WorldWideScience

Sample records for stage oral history

  1. Staging N0 oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1...... and 16 T2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Palpation was carried out by two observers prior to inclusion. MRI, gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Lymphoscintigraphies were done after peritumoral injections of 99mTc labelled rheniumsulphide nanocolloid, followed......%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel...

  2. Oral history database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Separately, each history provides an in depth view into the professional and personal lives of individual participants. Together, they have the power to illuminate...

  3. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, Christine; Winslow, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  4. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  5. Oral History og Militærhistorie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink Rasmussen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Oral History er en forskningsmetode, der indsamler, dokumenterer og fortolker vidnesbyrd og erindringer gennem mundtlige interviews. Oral History har som metode vist sig særligt egnet til at udforske historiske processer, fx sociale og erindringshistoriske forandringer, ligesom den kan påvise...... forbindelsen mellem individuelle erfaringer og kulturelle og sociale sammenhænge. Mens Oral History internationalt er i vældig fremgang, har historievidenskaben i Danmark længe fastholdt en skepsis overfor den mundtlige beretning. Først med nyere strømninger indenfor faget har det mundtlige vidnesbyrd opnået...... et gennembrud, der lover godt for den metodiske udvikling og inspirerer til øget brug af mundtlige kilder i såvel forskning som undervisning. Oral History i Danmark er den første bog på dansk om danske historikeres erfaringer med det mundtlige interview og introducerer til både arkivarisk...

  6. The Ethics of Oral History in South Africa | Denis | ESARBICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to help oral history practitioners to reflect on the ethics of their discipline.1 By ethics of oral history one means the moral obligations a practitioner has in the conduct of an oral history project. The requirements of oral history are different from those of cognate disciplines such as psychology, ...

  7. Dutch voices: exploring the role of oral history in Dutch secondary history teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; Trškan, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Oral history may enhance students’ historical content knowledge, historical reasoning competencies, and motivation to learn history. However, little is known regarding the role of oral history in Dutch history education. This study therefore explores the role of oral history in Dutch history

  8. Ordinary Lives Illuminated: Writing Oral History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandesbery, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Describes how writing oral history can help students to feel that they are participating in a lively intellectual and cultural process that travels beyond the limits of the classroom. Says students claim that their obligations to the assignment are surpassed by their feelings of gratification in having created living works with lasting vitality.…

  9. NATURAL HISTORY OF THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT IN ORAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    S C Mohapatra; V K Srivastava; P Mohapatra; J NP Gupta; J Tandon

    1995-01-01

    The natural history of a diseases is greatly influenced by the course of therapeutic management. Just after the tissue stage of the disease is aver. The cure rate of diseases, particularly those of cancers, could probably be modified to a greater extent, if the natural history of the therapeutic manage­ment is understood properly, so that the community education programme be organised in the proper direction, to trigger early diagnosis. Home remedy urn the first preference of 76.8% of oral ca...

  10. Oral cancer staging established by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ribeiro de Paiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare clinical staging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI staging for oral cancer, and to assess inter-observer agreement between oral and medical radiologists. A total of 10 patients diagnosed with oral cancer were assessed before treatment. A head and neck surgeon performed clinical TNM staging. Two medical radiologists and two oral radiologists performed a new staging assessment by interpreting MRI scans, without prior knowledge of the clinical staging. They evaluated the extent of the primary tumor (T, metastasis to regional lymph nodes (N and grouping by stages. The data were analyzed using the Kappa Index. There was significant agreement (p < 0.05 between the clinical and MRI staging assessments made by one oral radiologist for N stage, and between those made by one medical radiologist for the T and N stages and for the grouping by stages. In the MRI assessment, there was significant agreement among all four observers for both T stage and grouping by stages. For the N stage, there was no significant agreement between one oral radiologist and one medical radiologist or between both medical radiologists. There was significant agreement among the remaining radiologists. There was no agreement between the clinical and MRI staging. These results indicate the importance of using MRI for the diagnosis of oral cancer. Training initiatives and calibration of medical and oral radiologists should be promoted to provide an improved multidisciplinary approach to oral cancer.

  11. The life trajectories modality of oral history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to explore the potential of qualitative research. It presents the life trajectory modality of the oral history method, to discuss the possibility of its utilization in scientific research in the Social Work profession. The epistemological foundations of oral history are discussed to establish its scientific character. The life trajectories modality is presented as a historic and social construction that utilizes different interview techniques to give voice to previously invisible subjects, indicating the principal phases of the methodological procedures used in this approach. The conclusions highlight the importance of the construction of this model and its projection as a research proposal that implies a process of understanding and analyzing the social universes that are contextualized and interconnected, considering the realities of the life trajectories of the subjects studied.

  12. [Oral communication: short history and some rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The verbal communication represents the first human communication, that even more used and one most immediate. History and the development of communication is divided into historical periods, is complex and is bound to the period contingencies and to the social reference community. The oral communication is never isolated but is always taken by the not verbal one, including the silences, the position and the spaces (c.d. proxemics). The good communicator stimulates the cooperation through the conversation rule respect (qualities, amounts, way and relation) and reduces the possible asymmetry between broadcaster and receiver fitting its code to that of the interlocutor.

  13. Review Article - Book title: Oral tradition as history | Mbakwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article - Book title: Oral tradition as history. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review. Journal Home ... Abstract. BOOK TITLE: ORAL TRADITION AS HISTORY MBAKWE, PAUL UCHE Department of History and International Relations, Abia State University P. M. B. 2000 Uturu, Nigeria.

  14. Learning Historical Thinking with Oral History Interviews: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Intervention Study of Oral History Interviews in History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Christiane; Wagner, Wolfgang; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the oral history approach with respect to students' historical competence. A total of 35 ninth-grade classes (N = 900) in Germany were randomly assigned to one of four conditions--live, video, text, or a (nontreated) control group--in a pretest, posttest, and follow-up design. Comparing the three…

  15. Digitising the oral history collection at Botswana National Archives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advent of new technologies has ushered in changes in the way oral histories have been collected and managed. Oral history recordings are no longer done with only the analogue recording equipment, but are also nowadays done with digital recording equipment. Although digital audio recording equipment offer ...

  16. Oral Sources and Missionary Historiography in Igbo Church History ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper takes a look at the problems of oral sources and missionary historiography in Igbo church history, 1940-2012. Findings show that the problems of missionary and African Christian oral informants and historiographers had significant effect on Igbo church history. Primary and secondary means in the collection of ...

  17. Digitising the oral history collection at Botswana National Archives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mpho ngoepe

    Abstract. The advent of new technologies has ushered in changes in the way oral histories have been collected and managed. Oral history recordings are no longer done with only the analogue recording equipment, but are also nowadays done with digital recording equipment. Although digital audio recording equipment ...

  18. Oral History Archives | Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oral history archive. Audio and video documentaries. In the Academy Council meeting held in December 2011, the proposal of creating an 'Oral history archive' was discussed and finalized for implementation. The archive is intended to be a repository of audio and video documentaries of some of the leading scientists of ...

  19. Understanding the Impact of Using Oral Histories in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Doner, Karen M.; Allen, Susan; Campanaro, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Oral histories are a powerful pedagogical tool in developing historical understanding and important learning skills simultaneously. Teachers use firsthand accounts of historical time periods and/or events to help develop students' sense of history. In addition to gaining historical understanding, students are able to bring history alive by…

  20. Staging of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Buron, Birgitte Marie Due; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical staging of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is crucial for the choice of treatment. Computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are typically recommended and used for staging of the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). Although ultrasonography (US...

  1. Natural History of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often continue to progress spontaneously towards end stage renal disease (ESRD). In this report we studied the natural history of progression of CKD in a cohort of patients with stage 4 and 5 CKD. Methods: We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients in stage 4 ...

  2. Towards a History of Labor and News Work: The Use of Oral Sources in Journalism History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, Bonnie

    1996-01-01

    Outlines major oral history collections related to media studies and considers how the use of those collections has encouraged traditional conceptions of the social function of the press. Suggests how oral histories can be used to address issues of power and domination in the development of media institutions. (MJP)

  3. Do You Understand? Unsettling Interpretative Authority in Feminist Oral History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Fobear

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates interpretative authority in feminist oral history through a critical Indigenous lens. I argue that critical Indigenous theory provides a useful and needed understanding of participants’ agency and the active role they have in shaping the research. Feminist oral history as a methodology has a long and well-established lineage of exploring difficult questions of power in the relationship between the researcher and the participants. While many feminist oral historians have actively interrogated issues surrounding power within their own research, there are relatively few works that press beyond looking at the one-sided hierarchical relationship between the oral historian and the research participants. The first part provides a theoretical and historical overview of feminist oral history in North America and Europe. From there I bring forward Linda Tuhiwai Smith’s work on decolonizing research and the need to recognize the authority of the participants. I will review the challenges I encountered when conducting oral histories with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans (LGBT refugees, and discuss how critical Indigenous theory provided a useful tool in understanding, acknowledging, and representing participants’ agency. In this way, I will intersect critical Indigenous theory with the methodology of feminist oral history and move previous discussions on power and interpretative authority away from focusing just on the role of the researcher and toward embracing the role of the participant as well.

  4. Dole i niedole czeskiej oral history (1990-2012)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mücke, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2013), s. 131-160 ISSN 2084-0578 R&D Projects : GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/11/1352 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : oral history * Czech Republic * transformation Subject RIV: AB - History

  5. Affinity and Interpretation in Oral Histories of Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnet, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    In the pursuit of my doctoral research on the institutional history of the art department at Central Technical School (CTS) in Toronto, Canada, I amassed a collection of oral histories from 20 current and former CTS art instructors and students, recorded across the country. As an instructor in the CTS art department in addition to being its…

  6. Authenticating History With Oral Narratives: The Example of Ekajuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally accepted that oral narratives serve as a veritable means for historical reconstruction. This holds true, particularly in societies where written documents do not subsist. The Ekajuk community, though very warlike, is a relatively small community that lacks a written history. The attempt to reconstruct the history of ...

  7. Citizenship Education about War and Peace: A Study of the History of the Vietnam War through Oral History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses his "History of the Vietnam War" course, which takes oral history as the core of its curriculum. This oral history focuses on personal lives and stories that can bring history to life. The components of the course are as follows: (1) overview of the History of the Vietnam War; (2) email interviews;…

  8. History of the American Board of Ophthalmology Oral Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamming, Nancy A; Kline, Lanning B; Keltner, John C; Orcutt, James C; Farber, Martha J

    2016-09-01

    The oral examination has been an integral part of certification by the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) since its founding in 1916. An overview is provided regarding the history, evolution, and application of new technology for the oral examination. This part of the certifying process allows the ABO to assess candidates for a variety of competencies, including communication skills and professionalism. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Medium and the Message: Oral History, New Media, and a Grassroots History of Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerowitz, Ruth; Zinni, Christine F.

    2009-01-01

    In the Spring of 2000, Ruth Meyerowitz and Christine Zinni began collaborative efforts--inside and outside of academia--to enhance a course on The History of Working Women at SUNY Buffalo. Videotaping the oral histories of women labor leaders, they later teamed up with Michael Frisch and Randforce Associates--a research group at SUNY at Buffalo's…

  10. Clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of initial diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Sefvan, O.; Luqman, Z.; Ibrahim, W.; Mehmood, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. Early diagnosis ensures better prognosis. Late diagnosis is however common around the world and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality related to oral cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 334 oral cancer patients who presented to the outdoor departments of Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2008 to December 2009. The records that were reviewed included history and clinical examination findings, OPG and CT scans of the head and neck region, chest X-rays, abdominal ultrasounds and liver function tests. Size of the primary tumour, the size, number and laterality of the involved cervical lymph nodes and the presence/absence of distant metastases were documented and statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Results: Out of the 334 patients, 203 (60.8%) were males and 131 (39.2%) females. The age range was from 21 to 88 years. Buccal mucosa was the most commonly involved site (32 %). The primary tumour was 4 Cm or more in size, (T3/T4) 71.25% of the cases. Cervical lymph nodes were involved in 211 patients (63.2%) and distant metastases were present in 39 patients (11.7%). Overall, clinical stage IV was the most common (57.18%) followed by stage III(24.55%), stage II (13.77%) and stage I (4.49%). Conclusion: Oral cancers are diagnosed late (Stage III and IV) in Pakistan and need immediate public and professional attention. (author)

  11. Oral History: Its Background, Definition, and Interview Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    Oral history, a method of collecting historical information through preplanned tape recorded interviews with persons having firsthand knowledge of an historical event, is a viable learning activity at the high school level. This methodology was conceived and later institutionalized by Alan Nevins in the 1940s as a way to counter the loss of…

  12. Reconstructing a School's Past Using Oral Histories and GIS Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Marsha; Beal, Candy; Thompson, Ann; Wilson, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary project that incorporated language arts, social studies, instructional technology, and science where middle school students were involved in oral history, Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping, architectural research, the science of dendrochronology, and the creation of an archival school Web site. (CMK)

  13. Orality and the Archive: Teaching the Partition of India through Oral Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaana Jayagopalan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on how select oral histories and witness accounts about the partition of India and Pakistan, especially those by Urvashi Butalia and Veena Das were used in a graduate seminar in Bengaluru. The article explores the strength of oral archives as repositories of radical enquiry that may be used in classrooms to understand the complex nature of history, historiography, and interrogate the State’s archival processes. The article explores how students began to see the potency in oral archives as a space that embodies the victimhood of partition victims as opposed to an effacement of the sufferers in most state archives of the event. It observes how the memorialisation of Partition is different in the State’s construction of partition: to the victims who recount their stories, it is the ‘everyday’ that becomes predominant as opposed to State archives that seek to represent the differences between the two nations as paramount in its processes of memorialisation. The note concludes by emphasising the need to put such oral histories to use in classroom, especially to understand the nature of suffering. Through a reading of such stories, it is proposed, an affective literacy is enabled in students’ modes of enquiry about trauma, memory and suffering.   Keywords: Partition of India, affective literacy, archives, oral histories, witness narratives.

  14. Staging N0 Oral Cancer: Lymphoscintigraphy and Conventional Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, J.B.; Soerensen, J.A.; Grupe, P.; Karstoft, J.; Krogdahl, A.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1 and 16 T2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Palpation was carried out by two observers prior to inclusion. MRI, gray-scale and Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Lymphoscintigraphies were done after peritumoral injections of 99mTc labelled rheniumsulphide nanocolloid, followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by a gamma probe and Patent Blue. Palpation, Doppler ultrasonography, MRI, and sentinel lymph node biopsy were compared to a combination of histopathology and follow-up. Diagnostic testing was performed using the x2 test. RESULTS: Histopathological examination revealed metastatic spread to the neck in 14 of 40 patients. One patient had bilateral neck disease. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography were performed in 80 neck sides of 40 patients and MRI in 70 neck sides (5 patients were claustrophobic). SN revealed suspicious lymph nodes in 12 necks, ultrasonography in 23 necks, and MRI in 9 necks. The positive predictive value of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 100%, ultrasonography 57%, and MRI 56%. The respective negative predictive values were 96%, 96%, and 85%. The sensitivity of sentinel lymph node biopsy 80% was comparable to ultrasonography 87%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and Doppler ultrasonography may further improve staging. MRI and simple palpation results were poor

  15. Conference Report: Analyzing Recorded Interviews: Making Sense of Oral History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author reviews the one day Conference held in London at the British Library which provided an opportunity to discuss different ways of analysing and making sense of transcribed interviews using various approaches. These approaches have been discussed in order to assist researchers during the process of identi­fication of themes, through comparisons, analysis, and the drawing of conclusions. The debates which emerged included ways of analysing oral history data through participative approaches discussing issues around often sensitive topics. The report outlines the issues covered giving a critical summary of the event, which has helped to expose newcomers to oral history. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401200

  16. Developing the profession of radiography: Making use of oral history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, Sola; Iphofen, Ron

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research into the profession of radiography using the oral history method. Knowledge of radiographic practice as a profession has in the past been based on what is written or learnt from other professions both within and beyond the field of health care. The profession has experienced substantial technological and sociological changes both in training and in practice over the past few decades and these look set to continue into the immediate future. Evidence-based practice is invoked as a quality measure on all health professions, and part of the body of knowledge which forms the evidence base of practice development involves an understanding of how the profession has responded to change and what this might mean for the further changes it is likely to meet. This paper explores the potential role of oral history research as a tool for the development of knowledge about the practice of radiography

  17. Developing the profession of radiography: Making use of oral history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Sola [School of Radiography, Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Studies, University of Wales, Bangor, Archimedes Centre, Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rdsa01@bangor.ac.uk; Iphofen, Ron [Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Studies, University of Wales, Bangor, Archimedes Centre, Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research into the profession of radiography using the oral history method. Knowledge of radiographic practice as a profession has in the past been based on what is written or learnt from other professions both within and beyond the field of health care. The profession has experienced substantial technological and sociological changes both in training and in practice over the past few decades and these look set to continue into the immediate future. Evidence-based practice is invoked as a quality measure on all health professions, and part of the body of knowledge which forms the evidence base of practice development involves an understanding of how the profession has responded to change and what this might mean for the further changes it is likely to meet. This paper explores the potential role of oral history research as a tool for the development of knowledge about the practice of radiography.

  18. The Olive Project: An Oral History Project in Multiple Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erin R.

    2011-01-01

    This project is devoted to the memory of my grandmother, Olive. It is at once her life story and not a story at all. In a sense it represents the product of an intimate family collaboration and of the close journey we shared in collecting and preserving her oral history. But this project is not a product, nor is it entirely about my grandma, about…

  19. Oral History and the Writing of the Other in Ondaatje's In the Skin of a Lion

    OpenAIRE

    Siemerling, Winfried

    2004-01-01

    Winfried Siemerling argues in his paper "Oral History and the Writing of the Other in Ondaatje's In the Skin of a Lion" that the simulation of oral narratives in the novel imagines the conveyance of oral histories of immigrant experiences obscured by historiography. The narrative device of simulated orality -- the written text casts itself as the outcome of serial story-telling -- serves here to introduce erstwhile anonymous societal actors as makers of history, and emphasizes the collective ...

  20. Belongings: Oral History, Objects and an Online Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wilton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The New South Wales Migration Heritage Centre was established in 1998. Since 2003 its physical presence has been located within Sydney’s Powerhouse Museum and it has had the strategic brief to record the memories of ageing migrants before their stories are lost. The Centre is, however, a museum without a collection; a heritage authority without heritage sites; a cultural institution whose main presence is in cyberspace. Among its high profile projects is one entitled Objects through time and another Belongings. Both focus on the ways in which objects can convey aspects of the migration experience. Belongings, the focus of this article, presents the remembered experiences of people who migrated to Australia after World War II, and seeks to highlight significant features of their experiences through asking them to share their memories and to nominate and talk about significant objects. As a project it grew out of movable heritage policy work within state government agencies, and its initiators – John Petersen, Kylie Winkworth and Meredith Walker – were central players in this development. It was also inspired by the National Quilt Register of the Pioneer Women’s Hut at Tumbarumba. With its object-centred approach and accompanying edited interview transcripts, Belongings provides a focus for exploring the messages and emphases that emerge when oral history interviews concerned with migration have the specific brief to ask about material culture and its significance. Belongings also enables an exploration of the layering of those messages that emerges when object captions are located back in the context of the oral history interviews from which they were extracted. As a virtual exhibition, Belongings also provides the opportunity to consider the challenges for museums (virtual and real when they need to condense the richness of migrant oral histories and life stories to captioned objects that can be put on display.

  1. A history of allergies is associated with reduced risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Chen, Chu; Doody, David R; Carter, Joseph L; Galloway, Denise A; Madeleine, Margaret M; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    A history of allergies is associated with a decreased risk of several types of cancers. Potential mechanisms include enhanced immune surveillance against tumor cells early in disease development and/or carcinogenic infectious agents. We tested whether allergies are inversely associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), accounting for factors that may modify the association, such as tumor site, stage, and HPV infection. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between allergy history (including different types of allergies) and OSCC, adjusted for potential confounders, among 400 cases and 613 controls. Analyses were also stratified by site, stage, and measures of HPV infection. We observed a weak inverse association between history of any allergy and OSCC (OR = 0.81, 95 % CI 0.61-1.08). This association was present only for allergies to airborne allergens (dust/pollen/mold) (OR = 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48-0.93). The inverse associations with airborne allergies were slightly stronger for oropharyngeal SCC (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI 0.35-0.90) than for oral cavity SCC (OR = 0.71; 95 % CI 0.49-1.05) and present only for later-stage cancers (OR = 0.42; 95 % CI 0.26-0.66) as opposed to earlier-stage cancers (OR = 0.98; 95 % CI 0.66-1.46). Inverse associations were not particularly present or stronger among HPV-16-seropositive individuals or for HPV DNA-positive OSCC. There is an inverse association between history of allergies to dust, pollen, or mold and OSCC. Whether the inverse association involves heightened immune surveillance, increased immune response to HPV or other antigen, or other carcinogenic mechanism remains to be determined in more definitive studies.

  2. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Literature Review: Oral History of the Mississippi River Locks and Dams Numbers 3-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Art , Metropolitan Museum of Art , March 1985 Contributing editor for media and public history Oral History Review, 1984- Editor, "Selected Proceedings...Division, New York State Council on the Arts , December 1980 Field reviewer, Museum Aid Division, New York State Council on the Arts , 1979 Social history ... HISTORY AFIELD Approved fox public reloe - Dtstibudo Unixixtod FINAL LITERATURE REVIEW DI ORAL HISTORY OF THE Afti~LECTE MISSISSIPPI LOCKS & DAMS NOS

  4. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study.

    OpenAIRE

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Guida, Florence; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Schmaus, Annie; Carton, Matthieu; Cénée, Sylvie; Sanchez, Marie; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. METHODS: We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case--control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence inte...

  5. Culture Clash Invades Miami: Oral Histories and Ethnography Center Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Using a critical race theory (CRT) framework, this article compares the playwriting methods of the Chicano--Latino theater trio, Culture Clash, to a counterstorytelling methodology. The author uncovers the tenets of a critical race theater in the trio's site-specific ethnographic play, "Radio Mambo: Culture Clash Invades Miami". He…

  6. Snowchange Oral History - Work Among the Kolyma River Indigenous Societies in Siberia, Russia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes oral history accounts from Indigenous people participating in the Snowchange project in Siberia, Russia. It provides geographic and...

  7. A Dirty Mind Never Sleeps and Other Comments on the Oral History Movement *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olch, Peter D.

    1971-01-01

    Oral history has become an increasingly popular technique for gathering information. Viewed by some as the last word in historiography and by others as the latest word in histrionics, it is in fact nothing more and nothing less than a technique with many worthwhile applications if handled with reason and proper preparation. A brief historical review of the oral history movement is followed by a description of the current efforts in oral history in the life sciences. In conclusion the author expresses his personal views on the probable future of oral history. PMID:5146767

  8. Application of oral history to contemporary history of medicine in Korea: with a focus on medical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ock-Joo

    2013-08-01

    The oral history helps researchers to fill the gap in historical documents in research on the contemporary history of medicine in Korea. More and more studies in history of contemporary medicine in Korea have come out using oral history of doctors and patients. Based upon the author's research on development of neurosurgery in late 20th century Korea, this paper discusses how to apply oral history to contemporary history of medicine, focusing on oral history of doctors in Korea. In this paper the author describes how to do and use oral history of key doctors and medical scientists in the contemporary history of medicine in Korea. The oral history can be a powerful tool to complement the written documents as following. First, from their interview, doctors and medical scientists often provide valuable information which historians cannot get from documents and written sources. As intelligent interviewees, they not only understand the purpose of research but also help actively the historianresearcher- interviewer. Second, the oral history facilitates further searches and often it leads to more findings of informants, and written and image material. More often than not, doctors and medical scientists do their own research on the topic and provide the historian with valuable historical source material from their laboratories, bedsides, family and friends. Third, interviews with medical scientists and oral material produced by doctors and medical scientists helped the researcher to understand and interpret the papers and written documents. Fourth, the subjective stories told by the medical scientists provide perspectives and historical source as narrative truth. Before a historian attempts to use the oral material as complementary historial evidence, he or she needs to cross-check the validity and of objectivity of the oral material. Oral material is produced through bidirectional intersubjective interaction between the interviewer and interviewee, and critical reflection

  9. Are Stage of Change constructs relevant for subjective oral health in a vulnerable population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, L M; Parker, E J; Broughton, J; Lawrence, H P; Armfield, J M

    2015-06-01

    Stage of Change constructs may be proxy markers of psychosocial health which, in turn, are related to oral health. To determine if Stage of Change constructs were associated with subjective oral health in a population at heightened risk of dental disease. Stage of Change constructs were developed from a validated 18-item scale and categorised into 'Pre-contemplative', 'Contemplative' and 'Active'. A convenience sample of 446 Australian non-Aboriginal women pregnant by an Aboriginal male (age range 14-43 years) provided data to evaluate the outcome variables (self-rated oral health and oral health impairment), the Stage of Change constructs and socio-demographic, behavioural and access-related factors. Factors significant at the p health and 34% had oral health impairment. Around 12% were 'Pre-contemplative', 46% 'Contemplative' and 42% 'Active'. Being either 'pre-contemplative' or 'contemplative' was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. 'Pre-contemplative' ceased being significant after adjusting for dentate status and dental behaviour. 'Pre-contemplative' remained significant when adjusting for dental cost, but not 'Contemplative'. The Stages of Change constructs ceased being associated with self-rated oral health after adjusting for all confounders. Only 'Contemplative' (reference: 'Active') was a risk indicator in the null model for oral health impairment which persisted after adding dentate status, dental behaviour and dental cost variables, but not socio-demographics. When adjusting for all confounders, 'Contemplative' was not a risk indicator for oral health impairment. Both the 'Pre-contemplative' and 'Contemplative' Stage of Change constructs were associated with poor self-rated oral health and oral health impairment after adjusting for some, but not all, covariates. When considered as a proxy marker of psychosocial health, Stage of Change constructs may have some relevance for subjective oral health.

  10. Back to business: a next step in the field of oral history: the usefulness of oral history for leadership and organizational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, D.B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Business organizations and elites are often neglected in oral history as a result of the dominant assumption that elites have ample opportunity to be heard. We argue, however, that researching corporations and elites is very interesting for oral historians. This contention is supported by the four

  11. Wor(l)ds of Czech Oral History (1990-2015). A Couple of Historiographical Remarks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mücke, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 43 (2017), s. 28-39 ISSN 2109-9537 R&D Projects : GA ČR GA15-08130S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : oral history * Czech Republic * contemporary history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) https://afas.revues.org/3049

  12. Oral History in the Classroom: A Comparison of Traditional and On-Line Gerontology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary; Moriello, Gabriele; Welleford, E. Ayn; Schuster, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of an oral history assignment was assessed in a traditional gerontology class versus a distance education (DE) gerontology class. Attitudes toward older adults and the aging process were measured before and after students in the traditional (n = 29) and DE (n = 16) setting completed an oral history assignment.…

  13. Collaborative Complexities: Co-Authorship, Voice, and African American Rhetoric in Oral History Community Literacy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This co-authored article describes a community literacy oral history project involving 14 undergraduate students. It is intellectually situated at the intersection of writing studies, oral history, and African American rhetoric and distinguished by two features: 1) we were a combined team of 20 collaborators, and 2) our narrator, Frank Gilyard,…

  14. Stories Matter: Conceptual Challenges in the Development of Oral History Database Building Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jessee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stories Matter is new oral history database building software designed by an interdisciplinary team of oral historians and a software engineer affiliated with the Centre for Oral History and Digital Storytelling at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It encourages a shift away from transcription, enabling oral historians to continue to interact with their interviews in an efficient manner without compromising the greater life history context of their interviewees. This article addresses some of the conceptual challenges that arose when developing this software. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110119

  15. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-07-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

  16. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Balwant Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue.

  17. History and Psychology—Oral History and Psychoanalysis. Development of a Problematic Relationship. Outline and Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Plato

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the relationship between two scientific fields—history and psychology—with a focus on their connections during the last 150 years and about the meaning of subjectivity in history. It addresses possibilities of cooperation, taking as an example the relationship of oral history and psychoanalysis. The article emphasizes the problems regarding unconscious elements in history as well as the perception and "digestion" of history by the individual and the collective memory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401181

  18. How Should an Efficient Oral History Interview Process Be Conducted According to the Views of Pre-Service Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Oral history is a type of history arising from using the memories of people and listening to what they narrate. Oral history is a kind of history established around people. It introduces life into the history, and extends its scope. It selects its heroes among the majority of people who have not been known up to that time not only among the…

  19. Differentiation of oral precancerous stages with optical coherence tomography based on the evaluation of optical scattering properties of oral mucosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. T.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jin, H. L.; Chang, F. Y.; Hu, K. Y.; Wu, C. P.; Chiang, C. P.; Yang, C. C.

    2013-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for noninvasive, real-time oral cancer diagnosis. However, in previous reports, OCT has still been found to be difficult to use in the diagnosis of oral precancerous stages, including mild dysplasia and moderate dysplasia. In clinical applications, early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer can greatly improve the survival rate. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new approach to differentiate the oral precancerous stages based on the evaluation of the optical scattering properties of the epithelial layer, which is where the dysplastic cells start to develop in the precancerous stages. Instead of using exponential decay fitting to evaluate the scattering properties of mucosal tissues based on the Beer-Lambert law, linear fitting of the OCT depth intensity is used to evaluate the scattering properties of normal and dysplastic cells. From the statistical results of the linear fitting, the slope, a, can be an effective indicator to discriminate healthy mucosa and moderate dysplasia when an a value equal to zero is the threshold value, and the intercept, b, can be used to differentiate healthy and dysplastic mucosae, as well as mild and moderate dysplasia, when b values of 0.15 and 0.18 are used as the threshold values, respectively. Furthermore, this approach is also applied to the determination of the safe margin between normal and abnormal mucosae, making it possible to provide real-time, in vivo inspection during oral maxillofacial surgery.

  20. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Oral Hygiene in Patients with Generalized Periodontitis of II Degree and Stage II Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vivcharenko

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions. The level of oral hygiene in patients of both groups was low due to incorrect selection of personal hygiene products or their untimely replacement. In patients with generalized periodontitis of II degree and stage II hypertension, the level of oral hygiene was lower than in somatically healthy persons: the worse status of oral cavity hygiene – the more pronounced changes in the periodontal tissues. We can suppose that high blood pressure affects the status of the oral cavity, creates a higher risk and exacerbates the periodontal diseases.

  2. Delivering a powerful oral presentation: all the world's a stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, N; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K

    2011-04-01

    Oral presentations are, to a great extent, a matter of talent, but they can be practised and improved. There are three kinds of presentations: the short talk (5-10 minutes), the intermediate talk (15 minutes) and the long talk (approximately 45 minutes). Whatever the kind of the presentation, careful preparation is mandatory. The speaker needs to know how long the presentation is expected to be, who the audience is and what main messages should be conveyed. Power point and other visual aids may be appropriately used to facilitate communication. The information presented by these aids should be simple, concrete and intelligible, and the presenter should refrain from reading out the slides word for word. During the presentation, several pitfalls should be avoided: wrong type of presentation, exceeding the allocated time, poor structure, inadequate use of power point and/or other visual aids, poor control of language, poor control of voice, poor appearance on the podium, and poor control of nerves. Ideally, the successful oral presentation is a performance. Thus, the speaker may make the most of appearance, voice, eye contact and movement, in order to increase eloquence.

  3. ACTOplus Met XR in Treating Patients With Stage I-IV Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer Undergoing Definitive Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Oral Cavity Neoplasm; Oropharyngeal Neoplasm; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7

  4. Transcribing without Tears: A Guide to Transcribing and Editing Oral History Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Mary Jo; Pomeroy, Barbara

    This practical booklet, intended for those who are transcribing oral interviews into manuscript form, provides transcribing and editing guidelines that are particularly pertinent to oral history interviews. The major factor involved in a transcription is its editing. Editing is defined as making the material suitable for use by researchers and the…

  5. Scripting Oral History: An Examination of Structural Differences between Oral and Written Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gail

    The availability of both oral and written historical narratives provides the Readers Theater adapter with a rich opportunity to experiment with mixing oral and written narrative styles in documentary form. Those who plan to use such mixing must consider the differences between oral and written narratives. Writers and readers have almost unlimited…

  6. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Pleasures and Sorrows of Czech Oral History (1990-2012)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mücke, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 111-130 ISSN 2309-5792 R&D Projects : GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/11/1352 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : oral history * Czech Republic * transformation Subject RIV: AB - History

  8. Oral History as an Innovative Language Teaching Technique for Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Oral history is presented in this article as an interpretative exercise for historical events in a Spanish course for heritage language learners at the university level. Through the interview of a Latino immigrant family, students re-examined the history of their own families and increased their linguistic self-esteem. They were guided to become…

  9. Improving Undergraduate Nursing Research Education: The Effectiveness of Collecting and Analyzing Oral Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Nine oral histories of retired nurses were collected by 18 nursing students, whose attitudes toward nursing research were significantly more positive compared to 20 nonparticipants. Themes elicited from the histories showed the influence of World War II, technology, and intensive care on nursing practice in this century. (SK)

  10. "My Memory's Back!" Inclusive Learning Disability Research Using Ethics, Oral History and Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    The following article outlines the methodological approach used to include people with learning disabilities as active participants in an oral history produced in Australia. The history sought to document life inside Kew Cottages, Australia's oldest and largest specialised institution for people with learning disabilities. This work furthers…

  11. Prognostic significance of gene amplification of ACTN4 in stage I and II oral tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuya, T; Mori, T; Yoshimoto, S; Watabe, Y; Miura, N; Shoji, H; Onidani, K; Shibahara, T; Honda, K

    2017-08-01

    Despite complete resection of the early stage of oral tongue cancer by partial glossectomy, late cervical lymph node metastasis is frequently observed. Gene amplification of ACTN4 (protein name: actinin-4) is closely associated with the metastatic potential of various cancers. This retrospective study was performed to demonstrate the potential usefulness of ACTN4 gene amplification as a prognostic biomarker in patients with stage I/II oral tongue cancer. Fifty-four patients with stage I/II oral tongue cancer were enrolled retrospectively, in accordance with the reporting recommendations for tumour marker prognostic studies (REMARK) guidelines. The copy number of ACTN4 and the protein expression of actinin-4 were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. The overall survival time of patients with gene amplification of ACTN4 was significantly shorter than that of patients without gene amplification (P=0.0010, log-rank test). Gene amplification of ACTN4 was a significant independent risk factor for death in patients with stage I/II oral tongue cancer (hazard ratio 6.08, 95% confidence interval 1.66-22.27). Gene amplification of ACTN4 is a potential prognostic biomarker for overall survival in oral tongue cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiocarbon test for demographic events in written and oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinborough, Kevan; Porčić, Marko; Martindale, Andrew; Brown, Thomas Jay; Supernant, Kisha; Ames, Kenneth M

    2017-11-21

    We extend an established simulation-based method to test for significant short-duration (1-2 centuries) demographic events known from one documented historical and one oral historical context. Case study 1 extrapolates population data from the Western historical tradition using historically derived demographic data from the catastrophic European Black Death/bubonic plague ( Yersinia pestis ). We find a corresponding statistically significant drop in absolute population using an extended version of a previously published simulation method. Case study 2 uses this refined simulation method to test for a settlement gap identified in oral historical records of descendant Tsimshian First Nations communities from the Prince Rupert Harbour region of the Pacific Northwest region of British Columbia, Canada. Using a regional database of n = 523 radiocarbon dates, we find a significant drop in relative population using the extended simulation-based method consistent with Tsimshian oral records. We conclude that our technical refinement extends the utility of radiocarbon simulation methods and can provide a rigorous test of demographic predictions derived from a range of historical sources.

  13. Oral and pharyngeal cancer : Analysis of patient delay at different tumor stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouha, XDR; Tromp, DM; Hordijk, GJ; Winnubst, JAM; de Leeuw, JRJ

    2005-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to examine which factors are related to patient delay in a cohort of consecutive patients with pharyngeal cancer and oral cancer and to determine whether the different stages of patient delay (ie, appraisal, illness, behavioral, and scheduling) were related to

  14. Applying local knowledge: the contribution of oral history to wetland rehabilitation at Kanyapella Basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Hugh A; McGee, Tara K

    2003-11-01

    Local knowledge of the history and ecology of wetland ecosystems can be a valuable resource in wetland rehabilitation projects. This is especially the case when other historical ecological information is unavailable. As well as providing a source of historical information, time spent acquiring local knowledge can enhance public participation in environmental management and facilitate early conflict resolution between stakeholders and the community. This paper investigates the use of oral history as a tool to collate a history of the flooding, ecology and management of Kanyapella Basin, a 2581 ha wetland on the floodplain of the Murray and Goulburn Rivers, Australia. Interviews were held with nine local residents and 11 natural resource managers. Oral history proved an effective way to obtain information about changes in the frequency and distribution of flood events over the last 60 years. Observations of rare and threatened fauna, and comments regarding the success of past management were also recorded. Results from the oral history have been used to direct ecological research and develop alternative management options at Kanyapella Basin. In addition to its use in gathering ecological information, oral history also proved effective in enabling the values and concerns of local community and stakeholders to be articulated, increasing managers' understanding of the social context of the particular locality, which is fundamental to sound environmental decision-making.

  15. An Interview with DOROTHY E. DENNING, Oral History 424

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Computer Security History Project Computer security pioneer Dorothy Denning discusses her career including her Lattice Model for Computer Security, research on database security, intrusion detection, and other areas, such as her influential textbooks. The interview also addresses computer security research infrastructure and collaborators at various institutions where she worked including Purdue University, SRI International, Digital Equipment Corporation, Georgetown University, and Naval ...

  16. Structuring knowledge on Romanian communism: the case of the oral history interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana PAINCA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the way in which the oral history interview can organize knowledge about communism in Romania. The data are retrieved from the book Memorialul Durerii: Întuneric şi lumină (2013 compiled by author Iulia Hossu Longin from dozens of oral history interviews with survivors of communism. As the examination demonstrates, the first element commanding attention is memory. Hence, oral history shifts the focus from memory as object to memory as subject, or as a source of investigation per se. Secondly, the analysis reveals how the extensive use of lists structures knowledge about Romanian communism in an intelligible and insightful way. These lists not only provide a window on the communist experience but they also bring the individual -fighting against the regime - into the foreground.

  17. The history and global market of oral home-care products

    OpenAIRE

    Jardim,Juliana Jobim; Alves,Luana Severo; Maltz,Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This literature review reports the history and the current market of oral home-care products. It provides information extending from the products used by our ancestors to those currently available, as well as on the changes in the supply and consumption of these products. Although the scientific knowledge about oral diseases has improved greatly in recent years, our ancestors had already been concerned with cleaning their teeth. A variety of rudimentary products and devices were used since be...

  18. Oral biology in middle age: a history of the University at Buffalo Oral Biology PhD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, F A

    2014-05-01

    In 1960, the first Department of Oral Biology in the United States dedicated to the conduct of research, graduate biomedical research education, and the provision of basic oral science education for the DDS curriculum was established at the University at Buffalo. In 1963, the Department organized the first PhD Program in Oral Biology in the United States. This PhD program has produced a large cadre of oral health researchers, many of whom have gone on to make major contributions to dental research and education. This article provides a brief history of the program, the context within which the program was organized and developed, and a description of some of the many faculty, students, and fellows associated with the program. Additionally, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of this program, a symposium, entitled "The Oral Microbiome, Immunity and Chronic Disease", was held on June 12-14, 2013, in Buffalo, New York. The proceedings are published online in Advances in Dental Research (2014, Vol. 26).

  19. One-stage Penile Urethroplasty Using Oral Mucosal Graft and Glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagli, Guido; Pellegrini, Graziella; Corradini, Francesca; Montorsi, Francesco; Sansalone, Salvatore; Butnaru, Denis; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Repair of penile urethral strictures is a challenging problem for which different techniques have been suggested. To describe a new surgical technique for one-stage penile urethroplasty using an oral graft and glue, and to assess its safety and efficacy. A retrospective review of medical records for patients who underwent one-stage penile urethroplasty using oral mucosa and glue from February 2013 to October 2014 was performed. The penile urethra was opened and the urethral plate was incised to create a wide window within which the oral graft was pasted with glue. The urethra was sutured over the catheter. Clinical data were collected in a database. Intraoperative and postoperative complications and outcomes were assessed. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Fourteen patients were included in the study. Median operative time was 60min. The median postoperative stay was 3 d. Three intraoperative and one postoperative complication occurred. In all patients, voiding cystourethrography 2 wk after surgery failed to show urethral fistula or sacculation. No patients complained of penile chordee or sexual dysfunction after surgery. Median follow-up was 16 mo. Among the 14 patients, 12 (85.7%) procedures were successful and two (14.3%) were failures. Study limitations include the small sample size and short follow-up. An in vitro study and a one-stage reconstruction of penile urethral strictures with an oral mucosa graft and glue showed that the procedure is safe and efficient, but further studies including larger series of patients and longer follow-up are required. We report on the repair of penile urethral stricture using one-stage urethroplasty with oral mucosa and glue. This new technique was safe and effective, with limited complications and satisfactory outcomes. We plan to increase the use of this technique in the future. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. História Oral: Metodologia do Diálogo / Oral History: Methodology for Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID, Priscila; UNESP - ASSIS

    2013-01-01

    A história oral, como metodologia qualitativa de pesquisa, traz outras dimensões ao debate historiográfico. Por meio dela o historiador consegue visualizar diversos pontos de vista de um determinado fato histórico. Neste aspecto, cabe ressaltar que sua utilização depende da compreensão de que o diálogo entre pesquisador e entrevistado apresenta especificidades. Utilizar-se da história oral requer a compreensão de que a pesquisa somente é possível mediante a vontade do pesquisador, o qual deli...

  1. The Oral History of Evaluation: The Professional Development of Daniel L. Stufflebeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin; King, Jean; Mark, Melvin

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, the Oral History Project Team has conducted interviews with individuals who have influenced the theory and practice of evaluation. In 2006, Robin Miller, with the help of Christian Coryn of The Evaluation Center at Western Michigan University (WMU), and Daniela Schroeter, also at the Center, sat down with widely regarded…

  2. More than Reading Books: Using Oral Histories in Courses in Race and Ethnic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that a high level of teacher-student communication is especially important in courses on race and ethnic relations. Describes the use of oral history and interviews in a college sociology course. Discusses interviewing methods, reporting results of the interviews, and the impact of the course on students. (CFR)

  3. The Uses of Oral History in Cyprus: Ethics, Memory and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses an Oral History project undertaken from 2009 to 2012 in Cyprus. As Cyprus is a politically volatile and geographically divided country with a Turkish-Cypriot north and a Greek-Cypriot-dominated south, this project attempted to show ways in which the two sides might be able to re-approach each other by claiming a common past. It…

  4. The Australian Paralympic Oral History Project: Remembering, Reflecting, Recording and Promoting Disability in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Ian F.; Naar, Tony; Hanley, Marian

    2012-01-01

    The joint oral history project of the National Library of Australia and the Australian Paralympic Committee focuses on interviews with Australians who have contributed greatly to the Paralympic Movement in Australia since the inaugural Paralympic Games of 1960, while also recognising their place in the larger social and cultural context. This…

  5. Enriching the Historiography of Religious Education: Insights from Oral Life History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Jonathan; Parker, Stephen G.; Freathy, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to exemplify the extent to which oral life history research can enrich existing historiographies of English Religious Education (RE). Findings are reported from interviews undertaken with a sample of key informants involved in designing and/or implementing significant curriculum changes in RE in the 1960s and 1970s. The…

  6. Development and evaluation of the Stages of Change in Oral Health instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Lisa M; Armfield, Jason M; Parker, Eleanor J; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F; Broughton, John; Lawrence, Herenia P

    2014-10-01

    Oral health personnel are limited in their ability to assess the readiness of patients to make changes to improve oral health. We aimed to develop and test the Stages of Change in Oral Health (SOCOH) model, a scaled index of the stages of change - pre-contemplative, contemplative or active - with particular emphasis on pregnancy. Items were collected in a self-report questionnaire conducted among a convenience sample of 446 mothers (age range: 14-43 years) pregnant with Aboriginal children in South Australia, Australia. Scales representing openness (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.73), value (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.71), inconvenience (six items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.79) and permissiveness (four items; Cronbach's alpha = 0.66) were developed. Participants were categorised according to the Stages of Change model and were evaluated against key self-reported oral health outcomes. Some 11.9% of participants were classified as pre-contemplators, 46.4% as contemplators and 41.7% as active. A higher proportion of active participants had a higher education, last visited a dentist less than a year previously, had no dental fear, owned a toothbrush, brushed the previous day, used toothpaste, had no difficulties paying a $100 dental bill, self-reported their dental health as 'excellent' and in the previous 12 months did not experience dental pain, embarrassment related to their dental appearance or difficulties eating food. The SOCOH model offers an internally consistent and valid instrument for detailed assessment of the readiness for change in regarding oral health behaviours in pregnancy and has potential benefits for clinical decision making and research. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. The development and validation of oral cancer staging using administrative health data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Ting, Chang; Chung-Ho, Chen; Yi-Hsin, Yang; Pei-Shan, Ho

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is a major global health problem. The complexity of histological prognosticators in oral cancer makes it difficult to compare the benefits of different treatment regimens. The Taiwanese National Health database provides an opportunity to assess correlations between outcome and treatment protocols and to compare the effects of different treatment regimens. However, the absence of indices of disease severity is a critical problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain how accurately we could assess the severity of oral cancer at the time of initial diagnosis on the basis of variables in a national database. In the cancer registry database of a medical center in Taiwan, we identified 1067 histologically confirmed cases of oral cancer (ICD9 codes 140, 141 and 143–145) that had been first diagnosed and subjected to initial treatment in this hospital. The clinical staging status was considered as the gold standard and we used concordance (C)-statistics to assess the model’s predictive performance. We added the predictors of treatment modality, cancer subsite, and age group to our models. Our final overall model included treatment regimen, site, age, and two interaction terms; namely, interactions between treatment regimen and age and those between treatment regimen, site, and age. In this model, the C-statistics were 0.82–0.84 in male subjects and 0.96–0.99 in female subjects. Of the models stratified by age, the model that considered treatment regimen and site had the highest C-statistics for the interaction term, this value being greater than 0.80 in male subjects and 0.9 in female subjects. In this study, we found that adjusting for sex, age at first diagnosis, oral cancer subsite, and therapy regimen provided the best indicator of severity of oral cancer. Our findings provide a method for assessing cancer severity when information about staging is not available from a national health-related database

  8. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology

    OpenAIRE

    HOPWOOD, NICK

    2007-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the re...

  9. Photography and Oral History as a Means of Chronicling the Homeless in Miami: The "StreetWays" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F.; Ameen, Edward; Bengochea, Alain; Doorn, Kristen; Pontier, Ryan; Sembiante, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of Photography and Oral History research methods as part of a collaborative research project on homelessness in Miami. Issues involving the use of documentary photography and oral history as a means of creating greater social awareness in the general public are explored, as well as broader issues of Social Justice.…

  10. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Biochemist Waldo E. Cohn, Ph.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, the Department of Energy began an oral history project as part of the Openess initiative on the documentation of the human radiation experiments. This paper presents the oral history of Waldo E Cohn, Ph.D., a Biochemist who worked for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project

  11. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  12. A description of the early life history stages of the kob, Argyrosomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-09-12

    Sep 12, 1989 ... Though larvae of kob have been recorded from the near- shore waters of Algoa Bay (Beckley 1986), little is known about the early life history stages of this species. Gilchrist. (1916) reported on unfertilized A. hololepidotus eggs from the Cape of Good Hope and Melville-Smith (1978) illustra- ted 3,3 mm and ...

  13. Oral tegafur-uracil as metronomic therapy following intravenous FOLFOX for stage III colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yen Huang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of metronomic therapy with oral tegafur-uracil (UFUR following an intravenous FOLFOX regimen as surgical adjuvant chemotherapy on the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS of stage III colon cancer patients. From the retrospective database of patients who underwent a surgical resection for colorectal cancer at the Tri-Service General Hospital from October 2008 through December 2014, stage III colon carcinomas treated with radical R0 resection were reviewed. One hundred thirty two patients were treated with a FOLFOX regimen (comparison group, and 113 patients were treated with the same regimen followed by additional oral UFUR (UFUR group. The clinical characteristics and mean age of the comparison and UFUR groups were similar. Furthermore, for all study patients, DFS was not significantly different between the two groups. However, 5-year OS rates were 86.8% and 68.5% in the UFUR and comparison groups, respectively (p = 0.0107. Adding UFUR to a FOLFOX regimen was found to significantly improve the OS in patients with stage III colon cancer. UFUR as a maintenance therapy following FOLFOX regimen as an alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of stage III colon cancer patients.

  14. Oral tegafur-uracil as metronomic therapy following intravenous FOLFOX for stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Hsiao, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Chang-Chieh; Jao, Shu-Wen; Yang, Jen-Fu; Lo, Cheng-Hsiang; Chen, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of metronomic therapy with oral tegafur-uracil (UFUR) following an intravenous FOLFOX regimen as surgical adjuvant chemotherapy on the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of stage III colon cancer patients. From the retrospective database of patients who underwent a surgical resection for colorectal cancer at the Tri-Service General Hospital from October 2008 through December 2014, stage III colon carcinomas treated with radical R0 resection were reviewed. One hundred thirty two patients were treated with a FOLFOX regimen (comparison group), and 113 patients were treated with the same regimen followed by additional oral UFUR (UFUR group). The clinical characteristics and mean age of the comparison and UFUR groups were similar. Furthermore, for all study patients, DFS was not significantly different between the two groups. However, 5-year OS rates were 86.8% and 68.5% in the UFUR and comparison groups, respectively (p = 0.0107). Adding UFUR to a FOLFOX regimen was found to significantly improve the OS in patients with stage III colon cancer. UFUR as a maintenance therapy following FOLFOX regimen as an alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of stage III colon cancer patients.

  15. Historia Oral, Experiencias de Aprendizagem e Enraizamento Sociocultural--Um Projeto em Curso (Oral History, Learning Experiences, and Sociocultural Setting--A Project in Process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidigal, Luis

    1995-01-01

    Examines education and childhood in Portugal. Uses oral history methods in an educational context, exploring oral statements pedagogically. Considers these statements especially suitable to maintaining aspects of collective memory and social identity, reinforcing students' national and regional identities. Suggests this is very important in…

  16. Radiotherapy for primary localized (stage I and II) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaba, Kohji; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Okada, Norihiko; Amagasa, Teruo; Enomoto, Shoji; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of primary localized (Stage I: 24 cases and Stage II: 13 cases) non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) of the oral cavity. Methods and Materials: In total, 37 patients (27 male, 10 female) with primary localized NHL of the oral cavity have been treated with radiotherapy alone (23 cases) or radiation with chemotherapy (14 cases). The age range was 29 to 86 years (median: 65). Clinical and treatment variables with potential prognostic significance for survival were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Of the 37 patients, 31 (84%) had intermediate-grade lymphomas and six (14%) had high-grade lymphomas. Four patients showed necrotic ulcer in the central portion of the hard palate. Results: The 5-year actuarial survival rate for all cases was 73%. The 5-year survival rates for intermediate-grade and high-grade lymphoma were 85% and 14%, respectively. Significant prognostic factors identified by the multivariate analysis were histologic grade of malignancy (p = 0.02) and central necrotic ulcer in the tumor (p = 0.02). Chemotherapy did not improve survival (p = 0.41). Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that radiotherapy alone may be approved as the treatment for localized oral NHL with no ulceration and intermediate histology. However, patients with high-grade lymphoma and/or necrotic ulcer are difficult to cure with radiation alone and aggressive treatment should be advocated to improve survival

  17. Treatment outcome of advance staged oral cavity cancer: concurrent chemoradiotherapy compared with primary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangthongkum, Manupol; Kirtsreesakul, Virat; Supanimitjaroenporn, Pasawat; Leelasawatsuk, Peesit

    2017-06-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has been reported as effective and has become an acceptable treatment in advanced oral cancer. However, to date there is insufficient data to conclude that CCRT provides a good survival outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare survival rates and complications in patients with resectable advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma treated with either CCRT or surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT)/chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Stage III or IVa oral cavity carcinoma patients treated with curative intent by either CCRT or surgery with adjuvant RT were identified over a 7-year period (2009-2015). Survival rates and treatment complications were analyzed and compared between the two groups. 61 patients underwent CCRT and 128 patients underwent surgical excision and received postoperative RT. There was no statistically significant difference in survival outcome between the two treatment groups. 5-year overall survival rates (OS) were 33 versus 24% (P = 0.191) and the disease-specific survival rates (DSS) were 27 versus 25% (P = 0.857) when comparing the CCRT group and surgery with adjuvant RT/CRT group, respectively. Long-term complications were comparable between the two groups. CCRT has comparable survival outcome and complications for the treatment of advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, compared to surgery with adjuvant RT/CRT.

  18. Māori oral histories and the impact of tsunamis in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Darren N.; Shaw, Wendy S.; Meihana, Peter N.; Goff, James R.

    2018-03-01

    Māori oral histories from the northern South Island of Aotearoa-New Zealand provide details of ancestral experience with tsunami(s) on, and surrounding, Rangitoto (D'Urville Island). Applying an inductive-based methodology informed by collaborative storytelling, exchanges with key informants from the Māori kin groups of Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Kuia reveal that a folk tale, published in 1907, could be compared to and combined with active oral histories to provide insights into past catastrophic saltwater inundations. Such histories reference multiple layers of experience and meaning, from memorials to ancestral figures and their accomplishments to claims about place, authority and knowledge. Members of Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Kuia, who permitted us to record some of their histories, share the view that there are multiple benefits to be gained by learning from differences in knowledge, practice and belief. This work adds to scientific as well as Maōri understandings about tsunami hazards (and histories). It also demonstrates that to engage with Māori oral histories (and the people who genealogically link to such stories) requires close attention to a politics of representation, in both past recordings and current ways of retelling, as well as sensitivities to the production of new and plural knowledges. This paper makes these narratives available to a new audience, including those families who no longer have access to them, and recites these in ways that might encourage plural knowledge development and co-existence.

  19. Māori oral histories and the impact of tsunamis in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. King

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Māori oral histories from the northern South Island of Aotearoa-New Zealand provide details of ancestral experience with tsunami(s on, and surrounding, Rangitoto (D'Urville Island. Applying an inductive-based methodology informed by collaborative storytelling, exchanges with key informants from the Māori kin groups of Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Kuia reveal that a folk tale, published in 1907, could be compared to and combined with active oral histories to provide insights into past catastrophic saltwater inundations. Such histories reference multiple layers of experience and meaning, from memorials to ancestral figures and their accomplishments to claims about place, authority and knowledge. Members of Ngāti Koata and Ngāti Kuia, who permitted us to record some of their histories, share the view that there are multiple benefits to be gained by learning from differences in knowledge, practice and belief. This work adds to scientific as well as Maōri understandings about tsunami hazards (and histories. It also demonstrates that to engage with Māori oral histories (and the people who genealogically link to such stories requires close attention to a politics of representation, in both past recordings and current ways of retelling, as well as sensitivities to the production of new and plural knowledges. This paper makes these narratives available to a new audience, including those families who no longer have access to them, and recites these in ways that might encourage plural knowledge development and co-existence.

  20. Efficacy of Multimodal Therapy in the Survival Outcomes of Advanced-Stage (Stage III-Stage IV) Oral Carcinoma Patients: An Institutional Experience in Asian Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Amit; Duggal, Prahlad; Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Kaur, Tejinder; Sandhu, Amneet; Kaur, Kirandeep

    2018-03-01

    Primary ablative surgery followed by post-op radiotherapy (S-RT) remains the mainstay of treatment for stage III-stage IV oral carcinoma. A retrospective analysis of survival rates of advanced-stage OSCC patients treated with multimodal therapies (S-RT or combined chemoradiation) was performed to analyse the outcome for patient survival and whether addition of adjuvant chemotherapy (S-CRT) improves survival. Demographic, pathological, treatment and follow-up data of 128 patients were included in the study. Sixty-nine patients received S-RT, while 55 patients were opted for S-CRT. Overall survival, disease-specific survival and disease-free survival were estimated with Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared between groups with Cox regression analysis. Survival was significantly influenced by the type of modality and regional spread of disease. S-CRT group had improved overall, disease-specific, disease-free and metastasis-free survival compared to S-RT group. A survival advantage of 10% was achieved in S-CRT group compared to S-RT group even in patients with extracapsular spread and perineural invasion. Addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to S-RT improves survival outcomes in advanced OSCC, especially in patients with regional spread of disease.

  1. Living and being healthy in the human aging contextualized through oral history

    OpenAIRE

    Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem, Comissão de Editoração

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative study with a focus on aging in the healthy living process, through the Thematic Oral History. Eight interviews were conducted with elderly people, four of them belonging to the UNIVIDA extension project at UNIVALI and the other to the SESC elderly group-Florianópolis (SC). The spiritual dimensions, of gender, work, esthetics and the art of aging emerged from the narratives, allowing to contextualize the healthy aging process. This group of elderly people managed to br...

  2. The history and global market of oral home-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo; Maltz, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This literature review reports the history and the current market of oral home-care products. It provides information extending from the products used by our ancestors to those currently available, as well as on the changes in the supply and consumption of these products. Although the scientific knowledge about oral diseases has improved greatly in recent years, our ancestors had already been concerned with cleaning their teeth. A variety of rudimentary products and devices were used since before recorded history, like chewing sticks, tree twigs, bird feathers, animal bones, tooth powder and home-made mouth rinses. Today, due to technological improvements of the cosmetic industry and market competition, home-use oral care products available in the marketplace offer a great variety of options. An increase in the consumption of oral care products has been observed in the last decades. Estimates show that Latin America observed a 12% increase in hygiene and beauty products sales between 2002 and 2003, whereas the observed global rate was approximately 2%. A significant increase in the per capita consumption of toothpaste, toothbrush, mouthrinse and dental floss has been estimated from 1992 to 2002, respectively at rates of 38.3%, 138.3%, 618.8% and 177.2%. Pertaining to this increased supply and consumption of oral care products, some related questions remain unanswered, like the occurrence of changes in disease behavior due to the use of new compounds, their actual efficacy and correct indications, and the extent of the benefits to oral health derived from consuming more products.

  3. The history and global market of oral home-care products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jobim Jardim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This literature review reports the history and the current market of oral home-care products. It provides information extending from the products used by our ancestors to those currently available, as well as on the changes in the supply and consumption of these products. Although the scientific knowledge about oral diseases has improved greatly in recent years, our ancestors had already been concerned with cleaning their teeth. A variety of rudimentary products and devices were used since before recorded history, like chewing sticks, tree twigs, bird feathers, animal bones, tooth powder and home-made mouth rinses. Today, due to technological improvements of the cosmetic industry and market competition, home-use oral care products available in the marketplace offer a great variety of options. An increase in the consumption of oral care products has been observed in the last decades. Estimates show that Latin America observed a 12% increase in hygiene and beauty products sales between 2002 and 2003, whereas the observed global rate was approximately 2%. A significant increase in the per capita consumption of toothpaste, toothbrush, mouthrinse and dental floss has been estimated from 1992 to 2002, respectively at rates of 38.3%, 138.3%, 618.8% and 177.2%. Pertaining to this increased supply and consumption of oral care products, some related questions remain unanswered, like the occurrence of changes in disease behavior due to the use of new compounds, their actual efficacy and correct indications, and the extent of the benefits to oral health derived from consuming more products.

  4. Does thermal variability experienced at the egg stage influence life history traits across life cycle stages in a small invertebrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xing

    Full Text Available Although effects of thermal stability on eggs have often been considered in vertebrates, there is little data thermal stability in insect eggs even though these eggs are often exposed in nature to widely fluctuating ambient conditions. The modularity of development in invertebrates might lead to compensation across life cycle stages but this remains to be tested particularly within the context of realistic temperature fluctuations encountered in nature. We simulated natural temperate fluctuations on eggs of the worldwide cruciferous insect pest, the diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (L., while maintaining the same mean temperature (25°C±0°C, 25±4°C, 25±6°C, 25±8°C, 25±10°C, 25±12°C and assessed egg development, survival and life history traits across developmental stages. Moderate fluctuations (25±4°C, 25±6°C did not influence performance compared to the constant temperature treatment, and none of the treatments influenced egg survival. However the wide fluctuating temperatures (25±10°C, 25±12°C slowed development time and led to an increase in pre-pupal mass, although these changes did not translate into any effects on longevity or fecundity at the adult stage. These findings indicate that environmental effects can extend across developmental stages despite the modularity of moth development but also highlight that there are few fitness consequences of the most variable thermal conditions likely to be experienced by Plutella xylostella.

  5. Life-history stages of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita - towards a demographic understanding of jellyfish blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    species involved in mass occurrence have been covered in previous studies, providing important insight into diverse life stage-specific adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Quantification of the demographic rates that characterize different life-history stages however has remained...... scarce and patchy, although may unravel the basic principles underlying jellyfish blooms. In this thesis, vital rates for all life stages of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria) are documented, which allows pointing out important mechanisms that drive the population dynamics......Jellyfish blooms are conspicuous demographic events that have received increasing attention by the public and the scientific community over the last decades due to their negative impact on fisheries, tourism and other human industries. Several aspects of the complex life cycles of the jellyfish...

  6. Marathon maternity oral history project: Exploring rural birthing through narrative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Oral history research. The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project's findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women's voices. The project's narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon's stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada.

  7. Oral misoprostol versus oxytocin in the management of third stage of labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S.; Kazi, S.; Haq, G.; Soomro, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare oral misoprostol versus intramuscular oxytocin in the management of third stage of labour. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit II, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from June 20 to December 19, 2006. A total of 70 patients diagnosed in active phase of labour who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. These patients were divided into 2 groups of 35 patients each, for Oxytocin (Group 1) and misoprostol (Group 2). Main and secondary outcome measures were analysed. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Average amount of blood loss(ml) was 267.14+-140.35 with Oxytocin versus 302.86+-160.4, with Misoprostol, this difference was statistically insignificant (p=0.236). Average drop in haemoglobin concentration (g/dl) with Oxytocin was 1.55+-0.38 vs 1.66+-0.61 with Misoprostol (p=0.684). Drop in haematocrit (%) was 4.18+-0.64 with Oxytocin vs. 4.50+-0.92 with Misoprostol (p=0.133). There was also insignificant difference in duration of third stage of labour, between oxytocin and Misoprostol groups (5.37+-2.20 vs. 5.23+-2.46, p=0.451) Shivering, in Misoprostol group occured in n=11 (31.4%) vs n=3 (8.6%) with Oxytocin (p=0.017) and pyrexia in n=6 (17.1%) with misoprostol vs n=0, with oxytocin (p=0.025) thus significantly higher in misoprostol group. Conclusion: There were no major differences in oral misoprostol and intramuscular oxytocin in the management of third stage of labour. (author)

  8. Corticosterone profiles in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): Do levels vary through life history stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Benjamin M; Jawor, Jodie M

    2018-04-17

    As animals move through life history stages, energy requirements for each stage will vary. Both daily and annual variation in the glucocoriticoid hormones (specifically corticosterone, or CORT, in birds) helps provide the variable energy needed through life history stages. In many bird species, CORT is higher in the breeding season when energy demands can be quite high and is often lower in the non-breeding season. Additionally, CORT has a role to play in the response to stressful stimuli and the level to which CORT is elevated following stressful events can vary through the annual cycle as well. Here we report on baseline and stress-induced CORT levels in both sexes of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, a non-migrating, year-round territorial species across life history stages. Corticosterone is overall higher in the non-breeding season than the breeding season in both sexes. Males tend to have higher levels of stress-induced CORT than females, although the observed patterns are complex. Our findings differ from one of the more common profile reported in songbirds where breeding season CORT tends to be higher than non-breeding levels. A strong influence may be the prolonged breeding season seen in cardinals; lower levels of CORT during breeding may guard against adverse maternal effects, interruptions in breeding behaviors, or egg production. Additional investigation of species with similar ecologies to northern cardinals, and more populations of cardinals, may show that annual glucocorticoid profiles are more labile than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The relevance of uniform reporting in oral leukoplakia: Definition, certainty factor and staging based on experience with 275 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Elisabeth R E A.; Baart, Jacques A.; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Karagozoglu, Hakki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the definition of oral leukoplakia, proposed by the WHO in 2005 and taking into account a previously reported classification and staging system, including the use of a Certainty factor of four levels with which the diagnosis of leukoplakia can be established. In the period 1997-2012 a hospital-based population of 275 consecutive patients with a provisional diagnosis of oral leukoplakia has been examined. In only 176 patients of these 275 patients a firm diagnosis of leukoplakia has been established based on strict clinicopathological criteria. The 176 patients have subsequently been staged using a classification and staging system based on size and histopathologic features. For use in epidemiological studies it seems acceptable to accept a diagnosis of leukoplakia based on a single oral examination (Certainty level 1). For studies on management and malignant transformation rate the recommendation is made to include the requirement of histopathologic examination of an incisional or excisional biopsy, representing Certainty level 3 and 4, respectively. This recommendation results in the following definition of oral leukoplakia: “A predominantly white lesion or plaque of questionable behaviour having excluded, clinically and histopathologically, any other definable white disease or disorder”. Furthermore, we recommend the use of strict diagnostic criteria for predominantly white lesions for which a causative factor has been identified, e.g. smokers’ lesion, frictional lesion and dental restoration associated lesion. Key words:Oral epithelial dysplasia, oral leukoplakia, potentially malignant oral disorders. PMID:23085711

  10. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.A. Eiler, II

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP or negative (FHN for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M. In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  11. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-01-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  12. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-07-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  13. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897-1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel's design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d'Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel's complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages-reduced to a few journal pages-helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account.

  14. The oral histories of six African American males in their ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition

  15. Keeping Wartime Memory Alive: An Oral History Project about the Wartime Memories of People with Learning Difficulties in Cumbria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, John; Eardley, Malcolm; Harkness, Elizabeth; Townson, Louise; Brownlee-Chapman, Chloe; Chapman, Rohhss

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an oral history project funded by the Heritage Lottery. It recorded the memories of eight people with learning difficulties during the Second World War in Cumbria, UK, before their personal histories were lost forever. This qualitative, inclusive research project was supported by various organisations. The process of…

  16. Breast-conservation therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Meric, Funda; Hunt, Kelly K; Mirza, Attiqa N; Newman, Lisa A; Ames, Frederick C; Kuerer, Henry M; Ross, Merrick I; Feig, Barry; Babiera, Gildy; Buchholz, Thomas A; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Singletary, S Eva

    2002-11-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the role of breast-conservation therapy in early-stage breast cancer patients with a family history (FH) of breast cancer. Between 1970 and 1994, 1324 female patients with breast cancer were treated with breast-conservation therapy at our institution. From these, we identified 985 patients with stage 0-II breast cancer and who had available information on FH status. FH was considered positive in any patient who had a relative who had been previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Disease-specific survival was calculated from the date of initial diagnosis using the Kaplan-Meier method. The stage distribution for the 985 patients was as follows: 0 in 65 (7%), I in 500 (51%), and II in 420 (43%). The median age was 50 years (range, 21-88), with a median follow-up time of 8.8 years (range,.25-29). The median tumor size was 1.5 cm. FH was positive in 31%. There were no significant differences in locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, disease-specific survival, or incidence of contralateral breast cancer in patients with a positive FH versus patients with a negative FH. Breast-conservation therapy is not contraindicated in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive FH.

  17. Elevated eating disorder symptoms in women with a history of oral contraceptive side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jessica L; Oinonen, Kirsten A

    2011-08-01

    Previous research suggests a link between gonadal hormones and eating disorder symptomatology. This study examined the role of gonadal hormones and hormonal sensitivity in eating disorder (ED) symptoms by using oral contraceptive (OC) side effect history as an indicator of hormonal sensitivity. A questionnaire containing two scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and an OC side effect scale was completed by 174 healthy women who had used OCs. Histories of emotional and physical OC side effects were evaluated as predictors of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Women with a history of negative OC side effects had higher levels of ED symptoms. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and depression scores, OC side effect history remained a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. The experience of OC side effects may indicate a greater risk for increased eating disorder symptoms. The findings provide further support for a hormonal link to ED symptoms, as women who are more "sensitive" to exogenous gonadal hormones also experience more ED symptoms.

  18. A Sound Project on Richmond’s Oral History: Social Justice, Art, and/or Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Byrd

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our initial theory for the creation of the audio collage was to sample the word “Richmond” from the various speakers. In practice, this failed for two reasons. First (as a linguist could have told us, the word by itself was hard to capture, and the tendency across all speakers was to annunciate the final syllable very softly. Second, we felt the context of the sentences including the word “Richmond” was too powerful for us to ignore. For both of these reasons, we changed our working method to include expanded selections. After searching the accompanying transcript of each oral history for the occurrence of “Richmond,” we chose sentences and phrases containing the word to be used as raw material for the collage. We then used the open-source program Audacity to locate and select the sentences and phrases, copying them into separate files. In some cases we adjusted volume levels and used noise removal, especially for the older oral histories sourced from audiocassette; but beyond that, no effects were inserted. Once the files had been created, we used Audacity to create a multi-track collage.

  19. Description of the immature stages and life history of Euselasia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) on Miconia (Melastomataceae) in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Nishida

    2010-01-01

    The immature stages and life histories of Euselasia chrysippe (Bates, 1866) and E. bettina (Hewitson, 1869) are described, providing the first detailed morphological characters for the subfamily Euselasiinae. The larvae of Euselasia chrysippe and E. bettina ...

  20. Stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated by iridium-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Mazeron, J.J.; Haddad, E.; Coste, A.; Martin, M.; Levy, C.; Raynal, M.; Pavlovitch, J.M.; Peynegre, R.; Perquin, B.; Bourgeois, J.P. le

    1991-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 233 evaluable patients with stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated by definitive brachytherapy. Minimum follow-up is 3 years. Treatment of the neck was chosen by a multidisciplinary team, according to age, medical status and availability for follow-up. One hundred and ten patients (47 percent) underwent elective neck dissection (END), 28 (25 percent) had positive nodes and received neck irradiation post-operatively. One hundred and twenty-three patients (53 percent) were regularly followed up only, with therapeutic neck dissection (TND) reserved for cases of node relapses. In the END group, there were 19 neck relapses (17 percent): 12/60 (20 percent) in patients with mobile tongue carcinoma and 7/50 (14 percent) in patients with floor of the mouth carcinoma. Salvage treatment was successful in 13-21 (62 percent) cases. Ten-year survival is 37 percent for the END-group and 31 percent for the TND group. Tumour stage and infiltration into underlying tissues increased the probability of neck relapse and death. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis showed that patients treated in the TND group had a higher probability of death than patients treated in the END group (p<0.04). (author). 30 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  1. COMPARISON OF SIDE EFFECTS OF MISOPROSTOL BY ORAL AND RECTAL ROUTES IN ACTIVE MANAGEMENT OF THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Every year, there are 14 million cases of PPH. It accounts for about 25% of maternal deaths worldwide. This can be reduced by active management of third stage of labour. Administration of misoprostol after delivery of neonate has been shown to be effective in reducing amount of blood loss during delivery. The aim of the study is to compare the side effects of misoprostol in terms of distribution, frequency and severity by oral and rectal route for active management of third stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective randomised study conducted on 100 women in labour in Department of OBG in MVJMC and RH. They were divided into 2 groups of 50 parturient mothers each group receiving misoprostol (600 µg by oral route (Group 1 and rectal route (Group 2. Outcome of these women were noted in terms of blood loss, duration of 3 rd stage of labour and side effects like shivering, fever, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. RESULTS There was not much difference in amount of blood loss and duration of third stage among the two groups. However, side effects were more in the group receiving misoprostol orally (32% as compared to that receiving by rectal route (14%. CONCLUSION In the present study, both oral and rectal routes are effective in active management of third stage of labour. However, rectal route has lesser side effects.

  2. Life histories of microalgal species causing harmful blooms: Haploids, diploids and the relevance of benthic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Estrada, Marta; Garcés, Esther

    2018-03-01

    In coastal and offshore waters, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) currently threaten the well-being of coastal countries. These events, which can be localized or involve wide-ranging areas, pose risks to human health, marine ecosystems, and economic resources, such as tourism, fisheries, and aquaculture. Dynamics of HABs vary from one site to another, depending on the hydrographic and ecological conditions. The challenge in investigating HABs is that they are caused by organisms from multiple algal classes, each with its own unique features, including different life histories. The complete algal life cycle has been determined in life cycles of bloom-forming species is essential in developing preventative measures. The knowledge obtained thus far has confirmed the complexity of the algal life cycle, which is composed of discrete life stages whose morphology, ecological niche (plankton/benthos), function, and lifespan vary. The factors that trigger transitions between the different stages in nature are mostly unknown, but it is clear that an understanding of this process provides the key to effectively forecasting bloom recurrence, maintenance, and decline. Planktonic stages constitute an ephemeral phase of the life cycle of most species whereas resistant, benthic stages enable a species to withstand adverse conditions for prolonged periods, thus providing dormant reservoirs for eventual blooms and facilitating organismal dispersal. Here we review current knowledge of the life cycle strategies of major groups of HAB producers in marine and brackish waters. Rather than providing a comprehensive discussion, the objective was to highlight several of the research milestones that have changed our understanding of the plasticity and frequency of the different life cycle stages as well as the transitions between them. We also discuss the relevance of benthic and planktonic forms and their implications for HAB dynamics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. History of Childhood Kidney Disease and Risk of Adult End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Golan, Eliezer; Twig, Gilad; Leiba, Adi; Tzur, Dorit; Afek, Arnon; Skorecki, Karl; Vivante, Asaf

    2018-02-01

    The long-term risk associated with childhood kidney disease that had not progressed to chronic kidney disease in childhood is unclear. We aimed to estimate the risk of future end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among adolescents who had normal renal function and a history of childhood kidney disease. We conducted a nationwide, population-based, historical cohort study of 1,521,501 Israeli adolescents who were examined before compulsory military service in 1967 through 1997; data were linked to the Israeli ESRD registry. Kidney diseases in childhood included congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, pyelonephritis, and glomerular disease; all participants included in the primary analysis had normal renal function and no hypertension in adolescence. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for ESRD associated with a history of childhood kidney disease. During 30 years of follow-up, ESRD developed in 2490 persons. A history of any childhood kidney disease was associated with a hazard ratio for ESRD of 4.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.52 to 4.99). The associations between each diagnosis of kidney disease in childhood (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, pyelonephritis, and glomerular disease) and the risk of ESRD in adulthood were similar in magnitude (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 5.19 [95% CI, 3.41 to 7.90], 4.03 [95% CI, 3.16 to 5.14], and 3.85 [95% CI, 2.77 to 5.36], respectively). A history of kidney disease in childhood was associated with younger age at the onset of ESRD (hazard ratio for ESRD among adults kidney disease in childhood, even if renal function was apparently normal in adolescence, was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESRD, which suggests that kidney injury or structural abnormality in childhood has long-term consequences.

  4. History of oral contraceptive use in breast cancer patients: impact on prognosis and endocrine treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzell, Louise; Persson, Mia; Simonsson, Maria; Markkula, Andrea; Ingvar, Christian; Rose, Carsten; Jernström, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to study oral contraceptive (OC) use in relation to breast cancer events and endocrine treatment response in a prospective population-based cohort, because it is unclear whether history of OC use impacts on prognosis in breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2011, 994 primary breast cancer patients without preoperative treatment were enrolled in Lund, Sweden and followed until December 2012. History of OC use was obtained from preoperative questionnaires. Tumor characteristics, clinical data, and date of death were obtained from pathology reports, patient charts, and population registries. Among the 948 patients with invasive cancer and no metastasis detected on the post-operative screen, 74 % had ever used OCs. Patients were followed for up to nine years (median follow-up 3 years), and 100 breast cancer events were recorded. Ever OC use was not associated with prognosis, irrespective of duration. However, any OC use before age 20 was associated with a threefold increased risk for breast cancer events in patients cancer events among patients who received aromatase inhibitors compared to patients who never used OCs (adjusted HR 0.37: 95 % CI 0.15-0.87). OC use was not associated with tamoxifen-response. If confirmed, history of OC use may yield valuable prognostic and treatment predictive information in addition to currently used criteria.

  5. The relevance of uniform reporting in oral leukoplakia: Definition, certainty factor and staging based on experience with 275 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, E.R.E.A.; Baart, J.A.; Bloemena, E.; Karagozoglu, H.; van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the definition of oral leukoplakia, proposed by the WHO in 2005 and taking into account a previously reported classification and staging system, including the use of a Certainty factor of four levels with which the diagnosis of leukoplakia can be

  6. A Staging of a Play of History and Astronomy at Planetarium: Three Geniuses, a Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo; Alves Rodrigues Junior, Manoel; Bernardino Marques Barrio, Juan

    2015-08-01

    All forms of presentation for planetarium domes involves Art, Science, Technology and Education. This work needs a consult of biographies and historical data collections, iconographic, musical, potential of planetary projectors in use and astronomical information of the celestial bodies to be represented. There are also the development of a storyboard, a narration or dialogue, the use of audiovisual technologies, the making of the animations in computer graphics, the choice of songs for every moment of the script or the presentation of theatrical characters. On 23rd October 2010, the Planetarium of UFG turned 40 years and the professors of the institution celebrated the date with the staging of a play, which represented the dialogues between Aristotle, Galileo and Einstein. The dialogues were centered on the biographical data of these scientists, in comparisons between the different world views of their times, in recognition of the sky, in ancient Greek mythology, poetry and discussion among them about current social and environmental problems, which had the images projected on the planetarium dome. The overall objective was to resume issues related to the History of Science to approach the public with Astronomy. According to Matthews, teachers and researchers need three skills: knowledge and appreciation of Science teaching; some understanding of the History of Science and some theory or educational vision that can sustain their activities in the classroom, which provides a purpose for their educational efforts. It is important that students understand that the construction of knowledge is a controversial field, a field in which many theories are controversial, because science is dynamic and linked to the historical context. All elements of the staging of a play were developed and supplied by the Planetarium of UFG team. The initial script of the staging of a play has been modified over the years and new presentations were made. The public response was always

  7. Safety, pharmacokinetic, and efficacy studies of oral DB868 in a first stage vervet monkey model of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Thuita

    Full Text Available There are no oral drugs for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness. A successful oral drug would have the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for patient hospitalization, thus reducing healthcare costs of HAT. The development of oral medications is a key objective of the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development (CPDD. In this study, we investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a new orally administered CPDD diamidine prodrug, 2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868; CPD-007-10, in the vervet monkey model of first stage HAT. DB868 was well tolerated at a dose up to 30 mg/kg/day for 10 days, a cumulative dose of 300 mg/kg. Mean plasma levels of biomarkers indicative of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase were not significantly altered by drug administration. In addition, no kidney-mediated alterations in creatinine and urea concentrations were detected. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma confirmed that DB868 was orally available and was converted to the active compound DB829 in both uninfected and infected monkeys. Treatment of infected monkeys with DB868 began 7 days post-infection. In the infected monkeys, DB829 attained a median C(max (dosing regimen that was 12-fold (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days, 15-fold (10 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and 31-fold (20 mg/kg/day for 5 days greater than the IC50 (14 nmol/L against T. b. rhodesiense STIB900. DB868 cured all infected monkeys, even at the lowest dose tested. In conclusion, oral DB868 cured monkeys with first stage HAT at a cumulative dose 14-fold lower than the maximum tolerated dose and should be considered a lead preclinical candidate in efforts to develop a safe, short course (5-7 days, oral regimen for first stage HAT.

  8. Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Efficacy Studies of Oral DB868 in a First Stage Vervet Monkey Model of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuita, John K.; Wolf, Kristina K.; Murilla, Grace A.; Liu, Qiang; Mutuku, James N.; Chen, Yao; Bridges, Arlene S.; Mdachi, Raymond E.; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Ching, Shelley; Boykin, David W.; Hall, James Edwin; Tidwell, Richard R.; Paine, Mary F.; Brun, Reto; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    There are no oral drugs for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness). A successful oral drug would have the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for patient hospitalization, thus reducing healthcare costs of HAT. The development of oral medications is a key objective of the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development (CPDD). In this study, we investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a new orally administered CPDD diamidine prodrug, 2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino)-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868; CPD-007-10), in the vervet monkey model of first stage HAT. DB868 was well tolerated at a dose up to 30 mg/kg/day for 10 days, a cumulative dose of 300 mg/kg. Mean plasma levels of biomarkers indicative of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase) were not significantly altered by drug administration. In addition, no kidney-mediated alterations in creatinine and urea concentrations were detected. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma confirmed that DB868 was orally available and was converted to the active compound DB829 in both uninfected and infected monkeys. Treatment of infected monkeys with DB868 began 7 days post-infection. In the infected monkeys, DB829 attained a median Cmax (dosing regimen) that was 12-fold (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days), 15-fold (10 mg/kg/day for 7 days), and 31-fold (20 mg/kg/day for 5 days) greater than the IC50 (14 nmol/L) against T. b. rhodesiense STIB900. DB868 cured all infected monkeys, even at the lowest dose tested. In conclusion, oral DB868 cured monkeys with first stage HAT at a cumulative dose 14-fold lower than the maximum tolerated dose and should be considered a lead preclinical candidate in efforts to develop a safe, short course (5–7 days), oral regimen for first stage HAT. PMID:23755309

  9. In Defense of Oral History: Evidence from the Mercosur Case En defensa de la Historia Oral: Evidencia del caso de Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Gardini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a case in defense of oral history in the study of political science and international relations. The existing literature has scrutinized the technical aspects and appropriate use of oral material. This article focuses on the circumstances under which oral history may be an indispensable method of scholarly investigation: first, when written primary sources are not readily available; second, when an investigation targets complex and secret high-level negotiations; and third, when the main research concern is the human agent’s perspective and ideational factors. The article first addresses the issue of reliability and rigor of oral history as compared to written sources and then concentrates on the creation of Mercosur as an example of the validity of oral history under the three circumstances identified. The conclusion proposes a revival of a more historical approach to political studies.Este artículo argumenta en favor del uso de la historia oral como método de estudio de las relaciones internacionales y de las ciencias políticas. La literatura académica se ha centrado en las cuestiones más técnicas de las entrevistas y en el uso apropiado de este método. El foco innovador del articulo analiza las circunstancias en que la historia oral puede representar una herramienta indispensable para la investigación académica: primero, cuando las fuentes escritas no están disponibles; segundo, cuando se investigan negociaciones reservadas y complejas de alto nivel; tercero, cuando el interés principal de la investigación es la perspectiva del agente y los factores ideacionales. En primer lugar, el artículo discute la confiabilidad y el rigor de la historia oral en comparación con las fuentes escritas. Luego, el análisis se centra en el caso de estudio de la creación de Mercosur, usado como ejemplo de la validez de la historia oral bajo las tres circunstancias identificadas. La conclusión propone un uso más amplio del

  10. The natural history of non-Hodgkin's lymphomata stages I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L M; Banker, F L; Butler, J J; Gamble, J F; Sullivan, M P

    1975-03-01

    Progress in the management of non-Hodgkin's lymphomata has been impeded by lack of information on the natural history of these diseases. Confusion about the significance of histopathology, extranodal presentations and routes of spread renders much of previously published data relatively uninterpretable. To evaluate the relative prognostic significance of presentation, histopathology and lymphography, a retrospective study was undertaken on 226 patients with Stage I and II disease, who were treated with intensive irradiation to the involve regions. The slides on these patients were reviewed and reclassified in terms of the Rappaport system. The results of this study demonstrated that a nodular histopathological pattern was the most important prognostic factor. The significance of this finding and other factors are discussed in terms of possible new approaches to treatment.

  11. Adolescent maternity in a low income community: experiences revealed by oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent maternity involves relevant factors associated with each family, culture and society. This research aimed to describe the experiences in the trajectory of adolescent maternity. The oral history method was used, obtaining the narratives of 21 adolescent mothers living in a low income community located in São Paulo City, Brazil. The following descriptive categories emerged from the narratives: Pregnancy: an event in the initial phase of the relationship; Insufficient knowledge and access to contraceptives, gender inferiority and God's will: the ways to look at pregnancy; To escape from family problems and define the life course: the personal meanings attributed to pregnancy; More gain than pain: the balance of adolescent maternity. Adolescent maternity in low income contexts involves very complex factors and requires an integral, integrated, personal and family centered care.

  12. [From oral history to the research film: the audiovisual as a tool of the historian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Hebe; Abreu, Martha; Castro, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    An analytical essay of the process of image production, audiovisual archive formation, analysis of sources, and creation of the filmic narrative of the four historiographic films that form the DVD set Passados presentes (Present pasts) from the Oral History and Image Laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (Labhoi/UFF). From excerpts from the audiovisual archive of Labhoi and the films made, the article analyzes: how the problem of research (the memory of slavery, and the legacy of the slave song in the agrofluminense region) led us to the production of images in a research situation; the analytical shift in relation to the cinematographic documentary and the ethnographic film; the specificities of revisiting the audiovisual collection constituted by the formulation of new research problems.

  13. Uses of oral history and digital storytelling in public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, E K; Starecheski, A

    2018-01-01

    Oral history (OH) and digital storytelling (DST) have been used in a range of ways in public health, including educating populations about health-protecting practices, advocating for improved clinical care and reflecting on public health efforts to combat infectious disease. Yet, these methods are rarely recognized for their potential to contribute to public health research and practice. The aim of this article is to assess how OH and DST have been used in the health fields and to provide examples of ways that these methods have contributed to work in several domains of public health. Narrative review. We conducted a narrative review of articles gathered from PubMed using the search terms 'oral history' and 'digital storytelling', which resulted in 102 articles relevant to public health. We then conducted a thematic analysis to create a typology of article topics and to examine cross-cutting themes. OH and DST have been used for both research and interventions in public health. Specifically, they have been used to 1) examine health risks and experiences; 2) engage and educate populations; 3) educate clinical professionals and organizations; and 4) inform public health practice. Despite the time, resources, and training required to do OH and DST well, we argue that these methods have substantial potential for supplementing public health activities, allowing the field to glean additional lessons from its experiences, to educate its practitioners further, and to better learn from the experiences of communities affected by public health problems. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PTEN allelic loss is an important mechanism in the late stage of development of oral leucoplakia into oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Ligia A N; Pontes, Flávia S C; Burbano, Rommel M R; Conte Neto, Nicolau; Guimarães, Douglas M; Fonseca, Felipe P; Pontes, Hélder A R

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse allelic loss of the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene and its protein immuno-expression in dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). Samples were collected from 153 patients [20 ranulas used as a control (C); 30 leucoplakias with mild dysplasia (MD); 30 leucoplakias with moderate to severe dysplasia (MSD); 73 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)]. PTEN protein expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry, and PTEN allelic loss was analysed by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). Differences among groups were evaluated using the χ 2 test. PTEN expression was higher in MSD (P = 0.002) and OSCC (P = 0.0259) compared with the C group; additionally, a higher expression was observed in MSD (P = 0.0035) and OSCC (P = 0.049) than MD. Regarding FISH analysis, a higher hemizygous (single copy) loss was observed in OSCC than in C (P = 0.0467) and in OSCC than in MD (P = 0.0175), as well as a higher homozygous deletion in OSCC compared with C (P = 0.0159) and OSCC than MD (P = 0.0145). The results of this work suggest that PTEN allelic loss is an important mechanism in the late stage of the development of oral potentially malignant lesions into oral cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. On the main stages of the history of intra-articular therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Punzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review the main stages in the history of intra-articular therapy of the rheumatic diseases are summarized. The first approach to such a local treatment has been likely performed in 1792 by the French physician Jean Gay, who injected in a swelling knee the “eau du Goulard” (Goulard’s water, namely a mixture based on lead compounds. In the XIX century iodine derivatives have been mainly applied as an intra-articular treatment. In the XX century, before the wide use of intra-articular corticosteroids, chiefly due to the Joseph Lee Hollander’s experiences, a variety of drugs has been employed, including cytostatics and sclerosing substances. A further important stage has been synoviorthesis, by using specific radionuclides, that would actually represent an anti-synovial treatment. In the last years a spread use of intra-articular hyaluronic acid, particularly in osteoarthritis, has been recorded, with the aim to warrant articular viscosupplementation. Future of intra-articular treatment should be represented by the biological drugs, i.e., anti-TNF, but it is still untimely to define the exact role of such a local treatment of arthritis.

  16. Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.; Schuller, A.A.; Huse, S.M.; Montijn, R.C.; Keijser, B.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background An understanding of the relation of commensal microbiota to health is essential in preventing disease. Here we studied the oral microbial composition of children (N = 74, aged 3 - 18 years) in natural transition from their deciduous to a permanent dentition and related the microbial

  17. Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.; Schuller, A.A.; Huse, S.M.; Montijn, R.C.; Keijser, B.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An understanding of the relation of commensal microbiota to health is essential in preventing disease. Here we studied the oral microbial composition of children (N = 74, aged 3 - 18 years) in natural transition from their deciduous to a permanent dentition and related the microbial

  18. The relevance of uniform reporting in oral leukoplakia: definition, certainty factor and staging based on experience with 275 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Brouns, Elisabeth-REA; Baart, Jacques A; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Karagozoglu, Hakki; Van der Waal, Isaäc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the definition of oral leukoplakia, proposed by the WHO in 2005 and taking into account a previously reported classification and staging system, including the use of a Certainty factor of four levels with which the diagnosis of leukoplakia can be established. In the period 1997-2012 a hospital-based population of 275 consecutive patients with a provisional diagnosis of oral leukoplakia has been examined. In only 176 patients of these 275 patients a...

  19. "Just Talking about Life": Using Oral Histories of the Civil Rights Movement to Encourage Classroom Dialogue on Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Melencia M.; Mason, Philip B.

    2017-01-01

    Students in mixed race classrooms often find it difficult to discuss race. Using an assignment where students must have a conversation with someone who lived during the Civil Rights Movement (CRM) brings an element of oral history into the discussion of race and ethnicity. Students are able to discuss race using a historical lens from the…

  20. Towards modeling expressed emotions in oral history interviews: Using verbal and nonverbal signals to track personal narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to model the verbal and prosodic features of emotional expression in interviews to investigate the potential for synergy between scholarly fields that have the narrative as object of study. Using a digital collection of oral history interviews that contains narrative aspects

  1. It Gets Me Upset Talking about the Royal Albert: Collaborative Analysis of the Ethics of an Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Steve

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing oral history project at the University of Cumbria seeks to uncover the lived experiences of people with learning difficulties who lived at the Royal Albert Hospital. A recently made video exposed the apparent distress this caused one of the participants. Ethical discussions about the project reached a point of being "stuck".…

  2. Variation of expression levels of seven housekeeping genes at different life-history stages in Porphyra yezoensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wu

    Full Text Available In order to identify the optimal internal control for relative real-time PCR when studying target gene expression in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we quantified the expression of seven housekeeping genes (18S ribosomal RNA, 30S ribosomal protein S8, Polyubiquitin-2, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Elongation factor 1-alpha, Beta-tubulin and Actin 3 at different life-history stages. Absolute quantification was done by normalization to total RNA quantity and by normalization to genomic DNA quantity. We used these two normalization approaches, comparing the differences of expression levels of all candidate housekeeping genes between any two generations and across three life-history stages (filamentous sporophytes, leafy gametophytes and conchospores. We found GAPDH had the best stability in all cases and we recommend that GAPDH be considered as a potential internal control for gene expression studies at different life-history stages in P. yezoensis.

  3. Variation of expression levels of seven housekeeping genes at different life-history stages in Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojie; Huang, Aiyou; Xu, Meiling; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; Wang, Guangce; Niu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the optimal internal control for relative real-time PCR when studying target gene expression in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we quantified the expression of seven housekeeping genes (18S ribosomal RNA, 30S ribosomal protein S8, Polyubiquitin-2, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Elongation factor 1-alpha, Beta-tubulin and Actin 3) at different life-history stages. Absolute quantification was done by normalization to total RNA quantity and by normalization to genomic DNA quantity. We used these two normalization approaches, comparing the differences of expression levels of all candidate housekeeping genes between any two generations and across three life-history stages (filamentous sporophytes, leafy gametophytes and conchospores). We found GAPDH had the best stability in all cases and we recommend that GAPDH be considered as a potential internal control for gene expression studies at different life-history stages in P. yezoensis.

  4. Variation of Expression Levels of Seven Housekeeping Genes at Different Life-History Stages in Porphyra yezoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojie; Huang, Aiyou; Xu, Meiling; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; Wang, Guangce; Niu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the optimal internal control for relative real-time PCR when studying target gene expression in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we quantified the expression of seven housekeeping genes (18S ribosomal RNA, 30S ribosomal protein S8, Polyubiquitin-2, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Elongation factor 1-alpha, Beta-tubulin and Actin 3) at different life-history stages. Absolute quantification was done by normalization to total RNA quantity and by normalization to genomic DNA quantity. We used these two normalization approaches, comparing the differences of expression levels of all candidate housekeeping genes between any two generations and across three life-history stages (filamentous sporophytes, leafy gametophytes and conchospores). We found GAPDH had the best stability in all cases and we recommend that GAPDH be considered as a potential internal control for gene expression studies at different life-history stages in P. yezoensis. PMID:23637763

  5. Side-effects of oral misoprostol in the third stage of labour – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Misoprostol, an irlexpensive, stable, orally active prostaglandirl analogue, has been suggested for use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. Potential side-effects, however, need to be quantified. Objective. To compare the rate of postpartum shivering and pyrexia following oral misoprostol 600 pg and ...

  6. Reproductive history and oral contraceptive use in relation to risk of triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross; McTiernan, Anne; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kuller, Lewis H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Lane, Dorothy; Stefanick, Marcia L; Vitolins, Mara; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Li, Christopher I

    2011-03-16

    Triple-negative (ie, estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor, and HER2 negative) breast cancer occurs disproportionately among African American women compared with white women and is associated with a worse prognosis than ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Hormonally mediated risk factors may be differentially related to risk of triple-negative and ER+ breast cancers. Using data from 155,723 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative, we assessed associations between reproductive and menstrual history, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and subtype-specific breast cancer risk. We used Cox regression to evaluate associations with triple-negative (N = 307) and ER+ (N = 2610) breast cancers and used partial likelihood methods to test for differences in subtype-specific hazard ratios (HRs). Reproductive history was differentially associated with risk of triple-negative and ER+ breast cancers. Nulliparity was associated with decreased risk of triple-negative breast cancer (HR = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37 to 0.97) but increased risk of ER+ breast cancer (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.52). Age-adjusted absolute rates of triple-negative breast cancer were 2.71 and 1.54 per 10,000 person-years in parous and nulliparous women, respectively; by comparison, rates of ER+ breast cancer were 21.10 and 28.16 per 10,000 person-years in the same two groups. Among parous women, the number of births was positively associated with risk of triple-negative disease (HR for three births or more vs one birth = 1.46, 95% CI = 0.82 to 2.63) and inversely associated with risk of ER+ disease (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.04). Ages at menarche and menopause were modestly associated with risk of ER+ but not triple-negative breast cancer; breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use were not associated with either subtype. The association between parity and breast cancer risk differs appreciably for ER+ and triple-negative breast cancers. These findings require further

  7. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Vollhardt, Claudia [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Humphrey, Craig [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Heyward, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Jones, Ross [Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Queensland Health Scientific Services, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains 4108 (Australia); Eaglesham, Geoff [Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc, Ferry Reach, St George' s GE 01 (Bermuda); Fabricius, Katharina [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency ({delta}F/F{sub m}{sup '}) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II.

  8. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, Andrew; Vollhardt, Claudia; Humphrey, Craig; Heyward, Andrew; Jones, Ross; Eaglesham, Geoff; Fabricius, Katharina

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000μgl -1 . Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300μgl -1 diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000μgl -1 . Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10μgl -1 diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency (ΔF/F m ' ) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1μgl -1 diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F v /F m ) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II

  9. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity in an HIV-positive patient: staging with 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makis, William; Ciarallo, Anthony; Lisbona, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity is a very rare and only recently recognized entity that has been identified almost exclusively in HIV-infected individuals. It has a predilection for the oral cavity, often exhibits very aggressive behavior and has a poor prognosis. The use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of HIV-associated lymphomas is a recent development, and its use in the staging of plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity has not been previously reported. This rare report highlights the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the staging of plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity

  10. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity in an HIV-positive patient: staging with 18F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makis, William (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Brandon Regional Health Centre, Brandon (Canada)), email: makisw79@yahoo.com; Ciarallo, Anthony; Lisbona, Robert (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill Univ. Health Centre, Montreal (Canada))

    2011-11-15

    Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity is a very rare and only recently recognized entity that has been identified almost exclusively in HIV-infected individuals. It has a predilection for the oral cavity, often exhibits very aggressive behavior and has a poor prognosis. The use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of HIV-associated lymphomas is a recent development, and its use in the staging of plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity has not been previously reported. This rare report highlights the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the staging of plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity

  11. Cumulative Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Elevated Temperature Compromise the Early Life History Stages of the Coral Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanes, Adriana; Noonan, Sam H C; Willis, Bette L; Fabricius, Katharina E; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Inshore coral reefs are experiencing the combined pressures of excess nutrient availability associated with coastal activities and warming seawater temperatures. Both pressures are known to have detrimental effects on the early life history stages of hard corals, but studies of their combined effects on early demographic stages are lacking. We conducted a series of experiments to test the combined effects of nutrient enrichment (three levels) and elevated seawater temperature (up to five levels) on early life history stages of the inshore coral Acropora tenuis, a common species in the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea. Gamete fertilization, larval survivorship and larval settlement were all significantly reduced as temperature increased, but only fertilization was further affected by simultaneous nutrient enrichment. Combined high temperatures and nutrient enrichment affected fertilization in an additive manner, whereas embryo abnormalities increased synergistically. Higher than normal temperatures (32°C) increased coral juvenile growth rates 1.6-fold, but mortality also increased by 50%. The co-occurrence of nutrient enrichment with high temperatures reduced juvenile mortality to 36%, ameliorating temperature stress (antagonistic interaction). Overall, the types of effect (additive vs synergistic or antagonistic) and their magnitude varied among life stages. Gamete and embryo stages were more affected by temperature stress and, in some cases, also by nutrient enrichment than juveniles. The data suggest that coastal runoff events might exacerbate the impacts of warming temperatures on fertilization if these events co-occur during corals spawning. The cumulative impacts of simultaneous exposure to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures over all early life history stages increases the likelihood for failure of larval supply and recruitment for this coral species. Our results suggest that improving the water quality of river discharges into coastal areas might help to

  12. Popular Medicine and Empirics in Greece, 1900-1950: An Oral History Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hionidou, Violetta

    2016-10-01

    Western literature has focused on medical plurality but also on the pervasive existence of quacks who managed to survive from at least the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Focal points of their practices have been their efforts at enrichment and their extensive advertising. In Greece, empirical, untrained healers in the first half of the twentieth century do not fit in with this picture. They did not ask for payment, although they did accept 'gifts'; they did not advertise their practice; and they had fixed places of residence. Licensed physicians did not undertake a concerted attack against them, as happened in the West against the quacks, and neither did the state. In this paper, it is argued that both the protection offered by their localities to resident popular healers and the healers' lack of demand for monetary payment were jointly responsible for the lack of prosecutions of popular healers. Moreover, the linking of popular medicine with ancient traditions, as put forward by influential folklore studies, also reduced the likelihood of an aggressive discourse against the popular healers. Although the Greek situation in the early twentieth century contrasts with the historiography on quacks, it is much more in line with that on wise women and cunning-folk. It is thus the identification of these groups of healers in Greece and elsewhere, mostly through the use of oral histories but also through folklore studies, that reveals a different story from that of the aggressive discourse of medical men against quacks.

  13. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  14. Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A Deere

    Full Text Available Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini. This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently.

  15. Comparative study of clinicofunctional staging of oral submucous fibrosis with qualitative analysis of collagen fibers under polarizing microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceena Denny

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of the study was to assess the severity of the disease in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF, correlate the clinical, functional staging with histopathological staging, and analyze collagen distribution in different stages of OSF using the picrosirius red stain under polarizing microscopy. Materials and Methods : The study included randomly incorporated 50 subjects, of whom 40 were patients with OSF, and 10 were in the control group. Clinical, functional staging in OSF cases was done depending upon definite criteria. A histopathological study was conducted using the hematoxylin and eosin stain and picrosirius red stain. Collagen fibers were analyzed for thickness and polarizing colors. Furthermore, clinical, functional, and histopathological stages were compared. Statistical Analysis : Descriptive data which included mean, SD, and percentages were calculated for each group. Categorical data were analyzed by the chi-square test. Multiple group comparisons were made by one-way ANOVA followed by Student′s t-test for pairwise comparisons. For all tests, a P-value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results : As the severity of the disease increased, clinically, there was definite progression in subjective and objective symptoms. Polarized microscopic, examination revealed, there was a gradual decrease in the green-greenish yellow color of the fibers and a shift to orange red-red color with increase in severity of the disease. Thereby, it appeared that the tight packing of collagen fibers in OSF progressively increased as the disease progressed from early to advanced stages. We observed that the comparison of functional staging with histopathological staging was a more reliable indicator of the severity of the disease. Conclusion : In the present study, we observed that mouth opening was restricted with advancing stages of OSF. The investigation also points to the importance of assessing the cases of OSF

  16. The Mark Coventry, MD, Award: Oral Antibiotics Reduce Reinfection After Two-Stage Exchange: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jonathan M; Kayupov, Erdan; Moric, Mario; Segreti, John; Hansen, Erik; Hartman, Curtis; Okroj, Kamil; Belden, Katherine; Roslund, Brian; Silibovsky, Randi; Parvizi, Javad; Della Valle, Craig J

    2017-01-01

    Many patients develop recurrent periprosthetic joint infection after two-stage exchange arthroplasty of the hip or knee. One potential but insufficiently tested strategy to decrease the risk of persistent or recurrent infection is to administer additional antibiotics after the second-stage reimplantation. (1) Does a 3-month course of oral antibiotics decrease the risk of failure secondary to infection after a two-stage exchange? (2) Are there any complications related to the administration of oral antibiotics after a two-stage exchange? (3) In those patients who develop a reinfection, is the infecting organism different from the initial infection? Patients at seven centers randomized to receive 3 months of oral antibiotics or no further antibiotic treatment after operative cultures after the second-stage reimplantation were negative. Adult patients undergoing two-stage hip or knee revision arthroplasty for a periprosthetic infection who met Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for infection at the first stage were included. Oral antibiotic therapy was tailored to the original infecting organism(s) in consultation with an infectious disease specialist. MSIS criteria as used by the treating surgeon defined failure. Surveillance of patients for complications, including reinfection, occurred at 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months. If an organism demonstrated the same antibiotic sensitivities as the original organism, it was considered the same organism; no DNA subtyping was performed. Analysis was performed as intent to treat with all randomized patients included in the groups to which they were randomized. A log-rank survival curve was used to analyze the primary outcome of reinfection. At planned interim analysis (enrollment is ongoing), 59 patients were successfully randomized to the antibiotic group and 48 patients to the control group. Fifty-seven patients had an infection after TKA and 50 after a THA. There was no minimum followup

  17. Effect of Habits and Nutritional Status on Clinical Grading and Histopathological Staging in Patients with Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanke, Rama Brahmam; Shetty, Rakhith; Akifuddin, Syed; Sahu, Manish; Singh, Navneet; Kaur, Gagandeep; Goyal, Garish

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic progressive debilitating disease affecting the oral, oropharyngeal and sometimes the oesophageal mucosa resulting in inability to eat due to burning, ulcers and stiffness. Aim The study was undertaken, to evaluate the correlation of clinical staging, histological grading and nutritional status using body mass index (BMI) with gutkha (habit) index in OSMF patients. Materials and Methods The study group comprised of 50 patients clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of OSMF. Habit (gutkha) index was calculated by multiplying duration and frequency. Body mass index was calculated by dividing weight in kilograms and height in centimetres of the patient. Results Male to female ratio was 2.8:1. Clinical grading increased with increase in gutkha index, patients with gutkha index 1-50, maximum were in mild stage; with gutkha index 51-100, maximum in moderate and patients with gutkha index 101-150, all were in severe stage. Histological staging showed direct correlation with gutkha index, it increased with increase in gutkha index with p <0.05. Site analysis showed that buccal mucosa and retromolar area were involved in all the patient and floor of mouth in 46% of patients Body mass index analysis revealed that out of 27 patients with moderate clinical staging 3 was underweight; out of 3 with severe clinical staging, 2 was underweight. Conclusion The duration and frequency of areca nut product use effects on the incidence and severity of OSMF and the patient becomes unable to eat due to burning, ulcers and inability to open mouth which affect the health of the individual. Thus it is important to access the nutritional status to improve the survival rate of patients. PMID:26557616

  18. ESENCIA Y PRÁCTICA DE LA HISTORIA ORAL ESSÊNCIA E PRÁTICA DA HISTÓRIA ORAL ESSENCE AND PRACTICE OF ORAL HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pozzi

    2012-06-01

    Este artículo/conferencia discute la relación entre historia, historia oral, y la historia del presente. Postula que escisión entre estas no es fija sino que se articulan entre sí hasta el punto que sus fronteras se desdibujan. Asimismo, a partir de plantear a la historia oral como una subrama de la ciencia histórica, se discute si las particularidades latinoamericanas pueden significar que existe una historia oral propiamente “latinoamericana”.   Palabras clave: Historia. Oralidad. América Latina. Prácticas de historia.

  19. End Stage Renal Disease: Not a Contraindication for Minor Oral Surgery-Protocol for the Management of Oral Surgery patients with ESRD on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendem, Sneha; Lakshmi Narayana, G; Ravi, Poornima

    2017-06-01

    To describe a safe and effective protocol for the management of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing minor oral surgery. A prospective cohort study was conducted on all patients with ESRD who were referred for dental consultation. A definite protocol was designed in consultation with the nephrologist to minimize the risk of bleeding and wound healing complications during and after the minor surgical procedures. 36 patients consented for the protocol to be followed while 4 patients did not comply with the protocol and in 2 cases the protocol could be followed. The intra operative, post operative bleeding, and the wound healing were assessed in these patients. 36 patients had uneventful extractions as the blood pressure was brought down to pre hypertensive stage following the protocol. 4 patients who did not comply with the protocol had episodes of bleeding in the post operative period. There were two special scenarios where additional precautions had to be taken have been discussed. The wound healing was satisfactory in all these patients. The protocol discussed in this article helps us provide safe minor oral surgical treatment in patients with ESRD.

  20. Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M. Carmen; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna; Ordóñez, Víctor; Rius, Marc

    2012-01-01

    All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be

  1. Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Pineda

    Full Text Available All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C, low salinities (26 and 22‰ and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L. Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis, fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success

  2. Doing science: Lessons learned from the oral histories of women scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, Laura Ann

    The major purpose of this study was to examine, through the use of oral history technique, the lived experiences of seven women scientists and the factors that affected their pursuit of science. Numerous reports indicate that while women are gaining ground in the sciences, they are behind their male counterparts in many areas and continue to face barriers (National Science Foundation Report, 2002; Wilson, 2004). There is still work to be done to understand how gender differences in science participation affect the lives of women scientists (Clewell and Campbell, 2002). The qualitative data from seven women's histories was coded to identify emerging themes in the areas of family life, education and experiences with science. The seven women interviewed represented work in science, technology, engineering and math, had terminal degrees and 10 to 55 years of professional experience. Six themes were identified as major factors in the science careers of these women; experiences with science, support from others, an ethic of care, passions of the mind, self efficacy in science and belonging vs. marginality. Each of these had some impact on each woman's sense of identity as a scientist and their strong sense of agency for accomplishing their career goals. The factors and influences that lead them to their careers speak to the ways in which they were able to overcome any barriers and become successful scientists. The stories of these women present a picture that is both consistent with and offers some challenge to the feminist critique of science. While their stories attest to the predominance of males in science they also refute that image in the way these women were able to create a science career for themselves that is not solely defined by the conditions of a male science. As the feminist critique suggests, gender is an important variable in the factors influencing the pursuit of science. While these women acknowledged the role of gender in their scientific experience

  3. Statolith chemistry of two life history stages of cuttlefish: Effects of temperature and seawater trace element concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Wilkinson, Leanne M.; Munro, Andrew R.; de Vries, Melita C.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry of the giant Australian cuttlefish, Sepia apama, was compared between encapsulated embryos and recently hatched juveniles under controlled laboratory conditions. Seawater Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca were positively related to statolith Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca in embryos and hatchlings for all temperatures. For statoliths of embryos the effect of spiking increased at 14 °C compared to 20 °C but for hatchlings increased Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in statoliths were found at 20 °C compared to 14 °C. The results imply that the influence of seawater trace element concentration and temperature on statolith chemistry was driven by elemental discrimination as described by partition coefficients but was reversed between life history stages. Differences in respiration and haemocyanin between the two life history stages may influence elemental uptake and discrimination. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that differences in element uptake in statoliths can occur among life history stages of S. apama and must be considered when reconstructing environmental histories of S. apama and other statolith bearing organisms.

  4. Variation in adrenal and thyroid hormones with life-history stage in juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelincic, J A; Tift, M S; Houser, D S; Crocker, D E

    2017-10-01

    The classical approach to quantifying the impact of stressors on wildlife is through characterization of hormones associated with the generalized stress response. However, interpretation of hormone data can be difficult due to the range of natural variation within a species and potential confounds of individual and life-history variables. Blood adrenal and thyroid hormones were measured in 144 chemically immobilized yearling northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to characterize variation between sexes and across semiannual haul-outs. There was no relationship between hormone concentrations and time needed for collecting blood nor evidence of diel patterns, suggesting that collection of samples for baseline values can be accomplished without bias due to handling artifacts or time of day. Serum cortisol concentrations did not vary with gender or across haul-out fasts but increased dramatically during molting. Cortisol was correlated with aldosterone across all measured life-history stages. Thyroid hormone levels were lower in females and decreased with fasting in both sexes during the fall haul-out. Cortisol concentrations were inversely associated with total triiodothyronine (T3) and positively associated with reverse T3 concentrations across all measured life-history stages suggesting an important impact of cortisol on deiodinase enzymes and thyroid function. Epinephrine concentrations increased across fasts and norepinephrine concentrations were higher in males than in females. Significant variation in stress hormone concentrations with gender and life-history stage emphasizes the importance of contextual variables when interpreting serum hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ACTOplus Met XR in Treating Patients With Stage I-IV Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer Undergoing Definitive Treatment | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase IIb trial studies how well ACTOplus met XR works in treating in patients with stage I-IV oral cavity or oropharynx cancer that are undergoing definitive treatment. Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep oral cavity or oropharynx cancer from forming or coming back. The use of ACTOplus met XR may slow disease progression in patients with oral cavity or oropharynx cancer. |

  6. oral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorhexidine 0,2% gluconate is used as a mouth rinse and is an effective antibacterial agent. Its primary side- effects are staining of the teeth and the oral mucosa, particularly the dorsal surface of the tongue. However, this is transient. It has been shown to be effective as a prophylactic agent in preventing oral candidosis in ...

  7. The added value of SPECT-CT for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes in early stage oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toom, Inne J. den; Bree, Remco de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); UMC Utrecht Cancer Center, University Medical Center, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schie, Annelies van; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Weert, Stijn van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Karagozoglu, K.H. [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bloemena, Elisabeth [VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry (ACTA) Amsterdam, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    To assess the role of single-photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography (SPECT-CT) for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early stage (T1-T2) oral cancer and a clinically negative neck (cN0). In addition to planar lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT-CT was performed in 66 consecutive patients with early stage oral cancer and a clinically negative neck. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar images was retrospectively analyzed for the number of additional SLNs, more precise localization of SLNs, and importance of anatomical information by a team consisting of a nuclear physician, surgeon, and investigator. Identification rate for both imaging modalities combined was 98% (65/66). SPECT-CT identified 15 additional SLNs in 14 patients (22%). In 2/15 (13%) of these additional SLNs, the only metastasis was found, resulting in an upstaging rate of 3% (2/65). In 20% of the patients with at least one positive SLN, the only positive SLN was detected due to the addition of SPECT-CT. SPECT-CT was considered to add important anatomical information in two patients (3%). In 5/65 (8%) of the patients initially scored SLNs on planar lymphoscintigrams were scored as non-SLNs when SPECT-CT was added. There were four false-negative SLN biopsy procedures in this cohort. The addition of SPECT-CT to planar lymphoscintigraphy is recommended for the identification of more (positive) SLNs and better topographical orientation for surgery in sentinel lymph node biopsy for early stage oral cancer. (orig.)

  8. Oral Therapy, Microbiological Findings, and Comorbidity Influence the Outcome of Prosthetic Joint Infections Undergoing 2-Stage Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Tiziana; Pagliano, Pasquale; Balato, Giovanni; Mariconda, Massimo; Rotondo, Renato; Esposito, Silvano

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate potential predictive factors of an unfavorable outcome in patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) undergoing 2-stage exchange. Patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage exchange and observed over a 5-year period (2009-2013) were included. Cure was defined by the disappearance of infection after a 96-week follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, and the multivariate analysis. One-hundred twenty-two patients with PJI were included (median age, 69 years [range, 36-80 years]; 48% males, 47 hip PJI, and 75 knee PJI). Known comorbidities related to an increased risk of infection were reported in 43 patients (35%). Microbiological definition was obtained in 101 (83%) patients, and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 44 (36%) patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 41 (34%) patients. A favorable outcome was obtained in 102 of 122 patients (84%). After univariate analysis, bacterial growth from operative specimens (P = .007), growth of Gram-positive bacteria (P < .001), use of oral therapy (P = .01), and absence of known comorbidities (P = .02) were associated with favorable outcome. Administration of rifampin (P = .99) and results of blood analysis were not predictive of outcome. After multivariate analysis was applied, infection sustained by Gram-positive bacteria, administration of oral antibiotics, and absence of known comorbidities frequently resulted in favorable outcome. A favorable outcome in patients with PJI undergoing 2-stage procedure was associated with an infection sustained by Gram-positive bacteria, absence of known comorbidities, and administration of oral therapy. Therefore, failure rate can be reduced with appropriate treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Is it time to incorporate 'depth of infiltration' in the T staging of oral tongue and floor of mouth cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cesare; Montalto, Nausica; Paderno, Alberto; Taglietti, Valentina; Nicolai, Piero

    2014-04-01

    To summarize recent acquisitions in three-dimensional tongue and floor of mouth anatomy that can help in better evaluation of the pathways of cancer progression within these oral subsites, thus giving some hints for refining of the current TNM staging system. The Visual Human Project is an initiative aimed at establishing a three-dimensional dataset of anatomy of two cadavers made available free to the scientific community. Visual human data have been analyzed by specific software thus improving our three-dimensional understanding of the tongue myostructure. It is already known that there is limited prognostic utility in using the two-dimensional surface diameter alone as criterion for T1-T3 definition. Recently, also the T4a categorization for the infiltration of 'deep' or extrinsic tongue muscles has been criticized. This is largely because the descriptor 'deep' does not take into account the fact that considerable portions of these muscles lie in a very superficial plane. Different prognosticators have been proposed for inclusion into the TNM staging system of oral cancer but 'depth of tumor infiltration' seems to be the most robust, universally recognized, and reproducible in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings. Oral tongue and floor of mouth cancer needs to be classified according to a revised TNM staging system in which 'depth of infiltration' should be taken into account. An 'ideal cut off' for distinguishing 'low' (T1-T2) from 'high-risk' (T3-T4) categories has been proposed based on the literature review, but needs retrospective as well as large prospective trials before its validation.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to different life history stages of the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.J.; Williams, K.A.; Pascoe, D.

    1986-09-01

    Different life-history stages of the freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus were exposed to a range of cadmium concentrations using a semi-static toxicity testing procedure. Median lethal concentrations (96-hr LC50) ranged from 80 ..mu..g Cd/L for juveniles to > 2000 ..mu..g Cd/L for embryos. Pre-treatment of eggs with cadmium did not increase their tolerance to the metal as juveniles. The responses of each stage are discussed in relation to the use of macroinvertebrate toxicity test data in predicting the hazardous effects of pollutants.

  11. Expression of CA-IX is associated with advanced stage tumors and poor survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Pilar, Gayoso-Diz; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Barros-Angueira, Francisco; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel; García-García, Abel

    2012-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a group of ubiquitously expressed metalloenzymes, are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including tumorigenicity. Specifically, CA-IX has been primarily found in hypoxic tumor tissues. This is a retrospective study of tumors from the Tissue Bank of the Pathology Department of the University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela. We selected 50 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) using Tissue Microarray (TMA) technology. The immunohistochemical study was performed to determine CA-IX expression. The resulting data were subject to statistical analysis and survival curves. Of the 50 cases, 23 were detected in early stages (I and II) and 27 in advanced stages (III and IV). In the first year, almost 50% of patients in stages III-IV died, which contrasted with those patients in initial stages who registered a survival rate of 80% (P = 0.019). Regarding the expression of CA-IX, nine cases (18%) were negative, 18 cases (36%) were moderate, while 23 cases (46%) were intense. Tumors in stages I-II showed a positivity of 52.6%; however, in advanced stages, the percentage reached 95.5% (P = 0.002). Regarding CA-IX expression and survival, patients with tumors with strong staining had a lower average survival time (13.8 months) than patients with negative or weak-moderate staining (33.4 and 32.8 months, respectively), log-rank=6.1, P value=0.0484. Early diagnosis of these tumors is essential to improve patient survival. CA-IX expression augments with increasing tumor stage, probably related with the degree of hypoxia; thus, its measurement can be used as a prognostic factor. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Comparison between computed tomography with oral oil-based contrast and laparotomy for gastric cancer staging; Tomografia computerizada con contraste oral graso frente a lapartomia en la estadificacion del cancer gastrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco, S. F.; Garcia-Vila, J. H.; Cervera, J.; Gomez, R.; Piqueras, R. M.; Perona, I.; Escrig, J.; Salvador, J. L. [Hospital General de Castello. Castellon (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To compare the utility of conventional computed tomography (CT) with oral oil-based contrast with that of laparotomy in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer. We prospectively studied 41 patients diagnosed as having gastric adenocarcinoma according to the results of endoscopy and biopsy. Applying the TNM classification for gastric cancer staging, we compared the findings in CT associated with oral oil-based contrast and intraoperative staging with definitive postoperative pathological staging. Definitive pathological studies demonstrated that there were 7 stage T1-T2 lesions, 26 stage T3 and 8 stage T4. The assessment of lymph node involvement showed that 10 patients presented stage N0 and 31 stage N1-N3. Ten patients had metastases. The diagnostic reliability for tumor staging according to CT was 56% versus 80% for laparotomy. In the determination of nodal involvement CT had a diagnostic yield of 71% versus 6% for laparotomy. Metastatic disease was correctly diagnosed by CT in 83% of cases versus 88% by laparotomy. There were no statistically significant differences between CT with oral oil-based contrast and laparotomy for the staging of nodal involvement and metastases. However, the CT diagnosis was significantly more reliable than laparotomy for the determination of tumor infiltration. (Author) 21 refs.

  13. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. Methods 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p Conclusion HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy.

  14. Raymond Andrews as Griot: Privileging Southern Black Communities through Oral Storytelling and Cultural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Collins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Raymond Andrews’ novels celebrate rural Black life by focusing on the customs and traditions of Southern African American communities. Critical to this celebration are the rhetorical strategies Andrews uses that privilege oral over literary storytelling. Using Geneva Smitherman’s discussion of the griot and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.’s concept of the speakerly text in the context of John Miles Foley’s work on comparative oral traditions, this essay explores the possibility and implications of describing Andrews’ written work as a form of oral storytelling.

  15. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillies, Thomas; Werkmeister, Richard; Diest, Paul J van; Brandt, Burkhard; Joos, Ulrich; Buerger, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p < 0.01) and a significantly increased disease free period (p = 0.01) independent from nodal status and tumour size. In primary node negative T1/T2 SCC of the oral floor, absence of HIF-1α expression specified a subgroup of high-risk patients (p < 0.05). HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy

  16. Oral cancer in Brazil: a secular history of Public Health Policies

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINS FILHO,Paulo Ricardo Saquete; SANTOS,Thiago de Santana; SILVA,Luiz Carlos Ferreira da; PIVA,Marta Rabello

    2014-01-01

    The oral cancer in Brazil is considered an important public health issue. Despite almost a century of combat disease, with oncological assistance programs and prevention campaigns based public policies, the incidence of oral cancer in several regions is still high. The major goal of cancer prevention and control is a reduction in both the incidence of the disease and the associated morbidity and mortality, as well as improved life for cancer patients and their families. Low-income and disadva...

  17. Recalling war trauma of the Pacific War and the Japanese occupation in the oral history of Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation were traumatic periods in the lives of people now over seventy years old in Malaysia and Singapore. This study traces why individuals interviewed for oral history of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation have often been able to tell stories of trauma without being overwhelmed by their reminiscences. It emphasizes that memories of traumatic experiences of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation in Malaysia and Singapore are mediated and eased by supportive social networks that are part of the interview subject's community. The individual's personal memories of traumatic war experiences are positioned in the context of the collective memory of the group and, thus, are made easier to recall. However, for individuals whose personal memories are at variance with the collective memory of the group they belong to, recalling traumatic experiences is more difficult and alienating as they do not have the support in their community. The act of recalling traumatic memories in the context of the collective memory of a group is particularly relevant in Malaysia and Singapore. These countries have a long history of being plural societies, where although the major ethnic groups -- the Malays, Chinese, and Indians -- have lived side by side peacefully, they have lived in culturally and socially separate worlds, not interacting much with the other groups. The self -- identity of many older people who lived through the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation is inextricably bound up with their ethnicity. Oral history on war trauma strongly reflects these identities.

  18. Stimuli-disassembling gold nanoclusters for diagnosis of early stage oral cancer by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Ingato, Dominique; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2018-01-01

    A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance). The acid-triggered morphological and accompanying optico-physical property changes of the acid-disassembling Au NCs were confirmed by TEM, DLS, UV/Vis, and OCT. Stimuli-responsive Au NCs were applied in a hamster check pouch model carrying early-stage squamous carcinoma tissue. The tissue was visualized by OCT imaging, which showed reduced scattering intensity and increased Doppler variance in the dysplastic tissue. This study demonstrates the promise of diagnosing early-stage cancer using molecularly programmable, inorganic nanomaterial-based contrast agents that are capable of generating multiple, stimuli-triggered diagnostic signals in early-stage cancer.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Oral fexinidazole for late-stage African Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis: a pivotal multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Kalonji, Wilfried Mutombo; Bardonneau, Clélia; Mordt, Olaf Valverde; Blesson, Séverine; Simon, François; Delhomme, Sophie; Bernhard, Sonja; Kuziena, Willy; Lubaki, Jean-Pierre Fina; Vuvu, Steven Lumeya; Ngima, Pathou Nganzobo; Mbembo, Hélène Mahenzi; Ilunga, Médard; Bonama, Augustin Kasongo; Heradi, Josué Amici; Solomo, Jean Louis Lumaliza; Mandula, Guylain; Badibabi, Lewis Kaninda; Dama, Francis Regongbenga; Lukula, Papy Kavunga; Tete, Digas Ngolo; Lumbala, Crispin; Scherrer, Bruno; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie; Tarral, Antoine

    2018-01-13

    Few therapeutic options are available to treat the late-stage of human African trypanosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (g-HAT). The firstline treatment is a combination therapy of oral nifurtimox and intravenous eflornithine that needs to be administered in a hospital setting by trained personnel, which is not optimal given that patients often live in remote areas with few health resources. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of an oral regimen of fexinidazole (a 2-substituted 5-nitroimidazole with proven trypanocidal activity) versus nifurtimox eflornithine combination therapy in patients with late-stage g-HAT. In this randomised, phase 2/3, open-label, non-inferiority trial, we recruited patients aged 15 years and older with late-stage g-HAT from g-HAT treatment centres in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (n=9) and the Central African Republic (n=1). Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either fexinidazole or nifurtimox eflornithine combination therapy according to a predefined randomisation list (block size six). The funder, data management personnel, and study statisticians were masked to treatment. Oral fexinidazole was given once a day (days 1-4: 1800 mg, days 5-10: 1200 mg). Oral nifurtimox was given three times a day (days 1-10: 15 mg/kg per day) with eflornithine twice a day as 2 h infusions (days 1-7: 400 mg/kg per day). The primary endpoint was success at 18 months (ie, deemed as patients being alive, having no evidence of trypanosomes in any body fluid, not requiring rescue medication, and having a cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count ≤20 cells per μL). Safety was assessed through routine monitoring. Primary efficacy analysis was done in the modified intention-to-treat population and safety analyses in the intention-to-treat population. The acceptable margin for the difference in success rates was defined as 13%. This study has been completed and is registered with

  20. Comparing plant life histories using elasticity analysis: the importance of life span and the number of life-cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, N J; Franco, M; Silvertown, J

    1995-09-01

    Recent studies have used transition matrix elasticity analysis to investigate the relative role of survival (L), growth (G) and fecundity (F) in determining the estimated rate of population increase for perennial plants. The relative importance of these three variables has then been used as a framework for comparing patterns of plant life history in a triangular parameter space. Here we analyse the ways in which the number of life-cycle stages chosen to describe a species (transition matrix dimensionality) might influence the interpretation of such comparisons. Because transition matrix elements describing survival ("stasis") and growth are not independent, the number of stages used to describe a species influences their relative contribution to the population growth rate. Reduction in the number of stages increases the apparent importance of stasis relative to growth, since each becomes broader and fewer individuals make the transition to the next stage per unit time period. Analysis of a test matrix for a hypothetical tree species divided into 4-32 life-cycle stages confirms this. If the number of stages were defined in relation to species longevity so that mean residence time in each stage were approximately constant, then the elasticity of G would reflect the importance of relative growth rate to λ. An alternative, and simpler, approach to ensure comparability of results between species may be to use the same number of stages regardless of species longevity. Published studies for both herbaceous and woody species have tended to use relatively few stages to describe life cycles (herbs: n=45, [Formula: see text]; woody plants: n=21, [Formula: see text]) and so approximate this approach. By using the same number of stages regardless of longevities, the position of species along the G-L side of the triangular parameter space largely reflects differences in longevity. The extent of variation in elasticity for L, G and F within and between species may also be

  1. Theorizing Orality and Performance in Literary Anecdote and History: Boswell’s Diaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Dugaw

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes orality and song performance in the eighteenth-century diaries of James Boswell, gentleman Scot and literary figure. Boswell’s engagement of song culture in the course of his activities—literary, political, amorous, familial, domestic, traveling, business, and leisure—demonstrates the eighteenth-century mixing of oral and written and of popular culture and belles lettres, and shows the significance of oral forms and expression among even the most literate and literary people. Theorizing song performance as social interaction shaped by power relations, this essay calls for a widening of the study of orality to include greater consideration of the past, of the informal and quotidian realm, and of the oral and performative dimensions of literate cultures. Boswell’s diaries depict his everyday life from the 1760s to the 1790s in London and Scotland and on various European sojourns. In them he represents himself and others singing and invoking popular songs in complex ways that disclose dynamics of identity formation and relational power.

  2. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz's research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz`s research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments.

  4. The hypospadias classification affected the surgical outcomes of staged oral mucosa graft urethroplasty in hypospadias reoperation: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dachao; Fu, Shi; Li, Wenji; Xie, Minkai; Guo, Jianhua; Yao, Haijun; Wang, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    The staged graft urethroplasty is a recommended technique for repairing complex hypospadias. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the outcomes of this technique in hypospadias patients undergoing reoperation and to analyze the underlying contributing factors including age, meatus location, and graft and suture type.We retrospectively analyzed 40 hypospadias patients undergoing reoperation who received a staged oral graft urethroplasty, including 15 buccal mucosal grafts and 25 lingual mucosal grafts. Median age at presentation was 18.5 years, and median follow-up was 17.5 months (range 8-30 months). The patients were classified according to their original meatus location.Twenty-five complications developed in 12 of 40 (30%) cases, including 6 fistulas (15%), 7 infections (17.5%), 9 cases of glans dehiscence (22.5%), and 3 cases of stenosis (7.5%). There was no significant difference in the overall complication rates between prepuberty and postpuberty groups. In addition, no significant difference in complications was found between the 2 graft techniques. The complications were significantly higher in the original perineal type compared with the original penoscrotal type (7/10 vs 5/30, P = .0031). Seven patients who originally had perineal hypospadias developed multiple complications.Based on this study, the staged graft urethroplasty is an effective technique in reoperative hypospadias repairs with reasonable complication risk. The hypospadias classification affects the surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The administration of multipotent stromal cells at precancerous stage precludes tumor growth and epithelial dedifferentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Flavia; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha; Plaza, Anita; Espinoza, Iris; Conget, Paulette

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are envisioned as a powerful therapeutic tool. As they home into tumors, secrete trophic and vasculogenic factors, and suppress immune response their role in carcinogenesis is a matter of controversy. Worldwide oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the fifth most common epithelial cancer. Our aim was to determine whether MSC administration at precancerous stage modifies the natural progression of OSCC. OSCC was induced in Syrian hamsters by topical application of DMBA in the buccal pouch. At papilloma stage, the vehicle or 3×10 6 allogenic bone marrow-derived MSCs were locally administered. Four weeks later, the lesions were studied according to: volume, stratification (histology), proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Caspase 3 cleaved), vasculature (ASMA), inflammation (Leukocyte infiltrate), differentiation (CK1 and CK4) and gene expression profile (mRNA). Tumors found in individuals that received MSCs were smaller than those presented in the vehicle group (87±80 versus 54±62mm 3 , p<0.05). The rate of proliferation was two times lower and the apoptosis was 2.5 times higher in lesions treated with MSCs than in untreated ones. While the laters presented dedifferentiated cells, the former maintained differentiated cells (cytokeratin and gene expression profile similar to normal tissue). Thus, MSC administration at papilloma stage precludes tumor growth and epithelial dedifferentiation of OSCC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Oral History and American Advertising: How the "Pepsi Generation" Came Alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Carol; Connors, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Described is a project in which the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History and the George Meany Memorial Archives analyzed a collection of advertising materials of the Pepsi-Cola USA company and conducted interviews to gather historically valuable information concerning the company. Valuable social history information was…

  7. A novel tumor: specimen index for assessing adequacy of resection in early stage oral tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Palmer, Frank L; Shuman, Andrew G; Patel, Purvi D; Boyle, Jay O; Kraus, Dennis H; Morris, Luc G; Shah, Jatin P; Shaha, Ashok R; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Wong, Richard J; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal G

    2014-03-01

    Surgical margin status frequently affects decisions regarding adjuvant treatment; however, reporting and interpretation of surgical margins is subject to considerable subjectivity because of many factors including the adequacy of resection. We developed a novel measure of the adequacy of surgical resection, the tumor: specimen index (TSI), and tested its utility at predicting clinical outcomes in a retrospective cohort study. An institutional database was queried to identify previously untreated patients with T1 and T2 oral tongue cancer who underwent surgery during 1985-2009 (n=433). The TSI, a geometric mean representing the percentage of the surgical specimen that is occupied by the tumor in average single dimension, was calculated from the largest measured lengths, widths, and heights of the tumor in relation to the entire surgical specimen. Multivariate analyses of locoregional recurrence-free probability (LRRFP) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were performed with commonly accepted prognosticators in addition to TSI and surgical margins status. The mean TSI was 41 (range 11-90; SD 14). Surgical margin status was associated with TSI; margins were negative in 84% of patients with TSITSI⩾45 (pTSI⩾45 was associated with worse LRRFP (57% vs. 76%, pTSI, surgical margin status independently predicted LRRFP (p=0.014) but not DSS. When TSI was included, only TSI, and not surgical margin status, was an independent predictor of both LRRFP (p=0.002) and DSS (p=0.011). The tumor: specimen index is an easily-calculated metric for estimating the adequacy of 3-dimensional resection in T1 and T2 oral tongue cancer that independently predicts oncologic outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient-generated aspects in oral rehabilitation decision making I. Comparison of traditional history taking and an individual systematic interview method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Elverdam, Beth

    2009-01-01

    L-DW generated a high number of cues for all participants. Significantly more cues and additional information were generated by the SEIQoL-DW than by the traditional history taking. The additional information concerned consultation and dentist issues, psychological aspects and treatment preferences. A high...... it with a traditional history taking, in generating information to be used in decision making in oral rehabilitation. Fifty-seven participants in need of oral rehabilitation were enrolled in the study. The participants underwent a traditional history taking and were interviewed using the SEIQoL-DW method. The SEIQo...

  9. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of linked life-history stages in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Morgan, Steven G

    2011-09-27

    Naturalists and scientists have been captivated by the diversity of marine larval forms since they were discovered following the advent of the microscope. Because they often bear little resemblance to adults, larvae were identified initially as new life forms, classified into different groups based on the similarity of their body plans and given new names that are still with us today. The radically different body plans and lifestyles of marine larvae and adults have led most investigators historically to study the two phases of complex life cycles in isolation. More recently, important ecological insights have sprung from taking a holistic view of marine life cycles. Meanwhile, the evolutionary (phenotypic and genetic) links among life-history phases remain less appreciated. In this review, our objective is to evaluate the evolutionary links within marine life cycles, and explore their ecological and evolutionary consequences. We provide a brief overview of marine life histories, discuss the phenotypic and genetic links between the two phases of the life cycle and pose challenges to advance our understanding of the evolutionary constraints acting on marine life histories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advocacy for the Archives and History Office of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory: Stages and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deken, Jean Marie; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    Advocating for the good of the SLAC Archives and History Office (AHO) has not been a one-time affair, nor has it been a one-method procedure. It has required taking time to ascertain the current and perhaps predict the future climate of the Laboratory, and it has required developing and implementing a portfolio of approaches to the goal of building a stronger archive program by strengthening and appropriately expanding its resources. Among the successful tools in the AHO advocacy portfolio, the Archives Program Review Committee has been the most visible. The Committee and the role it serves as well as other formal and informal advocacy efforts are the focus of this case study My remarks today will begin with a brief introduction to advocacy and outreach as I understand them, and with a description of the Archives and History Office's efforts to understand and work within the corporate culture of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. I will then share with you some of the tools we have employed to advocate for the Archives and History Office programs and activities; and finally, I will talk about how well - or badly - those tools have served us over the past decade.

  11. Multi-stage diffused bubble aeration system for the removal of volatile organics and radon--A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, A.D.; Lowry, J.

    1992-01-01

    Community acceptance of a water treatment plant project in the 1990's is just as important as the technical performance of the equipment. The low profile of the multi-stage diffused bubble aeration system, as well as the technical performance of this equipment, provides the perfect solution for water treatment facilities that are constructed in residential areas. This case history involves the installation of a multi-stage diffused bubble system in a residential neighborhood in New Jersey without compromising any of the aesthetic qualities. As a result of a routine monitoring program, low levels of trichloroethylene were detected in the outcrop area. At the same time, routine analysis for radon in the source of supplies indicated that the wells located in the outcrop area showed levels of radon between 800 and 1,150 picoCuries per liter

  12. Fluorescent Beads Are a Versatile Tool for Staging Caenorhabditis elegans in Different Life Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberta Nika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Precise staging of Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for developmental studies in different environmental conditions. In favorable conditions, larvae develop continuously through four larval stages separated by molting periods. Distinguishing molting from intermolt larvae has been achieved using transgenes with molting reporters, therefore requiring strain constructions, or careful observation of individuals for pharyngeal pumping or behavioral quiescence. In unfavorable conditions, larvae can enter the stress-resistant and developmentally arrested dauer larva stage. Identifying dauer larvae has been based on their ability to withstand detergent selection, precluding identification of recovering animals or of mutants with defects in dauer morphogenesis. Here, we describe a simple method to distinguish molting larvae or dauer larvae from intermolt larvae that bypasses the limitations of current methods. Fluorescent latex beads are mixed with the bacterial food source and ingested by intermolt larvae and adults. Molting and dauer larvae do not feed, and therefore lack beads in their digestive tract. The presence of beads can be determined using a dissecting microscope at magnifications as low as 100 ×, or by using a wormsorter for high-throughput experiments. We find that continuously developing bead-lacking larvae display hallmarks of molting, including expression of the mlt-10::gfp molting marker and a lack of pharyngeal pumping. Furthermore, wild-type and mutant dauer larvae produced by any of three common methods are accurately identified by a lack of beads. Importantly, this method is effective in SDS-sensitive mutant backgrounds and can identify recovering dauer larvae, a stage for which there is no other method of positive selection.

  13. Introducing Labor History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, John Dale

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief overview for including labor history in the social studies curriculum. Notes the broad range of subjects (geography, history, economics, music, and art) and approaches (women's history, social history, oral history) that encompass labor history. (MJP)

  14. Life history traits influence the strength of distance- and density-dependence at different life stages of two Amazonian palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Juanita; Carasco, Cecilia; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Simpson, Beryl B; Economo, Evan P

    2017-07-01

    Natural enemies are known to be important in regulating plant populations and contributing to species coexistence (Janzen-Connell effects). The strength of Janzen-Connell effects (both distance- and density-effects) varies across species, but the life history traits that may mediate such a variation are not well understood. This study examined Janzen-Connell effects across the life stages (seed through adult stages) of two sympatric palm species with distinct phenologies and shade tolerances, two traits that may mediate the strength and timing of Janzen-Connell effects. Populations of two common palm species, Attalea phalerata and Astrocaryum murumuru , were studied in Manu National Park, Peru. Seed predation experiments were conducted to assess Janzen-Connell effects at the seed stage. In the post-seed stages, spatial point pattern analyses of the distributions of individuals and biomass were used to infer the strength of distance- and density-effects. Seed predation was both negative distance- and density-dependent consistent with the Janzen-Connell effects. However, only seedling recruitment for asynchronously fruiting Attalea phalerata was depressed near adults while recruitment remained high for synchronously fruiting Astrocaryum murumuru , consistent with weak distance-effects. Negative density-effects were strong in the early stages for shade-intolerant Attalea phalerata but weak or absent in shade-tolerant Astrocaryum murumuru. Distance- and density-effects varied among the life stages of the two palm species in a manner that corresponded to their contrasting phenology and shade tolerance. Generalizing such connections across many species would provide a route to understanding how trait-mediated Janzen-Connell effects scale up to whole communities of species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Energy regulation in context: Free-living female arctic ground squirrels modulate the relationship between thyroid hormones and activity among life history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Buck, C Loren; Barnes, Brian M; Williams, Cory T

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), key regulators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, are likely modulators of energy allocation within and among animal life history stages. Despite their role in modulating metabolism, few studies have investigated whether THs vary among life history stages in free-living animals or if they exhibit stage-specific relationships to total energy expenditure and activity levels. We measured plasma total triiodothyronine (tT3) and thyroxine (tT4) at four, discrete life history stages of female arctic ground squirrels from two different populations in northern Alaska to test whether plasma THs correlate with life history stage-specific changes in metabolic rate and energy demand. We also tested whether THs explained individual variation in aboveground activity levels within life history stages. T3 peaked during lactation and was lowest during pre-hibernation fattening, consistent with known changes in basal metabolism and core body temperature. In contrast, T4 was elevated shortly after terminating hibernation but remained low and stable across other life-history stages in the active season. THs were consistently higher in the population that spent more time above-ground but the relationship between THs and activity varied among life history stages. T3 was positively correlated with activity only during lactation (r(2)=0.50) whereas T4 was positively correlated with activity immediately following lactation (r(2)=0.48) and during fattening (r(2)=0.53). Our results support the hypothesis that THs are an important modulator of basal metabolism but also suggest that the relationship between THs and activity varies among life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Pstress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  17. Oral History and Open Access: Fulfilling the Promise of Democratizing Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Chenier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Archives of Lesbian Oral Testimony (A LOT is an online digital archive of lesbian oral/aural testimonies housed at the Simon Fraser University Library. A LOT began as a simple preservation project. Many people who interviewed women in the 1980s and 1990s about their experiences as lesbians had not archived their analog tapes. I had access to a lab and funding that would allow me to convert analog tapes to .wav (digital sound files, and it was this modest task I set out to do in 2010. The deeper I read into the literature on digital humanities, however, the more complex and exciting the project became. In this note I present the ideas that have shaped my thinking about building this archives, the concept for the archives that has evolved, and our overall objectives.

  18. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  19. Climate-induced trends in predator–prey synchrony differ across life-history stages of an anadromous salmonid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Donovan A.; Kovach, Ryan; Vulstek, Scott C.; Joyce, John E.; Tallmon, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Differential climate-induced shifts in phenology can create mismatches between predators and prey, but few studies have examined predator–prey mismatch across multiple life-history stages. We used long-term data from a warming stream with shifting salmonid migration timings to quantify intra-annual migration synchrony between predatory Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) and Pacific salmon prey and examined how predator–prey synchrony has been influenced by climate change. We demonstrate that Dolly Varden have become increasingly mismatched with spring downstream migrations of abundant pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) juveniles. However, Dolly Varden have remained matched with fall upstream migrations of spawning Pacific salmon, including coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), and pink salmon. Downstream predator–prey migration synchrony decreased over time and with higher temperatures, particularly with pink salmon. In contrast, upstream migration synchrony was temporally stable and increased with rising temperatures. Differing trends in Dolly Varden predator–prey synchrony may be explained by the direct use of salmon to cue upstream migration, but not downstream migration. Overall, we show that climate change can have differing impacts on predator–prey synchrony across life-history stages.

  20. Experimental evidence of sediment preference by early life history stages of windowpane ( Scophthalmus aquosus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Melissa J.; Able, Kenneth W.

    1998-09-01

    We evaluated sediment choice by young-of-the-year (YOY) windowpane, Scophthalmus aquosus, in the laboratory. We gave transitional (8-18 mm SL) and larger juvenile windowpane (32-89 mm SL) a choice of sediment mixtures, all of which were within the range observed in the field (tested range: sand-behaviour, and pigmentation pattern (transitional or juvenile pigmentation). We also tested the effects of food availability and light level on sediment preference. Windowpane of all sizes preferred sand over mud in 65-84% of all observations, but there were differences in sediment preference, burial behaviour, and pigmentation pattern between the transitional and juvenile stages. Transitional windowpane were observed on sand less frequently, buried less often, and exhibited larval pigmentation more often than juveniles. Further analyses showed that transitional fish had a higher probability of moving from the preferred sediment (sand) during hours of darkness, and both stages had a higher probability of moving onto mud when food was absent. Juveniles were also more active when food was absent, but to a lesser extent than transitional fish. We believe that habitat selection may play a crucial role in determining the distribution of YOY windowpane under natural conditions and will aid in our interpretation of post-settlement distribution patterns of field populations in near-shore and estuarine environments in the Middle Atlantic Bight, USA.

  1. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. PATIENTS WITH END STAGE CANCER: LIFE HISTORY, PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL ASPECTS, RELATIONSHIP WITH THE NURSING STAFF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanete Ribeiro do Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the cancers most feared by women for its high incidence and its psychological effects that affect the perception of sexuality and self-image. Objective: To identify the difficulties of nursing professionals in the treatment of patients with cancer, from the standpoint of a terminally ill patient of breast cancer. Methodology: This is a case study of a patient who is in the terminal stages of breast cancer. We carried out the survey of literature in journals indexed the databases LILACS and SciELO Open Access and English, on terminally ill cancer. Results: Feelings of loneliness and sadness were softened and smoothed by the attitude and disposition of nursing professionals. In moments of intervention needs of physical care, nursing care was provided. Conclusion: The nursing staff has always demonstrated skills in treating patients with cancer, providing quality care, humane and comprehensive, meeting all your needs biopsicoespiritual.

  3. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  4. "Our Journey through Time": An Oral History Project Carried out by Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…

  5. A Study of Oral and Local History on Sportswomen with 5th Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Gulcin

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Contrary to traditional historiography, which mainly focuses on men's experiences and ignores the women, historiography today includes all people, genders and social groups. Accordingly, school history also needs to regard female actors of the past in order to present a more gender-balanced past that makes visible not only the…

  6. Patient-generated aspects in oral rehabilitation decision making I. Comparison of traditional history taking and an individual systematic interview method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Elverdam, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Decision making in oral rehabilitation is often based on diagnoses related to impairment of different oral functions. In making the decision when to treat, the dentist must work in cooperation with the patient. By incorporating patient-generated aspects into the decision making process, the dentist...... finds it easier to decide if and why treatment should be undertaken and what treatment modality to use. The purpose of this study was to describe the potential of an interview method, the 'Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting' (SEIQoL-DW), and compare...... it with a traditional history taking, in generating information to be used in decision making in oral rehabilitation. Fifty-seven participants in need of oral rehabilitation were enrolled in the study. The participants underwent a traditional history taking and were interviewed using the SEIQoL-DW method. The SEIQo...

  7. Novelties of the flowering plant pollen tube underlie diversification of a key life history stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    The origin and rapid diversification of flowering plants has puzzled evolutionary biologists, dating back to Charles Darwin. Since that time a number of key life history and morphological traits have been proposed as developmental correlates of the extraordinary diversity and ecological success of angiosperms. Here, I identify several innovations that were fundamental to the evolutionary lability of angiosperm reproduction, and hence to their diversification. In gymnosperms pollen reception must be near the egg largely because sperm swim or are transported by pollen tubes that grow at very slow rates (pollen tube growth rates of taxa in ancient angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nuphar, and Austrobaileya) range from ≈80 to 600 μm/h. Comparative analyses point to accelerated pollen tube growth rate as a critical innovation that preceded the origin of the true closed carpel, long styles, multiseeded ovaries, and, in monocots and eudicots, much faster pollen tube growth rates. Ancient angiosperm pollen tubes all have callosic walls and callose plugs (in contrast, no gymnosperms have these features). The early association of the callose-walled growth pattern with accelerated pollen tube growth rate underlies a striking repeated pattern of faster and longer-distance pollen tube growth often within solid pathways in phylogenetically derived angiosperms. Pollen tube innovations are a key component of the spectacular diversification of carpel (flower and fruit) form and reproductive cycles in flowering plants. PMID:18678915

  8. Characterization of the properties of a selective, orally bioavailable autotaxin inhibitor in preclinical models of advanced stages of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Manuel; Bretschneider, Tom; Broermann, Andre; Rippmann, Joerg F; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Kuttruff, Christian A; Mark, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted phospholipase which hydrolyses lysophosphatidylcholine to generate lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The extracellular signalling molecule LPA exerts its biological actions through activation of six GPCRs expressed in various cell types including fibroblasts. Multiple preclinical studies using knockout animals, LPA receptor antagonists or ATX inhibitors have provided evidence for a potential role of the ATX/LPA axis in tissue fibrosis. Despite growing evidence for a correlation between ATX levels and the degree of fibrosis in chronic liver diseases, including viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, the role of ATX in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. The relevance of ATX in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis was investigated by oral administration of Ex_31, a selective ATX inhibitor, in a 10 week model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and in a 14 week model of choline-deficient amino acid-defined diet-induced liver injury in rats. Oral administration of Ex_31, a selective ATX inhibitor, at 15 mg·kg -1 twice daily in therapeutic intervention mode resulted in efficient ATX inhibition and more than 95% reduction in plasma LPA levels in both studies. Treatment with Ex_31 had no effect on biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, or fibrosis and did not result in histological improvements in diseased animals. Our findings question the role of ATX in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and the potential of small molecule ATX inhibitors for the treatment of patients with NASH and advanced stages of liver fibrosis. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Leucoplasia pilosa oral: aspectos histopatológicos da fase subclínica Oral hairy leukoplakia: histopathologic features of the subclinical stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pedra DIAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A leucoplasia pilosa oral (LPO é uma das manifestações orais mais comuns na AIDS, com valor diagnóstico e prognóstico. A LPO está relacionada ao Epstein-Barr vírus (EBV, com características clínicas e histopatológicas definidas. Já existem relatos de uma fase subclínica da LPO, porém sem caracterização histopatológica. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever os aspectos histopatológicos desta fase, bem como realizar uma análise comparativa entre a LPO subclínica e clínica, com a finalidade de verificar a suficiência diagnóstica dos critérios histopatológicos. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo de 11 casos, obtidos a partir de cinco biópsias realizadas em pacientes com lesão e da borda de seis línguas sem lesão macroscopicamente detectável, provenientes de necropsias. Foram utilizados os seguintes métodos: histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica e hibridização in situ. Os aspectos histopatológicos que caracterizaram a fase subclínica da LPO foram: ausência de paraceratose e papilomatose, acantose leve, presença de células claras e alterações nucleares (inclusão tipo Cowdry A, núcleo em "vidro fosco" e núcleo "em colar". Houve identificação do EBV através da hibridização in situ e da imuno-histoquímica nas alterações nucleares observadas na histopatologia. Concluiu-se, com fundamentos na identificação do EBV nas alterações nucleares, que a LPO em sua fase subclínica, da mesma forma que na lesão clínica, apresenta características histopatológicas específicas e suficientes para um diagnóstico definitivo, independentemente da identificação do EBV.Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is one of the most common oral manifestations of AIDS, with diagnostic and prognostic value. OHL is associated to the Epstein-Barr virus and presents clinical and histological defined characteristics. There have already been reports about a subclinical stage of OHL, although they lacked histopathologic

  10. Setting the stage for a business case for leadership diversity in healthcare: history, research, and leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Ebbin; Nuru-Jeter, Amani

    2012-01-01

    Leveraging diversity to successfully influence business operations is a business imperative for many healthcare organizations as they look to leadership to help manage a new era of culturally competent, patient-centered care that reduces health and healthcare disparities. This article presents the foundation for a business case in leadership diversity within healthcare organizations and describes the need for research on managerial solutions to health and healthcare disparities. It provides a discussion of clinical, policy, and management implications that will help support a business case for improving the diversity of leadership in healthcare organizations as a way to reduce health and healthcare disparities. Historical contexts introduce aspects of the business case for leveraging leadership diversity based on a desire for a culturally competent care organization. Little research exists on the impact that the role of leadership plays in addressing health disparities from a healthcare management perspective. This article provides practitioners and researchers with a rationale to invest in leadership diversity. It discusses three strategies that will help set the stage for a business case. First, provide empirical evidence of the link between diversity and performance. Second, link investments in diversity to financial outcomes and organizational metrics of success. Third, make organizational leadership responsible for cultural competence as a performance measure. In order to address health and healthcare disparities, collaborations between researchers and practitioners are necessary to effectively implement these strategies.

  11. Treatment results of Stage I and II oral tongue cancer with interstitial brachytherapy: maximum tumor thickness is prognostic of nodal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kanji; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Fujita, Minoru; Akagi, Yukio; Ito, Katsuhide

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic importance of T classification and maximum tumor thickness (MTT) on the treatment results of Stage I and II oral tongue cancer treated with interstitial brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1981 and December 1993, 173 cases were eligible for this retrospective analysis. Of 173 patients, 75 were classified as Stage I and 98 as Stage II: maximum tumor length ranged from 6 to 40 mm. MTT, which ranged from 2 to 38 mm, was measured with ultrasonography and/or palpation. Brachytherapy was performed with iridium hairpins or radium needles following external irradiation in 66 patients, or exclusively in 107 patients. Results: The 5-year local recurrence rates were Stage I, 7%; Stage II, 22%; MTT < 8 mm, 8%; and MTT ≥ 8 mm, 28%. The 5-year regional recurrence rates were Stage I, 15%; Stage II, 29%; MTT < 8 mm, 18%; and MTT ≥ 8 mm, 31%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence rates of the patients with Stage I and MTT < 8 mm of the brachytherapy only group were significantly better than those of Stage II and MTT ≥ 8 mm (5% and 6% vs. 16% and 24%). The 5-year regional recurrence rates of the patients with Stage I and MTT < 8 mm of the brachytherapy-only group were significantly better than those of Stage II and MTT ≥ 8 mm (14% and 16% vs. 34% and 46%). There was no significant difference in the 5-year regional recurrence rates between the two groups of Stage I and Stage II, MTT < 8 mm. However, there was a significant difference in the 5-year regional recurrence rates between the two groups of MTT ≥ 8 mm (p < 0.005). Conclusions: For patients with Stage I and II oral tongue cancer, tumor thickness as well as T classification were prognostic for nodal metastasis and prognosis. Patients with MTT ≥ 8 mm are more likely to fail in the neck region. These findings suggest that MTT should be considered along with T stage in determining strategies for Stage I and II oral tongue cancer

  12. Oral cancer trends in a single head-and-neck cancer center in the Netherlands; decline in T-stage at the time of admission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.; Leemans, C.R.; Aartman, I.H.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; van der Waal, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study we evaluated the possible epidemiologic changes of oral cancer patients in the Netherlands between the years 1980-1984 and 2000-2004. We specifically studied the differences in male-female ratio, age, TNM-stage, site distribution, and alcohol and tobacco use. MATERIALS AND

  13. An Oral History of Programming Practices: Gender and Age Dynamics and Digital (DisEngagement Among Computer Programmers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Silvast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, educational policies in many countries have aimed at improving the computer literacy and programming competencies of the population. Over the same period, the possibilities that people have seen regarding programming and everyday programming practices have emerged as an area of strong interest within historical scholarship. The paper contributes to these discussions by drawing on techniques of oral history to focus on programming hobbies and practices in Finland. Examining data from a massive survey of computer hobbyists (N = 1,453 and their recollections about personal computer use (largely during the 1980s, the paper gathers new information on what leads to people’s pursuit of or interest in programming and how their programming habits have changed over time. The study links together the gender and age dynamics in programming and shows how the respondents not only engaged with but also could become disengaged from programming for various reasons.

  14. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M.; Martin, Berdine R.; Wastney, Meryl; McCabe, George P.; Moe, Sharon M.; Weaver, Connie M.; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus and reduce phosphorus retention, and to prevent negative calcium balance. Data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance in CKD to support this. The aim of this study was to determine calcium and phosphorus balance and calcium kinetics with and without calcium carbonate in CKD patients. Eight stage 3/4 CKD patients, eGFR 36 mL/min, participated in two 3-week balances in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of calcium carbonate (1500 mg/d calcium). Calcium and phosphorus balance were determined on a controlled diet. Oral and intravenous 45calcium with blood sampling and urine and fecal collections were used for calcium kinetics. Fasting blood and urine were collected at baseline and end of each week of each balance period for biochemical analyses. Results showed that patients were in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on placebo. Calcium carbonate produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance suggesting tissue deposition. Fasting biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. If they can be extrapolated to effects of chronic therapy, these data caution against the use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder. PMID:23254903

  15. Risk-benefit assessment of the combined oral contraceptive pill in women with a family history of female cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Brittany Anne; Moorman, Patricia G

    2014-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are the most frequently used form of effective, reversible contraception among women of childbearing potential. In the average risk population, OCPs may offer a protective benefit against ovarian, endometrial and colorectal malignancies. In women at high risk for breast, ovarian, endometrial or colorectal malignancies, the risk-benefit profile is less well studied. In this article, we review pertinent literature on the use of OCPs in patients with genetic susceptibilities due to mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 or mismatch repair genes implicated in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer as well as those with a strong family history of malignancies associated with these syndromes. For women at high risk for ovarian, endometrial and/or colorectal malignancies due to genetic susceptibilities or a strong family history, the possibility of chemoprevention with OCPs may be an attractive option; however, the potential increase in breast cancer, although small, must be considered in clinical decision-making. The ultimate decision to use OCPs in a high-risk woman should be based on a consideration of her specific genetic risk, her age, her reproductive plans and her willingness to consider surgical prophylaxis options.

  16. Lanthanum carbonate oral powder: satisfaction, preference and adherence in French and Spanish patients with end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phosphate binders, such as lanthanum carbonate, control elevated serum-phosphate levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Lanthanum carbonate is available in oral powder and tablet form. The aim of this survey was to investigate satisfaction with, preference for, and adherence to lanthanum carbonate oral powder in patients with ESRD. Scope: Patients from France and Spain who had been taking lanthanum carbonate powder for at least 4 weeks, and who had experience of other phosphate binders of any formulation, were asked to complete an online or telephone survey. Treatment satisfaction was measured using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9; preference was measured using 5-point Likert scale agreement ratings; and adherence was measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4. Data were evaluated using bivariate analyses. Findings: Overall, 160 patients participated (80 per country. Lanthanum carbonate powder was reported to have a higher effectiveness rating (p<0.05, be more convenient (p<0.05, and provide a higher level of satisfaction (p<0.01 than previous binders. There was an overall preference for lanthanum carbonate powder over previous binders of any formulation (p<0.001. Adherence to medication was similar for all binders analysed: 66.3% of French patients adhered to lanthanum carbonate powder, and 65.0% adhered to previous binder treatment (p=not significant; 52.5% of Spanish patients adhered to lanthanum carbonate powder, and 56.3% adhered to previous binder treatment (p=not significant. Limitations: The survey enrolled patients who had already experienced phosphate binders before the study began. Information on patient preferences for and adherence to previous phosphate binders was therefore based on the patients’ memories of these experiences, which may have been subject to change over time. Although most participants completed the online survey in this study, a telephone survey

  17. História oral: a experiência das doulas no cuidado à mulher Historia Oral: la experiencia de las doulas en el cuidado a la mujer Oral History: experience of doulas in the care of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Romana Ferreira de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar a possibilidade de utilização da História Oral como referencial metodológico para compreender o significado da experiência das doulas durante o processo de parto e nascimento em uma maternidade pública. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo, realizado em uma maternidade pública municipal na cidade do Recife-Pernambuco, na qual o programa encontra-se institucionalizado há quatro anos. O instrumento de investigação utilizado foi a entrevista junto a nove doulas, analisada segundo a história oral temática. RESULTADOS: Emergiram dois eixos temáticos que trazem a experiência das doulas no cuidado à mulher: um caminho para a humanização e acolhendo e criando vínculos. CONCLUSÃO: Os discursos revelaram que as doulas oferecem um cuidado que envolve uma escuta ativa, alicerçada em atitudes de respeito, acolhimento, conhecimento técnico e amor.OBJETIVO: Mostrar la posibilidad de utilizar la Historia Oral como referencia metodológica para comprender el significado de la experiencia de las doulas durante el proceso de parto y nacimiento en una maternidad pública. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio cualitativo, realizado en una maternidad pública municipal en la ciudad de Recife, en Pernambuco, en la cual el programa se encuentra institucionalizado hace cuatro años. El instrumento de investigación utilizado fue la entrevista junto a nueve doulas, analizada según la historia oral temática. RESULTADOS: Surgieron dos ejes temáticos que muestran la experiencia de las doulas en el cuidado a la mujer: un camino para la humanización y acogiendo y creando vínculos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los discursos revelaron que las doulas ofrecen un cuidado que contiene un escuchar activo, basada en actitudes de respeto, acogimiento, conocimiento técnico y amor.OBJECTIVE: To show the possibility of using oral history as a methodological reference for understanding the meaning of the experience of doulas during labor and birth in a maternity. METHODS

  18. From Complex Organisms to a Complex Organization: An Oral History with UCSC Chancellor M.R.C. Greenwood, 1996-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Reti, Irene H.; Greenwood, M.R.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Regional History Project conducted this oral history with UCSC Chancellor M.R.C. (Mary Rita Cooke) Greenwood as part of its University History series. Greenwood was appointed as chancellor of UC Santa Cruz in July of 1996 and served until April of 2004. While at UCSC, she also held an appointment as a professor of biology. M.R.C. Greenwood was born in 1943 in Gainesville, Florida. She graduated summa cum laude in biology from Vassar College in 1968, and earned her PhD in physiolo...

  19. A phase I study of postoperative concurrent radiotherapy and oral doxifluridine and leucovorin for II/III stage rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jing; Li Yexiong; Tang Yuan; Wang Weihu; Wang Shulian; Song Yongwen; Liu Yueping; Yu Zihao; Liu Xinfan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A phase I study was conducted to determine the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) and the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of chemotherapy of oral doxifluridine (5-dFUR) and leucovorin with concurrent standard radiotherapy(RT) as adjuvant treatment in patients with rectal cancer. Methods: Patients aged 18-75 years old, Kamofsky scored ≥70%, stage II/III rectal cancer after curative surgery were eligible. Total RT dose was delivered as DT 50 Gy in the fraction of 2.0 Gy per day for 5 weeks to the pelvic area. 5-dFUR was administered concurrently with radiotherapy in escalating doses, and oral leucovorin was administered in a fixed dose of 30 mg/(m 2 ·d), both 3 times daily, from the 1 st day of RT to the last day. The DLTs included grade 3 or grade 4 hematologic and nonhematologie toxicity. Results: From Aug. 2005 to Mar. 2007, 16 patients were enrolled at the following dose levels: 450 mg/(m 2 ·d) (3 patients), 550 mg/(m 2 ·d) (6 patients) and 650 mg/(m 2 ·d) (7 patients). Diarrhea, neutropenia and nausea/vomit were the most common side effects although all neutropenia was less grade 3. The DLT was observed in 1 patient at 550 mg/(m 2 ·d) (grade 4 diarrhea), but none in the following 3 patients at the same dose level. At 650 mg/(m 2 ·d) level, the first patient quitted the study due to a severe abdominal cramp pain in the 3rd week of RT. In the following 3 enrolled patients, one suffered grade 3 abdominal cramp pain, diarrhea, fatigue, nausea/vomit and grade 2 neutropenia and fever. Grade 3 diarrhea was also observed in all the additional 3 patients at 650 mg/(m 2 ·d) dose level. So the dose escalation was ended up to 650 mg/(m 2 ·d). Four of 16 patients didn't complete the scheduled concurrent chemoradiotherapy due to severe side effects, including 1 at 550 mg/(m 2 ·d) dose level, and 3 at 650 mg/(m 2 ·d). The DLTs were observed as grade 3/4 diarrhea, grade 3 abdominal cramp pain, fatigue and nausea/vomit. Conclusions: Diarrhea is the most common and

  20. Oral histories: a simple method of assigning chronological age to isotopic values from human dentine collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Julia; Montgomery, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in bone and dentine collagen have been used for over 30 years to estimate palaeodiet, subsistence strategy, breastfeeding duration and migration within burial populations. Recent developments in dentine microsampling allow improved temporal resolution for dietary patterns. A simple method is proposed which could be applied to human teeth to estimate chronological age represented by dentine microsamples in the direction of tooth growth, allowing comparison of dietary patterns between individuals and populations. The method is tested using profiles from permanent and deciduous teeth of two individuals. Using a diagrammatic representation of dentine development by approximate age for each human tooth (based on the Queen Mary University of London Atlas), this study estimated the age represented by each dentine section. Two case studies are shown: comparison of M1 and M2 from a 19th century individual from London, England, and identification of an unknown tooth from an Iron Age female adult from Scotland. The isotopic profiles demonstrate that variations in consecutively-forming teeth can be aligned using this method to extend the dietary history of an individual or identify an unknown tooth by matching the profiles.

  1. In The Wake of Pugachev’s Rebellion: Experience in Oral History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita V. Shevtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grand uprising led by Pugachev seized a vast area from the middle reaches of the Volga, the Urals and the Kazakh steppes. Thousands of people from different classes and nationalities joined rebellious Ural Cossacks in 1773. From the beginning, the uprising was of antimonarchic, not noble character, although its leader, and posed as a resurrected Emperor Peter III. During two years since 1773 the rebels were holding at bay the entire Russian Empire, becoming a real threat to the power of Catherine II. Pugachev's Rebellion is a subject of numerous works of Russian historians, writers, articles, research journalists and ethnographers. But perhaps the most famous "History of Pugachev" is written by a classic of Russian literature Alexander Pushkin. His work became one of the first (if not the first serious historical studies on Pugachev's Rebellion. The historical science of XIX century, especially its first half, doesn't know many writings on the uprising. The fact that historians did not dare to write about Pugachev and the events that took place in 1773-1775 years, as Catherine II prohibited even mention the uprising. The decree of the senate ordered even rename the place, where the described events took place, for example, the Yaik river and Yaitsk town in order "to bring all that has happened to eternal oblivion." The famous historian S.M. Solovyov did not have advance to write about Pugachev. Death interrupted his work when his 29 volume ws in process, which he planned to complete with the execution of the leader of the uprising. Russian historian V.O. Klyuchevskii did not write many pages devoted to Pugachev as well. The author of this article visited the places, where the events took place, and repeated the journey of A.S. Pushkin, who visited the region in 60years after Pugachev's Rebellion. By talking with the locals, visiting ancient towns and villages, I sought to find out what has now preserved since ancient times, whether it is

  2. Chemotherapy of second stage human African trypanosomiasis: comparison between the parenteral diamidine DB829 and its oral prodrug DB868 in vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Thuita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness ranks among the most neglected tropical diseases based on limited availability of drugs that are safe and efficacious, particularly against the second stage (central nervous system [CNS] of infection. In response to this largely unmet need for new treatments, the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development developed novel parenteral diamidines and corresponding oral prodrugs that have shown cure of a murine model of second stage HAT. As a rationale for selection of one of these compounds for further development, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of intramuscular (IM active diamidine 2,5-bis(5-amidino-2-pyridylfuran (DB829; CPD-0802 and oral prodrug2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868 were compared in the vervet monkey model of second stage HAT. Treatment was initiated 28 days post-infection of monkeys with T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. Results showed that IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, 5 mg/kg/day every other day for 5 doses, or 2.5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days cured all monkeys (5/5. Oral DB868 was less successful, with no cures (0/2 at 3 mg/kg/day for 10 days and cure rates of 1/4 at 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days and 20 mg/kg/day for 10 days; in total, only 2/10 monkeys were cured with DB868 dose regimens. The geometric mean plasma Cmax of IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg following the last of 5 doses was 25-fold greater than that after 10 daily oral doses of DB868 at 20 mg/kg. These data suggest that the active diamidine DB829, administered IM, should be considered for further development as a potential new treatment for second stage HAT.

  3. Chemotherapy of Second Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis: Comparison between the Parenteral Diamidine DB829 and Its Oral Prodrug DB868 in Vervet Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuita, John K.; Wolf, Kristina K.; Murilla, Grace A.; Bridges, Arlene S.; Boykin, David W.; Mutuku, James N.; Liu, Qiang; Jones, Susan K.; Gem, Charles O.; Ching, Shelley; Tidwell, Richard R.; Wang, Michael Z.; Paine, Mary F.; Brun, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) ranks among the most neglected tropical diseases based on limited availability of drugs that are safe and efficacious, particularly against the second stage (central nervous system [CNS]) of infection. In response to this largely unmet need for new treatments, the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development developed novel parenteral diamidines and corresponding oral prodrugs that have shown cure of a murine model of second stage HAT. As a rationale for selection of one of these compounds for further development, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of intramuscular (IM) active diamidine 2,5-bis(5-amidino-2-pyridyl)furan (DB829; CPD-0802) and oral prodrug2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino)-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868) were compared in the vervet monkey model of second stage HAT. Treatment was initiated 28 days post-infection of monkeys with T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. Results showed that IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, 5 mg/kg/day every other day for 5 doses, or 2.5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days cured all monkeys (5/5). Oral DB868 was less successful, with no cures (0/2) at 3 mg/kg/day for 10 days and cure rates of 1/4 at 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days and 20 mg/kg/day for 10 days; in total, only 2/10 monkeys were cured with DB868 dose regimens. The geometric mean plasma Cmax of IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg following the last of 5 doses was 25-fold greater than that after 10 daily oral doses of DB868 at 20 mg/kg. These data suggest that the active diamidine DB829, administered IM, should be considered for further development as a potential new treatment for second stage HAT. PMID:25654243

  4. Chemotherapy of second stage human African trypanosomiasis: comparison between the parenteral diamidine DB829 and its oral prodrug DB868 in vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuita, John K; Wolf, Kristina K; Murilla, Grace A; Bridges, Arlene S; Boykin, David W; Mutuku, James N; Liu, Qiang; Jones, Susan K; Gem, Charles O; Ching, Shelley; Tidwell, Richard R; Wang, Michael Z; Paine, Mary F; Brun, Reto

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) ranks among the most neglected tropical diseases based on limited availability of drugs that are safe and efficacious, particularly against the second stage (central nervous system [CNS]) of infection. In response to this largely unmet need for new treatments, the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development developed novel parenteral diamidines and corresponding oral prodrugs that have shown cure of a murine model of second stage HAT. As a rationale for selection of one of these compounds for further development, the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of intramuscular (IM) active diamidine 2,5-bis(5-amidino-2-pyridyl)furan (DB829; CPD-0802) and oral prodrug2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino)-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868) were compared in the vervet monkey model of second stage HAT. Treatment was initiated 28 days post-infection of monkeys with T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. Results showed that IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, 5 mg/kg/day every other day for 5 doses, or 2.5 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days cured all monkeys (5/5). Oral DB868 was less successful, with no cures (0/2) at 3 mg/kg/day for 10 days and cure rates of 1/4 at 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days and 20 mg/kg/day for 10 days; in total, only 2/10 monkeys were cured with DB868 dose regimens. The geometric mean plasma Cmax of IM DB829 at 5 mg/kg following the last of 5 doses was 25-fold greater than that after 10 daily oral doses of DB868 at 20 mg/kg. These data suggest that the active diamidine DB829, administered IM, should be considered for further development as a potential new treatment for second stage HAT.

  5. American archivists on oral history – review of the subject of texts published in the second half of the 20th century in pages of „The American Archivist”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wiśniewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, the article consists of a detailed discussion on eighteen texts on oral history published in the second half of the 20th century in the leading American archival journal „The American Archivist”. The second part are conclusions concerning the presence of the subject of oral history in archival discourse in the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. In the analyzed texts a lot of space has been given to the character of oral history interviews as historical sources. Especially, the question of reliability of oral history has been raised, as well as ways of guaranteeing it (e.g. through a proper description. Moreover, in many cases these texts attempt to persuade their readers to use oral history in their research. Also, it may be noticed, that at some point the understanding of oral history as historical source changes – an audio or video recording of the interview becomes a source itself, and not notes made while carrying it out or its transcription. Also relations between oral history and traditional (paper records are an important issue in discussions of the American authors. The analysis of the articles also indicates that the authors were interested more in issues of the historical nature, than of the archival one. Those latter are mostly providing access to oral history materials. But also the question of the role of archives and archivists in recording oral history is touched. Discussion on the issue of storing oral history is not present at all.

  6. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  7. The natural history of fetal cells in postpartum murine maternal lung and bone marrow: a two-stage phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Stephanie; Peter, Inga; Johnson, Kirby L; Bianchi, Diana W

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy, fetal cells cross into the maternal organs where they reside postpartum. Evidence from multiple laboratories suggests that these microchimeric fetal cells contribute to maternal tissue repair after injury. In mouse models, most injury experiments are performed during pregnancy; however, in a clinical setting most injuries or diseases occur postpartum. Therefore, experiments using animal models should be designed to address questions in the time period following delivery. In order to provide a baseline for such experiments, we analyzed the natural history of fetal cells in the postpartum maternal organs. Female C57BL/6J mice were mated to males homozygous for the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene. Fetal cells in the maternal lungs and bone marrow were identified by their green fluorescence using in a high-speed flow cytometer and their counts were compared between the lung and bone marrow. Spearman correlation analysis was used to identify relationships between the duration of time postpartum and the cell counts and ratio of live and dead cells. Our results show that fetal cells persist in these organs until at least three months postpartum in healthy female mice. We show a two-stage decline, with an initial two and a half-week rapid clearance followed by a trend of gradual decrease. Additionally, an increase in the ratio of live to dead cells within the lung over time suggests that these cells may replicate in vivo. The results presented here will inform the design of future experiments and may have implications for women's health.

  8. Worse Prognosis for Stage IA Lung Cancer Patients with Smoking History and More Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yukihiro; Kage, Hidenori; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Sato, Yasunori; Ota, Satoshi; Fukayama, Masashi; Nakajima, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study examined whether the severity of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) affects surgical outcomes. The subjects were 243 consecutive patients who underwent lobectomy for clinical stage IA lung cancer from 1999 to 2008 in our hospital. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grading system was used to classify the severity of COPD in smokers. Among the 149 smokers, 62 were diagnosed with COPD (25 as GOLD 1, 33 as GOLD 2, and 4 as GOLD 3). In univariate analysis, postoperative pulmonary complications were associated with male sex and more severe COPD. The frequencies were 17.1% in non-COPD, 24.0% in GOLD 1-COPD, and 46.0% in GOLD 2/3-COPD smokers (p = 0.0006). In univariate analysis, older age, smoking history, higher smoking pack-years and more severe COPD were associated with poor relapse-free survival. Relapse-free survival at five years was 80.7%, 66.9%, and 61.3% in non-COPD, GOLD 1-COPD, and GOLD 2/3-COPD smokers, respectively (p = 0.0005). Multivariate analyses showed that only GOLD 2/3-COPD was associated with postoperative pulmonary complications and relapse-free survival. Inhaled bronchodilators were prescribed preoperatively to 24.3% of the GOLD 2/3-COPD group. Smokers with GOLD 2/3-COPD are at high risk for pulmonary complications and have an unfavorable long-term prognosis.

  9. Retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and daily concurrent radiotherapy for stage III and IV oral cancer: Analysis of therapeutic results in 112 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsudo, Kenji; Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Masaki; Iwai, Toshinori; Nakashima, Hideyuki; Oguri, Senri; Kioi, Mitomu; Hirota, Makoto; Koike, Izumi; Hata, Masaharu; Tohnai, Iwai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and rate of organ preservation in patients with stage III or IV oral cancer treated with retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and daily concurrent radiotherapy. Materials and methods: One hundred and twelve patients with stage III and IV oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy. Catheterization from the superficial temporal and occipital arteries was performed. Treatment consisted of superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (docetaxel, total 60 mg/m 2 , cisplatin, total 150 mg/m 2 ) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (total of 60 Gy) for 6 weeks. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 46.2 months (range, 10–76 months). After intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy, primary site complete response was achieved in 98 (87.5%) of 112 cases. Five-year survival and local control rates were 71.3% and 79.3%, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included mucositis in 92.0%, neutropenia in 30.4%, dermatitis in 28.6%, anemia in 26.8%, and thrombocytopenia in 7.1% of patients. Grade 3 toxicities included dysphagia in 72.3%, nausea/vomiting in 21.4%, fever in 8.0%, and renal failure in 0.9% of patients. Conclusion: Retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and daily concurrent radiotherapy for stage III and IV oral cancer provided good overall survival and local control

  10. The Use of Oral Histories to Identify Criteria for Future Scenarios of Sustainable Farming in the South Yangtze River, China

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    Pingyang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices in Jiangnan water towns have historically been identified as maintaining a balance between human activity and the local environment, but are now a significant local source of water pollution. Using a multi-methods approach, this study deduces the environmental impact of traditional practices, and the socially desired conditions for successfully reintroducing critical ones. Oral histories from 31 farmers in Tianshanzhuang village, South Yangtze River were in order to chart changes in farming practices over four historic periods, and used to estimate the nitrogen and phosphorus burdens per acre. Findings show that the use of Lan River Mud—dredged mud for fertilizer—was key in producing a positive impact, but abandoned after the 1980s. Four criteria hindering reintroduction of traditional practices were identified, and potentially useful but fragmented emerging local candidate practices are considered against these, as are recent practices in Japan. We propose that the cooperation of several stakeholders with various related government departments in China could lead to a portfolio of effective policy changes and should be studied further: to include new methods and uses of Lan River Mud; the integration of aquaculture, leisure and tourism industries with agriculture; and the production of organic produce with well-planned internet-linked sales, delivery and coordination mechanisms.

  11. Comparative study: Oral mucosal lesions, signs and symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients with end stage renal disease with analogous findings in diabetes mellitus patients with non-end stage renal disease

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    Balasubramani Senthil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to compare oral signs, symptoms and oral lesions type and prevalence, in end stage renal disease (ESRD with non-end stage renal disease (NESRD in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Methodology: Two groups of DM patients were studied, Group 1 includes 100 patients with ESRD, who were under hemodialysis therapy, and Group 2 includes100 patients with NESRD whose serum creatinine level is <2.0 mg/dl. The DM status and other laboratory investigations were recorded, with the patients consent and thorough oral examination was performed and the findings were recorded. All the data were entered into Microsoft Excel sheets. Statistical analysis including Pearson's correlation analysis, Chi-square test, and t-test were done using SPSS software SYSTAT version 7.0. Results: On thorough clinical examination, the prevalence of oral lesions was found to be higher in ESRD patients. The most common lesions such as saburral tongue (P ≤ 0.002, petechiae/ecchymoses (P ≤ 0.000, pale mucosa (P ≤ 0.000, stomatitis medicamentosa (P ≤ 0.043 fissured tongue, smooth tongue, candidiasis, dry and fissured lips, angular cheilitis, uremic stomatitis, signs such as uremic fetor (P ≤ 0.000, xerostomia and symptoms like burning tongue, unpleasant taste are noted. Conclusion: The high prevalence of uremic fetor, saburral tongue, pale mucosa, and petechiae/ecchymoses in ESRD patient group can be considered as a possible sign of undiagnosed advanced stage of renal disease in other diabetic patients.

  12. Prevalence and early detection of oral fungal infection: a cross-sectional controlled study in a group of Swedish end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Royne; Neovius, Martin; Hylander, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of local oral fungal infection (OFI) minimize the risk of overgrowth and more serious complications such as invasive infections. Generalized fungal infection increases both morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. This study reports the prevalence of ongoing OFI in patients with ESRD and presents correlations with dental microbial plaque formation and mouth dryness. It also describes how oral fungal growth correlates with oral lesions associated with fungal infection. From March 2007 to October 2008, 93 ESRD patients and 45 age- and gender-matched controls were consecutively asked to participate in the study. In total, 34 patients were treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 59 with haemodialysis (HD). OFI was diagnosed by taking two smear layers from the buccal mucosa. The samples from each side of the mouth were stained with the periodic acid Schiff (PAS) method. The associations between histological findings, age, gender, type of dialysis treatment, tobacco habits, self-experienced mouth dryness, taste disturbances, dental plaque and gingivitis were investigated. The presence of erythematous oral stomatitis, membranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis was noted to clarify how the presence of fungal hyphae correlate with oral lesions associated with OFI. OFI was found in 32% of the ESRD patients and 11% of the controls (p=0.007). An extensive OFI, defined as frequent fungal hyphae formations in oral mucosal smear layers, was found in 3% of the PD and 17% of the HD patients. Oral lesions, defined as clinical signs associated with OFI such as erythematous oral stomatitis, membranous candidiasis or angular cheilitis, were found in 37% of the patients with OFI, while 5% of the patients without findings of fungal infection presented oral lesions associated with OFI (p=0.0002). Furthermore, patients with self-reported mouth dryness were three times more likely (p=0.02) to be diagnosed with OFI. ESRD patients

  13. Effects of co-habitation between Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic stages on life history traits

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    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective measures for the control of malaria and filariasis vectors can be achieved by targeting immature stages of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in productive habitat. To design this strategy, the mechanisms (like biotic interactions with conspecifc and heterospecific larvae regulating mosquito aquatic stages survivorship, development time and the size of emerging adults should be understood. This study explored the effect of co-habitation between An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus on different life history traits of both species under different densities and constant food supply in the habitats of the same size under semi-natural conditions. Methods Experiments were set up with three combinations; Cx. quinquefasciatus alone (single species treatment, An. gambiae s.s. alone (single species treatment; and An. gambiae s.s. with Cx. quiquefasciatus (co-habitation treatment in different densities in semi field situation. Results The effect of co-habitation of An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus was found to principally affect three parameters. The wing-lengths (a proxy measure of body size of An. gambiae s.s. in co-habitation treatments were significantly shorter in both females and males than in An. gambiae s.s single species treatments. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, no significant differences in wing-length were observed between the single species and co-habitation treatments. Daily survival rates were not significantly different between co-habitation and single species treatments for both An. gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Developmental time was found to be significantly different with single species treatments developing better than co-habitation treatments. Sex ratio was found to be significantly different from the proportion of 0.5 among single and co-habitation treatments species at different densities. Single species treatments had more males than females emerging while in co

  14. Comparison of health-related quality of life of patients with different precancer and oral cancer stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Majeed; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Madiha

    2015-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) informations are becoming an important tool for the treatment concept for cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the quality of life depends on the disease severity of pre- and oral cancer patients and which factors influence their quality of life. During this study, 106 patients with a premalignant oral lesion, 174 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC) as well as 21 patients with a recurrence of OSSC were asked about their oral health-related quality of life. Additionally, the UW-QOLv4 was used to record the psychological and clinical symptoms from which the patients of the three groups are suffering. Significant differences with respect to oral HR-QoL of life between the groups could be evaluated. Patients with a recurrence have the lowest and patients with precancer the highest HR-QoL. Within the groups, there is a difference regarding the significance of the psychological factors. The lowest values were achieved for mood within all three groups. Anxiety is of key importance for the precancer group whereas appearance and activity are of importance for the patients having a tumor. The patients of the recurrence group are heavily affected by all factors. The quality of life differs depending on the disease. The patients of the recurrence group have the lowest oral health-related quality of life for all aspects analyzed, and they are suffering the most with respect to the psychological dimensions of the UW-QOLv4. The present study examined the quality of life depending on the severity of the disease of pre- and oral cancer patients and which factors significantly influenced their quality of life. The evaluated findings of relevant variables may have therapeutic relevance for the multidisciplinary treatment of oral cancer patients in the future.

  15. Can neck irradiation be an alternative to neck dissection in early stage carcinoma oral tongue operated for primary alone? Experience from a single institute

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    Sushmita Ghoshal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study pattern of failure, locoregional control rates (LCR and disease free survival (DFS in post-operative patients of carcinoma oral tongue, and to study the impact of nodal dissection on DFS in stage I and II patients.Methods: 102 patients of carcinoma oral tongue treated between January 2009 and December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were operated for primary disease, but neck dissection was done in 78 (76.5% patients only. However, radiation to primary site along with neck region was received by all patients. Pattern of failure, LCR and DFS were estimated.Results: At median follow up of 12 months, 10.8% patients failed locally, 10.8% in nodal region, 2.9% both at local and nodal site, and 5.9% patients failed distally. 2 year LCR and DFS was 71.2%, 90.9%, 79.5%, 0% and 55.2%, 64.4%, 57.8%, 0% in stage I, II, III, IV respectively. 2 year DFS in stage I patients, who underwent nodal dissection and post-operative radiation (14 patients was 64.3% and in whom only neck irradiation was done (15 patients, it was 45.8%, however difference was not significant (p = 0.5. But in stage II patients, 33 patients who underwent nodal dissection and post-operative radiation, 2 year DFS was 85.4% and it was 21.4% in 7 patients who underwent neck radiation only, and difference showed trend towards significance (p = 0.05. 2 or more positive lymph nodes post dissection was the only poor prognostic factor that correlated with DFS (p = 0.02Conclusion: While in stage I, neck irradiation alone can be a possible alternative to neck dissection and post-operative radiation; for stage II, neck dissection is mandatory.

  16. Oral History (in Samoan)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interviews with elder fishermen in American Samoa regarding changes in marine resource use and condition over time, local and traditional fishing and resource...

  17. A comparative study on efficacy of different treatment modalities of oral submucous fibrosis evaluated by clinical staging in population of Southern Rajasthan

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    Saurabh Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the efficacy of oral lycopene and injection betamethasone with control group in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Materials and Methods: A hospital based longitudinal study, conducted on 270 patients over a period of 2 years (September 2010-September 2012. Results: Out of 270 cases 223 (82.59% were males and 47 (17.40% were females which showed a male predominance and the ratio was 5:1. In stage I it was found that both the test groups, i.e., injection betamethasone and capsule lycopene had a significant improvement in mouth opening than control group. In stage II, it was found that the test group injection betamethasone showed 24 better results as compared to capsule lycopene this could be because of better accessibility of the fibrotic bands for injecting betamethasone solution at the site of the lesion and showed highly significant difference (P < 0.0001. In stage III, it was found that the capsule lycopene showed better results as compared to injection betamethasone and the difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001. This could be because of restricted mouth opening and inability to reach the site for injecting betamethasone solution. Conclusion: It is evident from the study that capsule lycopene and injection betamethasone hold good promise in the treatment of this multifactorial crippling disease.

  18. Predictive Value of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF andLaminin-5 for Clinicopathologic Oral squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC Staging and Grading in Lranian Population

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    Shima Nafarzadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC constitutes the main oral malignancy.Parallel to better understanding of molecular and genetic patterns of tumor behavior, more precise correlation of tumor markers such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF and Laminin-5 are sought to estimate macroscopic and microscopic tumor status.Methods:We conducted a cross-sectional study collecting oral SCC samples during 2006-2007 from Pathology Department of Shahid Beheshti Dental School. Mmunohistochemical staining with antibodies against EGFR and laminin-5 along with staining degree were reported by two experienced pathologist including degree of staining (low, medium , high, and pathological grading and clinical staging obtained from medical records .   Results: Forty two patients' paraffin blocks of SCC examined with mean age 58( 18.72 yrs ranged between 21-88, female to male ratio of 1.33:1 was observed. The study analyses revealed a significant correlation between the expression of laminin-5 with tumor stage and grade (P< 0.001 r=0.547 and r=0.545 respectively, yet no significant correlation between expression of EGFR and tumor stage or grade (P=0.894 r=-0.018 and P=0.543 r=0.86 respectively. Considering high degree of staining and stage IV; sensitivity, specifity ,positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPVof 44%, 54%, 44% and 78% calculated for ERGF and 55%, 78%,58% and 86% for laminin-5 respectively.Considering high degree of staining and grade 3;sensitivity,specifity,positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of 57%, 57%,17% and 86% calculated for EGFR and 85%, %82, 50% and 96% for Laminin-5 espectively.Conclusion: We concluded that laminin-5 has a better prediction for developing higher tumor stage or grade but further research needed for identifying the precise role of EGFR.

  19. Oral cancer trends in a single head-and-neck cancer center in the Netherlands; decline in T-stage at the time of admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Manon; Leemans, C René; Aartman, Irene H; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; van der Waal, Isaäc

    2011-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the possible epidemiologic changes of oral cancer patients in the Netherlands between the years 1980-1984 and 2000-2004. We specifically studied the differences in male-female ratio, age, TNM-stage, site distribution, and alcohol and tobacco use. Patients from the VU University Medical Center with an oral squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity registered in 1980-1984 (n=200), group 1, were compared to patients registered in 2000-2004 (n=184), group 2. Trends in prevalence, site distribution, TNM-stage, alcohol and tobacco use, age and gender were studied. The male-female ratio has decreased from 1.8 to 1.2. There were no differences in age between the two groups of patients. The site distribution was similar in both groups. The most commonly involved sites were the tongue and the floor of mouth. In group 2 more patients were diagnosed with a T1 tumour. There were no differences in tobacco use between the two different groups. There were much more light drinkers (0-2 drinks per day) in group 2 than in group 1, whereas there were more heavy drinkers (>4 per day) in group 1 than in group 2 (p<0.001). This was observed in both male and female patients. In our study there were no significant differences between the patients registered in the years 1980-1984 and 2000-2004 regarding the mean age of the patients, site distribution and smoking habits. The male-female ratio has decreased. In the recent group more patients were staged T1N0 and there was a strong decrease of the patients who were heavy drinkers.

  20. Stage-Specific Changes in Physiological and Life-History Responses to Elevated Temperature and Pco2 during the Larval Development of the European Lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Daniel P; Calosi, Piero; Boothroyd, Dominic; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John I

    2015-01-01

    An organism's physiological processes form the link between its life-history traits and the prevailing environmental conditions, especially in species with complex life cycles. Understanding how these processes respond to changing environmental conditions, thereby affecting organismal development, is critical if we are to predict the biological implications of current and future global climate change. However, much of our knowledge is derived from adults or single developmental stages. Consequently, we investigated the metabolic rate, organic content, carapace mineralization, growth, and survival across each larval stage of the European lobster Homarus gammarus, reared under current and predicted future ocean warming and acidification scenarios. Larvae exhibited stage-specific changes in the temperature sensitivity of their metabolic rate. Elevated Pco2 increased C∶N ratios and interacted with elevated temperature to affect carapace mineralization. These changes were linked to concomitant changes in survivorship and growth, from which it was concluded that bottlenecks were evident during H. gammarus larval development in stages I and IV, the transition phases between the embryonic and pelagic larval stages and between the larval and megalopa stages, respectively. We therefore suggest that natural changes in optimum temperature during ontogeny will be key to larvae survival in a future warmer ocean. The interactions of these natural changes with elevated temperature and Pco2 significantly alter physiological condition and body size of the last larval stage before the transition from a planktonic to a benthic life style. Thus, living and growing in warm, hypercapnic waters could compromise larval lobster growth, development, and recruitment.

  1. Description of immature stages of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with notes on life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenhua Lu; Phetsamon Souphanya; Michael E. Montgomery

    2002-01-01

    We describe for the first time immature stages of the Scymnus subgenus Neopullus; namely the egg, larval (4 instars), and pupal stages of Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu and Yao (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), which is indigenous to China. This lady beetle was imported to...

  2. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Early Life-History Stages and Settlement of the Coral-Eating Sea Star Acanthaster planci

    OpenAIRE

    Uthicke, Sven; Pecorino, Danilo; Albright, Rebecca; Negri, Andrew Peter; Cantin, Neal; Liddy, Michelle; Dworjanyn, Symon; Kamya, Pamela; Byrne, Maria; Lamare, Miles

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motil...

  3. Historial oral y memoria de los enfermos de Hansen en dos lazaretos de Colombia: trayectorias de vida, conflictos y resistencias

    OpenAIRE

    Botero-Jaramillo, Natalia; Mora-Blanco, Jessica; Quesada-Jiménez, Nelson Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Resumen Investiga la historia oral de la enfermedad de Hansen en dos comunidades de Colombia que fueron hasta 1961 lazaretos. La historia oral en torno de la enfermedad ha permitido conjugar la memoria individual con la memoria colectiva. Esta historia ha quedado en la oralidad y pocos trabajos académicos la han recopilado. Utilizamos la historia oral como método de investigación cualitativo, para analizar cómo enfermos y convivientes se posicionan ante la enfermedad y cómo atraviesa toda su ...

  4. Pharmacology of DB844, an orally active aza analogue of pafuramidine, in a monkey model of second stage human African trypanosomiasis.

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    John K Thuita

    Full Text Available Novel drugs to treat human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are still urgently needed despite the recent addition of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT to WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines against second stage HAT, where parasites have invaded the central nervous system (CNS. The pharmacology of a potential orally available lead compound, N-methoxy-6-{5-[4-(N-methoxyamidino phenyl]-furan-2-yl}-nicotinamidine (DB844, was evaluated in a vervet monkey model of second stage HAT, following promising results in mice. DB844 was administered orally to vervet monkeys, beginning 28 days post infection (DPI with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense KETRI 2537. DB844 was absorbed and converted to the active metabolite 6-[5-(4-phenylamidinophenyl-furanyl-2-yl]-nicotinamide (DB820, exhibiting plasma C(max values of 430 and 190 nM for DB844 and DB820, respectively, after the 14th dose at 6 mg/kg qd. A 100-fold reduction in blood trypanosome counts was observed within 24 h of the third dose and, at the end of treatment evaluation performed four days post the last drug dose, trypanosomes were not detected in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid of any monkey. However, some animals relapsed during the 300 days of post treatment monitoring, resulting in a cure rate of 3/8 (37.5% and 3/7 (42.9% for the 5 mg/kg×10 days and the 6 mg/kg×14 days dose regimens respectively. These DB844 efficacy data were an improvement compared with pentamidine and pafuramidine both of which were previously shown to be non-curative in this model of CNS stage HAT. These data show that synthesis of novel diamidines with improved activity against CNS-stage HAT was possible.

  5. Pharmacology of DB844, an Orally Active aza Analogue of Pafuramidine, in a Monkey Model of Second Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuita, John K.; Wang, Michael Z.; Kagira, John M.; Denton, Cathrine L.; Paine, Mary F.; Mdachi, Raymond E.; Murilla, Grace A.; Ching, Shelley; Boykin, David W.; Tidwell, Richard R.; Hall, James E.; Brun, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Novel drugs to treat human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are still urgently needed despite the recent addition of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT) to WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines against second stage HAT, where parasites have invaded the central nervous system (CNS). The pharmacology of a potential orally available lead compound, N-methoxy-6-{5-[4-(N-methoxyamidino) phenyl]-furan-2-yl}-nicotinamidine (DB844), was evaluated in a vervet monkey model of second stage HAT, following promising results in mice. DB844 was administered orally to vervet monkeys, beginning 28 days post infection (DPI) with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense KETRI 2537. DB844 was absorbed and converted to the active metabolite 6-[5-(4-phenylamidinophenyl)-furanyl-2-yl]-nicotinamide (DB820), exhibiting plasma Cmax values of 430 and 190 nM for DB844 and DB820, respectively, after the 14th dose at 6 mg/kg qd. A 100-fold reduction in blood trypanosome counts was observed within 24 h of the third dose and, at the end of treatment evaluation performed four days post the last drug dose, trypanosomes were not detected in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid of any monkey. However, some animals relapsed during the 300 days of post treatment monitoring, resulting in a cure rate of 3/8 (37.5%) and 3/7 (42.9%) for the 5 mg/kg×10 days and the 6 mg/kg×14 days dose regimens respectively. These DB844 efficacy data were an improvement compared with pentamidine and pafuramidine both of which were previously shown to be non-curative in this model of CNS stage HAT. These data show that synthesis of novel diamidines with improved activity against CNS-stage HAT was possible. PMID:22848769

  6. Oral Cancer around Dental Implants Appearing in Patients with\\without a History of Oral or Systemic Malignancy: a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ginnady Pinchasov; Haim Haimov; Monika Druseikaite; Daniel Pinchasov; Inesa Astramskaite; Rafael Sarikov; Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this article is to systematically review the circumstance of oral cancer around osseointegrated dental implants. Material and Methods An electronic literature search was conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE databases. The search was restricted for articles published during the last 21 years from January 1996 to April 2017 and articles were limited to English language. Results A total of 35 articles were reviewed, and 19 of the most relevant arti...

  7. Transition of historial tube flaps to free flap for 2-stage total knee arthroplasty in a patient with a history of Gustilo grade IIIB tibia fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sean A; Doren, Erin L; Dayicioglu, Deniz; Bernasek, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old patient who had posttraumatic bilateral knee arthritis and underwent sequential bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The left knee joint required 2-stage reconstruction: a free flap for enhanced soft-tissue coverage and then left knee TKA. Uniquely, at age 16 years this patient sustained a left tibia grade IIIB high-energy crush injury in a car crash and underwent reconstruction with multiple pedicle tube flaps and transfer of soft tissues. Most of that reconstruction was done between the ages of 16 and 19. At age 56 years, staged TKA was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a knee reconstructed with pedicle tube flaps for a grade IIIB tibial fracture, followed years later by free-flap coverage before TKA. This report offers insights and treatment recommendations through long-term follow-up of a unique case and a historical perspective on how reconstructive options have evolved.

  8. Oral Anticoagulants to Prevent Stroke in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With CKD Stage 5D: An NKF-KDOQI Controversies Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vinod K; Herzog, Charles A; Sarnak, Mark J; Choi, Michael J; Mehta, Ravindra; Jaar, Bernard G; Rocco, Michael V; Kramer, Holly

    2017-12-01

    Stroke risk may be more than 3-fold higher among patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5D (CKD-5D) compared to the general population, with the highest stroke rates noted among those 85 years and older. Atrial fibrillation (AF), a strong risk factor for stroke, is the most common arrhythmia and affects >7% of the population with CKD-5D. Warfarin use is widely acknowledged as an important intervention for stroke prevention with nonvalvular AF in the general population. However, use of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with CKD-5D and nonvalvular AF continues to be debated by the nephrology community. In this National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) controversies report, we discuss the existing observational studies that examine warfarin use and associated stroke and bleeding risks in adults with CKD-5D and AF. Non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants and their potential use for stroke prevention in patients with CKD-5D and nonvalvular AF are also discussed. Data from randomized clinical trials are urgently needed to determine the benefits and risks of oral anticoagulant use for stroke prevention in the setting of AF among patients with CKD-5D. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Smit, Egbert F; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Paul, Marinus A; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), (n-3) fatty acids from fish oil, have immune-modulating effects and may improve nutritional status in cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing multimodality treatment. In a double-blind experiment, 40 patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 2 cans/d of a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids (2.0 g EPA + 0.9 g DHA/d) or an isocaloric control supplement. EPA in plasma phospholipids, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), body weight, fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and inflammatory markers were assessed. Effects of intervention were analyzed by generalized estimating equations and expressed as regression coefficients (B). The intervention group (I) had a better weight maintenance than the control (C) group after 2 and 4 wk (B = 1.3 and 1.7 kg, respectively; P oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids beneficially affects nutritional status during multimodality treatment in patients with NSCLC.

  10. [A case of stage IV rectal cancer with whom EPA oral nutritional supplements could resolve cachectic condition and promote patient compliance with cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Kenji; Nakaya, Maki; Nakagawa, Mio; Miyazaki, Mitsukazu; Miki, Chikao

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of a Stage IV rectal cancer patient for whom EPA oral nutritional supplements promoted treatment compliance with cancer chemotherapy by resolving a refractory cachectic condition. A 76-year-old male who developed a local re-growth of residual disease and multiple lung metastases after abdomino-perineal resection for lower rectal cancer was referred to our clinic for chemotherapy. On admission, he suffered from a loss of appetite as well as a 30% loss of usual body weight, caused by a cachectic condition with systemic inflammatory response. On starting chemotherapy, his daily diet was supplemented with EPA containing oral nutritional supplements (EPA ONS). Within 2 weeks after initiating EPA ONS treatment, the systemic inflammatory response resolved, and at the same time, body weight and the serum level of albumin increased, which allowed treatment compliance with aggressive multidrug chemotherapy. The patient gained 10 kg in body weight even after 12 months of aggressive chemotherapy, and has attained a longstanding partial remission from the disease. Although cancer cachexia is generally regarded as an end-stage irreversible pathological condition, EPA ONS may promote patient compliance with cancer chemotherapy by resolving cachectic condition, and thus may improve survival.

  11. Oral Magnesium Supplementation in Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3 and 4: Efficacy, Safety, and Effect on Serum Calcification Propensity—A Prospective Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Bressendorff

    2017-05-01

    Discussion: Oral Mg supplementation was safe and well tolerated in CKD stages 3 and 4 and improved T50, but did not increase intracellular Mg. Further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of Mg supplementation in CKD stage 3 and 4 and whether improvement in calcification propensity is related to clinical endpoints.

  12. A phase II study of cisplatin, oral administration of etoposide, OK-432 and radiation therapy for inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yoshinao [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine; Takahashi, Jutaro; Fukuda, Hiroshi [and others

    1998-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficiency of giving cisplatin, etoposide, and OK-432 concurrently with conventional radiotherapy (RTx) for patient`s with inoperable stage III, based on the TNM classification according to the International Union against Cancer staging system for lung cancer (1987) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From January 1992 to December 1994, 31 patients with cytologically or histologically confirmed stage III NSCLC were treated with RTx, to a total dose of 56-64 Gy, with concurrent daily oral administration of etoposide (25 mg) and cisplatin (20 mg) for 5 days during the third or fourth week from the start of RTx. The subcutaneous injection of 1 or 2 KE of OK-432, three times a week, for the duration of radiotherapy also started from the beginning of RTx. The number of eligible patients was 29 (26 men and 3 women). Their mean age was 66 years (range, 55-77 years). Six patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) of 0; 15, 1; 8; 2. Three were stage IIIA, and 26, stage IIIB. Histologically, 2 had adenocarcinoma, 23, squamous cell carcinoma, and 4, large cell carcinoma. In 27 of the 29 patients, the RTx schedule was completed. There were no treatment-related deaths. Grade 4 toxicity (according to World Health Organisation criteria) leukopenia (700/{mu}l) was observed in 1 patient. The response rate was 79% and the median survival was 17 months. Survival rates at 1, 2 and 3 years were 62%, 31%, and 21%, respectively. The local failure rate was 51%. The combination of cisplatin, etoposide, and OK-432, given concurrently with conventional RTx is feasible and effective for inoperable stage III NSCLC. (author)

  13. Managing oral phosphate binder medication expenditures within the Medicare bundled end-stage renal disease prospective payment system: economic implications for large U.S. dialysis organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haesuk; Rascati, Karen L; Keith, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    From January 2016, payment for oral-only renal medications (including phosphate binders and cinacalcet) was expected to be included in the new Medicare bundled end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS). The implementation of the ESRD PPS has generated concern within the nephrology community because of the potential for inadequate funding and the impact on patient quality of care. To estimate the potential economic impact of the new Medicare bundled ESRD PPS reimbursement from the perspective of a large dialysis organization in the United States. We developed an interactive budget impact model to evaluate the potential economic implications of Medicare payment changes to large dialysis organizations treating patients with ESRD who are receiving phosphate binders. In this analysis, we focused on the budget impact of the intended 2016 integration of oral renal drugs, specifically oral phosphate binders, into the PPS. We also utilized the model to explore the budgetary impact of a variety of potential shifts in phosphate binder market shares under the bundled PPS from 2013 to 2016. The base model predicts that phosphate binder costs will increase to $34.48 per dialysis session in 2016, with estimated U.S. total costs for phosphate binders of over $682 million. Based on these estimates, a projected Medicare PPS $33.44 reimbursement rate for coverage of all oral-only renal medications (i.e., phosphate binders and cinacalcet) would be insufficient to cover these costs. A potential renal drugs and services budget shortfall for large dialysis organizations of almost $346 million was projected. Our findings suggest that large dialysis organizations will be challenged to manage phosphate binder expenditures within the planned Medicare bundled rate structure. As a result, large dialysis organizations may have to make treatment choices in light of potential inadequate funding, which could have important implications for the quality of care for patients

  14. Incidence of bifid uvula and its relationship to submucous cleft palate and a family history of oral cleft in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Sizina Aguiar G; Santos, Maria Luiza; Machado, Renato Assis; Dias, Verônica Oliveira; Nascimento, Jairo Evangelista; Swerts, Mario Sérgio Oliveira; Júnior, Hercílio Martelli; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa

    2017-08-24

    Bifid uvula is a frequently observed anomaly in the general population and can be regarded as a marker for submucous cleft palate. In this study aimed to determine the frequency of bifid uvula and submucous cleft palate and their relationship with oral clefts in a Brazilian population. We conducted a transversal, descriptive and quantitative study of 1206 children between August 2014 and December 2015. A clinical examination of the children was conducted by means of inspection of the oral cavity with the aid of a tongue depressor and directed light. After the clinical examination in children, parents answered a questionnaire with questions about basic demographic information and their family history of oral clefts in their first-degree relatives. After application of the questionnaires, the information collected was archived in a database and analyzed by the statistical program SPSS ® version 19.0, by applying Chi-Square tests. Values with pcleft palate was not found in any child. When the family histories of children were examined for the presence of nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate, no first degree relatives presented with the congenital anomaly. This study revealed that the incidence of bifid uvula and submucous cleft palate in this population was quite similar to previously reported incidence rates. Our study suggests an intensification of new reviews, with broader and diverse populations, seeking to associate the occurrence of bifid uvula, submucous cleft palate and oral clefts. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. HANDBOOK FOR CONDUCTING ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS RELATED TO TRIBAL AND INDIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND CLEANUP OF THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristann Gibson; Mervyn L. Tano; Albert Wing

    1999-08-31

    There were three major projects undertaken at the outset of the DOE/EM 22 Cooperative Agreement back in September 1995. There was a project relating to Tribal oral histories. Another project of the Cooperative Agreement related to technology and Tribal values and needs. This project by analogy could apply to issues of technology, environmental cleanup and other indigenous peoples internationally. How can Indian Tribes participate in defining the need for technology development rather than merely learning to adapt themselves and their situations and values to technology developed by others with differing needs, values and economic resources? And the third project was the placement of a Tribal intern in EM-22.

  16. O Brave New World, without Those Levels In't: Where Now for Key Stage 3 Assessment in History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although history teachers have long been frustrated by the limitations of the National Curriculum Attainment Target and by demands to use it for purposes for which it was never intended, its official abolition has come as quite a shock. As Michael Fordham makes clear, we now have an unparalleled opportunity to rethink the way in which we assess…

  17. Historial oral y memoria de los enfermos de Hansen en dos lazaretos de Colombia: trayectorias de vida, conflictos y resistencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Botero-Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Resumen Investiga la historia oral de la enfermedad de Hansen en dos comunidades de Colombia que fueron hasta 1961 lazaretos. La historia oral en torno de la enfermedad ha permitido conjugar la memoria individual con la memoria colectiva. Esta historia ha quedado en la oralidad y pocos trabajos académicos la han recopilado. Utilizamos la historia oral como método de investigación cualitativo, para analizar cómo enfermos y convivientes se posicionan ante la enfermedad y cómo atraviesa toda su existencia, resignificando los conceptos de salud y enfermedad, de normalidad y anormalidad, y cómo en sus trayectorias de vida emprendieron estrategias de resistencia que les permitiera aproximarse a la normalidad, desde sus propias significaciones socioculturales.

  18. ESENCIA Y PRÁCTICA DE LA HISTORIA ORAL ESSÊNCIA E PRÁTICA DA HISTÓRIA ORAL ESSENCE AND PRACTICE OF ORAL HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5965/2175180304012012061 Este artículo/conferencia discute la relación entre historia, historia oral, y la historia del presente. Postula que escisión entre estas no es fija sino que se articulan entre sí hasta el punto que sus fronteras se desdibujan. Asimismo, a partir de plantear a la historia oral como una subrama de la ciencia histórica, se discute si las particularidades latinoamericanas pueden significar que existe una historia oral propiamente “latinoamericana”...

  19. Clinical Outcomes and History of Fall in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Oral Anticoagulation: Insights From the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meena P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Granger, Christopher B

    2018-03-01

    We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban vs warfarin are consistent in this population. Of the 18,201 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study, 16,491 had information about history of falling-753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. When compared with patients without a history of falling, patients with a history of falling were older, more likely to be female and to have dementia, cerebrovascular disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, fractures, and higher CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke or TIA or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category female) and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal and liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs or alcohol) scores. Patients with a history of falling had higher rates of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.84; P = .020), including intracranial bleeding (adjusted HR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .044) and death (adjusted HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.14; P < .0001), but similar rates of stroke or systemic embolism and hemorrhagic stroke. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban compared with warfarin on any outcome, regardless of history of falling. Among those with a history of falling, subdural bleeding occurred in 5 of 367 patients treated with warfarin and 0 of 386 treated with apixaban. Patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling receiving anticoagulation have a higher risk of major bleeding, including intracranial, and death. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared

  20. Oral contraceptives, reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tsilidis, KK; Allen, NE; Key, TJ; Bakken, K; Lund, E; Berrino, F; Fournier, A; Olsen, A; Tjonneland, A; Overvad, K; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Byrnes, G; Chajes, V; Rinaldi, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors may initiate long-term changes to the hormonal milieu and thereby, possibly influence colorectal cancer risk. Methods: We examined the association of hormonal and reproductive factors with risk of colorectal cancer among 337?802 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, of whom 1878 developed colorectal cancer. Results: After stratification for center and age, and adjustment for body mass index, smoki...

  1. Cost effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and a history of criminal justice involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muser, Erik; Kozma, Chris M; Benson, Carmela J; Mao, Lian; Starr, H Lynn; Alphs, Larry; Fastenau, John

    2015-01-01

    Conduct a cost effectiveness analysis for the Paliperidone palmitate Research In Demonstrating Effectiveness (PRIDE) trial. PRIDE was a 15 month, prospective, randomized, open-label study in which once monthly paliperidone palmitate significantly delayed the time to first treatment failure (healthcare or criminal justice system [HC/CJS] events) versus oral antipsychotics in recently incarcerated adults with schizophrenia. The present analysis used a state government perspective and HC/CJS event data that were collected on a resource use questionnaire (RUQ) every 3 months. Since cost information was not collected in the trial, cost estimates from published literature and an analysis of multistate Medicaid data for CJS and HC events, respectively, were applied to RUQ event data. Effectiveness and costs were adjusted to 456 days (trial duration). Incremental cost effectiveness was calculated as the adjusted cost difference divided by the adjusted effectiveness difference. Adjusted costs (in US dollars) in the paliperidone palmitate group (n = 198) and the oral antipsychotic group (n = 193), respectively, were: non-drug costs $22,331 and $25,027; drug costs $18,592 and $7833; and total costs $40,923 and $32,860. Adjusted effectiveness differences and corresponding incremental cost effectiveness per event avoided (in parentheses) for paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotics were as follows: 0.33 fewer CJS events ($24,409), 0.13 fewer psychiatric hospitalizations ($60,484), 0.46 fewer psychiatric hospitalizations or CJS events combined ($17,391), and 0.30 fewer incarcerations ($26,754). Costs for HC/CJS events avoided offset 25% of the greater drug cost for the paliperidone palmitate versus oral antipsychotic treatment group in this vulnerable population. Use of a recall-dependent RUQ for event rates and cost estimates instead of actual costs are potential limitations and may make the results conservative from a state government perspective. Indirect

  2. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Robert Edmund Rowland, Ph.D., January 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides a transcript of an oral interview with Dr. Robert Edmund Rowland by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research on January 27, 1995. Dr. Rowland was involved with the study of radium in the human body since 1950 and relates his knowledge of over 40 years of study of radium in the human body including dial painters, inmates of Elgin State Hospital, and other treated therapeutically with radium

  3. FIGO Stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: natural history, treatment results, and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifel, Patricia J.; Logsdon, Mark D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To define patient, tumor, and treatment factors that influence the outcome of patients with FIGO Stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the intact uterine cervix. Materials and Methods: The hospital and radiotherapy records of 1007 consecutive patients treated between 1960 and 1989 for FIGO Stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the intact uterine cervix were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were treated with radiation therapy (RT) either with curative intent (903 patients) or to palliate symptoms (104 patients). Patients who were selected for palliative treatment usually had a combination of adverse characteristics including massive tumor with bilateral pelvic wall fixation, hydronephrosis, bulky adenopathy, pathologic evidence of extrapelvic disease, and poor performance status. 64 (7%) of 903 patients failed to complete planned curative RT either because of progressive disease, complications, or poor compliance. Of 903 patients treated with curative intent, 319 (35%) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone and 586 (65%) were treated with a combination of EBRT and intracavitary irradiation (ICRT). EBRT was usually delivered using 18-25 MV photons and ICRT was administered with Fletcher-Suit-Delclos applicators. Treatment philosophies evolved during the study period with greater emphasis placed on EBRT between 1966 and 1979 (52% treated with EBRT alone) compared with the other study years (15% treated with EBRT alone). 206 patients received investigational treatments including neutrons (69 pts), hyperbaric oxygen (66 pts), concurrent chemotherapy (29 pts), or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (42 pts). 875 patients have been followed until death. Median follow up for surviving patients is 171 months with only 9 surviving patients followed for 10%, or hgb < 10 gm% before treatment or at any time during radiotherapy. DSS was significantly better for patients whose treatment included ICRT (43% vs 21%; P< 0.0001). Also, patients who received

  4. Bringing Black History Home: Oral Sketches of the Black Experience from Africa to Montgomery to Bedford-Stuyvesant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Richard

    This guide describes how to implement an interdisciplinary black history project designed to explore black experiences through a combination of personal anecdotes and text research. The program was designed by a teacher at Satellite East Junior High School in Brooklyn (New York). An introduction gives an overview of the structure and aims of the…

  5. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eNunez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins, mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC nucleus (contributing to wakefulness and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO nucleus (contributing to REM sleepAnatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  6. Egg Cannibalism and its Life History Consequences Vary with Life Stage, Sex, and Reproductive Status in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Michaud, J P

    2015-08-01

    Egg cannibalism is common in Coccinellidae, but its biological consequences have not been fully explored. We examined egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instars, and adults of Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville for effects on development, reproduction, and progeny fitness. We also tested female adults for ability to avoid cannibalizing their own eggs and first-instar larvae, and both sexes for changes in cannibalism propensity following mating, all in the presence of ad libitum food [larvae: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults: Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)]. Cannibalism by neonates reduced developmental time and increased male body size. Cannibalism in the fourth instar accelerated pupation and led to the production of eggs that hatched faster, regardless of which parent cannibalized. However, egg fertility was improved only by maternal cannibalism in the fourth instar. Females recognized their own egg clusters, sometimes added eggs to them, and preferentially cannibalized nonfilial clusters. Most gravid females cannibalized a first-instar larva within 30 min, whether filial or not. Adult egg cannibalism was similar for virgin males and females, but declined after mating in males, and increased in females, although it had no effect on fecundity or fertility. Daughters of cannibal pairs were heavier than those of other mating combinations, but offspring of noncannibal parents had the fastest development. Reproductive females appeared to use egg cannibalism to reduce risk for their own eggs, increasing the number cannibalized with the number laid. Thus, egg cannibalism in coccinellids varies with life stage, sex, and reproductive condition, independent of food availability, and benefits are life stage specific. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Geographies of displacement: Latina/os, oral history, and the politics of gentrification in San Francisco's Mission District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal, Nancy Raquel

    2009-05-01

    During the 1990s and early 2000s, working-class and poor neighborhoods in San Francisco underwent dramatic economic and racial changes. One of the most heavily gentrified neighborhoods was the Mission District. As a result of local politics, housing and rental policies, real estate speculation, and development, thousands of Latina/o families were displaced. Using oral historical and ethnographic methodologies, print media, archival sources, and policy papers, this article traces the gentrification of the Mission District from the perspective of the Latina/o community. It also examines how gentrification was articulated as a positive turn within the larger public discourse on space and access.

  8. Ultrastructure observation on the cells at different life history stages of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Ni, Bing; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Yin, Fei; Gu, Fukang

    2016-09-01

    Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium-palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts.

  9. Modeling the effects of climate on date palm scale ( Parlatoria blanchardi) population dynamics during different phenological stages of life history under hot arid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idder-Ighili, Hakima; Idder, Mohamed Azzedine; Doumandji-Mitiche, Bahia; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2015-10-01

    The date palm scale (DPS) Parlatoria blanchardi is a serious pest due to the damage it inflicts on its host tree ( Phoenix dactylifera). To develop an effective control against DPS in arid regions, it is essential to know its bio-ecology including population dynamics and climatic factors influencing the duration and timing of life history and also the densities of different phenological stages (crawlers, first and second instars nymphs, adult males, and adult females). Monitoring of biological cycle and population dynamics of the pest were achieved through weekly counts of DPS densities on leaflets sampled at different position of date palm trees in an oasis of Ouargla region (Algerian Sahara Desert). Within this hyper-arid region, DPS established four generations per year, the most important was the spring generation. Two overlapping generations occurred in spring-early summer and two in autumn-early winter; these two pairs of generations were interspersed by two phases of high-mortality rates, the first corresponds to winter cold and the second refers to the extreme heat of summer. Statistical analysis of the effects of the studied climatic conditions (minimum, maximum and mean temperatures, precipitation, humidity, wind, rain days, and climatic indices) on the DPS densities at different phenological stages showed great variability from one stage to another. Among these, adult females were the most affected by climate factors. For the total DPS population, high values of minimum temperatures negatively affected population density, while high maximum temperatures, hygrometry, and De Martonne aridity index showed a positive influence.

  10. The People of Bear Hunter Speak: Oral Histories of the Cache Valley Shoshones Regarding the Bear River Massacre

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Aaron L.

    2007-01-01

    The Cache Valley Shoshone are the survivors of the Bear River Massacre, where a battle between a group of US. volunteer troops from California and a Shoshone village degenerated into the worst Indian massacre in US. history, resulting in the deaths of over 200 Shoshones. The massacre occurred due to increasing tensions over land use between the Shoshones and the Mormon settlers. Following the massacre, the Shoshones attempted settling in several different locations in Box Elder County, eventu...

  11. Mortality of the earthworms, Eisenia foetida, after gamma-irradiation at different stages of their life history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Jun; Egami, Nobuo

    1983-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, were investigated by means of mortality, growth inhibition and hatchability of the eggs. Adult earthworms were resistant to 137 Cs γ-irradiation, LD 50 (30 days) value being about 65 kR. Young earthworms were less resistant than adult ones. Their growth was completely inhibited by 10 kR of γ-irradiation, but 2 kR did not affect them at all. Embryos at early developmental stages showed high mortality by γ-irradiation and as development proceeded their resistance to irradiation increased. Mature earthworms were irradiated and the hatchability of the cocoons laid by them after irradiation was examined. Hatchability of the cocoons laid within 5 days after irradiation with 2 kR was scarcely affected. Then the hatchability decreased with the interval between irradiation and laying, and reached lowest level 20 days after irradiation. From 20 days after irradiation, it started to recover and reached the control level 30 days after irradiation. (author)

  12. The role of lymphoscintigraphy, sentinel mode biopsy and positron emission tomography in the staging of the neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Nicholas Charles

    This thesis explores the limitations of current imaging modalities in the evaluation of the clinically node negative (N0) neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma and evaluates the utility of two new interventions. It will become evident that the use of clinical parameters and conventional imaging to detect clinically occult cervical lymph node metastases is an imprecise science. The presence of metastases in the neck is the single most important determinant of survival. Hitherto the lack of timely intervention in this regard may have been contributory in amplifying their effect upon survival. There is an obvious requirement for a more accurate technique to stage the neck in this patient group. Therefore the application of lymphoscintigraphy in combination with sentinel node biopsy (SNB), and positron emission tomography (PET) have been investigated. It appears that PET, whilst having a number of useful roles in the generic head and neck oncology patient, has little to contribute in the diagnosis of occult neck disease. In contra-distinction lymphoscintigraphy and SNB are not only feasible in the diagnosis of occult metastases, but also enhance our knowledge of lymphatic drainage from the oral cavity. This has, in some circumstances, led to the modification of initially prescribed treatment plans. Such is the current pace of technological advance that over the course of this research an entirely new imaging modality has emerged - PET/CT. Whilst it has not been possible to apply this retrospectively to the original patient population early experience of this novel technique in head and neck malignancy is explored and reported. The results of these initial applications are encouraging.

  13. "Time enough! Or not enough time!" An oral history investigation of some British and Australian community nurses' responses to demands for "efficiency" in health care, 1960-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Christine E; Madsen, Wendy; Pateman, Brian; Bradshaw, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Oral history methodology was used to investigate the perspectives of retired British district nurses and Australian domiciliary nurses who had practiced between 1960 and 2000. Interviews yielded insights into the dramatic changes in community nursing practice during the last four decades of the 20th century. Massive changes in health care and government-led drives for greater efficiency meant moving from practice governed by "experiential time" (in which perception of time depends on the quality of experience) to practice governed by "measured time" (in which experience itself is molded by the measurement of time). Nurses recognized that the quality of their working lives and their relationships with families had been altered by the social, cultural, and political changes, including the drive for professional recognition in nursing itself, soaring economic costs of health care and push for deinstitutionalization of care. Community nurses faced several dilemmas as they grappled with the demands for efficiency created by these changes.

  14. Geochemical make-up of oceanic peridotites from NW Turkey and the multi-stage melting history of the Tethyan upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, A. Dündar; Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Dilek, Yildirim; Saka, Samet; Zaccarini, Federica; Escayola, Monica; Karslı, Orhan

    2014-02-01

    We present the whole-rock and the mineral chemical data for upper mantle peridotites from the Harmancık region in NW Turkey and discuss their petrogenetic-tectonic origin. These peridotites are part of a Tethyan ophiolite belt occurring along the İzmir-Ankara-Ercincan suture zone in northern Turkey, and include depleted lherzolites and refractory harzburgites. The Al2O3 contents in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the depleted lherzolite are high, and the Cr-number in the coexisting spinel is low falling within the abyssal field. However, the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgites have lower Al2O3 contents for a given Cr-number of spinel, and plot within the lower end of the abyssal field. The whole-rock geochemical and the mineral chemistry data imply that the Harmancık peridotites formed by different degrees of partial melting (~%10-27) of the mantle. The depleted lherzolite samples have higher MREE and HREE abundances than the harzburgitic peridotites, showing convex-downward patterns. These peridotites represent up to ~16 % melting residue that formed during the initial seafloor spreading stage of the Northern Neotethys. On the other hand, the more refractory harzburgites represent residues after ~4-11 % hydrous partial melting of the previously depleted MOR mantle, which was metasomatized by slab-derived fluids during the early stages of subduction. The Harmancık peridotites, hence, represent the fragments of upper mantle rocks that formed during different stages of the tectonic evolution of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in Northern Neotethys. We infer that the multi-stage melting history of the Harmancık peridotites reflect the geochemically heterogeneous character of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere currently exposed along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone.

  15. Effect of oral and transdermal hormone therapy on hyaluronic acid in women with and without a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Mikkola, Tomi S; Ropponen, Anne; Ylikorkala, Olavi

    2008-04-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy predisposes women to liver disorders years after affected pregnancy. We compared the basal levels and responses of hyaluronic acid, a marker of liver fibrosis, and liver transaminases to postmenopausal hormone therapy in women with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) a history of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Basal levels of hyaluronic acid were similar in both groups. Two weeks of oral estradiol 2.0 mg/day led to significant but similar (10.9% to 15.4%) rises in hyaluronic acid in both groups. Increasing the dose of oral estradiol to 4.0 mg/day resulted in normalization of the levels, whereas the addition of medroxyprogesterone acetate led to falls (11.0% to 10.7 %) in hyaluronic acid. Transdermal estradiol 50 microg led to a rise (3.2 %) in hyaluronic acid only in the control group. Other liver markers were normal at baseline and during hormone therapy. Normal basal levels and/or normal responses of hyaluronic acid and other liver markers to hormone therapy in women with previous intrahepatic cholestasis suggest that this therapy does not predispose these women to liver diseases.

  16. New evidence on oral L. plantarum P17630 product in women with history of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC): a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladareanu, R; Mihu, D; Mitran, M; Mehedintu, C; Boiangiu, A; Manolache, M; Vladareanu, S

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate activity and tolerability of an oral product containing the specific probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum P17630 on vaginal colonization of lactic acid bacteria. L. plantarum P17630 (5x109 CFU/capsule) or placebo were formulated in capsules and administrated orally to a total of 93 women with a history of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis over a period of 3 treatment cycles (15 days/cycle) separated by 15-day wash-out intervals. Vulvovaginal examinations and vaginal mycological culture, including Nugent score and Lactobacillary grade (LBG), were assessed at baseline, at day 45 and at day 90 (end of the study). Probiotic intake significantly improved lactobacilli colonization on vaginal epithelial cells. The results demonstrated a significant difference in LBG score when comparing day 0 to day 45 (p=0.000016) and to day 90 (p=0.001415) in women treated with L. plantarum P17630. No evidence of improvement in LBG score was recorded in women who received placebo (pproduct to successfully prevent episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The clinical study described in this article is registered in the ISRCTN registry with trial registration ID ISRCTN12669692.

  17. Magma chamber history related to the shield building stage of Piton des Neiges volcano, La Réunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, Carole; Michon, Laurent; Famin, Vincent; Bascou, Jérôme; Bachelery, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Piton des Neiges volcano (La Réunion hotspot) experienced a long-lasting shield building stage before entering its degenerative stage 0.4 my ago. The deep edifice incision due to the intense tropical erosion allowed the description for several decades of a layered gabbroic complex interpreted as a piece of magma chamber, which has been tectonically displaced (Chevallier & Vatin-Perignon, 1982; Upton & Wadsworth, 1972). Here, we combine field investigations, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies to constrain the spatial distribution of the plutonic complex, to identify the physical and chemical processes and to integrate this complex in the evolution of Piton des Neiges (PdN). Field investigations allowed us to discover three additional massifs of gabbro and peridotite along the Mât River. The four massifs are overlaid by a pile of basic sills and a breccia interpreted as a debris avalanche deposit. Albeit spatially disconnected, the massifs show a relatively constant dip of the magnetic foliation toward the current summit of the volcano (i.e. toward the SSE). The two massifs cropping in the upper Mât River are exclusively composed of massive dunite and wherlite units with a cumulate texture and no visible dynamic structures. The two massifs located in the lower Mât River are made of olivine-gabbro, ferrogabbro and gabbro showing numerous flow structures and synmagmatic faults that indicates instabilities which trend NNW-SSE. Minerals (olivine, clinopyroxene and oxide) present primitive compositions in the two upper massifs and slightly differentiated ones in the lower massif. Given the consistency of our dataset, we propose that the four massifs correspond to outcrops of a unique chemically stratified magma chamber, whose center would have been located about 4 km North of the current summit of PdN. The existence of an initial PdN, North of the current edifice, is supported by morphological

  18. Depositional and post-depositional history of warm stage deposits at Knocknacran, Co. Monaghan, Ireland: implications for preservation of Irish last interglacial deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, A. P. M.; Dowling, L. A.; Mitchell, F. J. G.; Lauritzen, S.-E.; McCabe, A. M.; Coxon, P.

    2004-09-01

    Organic-rich deposits, uncovered during overburden removal from mantled gypsum karst at Knocknacran opencast gypsum mine, Co. Monaghan, are the best candidate to date for a last interglacial record in Ireland. The two till and organic-rich deposits (preserved at different quarry elevations) were emplaced on to a Tertiary dolerite surface during high-energy flood events and subsequently folded and faulted by movement towards sinkholes in underlying gypsum. Uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating suggests that the organic-rich deposits in the upper section were hydrologically isolated at ca. 41 ka and those in the lower section at ca. 86 ka. Interpretation of the pollen content, although tentative because of the depositional and post-depositional history of the material, suggests that the organic material originated in a warm stage possibly warmer than the post-Eemian interstadials. The unusual setting of preservation may indicate that in situ, last interglacial deposits have generally been removed by erosion in Ireland. Copyright

  19. From margins to centre: an oral history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrovi, Hamid; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Vosoughi, Mohammad Bagher; Fathyian, Nasrollah; Ghadirian, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The extensive nature of the Iraq-Iran war converted to a human tragedy with large casualties; it has affected nursing discipline dramatically. To analyse the history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in Iran-Iraq War. The current study was conducted with oral history. The study sample consisted of 13 Iranian nurses who served in the war zones during the wartime. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the participants. During the face-to-face interviews, participants were asked to describe their experience in the war zones during the war years. Data collection and analysis took place from April to August 2013, when saturation was reached. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed and then analysed with thematic content analysis. Finally, five themes and 18 subthemes emerged from data analysis of significant statements from 17 interviews. The five emerged themes included (1) 'From margin to centre', (2) 'Development of referral care', (3) 'Personal and professional growth and development', (4) 'The emerging pillar of culture in war nursing' and (5) 'Threats to nursing at the war'. Nursing in Iran at wartime has a difficult path to development. There are powerful implications for clinical practice. It is recommended to continue collection, archiving and analysing the wartime experiences of Iranian nurses.

  20. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB{sup +} interneurons, although the number of reelin{sup +} interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of

  1. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3 + apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB + interneurons, although the number of reelin + interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of cholinergic

  2. Early History of Oral Contraceptive Pill in Finland: The Diffusion of the New Contraceptive and Fertility Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Pasila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1960s is often characterized as a decade of outstanding social and demographic changes in Western societies. The introduction of the contraceptive pill is assumed to have contributed to these changes. Yet the social as well as the demographic significance of the pill is ambiguous. This article has two aims: 1 to describe the early history of the pill in Finland in the 1960s and in the early 1970s and 2 to explore relationships between fertility and the pill. Surveys, pharmaceutical market data, and estimations are used to depict the diffusion of the pill. Based on calculated user percentages, the pill was adopted neither instantly nor extremely widely in Finland during the period under study. The results show that the diffusion coincided with fertility decline and other changes in fertility patterns. However, a causal connection of any kind cannot be established due to a lack of sufficient data.

  3. GILT - A randomised phase III study of oral vinorelbine and cisplatin with concomitant radiotherapy followed by either consolidation therapy with oral vinorelbine and cisplatin or best supportive care alone in stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flentje, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Wuerzburg (Germany); Huber, Rudolf M. [University Hospital Munich, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL CPC-M), Munich (Germany); Engel-Riedel, Walburga [University Hospital Merheim, Dept. of Pneumonology, Cologne (Germany); Andreas, Stefan [Dept. of Pneumonology, Immenhausen (Germany); Kollmeier, Jens [Helios Emil-von-Behring Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Staar, Susanne [Municipal Hospital Bremen-Mitte, Bremen (Germany); Dickgreber, Nicolas [University Hospital Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Vaissiere, Nathalie; Almeida, Cecilia de [Institut de Recherche Pierre Fabre, Boulogne (France); Edlich, Birgit [Pierre Fabre Pharma GmbH, Freiburg (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is considered standard for inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Consolidation chemotherapy (CC) following CRT is intended to further improve outcomes, yet studies have shown discordant results. This phase III study assessed CRT followed by best supportive care (BSC) or consolidation with oral vinorelbine and cisplatin. Patients received two cycles of oral vinorelbine (50 mg/m{sup 2} days 1, 8 and 15) + cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2} days 1-4) q4w + radiotherapy (RT; 66 Gy). Patients with at least stable disease (SD) were randomised to either two cycles oral vinorelbine (60-80 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 and 8) + cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2} day 1) q3w + BSC or BSC alone. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 279 patients were enrolled for CRT and 201 patients were randomised to CC or BSC. Both CRT and CC were well tolerated, with limited radiation-mediated grade 3/4 toxicities (CRT/CC/BSC: oesophagitis-related events 12.9 %/3.1 %/0 %; grade 3 pneumonitis 0 %/0 %/2 %) and chemotherapy-mediated grade 3/4 toxicities (CRT/CC: neutropenia 11.2 %/22.1 %; leukopenia 18.3 %/26.7 %; grade 3 nausea 5.0 %/2.3 %, grade 3 vomiting 3.2 %/3.5 %). Median PFS from randomisation was 6.4 (5.0-8.7) and 5.5 (3.8-7.4) months in the CC and BSC arms (hazard ratio, HR = 0.93 [0.69-1.26]; p = 0.63), respectively; median overall survival (OS) 20.8 (13.5-25.3) and 18.5 (13.6-24.7) months, respectively. Consolidation chemotherapy after concurrent CRT did not prolong PFS or OS. Concurrent RT with oral vinorelbine and cisplatin demonstrated a favourable safety profile and represents a suitable treatment regimen for inoperable stage III NSCLC. (orig.) [German] Simultane Radiochemotherapie (CRT) wird als Standardtherapie beim inoperablen Stadium III des nicht-kleinzelligen Lungenkarzinoms (NSCLC) angesehen. Konsolidierende Chemotherapie (CC) nach der CRT zielt darauf ab, das Therapieergebnis zu verbessern, allerdings zeigen Studien

  4. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  5. Silent Bias: Challenges, Obstacles, and Strategies for Leadership Development in Academic Medicine-Lessons From Oral Histories of Women Professors at the University of Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingleton, Susan K; Jones, Emily V M; Rosolowski, Tacey A; Zimmerman, Mary K

    2016-08-01

    Despite dramatic increases in female learners and junior faculty, a significant gap remains in female leadership in academic medicine. To assess challenges and obstacles encountered, strategies for academic success, and lessons learned for leadership development, the authors conducted an in-depth study of women full professors. The authors used a qualitative oral history approach, interviewing 87% of the cohort of female full professors at one Midwestern medical school in 2013 using a pretested, open-ended, semistructured interview guide. Interviews were videotaped and the audio recordings transcribed. Content was sorted into categories and key themes identified within each category. Participants described significant challenges: being treated with "silent bias," "being ignored," and being seen as an "other." Coping strategies included downplaying, keeping a distance, employing humor, and using symbols (e.g., white coat) to carefully present themselves. Explanations for success included intelligence, meritocracy, being even-tempered, and carefully constructing femininity. The participants recommended individual skills and actions to prepare for leadership development. Virtually all women could describe an individual mentor (sponsor), usually male, who provided essential assistance for their career success. At the same time, they stressed the importance of institutional support for diversity, especially with child care. Attaining "full professor" status is the pinnacle of academic success. Women who successfully navigated this academic ladder describe significant external and internal challenges that require multiple strategies to overcome. Leadership development entails a combination of individual support through mentors and sponsors, self-education and reflection, and organizational structural support to promote diversity.

  6. Impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star Acanthaster planci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Pecorino, Danilo; Albright, Rebecca; Negri, Andrew Peter; Cantin, Neal; Liddy, Michelle; Dworjanyn, Symon; Kamya, Pamela; Byrne, Maria; Lamare, Miles

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS) are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA) conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900-1200 µatm pCO2) significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS) that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals.

  7. Impacts of ocean acidification on early life-history stages and settlement of the coral-eating sea star Acanthaster planci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Uthicke

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are marine biodiversity hotspots, but their existence is threatened by global change and local pressures such as land-runoff and overfishing. Population explosions of coral-eating crown of thorns sea stars (COTS are a major contributor to recent decline in coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we investigate how projected near-future ocean acidification (OA conditions can affect early life history stages of COTS, by investigating important milestones including sperm motility, fertilisation rates, and larval development and settlement. OA (increased pCO2 to 900-1200 µatm pCO2 significantly reduced sperm motility and, to a lesser extent, velocity, which strongly reduced fertilization rates at environmentally relevant sperm concentrations. Normal development of 10 d old larvae was significantly lower under elevated pCO2 but larval size was not significantly different between treatments. Settlement of COTS larvae was significantly reduced on crustose coralline algae (known settlement inducers of COTS that had been exposed to OA conditions for 85 d prior to settlement assays. Effect size analyses illustrated that reduced settlement may be the largest bottleneck for overall juvenile production. Results indicate that reductions in fertilisation and settlement success alone would reduce COTS population replenishment by over 50%. However, it is unlikely that this effect is sufficient to provide respite for corals from other negative anthropogenic impacts and direct stress from OA and warming on corals.

  8. História oral de vida: buscando o significado da hemodiálise para o paciente renal crônico Historia oral de vida: significado de la hemodialisis Para el paciente crónico renal Life oral history: the meaning of hemodialysis For the chronic renal patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernandes Costa Lima

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo mostrar a utilização da história oral de vida como referencial metodológico para obtenção de dados qualitativos, buscando compreender o significado da hemodiálise e o impacto desta modalidade terapêutica na vida de pacientes do serviço de Hemodiálise do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo.Este artículo tiene como objetivo mostrar la utilización de la historia oral de vida como referencial metodológico, para la obtención de datos cualitativos, de una investigación realizada con la finalidad de comprender el significado de la hemodiálisis y el impacto de esta modalidad terapéutica de acuerdo a la vida de pacientes del servicio de Hemodiálisis del Hospital Universitário de la Universidad de São Paulo.This article has the objective to show the use of life oral history as methodological framework for qualitative data collection and analysis, aimed to understand the meaning of hemodialysis and the impact of this therapeutic modality of treatment in the patient's life in the Hemodialysis Unity at the Universitary Hospital at the University of São Paulo.

  9. Role and models for compensation of tobacco use prevention and cessation by oral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crail, Jon; Lahtinen, Aira; Beck-Mannagetta, Johann; Benzian, Habib; Enmarks, Birgitta; Jenner, Tony; Knevel, Ron; Lulic, Martina; Wickholm, Seppo

    2010-02-01

    Appropriate compensation of tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) would give oral health professionals better incentives to provide TUPAC, which is considered part of their professional and ethical responsibility and improves quality of care. Barriers for compensation are that tobacco addiction is not recognised as a chronic disease but rather as a behavioural disorder or merely as a risk factor for other diseases. TUPAC-related compensation should be available to oral health professionals, be in appropriate relation to other dental therapeutic interventions and should not be funded from existing oral health care budgets alone. We recommend modifying existing treatment and billing codes or creating new codes for TUPAC. Furthermore, we suggest a four-staged model for TUPAC compensation. Stages 1 and 2 are basic care, stage 3 is intermediate care and stage 4 is advanced care. Proceeding from stage 1 to other stages may happen immediately or over many years. Stage 1: Identification and documentation of tobacco use is part of each patient's medical history and included into oral examination with no extra compensation. Stage 2: Brief intervention consists of a motivational interview and providing information about existing support. This stage should be coded/reimbursed as a short preventive intervention similar to other advice for oral care. Stage 3: Intermediate care consists of a motivational interview, assessment of tobacco dependency, informing about possible support and pharmacotherapy, if appropriate. This stage should be coded as preventive intervention similar to an oral hygiene instruction. Stage 4: Advanced care. Treatment codes should be created for advanced interventions by oral health professionals with adequate qualification. Interventions should follow established guidelines and use the most cost-effective approaches.

  10. Buckland, Barry oral history interview

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Buckland, Barry; Interviewer: Gootee, Jackie; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    The Columbia Theatre on 530 Columbia St. in New Westminster was built in 1927 as a 900-seat movie theatre. Until the mid-1980s, the building housed a cinema, and was the first cinema in Canada with air conditioning. After being closed for many years, the city of New Westminster sold the building to Barry Buckland in 2011, and he took on the task of restoring the theatre. Buckland is an Ottawa native, but came to New Westminster in 1985. Since then he has has operated a number of businesses. H...

  11. Debeck, Brian oral history interview

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Debeck, Brian; Interviewer: Bauder, Ken; Interviewer: Hall, Peter V; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Brian Debeck worked on and off the water in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia since the 1960s. His work experiences involve mills, fisheries, ships, warehouses and docks and he ultimately became the union representative of the Retail and Warehouse Union in BC. He tells stories from his first work at the Canada Rice Mill in Richmond to his time as a union representative at the international convention in Miami. The BC union eventually broke away from the international union and formed sep...

  12. Johnson, Faith oral history interview

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Johnson, Faith; Interviewer: La, Michelle; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Faith Johnson is a longshoreman and the daughter-in-law of Dean Johnson (who also worked as a longshoreman in New Westminster and eventually at Westshore before he retired) and wife of Shane Johnson, also a longshoreman.

  13. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  14. Graphite oral tattoo: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more f...

  15. Preliminary preformulation studies of a 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine derivative for oral administration at an exploratory stage of new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, M; Hosokami, T; Konno, T; Kinuno, K; Mafune, E; Takasugi, N

    1995-03-01

    Preliminary preformulation studies of a 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine derivative were investigated. The hydrochloride form showed incompatibility with the excipients used for oral dosage forms. There were several crystal forms of the free base, namely, alpha-anhydrate, beta-anhydrate, monohydrate, and trihydrate. The trihydrate form was unstable. The degree of crystallinity of the beta-anhydrate form was difficult to control. The monohydrate form was difficult to manufacture with constant quality. The serum levels of the compounds in rats were almost related to the dissolution rates in the JP 1st disintegration medium from the discs. The serum level of alpha-anhydrate was the lowest. However, the dissolution rates from the formulations of alpha-anhydrate were improved. After oral administration of the improved formulation, the serum level of alpha-anhydrate in beagle dogs was almost triple that after the oral administration of the capsule of the hydrochloride form.

  16. Nutrient intake assessed with Diet History Questionnaire II, in relation to long-term calcium-phosphate control in hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyskida, Katarzyna; Wajda, Jarosław; Klein, Dariusz; Witkowicz, Joanna; Ficek, Rafał; Rotkegel, Sylwia; Spiechowicz-Zatoń, Urszula; Kocemba-Dyczek, Joanna; Ciepał, Jarosław; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Więcek, Andrzej; Chudek, Jerzy

    2018-02-01

    Diet is a key factor that determines proper alignment of calcium-phosphate and nutritional status among hemodialysis (HD) patients. To assess the nutrient intake in relation to long-term calcium-phosphate control in HD patients with end-stage renal failure. The study included 107 patients (66 men, 41 women) from 10 dialysis centers in the Upper Silesia region of Poland. To analyze the diet composition during the previous year, a portion-sized version of the Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ-II) from National Institutes of Health was used. The nutrient intake was assessed in accordance with the most complex recommendations on HD patients' nutrition - K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. Poor long-term alignment of calcium-phosphate homeostasis was defined as the presence of over 50% monthly phosphorus concentrations exceeding 5 mg/dL, and for calcium 10.2 mg/dL, during the last 6-month period. Lower than recommended protein intake was found in 63% of HD patients (average consumption: 0.9 ±0.5 g/kg/day). Most of the patients consumed too much fat (33.5 ±6.7% of daily energy intake) and sodium (2912 ±1542 mg/day). In 42% of patients, dietary phosphorus intake was consistent with the recommendations (13.3 ±7.5 mg/kg/day). Protein intake over 1.2 g/kg/day resulted in an increased consumption of phosphorous, but did not increase the risk of misalignment of phosphorus concentrations (OR = 1.15 [0.40-3.27]); p = 0.8). Poor control of serum phosphorus concentrations was observed in 69% of patients (they were on average 8 years younger). The average intake of protein and phosphate in the groups with good or not satisfactory serum phosphorus alignment did not differ significantly. Adequate control of protein intake is not sufficient to obtain phosphorus alignment, especially in younger HD patients.

  17. The P-T-t History of the Alpine Schist, New Zealand: Constraining Tectonic Processes During the Late Stages of Gondwana Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. I.; Smit, M. A.; Cottle, J. M.; Hagen-Peter, G.

    2015-12-01

    Separation of the microcontinent Zealandia from the Marie Byrd Land sector of Antarctica in the Late Cretaceous marked the final stage in the breakup of Gondwana. Two contrasting ideas for the Late Cretaceous rifting of Zealandia from Gondwana have been proposed. One is that subduction at the paleo-Pacific - Gondwana convergent margin ceased after the last pulse of batholith emplacement at ~100 Ma, followed by a rapid transition to extension and seafloor spreading at 82 Ma. The other hypothesis is that convergence continued along Zealandia simultaneously with back-arc extension until ~85 M. This hypothesis is based on recently reported Late Cretaceous ages from the Alpine Schist, a metamorphosed accretionary wedge assemblage. Without accompanying pressure-temperature (P-T) information, the significance of Late Cretaceous ages from the Alpine Schist in terms of the orogenic processes that occurred during cessation of subduction at the paleo-Pacific - Gondwana margin remains unclear. In this study, Lu-Hf geochronology of Alpine Schist garnet is paired with phase equilibria modelling to elucidate the P-T-t history of the orogen and clarify the mechanisms behind Zealandia-Gondwana rifting. Garnet Lu-Hf dates have been obtained from 9 samples ranging in bulk composition from quartzo-feldspathic schists to mafic amphibolites. Garnet yields Early Cretaceous ages from the southern Alpine Schist, whereas northern Alpine Schist garnet yields Late Cretaceous ages. Garnet textures and major and trace element compositional zoning suggest that an additional, later period of garnet growth or recrystallization may be recorded in the northern samples. P-T-t data from each dated sample is supplemented with thermobarometric analysis from an adjacent sample of different lithology, with the advantage of providing more complete local P-T-t paths. The P-T-t paths define whether garnet grew during increasing P-T (prograde early), decreasing P and increasing T (prograde late), and

  18. Screening for Oral Cavity Cancer: A 1-year Experience of a Regional Hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, T H; Yuan, C H; Chen, R F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk factors affecting precancerous lesions, and cancer of oral cavity, and to assess efficacy of visual screening for oral mucosal lesions. The medical records of patients older than 30 years of age with history of habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing that received screening for oral mucosal lesions between January 2012 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' age, gender, risk factors, screening findings, and histopathology results of biopsy were included for further analysis. A total of 1341 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 1080 males and 261 females ranging from 30 to 96 years of age, with a mean age of 53.9±13.6 years. After screening, 226 (16.9%) were found to be positive of oral lesions. Among these 226 patients, 69 (30.5%) underwent biopsy under local anesthesia, and the histopathology showed malignancy in 13 (5.8%). All of the confirmed malignant cases were squamous cell carcinoma. Among them, 12 received further staging examination and one was lost to follow-up resulting in unknown stage. The early stage oral cavity cancer (stage I and II) accounted for 84.6% (11/13). The detection rate of early stage oral cavity cancer in our study was reasonable. Therefore, visual screening for oral cavity cancer is recommended for patients with habitual cigarette smoking or betel quid chewing.

  19. Staging of early lymph node metastases with the sentinel lymph node technique and predictive factors in T1/T2 oral cavity cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Hedbäck, Nora

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of detecting lymph node metastases and to identify predictive and prognostic clinicopathological factors in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). METHODS: All...

  20. Oral manifestations of syphilis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is an infectious disease presenting stages associated with specific oral lesions. Therefore, health professionals should be familiar with the different syphilis oral manifestations at each stage and be prepared to refer any suspected patient for further evaluation. This report describes the most important clinical factors of each stage, emphasizing the oral manifestations.

  1. Pathological analysis of the Candida albicans-infected tongue tissues of a murine oral candidiasis model in the early infection stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masashi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Miyasaka, Takahiro; Abe, Shigeru; Satoh, Tazuko

    2013-04-01

    The early pathological process of Candida infection and immunological responses in tongues of the mice with experimental oral candidiasis was analysed. CD-1 mice, pretreated by prednisolone were orally inoculated with Candida albicans. Symptoms were monitored by measuring the area of white tongue coating and number of viable Candida cells in oral cavity. The histopathological analysis was carried by PAS-stain and immunofluorescent staining. IL-4, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α in recovered from the homogenates of the tongues were measured by ELISA. The fungus invaded the tongue surface of the mice and white patches developed within 24h after inoculation. Histopathological examination indicated the presence of local acute inflammation in superficial tissues of tongues covered by mycelium of C. albicans. Pathological exacerbation was observed from 24 to 48 h after the inoculation and from then the symptoms of oral candidiasis appeared to move into the recovery phase. Inflammatory cells mainly consisting of neutrophils was accumulated and located under the lesions covered by Candida-hyphae. An increase in IL-12p70 and IFN-γ in tongue homogenates was observed at 48 h after inoculation. The worst condition in the pathological process in experimental oral candidiasis was found 48 h after C. albicans inoculation. When the surface of the Candida-inoculated tongues was covered with Candida-hyphae, a dense accumulation of neutrophils was observed under the lesions and homogenates of the tongues contained increased levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ. These suggested that local pathological condition of Candida-infected tongues may be affected by neutrophils accumulation and increased levels of some cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... section Home A-Z Health Topics Oral health Oral health > A-Z Health Topics Oral health (PDF, 154 ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Oral health Women have unique oral health concerns. Changing hormone ...

  3. The number of life-history stages does not influence the androgen responsiveness to male-male interactions: sedentary and migratory black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros) do not elevate testosterone in response to simulated territorial intrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, C P; Blas, J; Goymann, W

    2014-09-01

    High plasma levels of testosterone at the beginning of the breeding season adjust male physiology for mating and promote territorial behavior in birds. Conversely intra-sexual competition may elicit a temporary increase in circulating testosterone. Male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros) from migratory populations show the expected increase in baseline testosterone during early breeding, but circulating testosterone levels do not change in response to male-male interactions. Because sedentary populations express fewer life-history stages they may be more flexible in timing of life-history stages and more responsive to environmental modulation of hormone concentrations. Therefore, we tested whether the androgen responsiveness to male-male interactions differs between migratory (6 life-history stages) and sedentary black redstarts (3 life-history stages) during early breeding, predicting that in contrast to migratory birds, sedentary birds would modulate testosterone in response to simulated territorial intrusions (STI). In contrast to our prediction, sedentary males did not modulate post-capture testosterone levels in response to simulated territorial intrusions. Males of both populations increased testosterone after an injection of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), demonstrating that they were capable of increasing testosterone. Interestingly, in sedentary males the GnRH injection elicited a higher testosterone response in STI males than in control males. The two populations did not differ in their behavioral response to the STIs, except that sedentary males spent less time close to the decoy. In combination with previous data from black redstarts and other socially monogamous and biparental birds our current study adds to the growing evidence that current theory regarding hormone-behavior relationship needs to be refined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral and constitutional manifestations of HIV-infected hospital patients in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tomas O; Tam, Vu V; Mai, Nguyen T

    2005-01-01

    This study reports clinical features, with emphasis on oral lesions and constitutional signs, of 170 patients in a regional hospital in northern Vietnam, of whom 56 were HIV positive. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) and oropharyngeal...... candidiasis (OPC) with HIV infection and late stage HIV disease. Late stage HIV disease was defined as WHO stage III or IV and/or a total lymphocyte count below 1200 cells/mm3. The 56 HIV positive patients included all patients with a positive HIV test between July 7th and September 9th 2002. A total of 114...... HIV negative controls were included as well. All patients had a detailed medical history and examination as well as a thorough oral examination, which were all done without prior knowledge of the patient's HIV serostatus. HIV positive patients were then grouped according to WHO clinical stage...

  5. Combination of oral activated charcoal plus low protein diet as a new alternative for handling in the old end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, C G; Michelangelo, H; Reynaldi, J; Martinez, B; Vidal, F; Quevedo, M; Parot, M; Waisman, G; Algranati, L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic dialysis is a valid therapeutic option in very elderly ESRD patients, even though the decision to dialyze or not has little impact on survival. Additionally, very old patients usually do not agree with starting chronic dialysis. Even though, activated charcoal is a cheap treatment for working as adsorbent for nitrogenous products its utility is very limited. We studied the combination of a low protein diet and oral activated charcoal to reduce serum urea and creatinine levels in very old ESRD patients who had refused to start chronic dialysis. Nine lucid, very old > 80 years, ESRD patients who had refused to start dialysis were prescribed a treatment based on a combination of a very low protein diet and oral activated charcoal (30 gram/day). None of the patients had anuria, oliguria, edema, significant metabolic acidosis or hyperkalemia. None of them had significant gastrointestinal symptoms. After one week and ten months of charcoal use significant decrease in blood urea and creatinine levels was observed and none of them required emergency dialysis during this time. In conclusion, in patients more than 80 years of age low protein diet and oral activated charcoal may control the uremic symptoms effectively.

  6. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  7. Canine oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2007-05-01

    Melanoma is the most common oral malignancy in the dog. Oral and/or mucosal melanoma has been routinely considered an extremely malignant tumor with a high degree of local invasiveness and high metastatic propensity. Primary tumor size has been found to be extremely prognostic. The World Health Organization staging scheme for dogs with oral melanoma is based on size, with stage I = or = 4cm tumor and/or lymph node metastasis, and stage IV = distant metastasis. Median survival times for dogs with oral melanoma treated with surgery are approximately 17 to 18, 5 to 6, and 3 months with stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Significant negative prognostic factors include stage, size, evidence of metastasis, and a variety of histologic criteria. Standardized treatments such as surgery, coarse-fractionation radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have afforded minimal to modest stage-dependent clinical benefits and death is usually due to systemic metastasis. Numerous immunotherapeutic strategies have been employed to date with limited clinical efficacy; however, the use of xenogeneic DNA vaccines may represent a leap forward in clinical efficacy. Oral melanoma is a spontaneous syngeneic cancer occurring in outbred, immunocompetent dogs and appears to be a more clinically faithful therapeutic model for human melanoma; further use of canine melanoma as a therapeutic model for human melanoma is strongly encouraged. In addition, the development of an expanded but clinically relevant staging system incorporating the aforementioned prognostic factors is also strongly encouraged.

  8. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton onychocola is a recently described geophilic dermatophyte that has been isolated from a toenail of Czech patient with a history of onychomycosis due to T. rubrum and clinical suspicion of relapse. In this study, we report a similar case from Denmark in an otherwise healthy 56-year-ol...

  9. Expression of GLUT-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Neha; Kumari Maurya, Malti; Kar, Meenakshi; Goel, Madhu Mati; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Sagar, Mala; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    GLUTs are a family of proteins that mediate glucose transport through the membrane, expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. GLUT-1 positivity in malignant cells indicates increased proliferative activity, energy requirements, aggressive behaviour and poor radiation response. To observe the expression of GLUT-1 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users and to correlate the expression with histopathological grading and pathological staging. 50 cases (25 tobacco and 25 non-tobacco) of oral squamous cell carcinoma, selected during period of August 2014 to July 2015. Histopathological grading, TNM and staging were done. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using standard protocol for paraffin embedded sections. Analysis was performed on SPSS software (Windows version 17.0). Significant association of GLUT-1 expression was found with history of tobacco (p GLUT-1 expression in stage II, stage III and stage IV was found as compared to stage I. GLUT-1 immunoexpression also shows progressive switch from membranous to cytoplasmic to combined location correlating with histopathologic grade and pTNM stage. GLUT-1 expression correlates significantly with histological grade and pTNM staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It also significantly correlates with tobacco addiction. Thus, GLUT-1 expression may serve as a biomarker for patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Phonatory Effects of Airway Dehydration: Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Compensation to Oral Breathing in Individuals with a History of Vocal Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Erickson, Elizabeth; Schneider, Sara; Hawes, Ashleigh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Airway drying is detrimental to phonation and is posited to exacerbate vocal fatigue. However, limited research has demonstrated the adverse phonatory effects of dehydration in speakers reporting vocal fatigue. We compared the negative phonatory consequences of short-term oral breathing at low, moderate, and high humidity in individuals…

  11. Oral Levosimendan Increases Cerebral Blood Flow Velocities in Patients with a History of Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: A Pilot Safety Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Kivikko, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Oral levosimendan increases cerebral blood flow velocities and diminishes NT-pro-BNP levels in patients with earlier ischemic cerebrovascular event. Daily doses up to 1.0 mg were well tolerated, whereas the 2.0 mg dose level induced an increase in ventricular extrasystoles. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00698763.

  12. Preference and life history traits of Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) when offered different development stages of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovgård, Henrik; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The degree of parasitisation, host feeding, developmental time, adult emergence and female sex ratio of the parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis were evaluated when different host stages of N. ribisnigri (1st, 2nd, 3rd, alatoid 4th instar or newly moulted apterous adult) were offered as hosts under no...... stages of the lettuce aphid were exposed for parasitism compared with older developmental stages. This pattern was supported in the choice experiment where significantly more 2nd instar lettuce aphids were parasitised than alatoid 4th instars, with Manly’s preference index (mean ± SE) for the former...... stage being 0.79 ± 0.03. Incomplete parasitisation was recorded highest in 1st instar (mean ± SE: 29.95 % ± 4.71), with much lower values (1–8 %) attained in the 2nd, 3rd, alatoid 4th instar and apterous adult with no significant differences. Host feeding was low (2–4 %) and only recorded in 1st and 2nd...

  13. Double-blind, placebo-controlled first in human study to investigate an oral vaccine aimed to elicit an immune reaction against the VEGF-Receptor 2 in patients with stage IV and locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niethammer, Andreas G; Springer, Marco; Grenacher, Lars; Buchler, Markus W; Koch, Moritz; Weitz, Jürgen; Haefeli, Walter E; Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H; Lubenau, Heinz; Mikus, Gerd; Knebel, Philipp; Hohmann, Nicolas; Leowardi, Christine; Beckhove, Philipp; Akhisaroglu, Mustafa; Ge, Yingzi

    2012-01-01

    The investigational oral DNA vaccine VXM01 targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and uses Salmonella typhi Ty21a as a vector. The immune reaction elicited by VXM01 is expected to disrupt the tumor neovasculature and, consequently, inhibit tumor growth. VXM01 potentially combines the advantages of anti-angiogenic therapy and active immunotherapy. This phase I trial examines the safety, tolerability, and immunological and clinical responses to VXM01. The randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind dose-escalation study includes up to 45 patients with locally advanced and stage IV pancreatic cancer. The patients will receive four doses of VXM01 or placebo in addition to gemcitabine as standard of care. Doses from 10 6 cfu up to 10 10 cfu of VXM01 will be evaluated in the study. An independent data safety monitoring board (DSMB) will be involved in the dose-escalation decisions. In addition to safety as primary endpoint, the VXM01-specific immune reaction, as well as clinical response parameters will be evaluated. The results of this study shall provide the first data regarding the safety and immunogenicity of the oral anti-VEGFR-2 vaccine VXM01 in cancer patients. They will also define the recommended dose for phase II and provide the basis for further clinical evaluation, which may also include additional cancer indications. EudraCT No.: 2011-000222-29, NCT01486329, ISRCTN68809279

  14. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy photons as a boost in patients with early-stage oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. Treatment feasibility and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz; Wygoda, Andrzej; Hutnik, Marcin; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Wydmanski, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Boguslaw [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland); Maciejewski, Adam; Szymczyk, Cezary; Wierzgon, Janusz [Dept. of Surgery, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland); Orlef, Andrzej [Dept. of Physics, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Inst. of Oncology, Gliwice Branch (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy photons as a boost in patients with early-stage oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Between 2003 and 2006, 16 patients with early-stage cancer of mobile tongue (n = 10 [63%]) or floor of the mouth (n = 6 [37%]) treated at Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Poland, were evaluated for IORT boost with the INTRABEAM {sup registered} System (Carl Zeiss Surgical GmbH; IORT-PRS) because of the high risk of local recurrence due to positive margins on frozen pathologic section. After tumor resection, the applicator was positioned in the tumor bed. The applicator's diameter (range: 1.5-5 cm) was selected to encompass high-risk area of tumor recurrence. The dose (5 Gy, 7 Gy, or 7.5 Gy) was applied according to tumor volume and bone proximity. External-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was provided to the tumor bed in all patients (50 Gy) and to the nodal area, when needed. Toxicity and local tumor control were assessed. Results: Median follow-up was 36 months. IORT did not increase acute mucosal reaction. Local tumor control was found in all cases. Early mucosal reaction did not exceed 3 according to the RTOG scale and healed in median time of 35 days after completion of EBRT. No late adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: This preliminary report has demonstrated the feasibility of IORT-PRS for patients with early oral cancer with the indications for postoperative radiotherapy. This method may be considered an alternative boost technique, although additional studies are needed to establish long-term results in a larger group of patients. (orig.)

  15. Efficacy, Safety, and Dose of Pafuramidine, a New Oral Drug for Treatment of First Stage Sleeping Sickness, in a Phase 2a Clinical Study and Phase 2b Randomized Clinical Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Burri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT] is caused by protozoan parasites and characterized by a chronic progressive course, which may last up to several years before death. We conducted two Phase 2 studies to determine the efficacy and safety of oral pafuramidine in African patients with first stage HAT.The Phase 2a study was an open-label, non-controlled, proof-of-concept study where 32 patients were treated with 100 mg of pafuramidine orally twice a day (BID for 5 days at two trypanosomiasis reference centers (Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC] between August 2001 and November 2004. The Phase 2b study compared pafuramidine in 41 patients versus standard pentamidine therapy in 40 patients. The Phase 2b study was open-label, parallel-group, controlled, randomized, and conducted at two sites in the DRC between April 2003 and February 2007. The Phase 2b study was then amended to add an open-label sequence (Phase 2b-2, where 30 patients received pafuramidine for 10 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was parasitologic cure at 24 hours (Phase 2a or 3 months (Phase 2b after treatment completion. The primary safety outcome was the rate of occurrence of World Health Organization Toxicity Scale Grade 3 or higher adverse events. All subjects provided written informed consent.Pafuramidine for the treatment of first stage HAT was comparable in efficacy to pentamidine after 10 days of dosing. The cure rates 3 months post-treatment were 79% in the 5-day pafuramidine, 100% in the 7-day pentamidine, and 93% in the 10-day pafuramidine groups. In Phase 2b, the percentage of patients with at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event was notably higher after pentamidine treatment (93% than pafuramidine treatment for 5 days (25% and 10 days (57%. These results support continuation of the development program for pafuramidine into Phase 3.

  16. Disease Assessment of Elderly Patients with Early and Middle Stage Knee Osteoarthritis took the Kidney-tonifying and tendons-relaxing formula orally, combined with fumigations and odium hyaluronate injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Guang Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the diseases condition of the elderly patients with early and middle stage osteoarthritis of the knee took the Kidney-tonifying and tendons-relaxing formula orally, combined with fumigations and odium hyaluronate injection. Methods: A total of 78 cases of elderly knee osteoarthritis patients were selected in our hospital from August 2011 to February 2014 as observation group. 88 cases of joint function normal healthy people were chosen as the control group. After treatment, differences of serum protein expressions and CTX II, COMP, HA levels as well as related factors of Hippo-Yap signaling pathway in the synovial fluid, such as HMGB2, CCL1 and PD-1of the two groups were compared. Results: after treatment, serum PON-1, paraoxonase-3, AMBP, ApoM, KAP and TN expression levels in the observation group were higher than those of the control group patients. APOL1 level was lower than that of the control group. After 1 month, 3 months and 6 months’ treatment, serum COMP level in the observation group was lower than that in the control group patients. CTX II, HA levels were higher than those in the control group. After 1 month, 3 months and 6 months’ treatment YAP, BCL-2 levels in synovial fluid in the observation group were higher than those in the control group. Synovial fluid HMGB2 CCL1, NO and PD-1 levels of the observation group patients after treatment were lower than those of the control group. Conclusions: the elderly patients with early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis can be treated by oral administration, fumigation combined with sodium hyaluronate injection in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which can optimize the whole body and local non-infective inflammatory state, and promote the rehabilitation of the patients.

  17. On truth-telling and storytelling: Truth-seeking during research involving communities with an oral culture and a history of violent conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Vethuizen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose some principles and practices for truth-seeking during research into violent conflict. To achieve this aim, an argument is deployed by analysing the theoretical concepts “truth”, “myth” and “oral culture” as sources of knowledge. This conceptual analysis precedes a discussion on community-based participatory research (CBPR as a research methodology to access the knowledge of lived experiences embedded in the oral culture of the San community of Platfontein, near Kimberley, South Africa. It was found that CBPR contains good practices to use in research to judge the probable truth about disputes. The CBPR process is ideal for determining the accuracy of data in the context of a specific culture, considering the norms, spiritual influences and personal considerations of knowledge-holders that accompany a unique cosmology. A variety and equity of worldviews and perspectives of what happened during violent conflict successfully challenges hegemonic power relationships, paradigms and narratives, ultimately leading to informed judgements of what is probably true about a conflict. CBPR with the San of Platfontein revealed principles that can be used as guidelines for researching disputes where oral culture is involved.

  18. Early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: Radiotherapy vs. Trans-Oral Robotic Surgery (ORATOR) – study protocol for a randomized phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Anthony C; Kuruvilla, Sara; Chen, Jeff; Corsten, Martin; Odell, Michael; Eapen, Libni; Theurer, Julie; Doyle, Philip C; Wehrli, Bret; Kwan, Keith; Palma, David A; Yoo, John; Hammond, J Alex; Fung, Kevin; Winquist, Eric; Read, Nancy; Venkatesan, Varagur; MacNeil, S Danielle; Ernst, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has markedly increased over the last three decades due to newly found associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Primary radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for OPSCC at most centers, and over the last decade, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased acute and late toxicity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, with preliminary case series demonstrating encouraging oncologic, functional, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. However, comparisons of TORS and RT in a non-randomized fashion are susceptible to bias. The goal of this randomized phase II study is to compare QOL, functional outcomes, toxicity profiles, and survival following primary RT (± chemotherapy) vs. TORS (± adjuvant [chemo] RT) in patients with OPSCC. The target patient population comprises OPSCC patients who would be unlikely to require chemotherapy post-resection: Tumor stage T1-T2 with likely negative margins at surgery; Nodal stage N0-2, ≤3 cm in size, with no evidence of extranodal extension on imaging. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Arm 1 (RT ± chemotherapy) and Arm 2 (TORS ± adjuvant [chemo] RT). In Arm 1, patients with N0 disease will receive RT alone, whereas N1-2 patients will receive concurrent chemoradiation. In Arm 2, patients will undergo TORS along with selective neck dissections, which may be staged. Pathologic high-risk features will be used to determine the requirement for adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is QOL score using the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), with secondary endpoints including survival, toxicity, other QOL outcomes, and swallowing function. A sample of 68 patients is required. This study, if successful, will provide a much-needed randomized comparison of the conventional strategy of primary RT

  19. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Hansen, H S; Jakobsen, P H

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the erythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum, serum and erythrocytes were separated from blood of a healthy donor before and after he had taken fish oil capsules for 8 days. Such intake supplied an amount of eicosapentaenoic...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5 g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  20. O itinerário terapêutico: história oral de idosos com câncer Itinerario terapéutico: historia oral de ancianos con cáncer Therapeutic itinerary: oral history of elderly patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Visentin

    2010-01-01

    adecuados dentro de la realidad sociocultural en la que se encuentran los subsistemas de cuidado a la salud.OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe the therapeutic itinerary of elderly patients with cancer treated in outpatient services and hosted in support homes, in the city of Curitiba, state of Paraná. METHODS: It was performed a qualitative research with an approach based on the method of Oral History Theme (HOT. Five interviews were held with elders who were in treatment for cancer. The analysis of the stories was made by means of the specific technique of HOT. RESULTS: It was found five main tones and a central theme. CONCLUSION: The stories analysis showed the path the elders must follow in the subsystems of health care. Therapeutic itinerary of the elderly with cancer was surrounded by doubts, pain, hopes and sadness. Hope in the family and God were the guarantees to overcome the disease. The nurse must know the therapeutic itinerary followed by the elderly to plan the appropriate care, within the social-cultural reality in which subsystems act in health care.

  1. Adolescent maternity in a low income community: experiences revealed by oral history Maternidad en la adolescencia en una comunidad de bajos ingresos: experiencias a través de historia oral Maternidade na adolescência em uma comunidade de baixa renda: experiências reveladas pela história oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent maternity involves relevant factors associated with each family, culture and society. This research aimed to describe the experiences in the trajectory of adolescent maternity. The oral history method was used, obtaining the narratives of 21 adolescent mothers living in a low income community located in São Paulo City, Brazil. The following descriptive categories emerged from the narratives: Pregnancy: an event in the initial phase of the relationship; Insufficient knowledge and access to contraceptives, gender inferiority and God's will: the ways to look at pregnancy; To escape from family problems and define the life course: the personal meanings attributed to pregnancy; More gain than pain: the balance of adolescent maternity. Adolescent maternity in low income contexts involves very complex factors and requires an integral, integrated, personal and family centered care.La maternidad en la adolescencia está relacionada a factores asociados con la familia, cultura y sociedad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir experiencias durante la maternidad en la adolescencia. El método de historia oral fue realizado, recolectando las narrativas de 21 madres adolescentes que viven en una comunidad de bajos ingresos, ubicada en la Ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil. Las categorías descriptivas fueron: Embarazo: consecuencia de una fase temprana en la relación; Conocimiento y acceso insuficientes sobre anticonceptivos, inferioridad relacionada al género y el sentir necesidad de Dios: significados personales sobre el embarazo; Escapar de los problemas familiares y definir su vida: los significados personales atribuidos al embarazo; Mayores beneficios que pérdidas: evaluando la maternidad en la adolescencia. La maternidad en la adolescencia en un contexto de pobreza involucra varios factores complejos; necesitando de cuidado integral e integrado, centrada en la persona y familia.A maternidade na adolescência envolve relevantes

  2. Life history responses to irradiance at the early seedling stage of Picea omorika (Pančić) Purkyňe: adaptiveness and evolutionary limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucić, Branka; Pemac, Danijela; Dučić, Jelena

    2005-05-01

    A multivariate selection analysis has been implemented for testing the adaptiveness of life history plasticity to irradiance during the seedling establishment in Picea omorika plants raised in a growth-room. Siblings of a synthetic population comprising 21 families from six natural populations were exposed to contrasting light levels to explore variation in phenotypic expression of three seedling traits: days from germination to cotyledon opening (DGTOC), days from cotyledon opening to epicotyl appearance (DCTOE), and epicotyl length at 6 weeks (EPL6). Ambient light conditions significantly affected DCTOE and EPL6, but not DGTOC. Phenotypic selection analysis revealed that DGTOC was under negative directional selection in both radiation environments, suggesting that canalization of DGTOC was promoted across different light conditions, as well as that the observed pattern of canalization might be regarded as adaptive. DCTOE was also found to be under negative directional selection in both light treatments, but the plastic responses of this trait were opposite to the values favoured by selection within environments. Since there was evidence for selection against plasticity in DCTOE, the pattern of plastic responses in DCTOE to variation in light conditions could be diagnosed as maladaptive. Multiple regression analysis revealed a cost of canalization in DGTOC regardless of light environment, as well as a cost of plasticity in DCTOE under high light intensity. All genetic correlations across light environments were significantly different from unity, indicating the existence of heritable variation for plasticity in these traits. However, since DGTOC and DCTOE were involved in a genetic trade-off with respect to both trait mean and plasticity, these early life histories would never reach their optimal values across radiation environments.

  3. A phase I study of concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy with oral epigallocatechin-3-gallate protection in patients with locally advanced stage III non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hanxi; Zhu, Wanqi; Xie, Peng; Li, Huiqin; Zhang, Xiqin; Sun, Xiaorong; Yu, Jinming; Xing, Ligang

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy often develop esophagitis that may lead to unplanned treatment interruptions, which may severely reduce rates of locoregional tumor control and survival. No effective treatment that would reduce the incidence and severity of this complication has been identified up to now. Although acceleration of normal tissue protection using epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been reported, its actual clinical practicability remains obscure. Methods and materials: This is a phase I study of EGCG in combination with standard chemoradiation in surgically unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide) was given concurrently with radiation. EGCG solution was swallowed three times a day after the occurrence of grade 2 esophagitis at six concentration levels and dose escalation followed a standard phase I design. Esophageal toxicity and patient-reported pain was recorded weekly. Results: Twenty-four patients with AJCC stage IIIA (six) and IIIB (eighteen) completed the course of therapy. Twelve had squamous histology, ten adenocarcinoma, and two not specified. Patients were treated in six cohorts at six dose levels of EGCG. RT was not interrupted with a median dose of 64 Gy. There were no dose-limiting toxicities reported in all EGCG dosing tiers. Dramatic regression of esophagitis to grade 0/1 was observed in 22 of 24 patients, whereas grade 2 esophagitis persisted in 2 of 24 patients at the end of radiotherapy. The pain score was also reduced from a mean of 4.58 (N = 24), 1.29 (N = 24), 1.42 (N = 24), 0.96 (N = 23) to 1.13 (N = 16) every week in turn. Conclusion: We conclude that the oral administration of EGCG is feasible, safe and effective. The phase II recommended concentration is 440 μmol/L

  4. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  5. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or oral bicarbonate reduces urine angiotensinogen and preserves glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    Alkali therapy of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with plasma total CO2 (TCO2) below 22 mmol/l per KDOQI guidelines appears to preserve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Since angiotensin II mediates GFR decline in partial nephrectomy models of CKD and even mild metabolic acidosis increases kidney angiotensin II in animals, alkali treatment of CKD-related metabolic acidosis in patients with plasma TCO2 over 22 mmol/l might preserve GFR through reduced kidney angiotensin II. To test this, we randomized 108 patients with stage 3 CKD and plasma TCO2 22-24 mmol/l to Usual Care or interventions designed to reduce dietary acid by 50% using sodium bicarbonate or base-producing fruits and vegetables. All were treated to achieve a systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg with regimens including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and followed for 3 years. Plasma TCO2 decreased in Usual Care but increased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. By contrast, urine excretion of angiotensinogen, an index of kidney angiotensin II, increased in Usual Care but decreased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. Creatinine-calculated and cystatin C-calculated eGFR decreased in all groups, but loss was less at 3 years with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables than Usual Care. Thus, dietary alkali treatment of metabolic acidosis in CKD that is less severe than that for which KDOQI recommends therapy reduces kidney angiotensin II activity and preserves eGFR.

  6. Standard metabolic rates of early life stages of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), an estuarine turtle, suggest correlates between life history changes and the metabolic economy of hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher L

    2018-03-14

    I estimated standard metabolic rates (SMR) using measurements of oxygen consumption rates of embryos and unfed, resting hatchlings of the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) three times during embryonic development and twice during the early post-hatching period. The highest observed SMRs occurred during mid to late embryonic development and the early post-hatching period when hatchlings were still reliant on yolk reserves provided by the mother. Hatchlings that were reliant on yolk displayed per capita SMR 135 % higher than when measured 25 calendar days later after they became reliant on exogenous resources. The magnitude of the difference in hatchling SMR between yolk-reliant and exogenously feeding stages was much greater than that attributed to costs of digestion (specific dynamic action) observed in another emydid turtle, suggesting that processing of the yolk was not solely responsible for the observed difference. The pre-feeding period of yolk reliance of hatchlings corresponds with the period of dispersal from the nesting site, suggesting that elevated SMR during this period could facilitate dispersal activities. Thus, I hypothesize that the reduction in SMR after the development of feeding behaviors may reflect an energy optimization strategy in which a high metabolic expenditure in support of development and growth of the embryo and dispersal of the hatchling is followed by a substantial reduction in metabolic expenditure coincident with the individual becoming reliant on exogenous resources following yolk depletion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of radiation biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D., conducted December 22, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a transcript of an interview of Dr. Marvin Goldman by representatives of DOE's Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Goldman was chosen for this interview because of his work on bone-seeking radionuclides. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Goldman related his experiences concerning his training and work at Rochester University, his work at Brookhaven National Laboratory, his participation in the Beagle Studies at University of California at Davis, his work with the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Accident, his consultation work with Russian authorities on the health and ecological effects in their history, and finally his opinions and recommendations on human radiation research and the environmental cleanup of DOE sites

  8. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-04

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  9. Mapas afetivos: recursos metodológicos baseados na História Oral e reflexões sobre identidades espaciais e temporais em estudo sociológico * Affective maps: methodological resources based in Oral History and reflections about spatial and temporal...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉA VETTORASSI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo ora apresentado tem o objetivo de refletir sobre metodologias capazes de captar as relações multifacetas que os trabalhadores migrantes e os grupos que os recebem estabelecem com os tempos e espaços diversos que experimentam. Um novo método de pesquisa para avaliar as identidades temporais e espaciais dos entrevistados foi denominado “mapas afetivos”, recurso que objetivou demonstrar como se revelam suas lembranças e de que forma elas são transportadas para o papel em desenhos e em falas a partir da história oral. Sua aplicação demonstrou que há uma ligação estreita entre memória e sentimento de identidade, no sentido de imagem de si, para si e para os outros. Já que a memória e a identidade são avaliadas pelo Outro, estas podem ser disputadas em conflitos sociais, políticos, culturais e intergrupais propiciados nas relações de trabalho e nos espaços/tempos do cotidiano dos entrevistados.Palavras-chave: História Oral; mapas afetivos; migração; identidades sociais e espaciais.Abstract: The objective of de article now present is to reflect about methodologies capable of to win the multifaceted relations of the migrant workers and the groups that receive them establish whit time and different spaces that they experience. A new research method to evaluate the temporal and spatial identities named "affective maps", a resource that has the objective of showing haw their memories reveal themselves and how they are transported to the paper in draws and their speeches by the oral history. It´s application showed that is a very close connection between memory and identity feeling, in the sense of self-images, to themselves and to the others. Since the memory and identity are evaluated by Other, this can be disputed in social, political, cultural and intergroup conflicts propitiated in work relations and the interviewees´s spaces and times of everyday.Keywords: Oral History; affective maps; migration; space and

  10. Relatos orais de famílias de imigrantes japoneses: elementos para a história da educação brasileira Japanese families oral history: topics for the history of Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeila de Brito Fabri Demartini

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo dá continuidade a uma reflexão que vimos realizando há muitos anos sobre a estruturação do campo educacional paulista e as diferentes formas pelas quais a procura pela escolarização tem se configurado para diferentes setores da população rural e urbana no estado de São Paulo. Focalizamos aqui o segmento representado pelas famílias de imigrantes japoneses que vieram para São Paulo a partir de 1908. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos em estudo sobre as famílias de imigrantes japoneses na cidade de São Paulo, sendo que os relatos orais foram a fonte privilegiada que permitiu, de um lado, apreender as visões e vivências educacionais desse grupo, e, de outro, obter informações valiosas sobre a ainda desconhecida rede de escolas "japonesas" criadas por esse grupo na sociedade paulistana.This paper continues a long lasting research that analyses the educational field in São Paulo and the different forms assumed by the need of instruction of different sectors of the rural and urban population. We focus on the segment represented by the Japanese immigrants' families which came to São Paulo from 1908. We present the results obtained by means of oral reports, a privileged source for collecting data. It allowed, on the one hand, to seize the educational representations and practices of these Japanese groups and, on the other hand, to obtain valuable information about the still unknown Japanese school-net created by this group within São Paulo society.

  11. Construction of a pathological risk model of occult lymph node metastases for prognostication by semi-automated image analysis of tumor budding in early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Kiss, Katalin; Charabi, Birgitte; Specht, Lena; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-03-14

    It is challenging to identify at diagnosis those patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), who have a poor prognosis and those that have a high risk of harboring occult lymph node metastases. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized and objective digital scoring method to evaluate the predictive value of tumor budding. We developed a semi-automated image-analysis algorithm, Digital Tumor Bud Count (DTBC), to evaluate tumor budding. The algorithm was tested in 222 consecutive patients with early-stage OSCC and major endpoints were overall (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). We subsequently constructed and cross-validated a binary logistic regression model and evaluated its clinical utility by decision curve analysis. A high DTBC was an independent predictor of both poor OS and PFS in a multivariate Cox regression model. The logistic regression model was able to identify patients with occult lymph node metastases with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78-0.89, P <0.001) and a 10-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.79. Compared to other known histopathological risk factors, the DTBC had a higher diagnostic accuracy. The proposed, novel risk model could be used as a guide to identify patients who would benefit from an up-front neck dissection.

  12. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of radiologist Hymer L. Friedell, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 28, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.; Melamed, E.

    1995-07-01

    NThis report is a transcript of an interview with Hymer L. Friedell by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Friedell was selected for this interview because of his participation in the early stages of the medical use of radioisotopes, his important role in the Manhattan Engineer District Medical Division, and his distinguished medical career and his involvement in the distribution of isotopes and the approval for their use in humans. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Friedell discusses his remembrances on a wide range of subjects. Topics discussed include pre-war radiation therapy, information provided to patients, the Army Medical Corps and the Manhattan Project, his work at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, inspection visits of Manhattan Project facilities and proposed sites, Plutonium injection studies, and actions of the AEC Isotope Distribution Committee

  13. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  14. The prognostic impact of COX-2 expression in breast cancer depends on oral contraceptive history, preoperative NSAID use, and tumor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Maria; Björner, Sofie; Markkula, Andrea; Nodin, Björn; Jirström, Karin; Rose, Carsten; Borgquist, Signe; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2017-01-01

    The association between tumor cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression and breast cancer prognosis has been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of COX-2 tumor expression according to adjuvant treatment, and potential effect modifications of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, and other tumor and lifestyle factors. A prospective cohort of 1,116 patients with primary breast cancer in Lund, Sweden, included 2002-2012 was followed until June 2014 (median 5 years). Tumor-specific COX-2 expression was evaluated on tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry. Associations between COX-2 intensity (negative, weak-moderate, high) and patient and tumor characteristics as well as prognosis were analyzed. Tumor-specific COX-2 expression was available for 911 patients and was significantly associated with higher age at diagnosis and less aggressive tumor characteristics. Higher COX-2 expression was associated with lower risk for breast cancer events during the first five years of follow-up, adj HR 0.60 (95%CI: 0.37-0.97), per category. The association between COX-2 expression and prognosis was significantly modified by oral contraceptive (OC) use (P interaction  = 0.048), preoperative NSAID use (P interaction  = 0.009), and tumor size (P interaction  = 0.039). COX-2 negativity was associated with increased risk for events during the first five years in ever OC users, adj HR 1.94 (1.01-3.72) and during the 11-year follow-up in preoperative NSAID users, adj HR 4.51 (1.18-11.44) as well as in patients with large tumors, adj HR 2.57 (1.28-5.15). In conclusion, this study, one of the largest evaluating COX-2 expression in breast cancer, indicates that the prognostic impact of COX-2 expression depends on host factors and tumor characteristics. © 2016 UICC.

  15. Challenges in Comparative Oral Epic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Miles Foley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Originally written in 2001 and subsequently published in China, this collaborative essay explores five questions central to comparative oral epic with regard to Mongolian, South Slavic, ancient Greek, and Old English traditions: “What is a poem in oral epic tradition?” “What is a typical scene or theme in oral epic tradition?” “What is a poetic line in oral epic tradition?” “What is a formula in an oral epic tradition?” “What is the register in oral epic poetry?” Now available for the first time in English, this essay reflects a foundational stage of what has become a productive and long-term collaboration between the Center for Studies in Oral Tradition and the Institute of Ethnic Literature of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

  16. Factors affecting professional delay in diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelbeigi, Farhad; Hadji, Maryam; Harirchi, Iraj; Omranipour, Ramesh; vand Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignant tumor among head and neck cancers. Delay in diagnosis affects the treatment and prognosis of oral cancer. We measured the professional delay in the diagnosis and its attributes in the Cancer Institute of Iran, the largest referral center for oral cancer patients in the country.  We interviewed oral cancer patients to measure the delay and used case-control approach to study association of various prognostic factors with professional delay and tumor stage. Out of 206 patients, 71.4% were diagnosed at the advanced stage. The median of the patient, professional and total delays were 45, 86 and 140 day, receptively. In the univariate model, prescription of medicines like analgesics (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 2.2-12.9) and history of dental procedure (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.7-26.9) were associated with higher risk of delay compared to patient who were biopsied from the beginning. History of loose teeth increased risk of delay 4 times (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.8). Patients with primary education had 70% lower risk of delay compared to the illiterate patients (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7) and the risk was lower among patients who had diploma (OR = 0.04, 95% CI 0-0.7) and college education (OR = 0.1, 95% CI 0-0.4). The delayed patients were diagnosed in more advanced stage compared to the patients without delay (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.4). Development of a national guideline for follow-up of oral lesions, training and awareness of health care professionals about oral cancer diagnosis may decrease the delay and improve the oral cancer outcome in Iran.

  17. Managing danger in oral historical fieldwork

    OpenAIRE

    Jessee, Erin

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the literature on anticipating and managing danger in qualitative fieldwork as it pertains to the practice of oral history in various settings. It offers an alternative perspective to the widespread assumption that oral history is an inherently positive endeavor that results in good relationships and positive outcomes. This article explores some of the circumstances through which danger can emerge in the course of oral historical fieldwork, both in relativel...

  18. Circulating Tumor DNA in Predicting Outcomes in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer or Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  19. Education Status of Oral Genetics at the Fourth Military Medical University and other Chinese Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan Li; Wang, Chang Ning; Fan, Zhi Peng; Jiao, Yang; Duan, Xiao Hong

    To investigate the current state of genetics education at the Fourth Military Medical University (FMMU) and compare it with other dental schools of China. Detailed information about the history and current education status of Oral Genetics in the FMMU were collected and questionnaires were completed to acquire the feedback of twenty-seven students on the course. In the other thirty-five dental schools including the capitals of twenty-five provinces and four municipalities in China, information about the oral genetic course were collected by a telephone survey. The contents of survey included whether or not the Oral Genetic course is offered and some basic information about the curriculum (such as the content, hours, teachers' background and teaching methods). Among a total of thirty-six dental schools investigated, six of them (16.7%) offered the Oral Genetic course or related lectures/seminars. The length and contents of the curriculum vary among these schools. The FMMU offered the oral genetic curriculum both to undergraduates and graduated students. Their teachers had a broad range of backgrounds, such as dentistry, biology, genetics, and biochemistry. The students considered the Oral Genetics course to be helpful for their future professional careers. Genetic education in dentistry in China is still at a preliminary stage. More effort must be paid to spread the knowledge of Oral Genetics in China. In addition, domestic and international communications and networks for Oral Genetics should be set up in the near future.

  20. Oral submucous fibrosis: A clinico-histopathological study in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a precancerous condition associated with the use of areca nut in various forms. There are very few reports to correlate the clinical stage to histopathological grading in OSF. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted on 75 OSF cases who visited our hospital in Chennai from 2000-2003. A detailed history of each patient was recorded along with a clinical examination. Biopsy was performed for histopathological correlation. Clinical stage of the disease in terms of the ability to open one′s mouth was correlated with histopathological grading. Results: The male to female ratio of OSF cases was 6:1. All forms of areca nut products were associated with OSF. Chewing of paanmasala was associated with early presentation of OSF as compared to chewing of the betel nut. Out of 57 cases, which were in clinical stage II, 91.2% had histological grading of I and II in equal proportions and 8.8% had histological grade III. Out of 13 cases that showed a clinical stage of III, 52% showed a histological grade of II, 40% grade III and 8% grade I. Conclusion: In the present study, there was no direct correlation between clinical stages and histopathological grading. The possibility of difference in the severity and extent of fibrosis in different regions of the oral mucosa and involved muscles were considered as contributory factors for this variation.

  1. "Stage 40" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill River Union High School, North Clarendon, VT.

    The policies, purposes, and guidelines of "Stage 40," an educational repertory company for students, are presented in this paper, which also explains how the company functions. The paper discusses the company's history, the relationship between the company and academics, and the responsibilities of a company member. Letters by the board…

  2. Staging Sacrifice: Performing History, Memory, and Ancestral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Returning and recurring cultural forms, ancestral incarnations, theatrical imaginations, and racial memories in African plays construct a specific kind of historicity - the conjuring of the dead and the revitalization of cosmic energy or spiritual power. These formations perpetuate the construction of Africa and African-ness ...

  3. Characteristics of Oral Problems and Effects of Oral Care in Terminally Ill Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-01

    Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p oral intake groups, respectively ( p oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of a Single Oral Dose of the MEK1/2 Inhibitor Selumetinib in Subjects With End-Stage Renal Disease or Varying Degrees of Hepatic Impairment Compared With Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Martin, Paul; So, Karen; Huang, Yifan; Severin, Paul; Holmes, Victoria; Mariani, Gabriella; Marbury, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Two phase I open-label studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of single oral doses of selumetinib in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis and subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment; both studies included a matched control group comprised of healthy individuals. In the renal impairment study, subjects received single doses of selumetinib 50 mg; those with ESRD received selumetinib before and after dialysis (with a between-treatment washout period of ≥7 days). In the hepatic impairment study, subjects received varying single doses of selumetinib (20-50 mg) depending on liver dysfunction (mild, moderate, or severe as per Child-Pugh classification). PK, safety, and tolerability data were collected from both studies. Overall, 24 subjects were included in the renal impairment study (ESRD, N = 12; healthy subjects, N = 12). Selumetinib exposure (AUC and C max ) was not increased in the ESRD group vs healthy subjects. Selumetinib exposure was lower when selumetinib was dosed before vs after dialysis, although individual exposure was variable. Overall, 32 subjects were included in the hepatic impairment study (mild, moderate, and severe impairment, N = 8 per group; healthy subjects, N = 8). Generally, dose-normalized total selumetinib exposure was increased by 25% to 59% in subjects with moderate and severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. Increasing Child-Pugh score, decreasing serum albumin, and increasing prothrombin time correlated with increasing unbound selumetinib exposure. In both studies, selumetinib was well tolerated with no new safety concerns. These studies will inform dose adjustment considerations in patients. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Oral lipid-based nanoformulation of tafenoquine enhanced bioavailability and blood stage antimalarial efficacy and led to a reduction in human red blood cell loss in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melariri P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Paula Melariri,1 Lonji Kalombo,2 Patric Nkuna,2 Admire Dube,2,3 Rose Hayeshi,2 Benhards Ogutu,4,5 Liezl Gibhard,6 Carmen deKock,6 Peter Smith,6 Lubbe Wiesner,6 Hulda Swai2 1Polymers and Composites, Material Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Port Elizabeth, South Africa; 2Polymer and Composites, Material Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa; 3School of Pharmacy, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa; 4Centre for Research in Therapeutic Sciences, Strathmore University, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 6Division of Pharmacology, University of Cape Town Medical School, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Tafenoquine (TQ, a new synthetic analog of primaquine, has relatively poor bioavailability and associated toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient individuals. A microemulsion formulation of TQ (MTQ with sizes <20 nm improved the solubility of TQ and enhanced the oral bioavailability from 55% to 99% in healthy mice (area under the curve 0 to infinity: 11,368±1,232 and 23,842±872 min·µmol/L for reference TQ and MTQ, respectively. Average parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was four- to tenfold lower in the MTQ-treated group. In vitro antiplasmodial activities against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum indicated no change in half maximal inhibitory concentration, suggesting that the microemulsion did not affect the inherent activity of TQ. In a humanized mouse model of G6PD deficiency, we observed reduction in toxicity of TQ as delivered by MTQ at low but efficacious concentrations of TQ. We hereby report an enhancement in the solubility, bioavailibility, and efficacy of TQ against blood stages of Plasmodium parasites without a corresponding increase in toxicity

  6. Cygnus History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)

  7. Primary tuberculosis of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-known phrase that states, "The more things change, the more they stay the same." This expression continues to apply to tuberculosis (TB, a widespread infectious disease traced back to the earliest of centuries. TB has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may have killed more persons than any other microbial pathogen and is one of the major causes of ill health and death worldwide. Although the overall incidence of TB has decreased, recently, the incidence of this disease appears to be increasing. Oral lesions of TB though uncommon are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. In secondary TB, the oral manifestations may be accompanied by lesions in the lungs, lymph nodes, or in any other part of the body and can be detected by a systemic examination. Most of the cases are secondary to pulmonary disease and the primary form is uncommon. Here, we present a case of primary oral TB, affecting the gingiva and hard palate in a 40-year-old Indian female patient.

  8. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  9. Phase 1b Food Based Modulation of Biomarkers in Human Tissues at High-Risk for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage 0 Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Laryngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer; Stage 0 Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage 0 Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Stage IVA

  10. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  11. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  12. El Salvador at War: An Oral History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    of the country. But a stronger, more powerful economic force interceded, made up the Frente Agricola de la Regi6n Oriental, FARO [Agricultural Front...it seems to me that there are two things that are important. First of all, the greenhouse of Major General James R. Taylor. Commander. U.S. 193d

  13. On the immature stages and natural history of Gonioterma exquisita Duckworth (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae, Stenomatinae Sobre estágios imaturos e história natural de Gonioterma exquisita Duckworth (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae, Stenomatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosevaldo Pessoa-Queiroz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the natural history and immature stages of Gonioterma exquisita Duckworth, 1964 of the Brazilian cerrado region are described. The caterpillars are external folivorous feeders and present a diet restricted to pubescent-leaved host plants of the genus Byrsonima Rich. (Malpighiaceae. They are solitary caterpillars and they build a hard individual shelter that looks like a planorbid shell, made from silk and frass, covered with trichomes and silk, where they develop until the last larval instar on the host plant, and remain inside it until the adult emergence on herbaceous stratum. The larval development presented eight instars. Egg, larval head capsules, instar duration, pupa, shelter, and behavior are also described. Diapause is mentioned for the first time in this species.Este trabalho apresenta a história natural e descreve os imaturos de Gonioterma exquisita Duckworth, 1964 em uma região do cerrado brasileiro. As larvas são folívoras externas e apresentam dieta restrita a plantas de folhas pubescentes do gênero Byrsonima Rich. (Malpighiaceae. São larvas solitárias que constróem um abrigo bastante rígido com formato de uma concha de moluscos planorbídeos. Neste abrigo, feito de seda e fezes e coberto de seda e tricomas, as larvas desenvolvem-se até o instar final na planta hospedeira e permanecem dentro dele até a emergência do adulto, já no estrato herbáceo. O desenvolvimento larval caracteriza-se por apresentar oito ínstares. Ovo, larvas, cápsulas cefálicas, duração dos ínstares e do período de pupa, abrigos e comportamento são também descritos. Pela primeira vez é mencionada a diapausa nesta espécie.

  14. O itinerário terapêutico: história oral de idosos com câncer Itinerario terapéutico: historia oral de ancianos con cáncer Therapeutic itinerary: oral history of elderly patients with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Angelita Visentin; Maria Helena Lenardt

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Conhecer e descrever o itinerário terapêutico de idosos com câncer em atendimento ambulatorial, hospedados em Casas de Apoio na cidade de Curitiba - Paraná. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa com abordagem fundamentada no método da História Oral Temática (HOT). Foram realizadas cinco entrevistas com idosos em tratamento oncológico. As análises das narrativas foram realizadas por meio da técnica específica da HOT. RESULTADOS: Emergiram cinco tons vitais e um tema central. CONCLUSÃO: A aná...

  15. A prospective transmission electron microscopic study of muscle status in oral submucous fibrosis along with retrospective analysis of 80 cases of oral submucous fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, MK; Balaji, Narayanan; Malathi, Narasimhan

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Objective: The present study is undertaken to study the ultra structural features of muscle tissue in moderate and advanced stages of oral submucous fibrosis along with retrospective analysis of 80 cases of oral submucous fibrosis ( osmf) 0 during the period of year 2002 to 2005. Materials and Methods: Five patients with moderate and advanced stages of osmf0 were screened from outpatients department of oral diagnosis, sri Ramachandra dental college and hospital. After a detailed case history, they were subjected to incisional biopsy from an area of buccal mucosa with maximum palpable fibrotic bands.the specimens were cut into two halves, one half was fixed in 10% formalin for routine processing. Second half was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic examination. Results: Prospective study of muscle fibres from moderate and advanced stages of osmf0 revealed varying changes in high proportion of muscle fibres which includes, irregularity of surface of fibre,sarcolemmal foldings, reduplicated basement membrane, loss and alterations in the myofilaments, hypercontraction of myofibrils, Z line abnormalities, internal nucleus, autophagic vacuoles. These features are suggestive of muscle atrophy and necrosis. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the ultra structural features In moderate and advanced stages of osmf0 were best studied. These muscle changes can be manifestation of disease, atrophy being secondary to the limited functional activity of the muscles which is brought about by fibrosis or it could be essential part of the disease process itself. PMID:23248458

  16. Histological Diagnosis of Oral Lesions with Cutting Needle Biopsy: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rossi dos Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cutting needle biopsy in the diagnosis of solid oral lesions.Material and Methods: The biopsies were carried out on seven patients who presented with solid oral lesions with sizes ranging from 2 to 6 cm. Specimens were obtained from each lesion before conventional biopsies using a cutting needle with 18-gauge x 9 cm (MD TECH, Gainesville, FL, USA. A total of 64 specimens processed by hematoxylin-eosin staining method, were obtained. Afterwards, the analysis was performed by an oral pathologist, in two different stages, with and without the clinical history of each lesion. Then, these answers were compared with the final histological diagnosis.Results: Results presented by the descriptive analysis showed that the correct diagnosis using cutting needle biopsy without the clinical history of lesions was registered in 37.5% of cases, while with the clinical history in 76.6%.Conclusions: Despite the promising results as a potential technique for biopsies and histological diagnosis of oral lesions, the cutting needle biopsy should be analyzed carefully in those cases.

  17. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Y Hernandez

    Full Text Available Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV, and areca (betel nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether

  18. [Oral testing for sulfite asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, H; Kirsten, D; Jörres, R A; Magnussen, H

    1996-06-01

    Patients with asthma may develop bronchoconstriction after ingestion of sulfites. We studied the sensitivity and specificity of an oral provocation challenge with metabisulfite to detect a sulfite-sensitive asthma. We performed an oral dose-response metabisulfite challenge in 44 patients with a history of sulfite-sensitive asthma, 27 patients with asthma but without a history of sulfite sensitivity, and 8 control subjects without asthma. Metabisulfite was administered in capsules in a single-blind manner. Airway response was assessed by FEV decline, measured 30' after each dose. Thirty-nine percent of patients with a history of sulfite-sensitive asthma demonstrated a significant bronchoconstriction after ingestion of metabisulfite, whereas patients without an appropriate history and control subjects did not respond to the challenge. The oral metabisulfite challenge exhibits a high specificity (100%) but low sensitivity of about 40%. Nonetheless, taking into account the uncertainties in the patients' history of sulfite-sensitive asthma, the oral metabisulfite challenge as performed by us is a useful method for the diagnosis of sulfite sensitive asthma.

  19. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  20. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN) for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  1. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  2. Oral cancer: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanuthai, K; Rojanawatsirivej, S; Thosaporn, W; Kintarak, S; Subarnbhesaj, A; Darling, M; Kryshtalskyj, E; Chiang, C-P; Shin, H-I; Choi, S-Y; Lee, S-S; Aminishakib, P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as between Asian and non-Asian oral cancer patients.

  3. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... phenomenological approach of Dahlberg, Dahlberg, and Nyström. The essence of the phenomenon, oral hygiene, is described as a challenge: a mixture of ability and assigning priority; a challenge in which significant others, for better or worse, play an important role. We recommend a systematic cooperation between...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  4. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... phenomenological approach of Dahlberg, Dahlberg, and Nyström. The essence of the phenomenon, oral hygiene, is described as a challenge: a mixture of ability and assigning priority; a challenge in which significant others, for better or worse, play an important role. We recommend a systematic cooperation between...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  5. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-12-01

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  6. Malignancy Risk Models for Oral Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Zarate, Ana M.; Brezzo, Mar?a M.; Secchi, Dante G.; Barra, Jos? L.; Brunotto, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant. Study Design: Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and mor...

  7. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  8. [Oral contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, H

    1976-10-23

    The author presents an alphabetical list of oral contraceptives. To classify the commercial names of oral contraceptives all over the world is practically impossible for the following reasons: some agents are discontinued without the medical profession being aware of it; the same product can have various names depending on the country and the laboratory. Some products exist in different forms (21 pills including 7 inactive tablets). Finally, some laboratories change the posology of a product without changing its name.

  9. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  10. [Expression of Prion protein and its clinical significance in oral squamous cells carcinoma and oral leukoplakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Xu, Jiang

    2013-12-01

    To examine Prion protein(PrP) expression and its clinical significance in oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) and its subgroups. Expression of PrP in OSCC, oral leukoplakia and mucosa specimen was detected by immunohistochemistry. The association between the expression and gender, TNM clinical stages, pathological grades was evaluated. The positive expression rate of PrP in normal, oral leukoplakia and OSCC tissues was 15% (3/20) , 42% (11/26) and 95% (80/84) , respectively. There was a significant difference between the expression of PrP in leukoplakia and in high, moderately and poorly differentiated OSCC(P 0.05). Between stages I+II and III+IV in the overa II expression of PrP, there was a significant difference(P leukoplakia to OSCC was closely related to the carcinogenesis of OSCC, pathologic stage and clinical TNM stage.

  11. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  12. Imaging in oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeta Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.

  13. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  14. Factors associated with acute oral mucosal reaction induced by radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A retrospective single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhenchao; Gao, Jin; Qian, Liting; Huang, Yifan; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Liping; He, Jian; Yang, Jing; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Yangyang

    2017-12-01

    To investigate risk factors for acute oral mucosal reaction during head and neck squamous cell carcinoma radiotherapy.A retrospective study of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who underwent radiotherapy from November 2013 to May 2016 in Anhui Provincial Cancer Hospital was conducted. Data on the occurrence and severity of acute oral mucositis were extracted from clinical records. Based on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading of acute radiation mucosal injury, the patients were assigned into acute reaction (grades 2-4) and minimum reaction (grades 0-1) groups. Preradiotherapy characteristics and treatment factors were compared between the 2 groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to detect the independent factors associated with acute oral mucosal reactions.Eighty patients completed radiotherapy during the study period. Oral mucosal reactions were recorded as 25, 31, and 24 cases of grades 1, 2, and 3 injuries, respectively. Significant differences between acute reaction and minimum reaction groups were detected in cancer lymph node (N) staging, smoking and diabetes history, pretreatment platelet count and T-Helper/T-Suppressor lymphocyte (Th/Ts) ratio, concurrent chemotherapy, and total and single irradiation doses.Multivariate analysis showed that N stage, smoking history, single dose parapharyngeal irradiation, and pretreatment platelet count were independent risk factors for acute radiation induced oral mucosal reaction. Smoking history, higher grading of N stage, higher single dose irradiation, and lower preirradiation platelet count may increase the risk and severity of acute radiation oral mucosal reaction in radiotherapy of head and neck cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  16. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  18. The prognosis of N2b and N2c lymph node disease in oral squamous cell carcinoma is determined by the number of metastatic lymph nodes rather than laterality: evidence to support a revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Gil, Ziv; Amit, Moran; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Kowalski, Luiz P; Kohler, Hugo F; Kreppel, Matthias; Cernea, Claudio R; Brandao, Jose; Bachar, Gideon; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea; Fliss, Dan; Fridman, Eran; Robbins, K Thomas; Shah, Jatin P; Patel, Snehal G; Clark, Jonathan R

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess for prognostic heterogeneity within the N2b and N2c classifications for oral cancer based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes and to determine whether laterality of neck disease provides additional prognostic information. An international multicenter study of 3704 patients with oral cancer undergoing surgery with curative intent was performed. The endpoints of interest were disease-specific survival and overall survival. Model fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion and comparison of models with and without the covariate of interest using a likelihood ratio test. The median number of metastatic lymph nodes was significantly higher in patients with N2c disease compared to those with N2b disease (P number of metastatic lymph nodes improved model fit beyond existing N classification. Next, the authors confirmed significant heterogeneity in prognosis based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes (≤ 2, 3-4, and ≥ 5) in patients with both N2b and N2c disease (P number of metastatic lymph nodes demonstrated significant improvement in prognostic accuracy compared with the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, and no improvement was noted with the addition of a covariate for contralateral or bilateral neck disease (P = .472). The prognosis of patients with oral cancer with N2b and N2c disease appears to be similar after adequate adjustment for the burden of lymph node metastases, irrespective of laterality. Based on this finding, the authors propose a modified lymph node staging system that requires external validation before implementation in clinical practice. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  20. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers tend to spread quickly. Smoking and other tobacco use are linked to most cases of oral cancer. Heavy alcohol use also increases the risk for ... cancer greatly increases the chance of survival. Prevention ... Avoiding smoking or other tobacco use Having dental problems corrected Limiting or avoiding alcohol ...

  1. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  2. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard Larsen, Marie; Sorensen, J. A.; Godballe, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a common premalignant lesion. The possible benefits of specific interventions in preventing a malignant transformation of OL are not well understood. This review assesses different invasive treatment techniques for OL and evaluate the optimal treatment...

  3. Conceptual History, Cultural History, Social History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zhivov (†

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available V. M. Zhivov’s introduction to Studies in Historical Semantics of the Russian Language in the Early Modern Period (2009, translated here for the first time, offers a critical survey of the historiography on Begriffsgeschichte, the German school of conceptual history associated with the work of Reinhart Koselleck, as well as of its application to the study of Russian culture.  By situating Begriffsgeschichte in the context of late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century European philosophy, particularly hermeneutics and phenomenology, the author points out the important, and as yet unacknowledged, role that Russian linguists have played in the development of a native school of conceptual history.  In the process of outlining this alternative history of the discipline, Zhivov provides some specific examples of the way in which the study of “historical semantics” can be used to analyze the development of Russian modernity.

  4. Effects of nutrition on oral health | Agbelusi | Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of nutrition on oral health. ... The effects of malnutrition can be seen in the oral structures in all stages of human growth and development from conception to old age. ... These oral lesions are painful; disturb food intake and mastication thereby further compromising the nutrition of the affected individuals. In Africa ...

  5. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  6. Construction of a pathological risk model of occult lymph node metastases for prognostication by semi-automated image analysis of tumor budding in early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Lelkaitis, Giedrius

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to identify at diagnosis those patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), who have a poor prognosis and those that have a high risk of harboring occult lymph node metastases. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized and objective digital scoring method...... (PFS). We subsequently constructed and crossvalidated a binary logistic regression model and evaluated its clinical utility by decision curve analysis. A high DTBC was an independent predictor of both poor OS and PFS in a multivariate Cox regression model. The logistic regression model was able...

  7. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  8. Oral History Is Not Just Oral and Not Entirely History: Gleanings in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Marilyn M.

    The fact that a textbook presents a codified method does not mean that this textbook is an accurate representation of what happened in practice. Without verification, without records of teachers' practices, without student writing and comment, all the discipline of composition studies has is an idealized record of what should have been. This…

  9. Oral manifestations of allograft recipients before and after renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is considered the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. In this study, the prevalence of oral lesions was studied in a cohort of renal transplant recipients before and after transplantation. Fifty-nine kidney transplant recipients were examined one week before and four months after transplantation. The information gathered included age, sex, smoking history, duration on dialysis, drugs and their doses. There were 41 males (69.5% and 18 females (30.5% with a mean age of 37 years. Before surgery, two patients had non-specific lesions and two other patients had leukoedema. Following transplantation, 24 patients (40.7% did not have any specific lesion. In six patients, we observed non-specific erythematous lesions (10.2%. Other recorded observations are as follows: Gingival hyperplasia in five patients (8.5%, oral candidiasis of the erythematous type in five patients (8.5%, hairy leukoplakia in four patients (6.8% and leukoedema in seven patients (11.9%. In our study patients, the prevalence of oral lesions increased after transplantation, although it was lower than that reported in other studies. This could be due to the differences in sample size, differences between Iranian race and other races and different pharmaceutical formulation of the drug produced in Iran.

  10. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  11. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  12. Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli; Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2009-01-01

    describes the persistence of reproductive success during the life of an individual. Trajectories of reproductive stage determine survivorship, and we analyse the variance in lifespan within and between trajectories of reproductive stage. We show how stage-structured models can be used to predict realized......Longitudinal data on natural populations have been analysed using multistage models in which survival depends on reproductive stage, and individuals change stages according to a Markov chain. These models are special cases of stage-structured population models. We show that stage-structured models...... generate dynamic heterogeneity: life-history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov chain: the entropy, which describes the extent of heterogeneity, and the subdominant eigenvalue, which...

  13. Oral Histoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Folk, Gillian A.; Nelson, Brenda L.

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the...

  14. Constructing History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Riber

    2010-01-01

    The Icelandic sagas can be read and interpreted in many ways. This article examines the sagas both as literary expressions of a longstanding oral tradition and as part of a collective and cultural memory. The focus in the first part is on people and places in the sagas as ‘realms of memory’: things...

  15. Oral Leukoplakia as It Relates to HPV Infection: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, L.; Lemmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity and can be categorised according to its clinical appearance as homogeneous or nonhomogenous. Tobacco and areca nut use, either alone or in combination are the most common risk factors for oral leukoplakia, but some oral leukoplakias are idiopathic. Some leukoplakias arise within fields of precancerized oral epithelium in which the keratinocytes may be at different stages of cytogenetic transformation. Leukoplakias ...

  16. Significant enhancement of 11-Hydroxy-THC detection by formation of picolinic acid esters and application of liquid chromatography/multi stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ): Application to hair and oral fluid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef; Sachs, Ulf; Sachs, Hans; Moore, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Formation of picolinic acid esters of hydroxylated drugs or their biotransformation products is a promising tool to improve their mass spectrometric ionization efficiency, alter their fragmentation behaviour and enhance sensitivity and specificity of their detection. The procedure was optimized and tested for the detection of cannabinoids, which proved to be most challenging when dealing with alternative specimens, for example hair and oral fluid. In particular, the detection of the THC metabolites hydroxyl-THC and carboxy-THC requires ultimate sensitivity because of their poor incorporation into hair or saliva. Both biotransformation products are widely accepted as incorporation markers to distinguish drug consumption from passive contamination. The derivatization procedure was carried out by adding a mixture of picolinic acid, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine and 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride in tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine to the dry extraction residues. Resulting derivatives were found to be very stable and could be reconstituted in aqueous or organic buffers and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Owing to the complex consecutive fragmentation patterns, the application of multistage MS3 proved to be extremely useful for a sensitive identification of doubly picolinated hydroxy-THC in complex matrices. The detection limits - estimated by comparison of corresponding signal-to-noise ratios - increased by a factor of 100 following picolination. All other species examined, like cannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, and carboxy-THC, could also be derivatized exhibiting only moderate sensitivity improvements. The assay was systematically tested using hair samples and exemplarily applied to oral fluid. Concentrations of OH-THC identified in THC-positive hair samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.29pg/mg. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  18. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.

  19. Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jae Won

    1993-01-01

    Eighty five patients of oral cavity cancer, treated with radiation at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, during the period from March 1985 to September 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 85 patients, 37 patients were treated with radiation only and 48 patients were treated with radiation following surgery And 70 patients received external irradiation only by 60 Co with or without electron, the others were 7 patients for external irradiation plus interstitial implantation and 8 patients for external irradiation plus oral cone electron therapy. Primary sites were mobile tongue for 40 patients, mouth floor for 17 patients, palate for 12 patients, gingiva including retromolar trigone for 10 patients, buccal mucosa for 5 patients, and lip for 1 patient. According to pathologic classification, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (77 patients). According to AJC TNM stage, stage I + II were 28 patients and stage III + IV were 57 patients. Acturial overall survival rate at 3 years was 43.9%, 3 year survival rates were 60.9% for stage I + II, and 23.1% for stage III + IV, respectively. As a prognostic factor, primary T stage was a significant factor (p<0.01). The others, age, location, lymph node metastasis, surgery, radiation dose, and cell differentiation were not statistically significant. Among those factors, radiation plus surgery was more effective than radiation only in T3 + T4 or in any N stage although it was not statistically sufficient(p<0.1). From those results, it was conclusive that definitive radiotherapy was more effective than surgery especially in the view of pertaining of anatomical integrity and function in early stage, and radiation plus surgery was considered to be better therapeutic tool in advanced stage

  20. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral

  1. Kilka uwag o narracji biograficznej czeskich strażaków (Społeczeństwo czeskie w okresie tzw. normalizacji i transformacji w świetle oral history)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bortlová, Hana

    -, č. 3 (2013), s. 175-185 ISSN 2084-0578 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP410/11/1352 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Czechoslovak fire fighters * normalization in Czechoslovakia * occupational storytelling and culture Subject RIV: AB - History

  2. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers Geor...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on.......Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  3. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  4. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents / Oral Thrush Print en español Muguet (candidiasis oral) What Is Oral Thrush? Oral thrush is a ... Candida overgrowth also causes diaper rash and vaginal yeast infections . Babies can have oral thrush and a diaper rash at the same ...

  5. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  6. Oral Contraceptives, Depression, and Libido

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Brenda N.; Draper, Katharine C.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Nicol, Gillian C.

    1971-01-01

    Depression, headaches, and libido were rated in 272 women before starting a contraceptive method and at intervals during the first year of use—54 were fitted with an intrauterine device (I.U.D.) and 218 used one of three oral contraceptives. Side effects caused 25% of the oral contraceptive group and 13% of the I.U.D. group to stop the method. Depression, headaches, and loss of libido were the most common reasons for stopping oral contraceptives and breakthrough bleeding was the most common reason for stopping the I.U.D. The group of women who stopped or changed their oral contraceptives during the survey were compared with the group who remained on the same oral contraceptive throughout. The former had higher mean depression and neuroticism scores at the first clinic visit and contained more women with a history of premenstrual weepiness, depression during pregnancy, outpatient psychiatric treatment, and treatment with antidepressants. Changes in the depression, headache, and libido ratings throughout the survey are presented. PMID:5565516

  7. Oral Cysticercosis: A Diagnostic Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Jaya; Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and ne...

  8. The Interaction of Risk Network Structures and Virus Natural History in the Non-spreading of HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs in the Early Stages of the Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Kirk; Khan, Bilal; Habecker, Patrick; Hagan, Holly; Friedman, Samuel R; Saad, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    This article explores how social network dynamics may have reduced the spread of HIV-1 infection among people who inject drugs during the early years of the epidemic. Stochastic, discrete event, agent-based simulations are used to test whether a "firewall effect" can arise out of self-organizing processes at the actor level, and whether such an effect can account for stable HIV prevalence rates below population saturation. Repeated simulation experiments show that, in the presence of recurring, acute, and highly infectious outbreaks, micro-network structures combine with the HIV virus's natural history to reduce the spread of the disease. These results indicate that network factors likely played a significant role in the prevention of HIV infection within injection risk networks during periods of peak prevalence. They also suggest that social forces that disturb network connections may diminish the natural firewall effect and result in higher rates of HIV.

  9. Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine, Palonosetron Hydrochloride, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cisplatin in Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Nausea and Vomiting; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  10. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...

  11. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  12. Oral Allergy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuto Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as the symptoms of IgE-mediated immediate allergy localized in the oral mucosa, and the characteristics depend on the lability of the antigen. Another term used for this syndrome is pollen-food allergy (PFS; the patient is sensitized with pollen via the airways and exhibits an allergic reaction to food antigen with a structural similarity to the pollen (class 2 food allergy. In addition to PFS, latex-fruit syndrome is also well-known as the disease exhibiting OAS. In treating the condition, it must be noted that most but not all symptoms of PFS are those of OAS. In many cases, antigens become edible by heating, but some are resistant to heating. Also, since the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis is occasionally observed after the intake of cooked antigens in asymptomatic individuals, careful inquiry of the history is important in designing the treatment. Immunotherapy against the cross-reacting pollen has also been attempted in PFS.

  13. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  14. The role of dental care providers and oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the surgical and medical management of oral cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomjune B; Kim, Dongsoo D

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer results in significant morbidity and mortality in those afflicted. Despite modern treatments, mortality is high, with overall 5-year survival rates that approximate 50%. However, early stage disease (Stages 1 and 2) carries a significantly better prognosis than late stage disease (Stages 3 and 4), therefore, prevention and early detection continue to be important in improving oral cancer control. The role of dental care providers in routine oral cancer screenings, smoking cessation, treatment, and rehabilitation of oral cancer patients is emphasized in this article. This article also discusses the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer and the role of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the surgical and medical management of oral cancer patients in the United States.

  15. Oral Health Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Oral Health and Overal Health Gum Disease and Cardiovascular Health ... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Oral Health Glossary Article Chapters Oral Health Glossary print full ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Home Health Info Health Information The Oral Cancer Exam See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Home Health Info Health Information The Oral Cancer Exam See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and ...

  18. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean

  19. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Saedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer.  Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors.   Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3% were female and the remaining 338 (60.7% were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013.   Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran.

  20. Oral candidiasis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangtham, M; Magder, L S; Petri, M A

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the frequency of oral candidiasis and the association between demographic variables, disease-related variables, corticosteroid treatment, other treatments and the occurrence of oral candidiasis in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. In this large prospective cohort study of 2258 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), demographic and clinical associates of oral candidiasis were estimated by univariate, multivariate and within-person regression models. There were 53,548 cohort visits. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed at 675 visits (1.25%) in 325 (14%) of the patients. In the multivariate analyses, oral candidiasis was associated with African-American ethnicity, SELENA-SLEDAI disease activity, high white blood cell count, a history of bacterial infection, prednisone use and immunosuppressive use. The urine protein by urine dip stick was higher in SLE patients with oral candidiasis. Considering only patients who had candidiasis at some visits in a 'within-person' analysis, candidiasis was more frequent in visits with higher SELENA-SLEDAI disease activity, high white blood cell count, proteinuria by urine dip stick, a history of bacterial infection and prednisone use. The use of hydroxychloroquine was associated with a lower risk of oral candidiasis, but was not statistically significant (p = 0.50) in the within-person analysis models. This study identified multiple risk factors for oral candidiasis in SLE. Inspection of the oral cavity for signs of oral candidiasis is recommended especially in SLE patients with active disease, proteinuria, high white blood cell count, taking prednisone, immunosuppressive drugs or antibiotics. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Relationship between the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Clinicopathologic Features in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Jafarian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is one of the most important and common types of head and neck malignancy, with an estimated rate of 4% among all human malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the association between expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and the clinicopathological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.   Materials and Methods: One hundred existing samples of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens of OSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining for matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 antibodies. Samples were divided into four groups: negative, 50%. Patient records were assessed for demographic characteristics such as age and gender, smoking and family history of OSCC as well as tumor features including location, differentiation, stage and lymph node involvement.   Results: In this study, 58 patients (58% were male and 42 (42% female. The mean age of patients was 60.38±14.07 years. The average number of lymph nodes involved was 8.9±3.8. Tumoral grade, tumoral stage, lymphatic metastasis and history of smoking were significantly related to MMP2 and MMP9 expression.   Conclusion:  Our study demonstrated that MMP2 and MMP9 expression are important in the development of OSCC.

  2. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detailed information about the cancer stage. TNM Staging System The most common system for staging cancer in the form of solid tumor is the TNM system. Most providers and cancer centers use it to stage ...

  3. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  4. Reading skills in young adolescents with a history of Specific Language Impairment: The role of early semantic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the reading skills of 19 Spanish-Catalan children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and 16 age-matched control children. Children with SLI have difficulties with oral language comprehension, which may affect later reading acquisition. We conducted a longitudinal study examining reading acquisition in these children between 8 and 12 years old and we relate this data with early oral language acquisition at 6 years old. Compared to the control group, the SLI group presented impaired decoding and comprehension skills at age 8, as evidenced by poor scores in all the assessed tasks. Nevertheless, only text comprehension abilities appeared to be impaired at age 12. Individual analyses confirmed the presence of comprehension deficits in most of the SLI children. Furthermore, early semantic verbal fluency at age 6 appeared to significantly predict the reading comprehension capacity of SLI participants at age 12. Our results emphasize the importance of semantic capacity at early stages of oral language development over the consolidation of reading acquisition at later stages. Readers will recognize the relevance of prior oral language impairment, especially semantic capacity, in children with a history of SLI as a risk factor for the development of later reading difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Summer holiday is a pleasure which did not become available to many people until the 20th Century. The article describes the early mountain rambles of the bourgeoisie and their holidays in seaside boarding houses. Outdoor pursuits and stays in boarding houses at bathing resorts also became...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  6. River history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  7. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  8. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Gonzalez-Losa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%. In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  9. Mucosite oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Spezzia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A mucosite consta de irritação ou inflamação da mucosa bucal, provocada por ação da radioterapia de cabeça e pescoço e da quimioterapia. O objetivo deste artigo foi verificar como a ocorrência de mucosite oral pode influir na saúde bucal dos pacientes com câncer. Para tratamento odontológico o laser de baixa intensidade é o de opção. O emprego do laser de baixa potência tem cunho, tanto preventivo, como curativo para tratamento das lesões causadas. Concluiu-se que se pode evitar intercorrências no transcorrer do tratamento oncológico radioterápico e quimioterápico, fazendo-se uso da terapia laser, o que vai permitir melhores condições e qualidade de vida aos pacientes acometidos por mucosite.

  10. Oral Tuberculous Ulcer - A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka J Bathi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous lesions of oral cavity had become so infrequent that it was virtually a forgotten disease entity but now due to increased prevalence of immunodefiency, incidence of tuberculous lesion has also increased. We report two cases, primary and secondary tuberculosis of oral mucosa presenting with history and clinical findings. We emphasize on early detection of and treatment of the same.

  11. Self-rated oral health status, oral health service utilization, and oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusile, Adeyemi Oluniyi; Adeniyi, Abiola Adetokunbo; Orebanjo, Olufemi

    2014-11-27

    There is scarce information available on oral health service utilization patterns and common oral hygiene practices among adult Nigerians. We conducted the 2010-2011 national oral health survey before the introduction of the national oral health policy to determine the prevalence of oral health service utilization, patterns of oral hygiene practices, and self reported oral health status, among adults in various social classes, educational strata, ethnic groups and geopolitical zones in Nigeria. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in North-Central, North-West, South-East, South-South and South-West geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was used for the sample selection. We administered a structured questionnaire to a total of 7,630 participants. Information on the socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices and oral health services utilization pattern of participants was obtained. We interviewed 7, 630 participants (55.6% female). The participants ages ranged between 18 and 81 years, mean age was 37.96 (SD = 13.2). Overall 21.2% of the participants rated their oral health status as very good, 37.1% as good and 27.4% as fair. Only 26.4% reported having visited the dentist at least once prior to the conduct of the survey. More than half of these visits (54.9%) were for treatment purpose. Utilization of oral health services was significantly (p educated and being engaged in a skilled profession. More educated persons, females and younger persons used toothbrushes for daily tooth cleaning. Age, sex, marital status, level of education and occupation were significantly related to daily frequency of tooth cleaning (p educated persons displayed poorer oral hygiene practices. The study findings suggest that there is low oral health service utilization among adult Nigerians and that socio-demographic variables influence oral health utilization habits and oral hygiene behavior among adult Nigerians Further studies to

  12. 7th international conference on case histories in geotechnical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Funding used to enhance objectives of conference and to present successful case histories of varied project, orally, in posters and in : proceedings. This will become a storehouse of knowledge for future reference.

  13. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  14. Light-based headways: An innovation in oral cancer espial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur Gill

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, mainly because of the widespread consumption of tobacco and related products. Early detection is very important in the management of oral cancer. However, when the lesion is detected in the oral cavity, it is at a much advanced stage for effective management, resulting in morbidity and mortality. A majority of deaths related to cancer are due in part to late diagnosis. In order to improve the clinical outcome of oral cancer, early detection is very important. One of the emerging technologies in the early detection of oral cancer is the use of noninvasive in vivo tissue imaging that captures the molecular changes at high resolution to improve the detection capability of oral cancer at an early stage.

  15. [Rupture of hepatic adenoma and oral contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, A; Madrazo, L; González, J

    1978-01-01

    We present one case of hepatic adenoma in a patient with a long history of oral contraceptive administration. Review of the literature in similar cases points to the possibility of a cause effect relationship between this type of drugs and liver adenomas.

  16. Problems associated with basic oral surgical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapatkin, A.S.; Marretta, S.M.; Schloss, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The veterinarian must be able to diagnose several types of dental problems. History, physical examination, clinical pathology, and radiography are important in making an accurate diagnosis. Basic oral surgery includes various extraction techniques and management of their associated complications. Knowledge of dental anatomy and proper surgical technique can make an extraction curative rather than a frustrating procedure with multiple complications

  17. "A Heuristic for Visual Thinking in History"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This article details a heuristic history teachers can use in assigning and evaluating multimedia projects in history. To use this heuristic successfully, requires more than simply following the steps in the list or stages in a recipe: in many ways, it requires a reorientation in what it means to think like an historian. This article, as much as…

  18. Stages of tuberculous meningitis: a clinicoradiologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, K.; Firdaus, A.; Bullo, N.; Kumar, S.; Abbasi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequencies and percentages of various clinicoradiologic variables of tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) with reference to British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging of the disease. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neurology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from October 2010 to September 2011. Methodology: The study included 93 adult patients with the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) at the study place. Patients were divided in three groups according to British Medical Research Council (BMRC) staging of TBM. Different clinical and radiological findings were analyzed at different stages of the disease. Data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) version 11.0. Results: A majority of patients were found to be in stage-II disease at the time of admission. History of illness at the time of admission was more than 2 weeks in 50% of stage-I patients but around 80% in stage-II and stage-III patients. Neck stiffness was the most commonly reported finding in all stages. Cranial nerve palsies were higher in stage-III (75%) than in stage-II (43%) and in stage-I (24%) patients. Hydrocephalus and basal enhancement was the most frequently reported radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: Duration of illness and cranial nerve palsies are important variables in the diagnosis of TBM stages and if TBM is suspected, empiric treatment should be started immediately without bacteriologic proof to prevent morbidity and mortality. (author)

  19. Nuclear factor κB and cyclooxygenase-2 immunoexpression in oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz; Pereira, Erika Martins; de Abreu, Michelle Carvalho; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; dos Santos Pinto, Décio

    2013-02-01

    Oral leukoplakia is the main potentially malignant oral lesion, and oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 95% of all malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the immunoexpression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed on 6 inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, 28 oral leukoplakia, and 15 oral squamous cell carcinoma paraffin-embedded samples. Immunoperoxidase reaction for NF-κB and COX-2 was applied on the specimens, and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Using the analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc statistical analyses, a significantly increased immunoexpression for NF-κB was observed when oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were compared with the other groups studied. However, using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post hoc tests, a statistically significant result for COX-2 expression was obtained only when the moderate dysplasia group was compared with the inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia group. Nuclear factor κB may participate in the malignant phenotype acquisition process of the oral squamous cell carcinoma in its late stages, whereas COX-2 may be involved in the early stages of oral carcinogenesis process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... machine in the same position before each treatment. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat lip and oral cavity ...

  1. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  2. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...... internally and made little communication to stakeholders. After a silent period in the 1970s, the 1980s and 1990s saw an increase in methodological development and international collaboration and coordination in the scientific community and method development increasingly took place in universities....... With the consolidation of the methodological basis, application of LCA widened to encompass a rapidly increasing range of products and systems with studies commissioned or performed by both industry and governments, and results were increasingly communicated through academic papers and industry and government reports...

  3. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  4. The Oral Microbiome of Children: Development, Disease, and Implications Beyond Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Nelson, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    In the era of applied meta-omics and personalized medicine, the oral microbiome is a valuable asset. From biomarker discovery to being a powerful source of therapeutic targets and to presenting an opportunity for developing non-invasive approaches to health care, it has become clear that oral microbes may hold the answer for understanding disease, even beyond the oral cavity. Although our understanding of oral microbiome diversity has come a long way in the past 50 years, there are still many areas that need to be fine-tuned for better risk assessment and diagnosis, especially in early developmental stages of human life. Here, we discuss the factors that impact development of the oral microbiome and explore oral markers of disease, with a focus on the early oral cavity. Our ultimate goal is to put different experimental and methodological views into perspective for better assessment of early oral and systemic disease at an early age and discuss how oral microbiomes-at the community level-could provide improved assessment in individuals and populations at risk.

  5. Oral Communication and Technical Writing: A Reconsideration of Writing in a Multicultural Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibangu, Sylvain K.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the status of orality in the history of technical communication. The article calls for orality as an integral part and driving force of technical writing. The article brings to light the misconceptions that have led to a diminished role of oral communication in technical writing. The article shows the implications of oral…

  6. Estadios precoces de cancer oral: pronóstico en relación con gradación histológica, linfagiogénesis intratumoral y expresión de factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular Tipo-C (VEGF-C Early stage oral cancer: prognosis with regard to histological grading, intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Muñoz-Guerra

    2006-02-01

    relación estadísticamente significativa entre los sistemas de Broders y Anneroth (pObjectives. Histological grading systems have been classically used as a prognostic factor and clinical behavior markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. However, their prognostic usefulness remains controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis (IL, a new morphological finding, in a retrospective analysis of paraffin embedded tissue samples that corresponded to a group of early stage oral squamous cell carcinoma cases, and to relate this with histological grading systems while keeping in mind their prognostic significance. We also wanted to determine if the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C is correlated with the evolution of the disease. Design. We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 patients with OSCC. All cases were T1-T2 neoplasms and were treated primarily by local resection and elective neck dissection that showed no neck involvement. In the group of 96 specimens, we analyzed IL using the specific marker PA2.26 for lymphatic endothelium. Also, we studied the expression of (VEGF-C. All cases were classified according to the histological grading systems described by Broders, Anneroth and Bryne. The statistical analysis was based on the univariate analysis of cause-specific survival and disease recurrence free-survival according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. The group of patients without intratumoral lymphangiogenesis showed a better prognosis with regard to survival and disease- free period, but the difference was not statistically significant. The study showed no relationship between VEGF-C expression and the presence of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. However, no recurrences were observed in the group without VEGF-C expression. The comparative analysis of the histological grading system showed a statistical relationship between the Broders and Anneroth systems (p<0.01 and between the Broders and

  7. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  8. TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression in normal oral epithelium oral dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Fernanda-Paula; Corrêa Pontes, Flávia-Sirotheau; Cury, Sérgio-Elias; Fonseca, Felipe-Paiva; Rebelo-Pontes, Hélder; Pinto-Júnior, Décio-dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of TWIST and p-Akt proteins in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), correlating their expressions with the histological features of the lesions. Study design: Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 10 normal oral epithelium, 30 OL and 20 OSCC formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Immunoperoxidase reactions for TWIST and p-Akt proteins were applied on the specimens and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Results: Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post tests revealed a significant difference in TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression among normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between TWIST and p-Akt expressions according to the Pearson’s correlation test. Conclusions: The results obtained in the current study suggest that TWIST and p-Akt may participate of the multi-step process of oral carcinogenesis since its early stages. Key words: Oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, dysplasia, immunohistochemistry. PMID:21743395

  9. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk On This Page What are oral contraceptives? What is known about the relationship between oral ...

  10. Salivary RNA Signatures in Oral Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Panta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC are common malignancies that affect almost a million people every year. The key issue in reducing mortality and morbidity associated with OSCC is to develop novel strategies to identify OSCC at an early stage. One such strategy is the identification of biomarkers. So far, more than 100 biomarkers are recognized in the detection of oral cancer and they range from proteins to nucleic acids (DNAs, RNAs. Detection of ribose nucleic acids in saliva is a recent trend in diagnosing oral cancer. Studies have shown statistically significant changes in the levels of salivary transcriptomes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. These biomarkers have displayed high sensitivity and specificity. Also, new point-of-care platforms such as oral fluid nanosensor test are now available that will soon emerge as chair-side tools for early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of salivary transcriptomes in oral cancer detection.

  11. Process Grammar and Process History for 2D Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas W.

    ]. The article describes how it is possible to derive the process history for an object from its state at two stages in its development. The aim in this priject is to describe and test an algorithm for deriving the process history of an object form it state at two different stages. First I give a short summary...

  12. [Association between oral hygiene, chronic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangfeng; He, Baochang; Chen, Fa; Liu, Fangping; Yan, Lingjun; Hu, Zhijian; Lin, Lisong; He, Fei; Cai, Lin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between oral hygiene, chronic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We performed a case-control study with 414 cases and 870 controls in Fujian during September 2010 to January 2015. Patients were newly diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma cases according to the pathologic diagnoses, control subjects were enrolled from community population. Epidemiological data were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaire included demography character, history of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, dietary habits, oral hygiene status, family history of cancer, etc. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for oral hygiene and chronic diseases. We also stratified by sex, smoking and drinking to explore possible difference in association between subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that number of teeth (20-27 and oral ulceration were the risk factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 2.01 (1.49-2.73), 3.51 (2.39-5.15), 2.33 (1.79-3.04), 3.96 (2.11-7.44), respectively; brushing tooth once per bay, brushing tooth more than once per day, regular oral health examination at least 5 years per time were the protective factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 0.24 (0.13-0.43), 0.13 (0.07-0.24), 0.37 (0.26-0.53), respectively. The stratification analysis indicated that recurrent oral ulceration could increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma for non-smokers and non-drinking, the adjusted OR (95% CI) value was 5.21 (2.42-11.18) and 4.71 (2.37-9.36); and a risky effect of hypertension on risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma was observed for non-smokers and non-drinking, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 1.70 (1.10-2.61) and 1.58 (1.07-2.34). Oral hygiene and chronic diseases could affect the

  13. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  14. Delays in Referral of Oral Cancer Patients, A10 yr Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, a public enlightenment programme to increase awareness of oral cancer is stressed. In addition, a 3 monthly review of suspicious lesions such as oral leukoplakia, candidiasis, erythroplakia by practitioners is suggested. A yearly oral screen for the over 40's with papaconilau 2- stage staining procedure is ...

  15. Caregivers' perception of oral health‑related quality of life in a group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... virus (HIV) infection commonly present with oral lesions such as oral candidiasis, gingivitis, periodontal disease, and dental caries, and these lesions are sometimes seen in the early stages of the infection.[7‑9] Oral conditions in such persons are considered useful markers of disease progression.

  16. Using life history narratives to educate staff members about personhood in assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammonley, Denise; Lester, Connie L; Fleishman, Daniel; Duran, Lloyd; Cravero, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Oral life history narratives are a promising method to promote person-centered values of personhood and belonging. This project used resident oral history interviews to educate staff members in an assisted-living setting about personhood. A single group pre-post test design evaluated impacts on 37 staff members to assess their use of resident videotaped oral history interviews and impacts on their perceived knowledge of residents. Perceived knowledge of residents declined (p = .003) between pretest and posttest. Older staff members were less likely to view a video. Staff members are interested in resident oral history biographies and identify them as helpful for delivering care. Oral history methods might provide an opportunity for staff members to promote personhood by allowing them to expand their understanding of resident preferences, values, and experiences.

  17. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  18. Training Graduate Students in Black History: Some Methodological Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhett S.

    1975-01-01

    Problems confronting students of black history are discussed and skills to assist graduate students to overcome these difficulties are suggested. The importance is stressed of mastering techniques of archaeology, oral history, linguistics, anthropology, and sociology for the solution of these problems. (EH)

  19. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  20. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advancing the nation's oral health through research and innovation Health Info Research Grants & Funding Careers & Training News & ... Advancing the nation's oral health through research and innovation Health Info Research Grants & Funding Careers & Training News & ...

  2. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oral Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  4. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  5. Two-stage repair in hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Haxhirexha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide the reader with a nonsystematic review concerning the use of the two-stage approach in hypospadias repairs. A one-stage approach using the tubularized incised plate urethroplasty is a well-standardized approach for the most cases of hypospadias. Nevertheless, in some primary severe cases, in most hypospadias failures and in selected patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans a two-stage approach is preferable. During the first stage the penis is straightened, if necessary and the urethral plate is substituted with a graft of either genital (prepuce or extragenital origin (oral mucosa or postauricular skin. During the second stage, performed around 6 months later, urethroplasty is accomplished by graft tubulization. Graft take is generally excellent, with only few cases requiring an additional inlay patch at second stage due to graft contracture. A staged approach allows for both excellent cosmetic results and a low morbidity including an overall 6% fistula rate and 2% stricture rate. Complications usually occur in the first year after the second stage and are higher in secondary repairs. Complications tend to decrease as experience increases and use of additional waterproofing layers contributes to reduce the fistula rate significantly. Long-term cosmetic results are excellent, but voiding and ejaculatory problems may occur in as much as 40% of cases if a long urethral tube is constructed. The procedure has a step learning curve but because of its technical simplicity does not require to be confined only to highly specialized centers.

  6. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of \\'field cancerisation\\'\\/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  7. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... years. He spoke with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about oral health issues common in older adults. What has been ...

  8. Oral Manifestations of Menopause

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manifested in the oral cavity.[9] The teeth and gums are more affected by the hormonal changes occurring before menopause, which decrease the body's ability to fight minor infections or maintain a healthy balance of useful and harmful bacteria within the oral environment.[10] The dentist needs to be aware of oral ...

  9. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  10. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Jagadish; Dhoom Singh Mehta; P Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient's informed consent, relevant medical history, oral mani...

  11. Relationship between oral health knowledge, practices and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies have shown that strong knowledge on oral health demonstrates better oral care practice and an association between increased knowledge and better oral health exists. Aim: To assess the influence of oral health knowledge and oral care practices to oral health status of secondary school students in ...

  12. Oral food challenges in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yung Yum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients assume that allergic reactions against foods are responsible for triggering or worsening their allergic symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who would benefit from an elimination diet, while avoiding unnecessary dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy depends on the thorough review of the patients's medical history, results of supplemented trials of dietary elimination, and in vivo and in vitro tests for measuring specific IgE levels. However, in some cases the reliability of such procedures is suboptimal. Oral food challenges are procedures employed for making an accurate diagnosis of immediate and occasionally delayed adverse reactions to foods. The timing and type of the challenge, preparation of patients, foods to be tested, and dosing schedule should be determined on the basis of the patient's history, age, and experience. Although double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges(DBPCFC are used to establish definitively if a food is the cause of adverse reactions, they are time-consuming, expensive and troublesome for physician and patients. In practice, An open challenge controlled by trained personnel is sufficient especially in infants and young children. The interpretation of the results and follow-up after a challenge are also important. Since theses challenges are relatively safe and informative, controlled oral food challenges could become the measure of choice in children.

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or ... Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or ...

  15. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...

  16. Early stages in the history of gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomnikov, Ivan G; Efremov, Alexander M; Tikhomirova, Tatyana I; Sorokina, Nadezhda M; Zolotov, Yury A

    2018-02-16

    The creation of gas chromatography is traditionally associated with the names of Nobel Prize winner Archer Martin and his colleagues Richard Synge and Anthony James. However, sometimes references to their predecessors can be found. An investigation conducted by the authors of this article not only confirmed the reliability of these references; but in fact led to the conclusion that by 1952, which is commonly believed to be the year when gas chromatography was born, many research papers had already been devoted to this method, mainly, in its gas-solid version. These papers are considered in this article. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Oral rehabilitation of primary dentition affected by amelogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-e-Silva, Cíntia Maria; Parisotto, Thaís Manzano; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Nobre-Dos-Santos, Marinês

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the case report was to describe the treatment of a 4(1/2)-year-old boy with amelogenesis imperfect (AI) in the primary dentition. AI is a hereditary condition that affects the development of enamel, causing quantity, structural, and compositional anomalies involving all dentitions. Consequently, the effects can extend to both the primary and secondary dentitions. A 4(1/2)-year-old boy was brought to the dental clinic complaining of tooth hypersensitivity during meals. The medical history and clinical examination were used to arrive at the diagnosis of amelogenesis imperfecta. The treatment was oral rehabilitation of the primary molars with stainless steel crowns and resin-filled celluloid forms of both maxillary and mandibular primary incisors and canines. Improvements in the patient's psychological behavior and the elimination of tooth sensitiveness were observed, and the reestablishment of a normal occlusion resulted in improved eating habits. The child was monitored in the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at four-month intervals until the mixed dentition stage. The oral rehabilitation of young children with AI is necessary to reestablish the stomatognathic system function, so important for a child's systemic health. An adequate medical history and a careful clinical examination were essential for a correct diagnosis. Treatment was rendered that was appropriate for the child's age and clinical/psychological characteristics. Cost-effective restorative techniques involving stainless steel and composite-resin crowns are shown for the restoration of a young patient with amelogensis imperfecta.

  18. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  19. A Brief History of the Current Reemergence of Contemplative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patricia Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history of the current reemergence of a contemplative orientation in education. While referencing an ancient history, it primarily examines the history of contemporary contemplative education through three significant stages, focusing on the third. The first was arguably initiated by the introduction of Buddhism to the…

  20. [Determination of human papillomavirus in oral leukoplakia,oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Jin, Jian-qiu; Deng, Da-jun; Liu, Hong-wei

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the possibility for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to be a predictable signal for the carcinogenesis of oral mucosa by comparing the prevalences of HPV in each stage of oral mucosal carcinogenesis and to compare the sensitivity differences of the two methods in detecting HPV infection in oral cavity. The hybrid capture (HC-II) was used to detect infection of HPV in 255 samples taken from 12 cases of healthy oral mucosa, 211 cases of patients with pathological diagnosis and 32 cases of patients with clinical diagnosis. The diagnosed cases included 8 cases of benign lesions of the oral mucosa, precancerous lesions [74 cases of oral leukoplakia (OLK) with hyperplasia and 42 cases of OLK with oral epithelial dysplasia (OED)], 91 cases of precancerous condition [oral lichen planus (OLP)] and 28 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). And in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to detect infection of HPV in 33 cases of OSCC and 76 cases of OLK, including 30 cases of hyperplasia, 15 cases of mild OED, 15 cases of moderate OED and 16 cases of severe OED. The prevalence of HPV in OLP samples was higher (12.12%, 8/66) than that of OLK (2.59%, 3/116) (χ(2)=4.666, P=0.031) and OSCC(7.14%, 2/28, χ(2)=0.513, P=0.474). The prevalence of HPV in OSCC (7.14%, 2/28) was higher than that of OLK (2.59%, 3/116), and no significant difference was found. There was only one case of smoke spot and statistical analysis was not carried out. ISH was used to detect type 16/18 and type 31/33 HPV DNA in 109 cases of oral mucosal lesions in paraffin sections and only one case of OSCC was HPV positive. Thirty-seven cases were detected by HC-II and ISH methods at the same time. The same negative results by the two methods were found in 94.6% samples (35/37). In the other two samples, one was OSCC with early infiltration and the other was OLK with hyperplasia, The HC-II results were positive while the ISH results were negative. The patients with OLP and HPV testing results

  1. Development Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Tadahiko

    2002-01-01

    Discusses contemporary psychologists' criticism of Jean Piaget's developmental theory; reviews research in brain science, psychology, history, and the experiences of teachers; proposes a new theory of developmental stages based on children's shifting interests; discuses implications of "shifting interest center theory" for school…

  2. Oral steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  3. A imigração italiana através da história oral das ítalo-descedentes no museu etnográfico da Colônia Maciel – Pelotas/RS = Italian immigration through the oral history by italo-descendants at ethnographic museum in Maciel Colony/Pelotas/RS/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neis, Fabiano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é resultante de uma pesquisa realizada no Banco de Imagens e Sons do Museu Etnográfico da Colônia Maciel. O trabalho aborda a imigração italiana na área colonial de Pelotas, localizada na Serra dos Tapes, através de entrevistas realizadas com moradoras da comunidade. O Museu Etnográfico da Colônia Maciel, inaugurado em junho de 2006 e mantido pelo Instituto de Memória e Patrimônio e pela Universidade Federal de Pelotas, faz parte de um Circuito de Museus da Colônia de Pelotas e está situado na Vila Maciel (8º distrito, instalado na antiga sede da Escola Garibaldi (fundada em 1929. O Museu tem por finalidade preservar a memória da comunidade e fomentar pesquisas através das três coleções que compõem o acervo (acervo oral, acervo visual e acervo material, todas originadas entre os moradores da localidade, que compartilham a identidade de descendentes de imigrantes italianos. A chegada dos imigrantes italianos na localidade teve início a partir de 1883 e está inserido no contexto imigratório do último quartel do século XIX. Embora esquecida pela bibliografia tradicional, a Colônia Maciel recebeu um número significativo de italianos que participaram da construção da identidade ítalo-pelotense. Através do olhar feminino podemos analisar a vida cotidiana dos imigrantes, bem como a chegada e o trabalho; e até mesmo, por meio de uma história comparada, as semelhanças e particularidades da imigração na Serra dos Tapes com a imigração na Serra Gaúcha

  4. Sequential scintigraphic staging of small cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitran, J.D.; Bekerman, C.; Pinsky, S.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty patients with small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung were sequentially staged following a history and physical exam with liver, bran, bone, and gallium-67 citrate scans. Scintigraphic evaluation disclosed 7 of 30 patients (23%) with advanced disease, stage IIIM1. When Gallium-67 scans were used as the sole criteria for staging, they proved to be accurate and identified six of the seven patients with occult metastatic disease. Gallium-67 scans proved to be accurate in detecting thoracic and extrathoracic metastases in the 30 patients with SCC, especially within the liver and lymph node-bearing area. The diagnostic accuracy of gallium-67 fell in regions such as bone or brain. Despite the limitations of gallium-67 scanning, the authors conclude that these scans are useful in staging patients with SCC and should be the initial scans used in staging such patients

  5. Management of oral feeding in children undergoing airway reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee P; Otto, Staci E; Wagner, Kathrine A; Chewaproug, Linda; Jacobs, Ian N; Zur, Karen B

    2009-05-01

    To systematically evaluate perioperative management of oral feeding in children undergoing airway reconstruction. A retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent open airway reconstruction from February 1, 2006 through July 31, 2008 at a tertiary care children's hospital. During the study period, a multidisciplinary protocol for perioperative management of alimentation was instituted. Swallowing function was evaluated pre- and postoperatively as part of a clinical management protocol. Fifty-one patients underwent 55 reconstructions. Forty-eight of the patients (94%) have been decannulated. Eighteen single-stage procedures were performed on patients who were considered oral feeders, and oral feeding was successfully completed for three patients while the endotracheal tube was in place. Twenty-two double-stage procedures were performed on patients who were considered oral feeders. Oral feeding was initiated while the stent was in place for 16 patients. Nine patients (56%) did not tolerate oral feeding with the stent in place, five of whom had evidence of gross aspiration. Thirty-four of the 40 patients (85%) who were considered oral feeders at the time of their reconstruction returned to their preoperative diet with minimal therapy from the speech pathology service 1.9 days (range, 0-8 days) following extubation or stent removal. Six patients (15%) had clinically significant dysphagia. Safe oral alimentation early in the postoperative period is possible with a rigorous multidisciplinary approach. To minimize complications, postoperative oral feeding should be initiated in conjunction with a speech pathologist.

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the ... and Other Oral Surgeries Extractions and Other Oral Surgeries Oral and maxillofacial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues of the ...

  7. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral piercings: immediate and late complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Elma P; Ribeiro, Andre Luis Ribeiro; Pinheiro, João de Jesus V; Alves, Sérgio de M

    2011-12-01

    Oral piercings have a long history as part of religious, cultural, or sexual symbolism in many traditional tribes; currently, these ornaments have wide acceptance among young people. Several oral and systemic complications may be associated with this practice; however, limited data related to these complications can be obtained in the literature. This study includes 42 cases of oral piercings in 39 young adults, who were using or had used oral piercings, and the complications associated with their use. Immediate complications occurred in 29 cases, including excessive bleeding (69%) and pain (52.3%) as the most representative. Two cases of syncope were found. Late complications related to the piercing insertion site were observed in 97.6% of cases, with pain and swelling being present in 92.9% and 61.9% of cases, respectively. Dental pain and lacerations on the tongue represented the most prevalent complications associated with the surrounding tissues, accounting for 33.3% and 31% of cases. The use of oral piercings is related to a series of mainly local complications, and individuals who decide to use piercings should be aware of such complications. Individuals wishing to get a part of their body pierced should do so with qualified professionals and should regularly visit the dentist so that a regular control is achieved, thus ensuring the early detection of the adverse effects associated with this practice. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Superficial melanomas of oral mucous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Hayward, J R; Pickens, T N

    1978-05-01

    In accordance with microscopic and clinical criteria established for superficial melanomas of the skin (superficial spreading melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, acral-lentiginous melanoma), three oral lesions have been evaluated. The literature on oral melanomas has also been reviewed, with special attention given to those cases that had pre-existing melanosis. One patient with a diagnosis of superficial spreading melanoma eventually died of his untreated lesion 11 years after its first appearance. Two patients had lesions diagnosed as acral-lentiginous melanoma (a group which also includes volar and subungual melanomas) that exhibited aggressive, recurrent behavior. These lesions had microsocpic features similar to lentigo maligna melanoma but did not behave in a manner consistent with that diagnosis. Electron microscopic study of one acral-lentiginous melanoma demonstrated malenosomes and premelanosomes that were like those seen in normal melanocytes and nevus cells. The superficial or radial growth phase of many oral melanomas has apparently gone unrecognized. Melanosis has been reported to be a common feature of invasive oral melanomas but has not generally been related to the natural history of these lesions. Oral lesions with a prolonged intra-epithelial or radial growth phase would be expected to have a better prognosis than nodular melanomas, but meaningful survival data are not available because of the infrequency with which oral melanomas have been subclassified.

  10. [Oral hairy leukoplakia induced by topical steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigarios, E; Fricain, J-C; Projetti, F; Boulanger, M; Sibaud, V

    2015-10-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an EBV-associated condition of the oral mucosa, which is often painless. It is found predominantly in HIV-positive patients and is considered a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. OHL has rarely been described in HIV-negative patients, being found most often in association with iatrogenic immunosuppression. OHL induced by topical steroids remains extremely rare. An 81-year-old HIV-negative woman, treated for 3 months with topical steroids for oral lichen planus, developed an asymptomatic white, corrugated, non-removable plaque with vertical folds on the lateral edge of the tongue. Associated oral candidiasis was noted. Based upon histological findings and in situ hybridisation showing numerous EBV-infected epithelial cells, a diagnosis of oral hairy leucoplakia was made. To our knowledge, we report herein only the second recorded case of OHL induced strictly by topical steroids. Self-medication and poor adherence to dosage recommendations were noted in the patient's medical history. Physicians must be aware of the rare but nevertheless possible adverse events associated with topical steroid use, particularly when such medication is prescribed over a long period for inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral manifestations of syphilis Manifestações orais da sífilis

    OpenAIRE

    Jair Carneiro Leão; Luiz Alcino Gueiros; Stephen R. Porter

    2006-01-01

    The past decade has shown a significant rise in the prevalence of infective syphilis in the developed world, and striking increases in its frequency have occurred in Eastern Europe, particularly the UK, and in the US. Although oral manifestations of syphilis are most likely to be observed during secondary disease, all stages of the disease can give rise to oral lesions. Significant oral lesions such as gumma-associated bony destruction and a possible predisposition to oral squamous cell carci...

  12. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  13. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementias . Learn more: Daily Care and Behaviors Severe Alzheimer's disease (late-stage) Get support Late-stage care decisions can be some of the hardest families face. Connect with other caregivers who have been through the process on our ...

  14. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  15. Celebrate Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  16. Oral health and oral health care practices among low-income pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lauren P; Yount, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Access to dental care is a problem in California as in many parts of the United States. Many women, including half of those having dental problems, do not see a dentist during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to describe the oral health status and oral health practices of low-income pregnant women in San Diego, California, and to determine the needs for oral health care education in this population. This descriptive, retrospective, correlational study examined oral health and oral health care practices by age, ethnicity, and gravidity by using medical records from a convenience sample of 380 low-income pregnant women. Most participants were primigravida, aged between 19 and 29 years, of Hispanic ethnicity, and insured by the state (Medi-Cal). All women received education on oral health. The majority (84%) were encouraged to get a dental examination. It had been more than 1 year since the last dental visit for most women (55%). Hispanic women were in need of dental care more than Filipina women or women of other ethnicities. A broken tooth was the primary reason for immediate dental referrals. Regularity of flossing and brushing teeth differed significantly (P= .015, P dental health promotion programs. Findings suggest that low-income pregnant women have some healthy oral health care practices but are in need of dental services and oral health education. An oral health history, oral health education, dental screening, and dental referral, if needed, should be a routine part of prenatal care and annual examinations. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...