on separate functions of sensor-based systems of pupils of junior classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Maslyak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define dynamics of separate functions of sensor-based systems of children of primary school age as a result of specially directed physical exercises. Material and Methods: 306 pupils of the 1st – 3rd classes of a comprehensive school of Kharkov took part in the research. The following methods were used: theoretical analysis of scientifically methodical literature, pedagogical experiment, pedagogical testing, methods of mathematical statistics, and methods of determination of separate parameters of touch functions (perimetry, acumetry, esthesiometry and others. Results: the assessment of a functional condition of visual, acoustical, vestibular, tactile analyzers and visual-motor reaction is carried out; the age distinctions in indicators are considered; the extent of influence of specially directed exercises on separate functions of the studied sensor-based systems is defined. Conclusions: the positive influence of specially directed exercises on a condition of separate functions of vestibular, acoustical, visual and tactile analyzers at pupils of junior classes is established.

  14. Computer aided design, analysis and experimental investigation of membrane assisted batch reaction-separation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz; Buchaly, Carsten; Kreis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    into account the performance of each constituent element and the optimisation of the design must take into consideration their interdependency. In this paper use of a membrane, to assist in the synthesis of propyl-propionate is investigated through the use of a hybrid process design framework, which consists...... of a process design/analysis stage, a process implementation stage and a process verification stage. For the hybrid process design/analysis stage, a model-based methodology has been developed and integrated with the necessary computer-aided methods/tools to identify the operational window of reaction...

  15. Estimation of phase separation temperatures for polyethersulfone/solvent/non-solvent systems in RTIPS and membrane properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2018-01-01

    and the mean pore size of membranes prepared with the RTIPS process decreased in line with an increase of PES molecular weight. When the membrane formation mechanism was the RTIPS process, the mechanical properties were better than those of the corresponding membranes prepared with the NIPS process.......Phase separation temperature estimations, based on Hansen solubility parameters for poly(ethersulfone) (PES)/solvent/non-solvent systems, were carried out to study the control of phase separation temperature in a reverse thermally induced phase separation (RTIPS) process. Four membrane...

  16. Evaluation of Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calle, Verónica; Slack, Abigail; Keane, Niamh; Luft, Susan; Pearce, Kathryn E; Ketterling, Rhett P; Jain, Tania; Chirackal, Sintosebastian; Reeder, Craig; Mikhael, Joseph; Noel, Pierre; Mayo, Angela; Adams, Roberta H; Ahmann, Gregory; Braggio, Esteban; Stewart, A Keith; Bergsagel, P Leif; Van Wier, Scott A; Fonseca, Rafael

    2018-04-06

    The International Myeloma Working Group has proposed the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for risk stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are a limited number of studies that have validated this risk model in the autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) setting. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the applicability and value for predicting survival of the R-ISS model in 134 MM patients treated with new agents and ASCT at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and the University Hospital of Salamanca in Spain. The patients were reclassified at diagnosis according to the R-ISS: 44 patients (33%) had stage I, 75 (56%) had stage II, and 15 (11%) had stage III. After a median follow-up of 60 months, R-ISS assessed at diagnosis was an independent predictor for overall survival (OS) after ASCT, with median OS not reached, 111 and 37 months for R-ISS I, II and III, respectively (P R-ISS II and having high-risk chromosomal abnormalities (CA) had a significant shorter median OS than those with R-ISS II without CA: 70 vs. 111 months, respectively. Therefore, this study lends further support for the R-ISS as a reliable prognostic tool for estimating survival in transplant myeloma patients and suggests the importance of high-risk CA in the R-ISS II group.

  17. Numerical modeling, calibration, and validation of an ultrasonic separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappon, H.J.; Keesman, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Our overall goal is to apply acoustic separation technology for the recovery of valuable particulate matter from wastewater in industry. Such large-scale separator systems require detailed design and evaluation to optimize the system performance at the earliest stage possible. Numerical models can

  18. Realization of single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Arafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase single stage grid-tied PV system. Grid angle detection is introduced to allow operation at any arbitrary power factor but unity power factor is chosen to utilize the full inverter capacity. The system ensures MPPT using the incremental conductance method and it can track the changes in insolation level without oscillations. A PI voltage controller and a dead-beat current controller are used to ensure high quality injected current to the grid. The paper investigates the system structure and performance through numerical simulation using Matlab/Simulink. An experimental setup controlled by the MicrolabBox DSP prototyping platform is utilized to realize the system and study its performance. The precautions for smooth and safe system operation including the startup sequence are fully considered in the implementation.

  19. Low cost optical tweezers systems using double coil driving stepping motor to controlling sample stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowattanatham, N.; Cheamanunkul, N.; Plaipichit, S.; Buranasiri, P.; Nuansri, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this research, the low cost optical tweezers systems using X-Y stage has been developed by using 5-phase stepping motor. By using sequential double coil driving, we can obtain the driving torque larger than using the single coil driving. The moving scale is fine resolution at 0.2 micrometer. The overall systems based on microcontroller PIC18F458 and joystick controller with LabView® graphical user interface (GUI). The mechanical damping has been included in the system for decreasing the vibrational noise. By using this method, our optical tweezers system is cheaper than the other commercial system that has been used the piezoelectric driving, and still has the same efficiency.

  20. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. Copyright

  1. Separation of yttrium from strontium in the aqueous phase of the water/nitrobenzene system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňura, P.; Makrlík, E.; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 1 (2002), s. 171-172 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : stroncium * yttrium * separation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.502, year: 2002

  2. Separation of microamounts of yttrium from strontium in the two-phase water/nitrobenzene system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Vaňura, P.; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 1 (2002), s. 153-155 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : separation * stroncium * yttrium Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.502, year: 2002

  3. Space Transportation System Cargo projects: inertial stage/spacecraft integration plan. Volume 1: Management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Management System for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) - spacecraft processing from KSC arrival through launch is described. The roles and responsibilities of the agencies and test team organizations involved in IUS-S/C processing at KSC for non-Department of Defense missions are described. Working relationships are defined with respect to documentation preparation, coordination and approval, schedule development and maintenance, test conduct and control, configuration management, quality control and safety. The policy regarding the use of spacecraft contractor test procedures, IUS contractor detailed operating procedures and KSC operations and maintenance instructions is defined. Review and approval requirements for each documentation system are described.

  4. Element separation before matter accretion of solar system planets in the light of the periodic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1990-01-01

    The proofs of element separation in protoplanet nebula of Protosolar system have been found. For this purpose the K 1 /K 2 ratios of concentration of elements - chemical analogs in the rock samples of Venus, Earth, Mars and meteorites were compared. The new approach enabled the comparison of K 1 /K 2 of the Earth and meteorites with K 1 /K 2 of Venus and Mars obtained by elemental analysis of their rock samples. It has been found that at J 2 /J 1 >1 chemical analogs have K 1 /K 2 : on Venus probably less or at least commeasurable, on Mars and, especially in meteorites, considerably (several orders of magnitude) greater than in the Earth rocks (J 1 and J 2 are charged atoms fractions in photon flux of the Protosun). Other facts, which agree with the relationship K 1 /K 2 =f(R), where R is the average distance of a body from the Sun, were found. 41 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  5. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes, mainly urbanization and climatic change, leads to increased runoff and peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to reduce potential damage and inconvenience. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the conveyance capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. Contemporary practice is to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in the climate- and the urban environment, this approach is no longer appropriate, and explicit consideration of gradual changes during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and responses over the analysis period. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  6. Detection of Integrase Gene in E. coli Isolated from Pigs at Different Stages of Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia de la Torre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrons are one of the genetic elements involved in the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The aim of the present research is to investigate the presence of integrons in commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, isolated from pigs at different stages of production system and from the environment in an Argentinian farm. Five sows postpartum and five randomly chosen piglets from each litter were sampled by rectal swabs. They were sampled again at day 21 and at day 70. Environmental samples from the farm were also obtained. E. coli containing any integron class or combination of both integrons was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 100% of sows and in piglets at different stages of production: farrowing pen stage 68.1%;, weaning 60%, and growing/finishing 85.8%, showing an increase along the production system. From environmental samples 78.4% of E. coli containing any integron class was detected. We conclude that animals and farm environment can act as reservoirs for potential spread of resistant bacteria by means of mobile genetic elements as integrons, which has a major impact on production of food animals and that can reach man through the food chain, constituting a problem for public health.

  7. Two-stage energy storage equalization system for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yang, Z. X.; Dong, G. Q.; Li, Y. B.; He, Q. Y.

    2017-11-01

    How to raise the efficiency of energy storage and maximize storage capacity is a core problem in current energy storage management. For that, two-stage energy storage equalization system which contains two-stage equalization topology and control strategy based on a symmetric multi-winding transformer and DC-DC (direct current-direct current) converter is proposed with bidirectional active equalization theory, in order to realize the objectives of consistent lithium-ion battery packs voltages and cells voltages inside packs by using a method of the Range. Modeling analysis demonstrates that the voltage dispersion of lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs can be kept within 2 percent during charging and discharging. Equalization time was 0.5 ms, which shortened equalization time of 33.3 percent compared with DC-DC converter. Therefore, the proposed two-stage lithium-ion battery equalization system can achieve maximum storage capacity between lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs, meanwhile efficiency of energy storage is significantly improved.

  8. Separability in distant Jauch-type hybrid macrostates of a quantum and classical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbut, F.

    1986-01-01

    It is assumed that for a quantum system (Q) plus a classical one (C) that are in a distant state the actually measurable Hermitian operators are of the form A circle cross Sigma/sub k epsilon K/ b/sub k/Q/sub k/ (A is any Hermitian operator for Q, and the decomposition Sigma/sub k/Q/sub k/ = 1 of the identity is, after von Neumann, characteristic for C). This leads to Jauch-type macrostates (classes of microstates or statistical operators) for Q + C. On the other hand, it is shown that in the Q + Q case the essence of quantum correlations are the conditional states (or statistical operators) of subsystem I and the reduced state rho/sub II/. Along these lines, the correlation entities (as a complete set of invariants) for the macrostates of the Q + C system are derived, and it is shown that one can make an isomorphic transition from the σ-convex set of the latter to that of the hybrid macrostates (rho/sub k/, p/sub k/). Here rho/sub k/ is the conditional state of Q under the condition that Q/sub k/ occurs on C, and p/sub k/ is a classical discrete probability distribution on K, taking the place of rho/sub II/ as the macrostate of C. This study indirectly throws new light on the nonseparability in the Q + Q case by contrasting it with a well-understood separability in the C + C and Q + C cases

  9. Analyzing Effect of System Inertia on Grid Frequency Forecasting Usnig Two Stage Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourey, Divyansh R.; Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Jitesh; Kumar, Anand; Mishra, Anup

    2018-04-01

    Frequency forecasting is an important aspect of power system operation. The system frequency varies with load-generation imbalance. Frequency variation depends upon various parameters including system inertia. System inertia determines the rate of fall of frequency after the disturbance in the grid. Though, inertia of the system is not considered while forecasting the frequency of power system during planning and operation. This leads to significant errors in forecasting. In this paper, the effect of inertia on frequency forecasting is analysed for a particular grid system. In this paper, a parameter equivalent to system inertia is introduced. This parameter is used to forecast the frequency of a typical power grid for any instant of time. The system gives appreciable result with reduced error.

  10. Analyzing Effect of System Inertia on Grid Frequency Forecasting Usnig Two Stage Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourey, Divyansh R.; Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Jitesh; Kumar, Anand; Mishra, Anup

    2017-12-01

    Frequency forecasting is an important aspect of power system operation. The system frequency varies with load-generation imbalance. Frequency variation depends upon various parameters including system inertia. System inertia determines the rate of fall of frequency after the disturbance in the grid. Though, inertia of the system is not considered while forecasting the frequency of power system during planning and operation. This leads to significant errors in forecasting. In this paper, the effect of inertia on frequency forecasting is analysed for a particular grid system. In this paper, a parameter equivalent to system inertia is introduced. This parameter is used to forecast the frequency of a typical power grid for any instant of time. The system gives appreciable result with reduced error.

  11. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  12. FY-2011 Status Report for Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski; Travis S. Grimes

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program during FY 2011 at the INL. On the thermodynamic front, investigations of liquid-liquid distribution of lanthanides at TALSPEAK-related conditions continued in FY11. It has been determined that a classical ion-exchanging phase transfer mechanism, where three HDEHP dimers solvate the metal ion in the organic phase, dominates metal extraction for systems that contain up to 0.1 M free lactate in solution. The correct graphical interpretation of the observed data in those regions relied on incorporating corrections for non-ideal behavior of HDEHP dimer in aliphatic diluents as well as sodium extraction equilibria. When aqueous conditions enter the complex regions of high lactate concentrations, slope analysis is no longer possible. When normalized metal distribution ratios were studied along the increasing concentration of free lactate, a slope of -1 was apparent. Such dependency either indicates aqueous complexing competition from lactate, or, a more likely scenario, a participation of lactate in the extracted metal complex. This finding agrees with our initial assessment of postulated changes in the extraction mechanism as a source of the lactate-mediated loss of extraction efficiency. The observed shape in the lanthanide distribution curve in our studies of TALSPEAK systems was the same for solutions containing no lactate or 2.3 M lactate. As such we may conclude that the mechanism of phase transfer is not altered dramatically and remains similarly sensitive to effective charge density of the metal ion. In addition to these thermodynamics studies, this report also summarizes the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system. The heat of extraction measured by isothermal titration calorimetry is compared to that determined using van

  13. FY-2011 Status Report for Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Leigh R.; Zalupski, Peter R.; Grimes, Travis S.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR and D) program during FY 2011 at the INL. On the thermodynamic front, investigations of liquid-liquid distribution of lanthanides at TALSPEAK-related conditions continued in FY11. It has been determined that a classical ion-exchanging phase transfer mechanism, where three HDEHP dimers solvate the metal ion in the organic phase, dominates metal extraction for systems that contain up to 0.1 M free lactate in solution. The correct graphical interpretation of the observed data in those regions relied on incorporating corrections for non-ideal behavior of HDEHP dimer in aliphatic diluents as well as sodium extraction equilibria. When aqueous conditions enter the complex regions of high lactate concentrations, slope analysis is no longer possible. When normalized metal distribution ratios were studied along the increasing concentration of free lactate, a slope of -1 was apparent. Such dependency either indicates aqueous complexing competition from lactate, or, a more likely scenario, a participation of lactate in the extracted metal complex. This finding agrees with our initial assessment of postulated changes in the extraction mechanism as a source of the lactate-mediated loss of extraction efficiency. The observed shape in the lanthanide distribution curve in our studies of TALSPEAK systems was the same for solutions containing no lactate or 2.3 M lactate. As such we may conclude that the mechanism of phase transfer is not altered dramatically and remains similarly sensitive to effective charge density of the metal ion. In addition to these thermodynamics studies, this report also summarizes the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system. The heat of extraction measured by isothermal titration calorimetry is compared to that determined using van

  14. A Two Stage Solution Procedure for Production Planning System with Advance Demand Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kadomoto, Kiyotaka; Hasuike, Takashi; Okuhara, Koji

    We model for ‘Naiji System’ which is a unique corporation technique between a manufacturer and suppliers in Japan. We propose a two stage solution procedure for a production planning problem with advance demand information, which is called ‘Naiji’. Under demand uncertainty, this model is formulated as a nonlinear stochastic programming problem which minimizes the sum of production cost and inventory holding cost subject to a probabilistic constraint and some linear production constraints. By the convexity and the special structure of correlation matrix in the problem where inventory for different periods is not independent, we propose a solution procedure with two stages which are named Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) and Variable Mesh Neighborhood Search (VMNS) based on meta-heuristics. It is shown that the proposed solution procedure is available to get a near optimal solution efficiently and practical for making a good master production schedule in the suppliers.

  15. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  16. A modified TNM staging system for non-metastatic colorectal cancer based on nomogram analysis of SEER database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxing; Li, Jun; Cai, Yibo; Tian, Yu; Chi, Shengqiang; Tong, Danyang; Hu, Yeting; Yang, Qi; Li, Jingsong; Poston, Graeme; Yuan, Ying; Ding, Kefeng

    2018-01-08

    To revise the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system for colorectal cancer (CRC) based on a nomogram analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, and to prove the rationality of enhancing T stage's weighting in our previously proposed T-plus staging system. Total 115,377 non-metastatic CRC patients from SEER were randomly grouped as training and testing set by ratio 1:1. The Nomo-staging system was established via three nomograms based on 1-year, 2-year and 3-year disease specific survival (DSS) Logistic regression analysis of the training set. The predictive value of Nomo-staging system for the testing set was evaluated by concordance index (c-index), likelihood ratio (L.R.) and Akaike information criteria (AIC) for 1-year, 2-year, 3-year overall survival (OS) and DSS. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to valuate discrimination and gradient monotonicity. And an external validation was performed on database from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University (SAHZU). Patients with T1-2 N1 and T1N2a were classified into stage II while T4 N0 patients were classified into stage III in Nomo-staging system. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of OS and DSS in testing set showed Nomo-staging system performed better in discrimination and gradient monotonicity, and the external validation in SAHZU database also showed distinctly better discrimination. The Nomo-staging system showed higher value in L.R. and c-index, and lower value in AIC when predicting OS and DSS in testing set. The Nomo-staging system showed better performance in prognosis prediction and the weight of lymph nodes status in prognosis prediction should be cautiously reconsidered.

  17. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    to reach the highest possible combination of pressure and temperature, and adapted to Tier III by introducing two alternative superheaters. The system design is optimized and found capable of producing from 400 to 1900 kW, with a weighted average power of 958 kW. The consumption profile is found...... of recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined...... with EGR is a potential way to improve system efficiency while reducing emissions. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining the two systems. EGR dilutes the fuel, lowering the combustion temperature and thereby the formation of NOx, to reach Tier III limitation. A double stage WHRS is set up...

  18. Systems and methods for using a boehmite bond-coat with polyimide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Kimberly Ann

    2013-03-05

    The subject matter disclosed herein relates to gas separation membranes and, more specifically, to polyimide gas separation membranes. In an embodiment, a gas separation membrane includes a porous substrate, a substantially continuous polyimide membrane layer, and one or more layers of boehmite nanoparticles disposed between the porous substrate and the polyimide membrane layer to form a bond-coat layer. The bond-coat layer is configured to improve the adhesion of the polyimide membrane layer to the porous substrate, and the polyimide membrane layer has a thickness approximately 100 nm or less.

  19. Predictive properties of different multidimensional staging systems in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oga T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Toru Oga1, Mitsuhiro Tsukino2, Takashi Hajiro3, Akihiko Ikeda4, Koichi Nishimura5 1Department of Respiratory Care and Sleep Control Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hikone Municipal Hospital, Hikone, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Japan; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kobe, Japan; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Kyoto, Japan Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is considered to be a respiratory disease with systemic manifestations. Some multidimensional staging systems, not based solely on the level of airflow limitation, have been developed; however, these systems have rarely been compared. Methods: We previously recruited 150 male outpatients with COPD for an analysis of factors related to mortality. For this report, we examined the discriminative and prognostic predictive properties of three COPD multidimensional measurements. These indices were the modified BODE (mBODE, which includes body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity; the ADO, composed of age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction; and the modified DOSE (mDOSE, comprising dyspnea, airflow obstruction, smoking status, and exacerbation frequency. Results: Among these indices, the frequency distribution of the mBODE index was the most widely and normally distributed. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analyses revealed that the scores on three indices were significantly predictive of 5-year mortality of COPD (P < 0.001. The scores on the mBODE and ADO indices were more significantly predictive of mortality than forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the Medical Research Council dyspnea score, and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score. However, peak oxygen uptake on progressive cycle ergometry was more significantly related to mortality than the scores on

  20. TNM staging system may be superior to Lugano and Ann Arbor systems in predicting the overall survival of patients with primary gastrointestinal lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shujian; Shi, Xin; Xu, Zhenyu; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    To assess the survival predicting value of TNM, Lugano, and Ann Arbor staging systems in patients with primary gastrointestinal lymphoma (PGL). 101 patients with PGL were reviewed. All of them were staged according to TNM, Lugano, or Ann Arbor staging system. Five-year survival overall survival/OS rate was used as major clinical outcome. The prognostic value of different variables like depth of tumor infiltration (T), lymph node status (N), metastasis (M), sex, age, LDH, ECOG performance status (PS), subtypes, and tumor sites were assessed in relation to clinical outcome. The median follow-up time was 46.6 months (range 1.3-158.6). The estimated 5-year OS rate was 74.22%. In gastric lymphoma ,the 5-year OS rate was well correlated with stage in the TNM system (stage I 100.00%, stage II 87.18%, stage III 75.17%, and stage IV 16.67%. pAnn Arbor systems (69.47% in stage IIE, 66.67% in stage IIIE). In aggressive lymphomas, the 5-year OS of TNM stage I, stage II, stage III , and stage IV was 100.00%, 81.34%, 63.52%, and 16.00%, respectively (p=0.0002), but there were overlapped survival curves in Lugano and Ann Arbor systems. The 5-year OS of patients with T1 or T2 was significantly superior compared to patients with T3 or T4 (96.15 vs 67.92%, p=0.0087), and multivariate Cox analysis showed that T (p=0.0181) and M (p=0.0031) were the covariates prognostically significant for OS. TNM staging system may be superior to Lugano and Ann Arbor system in predicting OS of patients with PGL.

  1. America's Next Great Ship: Space Launch System Core Stage Transitioning from Design to Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstock, Benjamin; Kauer, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is essential to achieving the Nation's and NASA's goal of human exploration and scientific investigation of the solar system. As a multi-element program with emphasis on safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS is becoming America's next great ship of exploration. The SLS Core Stage includes avionics, main propulsion system, pressure vessels, thrust vector control, and structures. Boeing manufactures and assembles the SLS core stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA, a historical production center for Saturn V and Space Shuttle programs. As the transition from design to manufacturing progresses, the importance of a well-executed manufacturing, assembly, and operation (MA&O) plan is crucial to meeting performance objectives. Boeing employs classic techniques such as critical path analysis and facility requirements definition as well as innovative approaches such as Constraint Based Scheduling (CBS) and Cirtical Chain Project Management (CCPM) theory to provide a comprehensive suite of project management tools to manage the health of the baseline plan on both a macro (overall project) and micro level (factory areas). These tools coordinate data from multiple business systems and provide a robust network to support Material & Capacity Requirements Planning (MRP/CRP) and priorities. Coupled with these tools and a highly skilled workforce, Boeing is orchestrating the parallel buildup of five major sub assemblies throughout the factory. Boeing and NASA are transforming MAF to host state of the art processes, equipment and tooling, the most prominent of which is the Vertical Assembly Center (VAC), the largest weld tool in the world. In concert, a global supply chain is delivering a range of structural elements and component parts necessary to enable an on-time delivery of the integrated Core Stage. SLS is on plan to launch humanity into the next phase of space exploration.

  2. Application of a combined three-stage system for reclamation of tunnel construction wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Park, Tae-Won; Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Seokkoo; Kim, Young Mo

    2015-01-01

    A combined three-stage system, (1) coagulation (2) zeocarbon filtration and (3) membrane filtration, a combination of microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO), was investigated for reclamation of tunnel construction wastewater having a salinity of 10.8-12.9‰ and a concentration of suspended solids (SS) in the range of 264-1084 mg/L. The initial stages - coagulation, zeocarbon filtration and MF - served as a precursor to RO membrane filtration to successfully reduce water contaminants to less than 0.2 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) of turbidity, thereby minimizing the potential for fouling. The RO system subsequently removed over 99% of remaining pollutants including ionic substances, resulting in less than 0.02 NTU turbidity, less than 0.04 mg/L total nitrogen (TN) and less than 0.01 mg/L total phosphorus (TP). Also, addition of an RO system markedly reduced high salt concentrations (high chloride (Cl(-)) concentrations) in the wastewater, exceeding 99% salt elimination. Thus, reclaimed water from our combined system met and exceeded currently regulatory quality standards for wastewater reuse (turbidity ≤ 2.0 NTU; TN ≤ 10 mg/L; TP ≤ 0.5 mg/L; Cl(-) ≤ 250 mg/L).

  3. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring pressure of flow. When the monitored data exceeds the normal range, some failure may occur in the stage hydraulic system. If any failure occurs in the circuit, the maintainers can be informed immediately, which can greatly improve maintenance efficiency, ensuring the failure to be eliminated in time. Meanwhile, we can take advantage of wireless sensor network (WSN to connect the multiple loops and then monitor the loops by using ZigBee technology, which greatly improves the efficiency of monitoring.

  4. Design and evaluation of a filter-based chairside amalgam separation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Mark E. [Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, 310A B Street, Great Lakes, Illinois 60088 (United States)], E-mail: mark.stone@yahoo.com; Cohen, Mark E.; Berry, Denise L.; Ragain, James C. [Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, 310A B Street, Great Lakes, Illinois 60088 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    This study evaluated the ability of a chairside filtration system to remove particulate-based mercury (Hg) from dental-unit wastewater. Prototypes of the chairside filtration system were designed and fabricated using reusable filter chambers with disposable filter elements. The system was installed in five dental operatories utilizing filter elements with nominal pore sizes of 50{mu}m, 15{mu}m, 1{mu}m, 0.5{mu}m, or with no system installed (control). Daily chairside wastewater samples were collected on ten consecutive days from each room and brought to the laboratory for processing. After processing the wastewater samples, Hg concentrations were determined with cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (USEPA method 7470A). Filter systems were exchanged after ten samples were collected so that all five of the configurations were evaluated in each room (with assignment order balanced by a Latin Square). The numbers of surfaces of amalgam placed and removed per day were tracked in each room. In part two, new filter systems with the 0.5{mu}m filter elements were installed in the five dental operatories and vacuum levels at the high-velocity evacuation cannula tip were measured with a vacuum gauge. In part three of the study, the chairside filtration system utilizing 0.5{mu}m and 15{mu}m filter elements was evaluated utilizing the ISO 11143 testing protocol, a laboratory test of amalgam separator efficiency utilizing amalgam samples of known particle size distribution. Mean Hg per chair per day (no filter installed) was 1087.38mg (SD = 993.92mg). Mean Hg per chair per day for the 50{mu}m, 15{mu}m, 1{mu}m, 0.5{mu}m filter configurations was 79.13mg (SD = 71.40mg), 23.55mg (SD = 23.25mg), 17.68mg (SD = 17.35mg), and 4.25mg (SD = 6.35mg), respectively (n = 50 for all groups). Calculated removal efficiencies from the clinical samples were 92.7%, 97.8%, 98.4%, and 99.6%, respectively. ANCOVA on data from the four filter groups, with amalgam-surfaces-removed included as a

  5. Comparative study between two different staging systems (AJCC TNM VS BALLANTYNE’S) for mucosal melanomas of the Head & Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Romero, Madeleine; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Zepeda-Castilla, Ernesto; Vidrio-Morgado, Horacio; Peteuil, Nathalie; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Mucosal melanoma (MM) of head and neck (H &N) is a rare entity with a quite poor prognosis. Ballantyne’s staging system has been commonly used since 1970. In the 7th edition of the AJCC Staging Manual a new chapter for the staging of TNM Classification system for mucosal melanoma (MM) of the head and neck (H &N) has been introduced to reflect the particularly aggressive biological behavior of this neoplasm. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare among Ballantyne’s staging system vs TNM H &N in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a consecutive population of patients with MM in a cancer centre. Material and Methods Descriptive analysis of demographic, clinical and pathological variables of MM of the Head & Neck were performed. We compared the survival curves for both systems according to the Kaplan-Meier method using the Log-rank test. Results An up-staging migration effect from Ballantyne’s localized disease to moderately and very advanced disease according to AJCC staging system. The 5-year DFS and OS for Ballantyne’s Localized Disease and AJCC Stage III were 31% and 36% vs. 47% and 50%, respectively. For locoregional disease the 5-year DFS / OS were 5% / 10% for Bal-lantyne’s system vs. 13.8% / 17.8% and 0 / 0% for AJCC Stages IVA and IVB, respectively. Conclusions In this series, the TNM staging system for MM of the H &N predicted better the prognosis of the disease when comparing with Ballantyne’s system. Key words:Head and neck, mucosal melanoma, AJCC TNM, Ballantynes´s staging system. PMID:27031071

  6. Analysis of stage and clinical/prognostic factors for colon and rectal cancer from SEER registries: AJCC and collaborative stage data collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vivien W; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Charlton, Mary E; Ruiz, Bernardo A; Karlitz, Jordan; Altekruse, Sean F; Ries, Lynn A G; Jessup, J Milburn

    2014-12-01

    The Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System enables multiple cancer registration programs to document anatomic and molecular pathology features that contribute to the Tumor (T), Node (N), Metastasis (M) - TNM - system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). This article highlights changes in CS for colon and rectal carcinomas as TNM moved from the AJCC 6th to the 7th editions. Data from 18 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based registries were analyzed for the years 2004-2010, which included 191,361colon and 73,341 rectal carcinomas. Overall, the incidence of colon and rectal cancers declined, with the greatest decrease in stage 0. The AJCC's 7th edition introduction of changes in the subcategorization of T4, N1, and N2 caused shifting within stage groups in 25,577 colon and 10,150 rectal cancers diagnosed in 2010. Several site-specific factors (SSFs) introduced in the 7th edition had interesting findings: 1) approximately 10% of colon and rectal cancers had tumor deposits - about 30%-40% occurred without lymph node metastases, which resulted in 2.5% of colon and 3.3% of rectal cases becoming N1c (stage III A/B) in the AJCC 7th edition; 2) 10% of colon and 12% of rectal cases had circumferential radial margins Cancer Society.

  7. Cortical adaptation staging system: a new and simple staging for result evaluation of functioning free-muscle transplantation for facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Chuang, David Chwei-Chin; Chen, Hsin-Yu Sirena

    2014-07-01

    Movement-associated cortical reorganization occurs in patients after functioning free-muscle transplantation (FFMT), which is reinnervated by different neurotizers. Aiming to evaluate the process of recovery of the reinnervated muscle, we defined the cortical reorganization into 5 stages. This staging system has been applied during the past 25 years at our center with great convenience and accessibility. A standardized evaluation method for assessing the recovery after FFMT to reanimate the paralyzed face with at least a 1-year follow-up was applied. The evaluation included the following 5 stages: no movement, dependent movement, independent movement, and spontaneous movement with and without involuntary movement. Reliability of this technique was assessed by 3 examiners, who each evaluated the smiles of 30 unilateral facial paralysis patients 4 times, creating 360 sets of measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater and intrarater reliability exceeded 0.929, which is considered excellent and reliable. Chuang's Cortical Adaptation Staging System is simple, quick,and accurate in evaluating patients after FFMT reanimation of the paralyzed face with no additional tools.

  8. Evaluation of Eight Different Clinical Staging Systems Associated with Overall Survival of Chinese Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer in China, an area of high hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Although several staging systems are available, there is no consensus on the best classification to use because multiple factors, such as etiology, clinical treatment and populations could affect the survival of HCC patients. Methods: This study analyzed 743 HBV-related Chinese HCC patients who received surgery first and evaluated the predictive values of eight different commonly used staging systems in the clinic. Results: The overall 1-, 3-, 5-year survival rates and a median survival were 91.5%, 70.3%, 55.3% and 72 months respectively. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC staging systems had the best stratification ability and showed the lowest Akaike information criterion (AIC values (2896.577, followed by tumor-node-metastasis 7 th (TNM 7 th (AIC = 2899.980, TNM 6 th (AIC = 2902.17, Japan integrated staging score (AIC = 2918.085, Tokyo (AIC = 2938.822, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (AIC = 2941.950, Chinese University Prognostic Index grade (AIC = 2962.027, and Okuda (AIC = 2979.389. Conclusions: BCLC staging system is a better staging model for HBV infection patients with HCC in Chinese population among the eight currently used staging systems. These identifications afford a large group of Chinese HCC patients with HBV infection and could be helpful to design a new staging system for a certain population.

  9. Two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Ying-Kun; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xia; Chen, Lin; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparative MDLC system was developed for separation of complicated natural products. • Medium-pressure LC and preparative HPLC were connected by interface of SPE. • Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds was achieved by using this system. - Abstract: An on-line comprehensive two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system was developed for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products. Medium-pressure liquid chromatograph (MPLC) was applied as the first dimension and preparative HPLC as the second one, in conjunction with trapping column and makeup pump. The performance of the trapping column was evaluated, in terms of column size, dilution ratio and diameter-height ratio, as well as system pressure from the view of medium pressure liquid chromatograph. Satisfactory trapping efficiency can be achieved using a commercially available 15 mm × 30 mm i.d. ODS pre-column. The instrument operation and the performance of this MPLC × preparative HPLC system were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude macro-porous resin enriched water extract of Rheum hotaoense. Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds, whose structures were identified by MS, 1 H NMR and even by less-sensitive 13 C NMR, could be achieved in a short period of time using this system, exhibiting great advantages in analytical efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods

  10. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: Application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Qasem, E-mail: qasem.alramadan@epfl.ch [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; ShuJun, Li; Hua, Feng Han [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore)

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  11. Analysis of effects of a new environmental pollutant, bisphenol A, on antioxidant systems in soybean roots at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Li, Xingyi; Zhou, Li; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material. Because of its widespread use and increasing release into environment, BPA has become a new environmental pollutant. Previous studies about BPA’s effects in plants focus on a certain growth stage. However, the plant’s response to pollutants varies at different growth stages. Therefore, in this work, BPA’s effects in soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the reactive oxygen species levels, membrane lipid fatty acid composition, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant systems. The results showed that low-dose BPA exposure slightly caused membrane lipid peroxidation but didn’t activate antioxidant systems at the seedling stage, and this exposure did not affect above process at other growth stages; high-dose BPA increased reactive oxygen species levels and then caused membrane lipid peroxidation at all growth stages although it activated antioxidant systems, and these effects were weaker with prolonging the growth stages. The recovery degree after withdrawal of BPA exposure was negatively related to BPA dose, but was positively related to growth stage. Taken together, the effects of BPA on antioxidant systems in soybean roots were associated with BPA exposure dose and soybean growth stage.

  12. Separation of zirconium and hafnium from acompanying elements by paper chromatography in the systems of alcohol-acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, G.G.; Viktorova, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Solvents have been chosen and investigated which provide expressed separation of zirconium and hafnium at the analysis of mineral raw materials by paper chromatography. The systems with HNO 3 and HCl containing methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols have been studied as mobile phases for separation of zirconium and hafnium. It has been shown that alcohol contents and solvent acidity affect the Rsub(f) value of these elements. The C 2 H 5 OH-5MHCl and C 2 H 5 OH-5MHNO 3 systems are most optimal for pre-concentration of zirconium and hafnium

  13. Construction of a 300-keV compact ion microbeam system with a three-stage acceleration lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki, E-mail: ishii.yasuyuki@jaea.go.jp; Ohkubo, Takeru; Kojima, Takuji; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen ion microbeams were experimentally formed at beam energies below 150 keV using a 300-keV compact microbeam system that was constructed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This paper is a preliminary report on the performance of the three-stage acceleration lens used in the compact microbeam system. This system consists of a three-stage acceleration lens and a plasma-type ion source. Since the three-stage acceleration lens was designed to simultaneously accelerate and focus the ion beam, the compact microbeam system is only about 1-m high and can be placed in a small experimental room. To evaluate the effectiveness of the three-stage acceleration lens, experimentally measured beam sizes are compared with theoretically calculated ones. The calculated and measured beam sizes were consistent within 10%. This shows that the three-stage acceleration lens is effective as a focusing lens for forming microbeams.

  14. Separation of Cadmium in Printing Industrial Liquid Waste by Electromagnetic Plating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno

    2007-01-01

    To prevent incidence of environmental contamination and its effect to society health and other mortal, poisonous and dangerous substance waste have to be managed peculiarly by minimizing or eliminating the nature of its danger. Various processing have been developed to degrade the waste rate for example sorption, flotation, flocculation, etc., but the yield of the degradation of metal rate can not fulfill permanent standard quality of liquid waste. Because of the reason explained before, its important to make a new breakthrough as one of final phase processing alternative named reductant electromagnetic plating. Waste to be degraded in this research is cadmium. In fact cadmium represent the foregain metal for human and is not require at all in human body for metabolism process. Though plenty of cadmium exploited, but during for centuries it caused the food poisoned because this metal insoluble in organic acid. Separation of cadmium rate with electromagnetic plating influenced by time process, concentration, current strength, and type of electrode plate. Result of research indicate that the optimum time processing if using plate of copper electrode is during 30 minute and using plate of aluminium electrode is during 20 minute. Optimum of strong current that used in process of electromagnetic plating is only 0.8 Ampere and concentration effective is 5 mg / L. The most effective type of electrode plate for reducing cadmium from waste by using electromagnetic plating is aluminium. Appliance of electromagnetic plating system is very compatible used for the reduction of cadmium and others metal for feed concentration (1 - 5) mg/L .at the price efficiency of reduction is (95 - 98) %, standard quality of liquid waste is (0.05 - 1) mg/L. (author)

  15. Genetic Separation of Listeria monocytogenes Causing Central Nervous System Infections in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Bultet, Lisandra; Nicholson, Pamela; Rychener, Lorenz; Dreyer, Margaux; Gözel, Bulent; Origgi, Francesco C.; Oevermann, Anna; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS) infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide variants between lineages I and II, as well as differences in the gene content. Using a novel approach based on Reads Per Kilobase per Million Mapped (RPKM), we identified 167 genes predominantly absent in lineage II but present in lineage I. These genes are mostly encoding for membrane-associated proteins. Additionally, we found 77 genes that are largely absent in the non-CNS associated strains, while 39 genes are especially lacking in our defined “non-clinical” group. Based on the RPKM analysis and the metadata linked to the L. monocytogenes strains, we identified 6 genes potentially associated with CNS cases, which include a transcriptional regulator, an ABC transporter and a non-coding RNA. Although there is not a clear separation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains based on phylogenetic lineages, the presence of the genes identified in our study reveals potential pathogenesis traits in ruminant L. monocytogenes strains. Ultimately, the differences that we have found in our study will help steer future studies in understanding the virulence mechanisms of the

  16. Genetic Separation of Listeria monocytogenes Causing Central Nervous System Infections in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes abortion, septicemia, gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS infections in ruminants and humans. L. monocytogenes strains mainly belong to two distinct phylogenetic groups, named lineages I and II. In general, clinical cases in humans and animals, in particular CNS infections, are caused by lineage I strains, while most of the environmental and food strains belong to lineage II. Little is known about why lineage I is more virulent than lineage II, even though various molecular factors and mechanisms associated with pathogenesis are known. In this study, we have used a variety of whole genome sequence analyses and comparative genomic tools in order to find characteristics that distinguish lineage I from lineage II strains and CNS infection strains from non-CNS strains. We analyzed 225 strains and identified single nucleotide variants between lineages I and II, as well as differences in the gene content. Using a novel approach based on Reads Per Kilobase per Million Mapped (RPKM, we identified 167 genes predominantly absent in lineage II but present in lineage I. These genes are mostly encoding for membrane-associated proteins. Additionally, we found 77 genes that are largely absent in the non-CNS associated strains, while 39 genes are especially lacking in our defined “non-clinical” group. Based on the RPKM analysis and the metadata linked to the L. monocytogenes strains, we identified 6 genes potentially associated with CNS cases, which include a transcriptional regulator, an ABC transporter and a non-coding RNA. Although there is not a clear separation between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains based on phylogenetic lineages, the presence of the genes identified in our study reveals potential pathogenesis traits in ruminant L. monocytogenes strains. Ultimately, the differences that we have found in our study will help steer future studies in understanding the virulence

  17. Staged Optimization Design for Updating Urban Drainage Systems in a City of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding has been reported more often than in the past in most cities of China in recent years. In response, China’s State Council has urged the 36 largest cities to update the preparedness to handle the 50-year rainfall, which would be a massive project with large investments. We propose a staged optimization design for updating urban drainage that is not only a flexible option against environmental changes, but also an effective way to reduce the cost of the project. The staged cost optimization model involving the hydraulic model was developed in Fuzhou City, China. This model was established to minimize the total present costs, including intervention costs and flooding costs, with full consideration of the constraints of specific local conditions. The results show that considerable financial savings could be achieved by a staged design rather than the implement-once scheme. The model’s sensitivities to four data parameters were analyzed, including rainfall increase rate, flood unit cost, storage unit cost, and discount rate. The results confirm the applicability and robustness of the model for updating drainage systems to meet the requirements. The findings of this study may have important implications on urban flood management in the cities of developing countries with limited construction investments.

  18. Evaluation of high step-up power electronics stages in thermoelectric generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    To develop practical thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems, especially radioisotope thermoelectric power supplies for deep-space exploration, a power conditioning stage with high step-up gain is indispensable. This stage is used to step up the low output voltage of thermoelectric generators to t...... efficiency and input current ripples. The interleaved boost converter with an auxiliary transformer is found to be the most suitable topology for TEG applications, which is verified by experiments....... to the required high level. Furthermore, maximum power point tracking control for TEG modules needs to be implemented into the power electronics stages. In this paper, the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of a thermoelectric generator are analyzed in depth. Three typical high step-up power...... converters suitable for TEG applications are discussed: an interleaved boost converter, a boost converter with a coupled inductor and an interleaved boost converter with an auxiliary transformer. A general comparison of the three high step-up converters is conducted to study the step-up gain, conversion...

  19. Aluminum 2195 T8 Gore Development for Space Launch System Core and Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Gores are pie-shaped panels that are welded together to form the dome ends of rocket fuel tanks as shown in figure 1. Replacing aluminum alloy 2219 with aluminum (Al)-lithium (Li) alloy 2195 as the Space Launch System (SLS) cryogenic tank material would save enormous amounts of weight. In fact, it has been calculated that simply replacing Al 2219 gores with Al 2195 gores on the SLS core stage domes could save approximately 3,800 pound-mass. This is because the Al-Li 2195 alloy exhibits both higher mechanical properties and lower density than the SLS baseline Al 2219 alloy. Indeed, the known advantages of Al 2195 led to its use as a replacement for Al 2219 in the shuttle external tank program. The required thicknesses of Al 2195 gores for either SLS core stage tanks or upper stage tanks will depend on the specific design configurations. The required thicknesses or widths may exceed the current experience base in the manufacture of such gores by the stretch-forming process. Accordingly, the primary objective of this project was to enhance the formability of Al 2195 by optimizing the heat treatment and stretch-forming process for gore thicknesses up to 0.75 inches, which envelop the maximum expected gore thicknesses for SLS tank configurations.

  20. Multifunctional Solar Systems Based On Two-Stage Regeneration Absorbent Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of multifunctional dehumidification solar systems, heat supply, cooling, and air conditioning based on the open absorption cycle with direct absorbent regeneration developed. The solar systems based on preliminary drainage of current of air and subsequent evaporated cooling. The solar system using evaporative coolers both types (direct and indirect. The principle of two-stage regeneration of absorbent used in the solar systems, it used as the basis of liquid and gas-liquid solar collectors. The main principle solutions are designed for the new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors. Analysis of the heat losses in the gas-liquid solar collectors, due to the mechanism of convection and radiation is made. Optimal cost of gas and liquid, as well as the basic dimensions and configuration of the working channel of the solar collector identified. Heat and mass transfer devices, belonging to the evaporative cooling system based on the interaction between the film and the gas stream and the liquid therein. Multichannel structure of the polymeric materials used to create the tip. Evaporative coolers of water and air both types (direct and indirect are used in the cooling of the solar systems. Preliminary analysis of the possibilities of multifunctional solar absorption systems made reference to problems of cooling media and air conditioning on the basis of experimental data the authors. Designed solar systems feature low power consumption and environmental friendliness.

  1. Proteomics-based systems biology modeling of bovine germinal vesicle stage oocyte and cumulus cell interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyaswetha Peddinti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV stage are considered essential for proper maturation or 'programming' of oocytes, which is crucial for normal fertilization and embryonic development. However, despite its importance, little is known about the molecular events and pathways involved in this bidirectional communication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used differential detergent fractionation multidimensional protein identification technology (DDF-Mud PIT on bovine GV oocyte and cumulus cells and identified 811 and 1247 proteins in GV oocyte and cumulus cells, respectively; 371 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between each cell type. Systems biology modeling, which included Gene Ontology (GO and canonical genetic pathway analysis, showed that cumulus cells have higher expression of proteins involved in cell communication, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, as well as transport than GV oocytes. Our data also suggests a hypothesis that oocytes may depend on the presence of cumulus cells to generate specific cellular signals to coordinate their growth and maturation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Systems biology modeling of bovine oocytes and cumulus cells in the context of GO and protein interaction networks identified the signaling pathways associated with the proteins involved in cell-to-cell signaling biological process that may have implications in oocyte competence and maturation. This first comprehensive systems biology modeling of bovine oocytes and cumulus cell proteomes not only provides a foundation for signaling and cell physiology at the GV stage of oocyte development, but are also valuable for comparative studies of other stages of oocyte development at the molecular level.

  2. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  3. Dialysis for end stage renal disease financed through the Brazilian National Health System, 2000 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease has become a public health problem worldwide. Its terminal stage requires renal replacement therapy – dialysis or transplantation – for the maintenance of life, resulting in high economic and social costs. Though the number of patients with end-stage renal disease treated by dialysis in Brazil is among the highest in the world, current estimates of incidence and prevalence are imprecise. Our aim is to describe incidence and prevalence trends and the epidemiologic profile of end-stage renal disease patients receiving publically-financed dialysis in Brazil between 2000 and 2012. Methods We internally linked records of the High Complexity Procedure Authorization/Renal Replacement Therapy (APAC/TRS) system so as to permit analyses of incidence and prevalence of dialysis over the period 2000-2012. We characterized temporal variations in the incidence and prevalence using Joinpoint regression. Results Over the period, 280,667 patients received publically-financed dialysis, 57.2% of these being male. The underlying disease causes listed were hypertension (20.8%), diabetes (12.0%) and glomerulonephritis (7.7%); for 42.3%, no specific cause was recorded. Hemodialysis was the therapeutic modality in 90.1%. Over this period, prevalence increased 47%, rising 3.6% (95% CI 3.2% - 4.0%)/year. Incidence increased 20%, or 1.8% (1.1% – 2.5%)/year. Incidence increased in both sexes, in all regions of the country and particularly in older age groups. Conclusions Incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease receiving publically-financed dialysis treatment has increased notably. The linkage approach developed will permit continuous future monitoring of these indicators. PMID:25008169

  4. Markers, Cofactors and Staging Systems in the Study of HIV Disease Progression: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Portela

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at providing a comprehensive review of markers, cofactors and staging systems used for HIV disease, focusing on some aspects that nowadays could even be considered historical, and advancing in current issues such as the prognostic value of viral load measurements, viral genotypic and phenotypic characterization, and new HIV disease treatment protocols. CD4+ cell values, combined with the new viral markers mentioned are promising as a parsimonious predictor set for defining both severity and progression. An adequate predictor of patient resource use for planning purposes still needs to be defined

  5. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  6. ITER task D316 (1996): design review of isotope separation system (WBS 3.2 B) and water detritiation system (WBS 3.2 E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Fong, C.

    1997-05-01

    The design review performed on the ITER Isotope Separation System and the Water Detritiation System are summarized. The objectives of the task are: to produce a Design Description Document for the Feed Treatment and Vacuum system for the Water Detritiation system; to review the process system operation and control philosophy for the Water Detritiation System; to review the equipment arrangement drawings where available. 1 fig., 3 refs

  7. A multilevel reuse system with source separation process for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Jin, Xin; Wang, Ziyuan; Gu, Wantao; Wei, Zhechao; Huang, Yuanjie; Qiu, Zhuang; Jin, Pengkang

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new system of multilevel reuse with source separation in printing and dyeing wastewater (PDWW) treatment in order to dramatically improve the water reuse rate to 35%. By analysing the characteristics of the sources and concentrations of pollutants produced in different printing and dyeing processes, special, highly, and less contaminated wastewaters (SCW, HCW, and LCW, respectively) were collected and treated separately. Specially, a large quantity of LCW was sequentially reused at multiple levels to meet the water quality requirements for different production processes. Based on this concept, a multilevel reuse system with a source separation process was established in a typical printing and dyeing enterprise. The water reuse rate increased dramatically to 62%, and the reclaimed water was reused in different printing and dyeing processes based on the water quality. This study provides promising leads in water management for wastewater reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of the excretory system in a polyplacophoran mollusc: stages in metanephridial system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumler, Natalie; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2012-09-14

    Two types of excretory systems, protonephridia and metanephridial systems are common among bilaterians. The homology of protonephridia of lophotrochozoan taxa has been widely accepted. In contrast, the homology of metanephridial systems - including coelomic cavities as functional units - among taxa as well as the homology between the two excretory systems is a matter of ongoing discussion. This particularly concerns the molluscan kidneys, which are mostly regarded as being derived convergently to the metanephridia of e.g. annelids because of different ontogenetic origin. A reinvestigation of nephrogenesis in polyplacophorans, which carry many primitive traits within molluscs, could shed light on these questions. The metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata develops rapidly in the early juvenile phase. It is formed from a coelomic anlage that soon achieves endothelial organization. The pericardium and heart are formed from the central portion of the anlage. The nephridial components are formed by outgrowth from lateral differentiations of the anlage. Simultaneously with formation of the heart, podocytes appear in the atrial wall of the pericardium. In addition, renopericardial ducts, kidneys and efferent nephroducts, all showing downstream ciliation towards the internal lumen, become differentiated (specimen length: 0.62 mm). Further development consists of elongation of the kidney and reinforcement of filtration and reabsorptive structures. During development and in fully formed condition the metanephridial system of Lepidochitona corrugata shares many detailed traits (cellular and overall organization) with the protonephridia of the same species. Accordingly, we suggest a serial homology of various cell types and between the two excretory systems and the organs as a whole. The formation of the metanephridial system varies significantly within Mollusca, thus the mode of formation cannot be used as a homology criterion. Because of similarities in overall

  9. Judicial Reform of the 1864 as a Stage of Russian Judicial System Democratic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov F. Miloserdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author considers the place of judicial reform of 1864 in the public and social reforms of Alexander II. This paper attempts to show the place of justice in the legal system of Russian Empire in the post-reform period. Author emphasizes democratic and progressive nature of judicial reform of 1864, noting lack of preconditions for the formation of democratic judicial system under the autocracy. Author analyzes relationship and development of the judicial system and the dynamics of social relations. Author also revealed the way of judicial system in the formation of civil society prerequisites. This paper attempts to show and prove that judicial reform is actually a first step towards the formation of the Russian system of powers separation. Author concludes that undertaken by the Government of Russian Empire in the mid-nineteenth century attempt of the Russian Empire judicial system democratization had neither political nor social assumptions. In conclusion, author concludes that in the present conditions of judicial system democratization in modern Russian Federation a number of principles and institutions of judicial reform of 1864 was applied.

  10. Experimental logistics plan in support of Extensive Separations for Hanford tank waste remediation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderlin, W.I.; Swanson, J.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hirschi, E.J.

    1993-12-01

    All proposed methods for remediating the radioactive and chemical waste stored in single- and double-shell tanks (SSTs and DSTs) at the Hanford Site require the separation of the waste mixtures in the tank into high-level and low-level fractions, the safe transport of this separated waste to appropriate immobilization facilities, and the long-term disposal of the immobilized waste forms. Extensive experimentation, especially in waste separations, will be required to develop the technologies and to produce the data that support the most effective and safe cleanup processes. As part of this effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing this detailed experimental logistics plan to determine the logistical/resource requirements, and ultimately the critical paths, necessary to effectively and safely conduct the multitude of experiments within the Extensive Separations Development Program, which addresses the experimental needs of a concept that provides a high degree of separation for the high-level and low-level waste fractions. The logistics issues developed for this program are expected to be similar to those for other programs aimed at remediating and disposing of the wastes

  11. Nervous system development in lecithotrophic larval and juvenile stages of the annelid Capitella teleta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Néva P; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan; Moore, Richard E; Seaver, Elaine C

    2015-01-01

    larvogenesis in C. teleta persists into the juvenile stage. The first neurons differentiate in the brain, which contrasts with the early formation of peripheral, larval-specific neurons found in some spiralian taxa with planktotrophic larvae. Our study provides a clear indication that certain shared features among annelids - e.g., five connectives in the ventral nerve cord - are only visible during larval stages in particular species, emphasizing the need to include developmental data in ancestral character state reconstructions. The data provided in this paper will serve as an important comparative reference for understanding evolution of nervous systems, and as a framework for future molecular studies of development.

  12. Two stages of immiscible liquid separation in the formation of Panzhihua-type Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Fu Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic oxide deposits in the ∼260 Ma Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP, SW China and northern Vietnam, are important sources of Fe, Ti and V. Some giant magmatic Fe-Ti-V oxide deposits, such as the Panzhihua, Hongge, and Baima deposits, are well described in the literature and are hosted in layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Panxi region, the central ELIP. The same type of ELIP-related deposits also occur far to the south and include the Anyi deposit, about 130 km south of Panzhihua, and the Mianhuadi deposit in the Red River fault zone. The Anyi deposit is relatively small but is similarly hosted in a layered mafic intrusion. The Mianhuadi deposit has a zircon U-Pb age of ∼260 Ma and is thus contemporaneous with the ELIP. This deposit was variably metamorphosed during the Indosinian orogeny and Red River faulting. Compositionally, magnetite of the Mianhuadi deposit contains smaller amounts of Ti and V than that of the other deposits, possibly attributable to the later metamorphism. The distribution of the oxide ore deposits is not related to the domal structure of the ELIP. One major feature of all the oxide deposits in the ELIP is the spatial association of oxide-bearing gabbroic intrusions, syenitic plutons and high-Ti flood basalts. Thus, we propose that magmas from a mantle plume were emplaced into a shallow magma chamber where they were evolved into a field of liquid immiscibility to form two silicate liquids, one with an extremely Fe-Ti-rich gabbroic composition and the other syenitic. An immiscible Fe-Ti-(P oxide melt may then separate from the mafic magmas to form oxide deposits. The parental magmas from which these deposits formed were likely Fe-Ti-rich picritic in composition and were derived from enriched asthenospheric mantle at a greater depth than the magmas that produced sulfide-bearing intrusions of the ELIP.

  13. Evaluation of Pachymetric Measurements with Scheimpflug Photography-Based System and Optical Coherence Tomography Pachymetry at Different Stages of Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül İlkay Sezgin Akçay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the central and peripheral pachymetric measurements determined with Sirius system and Visante OCT and evaluate the agreement between them at different stages of keratoconus. Measurements were not significantly different in all patients and subgroups and showed high correlation for the corneal thicknesses of the entire cornea in different stages of keratoconus.

  14. Intra- and Interexaminer Variability of Two Separate Video Head Impulse Test Systems Assessing All Six Semicircular Canals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Emil Riis; Christensen, Ann-Eva; Hougaard, Dan Dupont

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intra- and interexaminer variability of the video Head Impulse Test (v-HIT) when assessing all six semicircular canals (SCCs) of two separate v-HIT systems. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg University Hos...

  15. Eco-sewerage System Design for Modern Office Buildings: based on Vacuum and Source-separation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangning; Wang, Chengwen; Zheng, Min; Yuan, Xin

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to construct an on-site eco-sewerage system for modern office buildings in urban area based on combined innovative technologies of vacuum and source-separation. Results showed that source-separated grey water had low concentrations of pollutants, which helped the reuse of grey water. However, the system had a low separation efficiency between the yellow water and the brown water, which was caused by the plug problem in the urine collection from the urine-diverting toilets. During the storage of yellow water for liquid fertilizer production, nearly all urea nitrogen transferred to ammonium nitrogen and about 2/3 phosphorus was lost because of the struvite precipitation. Total bacteria and coliforms increased first in the storage, but then decreased to low concentrations. The anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic MBR had high elimination rates of COD, ammonium nitrogen and total nitrogen of the brown water, which were 94.2%, 98.1% and 95.1%, respectively. However, the effluent still had high contents of colority, nitrate and phosphorus, which affected the application of the effluent for flushing water. Even though, the effluent might be used as dilution water for the yellow water fertilizer. Based on the results and the assumption of an ideal operation of the vacuum source-separation system, a future plan for on-site eco-sewerage system of modern office buildings was constructed. Its sustainability was validated by the analysis of the substances flow of water and nutrients.

  16. Ice Protection of Turbojet Engines by Inertia Separation of Water I : Alternate-duct System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Glahn, Uwe

    1948-01-01

    Aerodynamic and icing investigations of internal water-inertia separation inlets designed to prevent automatically entrance of large quantities of water into a turbojet engine in icing conditions was conducted on a one-half scale model. A simplified analytical approach to the design of internal water-inertia separation inlets is included. Results show that in order to be effective in preventing screen and guide-vane icing for an inlet of this type, a ram-pressure recovery of 75 percent was attained at design inlet-velocity ratio in an icing condition. For nonicing operation, ram-pressure recovery is comparable to direct-ram inlet.

  17. The multiple gas-liquid subsea separation system: development and qualification of a novel solution for deep water field production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrand, Stephanie; Butin, Nicolas; Shaiek, Sadia; Hallot, Raymond [Saipem S.p.A., Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Subsea processing is more and more considered as a viable solution for the development of deep and ultra deep water fields. SAIPEM has developed a deep water gas separation and liquid boosting system, based on its proprietary 'Multi pipe' separator concept, providing a good flexibility in handling a wide range of steady and un-steady multiphase input streams using a relatively simple mechanical arrangement. The Multi pipe Concept features an array of vertical pipes for gas/liquid separation by gravity and adequate liquid hold up volumes. The operating principle is the same as standard gravity vessels. Specific inlet pipe arrangements have been worked out to enhance the separation efficiency and internals can be implemented to further optimize the performances. The limited diameter and wall thickness of the vertical pipes make the Multi pipe Concept particularly suited for deep and ultra-deep water applications and/or high pressure conditions where the selection of a single separator vessel could lead to unpractical wall thicknesses. In most cases, standard API or ASME pipes can be utilized for the Multi pipe Separator, thus enabling conventional fabrication methods, and in turn reducing cost and delivery time and opening opportunities for local content. The qualification testing program has seen two subsequent phases. The first qualification phase aimed at the confirmation of the hydrodynamic behavior of the system. In particular, the homogeneous distribution of the multiphase stream into the pipes and the stability of the liquid levels under un-steady inlet conditions were continuously assessed during the tests. This first qualification phase gave confidence in the viability of the Multi pipe and in its good hydrodynamic behavior under the different inlet conditions that can be encountered during field production. It proved that, having the same liquid level in all the separator pipes, whatever the inlet conditions are, the Multi pipe separator can be

  18. Extraction and separation of proteins by ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Wang, Yuzhi; Zeng, Qun; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing

    2013-11-07

    A satisfactory protocol of protein extraction and separation has been established based on the ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (IL-ATPS) for the purification of bioactive substances. Compared with the effects of eight different ionic liquids, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([omim][Br]) was selected as the suitable ionic liquid. Based on the single-factor experiment, an initial serial investigative test was used to identify the optimal conditions of the extraction. Owing to their different isoelectric points, bovine serum albumin (BSA), hemoglobin (Hb) and lysozyme (Lys) were used to determine the effect of pH value on the protein extraction. Trypsin (Try) was used to confirm the protein activity. The linearity for analyzing BSA, Hb, Try and Lys was in the concentration range of 0.05-1.00 mg ml(-1), 0.025-1 mg ml(-1), 0.01-1.00 mg ml(-1) and 0.01-1.00 mg ml(-1), respectively, with a correlation coefficient of between 0.9985 and 0.9999. Limits of detection (LODs) were 16.47-7.02 μg ml(-1) and RSDs of inter-day stability were less than 2.9%. Repeatability and precision were respectively lower than 5.3% and 1.1%. Under the optimum conditions, the average recoveries of BSA, Hb, Try and Lys were 90.5%, 94.5%, 92.7% and 93.8% and the obtained RSDs were 1.19%, 1.23%, 1.34% and 1.04%, respectively. According to UV spectra, conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the cluster phenomenon originating from IL itself or combined with protein was evaluated. As the driving forces which are involved in the partitioning of protein between the IL-rich phase and the phosphate phase, the cluster phenomenon could, in principle, be applied to a variety of different samples and exhibited potential value.

  19. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Rajendran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system and the other without recirculation (open system. For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; starch and cotton. The digestion of starch and cotton in the closed system resulted in production of 91% and 80% of the theoretical methane yield during the first 60 days. In contrast, in the open system the methane yield was decreased to 82% and 56% of the theoretical value, for starch and cotton, respectively. The OLR could successfully be increased to 4 gVS/L/day for cotton and 10 gVS/L/day for starch. It is concluded that the recirculation supports the microorganisms for effective hydrolysis of polyhydrocarbons in CSTR and to preserve the nutrients in the system at higher OLRs, thereby improving the overall performance and stability of the process.

  20. Computerized breast cancer analysis system using three stage semi-supervised learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang Bill; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2016-10-01

    A large number of labeled medical image data is usually a requirement to train a well-performed computer-aided detection (CAD) system. But the process of data labeling is time consuming, and potential ethical and logistical problems may also present complications. As a result, incorporating unlabeled data into CAD system can be a feasible way to combat these obstacles. In this study we developed a three stage semi-supervised learning (SSL) scheme that combines a small amount of labeled data and larger amount of unlabeled data. The scheme was modified on our existing CAD system using the following three stages: data weighing, feature selection, and newly proposed dividing co-training data labeling algorithm. Global density asymmetry features were incorporated to the feature pool to reduce the false positive rate. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy were computed using 10 fold cross validation method to evaluate the performance of our CAD system. The image dataset includes mammograms from 400 women who underwent routine screening examinations, and each pair contains either two cranio-caudal (CC) or two mediolateral-oblique (MLO) view mammograms from the right and the left breasts. From these mammograms 512 regions were extracted and used in this study, and among them 90 regions were treated as labeled while the rest were treated as unlabeled. Using our proposed scheme, the highest AUC observed in our research was 0.841, which included the 90 labeled data and all the unlabeled data. It was 7.4% higher than using labeled data only. With the increasing amount of labeled data, AUC difference between using mixed data and using labeled data only reached its peak when the amount of labeled data was around 60. This study demonstrated that our proposed three stage semi-supervised learning can improve the CAD performance by incorporating unlabeled data. Using unlabeled data is promising in computerized cancer research and may have a significant impact for future CAD system

  1. A two-stage preventive maintenance policy for a multi-state deterioration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-C.; Yuan, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to propose a two-stage preventive maintenance (PM) policy for the multi-state deterioration system under periodic inspection and with multiple candidate actions for PM. Such policy is mainly to schedule PM optimally and also on how to choose the action optimally for each PM. The scheduling includes two tasks: to determine after completing each PM when to make the decision and then at it to schedule the next PM optimally. We assume that: (1) such actions except replacement are imperfect, (2) the inspection and action times can be ignored, (3) the system can be modeled by a multi-state discrete time Markov chain whose transition probabilities will change and be updated only at the instant after completing each PM, and (4) the risks of such imperfect actions will be updated only at the instant after completing each PM. Finally, an example through simulation is presented to illustrate how such policy can be carried out.

  2. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  3. Optimization of Adaboost Algorithm for Sonar Target Detection in a Multi-Stage ATR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung Han (Hank)

    2011-01-01

    JPL has developed a multi-stage Automated Target Recognition (ATR) system to locate objects in images. First, input images are preprocessed and sent to a Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) filter to identify possible regions-of-interest (ROIs). Second, feature extraction operations are performed using Texton filters and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, the features are fed to a classifier, to identify ROIs that contain the targets. Previous work used the Feed-forward Back-propagation Neural Network for classification. In this project we investigate a version of Adaboost as a classifier for comparison. The version we used is known as GentleBoost. We used the boosted decision tree as the weak classifier. We have tested our ATR system against real-world sonar images using the Adaboost approach. Results indicate an improvement in performance over a single Neural Network design.

  4. Dual-stage periodic event-triggered output-feedback control for linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhen; Chen, Wu-Hua; Lu, Xiaomei

    2018-03-22

    This paper proposes an event-triggered control framework, called dual-stage periodic event-triggered control (DSPETC), which unifies periodic event-triggered control (PETC) and switching event-triggered control (SETC). Specifically, two period parameters h 1 and h 2 are introduced to characterize the new event-triggering rule, where h 1 denotes the sampling period, while h 2 denotes the monitoring period. By choosing some specified values of h 2 , the proposed control scheme can reduce to PETC or SETC scheme. In the DSPETC framework, the controlled system is represented as a switched system model and its stability is analyzed via a switching-time-dependent Lyapunov functional. Both the cases with/without network-induced delays are investigated. Simulation and experimental results show that the DSPETC scheme is superior to the PETC scheme and the SETC scheme. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New system applying image processor to automatically separate cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin for condensate demineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tsuneyasu; Nagao, Nobuaki; Yoshimori, Yasuhide; Inoue, Takashi; Yoda, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    In PWR plant, condensate demineralizer is equipped to remove corrosive ion in condensate water. Mixed bed packing cation exchange resin (CER) and anion exchange resin (AER) is generally applied, and these are regenerated after separation to each layer periodically. Since the AER particle is slightly lighter than the CER particle, the AER layer is brought up onto the CER layer by feeding water upward from the bottom of column (backwashing). The separation performance is affected by flow rate and temperature of water for backwashing, so normally operators set the proper condition parameters regarding separation manually every time for regeneration. The authors have developed the new separation system applying CCD camera and image processor. The system is comprised of CCD camera, LED lamp, image processor, controller, flow control valves and background color panel. Blue color of the panel, which is corresponding to the complementary color against both ivory color of AER and brown color of CER, is key to secure the system precision. At first the color image of the CER via the CCD camera is digitized and memorized by the image processor. The color of CER in the field of vision of the camera is scanned by the image processor, and the position where the maximum difference of digitized color index is indicated is judged as the interface. The detected interface is able to make the accordance with the set point by adjusting the flow rate of backwashing. By adopting the blue background panel, it is also possible to draw the AER out of the column since detecting the interface of the CER clearly. The system has provided the reduction of instability factor concerning separation of resin during regeneration process. The system has been adopted in two PWR plants in Japan, it has been demonstrating its stable and precise performance. (author)

  6. Superconducting properties and phase separation effects in systems with local pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, G.; Robaszkiewicz, S.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the phase separation effects in a class of models developed for description of superconductors with local electron pairing: (i) the extended attractive Hubbard model, (ii) the model of hard-core charged bosons on the lattice. We analyse the behaviour of various superfluid characteristics as well as the evolution of the phase diagrams with increasing external magnetic field. (author)

  7. Separation of yttrium from strontium in the aqueous phase of the water/nitrobenzene extraction system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňura, P.; Makrlík, E.; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 256, č. 1 (2003), s. 171-172 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919; CEZ:MSM 230000009 Keywords : extraction * strontium * yttrium Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2003

  8. Ionic liquids in separations: applications for pyrolysis oil and emulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.

    2017-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the main separation techniques and has been developed for a wide range of industrial applications. Ionic liquids (ILs) are often considered as environmentally friendly solvents and have been studied widely in various laboratory applications. Aiming to design effective

  9. Influence of process conditions on the separation behaviour of starch-gluten systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Separation of wheat flour into its constituents starch and gluten was studied using a cone-cone shearing device, with emphasis on the effect of rotation rate, processing time, temperature and water content. This study confirms the two step mechanism previously proposed for the gluten migration:

  10. Small angle neutron scattering study on a phase separation in a 3-component microemulsion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seto, H.; Yokoi, E.; Komura, S.

    1993-01-01

    observed a small change of the water droplet size approaching a phase separation point. In this work, further small angle neutron scattering results are presented obtained at the new SANS equipment in JAERI. The evidences described above were confirmed and a detailed phase diagram has been obtained...

  11. Effects of mobile vacancies on the dynamics of ordering and phase separation in nonconserved multicomponent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1995-01-01

    the condition of conserved vacancy density and nonconserved Potts order. The dynamics of ordering and phase separation is found to follow algebraic growth laws with exponent values that depend on the phase to which the quench is performed. Strong transient effects are observed in the dilute Potts-ordered phase...

  12. A system for control and test of the ISOLDE isotope separator

    CERN Document Server

    Broman, Petter

    1989-01-01

    During three months of the summer 1989 I worked as a "summer student" at the researche laboratory CERN in Geneva. The ISOLDE isotope separator is the facility were I made my contribution. This report is the account for what I did. The work is intended for my diploma thesis.

  13. Simple automated liquid chromatographic system for splitless nano column gradient separations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Duša, Filip; Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1276, FEB (2013), s. 26-32 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : liquid chromatography * automation * splitless gradient * nano columns * alkylphenones Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2013

  14. Very low-energy conversion electron detection (VLECED) system at the isocele on-line isotope separator, Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcher, P.; Sauvage, J.; Munsch, J.; Obert, J.; Caruette, A.; Ferro, A.; Boissier, G.; Fournet-Fayas, J.; Ducourtieux, M.; Landois, G.

    1988-01-01

    A system designed and installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOCELE II allows the high resolution detection of low-energy conversion electrons (down to 1 keV) emitted by mass separated radioactive sources: the use of a special tape transport permits both the slowing down of the incoming beam of radioactive ions up to a collection point and the acceleration of the electrons emitted by the collected sources brought to a flat magnetic spectrograph. Typical spectra so obtained are presented

  15. Separation of 15N by isotopic exchange in NO, NO2-HNO3 system under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.; Baldea, A.; Teaca, C.; Horga, R.; Abrudean, M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most used method for production of 15 N with 99% at. concentration is the isotopic exchange between gaseous nitrogen oxides and HNO 3 solution 10M: ( 15 NO, 15 NO 2 ) g + H 14 NO 3,l = ( 14 NO, 14 NO 2 ) g + H 15 NO 3,l . The isotopic exchange is characterized by an elemental separation factor α=1.055 at 25 deg. C and atmospheric pressure. Recently, kinetics data pointed to the linear dependence of the exchange rate 15 N/ 14 N(R) on the nitrogen oxide pressure with a rate law R = k[HNO 3 ] 2 · [N 2 O 3 ]. In this work, the influence of the nitrogen oxide pressure on the 15 N separation efficiency was determined by the use of a laboratory equipment with a separation column pack of Helipack type, with dimensions 1.8 mm x 1.8 mm x 0.2 mm. The increase of nitrogen oxide pressure led to a better isotopic transfer between the two counter-flow phases in the column pack. The HETP (Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate) determined for a 3.14 ml ·cm -2 · min -1 load is equal to that obtained at atmospheric pressure for a two times lower load. The operation of the equipment for isotopic separation of 15 N at 1.8 atm instead of atmospheric pressure allows doubling the HNO 3 10 M load of the column and consequently, doubling the production rate. A better performance of the separation process at higher pressure is essential for the industrial production of 15 N isotope which is used for the production of uranium nitride in FBR type reactors. (authors)

  16. A Two-Stage Queue Model to Optimize Layout of Urban Drainage System considering Extreme Rainstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainstorm is a main factor to cause urban floods when urban drainage system cannot discharge stormwater successfully. This paper investigates distribution feature of rainstorms and draining process of urban drainage systems and uses a two-stage single-counter queue method M/M/1→M/D/1 to model urban drainage system. The model emphasizes randomness of extreme rainstorms, fuzziness of draining process, and construction and operation cost of drainage system. Its two objectives are total cost of construction and operation and overall sojourn time of stormwater. An improved genetic algorithm is redesigned to solve this complex nondeterministic problem, which incorporates with stochastic and fuzzy characteristics in whole drainage process. A numerical example in Shanghai illustrates how to implement the model, and comparisons with alternative algorithms show its performance in computational flexibility and efficiency. Discussions on sensitivity of four main parameters, that is, quantity of pump stations, drainage pipe diameter, rainstorm precipitation intensity, and confidence levels, are also presented to provide guidance for designing urban drainage system.

  17. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.S.; Koulouriotis, D.E.; Botsaris, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  18. Miniaturization of uranium/plutonium/fission products separation: design of a 'lab-on-CD' micro-system and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchet, A.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical analysis of spent nuclear fuels is essential to design future nuclear fuels cycle and reprocessing methods but also for waste management. The analysis cycle consists of several chemical separation steps which are time consuming and difficult to implement due to confinement in glove boxes. It is required that the separation steps be automated and that the volume of radioactive waste generated be reduced. The design of automated, miniaturized and disposable analytical platforms should fulfill these requirements. This project aims to provide an alternative to the first analytical step of the spent fuels analysis: the chromatographic separation of Uranium and Plutonium from the minor actinides and fission products. The goal is to design a miniaturized platform showing analytical performances equivalent to the current process, and to reduce both the exposure of workers through automation, and the volume of waste produced at the end of the analysis cycle. Thus, the separation has been implemented on a disposable plastic micro-system (COC), specifically designed for automation: a lab on a Compact Disk or lab-on-CD. The developed prototype incorporates an anion-exchange monolithic micro-column whose in-situ synthesis as well as surface functionalization have been optimized specifically for the desired separation. The development of an adapted separation protocol was carried out using a simulation tool modeling the elution of the various elements of interest. This tool is able to predict the column geometry (length and cross section) suited to obtain pure fractions of Uranium and Plutonium as a function of the sample composition. Finally, the prototype is able to automatically carry out four separations simultaneously reducing the number of manipulations, the analysis time and reducing the volume of liquid waste by a factor of 1000. (author) [fr

  19. Current experimental work related to a system alternative to that using the cryogenic separation of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.; Spelta, B.; Rizzello, C.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility study of an alternative exhaust plasma process based mainly on the handling of tritiated waters had shown that it could be competitive as some units used in the isotopic separation system (ISS) could attain the performance required in the conceptual design. In particular, the two cells operating in the ISS should have confirmed, first the high separation factor between protium and tritium found in the literature, second the possibility of working at very low liquid (electrolyte) inventory or, in other words, tritium inventory. Moreover, research has been undertaken in order to investigate the preparation and charcterization of some types of separators which should be resistent to the beta radiation of tritiated water

  20. The staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by using intestinal metaplasia as an accurate alternative for atrophic gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Dekken, Herman; Meijer, Jos; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    Background: The OLGA (operative link on gastritis assessment) staging system is based on severity of atrophic gastritis (AG). AG remains a difficult histopathologic diagnosis with low interobserver agreement, whereas intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with high interobserver agreement.

  1. Feasibility study of iron mineral separation from red mud by high gradient superconducting magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiran; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Baoqiang; Luan, Zhaokun

    2011-02-01

    The disposal of bayer red mud tailings now seriously threats the environment safety. Reduction and recycling of red mud is now an urgent work in aluminum industry. High gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS) system was applied to separate the extreme fine RM particles (separation stages when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. The mass recovery of iron concentrates was about 10% after once separation process regardless of RM 1# or RM 2# was fed. Extreme fine particles (separation from RM by HGSMS. Some improvement should be studied to enhance the efficiency of iron separation. It is possible for HGSMS to separate RM into high iron content part and low iron content part, the former part could be used in iron-making furnace and the later part could be recycling to sintering process for alumina production or used as construction material.

  2. The development of an expert system for finding fragility curves of building structural systems in the preliminary design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, L.Y.; Okrent, D.

    1987-01-01

    This research is a starting point for the development of an expert system for determining seismic fragility curves of structural systems in a nuclear power plant or conventional building at the preliminary design stage. The resulting system assists an engineer with moderate engineering background and limited reliability knowledge to analyze the failure functions of building structures. It simulates the performance of an expert in identifying the potential failure modes and their variabilities for a structure of interest. On reviewing the methodology of seismic fragility evaluation for existing building structures in the nuclear power plant industry, one finds that the investigation process starts with the identification of critical components or substructures, whose failures result in the functional failure of safety related equipment or the failure of structural integrity itself, and follows with complicated numerical analyses to estimate the capacity functions associated with the limit states of these components or substructures

  3. Thermal Design and Analysis of a Multi-Stage 30K Radiative Cooling System for EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator further cools a large focal plane to approx.100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented approx. 45 degrees relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at approx. 0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  4. Two-Stage orders sequencing system for mixed-model assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemczak, M.; Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, the authors focus on the NP-hard problem of orders sequencing, formulated similarly to Car Sequencing Problem (CSP). The object of the research is the assembly line in an automotive industry company, on which few different models of products, each in a certain number of versions, are assembled on the shared resources, set in a line. Such production type is usually determined as a mixed-model production, and arose from the necessity of manufacturing customized products on the basis of very specific orders from single clients. The producers are nowadays obliged to provide each client the possibility to determine a huge amount of the features of the product they are willing to buy, as the competition in the automotive market is large. Due to the previously mentioned nature of the problem (NP-hard), in the given time period only satisfactory solutions are sought, as the optimal solution method has not yet been found. Most of the researchers that implemented inaccurate methods (e.g. evolutionary algorithms) to solving sequencing problems dropped the research after testing phase, as they were not able to obtain reproducible results, and met problems while determining the quality of the received solutions. Therefore a new approach to solving the problem, presented in this paper as a sequencing system is being developed. The sequencing system consists of a set of determined rules, implemented into computer environment. The system itself works in two stages. First of them is connected with the determination of a place in the storage buffer to which certain production orders should be sent. In the second stage of functioning, precise sets of sequences are determined and evaluated for certain parts of the storage buffer under certain criteria.

  5. Dual CD system in capillary electrophoresis for direct separation of the four stereoisomers of agonist and antagonist melatoninergic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Emmanuelle; Danel, Cécile; Yous, Saïd; Bonte, Jean-Paul; Vaccher, Claude

    2010-05-01

    In this study, baseline separation of the stereoisomers of six tetrahydronaphthalenic derivatives (agonists and antagonists for the melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamin) binding sites) was successfully achieved using CE and CDs as chiral selectors. The method for the simultaneous chiral separation of the four stereoisomers uses a capillary dynamically coated with polyethylene oxide and a dual CD system. Optimisation was performed first upon the constituents of the CD system, by varying neutral and anionic CD type, size and concentration, at first in mono-CD systems and subsequently in dual neutral/anionic CD systems. Once these characteristics of the dual CD system were established, operational parameters such as voltage and temperature were then optimised. Under the optimal conditions (i.e. 1.5% w/v of highly S-beta-CD and 10 mM of gamma-CD in 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) as the BGE, separation voltage 20 kV and a temperature of 25 degrees C), complete resolution of the six molecules was accomplished. Preliminary results for repeatability and the migration order of the optimised method are described.

  6. Analog frontend for multichannel neuronal recording system with spike and LFP separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Yevgeny; Ginosar, Ran

    2006-05-15

    A 0.35microm CMOS integrated circuit for multi-channel neuronal recording with twelve true-differential channels, band separation and digital offset calibration is presented. The measured signal is separated into a low-frequency local field potential and high-frequency spike data. Digitally programmable gains of up to 60 and 80 dB for the local field potential and spike bands are provided. DC offsets are compensated on both bands by means of digitally programmable DACs. Spike band is limited by a second order low-pass filter with digitally programmable cutoff frequency. The IC has been fabricated and tested. 3microV input referred noise on the spike data band was measured.

  7. The Hampton-Gledhill 2-stage pressure risk-assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Lee; Hampton, Sylvie

    Pressure ulcers are largely preventable and, therefore, patients dying of large, necrotic pressure damage is an unacceptable situation. Lee Gledhill is both a nurse and a barrister and has been involved in many cases involving nurses facing court proceedings when their patients' primary cause of death is pressure ulcers. Sylvie Hampton, has acted as expert witness in some of these cases. It became obvious to the two authors that had healthcare assistants (HCAs) been more aware of how pressure damage could be detected and then prevented, some of the supervising nurses would not have been facing legal charges. The authors decided to produce a simple method of assessing first-stage skin changes for HCAs to not only recognize these changes, but also to have a framework in place describing the actions they need to take. This framework was produced as a card (the Hampton-Gledhill 2-stage pressure risk-assessment system). The card is being validated in many nursing homes and hospitals around the UK and in Jersey.

  8. Rangelands Vegetation under Different Management Systems and Growth Stages in North Darfur State, Sudan (Range Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed AAMA Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at Um Kaddada, North Darfur State, Sudan, at two sites (closed and open for two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009 during flowering and seed setting stages to evaluate range attributes at the locality. A split plot design was used to study vegetation attributes. Factors studied were management systems (closed and open and growth stages (flowering and seed setting. Vegetation cover, plant density, carrying capacity, and biomass production were assessed. Chemical analyses were done for selected plants to determine their nutritive values. The results showed high significant differences in vegetation attributes (density, cover and biomass production between closed and open areas. Closed areas had higher carrying capacity compared to open rangelands. Crude protein (CP and ash contents of range vegetation were found to decrease while Crude fiber (CF and Dry matter yield (DM had increased with growth. The study concluded that closed rangelands are better than open rangelands because it fenced and protected. Erosion index and vegetation degradation rate were very high. Future research work is needed to assess rangelands characteristics and habitat condition across different ecological zones in North Darfur State, Sudan.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11093 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 332-343

  9. Hypo Activity of Cholinergic System in Patients with Early Stage of Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidescu, L.; Codorean, I.; Matei, C.; Barret, O.; Mazere, J.; Guyot, M.; Rimbu, A.; Allard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Objective A cholinergic dysfunction was documented in advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease. In order to specify the cholinergic involvement in early stages, we performed a presynaptic imaging study of the cholinergic system using a vesicular Acetylcholine transporter ligand labelled with iodine 123 ( 123 I-IBVM - Iodobenzovesamicol) Materials And Methods Eight patients (5 women and 3 men, 74-89 years, MMS>23) and 8 controls (6 women and 2 men, 72-80 years, MMS>30) have been evaluated using the neuropsychological tests; cerebral SPECT was performed 6 hours after intravenous injection of 218±19 MBq of 123 I - IBVM (30 min, 3 volume, 128x128) and the 3D MRI (T1 weighted images). Acquisition data were processed by filtered retroprojection (Butterworth 5.35) and analysed with SPM software. Each examination was co-registered with the MRI of the patient, normalised in the MNI template and smoothed (10mm). Results The analyse of the group (two sample T-test, p 123 I-IBVM has been detected in the patients group, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results indicate that cholinergic dysfunctions appear very early in the development of Alzheimer's disease and affect the cortical structures involved in the attention process. Some studies are in progress to analyze imaging data with cognitive impairments of each patient. (author)

  10. Inspection logistics planning for multi-stage production systems with applications to semiconductor fabrication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kyle Dakai

    Since the market for semiconductor products has become more lucrative and competitive, research into improving yields for semiconductor fabrication lines has lately received a tremendous amount of attention. One of the most critical tasks in achieving such yield improvements is to plan the in-line inspection sampling efficiently so that any potential yield problems can be detected early and eliminated quickly. We formulate a multi-stage inspection planning model based on configurations in actual semiconductor fabrication lines, specifically taking into account both the capacity constraint and the congestion effects at the inspection station. We propose a new mixed First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) and Last-Come-First-Serve (LCFS) discipline for serving the inspection samples to expedite the detection of potential yield problems. Employing this mixed FCFS and LCFS discipline, we derive approximate expressions for the queueing delays in yield problem detection time and develop near-optimal algorithms to obtain the inspection logistics planning policies. We also investigate the queueing performance with this mixed type of service discipline under different assumptions and configurations. In addition, we conduct numerical tests and generate managerial insights based on input data from actual semiconductor fabrication lines. To the best of our knowledge, this research is novel in developing, for the first time in the literature, near-optimal results for inspection logistics planning in multi-stage production systems with congestion effects explicitly considered.

  11. Mass Spectrum Analysis of CO2 and N2 Using Ion Beam Separator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipto-Sujitno, BA; Darsono; Agus-Santoso

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to study investigate the massspectrum profile of CO 2 and N 2 emitted from Penning ion source using ionbeam separator. Besides that, it is also identified the compositions of CO 2 and N 2 ion gas and their abundances through their mass spectrum profile,because as we know that these ions are consist of ion of atom or molecule aswell as the their abundances. To get these profiles, the ion beam acceleratedin accelerating tube are passed through magnet separator. After passing themagnet separator, the ion current beam was detected using microampere meter.By scanning the strength of magnetic field, it will be found the currentspectrum profile as a function of magnetic field. From this current spectrum,we can make a mass spectrum profile. From experiment done, it was found thatthe mass spectrum peak of CO 2 and N 2 were C + with m/z = (12.00 ± 0.10)amu, O 2 + = (31.96 ± 0.29) amu, CO 2 + = (43.93 ± 0.31) amu, N + (13.97 ± 0.33) amu, and N 2 + = (28.05 ± 0.18) amu. (author)

  12. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  13. Russian and Brazil media systems at the modern stage of mass communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippova Viktoria Alexandrovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main characteristics of modern mass communication and media systems in Russia and Brazil. The so-called first-level media - are of elite character, aimed at the ruling classes. They are strengthening their position in the global space and almost are blurring geographical and cultural boundaries. Media audience of the second level is national, they usually focus on the middle and lower segment of the audience, if to divide it by income, education and culture. Informatization and digitalization of media lead to the formation of hybrid media systems, where there is a growing role of new media, in particular, social networks and Twitter. It is important to emphasize that the nature of the social, spiritual and cultural changes caused by informatization, depends not only on information technology, but also on the social conditions of the socioeconomic system where the implemented processes of mass communication are realized. The paper discusses the factors that determine the possibility of functioning of media systems at the present stage: the willingness of the reader to consume information and pay for it by the example of Russia and Brazil, describes the processes of globalization, information technology and digitalization of society and the media. It is presented media preferences and trust in the media in Russia and Brazil in the XXI century, as well as the main indicators of the advertising market in these countries.

  14. Transportation of separate waste fractions in an underground waste transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shibutani, Satomi

    2010-01-01

    Today waste management has entered a new stage. Since wastes still contain natural materials and energy that can be extracted, it should be treated in effective ways, for example, for energy recovery or material recycling. Many countries and the municipalities have therefore made waste treatment strategies in accordance with for example, EU directives or governmental regulations. In such circumstances, Envac is one of waste management companies in Sweden, which collects different kinds of was...

  15. Technical and scale efficiency of cassava production system in Delta State, Nigeria: an application of Two-Stage DEA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzidur Rahman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the level of pure technical and scale efficiencies of cassava production system including its sub-processes (that is production and processing stages of 278 cassava farmers/processors from three regions of Delta State, Nigeria by applying Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach. Results reveal that pure technical efficiency (PTE is significantly lower at the production stage 0.41 vs 0.55 for the processing stage, but scale efficiency (SE is high at both stages (0.84 and 0.87, implying that productivity can be improved substantially by reallocation of resources and adjusting operation size. The socio-economic determinants exert differential impacts on PTE and SE at each stage. Overall, education, experience and main occupation as farmer significantly improve SE while subsistence pressure reduces it. Extension contact significantly improves SE at the processing stage but reduces PTE and SE overall. Inverse size-PTE and size-SE relationships exist in cassava production system. In other words, large/medium farms are technically and scale inefficient. Gender gap exists in performance. Male farmers are technically efficient at processing stage but scale inefficient overall. Farmers in northern region are technically efficient. Investments in education, extension services and infrastructure are suggested as policy options to improve the cassava sector in Nigeria.

  16. One-stage individual participant data meta-analysis models: estimation of treatment-covariate interactions must avoid ecological bias by separating out within-trial and across-trial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hairui; Burke, Danielle L; Crowther, Michael J; Ensor, Joie; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Riley, Richard D

    2017-02-28

    Stratified medicine utilizes individual-level covariates that are associated with a differential treatment effect, also known as treatment-covariate interactions. When multiple trials are available, meta-analysis is used to help detect true treatment-covariate interactions by combining their data. Meta-regression of trial-level information is prone to low power and ecological bias, and therefore, individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses are preferable to examine interactions utilizing individual-level information. However, one-stage IPD models are often wrongly specified, such that interactions are based on amalgamating within- and across-trial information. We compare, through simulations and an applied example, fixed-effect and random-effects models for a one-stage IPD meta-analysis of time-to-event data where the goal is to estimate a treatment-covariate interaction. We show that it is crucial to centre patient-level covariates by their mean value in each trial, in order to separate out within-trial and across-trial information. Otherwise, bias and coverage of interaction estimates may be adversely affected, leading to potentially erroneous conclusions driven by ecological bias. We revisit an IPD meta-analysis of five epilepsy trials and examine age as a treatment effect modifier. The interaction is -0.011 (95% CI: -0.019 to -0.003; p = 0.004), and thus highly significant, when amalgamating within-trial and across-trial information. However, when separating within-trial from across-trial information, the interaction is -0.007 (95% CI: -0.019 to 0.005; p = 0.22), and thus its magnitude and statistical significance are greatly reduced. We recommend that meta-analysts should only use within-trial information to examine individual predictors of treatment effect and that one-stage IPD models should separate within-trial from across-trial information to avoid ecological bias. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  17. Development of a hybrid safety system: Actuation of the secondary automatic depressurization system at an early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Masae; Umezawa, Shigemitsu; Okabe, Kazuharu; Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi

    1996-01-01

    A Hybrid Safety System, which is an optimum combination of active and passive safety systems, has been developed in order to improve the safety, reliability and economic features of the next generation of PWRs. The passive safety systems include Automatic primary Depressurization System (ADS), Secondary Automatic Depressurization System (SADS), advanced accumulators, gravity injection system and so on. In this study the authors have improved the actuation logic of the passive safety systems. The original logic in the previous study actuates ADS at an early stage of an event such as a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and this is followed by the actuation of SADS. In this study they divide SADS into two systems. The first, small SADS, uses small valves corresponding to the relief valves of the conventional PWR plants. The second, large SADS, corresponds to the original SADS using multiple valves of large capacity. With the new logic, the passive systems are actuated during a typical small LOCA. Small LOCA analyses using several break areas were performed for a 1,400 MWe PWR plant with a Hybrid Safety System. The results predict that core uncovery does not occur in the case of a relatively small break area and that core heat removal during a small LOCA is improved in comparison with the analyses for conventional PWR plants, where the secondary pressure remains higher during the event. The results also predict that this new logic make it possible to reduce the ADS valve size and the actuation pressure setpoint of the passive safety systems

  18. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  19. Multi-Stage Admission Control for Load Balancing in Next Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Anggorojati, Bayu; Luo, Jijun

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a load-dependent multi-stage admission control suitable for next generation systems. The concept uses decision polling in entities located at different levels of the architecture hierarchy and based on the load to activate a sequence of actions related to the admission...... of a user to the network, i.e., the ranking of the intermediate decisions is dynamic. The decision is controlled by passing a token between the base station (BS) and the gateway (GW), thereby considering the load status of the BS and the backhaul network. A token is assigned to the entity with the highest...... load. Each admission request will issue a flag whose colour will reflect the load level in this entity and will determine the correct sequence of the required admission control actions....

  20. Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2007-01-01

    In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through...... the dedication of a storage tank. This type of situation has hardly been investigated, although planners struggle with it in practice. This paper aims at investigating the fundamental effect of prioritization and dedicated storage in a two-stage production system, for various product mixes. We show...... the performance improvements for the prioritized product, as well as the negative effects for the other products. We also show how the effect decreases with more storage tanks, and increases with more products....

  1. Stepwise encapsulation and controlled two-stage release system for cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Li, Qian; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    cis-Diamminediiodoplatinum (cis-DIDP) is a cisplatin-like anticancer drug with higher anticancer activity, but lower stability and price than cisplatin. In this study, a cis-DIDP carrier system based on micro-sized stearic acid was prepared by an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The maximum drug loading capacity of cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was 22.03%, and their encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%. In vitro drug release in phosphate-buffered saline (pH =7.4) at 37.5°C exhibited a unique two-stage process, which could prove beneficial for patients with tumors and malignancies. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay results showed that cis-DIDP released from cis-DIDP-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles had better inhibition activity than cis-DIDP that had not been loaded.

  2. A two-stage optimal planning and design method for combined cooling, heat and power microgrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li; Liu, Wenjian; Cai, Jiejin; Hong, Bowen; Wang, Chengshan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage optimal method is presented for CCHP microgrid system. • Economic and environmental performance are considered as assessment indicators. • Application case demonstrates its good economic and environmental performance. - Abstract: In this paper, a two-stage optimal planning and design method for combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) microgrid system was presented. The optimal objective was to simultaneously minimize the total net present cost and carbon dioxide emission in life circle. On the first stage, multi-objective genetic algorithm based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) was applied to solve the optimal design problem including the optimization of equipment type and capacity. On the second stage, mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) algorithm was used to solve the optimal dispatch problem. The approach was applied to a typical CCHP microgrid system in a hospital as a case study, and the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified

  3. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of newly diagnosed triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Castillo, Raychel; Riedl, Christopher C.; Jochelson, Maxine S. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Goldman, Debra A.; Goenen, Mithat [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Wills, Jonathan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Information Systems, New York, NY (United States); Pinker-Domenig, Katja [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-15

    National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT, in addition to standard staging procedures, for systemic staging of newly diagnosed stage III breast cancer patients. However, factors in addition to stage may influence PET/CT utility. As breast cancers that are negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor (triple-negative breast cancer, or TNBC) are more aggressive and metastasize earlier than other breast cancers, we hypothesized that receptor expression may be one such factor. This study assesses {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for systemic staging of newly diagnosed TNBC. In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, our Healthcare Information System was screened for patients with TNBC who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT in 2007-2013 prior to systemic or radiation therapy. Initial stage was determined from mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or surgery, if performed prior to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT was evaluated to identify unsuspected extra-axillary regional nodal and distant metastases, as well as unsuspected synchronous malignancies. Kaplan Meier survival estimates were calculated for initial stage IIB patients stratified by whether or not stage 4 disease was detected by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT. A total of 232 patients with TNBC met inclusion criteria. {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT revealed unsuspected distant metastases in 30 (13 %): 0/23 initial stage I, 4/82 (5 %) stage IIA, 13/87 (15 %) stage IIB, 4/23 (17 %) stage IIIA, 8/14 (57 %) stage IIIB, and 1/3 (33 %) stage IIIC. Twenty-six of 30 patients upstaged to IV by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT were confirmed by pathology, with the remaining four patients confirmed by follow-up imaging. In addition, seven unsuspected synchronous malignancies were identified in six patients. Initial stage 2B patients who were upstaged to 4 by {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT had significantly shorter survival compared to

  4. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS OF MOBILE OBJECT PURSUIT PROBLEM SOLUTION WITH TWO-STAGE DYNAMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiselev Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of developing unmanned fighting vehicles indicates that the main challenge in this field reduces itself to creating the systems which can replace the pilot both as a sensor and as the operator of the flight. This problem can be partial- ly solved by introducing remote control, but there are certain flight segments where it can only be executed under fully inde- pendent control and data support due to various reasons, such as tight time, short duration, lack of robust communication, etc. Such stages also include close-range air combat maneuvering (CRACM - a key flight segment as far as the fighter's purpose is concerned, which also places the highest demands on the fighter's design. Until recently the creation of an unmanned fighter airplane has been a fundamentally impossible task due to the absence of sensors able to provide the necessary data support to control the fighter during CRACM. However, the development prospects of aircraft hardware (passive type flush antennae, op- tico-locating panoramic view stations are indicative of producing possible solutions to this problem in the nearest future. There- fore, presently the only fundamental impediment on the way to developing an unmanned fighting aircraft is the problem of cre- ating algorithms for automatic trajectory control during CRACM. This paper presents the strategy of automatic trajectory con- trol synthesis by a two-stage dynamic system aiming to reach the conditions specified with respect to an object in pursuit. It contains certain results of control algorithm parameters impact assessment in regards to the pursuit mission effectiveness. Based on the obtained results a deduction is drawn pertaining to the efficiency of the offered method and its possible utilization in au- tomated control of an unmanned fighting aerial vehicle as well as organizing group interaction during CRACM.

  5. Research on distributed strain separation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing system combining an electric power optical fiber cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuqing; Chen, Xi; Li, Jihui; Tong, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Brillouin-based optical fiber sensing system has been taken more and more attentions in power transmission line in recent years. However, there exists a temperature cross sensitivity problem in sensing system. Hence, researching on strain separation technology of fiber brillouin sensing system is an urgent requirement in its practical area. In this paper, a real-time online distributed strain separation calculation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing combining an electric power optical fiber cable is proposed. The technology is mainly composed of the Brillouin temperature-strain distributed measurement system and the Raman temperature distributed measurement system. In this technology, the electric power optical fiber cable is a special optical phase conductor (OPPC); the Brillouin sensing system uses the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) method. The optical unit of the OPPC includes single-mode and multimode fibers which can be used as sensing channel for Brillouin sensing system and Raman sensing system respectively. In the system networking aspect, the data processor of fiber Brillouin sensing system works as the host processor and the data processor of fiber Raman sensing system works as the auxiliary processor. And the auxiliary processor transfers the data to the host processor via the Ethernet interface. In the experiment, the BOTDA monitoring system and the Raman monitoring system work on the same optical unit of the OPPC simultaneously; In the data processing aspect, the auxiliary processor of Raman transfers the temperature data to the host processor of Brillouin via the Ethernet interface, and then the host processor of Brillouin uses the temperature data combining itself strain-temperature data to achieve the high sampling rate and high-precision strain separation via data decoupling calculation. The data decoupling calculation is achieved through the interpolation, filtering, feature point alignment, and the singular point prediction

  6. An Enhanced Droop Control Scheme for Resilient Active Power Sharing in Paralleled Two-Stage PV Inverter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    generation) due to the intermittency. In that case, unbalance in active power generation may occur among the paralleled systems. Additionally, most droop-controlled systems have been assumed to be a single dc-ac inverter with a fixed dc input source. The dc-dc converter as the front-end of a two......-stage photovoltaic (PV) system has not been considered. In this paper, an enhanced droop scheme is thus proposed to address those issues, and the proposed scheme can enable resilient active power sharing in parallel two-stage PV inverter systems. Furthermore, a small-signal analysis for the proposed droop control...

  7. NASAwide electronic publishing system: Prototype STI electronic document distribution, stage-4 evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, Richard C.; Collins, Mary; Caswell, Pamela; Haynes, Bob; Nelson, Michael L.; Holm, Jeanne; Buquo, Lynn; Tingle, Annette; Cooper, Bill; Stiltner, Roy

    1996-01-01

    This evaluation report contains an introduction, seven chapters, and five appendices. The Introduction describes the purpose, conceptual frame work, functional description, and technical report server of the STI Electronic Document Distribution (EDD) project. Chapter 1 documents the results of the prototype STI EDD in actual operation. Chapter 2 documents each NASA center's post processing publication processes. Chapter 3 documents each center's STI software, hardware, and communications configurations. Chapter 7 documents STI EDD policy, practices, and procedures. The appendices, which arc contained in Part 2 of this document, consist of (1) STI EDD Project Plan, (2) Team members, (3) Phasing Schedules, (4) Accessing On-line Reports, and (5) Creating an HTML File and Setting Up an xTRS. In summary, Stage 4 of the NASAwide Electronic Publishing System is the final phase of its implementation through the prototyping and gradual integration of each NASA center's electronic printing systems, desktop publishing systems, and technical report servers to be able to provide to NASA's engineers, researchers, scientists, and external users the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the result thereof to their work stations.

  8. Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

    The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

  9. Computer simulation of the pneumatic separator in the pneumatic-electrostatic separation system for recycling waste printed circuit boards with electronic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-05-07

    Technologies could be integrated in different ways into automatic recycling lines for a certain kind of electronic waste according to practical requirements. In this study, a new kind of pneumatic separator with openings at the dust hooper was applied combing with electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards. However, the flow pattern and the particles' movement behavior could not be obtained by experimental methods. To better control the separation quantity and the material size distribution, computational fluid dynamics was used to model the new pneumatic separator giving a detailed understanding of the mechanisms. Simulated results showed that the tangential velocity direction reversed with a relatively small value. Axial velocity exhibited two sharp decreases at the x axis. It is indicated that the bottom openings at the dust hopper resulted in an enormous change in the velocity profile. A new phenomenon that was named dusting was observed, which would mitigate the effect of particles with small diameter on the following electrostatic separation and avoid materials plugging caused by the waste printed circuit boards special properties effectively. The trapped materials were divided into seven grades. Experimental results showed that the mass fraction of grade 5, grade 6, and grade 7 materials were 27.54%, 15.23%, and 17.38%, respectively. Grade 1 particles' mass fraction was reduced by 80.30% compared with a traditional separator. Furthermore, the monocrystalline silicon content in silicon element in particles with a diameter of -0.091 mm was 18.9%, higher than that in the mixed materials. This study could serve as guidance for the future material flow control, automation control, waste recycling, and semiconductor storage medium destruction.

  10. A Novel Blind Source Separation Algorithm and Performance Analysis of Weak Signal against Strong Interference in Passive Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjie Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Passive Radar System, obtaining the mixed weak object signal against the super power signal (jamming is still a challenging task. In this paper, a novel framework based on Passive Radar System is designed for weak object signal separation. Firstly, we propose an Interference Cancellation algorithm (IC-algorithm to extract the mixed weak object signals from the strong jamming. Then, an improved FastICA algorithm with K-means cluster is designed to separate each weak signal from the mixed weak object signals. At last, we discuss the performance of the proposed method and verify the novel method based on several simulations. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Value of five-stage prognostic system in predicting short-term outcome of patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical value of five-stage prognostic system in predicting the short-term outcome of patients with liver cirrhosis, and to compare it with the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP and Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD scores. MethodsTwo hundred and one hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis in the Department of Gastroenterology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2011 to January 2014 were enrolled in the study and followed up for at least six months. Patients were classified accorded to the five-stage prognostic system, and the mortality rate in each stage was measured. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and the area under the ROC curve (AUC were used to assess the accuracy of the five-stage prognostic system in predicting the short-term death risk of cirrhotic patients, which was then compared with the CTP and MELD scores. Categorical data were analyzed by chi-square test. Comparison of AUC was made by normal distribution Z test. Spearman′s correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation of the five-stage prognostic system with the CTP and MELD scores. ResultsThe study used the admission time as the starting point and the death of patients or study termination time as the endpoint. Among the 201 patients, 50 (24.9% died within six months. Based on the five-stage prognostic system, the mortality rates for stages 1 to 5 were 0(0/11, 0(0/18, 4.2%(2/48, 16.3% (7/43, and 50.6%(41/81, respectively. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis (stages 3, 4, and 5, the mortality increased with stage, and the differences in mortality between patients in stages 3 and 4, 3 and 5, and 4 and 5 were all significant (χ2=3.89, 35.33, and 13.96, respectively; P=0.049, 0.000, and 0.049, respectively. The AUC for the five-stage prognostic system, five-stage prognostic system combined with CTP and MELD score, and CTP score were 0820, 0.915, 0.888, and 0

  12. A analysis of molten salt separation system for nuclear wastes transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Soon; Park, Byung Gi [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Bum; Kwon, Ou Sung [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Typical molten salt separation is ANL-IFR pyroprocessing and ORNL-MSRE pyroprocessing. IFR pyroprocessing is based on Chloride chemistry and electrorefining. MSRE pyroprocessing is base on fluoride chemistry and reductive extraction. Major technologies of molten salt separation are electrorefining, electrowining, reductive extraction, and oxide reduction. Common characteristics of this technologies is to utilize reduction-oxidation phenomena in molten salt. Electrorefining process is modeled on the basis of diffusion layer theory and Butler-Volmor relation. This model is numerically solved by LSODA package. To acquire the technology of electrorefining process, 3-electrode electrochemical cell is developed where electrolyte is 500 degree C LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt, working electrodes are Ni and Au, and reference electrode is Ag/AgCl. We have investigated the stable potential range using cyclic voltammogram of Ni electrode. We have measured steady state polarization curve of Ni electrode. Then corrosion potential of Ni electrode is -0.38V{sub Ag/AgCl} and corrosion current is 1.23 x 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2}. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  13. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian A; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2017-04-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of chemical effects in the separation process of a differential mobility mass spectrometer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Bradley B; Covey, Thomas R; Coy, Stephen L; Krylov, Evgeny V; Nazarov, Erkinjon G

    2010-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) separates ions on the basis of the difference in their migration rates under high versus low electric fields. Several models describing the physical nature of this field mobility dependence have been proposed but emerging as a dominant effect is the clusterization model sometimes referred to as the dynamic cluster-decluster model. DMS resolution and peak capacity is strongly influenced by the addition of modifiers which results in the formation and dissociation of clusters. This process increases selectivity due to the unique chemical interactions that occur between an ion and neutral gas-phase molecules. It is thus imperative to bring the parameters influencing the chemical interactions under control and find ways to exploit them in order to improve the analytical utility of the device. In this paper, we describe three important areas that need consideration in order to stabilize and capitalize on the chemical processes that dominate a DMS separation. The first involves means of controlling the dynamic equilibrium of the clustering reactions with high concentrations of specific reagents. The second area involves a means to deal with the unwanted heterogeneous cluster ion populations emitted from the electrospray ionization process that degrade resolution and sensitivity. The third involves fine control of parameters that affect the fundamental collision processes, temperature and pressure.

  15. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  16. Biodiesel production from integration between reaction and separation system: reactive distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nívea de Lima; Santander, Carlos Mario Garcia; Batistella, César Benedito; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called "Intensified Process". This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min.

  17. Different physiological stages and breeding systems related to the variability of meat quality of indigenous Pantaneiro sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteschio, Jéssica de Oliveira; Burin, Poliana Campos; Leonardo, Ariadne Patricia; Fausto, Daiane Aparecido; da Silva, Adrielly Lais Alves; Ricardo, Hélio de Almeida; Corrêa da Silva, Marcelo; de Souza, Márcio Rodrigues; de Vargas Junior, Fernando Miranda

    2018-01-01

    This study configures a first report regarding the variability of meat quality of locally adapted Pantaneiro sheep depending on different physiological stages and breeding systems. Pantaneiro sheep are raised in Brazil under a tropical wetland ecosystem denominated Pantanal. Twenty-nine Pantaneiro sheep from different sex and physiological stages were sorted into three groups, simulating three of the most representative ovine meat products commercialized by South American industries: a) non castrated male lambs (n = 11); b) wethers (n = 9); c) cull ewes (n = 9). Animals from each physiological stage were submitted to different breeding systems, resembling farming strategies adopted in several developing countries of South America. The effect of physiological stages on the quality of meat was accessed using 16 variables measured in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LM) and the semimembranosus (SM) muscles. The variables were related to brightness, color, physical aspects, soluble and total collagen as well as chemical traits. The physiological stage was defined as a classification variable in order to proceed ANOVA tests and comparison of means (Pmeat quality varies according to different physiological stages, especially between lambs (a) and cull ewes (c). As a consequence, the physiological stage at slaughter should be taken into consideration to cote the quality of meat from indigenous sheep raised in tropical regions. The results contribute towards sensorial evaluation and the characterization of potential food products derived from indigenous sheep bred under tropical climate in developing countries.

  18. Comprehensive study of the intestinal stage of listeriosis in a rat ligated ileal loop system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Sarnacki, S; Monnet, J P; Berche, P; Gaillard, J L

    1998-02-01

    The intestinal stage of listeriosis was studied in a rat ligated ileal loop system. Listeria monocytogenes translocated to deep organs with similar efficiencies after inoculation of loops with or without Peyer's patches. Bacterial seeding of deep organs was demonstrated as early as 15 min after inoculation. It was dose dependent and nonspecific, as the delta inlAB, the delta hly, and the delta actA L. monocytogenes mutants and the nonpathogenic species, Listeria innocua, translocated similarly to wild-type L. monocytogenes strains. The levels of uptake of listeriae by Peyer's patches and villous intestine were similar and low, 50 to 250 CFU per cm2 of tissue. No listeria cells crossing the epithelial sheet of Peyer's patches and villous intestine were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The lack of significant interaction of listeriae and the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The follicular tissue of Peyer's patches was a preferential site of Listeria replication. With all doses tested, the rate of bacterial growth was 10 to 20 times higher in Peyer's patches than in villous intestine. At early stages of Peyer's patch infection, listeriae were observed inside mononuclear cells of the dome area. Listeriae then disseminated throughout the follicular tissue except for the germinal center. The virulence determinants hly and, to a lesser extent, actA, but not inlAB, were required for the completion of this process. This study suggests that Peyer's patches are preferential sites for replication rather than for entry of L. monocytogenes, due to the presence of highly permissive mononuclear cells whose nature remains to be defined.

  19. Two-Stage n-PSK Partitioning Carrier Phase Recovery Scheme for Circular mQAM Coherent Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo Navarro, Jaime; Kakkar, Aditya; Pang, Xiaodan

    2016-01-01

    A novel two-stage n-PSK partitioning carrier phase recovery (CPR) scheme for circular multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (C-mQAM) constellations is presented. The first stage of the algorithm provides an initial rough estimation of the received constellation, which is utilized in the second......-16QAM back-to-back transmission system. The computational complexity of the proposed CPR scheme is studied, and reduction factors of 24.5 | 30.1 and 59.1 | 63.3 are achieved for C-16QAM and C-64QAM, respectively, compared to single-stage BPS in the form of multipliers | adders....

  20. Impact of the End Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System on the Use of Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Thamer, Mae; Kshirsagar, Onkar; Zhang, Yi

    2017-05-01

    The End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Prospective Payment System (PPS), implemented by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in January 2011, encouraged use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) through various financial incentives. Our goal was to determine whether PPS effectively increased PD use in incident dialysis patients. Our study used the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) to identify 430,927 adult patients who initiated dialysis between 2009 and 2012. The interrupted time series method was used to evaluate the association Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services of PPS with PD use at dialysis initiation. We further stratified by patient demographics, predialysis care, and facility chain and profit status. Interrupted time series analysis indicated PPS was associated with increased PD use in the 2-year period after PPS (change in slope = 0.04, P  PPS ( P  = 0.512). Stratified analyses indicated PPS led to increased PD use across all age, race, and sex groups ( P  PPS. Our findings highlight the role of financial incentives in changing practice patterns to increase use of a dialysis modality considered to be both more cost-effective and empowering to ESRD patients. However, even after PPS, rates of PD use remain low among the dialysis population in the USA.

  1. Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen; Mashek, Debra J; Strong, Greg; Li, Haifang; Brown, Lucy L

    2005-07-01

    Early-stage romantic love can induce euphoria, is a cross-cultural phenomenon, and is possibly a developed form of a mammalian drive to pursue preferred mates. It has an important influence on social behaviors that have reproductive and genetic consequences. To determine which reward and motivation systems may be involved, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and studied 10 women and 7 men who were intensely "in love" from 1 to 17 mo. Participants alternately viewed a photograph of their beloved and a photograph of a familiar individual, interspersed with a distraction-attention task. Group activation specific to the beloved under the two control conditions occurred in dopamine-rich areas associated with mammalian reward and motivation, namely the right ventral tegmental area and the right postero-dorsal body and medial caudate nucleus. Activation in the left ventral tegmental area was correlated with facial attractiveness scores. Activation in the right anteromedial caudate was correlated with questionnaire scores that quantified intensity of romantic passion. In the left insula-putamen-globus pallidus, activation correlated with trait affect intensity. The results suggest that romantic love uses subcortical reward and motivation systems to focus on a specific individual, that limbic cortical regions process individual emotion factors, and that there is localization heterogeneity for reward functions in the human brain.

  2. Computer-Assisted Decision Support System in Pulmonary Cancer detection and stage classification on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Anum; Sheng, Bin; Li, Ping; Hou, Xuhong; Wei, Xiaoer; Qin, Jing; Feng, Dagan

    2018-03-01

    Pulmonary cancer is considered as one of the major causes of death worldwide. For the detection of lung cancer, computer-assisted diagnosis (CADx) systems have been designed. Internet-of-Things (IoT) has enabled ubiquitous internet access to biomedical datasets and techniques; in result, the progress in CADx is significant. Unlike the conventional CADx, deep learning techniques have the basic advantage of an automatic exploitation feature as they have the ability to learn mid and high level image representations. We proposed a Computer-Assisted Decision Support System in Pulmonary Cancer by using the novel deep learning based model and metastasis information obtained from MBAN (Medical Body Area Network). The proposed model, DFCNet, is based on the deep fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) which is used for classification of each detected pulmonary nodule into four lung cancer stages. The performance of proposed work is evaluated on different datasets with varying scan conditions. Comparison of proposed classifier is done with the existing CNN techniques. Overall accuracy of CNN and DFCNet was 77.6% and 84.58%, respectively. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed method for the detection and classification of lung cancer nodules. These results demonstrate the potential for the proposed technique in helping the radiologists in improving nodule detection accuracy with efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Process and system for isotope separation using the selective vibrational excitation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns the separation of isotopes by using the isotopically selective vibrational excitation and the vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. UF 6 molecular mixed with a carrier gas, such as argon, are directed through a refrigerated chamber lighted by a laser radiation tuned to excite vibrationally the uranium hexafluoride molecules of a particular uranium isotope. The density of the carrier gas is preferably maintained above the density of the uranium hexafluoride to allow a greater collision probability of the vibrationally excited molecules with a carried molecule. In such a case, the vibrationally excited uranium hexafluoride will collide with a carrier gas molecule provoking the conversion of the excitation energy into a translation of the excited molecule, resulting in thermal energy or greater diffusibility than that of the other uranium hexafluoride molecules [fr

  4. Simulation and control synthesis for a pulse column separation system for plutonium--uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutcheon, E.B.

    1975-05-01

    Control of a plutonium-uranium partitioning column was studied using a mathematical model developed to simulate the dynamic response and to test postulated separation mechanisms. The column is part of a plutonium recycle flowsheet developed for the recovery of plutonium and uranium from metallurgical scrap. In the first step of the process, decontamination from impurities is achieved by coextracting plutonium and uranium in their higher oxidation states. In the second step, reduction of the plutonium to a lower oxidation state allows partitioning of the plutonium and uranium. The use of hydroxylamine for the plutonium reduction in this partitioning column is a unique feature of the process. The extraction operations are carried out in pulse columns. (U.S.)

  5. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  6. A chemical exchange system for isotopic feed to a nitrogen and oxygen isotope separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T.R.; Garcia, M.G.; Vandervoort, R.C.; McInteer, B.B.

    1989-01-01

    A process has been developed to provide isotopic feed to a nitric oxide isotope distillation plant. Central to the process is the isotopic chemical exchange of NO and nitric acid in countercurrent flows in a 3-in. diameter packed column. An isotopically depleted stream of NO is reenriched to natural isotopic abundances by the exchange and is recycled as feed back to the distillation columns. Makeup NO is generated in another column from sulfur dioxide and nitric acid. Multistage gas purifiers reduce condensible impurities in the nitric oxide below 10 ppm. The process operates unattended at flow rates of 0.5 to 2 mol/min. The new NO recycle-enrichment and generation processes have successfully provided the feedstock for the NO isotope separation columns for over 6 years. 19 refs., 2 figs

  7. Systems and methods for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D.

    2018-03-06

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  8. Optimal synthesis and design of extractive distillation systems for bioethanol separation: From simple to complex columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, M.; Rong, B. G.; Tola, G.

    2013-01-01

    separation techniques are today available, distillation is up to now the frontrunner technology in most of the plants. In particular extractive distillation is considered as an energy efficient method to produce pure ethanol overcoming the purity limitations imposed by the water-ethanol azeotrope....... The subspace of simple distillation configurations was generated considering the possibility to employ partial or total condensers to transfer the non-product mixtures between the columns, moreover different numbers of columns are considered. Once the most promising sequences are obtained, the complex columns...... considering the total condenser and reboiler duty as energy index. The capital costs and the solvent consumption are also taken into account in the final selection. Among all the complex configurations considered the two-column sequence can reduce the capital cost above 10% compared to the best simple column...

  9. Steady state operation of the first cryogenic column in a krypton separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Ammon, R.; Bumiller, W.; Hutter, E.; Neffe, G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent results obtained during the operation of the inactive test unit KRETA for the cryogenic separation of krypton from simulated reprocessing off-gases are presented. The first rectification column of this unit was modified by shortening its lower part from 18 to 8 practical plates and placing the feed point into the warmer, krypton-rich section. Two essential results were thus achieved: plugging by desubliming xenon was not observed even at xenon feed concentrations as high as 1 vol.-%; and, accumulation of oxygen was much lower than in the column version used previously, thus reducing the potential hazard by ozone formation drastically. The accumulation of methane, however, was found to be high, in agreement with calculations

  10. Circulating moving bed system for CO.sub.2 separation, and method of same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Jeannine Elizabeth; Copeland, Robert James

    2016-12-27

    A circulating moving bed and process for separating a carbon dioxide from a gas stream is disclosed. The circulating moving bed can include an adsorption reactor and a desorption reactor, and a sorbent that moves through the two reactors. The sorbent can enter the adsorptive reactor and one end and move to an exit point distal to its entry point, while a CO.sub.2 feed stream can enter near the distal point and move countercurrently through the sorbent to exit at a position near the entry point of the sorbent. The sorbent can adsorb the CO.sub.2 by concentration swing adsorption and adsorptive displacement. The sorbent can then transfer to a regeneration reactor and can move countercurrently against a flow of steam through the regeneration reactor. The sorbent can be regenerated and the carbon dioxide recaptured by desorbing the carbon dioxide from the sorbent using concentration swing desorption and desorptive displacement with steam.

  11. A continuous membrane microbioreactor system for development of integrated pectin modification and separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zainal Alam, Muhd Nazrul Hisham Bin; Pinelo, Manuel; Samanta, Kama

    2011-01-01

    present a continuous membrane microbioreactor prototype for development of enzyme catalyzed degradation of pectin. Membrane reactors are becoming increasingly important for the novel ‘biorefining’ type of processes that either require product removal to avoid product inhibition or rest on partial...... hydrolysis of the substrate to obtain e.g. value-added oligosaccharides from complex biopolymers. The microbioreactor prototype was fabricated from poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and designed as a loop reactor (working volume approximately 190μL) integrated...... with a regenerated cellulose membrane for separation of low molecular weight products. The main technical considerations and challenges related to establishing the continuous membrane microbioreactor are discussed. The workability of the prototype was validated by comparing the process data at microscale to those...

  12. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2015-02-24

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  13. Chromatographic separation of rhenium in alumina-methanol/sulfuric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Koichi

    1983-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of a number of metals on alumina was surveyed in a methanol-(0.005 -- 0.5) M H 2 SO 4 (3 : 1 v/v) developing solvent by thin-layer chromatography. Over the acid concentration range tested, Re(VII) does not favor the alumina phase to any great extent while the most other metals are strongly adsorbed on alumina. These findings allowed to establish a column chromatographic technique for selective separation of rhenium in a methanol-0.05 M H 2 SO 4 (3 : 1 v/v) eluent. The separation technique thus established was applied to molybdenite analysis for rhenium. About 100-mg powdered sample containing ca. 100 ppm rhenium was decomposed with HNO 3 and then evaporated nearly to dryness. The residue was dissolved in NH 4 OH and the excess NH 4 OH was expelled by evaporation to dryness. The residue was dissolved in 2.5-ml 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 and 10-ml water, the insoluble materials filtered off, and the filtrate diluted to exactly 25 ml with water. A 10-ml aliquot of this solution was mixed with 30-ml methanol and the mixture was passed through a column (diameter 15 mm, bed height 30 mm) containing 5 g of alumina. The column was then washed with 20 ml of a methanol-0.05 M H 2 SO 4 (3 : 1 v/v) mixture. Rhenium was recovered from the loaded solution and the subsequent washings, and was determined spectrophotometrically with Methylene Blue as a chromogenic reagent. The values obtained from four samples of molybdenite are in good agreement with those obtained by neutron activation analysis. The relative standard deviation (n = 4; calculated from the range) was between 2.0 and 5.2 %. (author)

  14. Heated uranium tetrafluoride target system to release non-rare gas fission products for the TRISTAN isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.L.

    1977-10-01

    Off-line experiments indicated that fluorides of As, Se, Br, Kr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Sb, Te, I and Xe could be volatilized, but except for Br, Kr, I and Xe, none of these elements were observed after mass separation in the on-line experiments. The results of the on-line experiments indicated a very low level of hydride contamination at ambient temperature and consequently, uranium tetrafluoride replaced uranyl stearate as the primary gaseous fission product target. Possible reasons for the failure of the heated target system to yield non-rare gas activities are discussed and suggestions for designing a new heated target system are presented

  15. Diagnostic value of computed tomography in the colon cancer; In terms of the staging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Mi; Moon, Jang Ho; Lee, Dong Joong; Choi, Chul Soon; Kang, Ik Won; Chung, Soo Young; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sub

    1989-01-01

    The CT findings of thirty-three patients with proven colon cancer were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The accuracy for detecting pericolic fat invasion on CT was 81%. 2. The accuracy for detecting lymph node involvement on CT was 67%. 3. The overall accuracy for staging of colon cancer on CT was 64%(67% for stage A, 30% for stage B, 60% for stage C, 100% for stage D). 4. The overall detection rate of mass on CT was 80%(89% for rectum, 100% for rectosigmoid colon and sigmoid colon, 30% for ascending and transverse colon). 5. The CT is useful, noninvasive technique for assessing extension and staging of colon cancer

  16. Performance analysis of a single stage four bed metal hydride cooling system, part A: Influence of mass recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kevin; Prakash Maiya, M.; Srinivasa Murthy, S. [Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, 600036, Chennai (India)

    2003-01-01

    The concept of mass recovery in metal hydride systems is studied with a single stage multi-bed cooling system as example. Mass recovery results in variation of bed temperatures due to removal or addition of heat of desorption or absorption respectively. Coefficient of performance and cold output increase while required heat input decreases for the mass recovery cycle. Thus mass recovery between hydride reactors is found to improve system performance compared to that of a basic system. (authors)

  17. Novel microfluidic chips with fourier transform infrared spectroscopic detection for reaction and separation monitoring in miniaturized analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsmann, P.

    2002-12-01

    The first part of this work deals with the development of a micromachined mixing unit for time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate rapid chemical reactions in solution. The mixing chip is a sandwich construction of two epoxy polymer layers and a separating silver layer between two highly IR transparent CaF 2 discs that allows for fast and highly reproducible diffusion based mixing. Lamination of two streamlines reduces the inter-stream distances and enables complete mixing of the reactants in the millisecond time range with low reagent consumption. The mixing device was tested using different model reactions and computational fluid dynamic simulations and was applied to study the binding of vancomycin - a glycopeptide antibiotic - to a cell wall precursor peptide. The second development presented is a microfabricated flow-through cell for on-line FT-IR spectroscopic detection in capillary electrophoresis (CE). In order to overcome the total IR absorption of fused-silica capillaries that are normally encountered in CE separations, a micromachined IR transparent flow cell was constructed. This cell consists - similar to the mixing chip - of two IR transparent CaF 2 plates separated by an epoxy polymer layer and a titanium layer forming an IR detection window with a width of 150 μm, a length of 2 mm and a pathlength of 15 μm. The connections between the fused-silica capillaries and the flow cell were accomplished by a small O-ring made of epoxy polymer on the sharply cut ends of the capillary allowing for easy replacement of both the capillaries and the flow cell. The system was tested with a capillary zone electrophoresis separation and applied to separations by micellar elektrokinetic chromatography and non-aqueous CE. (author)

  18. UVC-induced lysis and detritus production of Oscillatoria limnetica in a two-stage continuous-flow system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hannen, E.J.; Gons, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study in model systems the role of heterotrophic micro-organisms in the aquatic microbial food web, a natural food source consisting of senescent primary producer cells is indispensable. A two-stage continuous-flow system with the ability to produce detritus continuously is presented. In

  19. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  20. Development of a micro total analytic system based on isotachophoresis for the separation and characterization of lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, L.

    2010-01-01

    The accurate and reproducible characterization of radioactive solutions in isotope composition and concentration is an essential topic for analytical laboratories in the nuclear field. In order to reduce manipulation time in glove box and production of contaminated wastes, it is necessary to propose innovative and efficient solutions for these analyses. Since few years, microchips are a major field of development in analytical chemistry and those devices could provide a solution which fits the needs of nuclear industry. The aim of this work is to design a disposable analytical micro-device devoted to lanthanide separation from spent nuclear fuel before their analysis in mass spectrometry. Designed to be used in place of a separation process by liquid chromatography which is involved in a three step protocol, the new protocol based on isotachophoresis (ITP) keeps compatible with the other two steps. The complete separation of lanthanides by ITP was obtained by the use of only one chelating compound rigorously selected: the 2-hydroxy 2-methyl butyric acid (HMBA). The main parameters involved in solute resolution were defined from the theoretical models of ITP and experimental studies of the influence of these parameters allowed to optimize the geometry of the system and to improve its performances. To suppress cleaning of the system and, consequently, to strongly reduce both liquid waste volume and handling radioactive material, the ITP protocol was transferred in a polymeric (COC) disposable microchip especially developed for this purpose. (author) [fr