WorldWideScience

Sample records for stage multiple filter

  1. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  2. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  3. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  4. Two-stage nonrecursive filter/decimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, J.R.; Richard, B.D.

    1980-08-01

    A two-stage digital filter/decimator has been designed and implemented to reduce the sampling rate associated with the long-term computer storage of certain digital waveforms. This report describes the design selection and implementation process and serves as documentation for the system actually installed. A filter design with finite-impulse response (nonrecursive) was chosen for implementation via direct convolution. A newly-developed system-test statistic validates the system under different computer-operating environments

  5. Multiple model cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Ramona; Willett, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter propagates the first-moment approximation to the multi-target Bayesian posterior distribution while the Cardinalized PHD (CPHD) filter propagates both the posterior likelihood of (an unlabeled) target state and the posterior probability mass function of the number of targets. Extensions of the PHD filter to the multiple model (MM) framework have been published and were implemented either with a Sequential Monte Carlo or a Gaussian Mixture approach. In this work, we introduce the multiple model version of the more elaborate CPHD filter. We present the derivation of the prediction and update steps of the MMCPHD particularized for the case of two target motion models and proceed to show that in the case of a single model, the new MMCPHD equations reduce to the original CPHD equations.

  6. Performance of multiple HEPA filters against plutonium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.; Elder, J.C.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1976-11-01

    Performance of multiple stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters has been verified against plutonium aerosols similar in size characteristics to those challenging the air-cleaning systems of plutonium-processing facilities. An experimental program was conducted to test each filter in systems of three HEPA filters operated in series against 238 PuO 2 aerosols as high as 3.3 x 10 10 dis/s . m 3 in activity concentration and ranging from 0.22 μm to 1.6 μm in activity median aerodynamic diameter (amad). Mean penetration (ratio of downstream to upstream concentration) of each of the three filters in series was below 0.0002, but it apparently increased at each successive filter. Penetration vs size measurements showed that maximum penetration of 238 PuO 2 occurred for sizes between 0.4- and 0.7-μm aerodynamic diameter (D/sub ae/). HEPA filter penetration at half of rated flow differed little from full-flow penetration

  7. Filtering Meteoroid Flights Using Multiple Unscented Kalman Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, E. K.; Bland, P. A.; Rutten, M. G.; Paxman, J.; Towner, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    Estimator algorithms are immensely versatile and powerful tools that can be applied to any problem where a dynamic system can be modeled by a set of equations and where observations are available. A well designed estimator enables system states to be optimally predicted and errors to be rigorously quantified. Unscented Kalman filters (UKFs) and interactive multiple models can be found in methods from satellite tracking to self-driving cars. The luminous trajectory of the Bunburra Rockhole fireball was observed by the Desert Fireball Network in mid-2007. The recorded data set is used in this paper to examine the application of these two techniques as a viable approach to characterizing fireball dynamics. The nonlinear, single-body system of equations, used to model meteoroid entry through the atmosphere, is challenged by gross fragmentation events that may occur. The incorporation of the UKF within an interactive multiple model smoother provides a likely solution for when fragmentation events may occur as well as providing a statistical analysis of the state uncertainties. In addition to these benefits, another advantage of this approach is its automatability for use within an image processing pipeline to facilitate large fireball data analyses and meteorite recoveries.

  8. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  9. Performance of multiple HEPA filters against plutonium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.; Elder, J.; Ettinger, H.

    1975-01-01

    Performance of multiple stages of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters against aerosols similar to those produced by plutonium processing facilities has been verified as part of an experimental program. A system of three HEPA filters in series was tested against 238 PuO 2 aerosol concentrations as high as 3.3 x 10 10 d/s-m 3 . An air nebulization aerosol generation system, using ball milled plutonium oxide suspended in water, provided test aerosols with size characteristics similar to those defined by a field sampling program at several different AEC plutonium processing facilities. Aerosols have been produced ranging from 0.22 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (amad) to 1.6 μm amad. The smaller size distributions yield 10 to 30 percent of the total activity in the less than 0.22 μm size range allowing efficiency measurement as a function of size for the first two HEPA filters in series. The low level of activity on the sampler downstream of the third HEPA filter (approximately 0.01 c/s) precludes aerosol size characterization downstream of this filter. For the first two HEPA filters, overall efficiency, and efficiency as a function of size, exceeds 99.98 percent including the <0.12 μm and the 0.12 to 0.22 μm size intervals. Efficiency of the third HEPA filter is somewhat lower with an overall average efficiency of 99.8 percent and an apparent minimum efficiency of 99.5 percent. This apparently lower efficiency is an artifact due to the low level of activity on the sampler downstream of HEPA No. 3 and the variations due to counting statistics. Recent runs with higher concentrations, thereby improving statistical variations, show efficiencies well within minimum requirements. (U.S.)

  10. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, J.S.; Halow, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system are described for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste. 10 figures

  11. Realization of a gamma multiplicity filter and gamma multiplicity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azgui, F.

    1981-12-01

    A gamma multiplicity filter for the study of reaction mechanism has been realised. It's composed of six NaI(Tl) counters. The flexibility of the geometry allows many configurations. This set up has been tested with gamma radioactive sources and with the 252 Cf source to resolve problems of gamma-efficiency of the NaI(Tl) counters and the contamination of neutrons in these detectors. A logical electronic unit (Encodeur) has been constructed and the around electronic has been developped. This gamma multiplicity filter has been coupled with a detector of high resolution Ge(Li), and used in two reactions: 12 C + 55 Mn at E( 12 C) = 54 MeV; α + 63 Cu at E(α) = 52 MeV. The dominant process is the fusion-evaporation. The compound nucleus 67 Ga, is formed at the same excitation energy. The values of multiplicities Msub(γ) have been extracted using a program based on the formalism of W.J. Ockels. The fractionalization of the angular momentum is well observed for some residual nuclei ( 63 Zn, 64 Zn, 65 Zn), and for each residual nucleus, the average gamma multiplicity is lower with projectile α than that with projectile 12 C. For the most strongly output channel p2n, an entry point for the 64 Zn has been determined in the reactions. All these observations are in good agreement with those published, in the same region (f-p shell) of nuclei. This set up can be coupled with different central detector as, ''X'', neutrons charged particles detectors, and will be used with the new machine SARA to make a systematic study of transfer of angular momentum to the fragments at 30 MeV/A [fr

  12. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    An accelerometer assembly is described for use in activating a switch or the like responding to multiple acceleration pulses in series, comprising: a housing forming a chamber having a first and second end; a mass slidably disposed in the chamber and movable during acceleration from the first end toward the second end; means for biasing the movable mass toward a reset position adjacent the first end; means for damping the movement of the mass in the chamber; cam and follower means carried by the movable mass and the housing for relative movement in response to the acceleration, the cam and follower means including means for temporarily blocking the mass movement toward the second end after a first acceleration pulse; the cam and follower means cooperating together to allow continued movement toward the second end and switch activation in response to at least a second separate acceleration pulse in series with the first

  13. PARTICLE FILTER BASED VEHICLE TRACKING APPROACH WITH IMPROVED RESAMPLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Leong Khong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical sensors based vehicle tracking can be widely implemented in traffic surveillance and flow control. The vast development of video surveillance infrastructure in recent years has drawn the current research focus towards vehicle tracking using high-end and low cost optical sensors. However, tracking vehicles via such sensors could be challenging due to the high probability of changing vehicle appearance and illumination, besides the occlusion and overlapping incidents. Particle filter has been proven as an approach which can overcome nonlinear and non-Gaussian situations caused by cluttered background and occlusion incidents. Unfortunately, conventional particle filter approach encounters particle degeneracy especially during and after the occlusion. Particle filter with sampling important resampling (SIR is an important step to overcome the drawback of particle filter, but SIR faced the problem of sample impoverishment when heavy particles are statistically selected many times. In this work, genetic algorithm has been proposed to be implemented in the particle filter resampling stage, where the estimated position can converge faster to hit the real position of target vehicle under various occlusion incidents. The experimental results show that the improved particle filter with genetic algorithm resampling method manages to increase the tracking accuracy and meanwhile reduce the particle sample size in the resampling stage.

  14. Kalman Filtering for Delayed Singular Systems with Multiplicative Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu; Linglong Wang; Haixia Wang; Xianghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Kalman filtering problem for singular systems is dealt with, where the measurements consist of instantaneous measurements and delayed ones, and the plant includes multiplicative noise. By utilizing standard singular value decomposition, the restricted equivalent delayed system is presented, and the Kalman filters for the restricted equivalent system are given by using the well-known re-organization of innovation analysis lemma. The optimal Kalman filter for the original system is given based on the above Kalman filter by recursive Riccati equations, and a numerical example is presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach, where the comparison between the filter and predictor is also given.

  15. Habitat filtering across tree life stages in tropical forest communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeck, C. A.; Harms, K. E.; Yavitt, J. B.; John, R.; Turner, B. L.; Valencia, R.; Navarrete, H.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Kiratiprayoon, S.; Yaacob, A.; Supardi, M. N. N.; Davies, S. J.; Hubbell, S. P.; Chuyong, G. B.; Kenfack, D.; Thomas, D. W.; Dalling, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical tree communities are shaped by local-scale habitat heterogeneity in the form of topographic and edaphic variation, but the life-history stage at which habitat associations develop remains poorly understood. This is due, in part, to the fact that previous studies have not accounted for the widely disparate sample sizes (number of stems) that result when trees are divided into size classes. We demonstrate that the observed habitat structuring of a community is directly related to the number of individuals in the community. We then compare the relative importance of habitat heterogeneity to tree community structure for saplings, juveniles and adult trees within seven large (24–50 ha) tropical forest dynamics plots while controlling for sample size. Changes in habitat structuring through tree life stages were small and inconsistent among life stages and study sites. Where found, these differences were an order of magnitude smaller than the findings of previous studies that did not control for sample size. Moreover, community structure and composition were very similar among tree sub-communities of different life stages. We conclude that the structure of these tropical tree communities is established by the time trees are large enough to be included in the census (1 cm diameter at breast height), which indicates that habitat filtering occurs during earlier life stages. PMID:23843384

  16. Kalman Filtering for Delayed Singular Systems with Multiplicative Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu; Linglong Wang; Haixia Wang; Xianghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Kalman filtering problem for singular systems is dealt with,where the measurements consist of instantaneous measurements and delayed ones,and the plant includes multiplicative noise.By utilizing standard singular value decomposition,the restricted equivalent delayed system is presented,and the Kalman filters for the restricted equivalent system are given by using the well-known re-organization of innovation analysis lemma.The optimal Kalman filter for the original system is given based on the above Kalman filter by recursive Riccati equations,and a numerical example is presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach,where the comparison between the filter and predictor is also given.

  17. Development and testing of a two stage granular filter to improve collection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangan, R.S.; Prakash, S.G.; Chakravarti, S.; Rao, S.R.

    1999-07-01

    A circulating bed granular filter (CBGF) with a single filtration stage was tested with a PFB combustor in the Coal Research Facility of BHEL R and D in Hyderabad during the years 1993--95. Filter outlet dust loading varied between 20--50 mg/Nm{sup 3} for an inlet dust loading of 5--8 gms/Nm{sup 3}. The results were reported in Fluidized Bed Combustion-Volume 2, ASME 1995. Though the outlet consists of predominantly fine particulates below 2 microns, it is still beyond present day gas turbine specifications for particulate concentration. In order to enhance the collection efficiency, a two-stage granular filtration concept was evolved, wherein the filter depth is divided between two stages, accommodated in two separate vertically mounted units. The design also incorporates BHEL's scale-up concept of multiple parallel stages. The two-stage concept minimizes reentrainment of captured dust by providing clean granules in the upper stage, from where gases finally exit the filter. The design ensures that dusty gases come in contact with granules having a higher dust concentration at the bottom of the two-stage unit, where most of the cleaning is completed. A second filtration stage of cleaned granules is provided in the top unit (where the granules are returned to the system after dedusting) minimizing reentrainment. Tests were conducted to determine the optimum granule to dust ratio (G/D ratio) which decides the granule circulation rate required for the desired collection efficiency. The data brings out the importance of pre-separation and the limitation on inlet dust loading for any continuous system of granular filtration. Collection efficiencies obtained were much higher (outlet dust being 3--9 mg/Nm{sub 3}) than in the single stage filter tested earlier for similar dust loading at the inlet. The results indicate that two-stage granular filtration has a high potential for HTHT application with fewer risks as compared to other systems under development.

  18. Multiple Bloch surface waves in visible region of light at the interfaces between rugate filter/rugate filter and rugate filter/dielectric slab/rugate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah Manzoor, Habib; Manzoor, Tareq; Hussain, Masroor; Manzoor, Sanaullah; Nazar, Kashif

    2018-04-01

    Surface electromagnetic waves are the solution of Maxwell’s frequency domain equations at the interface of two dissimilar materials. In this article, two canonical boundary-value problems have been formulated to analyze the multiplicity of electromagnetic surface waves at the interface between two dissimilar materials in the visible region of light. In the first problem, the interface between two semi-infinite rugate filters having symmetric refractive index profiles is considered and in the second problem, to enhance the multiplicity of surface electromagnetic waves, a homogeneous dielectric slab of 400 nm is included between two semi-infinite symmetric rugate filters. Numerical results show that multiple Bloch surface waves of different phase speeds, different polarization states, different degrees of localization and different field profiles are propagated at the interface between two semi-infinite rugate filters. Having two interfaces when a homogeneous dielectric layer is placed between two semi-infinite rugate filters has increased the multiplicity of electromagnetic surface waves.

  19. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput [Geophysical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha Street no.10 Basic Science B Buliding fl.2-3 Bandung, 40132, West Java Indonesia puput.erlangga@gmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  20. Real-time Java simulations of multiple interference dielectric filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, Alexandre N.; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2008-12-01

    An interactive Java applet for real-time simulation and visualization of the transmittance properties of multiple interference dielectric filters is presented. The most commonly used interference filters as well as the state-of-the-art ones are embedded in this platform-independent applet which can serve research and education purposes. The Transmittance applet can be freely downloaded from the site http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk. Program summaryProgram title: Transmittance Catalogue identifier: AEBQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEBQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5778 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 90 474 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: Developed on PC-Pentium platform Operating system: Any Java-enabled OS. Applet was tested on Windows ME, XP, Sun Solaris, Mac OS RAM: Variable Classification: 18 Nature of problem: Sophisticated wavelength selective multiple interference filters can include some tens or even hundreds of dielectric layers. The spectral response of such a stack is not obvious. On the other hand, there is a strong demand from application designers and students to get a quick insight into the properties of a given filter. Solution method: A Java applet was developed for the computation and the visualization of the transmittance of multilayer interference filters. It is simple to use and the embedded filter library can serve educational purposes. Also, its ability to handle complex structures will be appreciated as a useful research and development tool. Running time: Real-time simulations

  1. Filter Factors of Truncated TLS Regularization with Multiple Observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnětynková, I.; Plešinger, Martin; Žáková, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 105-120 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : truncated total least squares * multiple right-hand sides * eigenvalues of rank-d update * ill-posed problem * regularization * filter factors Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/146698

  2. Multi-stage type replacing method of iodine filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masao; Kamiya, Kunio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To effectively replace a filter into a removing device of radioactive impurities used in ventilation and air conditioning system or the like in an atomic power plant. Structure: A plurality of elements of a filter are arranged in series relative to fluid. In the first replacement, an ante-filter-element on inlet side of fluid is removed, and a post-filter-element is repositioned to that position of the ante-element. Then, a fresh element is newly mounted on that position of the post-element. Replacement after the second time may be effected by repeating the operation noted above. With this arrangement, the minimal value of collection efficiency at replacement of filter may be increased. (Ikeda, J.)

  3. Two-stage nonlinear filter for processing of scintigrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistor, P.; Hoener, J.; Walch, G.

    1973-01-01

    Linear filters which have been successfully used to process scintigrams can be modified in a meaningful manner by a preceding non-linear point operator, the Anscombe-transform. The advantages are: The scintigraphic noise becomes quasi-stationary and thus independent of the image. By these means the noise can be readily allowed for in the design of the convolutional operators. Transformed images with a stationary signal-to-noise ratio and a non-constant background t correspond to untransformed images with a signal-to-noise ratio that varies in certain limits. The filter chain automatically adapts to these changes. Our filter has the advantage over the majority of space-varying filters of being realizable by Fast Fourier Transform techniques. These advantages have to be paid for by reduced signal amplitude to background ratios. If the background is known, this shortcoming can be easily by-passed by processing trendfree scintigrams. If not, the filter chain should be completed by a third operator which reverses the Anscombe-transform. The Anscombe-transform influences the signal-to-noise ratio of cold spots and of hot spots in a different way. It remains an open question if this fact can be utilized to directly influence the detectability of the different kinds of spots

  4. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MULTI STAGE CUTTING OIL FILTER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    ABHIJIT S. GETME , ADITENDRA JAISWAL

    2018-01-01

    Multistage oil filtration system is a system used to filter out all the metallic, non metallic particles from the cutting fluid, which is used during the machining processes. Basic procedures we are using in it are: centrifugal process, magnetic filtration, paper filtration.

  5. Effectiveness of interim stage filter in the exhaust system of glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patre, D.K.; Vangara, H.; Thanamani, S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Mhatre, Amol M.

    2018-01-01

    All operations in radiochemical laboratories are carried out in containment systems like Glove boxes and Fume hoods. For controlling air contamination two separate air cleaning systems are incorporated. Laboratory has general ventilation system and glove boxes are provided with a negative pressure system (NPS). Glove box exhaust air is passed through three stage filtration systems: in situ, interim and final before discharging to the atmosphere. In addition to the individual HEPA filters of each glove box, there is an interim HEPA filter bank introduced at the laboratory end. This was introduced to reduce a load on main exhaust filter system. Finally the exhaust air is discharged through the final stage HEPA filter located in the filter house through the Stack. The interim HEPA filter bank provides additional protection for the release of particulate activity and reduces load on the final stage filters. In the present work efforts have been put to validate the interim stage filter, which has been introduced, to limit the environmental release

  6. Adaptive Kalman filtering for diagnosis of multiple component degradations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S. E.; Alpay, B.; Lee, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an adaptive Kalman filtering algorithm for the diagnosis of faults or degradations of multiple components in nuclear power plants. We propose to detect the presence and magnitude of the fault(s) through noisy system observations when the measurements indicate significant deviations from predictions. Our diagnostic algorithm uses the measurement residuals, i.e., the difference between the measurements and predictions, to generate a noise input to the uncertain component state in an adaptive Kalman filtering algorithm so that various postulated component transitions or degradations may be statistically represented. The diagnostic algorithm has been tested with a balance of plant (BOP) model of a boiling water reactor (BWR). We have presented a set of algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of component faults of arbitrary magnitude and type within a multi-component system. By analyzing a number of transients including the one example illustrated in the paper, we find that these algorithms are not only capable of determining the correct component fault and magnitude for single components but also they can be used to determine binary faults satisfactorily. Additional study is under way to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm including the sensitivity of the diagnostic time to adaptive noise matrix introduced (see equations 7 and 8 illustrated in the paper)

  7. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  8. Interpolation Filter Design for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik; Llimos Muntal, Pere

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a design of a digital interpolation filter for a 3rd order multi-bit ΣΔ modulator with over-sampling ratio OSR = 64. The interpolation filter and the ΣΔ modulator are part of the back-end of an audio signal processing system in a hearing-aid application. The aim in this paper...... is to compare this design to designs presented in other state-of-the-art works ranging from hi-fi audio to hearing-aids. By performing comparison, trends and tradeoffs in interpolation filter design are indentified and hearing-aid specifications are derived. The possibilities for hardware reduction...... in the interpolation filter are investigated. Proposed design simplifications presented here result in the least hardware demanding combination of oversampling ratio, number of stages and number of filter taps among a number of filters reported for audio applications....

  9. Using one filter stage of unsaturated/saturated vertical flow filters for nitrogen removal and footprint reduction of constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvannou, Ania; Troesch, Stéphane; Esser, Dirk; Forquet, Nicolas; Petitjean, Alain; Molle, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) treating raw wastewater have been developed successfully over the last 30 years. Nevertheless, the two-stage VFCWs require a total filtration area of 2-2.5 m 2 /P.E. Therefore, implementing a one-stage system in which treatment performances reach standard requirements is of interest. Biho-Filter ® is one of the solutions developed in France by Epur Nature. Biho-Filter ® is a vertical flow system with an unsaturated layer at the top and a saturated layer at the bottom. The aim of this study was to assess this new configuration and to optimize its design and operating conditions. The hydraulic functioning and pollutant removal efficiency of three different Biho-Filter ® plants commissioned between 2011 and 2012 were studied. Outlet concentrations of the most efficient Biho-Filter ® configuration are 70 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 15 mg/L and 25 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), respectively. Up to 60% of total nitrogen is removed. Nitrification efficiency is mainly influenced by the height of the unsaturated zone and the recirculation rate. The optimum recirculation rate was found to be 100%. Denitrification in the saturated zone works at best with an influent COD/NO 3 -N ratio at the inflet of this zone larger than 2 and a hydraulic retention time longer than 0.75 days.

  10. Combined adaptive multiple subtraction based on optimized event tracing and extended wiener filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Song, Peng; Li, Jinshan; Wang, Lei; Zhong, Mengxuan; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-06-01

    The surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) method is based on feedback formulation and has become one of the most preferred multiple suppression methods used. However, some differences are apparent between the predicted multiples and those in the source seismic records, which may result in conventional adaptive multiple subtraction methods being barely able to effectively suppress multiples in actual production. This paper introduces a combined adaptive multiple attenuation method based on the optimized event tracing technique and extended Wiener filtering. The method firstly uses multiple records predicted by SRME to generate a multiple velocity spectrum, then separates the original record to an approximate primary record and an approximate multiple record by applying the optimized event tracing method and short-time window FK filtering method. After applying the extended Wiener filtering method, residual multiples in the approximate primary record can then be eliminated and the damaged primary can be restored from the approximate multiple record. This method combines the advantages of multiple elimination based on the optimized event tracing method and the extended Wiener filtering technique. It is an ideal method for suppressing typical hyperbolic and other types of multiples, with the advantage of minimizing damage of the primary. Synthetic and field data tests show that this method produces better multiple elimination results than the traditional multi-channel Wiener filter method and is more suitable for multiple elimination in complicated geological areas.

  11. A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter for extremely corrupted images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Hai; Adhami, Reza; Wang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter (MSNASF) is proposed for the restoration of images extremely corrupted by impulse and impulse-like noise. The filter consists of two steps: noise detection and noise removal. The proposed extrema-based noise detection scheme utilizes the false contouring effect to get better over detection rate at low noise density. It is adaptive and will detect not only impulse but also impulse-like noise. In the noise removal step, a novel multi-stage filtering scheme is proposed. It replaces corrupted pixel with the nearest uncorrupted median to preserve details. When compared with other methods, MSNASF provides better peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structure similarity index (SSIM). A subjective evaluation carried out online also demonstrates that MSNASF yields higher fidelity.

  12. Applying a particle filtering technique for canola crop growth stage estimation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Abhijit; Tan, Weikai; Li, Yifeng; McNairn, Heather; Jiao, Xianfeng; Hosseini, Mehdi

    2017-10-01

    Accurate crop growth stage estimation is important in precision agriculture as it facilitates improved crop management, pest and disease mitigation and resource planning. Earth observation imagery, specifically Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, can provide field level growth estimates while covering regional scales. In this paper, RADARSAT-2 quad polarization and TerraSAR-X dual polarization SAR data and ground truth growth stage data are used to model the influence of canola growth stages on SAR imagery extracted parameters. The details of the growth stage modeling work are provided, including a) the development of a new crop growth stage indicator that is continuous and suitable as the state variable in the dynamic estimation procedure; b) a selection procedure for SAR polarimetric parameters that is sensitive to both linear and nonlinear dependency between variables; and c) procedures for compensation of SAR polarimetric parameters for different beam modes. The data was collected over three crop growth seasons in Manitoba, Canada, and the growth model provides the foundation of a novel dynamic filtering framework for real-time estimation of canola growth stages using the multi-sensor and multi-mode SAR data. A description of the dynamic filtering framework that uses particle filter as the estimator is also provided in this paper.

  13. Group Targets Tracking Using Multiple Models GGIW-CPHD Based on Best-Fitting Gaussian Approximation and Strong Tracking Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma Gaussian inverse Wishart cardinalized probability hypothesis density (GGIW-CPHD algorithm was always used to track group targets in the presence of cluttered measurements and missing detections. A multiple models GGIW-CPHD algorithm based on best-fitting Gaussian approximation method (BFG and strong tracking filter (STF is proposed aiming at the defect that the tracking error of GGIW-CPHD algorithm will increase when the group targets are maneuvering. The best-fitting Gaussian approximation method is proposed to implement the fusion of multiple models using the strong tracking filter to correct the predicted covariance matrix of the GGIW component. The corresponding likelihood functions are deduced to update the probability of multiple tracking models. From the simulation results we can see that the proposed tracking algorithm MM-GGIW-CPHD can effectively deal with the combination/spawning of groups and the tracking error of group targets in the maneuvering stage is decreased.

  14. Multiple HEPA filter test methods, January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.; Kyle, T.; Osetek, D.

    1977-06-01

    The testing of tandem high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems is of prime importance for the measurement of accurate overall system protection factors. A procedure, based on the use of an intra-cavity laser particle spectrometer, has been developed for measuring protection factors in the 10 8 range. A laboratory scale model of a filter system was constructed and initially tested to determine individual HEPA filter characteristics with regard to size and state (liquid or solid) of several test aerosols. Based on these laboratory measurements, in-situ testing has been successfully conducted on a number of single and tandem filter installations within the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory as well as on extraordinary large single systems at Rocky Flats. For the purpose of recovery and for simplified solid waste disposal, or prefiltering purposes, two versions of an inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner have been devised and are undergoing testing. Initial experience with one of the systems, which relies on an electrostatic spraying phenomenon, indicates performance efficiency of greater than 99.9% for flow velocities commonly used in air cleaning systems. Among the effluents associated with nuclear fuel reprocessing is 129 I. An intra-cavity laser detection system is under development which shows promise of being able to detect mixing ratios of one part in 10 7 , I 2 in air

  15. Transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry-Perot filters driven by Lorentzian sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, J; Capmany, J

    1996-12-20

    We derive expressions for the transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry-Perot filters driven by laser sources with Lorentzian spectrum. These are of interest because of their applications in sensing and channel filtering in optical frequency-division multiplexing networks.

  16. Fate of dissolved organic nitrogen in two stage trickling filter process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis; Kasi, Murthy; Wadhawan, Tanush; Bye, Christopher; Blonigen, Mark; Khan, Eakalak

    2012-10-15

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a significant portion of nitrogen in the final effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Biodegradable portion of DON (BDON) can support algal growth and/or consume dissolved oxygen in the receiving waters. The fate of DON and BDON has not been studied for trickling filter WWTPs. DON and BDON data were collected along the treatment train of a WWTP with a two-stage trickling filter process. DON concentrations in the influent and effluent were 27% and 14% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). The plant removed about 62% and 72% of the influent DON and BDON mainly by the trickling filters. The final effluent BDON values averaged 1.8 mg/L. BDON was found to be between 51% and 69% of the DON in raw wastewater and after various treatment units. The fate of DON and BDON through the two-stage trickling filter treatment plant was modeled. The BioWin v3.1 model was successfully applied to simulate ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, TDN, DON and BDON concentrations along the treatment train. The maximum growth rates for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and AOB half saturation constant influenced ammonia and nitrate output results. Hydrolysis and ammonification rates influenced all of the nitrogen species in the model output, including BDON. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple object recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the non-linear interpolation and generalization abilities of the hybrid optical neural network filter between the reference and non-reference images of the true-class object we designed the modifiedhybrid optical neural network filter. We applied an optical mask to the hybrid optical neural network's filter input. The mask was built with the constant weight connections of a randomly chosen image included in the training set. The resulted design of the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter is optimized for performing best in cluttered scenes of the true-class object. Due to the shift invariance properties inherited by its correlator unit the filter can accommodate multiple objects of the same class to be detected within an input cluttered image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the general hybrid optical neural network filter allows the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input cluttered image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the modified-hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. The filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously out-of-plane rotation, shift invariance and good clutter tolerance. It is able to successfully detect and classify correctly the true-class objects within background clutter for which there has been no previous training.

  18. Actuator Fault Diagnosis in a Boeing 747 Model via Adaptive Modified Two-Stage Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Caliskan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive modified two-stage linear Kalman filtering algorithm is utilized to identify the loss of control effectiveness and the magnitude of low degree of stuck faults in a closed-loop nonlinear B747 aircraft. Control effectiveness factors and stuck magnitudes are used to quantify faults entering control systems through actuators. Pseudorandom excitation inputs are used to help distinguish partial loss and stuck faults. The partial loss and stuck faults in the stabilizer are isolated and identified successfully.

  19. H∞ Filtering for Networked Markovian Jump Systems with Multiple Stochastic Communication Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the H∞ filtering for a class of networked Markovian jump systems with multiple communication delays. Due to the existence of communication constraints, the measurement signal cannot arrive at the filter completely on time, and the stochastic communication delays are considered in the filter design. Firstly, a set of stochastic variables is introduced to model the occurrence probabilities of the delays. Then based on the stochastic system approach, a sufficient condition is obtained such that the filtering error system is stable in the mean-square sense and with a prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level. The optimal filter gain parameters can be determined by solving a convex optimization problem. Finally, a simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed filter design method.

  20. An adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter for nonlinear discrete-time system in presence of unknown inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengli; Zhang, Yongbo; Wang, Zhihua; Fu, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    Considering the performances of conventional Kalman filter may seriously degrade when it suffers stochastic faults and unknown input, which is very common in engineering problems, a new type of adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter (AThSEKF) is proposed to solve state and fault estimation in nonlinear discrete-time system under these conditions. The three-stage UV transformation and adaptive forgetting factor are introduced for derivation, and by comparing with the adaptive augmented state extended Kalman filter, it is proven to be uniformly asymptotically stable. Furthermore, the adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter is applied to a two-dimensional radar tracking scenario to illustrate the effect, and the performance is compared with that of conventional three stage extended Kalman filter (ThSEKF) and the adaptive two-stage extended Kalman filter (ATEKF). The results show that the adaptive three-stage extended Kalman filter is more effective than these two filters when facing the nonlinear discrete-time systems with information of unknown inputs not perfectly known. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Two-stage Kalman Filter for Sensorless Direct Torque Controlled PM Synchronous Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyu Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal two-stage extended Kalman filter (OTSEKF for closed-loop flux, torque, and speed estimation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM to achieve sensorless DTC-SVPWM operation of drive system. The novel observer is obtained by using the same transformation as in a linear Kalman observer, which is proposed by C.-S. Hsieh and F.-C. Chen in 1999. The OTSEKF is an effective implementation of the extended Kalman filter (EKF and provides a recursive optimum state estimation for PMSMs using terminal signals that may be polluted by noise. Compared to a conventional EKF, the OTSEKF reduces the number of arithmetic operations. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed OTSEKF observer for DTC of PMSMs.

  2. Multiple-stage pure phase encoding with biometric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many optical systems have been developed for securing information, and optical encryption/encoding has attracted more and more attention due to the marked advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-dimensional characteristics. In this paper, an optical security method is presented based on pure phase encoding with biometric information. Biometric information (such as fingerprint) is employed as security keys rather than plaintext used in conventional optical security systems, and multiple-stage phase-encoding-based optical systems are designed for generating several phase-only masks with biometric information. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only masks are further used in an optical setup for encoding an input image (i.e., plaintext). Numerical simulations are conducted to illustrate the validity, and the results demonstrate that high flexibility and high security can be achieved.

  3. Cascaded holographic polymer reflection grating filters for optical-code-division multiple-access applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, Raymond K; Maeda, Wendi; Chen, Chia-Hung; Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2005-12-10

    We evaluate the use of edge-illuminated holographic Bragg filters formed in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for optical-code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) coding and decoding applications. Experimental cascaded Bragg filters are formed to select two different wavelengths with a fixed distance between the gratings and are directly coupled to a fiber-measurement system. The configuration and tolerances of the cascaded gratings are shown to be practical for time-wavelength OCDMA applications.

  4. Günther Tulip and Celect IVC filters in multiple-trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David; Kochupura, Paul V; Wellons, Eric D; Burkett, Allison B; Methodius-Rayford, Walaya C

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate results with the retrievable Günther Tulip (GT) and Celect inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) placed at the intensive care unit (ICU) bedside under "real-time" intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance in multiple-trauma patients. Between December 2004 and December 2008, 187 multiple-trauma patients (109 men; mean age 44+/-2 years, range 17-71) with contraindications to low-dose anticoagulation therapy or sequential compression devices had Günther Tulip (n = 97) or Celect (n = 90) retrievable IVCFs placed under real-time IVUS guidance. Günther Tulip filters were inserted using a "double-puncture" technique. The Celect IVCFs were placed with a simplified single-puncture technique in which the filter introducer sheath was advanced until the radiopaque tip "covered" the IVUS image of the renal vein, indicating that the filter sheath was in position for filter deployment. The 2 filter groups were compared on the endpoints of technical implantation success, retrievability, prevention of PE, and procedure-related deep vein thrombosis (DVT). As verified by abdominal radiography, 93.1% (174/187) of IVCFs were placed without complications; 6 IVCFs (all GT; p = 0.03 versus Celect) were misplaced in the iliac vein but uneventfully retrieved and replaced in the IVC within 24 hours. Two insertion site femoral vein DVTs (both in the dual puncture group; p>0.2) and 5 groin hematomas occurred during follow-up. GT filters were in place a mean of 107 days and Celect 97 days. In this time, 2 pulmonary embolisms occurred (1 in each group; p>0.2). Of the 115 filters scheduled for retrieval (50 Günther Tulip, 65 Celect), 33 (23 Günther Tulip, 10 Celect) could not be retrieved (p = 0.0004). Vena cavography identified filter tilting (>20 degrees ) in 21 cases (15 GT, 6 Celect), while 12 filters (8 GT, 4 Celect) had extended indwell times (mean 187 days) and excessive tissue ingrowth covering the retrieval hook. Subjectively, the Celect filters were clinically "easier" to

  5. Kalman Filtering for Discrete Stochastic Systems with Multiplicative Noises and Random Two-Step Sensor Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the optimal Kalman filtering problem for a class of discrete stochastic systems with multiplicative noises and random two-step sensor delays. Three Bernoulli distributed random variables with known conditional probabilities are introduced to characterize the phenomena of the random two-step sensor delays which may happen during the data transmission. By using the state augmentation approach and innovation analysis technique, an optimal Kalman filter is constructed for the augmented system in the sense of the minimum mean square error (MMSE. Subsequently, the optimal Kalman filtering is derived for corresponding augmented system in initial instants. Finally, a simulation example is provided to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed filtering method.

  6. Tracking of multiple objects with time-adjustable composite correlation filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly; Chernoskulov, Ilya

    2017-09-01

    An algorithm for tracking of multiple objects in video based on time-adjustable adaptive composite correlation filtering is proposed. For each frame a bank of composite correlation filters are designed in such a manner to provide invariance to pose, occlusion, clutter, and illumination changes. The filters are synthesized with the help of an iterative algorithm, which optimizes the discrimination capability for each object. The filters are adapted to the objects changes online using information from the current and past scene frames. Results obtained with the proposed algorithm using real-life scenes are presented and compared with those obtained with state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of detection efficiency, tracking accuracy, and speed of processing.

  7. An efficient multiple particle filter based on the variational Bayesian approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa

    2015-12-07

    This paper addresses the filtering problem in large-dimensional systems, in which conventional particle filters (PFs) remain computationally prohibitive owing to the large number of particles needed to obtain reasonable performances. To overcome this drawback, a class of multiple particle filters (MPFs) has been recently introduced in which the state-space is split into low-dimensional subspaces, and then a separate PF is applied to each subspace. In this paper, we adopt the variational Bayesian (VB) approach to propose a new MPF, the VBMPF. The proposed filter is computationally more efficient since the propagation of each particle requires generating one (new) particle only, while in the standard MPFs a set of (children) particles needs to be generated. In a numerical test, the proposed VBMPF behaves better than the PF and MPF.

  8. An adaptive Multiplicative Extened Kalman Filter for Attitude Estimation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    , an adaptive Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) for attitude estimation of Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA) is presented with the measurement noise covariance matrix adjusted according to the norm of accelerometer measurements, which can significantly reduce the slamming influence from waves...

  9. Multiple Maneuvering Target Tracking by Improved Particle Filter Based on Multiscan JPDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple maneuvering target tracking algorithm based on a particle filter is addressed. The equivalent-noise approach is adopted, which uses a simple dynamic model consisting of target state and equivalent noise which accounts for the combined effects of the process noise and maneuvers. The equivalent-noise approach converts the problem of maneuvering target tracking to that of state estimation in the presence of nonstationary process noise with unknown statistics. A novel method for identifying the nonstationary process noise is proposed in the particle filter framework. Furthermore, a particle filter based multiscan Joint Probability Data Association (JPDA filter is proposed to deal with the data association problem in a multiple maneuvering target tracking. In the proposed multiscan JPDA algorithm, the distributions of interest are the marginal filtering distributions for each of the targets, and these distributions are approximated with particles. The multiscan JPDA algorithm examines the joint association events in a multiscan sliding window and calculates the marginal posterior probability based on the multiscan joint association events. The proposed algorithm is illustrated via an example involving the tracking of two highly maneuvering, at times closely spaced and crossed, targets, based on resolved measurements.

  10. A low-complexity interacting multiple model filter for maneuvering target tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Syed Safwan

    2017-01-22

    In this work, we address the target tracking problem for a coordinate-decoupled Markovian jump-mean-acceleration based maneuvering mobility model. A novel low-complexity alternative to the conventional interacting multiple model (IMM) filter is proposed for this class of mobility models. The proposed tracking algorithm utilizes a bank of interacting filters where the interactions are limited to the mixing of the mean estimates, and it exploits a fixed off-line computed Kalman gain matrix for the entire filter bank. Consequently, the proposed filter does not require matrix inversions during on-line operation which significantly reduces its complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of the low-complexity proposed scheme remains comparable to that of the traditional (highly-complex) IMM filter. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions that iteratively evaluate the transient and steady-state performance of the proposed scheme, and establish the conditions that ensure the stability of the proposed filter. The analytical findings are in close accordance with the simulated results.

  11. A low-complexity interacting multiple model filter for maneuvering target tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Syed Safwan; Abrar, Shafayat

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we address the target tracking problem for a coordinate-decoupled Markovian jump-mean-acceleration based maneuvering mobility model. A novel low-complexity alternative to the conventional interacting multiple model (IMM) filter is proposed for this class of mobility models. The proposed tracking algorithm utilizes a bank of interacting filters where the interactions are limited to the mixing of the mean estimates, and it exploits a fixed off-line computed Kalman gain matrix for the entire filter bank. Consequently, the proposed filter does not require matrix inversions during on-line operation which significantly reduces its complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of the low-complexity proposed scheme remains comparable to that of the traditional (highly-complex) IMM filter. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions that iteratively evaluate the transient and steady-state performance of the proposed scheme, and establish the conditions that ensure the stability of the proposed filter. The analytical findings are in close accordance with the simulated results.

  12. Multiple Vehicle Cooperative Localization with Spatial Registration Based on a Probability Hypothesis Density Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of multiple vehicle cooperative localization with spatial registration in the formulation of the probability hypothesis density (PHD filter. Assuming vehicles are equipped with proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors (with biases to cooperatively localize positions, a simultaneous solution for joint spatial registration and state estimation is proposed. For this, we rely on the sequential Monte Carlo implementation of the PHD filtering. Compared to other methods, the concept of multiple vehicle cooperative localization with spatial registration is first proposed under Random Finite Set Theory. In addition, the proposed solution also addresses the challenges for multiple vehicle cooperative localization, e.g., the communication bandwidth issue and data association uncertainty. The simulation result demonstrates its reliability and feasibility in large-scale environments.

  13. Filter multiplexing by use of spatial Code Division Multiple Access approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jonathan; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mendlovic, David; Monreal, Javier Garcia

    2003-02-10

    The increasing popularity of optical communication has also brought a demand for a broader bandwidth. The trend, naturally, was to implement methods from traditional electronic communication. One of the most effective traditional methods is Code Division Multiple Access. In this research, we suggest the use of this approach for spatial coding applied to images. The approach is to multiplex several filters into one plane while keeping their mutual orthogonality. It is shown that if the filters are limited by their bandwidth, the output of all the filters can be sampled in the original image resolution and fully recovered through an all-optical setup. The theoretical analysis of such a setup is verified in an experimental demonstration.

  14. A variational Bayesian multiple particle filtering scheme for large-dimensional systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa

    2016-06-14

    This paper considers the Bayesian filtering problem in high-dimensional nonlinear state-space systems. In such systems, classical particle filters (PFs) are impractical due to the prohibitive number of required particles to obtain reasonable performances. One approach that has been introduced to overcome this problem is the concept of multiple PFs (MPFs), where the state-space is split into low-dimensional subspaces and then a separate PF is applied to each subspace. Remarkable performances of MPF-like filters motivated our investigation here into a new strategy that combines the variational Bayesian approach to split the state-space with random sampling techniques, to derive a new computationally efficient MPF. The propagation of each particle in the prediction step of the resulting filter requires generating only a single particle in contrast with standard MPFs, for which a set of (children) particles is required. We present simulation results to evaluate the behavior of the proposed filter and compare its performances against standard PF and a MPF.

  15. A variational Bayesian multiple particle filtering scheme for large-dimensional systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the Bayesian filtering problem in high-dimensional nonlinear state-space systems. In such systems, classical particle filters (PFs) are impractical due to the prohibitive number of required particles to obtain reasonable performances. One approach that has been introduced to overcome this problem is the concept of multiple PFs (MPFs), where the state-space is split into low-dimensional subspaces and then a separate PF is applied to each subspace. Remarkable performances of MPF-like filters motivated our investigation here into a new strategy that combines the variational Bayesian approach to split the state-space with random sampling techniques, to derive a new computationally efficient MPF. The propagation of each particle in the prediction step of the resulting filter requires generating only a single particle in contrast with standard MPFs, for which a set of (children) particles is required. We present simulation results to evaluate the behavior of the proposed filter and compare its performances against standard PF and a MPF.

  16. Detangling the Effects of Environmental Filtering and Dispersal Limitation on Aggregated Distributions of Tree and Shrub Species: Life Stage Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Ming; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Ma, Zun-Ping; Fang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The pervasive pattern of aggregated tree distributions in natural communities is commonly explained by the joint effect of two clustering processes: environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, yet little consensus remains on the relative importance of the two clustering processes on tree aggregations. Different life stages of examined species were thought to be one possible explanation of this disagreement, because the effect of environmental filtering and dispersal limitation are expected to increase and decrease with tree life stages, respectively. However, few studies have explicitly tested these expectations. In this study, we evaluated these expectations by three different methods (species-habitat association test based on Poisson Clustering model and spatial point pattern analyses based on Heterogeneous Poisson model and the jointly modeling approach) using 36 species in a 20-ha subtropical forest plot. Our results showed that the percentage of species with significant habitat association increased with life stages, and there were fewer species affected by dispersal limitation in later life stages compared with those in earlier stages. Percentage of variance explained by the environmental filtering and dispersal limitation also increases and decreases with life stages. These results provided a promising alternative explanation on the existing mixed results about the relative importance of the two clustering processes. These findings also highlighted the importance of plant life stages for fully understanding species distributions and species coexistence. PMID:27227538

  17. Restoration of γ-ray multiplicity distributions from experiments with low efficiency multiplicity filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania

    1984-01-01

    The restoration of γ-ray multiplicity distributions from experimental p-fold coincidence distributions is discussed. It is shown that the restoration of the multiplicity from measurements with low total detection efficiency is an 'incorrectly posed problem'. While in the literature the analysis of the experimental data has been attempted only in terms of the lowest central moments of the multiplicity distribution, in this paper an unfolding method based on the minimization of the directioned discrepancies in the probability space is used. The method is found to work very well even if the total efficiency Ω <= 0.1. Realistic tests and a comparison with the usual method of analysis are presented. (orig.)

  18. Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) Fifth-Degree Spherical Simplex-Radial Cubature Kalman Filter for Maneuvering Target Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Wu, Wen

    2017-06-13

    For improving the tracking accuracy and model switching speed of maneuvering target tracking in nonlinear systems, a new algorithm named the interacting multiple model fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thSSRCKF) is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is a combination of the interacting multiple model (IMM) filter and the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (5thSSRCKF). The proposed algorithm makes use of Markov process to describe the switching probability among the models, and uses 5thSSRCKF to deal with the state estimation of each model. The 5thSSRCKF is an improved filter algorithm, which utilizes the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial rule to improve the filtering accuracy. Finally, the tracking performance of the IMM5thSSRCKF is evaluated by simulation in a typical maneuvering target tracking scenario. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better tracking performance and quicker model switching speed when disposing maneuver models compared with the interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (IMMUKF), the interacting multiple model cubature Kalman filter (IMMCKF) and the interacting multiple model fifth-degree cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thCKF).

  19. Interacting Multiple Model (IMM Fifth-Degree Spherical Simplex-Radial Cubature Kalman Filter for Maneuvering Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For improving the tracking accuracy and model switching speed of maneuvering target tracking in nonlinear systems, a new algorithm named the interacting multiple model fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thSSRCKF is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm is a combination of the interacting multiple model (IMM filter and the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial cubature Kalman filter (5thSSRCKF. The proposed algorithm makes use of Markov process to describe the switching probability among the models, and uses 5thSSRCKF to deal with the state estimation of each model. The 5thSSRCKF is an improved filter algorithm, which utilizes the fifth-degree spherical simplex-radial rule to improve the filtering accuracy. Finally, the tracking performance of the IMM5thSSRCKF is evaluated by simulation in a typical maneuvering target tracking scenario. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better tracking performance and quicker model switching speed when disposing maneuver models compared with the interacting multiple model unscented Kalman filter (IMMUKF, the interacting multiple model cubature Kalman filter (IMMCKF and the interacting multiple model fifth-degree cubature Kalman filter (IMM5thCKF.

  20. Feasibility of a two-stage biological aerated filter for depth processing of electroplating-wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qi; Li, Song; Yang, Shaogui; Wu, Wenfei

    2009-09-01

    A "two-stage biological aerated filter" (T-SBAF) consisting of two columns in series was developed to treat electroplating-wastewater. Due to the low BOD/CODcr values of electroplating-wastewater, "twice start-up" was employed to reduce the time for adaptation of microorganisms, a process that takes up of 20 days. Under steady-state conditions, the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N increased first and then decreased while the hydraulic loadings increased from 0.75 to 1.5 m(3) m(-2) h(-1). The air/water ratio had the same influence on the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N when increasing from 3:1 to 6:1. When the hydraulic loadings and air/water ratio were 1.20 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) and 4:1, the optimal removal of CODcr, NH(4)(+)-N and total-nitrogen (T-N) were 90.13%, 92.51% and 55.46%, respectively. The effluent steadily reached the wastewater reuse standard. Compared to the traditional BAF, the period before backwashing of the T-SBAF could be extended to 10days, and the recovery time was considerably shortened.

  1. Simulation of an electrostatic soot-filter with continuous electrochemical conversion during the stages of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muri, M.

    1996-04-01

    The dissertation describes the simulation of an electrostatic Diesel-Soot-Converter during its stages of development. This simulation is not only necessary for the interpretation of the experimental results, it also shows results for assumptions that cannot be received experimentally. The Diesel-Soot-Converter consists of a charging electrode, which charges the particles by a high-voltage and a ceramic monolith, where the particles are precipitated in the open channels because of an electric field created also by a high-voltage. Afterwards the particles are burned by a plasma. The filter-function of the Diesel-Soot-Converter was formulated and the efficiency for a vehicle was calculated. In the first part of the calculation the mass flow of a BMW 318tds and a BMW 325tds was determined for an US-FTP75-testcycle and for fuel load. In the second part the efficiency of different Diesel-Soot-Converter-types was calculated for the US-FTP75-testcycle and for full load. The use of the program with other testcycles is possible. The results of the calculations show the best configuration of the Diesel-Soot-Converter for the corresponding vehicle. Therefore with the help of this program time and money for the production of the ceramic can be saved. (author)

  2. Multi-sensor fusion with interacting multiple model filter for improved aircraft position accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taehwan; Lee, Changho; Choi, Sangbang

    2013-03-27

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has decided to adopt Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) as the 21st century standard for navigation. Accordingly, ICAO members have provided an impetus to develop related technology and build sufficient infrastructure. For aviation surveillance with CNS/ATM, Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), multilateration (MLAT) and wide-area multilateration (WAM) systems are being established. These sensors can track aircraft positions more accurately than existing radar and can compensate for the blind spots in aircraft surveillance. In this paper, we applied a novel sensor fusion method with Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter to GBAS, ADS-B, MLAT, and WAM data in order to improve the reliability of the aircraft position. Results of performance analysis show that the position accuracy is improved by the proposed sensor fusion method with the IMM filter.

  3. Multiple plasmonically induced transparency for chip-scale bandpass filters in metallic nanowaveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Yue, Zengqi; Zhao, Jianlin

    2018-05-01

    We propose and investigate a new kind of bandpass filters based on the plasmonically induced transparency (PIT) effect in a special metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide system. The finite element method (FEM) simulations illustrate that the obvious PIT response can be generated in the metallic nanostructure with the stub and coupled cavities. The lineshape and position of the PIT peak are particularly dependent on the lengths of the stub and coupled cavities, the waveguide width, as well as the coupling distance between the stub and coupled cavities. The numerical simulations are in accordance with the results obtained by the temporal coupled-mode theory. The multi-peak PIT effect can be achieved by integrating multiple coupled cavities into the plasmonic waveguide. This PIT response contributes to the flexible realization of chip-scale multi-channel bandpass filters, which could find crucial applications in highly integrated optical circuits for signal processing.

  4. A multiband THz bandpass filter based on multiple-resonance excitation of a composite metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xu; Fan, Wen-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We present a systematic numerical study on a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) sandwich structure for multiple resonance transmission in terahertz (THz) region. The designed structure consists of periodic square close ring array on both side of a flexible dielectric substrate, exhibits a multiband transmission, with low average insertion loss, steep skirts and high out-of-band rejection. In addition, due to its rotationally symmetric structure, this filter is polarization-insensitive for normal incidence of the electromagnetic waves, keeping highly transmission at a wide range of incident angles for transverse electric waves and transverse magnetic waves. The metamaterial structure can be utilized as a desirable multiband filter with many practical applications, especially for THz communication, spectroscopic detection and phase imaging. (paper)

  5. Thirteen treated of acute renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma with high cut off filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Wennekers, Ana; Martín Azara, María Pilar; Dourdil Sahun, Victoria; Bergasa Liberal, Beatriz; Ruiz Laiglesia, José Esteban; Vernet Perna, Patricia; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological tumour that is characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and a significant volume of serum free light chains (sFLCs), which can cause acute renal failure due to intratubular precipitation, resulting in cast nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a complication that can arise in more than 20% of patients with multiple myeloma, half of which will require dialysis. We report our experience with 13 patients who were treated with dialysis using high cut off filters (HCO) between July 2011 and February 2015. A total of 6 consecutive 6-hour sessions were performed using a 2.1 m(2) HCO filter (Theralite® by Gambro®). Afterwards, further 6-hour sessions were continued on alternate days. A total of 151 sessions were conducted, with an average of 11.6 sessions per patient (range 6-27). The treatment proved to be effective in removing both kappa and lambda sFLCs, resulting in a 93.7% fall in sFLCs by the end of treatment. The average reduction was 57.7% per dialysis session. 10 out of the 13 cases recovered sufficient renal function to become independent of dialysis. There were no major changes in albumin levels using an infusion protocol of 2 50-mL vials of 20% albumin at the end of the dialysis session. Combination treatment with chemotherapy and long dialysis with HCO filters was effective in reducing the sFLC levels and recovering sufficient renal function in 77% of cases. With HCO filters, significant cost savings are achieved, contrary to what was previously believed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Immunomodulators are a type of biologic therapy. Thalidomide , lenalidomide , and pomalidomide are immunomodulators used to treat multiple myeloma and other plasma ...

  7. Particle Filtering for Multiple Access DS/CDMA Systems DS/CDMA Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliveira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses computational implementation aspects and performance of a Bayesian methodology, namely particle filter (PF. The PF channel estimation technique is directly applied to the channel coefficients estimation of DS/CDMA systems. Simulation results for non-line-of-sight (NLOS Rayleigh fading channel propagation have indicated that the bootstrap PF estimator is capable to provide RMSE in the range of [10-3 ; 10-2] for a wide range of multiple access interference (MAI levels and signal-noise ratio (SNR, and still be able to offer robustness to near-far ratio (NFR effect.

  8. Emission computerized axial tomography from multiple gamma-camera views using frequency filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J L; Milan, C; Touzery, C; Coitoux, P; Gailliard, P; Budinger, T F

    1980-01-01

    Emission computerized axial tomography is achievable in any nuclear medicine department from multiple gamma camera views. Data are collected by rotating the patient in front of the camera. A simple fast algorithm is implemented, known as the convolution technique: first the projection data are Fourier transformed and then an original filter designed for optimizing resolution and noise suppression is applied; finally the inverse transform of the latter operation is back-projected. This program, which can also take into account the attenuation for single photon events, was executed with good results on phantoms and patients. We think that it can be easily implemented for specific diagnostic problems.

  9. Dislocation multiplication rate in the early stage of germanium plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fikar, J.; Dupas, Corinne; Kruml, Tomáš; Jacques, A.; Martin, J. L.

    400-401, - (2005), s. 431-434 ISSN 0921-5093. [Dislocations 2004. La Colle-sur-Loup, 13.09.2004-17.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : dislocation multiplication * germanium * constitutive modelling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.347, year: 2005

  10. Physical activity staging distribution: establishing a heuristic using multiple studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, C; Hellsten, L; Norman, G; Braun, L; Breger, R; Burbank, P; Coday, M; Elliot, D; Garber, C; Greaney, M; Keteyian, S; Lees, F; Matthews, C; Moe, E; Resnick, B; Riebe, D; Rossi, J; Toobert, D; Wang, T; Welk, G; Williams, G

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the population prevalence across the stages of change (SoC) for regular physical activity and to establish the prevalence of people at risk. With support from the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, nine Behavior Change Consortium studies with a common physical activity SoC measure agreed to collaborate and share data. The distribution pattern identified in these predominantly reactively recruited studies was Precontemplation (PC) = 5% (+/- 10), Contemplation (C) = 10% (+/- 10), Preparation (P) = 40% (+/- 10), Action = 10% (+/- 10), and Maintenance = 35% (+/- 10). With reactively recruited studies, it can be anticipated that there will be a higher percentage of the sample that is ready to change and a greater percentage of currently active people compared to random representative samples. The at-risk stage distribution (i.e., those not at criteria or PC, C, and P) was approximately 10% PC, 20% C, and 70% P in specific samples and approximately 20% PC, 10% C, and 70% P in the clinical samples. Knowing SoC heuristics can inform public health practitioners and policymakers about the population's motivation for physical activity, help track changes over time, and assist in the allocation of resources.

  11. A study of single multiplicative neuron model with nonlinear filters for hourly wind speed prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xuedong; Zhu, Zhiyu; Su, Xunliang; Fan, Shaosheng; Du, Zhaoping; Chang, Yanchao; Zeng, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    Wind speed prediction is one important methods to guarantee the wind energy integrated into the whole power system smoothly. However, wind power has a non–schedulable nature due to the strong stochastic nature and dynamic uncertainty nature of wind speed. Therefore, wind speed prediction is an indispensable requirement for power system operators. Two new approaches for hourly wind speed prediction are developed in this study by integrating the single multiplicative neuron model and the iterated nonlinear filters for updating the wind speed sequence accurately. In the presented methods, a nonlinear state–space model is first formed based on the single multiplicative neuron model and then the iterated nonlinear filters are employed to perform dynamic state estimation on wind speed sequence with stochastic uncertainty. The suggested approaches are demonstrated using three cases wind speed data and are compared with autoregressive moving average, artificial neural network, kernel ridge regression based residual active learning and single multiplicative neuron model methods. Three types of prediction errors, mean absolute error improvement ratio and running time are employed for different models’ performance comparison. Comparison results from Tables 1–3 indicate that the presented strategies have much better performance for hourly wind speed prediction than other technologies. - Highlights: • Developed two novel hybrid modeling methods for hourly wind speed prediction. • Uncertainty and fluctuations of wind speed can be better explained by novel methods. • Proposed strategies have online adaptive learning ability. • Proposed approaches have shown better performance compared with existed approaches. • Comparison and analysis of two proposed novel models for three cases are provided

  12. Analysis of Dynamic Performance of a Kalman Filter for Combining Multiple MEMS Gyroscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xue

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic performance of a Kalman filter (KF was analyzed, which is used to combine multiple measurements of a gyroscopes array to reduce the noise and improve the accuracy of the individual sensors. A principle for accuracy improvement by the KF was briefly presented to obtain an optimal estimate of input rate signal. In particular, the influences of some crucial factors on the KF dynamic performance were analyzed by simulations such as the factors input signal frequency, signal sampling, and KF filtering rate. Finally, a system that was comprised of a six-gyroscope array was designed and implemented to test the dynamic performance. Experimental results indicated that the 1σ error for the combined rate signal was reduced to about 0.2°/s in the constant rate test, which was a reduction by a factor of more than eight compared to the single gyroscope. The 1σ error was also reduced from 1.6°/s to 0.48°/s in the swing test. It showed that the estimated angular rate signal could well reflect the dynamic characteristic of the input signal in dynamic conditions.

  13. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  14. Simultaneous Estimation of Model State Variables and Observation and Forecast Biases Using a Two-Stage Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, V. R. N.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage hybrid Kalman filter to estimate both observation and forecast bias in hydrologic models, in addition to state variables. The biases are estimated using the discrete Kalman filter, and the state variables using the ensemble Kalman filter. A key issue in this multi-component assimilation scheme is the exact partitioning of the difference between observation and forecasts into state, forecast bias and observation bias updates. Here, the error covariances of the forecast bias and the unbiased states are calculated as constant fractions of the biased state error covariance, and the observation bias error covariance is a function of the observation prediction error covariance. In a series of synthetic experiments, focusing on the assimilation of discharge into a rainfall-runoff model, it is shown that both static and dynamic observation and forecast biases can be successfully estimated. The results indicate a strong improvement in the estimation of the state variables and resulting discharge as opposed to the use of a bias-unaware ensemble Kalman filter. Furthermore, minimal code modification in existing data assimilation software is needed to implement the method. The results suggest that a better performance of data assimilation methods should be possible if both forecast and observation biases are taken into account.

  15. Simultaneous estimation of model state variables and observation and forecast biases using a two-stage hybrid Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. N. Pauwels

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a two-stage hybrid Kalman filter to estimate both observation and forecast bias in hydrologic models, in addition to state variables. The biases are estimated using the discrete Kalman filter, and the state variables using the ensemble Kalman filter. A key issue in this multi-component assimilation scheme is the exact partitioning of the difference between observation and forecasts into state, forecast bias and observation bias updates. Here, the error covariances of the forecast bias and the unbiased states are calculated as constant fractions of the biased state error covariance, and the observation bias error covariance is a function of the observation prediction error covariance. In a series of synthetic experiments, focusing on the assimilation of discharge into a rainfall-runoff model, it is shown that both static and dynamic observation and forecast biases can be successfully estimated. The results indicate a strong improvement in the estimation of the state variables and resulting discharge as opposed to the use of a bias-unaware ensemble Kalman filter. Furthermore, minimal code modification in existing data assimilation software is needed to implement the method. The results suggest that a better performance of data assimilation methods should be possible if both forecast and observation biases are taken into account.

  16. A Sequential Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter for Attitude Estimation Using Vector Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fangjun; Jiang, Sai; Zha, Feng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a sequential multiplicative extended Kalman filter (SMEKF) is proposed for attitude estimation using vector observations. In the proposed SMEKF, each of the vector observations is processed sequentially to update the attitude, which can make the measurement model linearization more accurate for the next vector observation. This is the main difference to Murrell’s variation of the MEKF, which does not update the attitude estimate during the sequential procedure. Meanwhile, the covariance is updated after all the vector observations have been processed, which is used to account for the special characteristics of the reset operation necessary for the attitude update. This is the main difference to the traditional sequential EKF, which updates the state covariance at each step of the sequential procedure. The numerical simulation study demonstrates that the proposed SMEKF has more consistent and accurate performance in a wide range of initial estimate errors compared to the MEKF and its traditional sequential forms. PMID:29751538

  17. A Sequential Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter for Attitude Estimation Using Vector Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Qin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a sequential multiplicative extended Kalman filter (SMEKF is proposed for attitude estimation using vector observations. In the proposed SMEKF, each of the vector observations is processed sequentially to update the attitude, which can make the measurement model linearization more accurate for the next vector observation. This is the main difference to Murrell’s variation of the MEKF, which does not update the attitude estimate during the sequential procedure. Meanwhile, the covariance is updated after all the vector observations have been processed, which is used to account for the special characteristics of the reset operation necessary for the attitude update. This is the main difference to the traditional sequential EKF, which updates the state covariance at each step of the sequential procedure. The numerical simulation study demonstrates that the proposed SMEKF has more consistent and accurate performance in a wide range of initial estimate errors compared to the MEKF and its traditional sequential forms.

  18. Treatment of non-Gaussian tails of multiple Coulomb scattering in track fitting with a Gaussian-sum filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandlie, A.; Wroldsen, J.

    2006-01-01

    If any of the probability densities involved in track fitting deviate from the Gaussian assumption, it is plausible that a non-linear estimator which better takes the actual shape of the distribution into account can do better. One such non-linear estimator is the Gaussian-sum filter, which is adequate if the distributions under consideration can be approximated by Gaussian mixtures. The main purpose of this paper is to present a Gaussian-sum filter for track fitting, based on a two-component approximation of the distribution of angular deflections due to multiple scattering. In a simulation study within a linear track model the Gaussian-sum filter is shown to be a competitive alternative to the Kalman filter. Scenarios at various momenta and with various maximum number of components in the Gaussian-sum filter are considered. Particularly at low momenta the Gaussian-sum filter yields a better estimate of the uncertainties than the Kalman filter, and it is also slightly more precise than the latter

  19. Radar tracking with an interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter for civil aviation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-05-17

    The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC) system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM) system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS) technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF), is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF), is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods.

  20. Radar Tracking with an Interacting Multiple Model and Probabilistic Data Association Filter for Civil Aviation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF, is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF, is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods.

  1. A 2.5-million-year perspective on coarse-filter strategies for conserving nature's stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jacquelyn L; Blois, Jessica L; Benito, Blas; Dobrowski, Solomon; Hunter, Malcolm L; McGuire, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    Climate change will require novel conservation strategies. One such tactic is a coarse-filter approach that focuses on conserving nature's stage (CNS) rather than the actors (individual species). However, there is a temporal mismatch between the long-term goals of conservation and the short-term nature of most ecological studies, which leaves many assumptions untested. Paleoecology provides a valuable perspective on coarse-filter strategies by marshaling the natural experiments of the past to contextualize extinction risk due to the emerging impacts of climate change and anthropogenic threats. We reviewed examples from the paleoecological record that highlight the strengths, opportunities, and caveats of a CNS approach. We focused on the near-time geological past of the Quaternary, during which species were subjected to widespread changes in climate and concomitant changes in the physical environment in general. Species experienced a range of individualistic responses to these changes, including community turnover and novel associations, extinction and speciation, range shifts, changes in local richness and evenness, and both equilibrium and disequilibrium responses. Due to the dynamic nature of species responses to Quaternary climate change, a coarse-filter strategy may be appropriate for many taxa because it can accommodate dynamic processes. However, conservationists should also consider that the persistence of landforms varies across space and time, which could have potential long-term consequences for geodiversity and thus biodiversity. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Multiple-Stage Planetary Gear Train Used in Wind Driven Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of multiple-stage planetary gear train composed of a two-stage planetary gear train and a one-stage parallel axis gear is proposed to be used in wind driven generator to analyze the influence of revolution speed and mesh error on dynamic load sharing characteristic based on the lumped parameter theory. Dynamic equation of the model is solved using numerical method to analyze the uniform load distribution of the system. It is shown that the load sharing property of the system is significantly affected by mesh error and rotational speed; load sharing coefficient and change rate of internal and external meshing of the system are of obvious difference from each other. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for the design of the multiple-stage planetary gear train of wind driven generator.

  3. Logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter for multiple objects recognition within cluttered scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypraios, Ioannis; Young, Rupert C. D.; Chatwin, Chris R.; Birch, Phil M.

    2009-04-01

    θThe window unit in the design of the complex logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter can allow multiple objects of the same class to be detected within the input image. Additionally, the architecture of the neural network unit of the complex logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter becomes attractive for accommodating the recognition of multiple objects of different classes within the input image by modifying the output layer of the unit. We test the overall filter for multiple objects of the same and of different classes' recognition within cluttered input images and video sequences of cluttered scenes. Logarithmic r-θ mapping for hybrid optical neural network filter is shown to exhibit with a single pass over the input data simultaneously in-plane rotation, out-of-plane rotation, scale, log r-θ map translation and shift invariance, and good clutter tolerance by recognizing correctly the different objects within the cluttered scenes. We record in our results additional extracted information from the cluttered scenes about the objects' relative position, scale and in-plane rotation.

  4. Innovation in a multiple-stage, multiple-product food marketing chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Alister Derek; Christensen, Tove

    A model of a 3-stage food marketing chain is presented for the case of two products. Its extension of existing work is its capacity to examine non-competitive input and output markets in two marketing chains at once, and have them related by demand and cost interactions. The simulated impacts...... of market power in a single chain generally reproduce those delivered by previous authors. The impacts of market power in related chains are found to depend on linkages between chains in terms of interactions in consumer demand. Interactions between products in costs (economies of scope) generate...... an interesting result in that a possible market failure is identified that may be offset by the exercise of market power. The generation of farm-level innovation is seen to be largely unaffected by market power, but where market power is exercised the benefits are extracted from farmers and consumers...

  5. Recommendations for Evaluating Multiple Filters in Ballast Water Management Systems for US Type Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    8 Figure 5. Slotted tube ...ISO 1990). Slotted element refers to a filter where slots are created in a tubular shape (Figure 5). Figure 5. Slotted tube (HYDAC 2014...Hospital inpatient care General surgery Bag Filters - Non supported (flexible) microfine fiberglass or synthetic media, 12 to 36 inches deep

  6. Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid Tied Solar PV System with Active Power Filtering Using Power Balance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashi; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, power quality features such as harmonics mitigation, power factor correction with active power filtering are addressed in a single-stage, single-phase solar photovoltaic (PV) grid tied system. The Power Balance Theory (PBT) with perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed for the mitigation of power quality problems in a solar PV grid tied system. The solar PV array is interfaced to a single phase AC grid through a Voltage Source Converter (VSC), which provides active power flow from a solar PV array to the grid as well as to the load and it performs harmonics mitigation using PBT based control. The solar PV array power varies with sunlight and due to this, the solar PV grid tied VSC works only 8-10 h per day. At night, when PV power is zero, the VSC works as an active power filter for power quality improvement, and the load active power is delivered by the grid to the load connected at the point of common coupling. This increases the effective utilization of a VSC. The system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB and simulated responses of the system at nonlinear loads and varying environmental conditions are also validated experimentally on a prototype developed in the laboratory.

  7. Influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures in multi-stage fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, the limited-entry method is widely used to promote uniform growth of multiple fractures. However, this method's effectiveness may be lost because the perforations will be eroded gradually during the fracturing period. In order to study the influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures, we combined the solid–fluid coupled model of hydraulic fracture growth with an empirical model of perforation erosion to implement numerical simulation. The simulations show clearly that the erosion of perforation will significantly deteriorate the non-uniform growth of multiple fractures. Based on the numerical model, we also studied the influences of proppant concentration and injection rates on perforation erosion in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The results indicate that the initial erosion rates become higher with the rising proppant concentration, but the growth of multiple hydraulic fractures is not sensitive to the varied proppant concentration. In addition, higher injection rates are beneficial significantly to the limited-entry design, leading to more uniform growth of fractures. Thus, in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing enough high injection rates are proposed to keep uniform growths. Keywords: Unconventional oil and gas reservoir, Horizontal well, Perforation friction, Perforation erosion, Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, Numerical simulation, Mathematic model, Uniform growth of fractures

  8. Monochromatic filter with multiple manipulation approaches by the layered all-dielectric patch array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Liu, Guiqiang; Fu, Guolan; Liu, Mulin; Liu, Zhengqi

    2016-01-01

    Monochromatic filtering with ultra-narrowband and high spectral contrast is desirable for wide applications in display, image, and other optoelectronics. However, owing to the inherent omhic losses in the metallic materials, a broadband spectrum with a low Q-factor down to 10 inevitably limits the device performance. Herein, we for the first time theoretically propose and demonstrate an ultra-narrowband color-filtering platform based on the layered all-dielectric meta-material (LADM), which consists of a triple-layer high/low/high-index dielectrics cavity structure. Owing to the lossless dielectric materials used, sharp resonances with the bandwidth down to sub-10 nm are observed in the sub-wavelength LADM-based filters. A spectral Q-factor of 361.6 is achieved, which is orders of magnitude larger than that of the plasmonic resonators. Moreover, for the other significant factor for evaluation of filtering performance, the spectral contrast reaches 94.5%. These optical properties are the main results of the excitation of the resonant modes in the LADMs. Furthermore, polarization-manipulated light filtering is realized in this LADM. The classical Malus law is also confirmed in the reflective spectrum by tuning the polarization state. More interestingly and importantly, the filtering phenomenon shows novel features of the wavelength-independent and tunable resonant intensity for the reflective spectrum when the LADM-based filter is illuminated under an oblique state. High scalability of the sharp reflective spectrum is obtained by tuning the structural parameters. A single-wavelength reflective filtering window is also achieved in the visible frequencies. These features hold promise for the LADM-based filter with wide applications in color engineering, displaying, imaging, etc. (paper)

  9. A model for transient analysis of a multiple-medium confinement filter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.; Ellison, P.G.; Leonard, M.T.; Louie, D.L.Y.; Donbroski, E.L.; Wagner, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational model is described that calculates the transient behavior of aerosol and vapor (adsorption) filter compartments such as those used in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactor confinement system. The principal application of the model is in the analysis of confinement response to hypothetical severe (core melt) accidents. Under these conditions, aerosol and radio-iodine deposition on filter compartments may be substantial. Attendant filter degradation mechanisms are modeled. Sample calculations are included to illustrate model performance. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  10. An efficient multiple particle filter based on the variational Bayesian approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    ) approach to propose a new MPF, the VBMPF. The proposed filter is computationally more efficient since the propagation of each particle requires generating one (new) particle only, while in the standard MPFs a set of (children) particles needs

  11. Adaptive responses to salinity stress across multiple life stages in anuran amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albecker, Molly A; McCoy, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    In many regions, freshwater wetlands are increasing in salinity at rates exceeding historic levels. Some freshwater organisms, like amphibians, may be able to adapt and persist in salt-contaminated wetlands by developing salt tolerance. Yet adaptive responses may be more challenging for organisms with complex life histories, because the same environmental stressor can require responses across different ontogenetic stages. Here we investigated responses to salinity in anuran amphibians: a common, freshwater taxon with a complex life cycle. We conducted a meta-analysis to define how the lethality of saltwater exposure changes across multiple life stages, surveyed wetlands in a coastal region experiencing progressive salinization for the presence of anurans, and used common garden experiments to investigate whether chronic salt exposure alters responses in three sequential life stages (reproductive, egg, and tadpole life stages) in Hyla cinerea , a species repeatedly observed in saline wetlands. Meta-analysis revealed differential vulnerability to salt stress across life stages with the egg stage as the most salt-sensitive. Field surveys revealed that 25% of the species known to occur in the focal region were detected in salt-intruded habitats. Remarkably, Hyla cinerea was found in large abundances in multiple wetlands with salinity concentrations 450% higher than the tadpole-stage LC 50 . Common garden experiments showed that coastal (chronically salt exposed) populations of H. cinerea lay more eggs, have higher hatching success, and greater tadpole survival in higher salinities compared to inland (salt naïve) populations. Collectively, our data suggest that some species of anuran amphibians have divergent and adaptive responses to salt exposure across populations and across different life stages. We propose that anuran amphibians may be a novel and amenable natural model system for empirical explorations of adaptive responses to environmental change.

  12. Tunable bandpass filter based on photonic crystal fiber filled with multiple liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Tartarini, G.; Borelli, E.

    2007-01-01

    A tunable bandpass filter based on a photonic crystal fiber filled with two different liquid crystals is demonstrated. 130 nm bandwidth tunability is achieved by tuning the temperature from 30degC to 90degC.......A tunable bandpass filter based on a photonic crystal fiber filled with two different liquid crystals is demonstrated. 130 nm bandwidth tunability is achieved by tuning the temperature from 30degC to 90degC....

  13. Maximizing the performance of a multiple-stage variable-throat venturi scrubber for particle collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, D. M.; Akeredolu, F.

    The high collection efficiencies that are required nowadays to meet the stricter pollution control standards necessitate the use of high-energy scrubbers, such as the venturi scrubber, for the arrestment of fine particulate matter from exhaust gas streams. To achieve more energy-efficient particle collection, several venturi stages may be used in series. This paper is principally a theoretical investigation of the performance of a multiple-stage venturi scrubber, the main objective of the study being to establish the best venturi design configuration for any given set of operating conditions. A mathematical model is used to predict collection efficiency vs pressure drop relationships for particle sizes in the range 0.2-5.0 μm for one-, two-, three- and four-stage scrubbers. The theoretical predictions are borne out qualitatively by experimental work. The paper shows that the three-stage venturi produces the highest collection efficiencies over the normal operating range except for the collection of very fine particles at low pressure drops, when the single-stage venturi is best. The significant improvement in performance achieved by the three-stage venturi when compared with conventional single-stage operation increases as both the particle size and system pressure drop increase.

  14. Palm oil mill effluent treatment using a two-stage microbial fuel cells system integrated with immobilized biological aerated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jia; Zhu, Xiuping; Ni, Jinren; Borthwick, Alistair

    2010-04-01

    An integrated system of two-stage microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and immobilized biological aerated filters (I-BAFs) was used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) at laboratory scale. By replacing the conventional two-stage up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) with a newly proposed upflow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UML-MFC) in the integrated system, significant improvements on NH(3)-N removal were observed and direct electricity generation implemented in both MFC1 and MFC2. Moreover, the coupled iron-carbon micro-electrolysis in the cathode of MFC2 further enhanced treatment efficiency of organic compounds. The I-BAFs played a major role in further removal of NH(3)-N and COD. For influent COD and NH(3)-N of 10,000 and 125 mg/L, respectively, the final effluents COD and NH(3)-N were below 350 and 8 mg/L, with removal rates higher than 96.5% and 93.6%. The GC-MS analysis indicated that most of the contaminants were satisfactorily biodegraded by the integrated system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemibody irradiation in stage III multiple myeloma: results of 20 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troussard, X.; Reman, O.; Macro, M.; Leporrier, M.; Roussel, A.

    1988-01-01

    The advanced forms of multiple myeloma of bone, stage III, or those with a large tumoral mass, characterized by a considerable number of myelomacells, pose difficult problems in treatment. Little progress has been made since the introduction of the alkylating agents, and combined chemotherapy does not seem to be any more effective in terms of survival. It is these severe forms that culminate in painful symptoms which are often difficult to eliminate. The radiosensitivity of myeloma led us to treat 20 patients affected by severe forms of the disease by total body irradiation in two stages, and we analyze here the effects of treatment and the tolerance for this technique

  16. Discovery of HDAC inhibitors with potent activity against multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Finn K; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Stenzel, Katharina; Duffy, Sandra; Meister, Stephan; Marek, Linda; Schmetter, Rebekka; Kuna, Krystina; Hamacher, Alexandra; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Kassack, Matthias U; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Avery, Vicky M; Andrews, Katherine T; Kurz, Thomas

    2014-07-23

    In this work we investigated the antiplasmodial activity of a series of HDAC inhibitors containing an alkoxyamide connecting-unit linker region. HDAC inhibitor 1a (LMK235), previously shown to be a novel and specific inhibitor of human HDAC4 and 5, was used as a starting point to rapidly construct a mini-library of HDAC inhibitors using a straightforward solid-phase supported synthesis. Several of these novel HDAC inhibitors were found to have potent in vitro activity against asexual stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Representative compounds were shown to hyperacetylate P. falciparum histones and to inhibit deacetylase activity of recombinant PfHDAC1 and P. falciparum nuclear extracts. All compounds were also screened in vitro for activity against Plasmodium berghei exo-erythrocytic stages and selected compounds were further tested against late stage (IV and V) P. falciparum gametocytes. Of note, some compounds showed nanomolar activity against all three life cycle stages tested (asexual, exo-erythrocytic and gametocyte stages) and several compounds displayed significantly increased parasite selectivity compared to the reference HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). These data suggest that it may be possible to develop HDAC inhibitors that target multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. UltiMatch-NL: a Web service matchmaker based on multiple semantic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Keyvan; Ibrahim, Suhaimi; Zamani, Mazdak; Khezrian, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a Semantic Web service matchmaker called UltiMatch-NL is presented. UltiMatch-NL applies two filters namely Signature-based and Description-based on different abstraction levels of a service profile to achieve more accurate results. More specifically, the proposed filters rely on semantic knowledge to extract the similarity between a given pair of service descriptions. Thus it is a further step towards fully automated Web service discovery via making this process more semantic-aware. In addition, a new technique is proposed to weight and combine the results of different filters of UltiMatch-NL, automatically. Moreover, an innovative approach is introduced to predict the relevance of requests and Web services and eliminate the need for setting a threshold value of similarity. In order to evaluate UltiMatch-NL, the repository of OWLS-TC is used. The performance evaluation based on standard measures from the information retrieval field shows that semantic matching of OWL-S services can be significantly improved by incorporating designed matching filters.

  18. Multiple HEPA filter test methods, July 1, 1974--March 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.G.; Osetek, D.J.

    1975-08-01

    A laboratory apparatus has been constructed for testing two HEPA filters in a series configuration. The apparatus consists of an instrumented wind tunnel in which the HEPA filters are mounted, and an auxiliary wind tunnel for obtaining diluted samples of the challenge aerosol upstream of the first filter. Measurements performed with a single particle aerosol spectrometer demonstrate the capability for measuring overall protection factors of greater than 2.5 x 10 8 . The decay of penetration as a function of time in individual HEPA filters indicates no preferential size discrimination in the range of 0.1 μm to 1.0 μm; nor is there a preferential size discrimination of penetration in this same range. A theoretical feasibility study has been performed on the use of an inhomogeneous electric field/induced aerosol electric dipole interaction for potential use as an air cleaning mechanism. Numerical evaluation of a coaxial cylinder geometry indicates that the method is feasible for collection of particles down to 0.1 μm under typical airflow velocity conditions. Small modifications in the geometry may be incorporated to create an instrument capable of measuring particle size. Geometries other than coaxial cylinders are also under investigation

  19. UltiMatch-NL: A Web Service Matchmaker Based on Multiple Semantic Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Keyvan; Ibrahim, Suhaimi; Zamani, Mazdak; Khezrian, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a Semantic Web service matchmaker called UltiMatch-NL is presented. UltiMatch-NL applies two filters namely Signature-based and Description-based on different abstraction levels of a service profile to achieve more accurate results. More specifically, the proposed filters rely on semantic knowledge to extract the similarity between a given pair of service descriptions. Thus it is a further step towards fully automated Web service discovery via making this process more semantic-aware. In addition, a new technique is proposed to weight and combine the results of different filters of UltiMatch-NL, automatically. Moreover, an innovative approach is introduced to predict the relevance of requests and Web services and eliminate the need for setting a threshold value of similarity. In order to evaluate UltiMatch-NL, the repository of OWLS-TC is used. The performance evaluation based on standard measures from the information retrieval field shows that semantic matching of OWL-S services can be significantly improved by incorporating designed matching filters. PMID:25157872

  20. Initial Clinical Experience in Multiple Myeloma Staging by Means of Whole-Body Resonance Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J. I.; Concepcion, L.; Alonso, S.; Sanchez, B.; Manzi, F.

    2003-01-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) exploratory technique equivalent to serial bone X-ray, and to compare their precision in the staging of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Multiple acquisition T1-weights TSE and STIR sequences in the coronal plane were performed. Ten healthy volunteers and 11 multiple myeloma diagnosed patients were included. The visualization of bony structures was particularly noted,with special attention given to those which would normally be included in a serial bone X-ray. In the case of the patients, a comparison was made between diagnostic capacities of the MR sequences. MR highlighters significantly more (p<0.05) bony elements than did the serial bone X-ray. This was greatly due to a sequential displacement of the scanner bed, allowing for field-of-views which were minimally from head to third proximal of the leg. Magnetic resonance detected a significantly higher number (p<0.05) of lesions. It was, in turn, capable of revealing greater lesion extensions, even to the point of implying staging classification changes in 18% of the patients. The utilization of whole-body MR techniques in multiple myeloma patients is feasible and clinically beneficial. MR is both more sensitive and more specific than serial bone X-ray for evaluation of bony lesions in MM. It is currently serving as a valid alternative in a growing numbers of patients. (Author) 10 refs

  1. Modified septic tank-anaerobic filter unit as a two-stage onsite domestic wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the performance evaluation of a uniquely designed two-stage system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic bioreactors, a modified septic tank followed by an upflow anaerobic filter, accommodated within a single cylindrical unit. The system was started up without inoculation at 24 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). It achieved a steady-state condition after 120 days. The system was observed to be remarkably efficient in removing pollutants during steady-state condition with the average removal efficiency of 88.6 +/- 3.7% for chemical oxygen demand, 86.3 +/- 4.9% for biochemical oxygen demand and 91.2 +/- 9.7% for total suspended solids. The microbial analysis revealed a high reduction (>90%) capacity of the system for indicator organism and pathogens. It also showed a very good endurance against imposed hydraulic shock load. Tracer study showed that the flow pattern was close to plug flow reactor. Mean HRT was also found to be close to the designed value.

  2. Analysis of Naïve Bayes Algorithm for Email Spam Filtering across Multiple Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah Rusland, Nurul; Wahid, Norfaradilla; Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti

    2017-08-01

    E-mail spam continues to become a problem on the Internet. Spammed e-mail may contain many copies of the same message, commercial advertisement or other irrelevant posts like pornographic content. In previous research, different filtering techniques are used to detect these e-mails such as using Random Forest, Naïve Bayesian, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neutral Network. In this research, we test Naïve Bayes algorithm for e-mail spam filtering on two datasets and test its performance, i.e., Spam Data and SPAMBASE datasets [8]. The performance of the datasets is evaluated based on their accuracy, recall, precision and F-measure. Our research use WEKA tool for the evaluation of Naïve Bayes algorithm for e-mail spam filtering on both datasets. The result shows that the type of email and the number of instances of the dataset has an influence towards the performance of Naïve Bayes.

  3. Application of the Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter to Initial Orbit Determination of a Break-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecy, Tom; Shoemaker, Michael; Jah, Moriba

    2013-08-01

    A break-up in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is simulated for 10 objects having area-to-mass ratios (AMR's) ranging from 0.1-10.0 m2/kg. The Constrained Admissible Region Multiple Hypothesis Filter (CAR-MHF) is applied to determining and characterizing the orbit and atmospheric drag parameters (CdA/m) simultaneously for each of the 10 objects with no a priori orbit or drag information. The results indicate that CAR-MHF shows promise for accurate, unambiguous and autonomous determination of the orbit and drag states.

  4. Land cover change detection using the internal covariance matrix of the extended kalman filter over multiple spectral bands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Salmon_10577_2013.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1183 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Salmon_10577_2013.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 IEEE Journal... of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol, 6(3): 1079- 1085 Land cover change detection using the internal covariance matrix of the extended kalman filter over multiple spectral bands Salmon BP Kleynhans W Van den Bergh...

  5. Evaluation of Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calle, Verónica; Slack, Abigail; Keane, Niamh; Luft, Susan; Pearce, Kathryn E; Ketterling, Rhett P; Jain, Tania; Chirackal, Sintosebastian; Reeder, Craig; Mikhael, Joseph; Noel, Pierre; Mayo, Angela; Adams, Roberta H; Ahmann, Gregory; Braggio, Esteban; Stewart, A Keith; Bergsagel, P Leif; Van Wier, Scott A; Fonseca, Rafael

    2018-04-06

    The International Myeloma Working Group has proposed the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for risk stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are a limited number of studies that have validated this risk model in the autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) setting. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the applicability and value for predicting survival of the R-ISS model in 134 MM patients treated with new agents and ASCT at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and the University Hospital of Salamanca in Spain. The patients were reclassified at diagnosis according to the R-ISS: 44 patients (33%) had stage I, 75 (56%) had stage II, and 15 (11%) had stage III. After a median follow-up of 60 months, R-ISS assessed at diagnosis was an independent predictor for overall survival (OS) after ASCT, with median OS not reached, 111 and 37 months for R-ISS I, II and III, respectively (P R-ISS II and having high-risk chromosomal abnormalities (CA) had a significant shorter median OS than those with R-ISS II without CA: 70 vs. 111 months, respectively. Therefore, this study lends further support for the R-ISS as a reliable prognostic tool for estimating survival in transplant myeloma patients and suggests the importance of high-risk CA in the R-ISS II group.

  6. Multiple local feature representations and their fusion based on an SVR model for iris recognition using optimized Gabor filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Dong, Hongxing

    2014-12-01

    Gabor descriptors have been widely used in iris texture representations. However, fixed basic Gabor functions cannot match the changing nature of diverse iris datasets. Furthermore, a single form of iris feature cannot overcome difficulties in iris recognition, such as illumination variations, environmental conditions, and device variations. This paper provides multiple local feature representations and their fusion scheme based on a support vector regression (SVR) model for iris recognition using optimized Gabor filters. In our iris system, a particle swarm optimization (PSO)- and a Boolean particle swarm optimization (BPSO)-based algorithm is proposed to provide suitable Gabor filters for each involved test dataset without predefinition or manual modulation. Several comparative experiments on JLUBR-IRIS, CASIA-I, and CASIA-V4-Interval iris datasets are conducted, and the results show that our work can generate improved local Gabor features by using optimized Gabor filters for each dataset. In addition, our SVR fusion strategy may make full use of their discriminative ability to improve accuracy and reliability. Other comparative experiments show that our approach may outperform other popular iris systems.

  7. A novel multiple-stage antimalarial agent that inhibits protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragaña, Beatriz; Hallyburton, Irene; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Norcross, Neil R.; Grimaldi, Raffaella; Otto, Thomas D.; Proto, William R.; Blagborough, Andrew M.; Meister, Stephan; Wirjanata, Grennady; Ruecker, Andrea; Upton, Leanna M.; Abraham, Tara S.; Almeida, Mariana J.; Pradhan, Anupam; Porzelle, Achim; Martínez, María Santos; Bolscher, Judith M.; Woodland, Andrew; Norval, Suzanne; Zuccotto, Fabio; Thomas, John; Simeons, Frederick; Stojanovski, Laste; Osuna-Cabello, Maria; Brock, Paddy M.; Churcher, Tom S.; Sala, Katarzyna A.; Zakutansky, Sara E.; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Sanz, Laura Maria; Riley, Jennifer; Basak, Rajshekhar; Campbell, Michael; Avery, Vicky M.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Dechering, Koen J.; Noviyanti, Rintis; Campo, Brice; Frearson, Julie A.; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Ferrer-Bazaga, Santiago; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Wyatt, Paul G.; Leroy, Didier; Siegl, Peter; Delves, Michael J.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Wittlin, Sergio; Marfurt, Jutta; Price, Ric N.; Sinden, Robert E.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Charman, Susan A.; Bebrevska, Lidiya; Gray, David W.; Campbell, Simon; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Willis, Paul A.; Rayner, Julian C.; Fidock, David A.; Read, Kevin D.; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2015-06-01

    There is an urgent need for new drugs to treat malaria, with broad therapeutic potential and novel modes of action, to widen the scope of treatment and to overcome emerging drug resistance. Here we describe the discovery of DDD107498, a compound with a potent and novel spectrum of antimalarial activity against multiple life-cycle stages of the Plasmodium parasite, with good pharmacokinetic properties and an acceptable safety profile. DDD107498 demonstrates potential to address a variety of clinical needs, including single-dose treatment, transmission blocking and chemoprotection. DDD107498 was developed from a screening programme against blood-stage malaria parasites; its molecular target has been identified as translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which is responsible for the GTP-dependent translocation of the ribosome along messenger RNA, and is essential for protein synthesis. This discovery of eEF2 as a viable antimalarial drug target opens up new possibilities for drug discovery.

  8. Strain preservation of experimental animals: vitrification of two-cell stage embryos for multiple mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Tomoo; Takahashi, Riichi; Kamisako, Tsutomu

    2015-04-01

    Strain preservation of experimental animals is crucial for experimental reproducibility. Maintaining complete animal strains, however, is costly and there is a risk for genetic mutations as well as complete loss due to disasters or illness. Therefore, the development of effective vitrification techniques for cryopreservation of multiple experimental animal strains is important. We examined whether a vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions, P10 and PEPeS, is suitable for preservation of multiple inbred and outbred mouse strains. First, we investigated whether our vitrification method using cryoprotectant solutions was suitable for two-cell stage mouse embryos. In vitro development of embryos exposed to the cryoprotectant solutions was similar to that of fresh controls. Further, the survival rate of the vitrified embryos was extremely high (98.1%). Next, we collected and vitrified two-cell stage embryos of 14 mouse strains. The average number of embryos obtained from one female was 7.3-33.3. The survival rate of vitrified embryos ranged from 92.8% to 99.1%, with no significant differences among mouse strains. In vivo development did not differ significantly between fresh controls and vitrified embryos of each strain. For strain preservation using cryopreserved embryos, two offspring for inbred lines and one offspring for outbred lines must be produced from two-cell stage embryos collected from one female. The expected number of surviving fetuses obtained from embryos collected from one female of either the inbred or outbred strains ranged from 2.9 to 19.5. The findings of the present study indicated that this vitrification method is suitable for strain preservation of multiple mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The silkworm (Bombyx mori microRNAs and their expressions in multiple developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Yu

    multiple developmental stages allowed us to pinpoint molting stages as hotspots of miRNA expression both in sorts and quantities. Based on the analysis of target genes, we hypothesized that miRNAs regulate development through a particular emphasis on complex stages rather than general regulatory mechanisms.

  10. Multiple HEPA filter test methods. Progress report, January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.; Kyle, T.; Osetek, D.

    1978-09-01

    Tandem high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter efficiency measurements have been successfully performed on a large number of 20,000 CFM installations. The testing procedure relies on the use of a laser intracavity particle spectrometer and a very high-volume thermal dioctyl phthalate aerosol generator designed and constructed specifically for this purpose. For systems that cannot be tested in this fashion, work has been initiated on the generation and detection of a fluorescent self-identifying aerosol to eliminate the background problem. General candidate aerosols and methods to disperse them have been uncovered. Two distinct detection concepts have evolved for the measurement of size and concentration of these particles

  11. Robust heart rate estimation from multiple asynchronous noisy sources using signal quality indices and a Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q; Mark, R G; Clifford, G D

    2008-01-01

    Physiological signals such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often severely corrupted by noise, artifact and missing data, which lead to large errors in the estimation of the heart rate (HR) and ABP. A robust HR estimation method is described that compensates for these problems. The method is based upon the concept of fusing multiple signal quality indices (SQIs) and HR estimates derived from multiple electrocardiogram (ECG) leads and an invasive ABP waveform recorded from ICU patients. Physiological SQIs were obtained by analyzing the statistical characteristics of each waveform and their relationships to each other. HR estimates from the ECG and ABP are tracked with separate Kalman filters, using a modified update sequence based upon the individual SQIs. Data fusion of each HR estimate was then performed by weighting each estimate by the Kalman filters' SQI-modified innovations. This method was evaluated on over 6000 h of simultaneously acquired ECG and ABP from a 437 patient subset of ICU data by adding real ECG and realistic artificial ABP noise. The method provides an accurate HR estimate even in the presence of high levels of persistent noise and artifact, and during episodes of extreme bradycardia and tachycardia

  12. Testing the count rate performance of the scintillation camera by exponential attenuation: Decaying source; Multiple filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.; Mena, I.

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm and two fortrAN programs have been developed to evaluate the count rate performance of scintillation cameras from count rates reduced exponentially, either by a decaying source or by filtration. The first method is used with short-lived radionuclides such as 191 /sup m/Ir or 191 /sup m/Au. The second implements a National Electrical Manufacturers' Association (NEMA) protocol in which the count rate from a source of 191 /sup m/Tc is attenuated by a varying number of copper filters stacked over it. The count rate at each data point is corrected for deadtime loss after assigning an arbitrary deadtime (tau). A second-order polynomial equation is fitted to the logarithms of net count rate values: ln(R) = A+BT+CT 2 where R is the net corrected count rate (cps), and T is the elapsed time (or the filter thickness in the NEMA method). Depending on C, tau is incremented or decremented iteratively, and the count rate corrections and curve fittings are repeated until C approaches zero, indicating a correct value of the deadtime (tau). The program then plots the measured count rate versus the corrected count rate values

  13. Perfect blind restoration of images blurred by multiple filters: theory and efficient algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, G; Bresler, Y

    1999-01-01

    We address the problem of restoring an image from its noisy convolutions with two or more unknown finite impulse response (FIR) filters. We develop theoretical results about the existence and uniqueness of solutions, and show that under some generically true assumptions, both the filters and the image can be determined exactly in the absence of noise, and stably estimated in its presence. We present efficient algorithms to estimate the blur functions and their sizes. These algorithms are of two types, subspace-based and likelihood-based, and are extensions of techniques proposed for the solution of the multichannel blind deconvolution problem in one dimension. We present memory and computation-efficient techniques to handle the very large matrices arising in the two-dimensional (2-D) case. Once the blur functions are determined, they are used in a multichannel deconvolution step to reconstruct the unknown image. The theoretical and practical implications of edge effects, and "weakly exciting" images are examined. Finally, the algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic and real data.

  14. Tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter using a PBS-based two-stage cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter by employing a polarization beam splitter (PBS)-based two-stage cascaded Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer. The proposed comb filter consists of a rotatable polarizer, a fiber PBS, a non-3-dB coupler and a 3-dB coupler. By simply adjusting the polarization state of the input light, the dual-function of channel spacing tunable and wavelength switchable (interleaving) operations can be efficiently obtained. The theoretical analysis is verified by the experimental results. A comb filter with both the channel spacing tunable from 0.18 nm to 0.36 nm and the wavelength switchable functions is experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Multiple-stage decisions in a marine central-place forager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, Ari S; Johnston, David W; Tyson, Reny B; Kaltenberg, Amanda; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Stimpert, Alison K; Curtice, Corrie; Hazen, Elliott L; Halpin, Patrick N; Read, Andrew J; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    Air-breathing marine animals face a complex set of physical challenges associated with diving that affect the decisions of how to optimize feeding. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) have evolved bulk-filter feeding mechanisms to efficiently feed on dense prey patches. Baleen whales are central place foragers where oxygen at the surface represents the central place and depth acts as the distance to prey. Although hypothesized that baleen whales will target the densest prey patches anywhere in the water column, how depth and density interact to influence foraging behaviour is poorly understood. We used multi-sensor archival tags and active acoustics to quantify Antarctic humpback whale foraging behaviour relative to prey. Our analyses reveal multi-stage foraging decisions driven by both krill depth and density. During daylight hours when whales did not feed, krill were found in deep high-density patches. As krill migrated vertically into larger and less dense patches near the surface, whales began to forage. During foraging bouts, we found that feeding rates (number of feeding lunges per hour) were greatest when prey was shallowest, and feeding rates decreased with increasing dive depth. This strategy is consistent with previous models of how air-breathing diving animals optimize foraging efficiency. Thus, humpback whales forage mainly when prey is more broadly distributed and shallower, presumably to minimize diving and searching costs and to increase feeding rates overall and thus foraging efficiency. Using direct measurements of feeding behaviour from animal-borne tags and prey availability from echosounders, our study demonstrates a multi-stage foraging process in a central place forager that we suggest acts to optimize overall efficiency by maximizing net energy gain over time. These data reveal a previously unrecognized level of complexity in predator-prey interactions and underscores the need to simultaneously measure prey distribution in marine central place forager

  16. Multiple-stage decisions in a marine central-place forager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Tyson, Reny B.; Kaltenberg, Amanda; Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Stimpert, Alison K.; Curtice, Corrie; Hazen, Elliott L.; Halpin, Patrick N.; Read, Andrew J.; Nowacek, Douglas P.

    2016-05-01

    Air-breathing marine animals face a complex set of physical challenges associated with diving that affect the decisions of how to optimize feeding. Baleen whales (Mysticeti) have evolved bulk-filter feeding mechanisms to efficiently feed on dense prey patches. Baleen whales are central place foragers where oxygen at the surface represents the central place and depth acts as the distance to prey. Although hypothesized that baleen whales will target the densest prey patches anywhere in the water column, how depth and density interact to influence foraging behaviour is poorly understood. We used multi-sensor archival tags and active acoustics to quantify Antarctic humpback whale foraging behaviour relative to prey. Our analyses reveal multi-stage foraging decisions driven by both krill depth and density. During daylight hours when whales did not feed, krill were found in deep high-density patches. As krill migrated vertically into larger and less dense patches near the surface, whales began to forage. During foraging bouts, we found that feeding rates (number of feeding lunges per hour) were greatest when prey was shallowest, and feeding rates decreased with increasing dive depth. This strategy is consistent with previous models of how air-breathing diving animals optimize foraging efficiency. Thus, humpback whales forage mainly when prey is more broadly distributed and shallower, presumably to minimize diving and searching costs and to increase feeding rates overall and thus foraging efficiency. Using direct measurements of feeding behaviour from animal-borne tags and prey availability from echosounders, our study demonstrates a multi-stage foraging process in a central place forager that we suggest acts to optimize overall efficiency by maximizing net energy gain over time. These data reveal a previously unrecognized level of complexity in predator-prey interactions and underscores the need to simultaneously measure prey distribution in marine central place forager

  17. An alarm filtering system for an automated process: a multiple-agent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoualdi, Kamel

    1994-01-01

    Nowadays, the supervision process of industrial installations is more and more complex involving the automation of their control. A malfunction generates an avalanche of alarms. The operator, in charge of the supervision, must face the incident and execute right actions to recover a normal situation. Generally, he is drowned under the great number of alarms. Our aim, in the frame of our researches, is to perform an alarm filtering system for an automated metro line, to help the operator finding the main alarm responsible for the malfunction. Our works are divided into two parts, both dealing with study and development of an alarm filtering system but using two different approaches. The first part is developed in the frame of the SARA project (an operator assistance system for an automated metro line) which is an expert system prototype helping the operators of a command center. In this part, a centralized approach has been used representing the events with a single event graph and using a global procedure to perform diagnosis. This approach has itself shown its limits. In the second part of our works, we have considered the distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) techniques, and more especially the multi-agent approach. The multi-agent approach has been motivated by the natural distribution of the metro line equipment and by the fact that each equipment has its own local control and knowledge. Thus, each equipment has been considered as an autonomous agent. Through agents cooperation, the system is able to determine the main alarm and the faulty equipment responsible for the incident. A prototype, written in SPIRAL (a tool for knowledge-based system) is running on a workstation. This prototype has allowed the concretization and the validation of our multi-agent approach. (author) [fr

  18. Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Vincent; Panatier, Aude; Hiba, Bassem; Ducourneau, Eva-Gunnel; Raffard, Gerard; Dubourdieu, Nadège; Maitre, Marlène; Lesté-Lasserre, Thierry; Brochet, Bruno; Dousset, Vincent; Desmedt, Aline; Oliet, Stéphane H; Tourdias, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining evidence from multiple electronic health care databases: performances of one-stage and two-stage meta-analysis in matched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gamba, Fabiola; Corrao, Giovanni; Romio, Silvana; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca; Schink, Tania; de Ridder, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Clustering of patients in databases is usually ignored in one-stage meta-analysis of multi-database studies using matched case-control data. The aim of this study was to compare bias and efficiency of such a one-stage meta-analysis with a two-stage meta-analysis. First, we compared the approaches by generating matched case-control data under 5 simulated scenarios, built by varying: (1) the exposure-outcome association; (2) its variability among databases; (3) the confounding strength of one covariate on this association; (4) its variability; and (5) the (heterogeneous) confounding strength of two covariates. Second, we made the same comparison using empirical data from the ARITMO project, a multiple database study investigating the risk of ventricular arrhythmia following the use of medications with arrhythmogenic potential. In our study, we specifically investigated the effect of current use of promethazine. Bias increased for one-stage meta-analysis with increasing (1) between-database variance of exposure effect and (2) heterogeneous confounding generated by two covariates. The efficiency of one-stage meta-analysis was slightly lower than that of two-stage meta-analysis for the majority of investigated scenarios. Based on ARITMO data, there were no evident differences between one-stage (OR = 1.50, CI = [1.08; 2.08]) and two-stage (OR = 1.55, CI = [1.12; 2.16]) approaches. When the effect of interest is heterogeneous, a one-stage meta-analysis ignoring clustering gives biased estimates. Two-stage meta-analysis generates estimates at least as accurate and precise as one-stage meta-analysis. However, in a study using small databases and rare exposures and/or outcomes, a correct one-stage meta-analysis becomes essential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Power and efficiency in a regenerative gas-turbine cycle with multiple reheating and intercooling stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.; Medina, A.

    1996-06-01

    Using an improved Brayton cycle as a model, a general analysis accounting for the efficiency and net power output of a gas-turbine power plant with multiple reheating and intercooling stages is presented. This analysis provides a general theoretical tool for the selection of the optimal operating conditions of the heat engine in terms of the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies and of the heat exchanger efficiency. Explicit results for the efficiency, net power output, optimized pressure ratios, maximum efficiency, maximum power, efficiency at maximum power, and power at maximum efficiency are given. Among others, the familiar results of the Brayton cycle (one compressor and one turbine) and of the corresponding Ericsson cycle (infinite compressors and infinite turbines) are obtained as particular cases.

  1. Effector stage CC chemokine receptor-1 selective antagonism reduces multiple sclerosis-like rat disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Sana; Sunnemark, Dan; Berg, Anna-Lena; Nordvall, Gunnar; Malmberg, Asa; Lassmann, Hans; Wallström, Erik; Olsson, Tomas; Ericsson-Dahlstrand, Anders

    2003-09-01

    We have studied the role of the chemokine receptor CCR1 during the effector stage of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in DA rats. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed local production of the CCR1 ligands CCL3 (MIP-1 alpha) and CCL5 (RANTES), as well as large numbers of CCR1 and CCR5 expressing cells within inflammatory brain lesions. A low-molecular weight CCR1 selective antagonist potently abrogated both clinical and histopathological disease signs during a 5-day treatment period, without signs of peripheral immune compromise. Thus, we demonstrate therapeutic targeting of CCR1-dependent leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in a multiple sclerosis (MS)-like rat model.

  2. THE USE OF MULTIPLE DISPLACEMENT AMPLIFICATION TO INCREASE THE DETECTION AND GENOTYPING OF TRYPANOSOMA SPECIES SAMPLES IMMOBILISED ON FTA FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORRISON, LIAM J.; McCORMACK, GILLIAN; SWEENEY, LINDSAY; LIKEUFACK, ANNE C. L.; TRUC, PHILIPPE; TURNER, C. MICHAEL; TAIT, ANDY; MacLEOD, ANNETTE

    2007-01-01

    Whole genome amplification methods are a recently developed tool for amplifying DNA from limited template. We report its application in trypanosome infections, characterised by low parasitaemias. Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA) amplifies DNA with a simple in vitro step, and was evaluated on mouse blood samples on FTA filter cards with known numbers of Trypanosoma brucei parasites. The data showed a twenty-fold increase in the number of PCRs possible per sample, using primers diagnostic for the multi-copy ribosomal ITS region or 177 bp repeats, and a twenty-fold increase in sensitivity over nested PCR against a single copy microsatellite. Using MDA for microsatellite genotyping caused allele dropout at low DNA concentrations, which was overcome by pooling multiple MDA reactions. The validity of using MDA was established with samples from Human African Trypanosomiasis patients. The use of MDA allows maximal use of finite DNA samples and may prove a valuable tool in studies where multiple reactions are necessary, such as population genetic analyses. PMID:17556624

  3. A Multiple-Model Particle Filter Fusion Algorithm for GNSS/DR Slide Error Detection and Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Toledo-Moreo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous accurate positioning is a key element for the deployment of many advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS and autonomous vehicle navigation. To achieve the necessary performance, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS must be combined with other technologies. A common onboard sensor-set that allows keeping the cost low, features the GNSS unit, odometry, and inertial sensors, such as a gyro. Odometry and inertial sensors compensate for GNSS flaws in many situations and, in normal conditions, their errors can be easily characterized, thus making the whole solution not only more accurate but also with more integrity. However, odometers do not behave properly when friction conditions make the tires slide. If not properly considered, the positioning perception will not be sound. This article introduces a hybridization approach that takes into consideration the sliding situations by means of a multiple model particle filter (MMPF. Tests with real datasets show the goodness of the proposal.

  4. Lanthanide-containing polymer microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization for highly multiplexed bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-10-28

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 mum and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of lanthanide salts (LnCl(3)) and excess acrylic acid (AA) or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, that is, well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 10(6)-10(8) chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles and its detection by an antimouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr.

  5. Multiple kernel learning using single stage function approximation for binary classification problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiju, S.; Sumitra, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the multiple kernel learning (MKL) is formulated as a supervised classification problem. We dealt with binary classification data and hence the data modelling problem involves the computation of two decision boundaries of which one related with that of kernel learning and the other with that of input data. In our approach, they are found with the aid of a single cost function by constructing a global reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) as the direct sum of the RKHSs corresponding to the decision boundaries of kernel learning and input data and searching that function from the global RKHS, which can be represented as the direct sum of the decision boundaries under consideration. In our experimental analysis, the proposed model had shown superior performance in comparison with that of existing two stage function approximation formulation of MKL, where the decision functions of kernel learning and input data are found separately using two different cost functions. This is due to the fact that single stage representation helps the knowledge transfer between the computation procedures for finding the decision boundaries of kernel learning and input data, which inturn boosts the generalisation capacity of the model.

  6. Inhibition of Ubc13-mediated Ubiquitination by GPS2 Regulates Multiple Stages of B Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentucci, Claudia; Belkina, Anna C; Cederquist, Carly T; Chan, Michelle; Johnson, Holly E; Prasad, Sherry; Lopacinski, Amanda; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Monti, Stefano; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer; Tanasa, Bogdan; Cardamone, M Dafne; Perissi, Valentina

    2017-02-17

    Non-proteolytic ubiquitin signaling mediated by Lys 63 ubiquitin chains plays a critical role in multiple pathways that are key to the development and activation of immune cells. Our previous work indicates that GPS2 (G-protein Pathway Suppressor 2) is a multifunctional protein regulating TNFα signaling and lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue through modulation of Lys 63 ubiquitination events. However, the full extent of GPS2-mediated regulation of ubiquitination and the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that GPS2 is required for restricting the activation of TLR and BCR signaling pathways and the AKT/FOXO1 pathway in immune cells based on direct inhibition of Ubc13 enzymatic activity. Relevance of this regulatory strategy is confirmed in vivo by B cell-targeted deletion of GPS2, resulting in developmental defects at multiple stages of B cell differentiation. Together, these findings reveal that GPS2 genomic and non-genomic functions are critical for the development and cellular homeostasis of B cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Study of the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Zhang Benshu; Cai Li; Zhang Meiyun; Gao Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: Forty-six MSA patients with cerebellar or Parkinsonian symptoms and 18 healthy controls with similar age as patients were included. According to the disease duration,the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (≤ 12 months, n=14), group 2 (13-24 months, n=13), group 3 (≥ 25 months, n=19). All patients and controls underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging. To compare metabolic distributions between different groups, SPM 8 software and two-sample t test were used for image data analysis. When P<0.005, the result was considered statistically significant. Results: At the level of P<0.005, the hypometabolism in group 1 (all t>3.49) was identified in the frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, insula lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus and anterior cerebellar hemisphere. The regions of hypometabolism extended to posterolateral putamen and part of posterior cerebellar hemisphere in group 2 (all t>3.21). In group 3, the whole parts of putamen and cerebellar hemisphere were involved as hypometabolism (all t>4.08). In addition to the hypometabolism regions, there were also stabled hypermetabolism regions mainly in the parietal lobe, medial temporal lobe and the thalamus in all patient groups (all t>3.27 in group 1, all t>3.02 in group 2,all t>3.30 in group 3). Conclusions: Disease duration is closely related to the FDG metabolism in the MSA patients. Frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus can be involved at early stage of the disease. Putaminal hypometabolism begins in its posterolateral part. Cerebellar hypometabolism occurs early at its anterior part. Besides, thalamus shows hypermetabolism in the whole duration. 18 F-FDG metabolic changes of brain can reflect the development of mixed-type MSA. (authors)

  8. Staging of cortical and deep grey matter functional connectivity changes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kim A; Eijlers, Anand J C; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Schoonheim, Menno M

    2018-02-01

    Functional connectivity is known to increase as well as decrease throughout the brain in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could represent different stages of the disease. In addition, functional connectivity changes could follow the atrophy pattern observed with disease progression, that is, moving from the deep grey matter towards the cortex. This study investigated when and where connectivity changes develop and explored their clinical and cognitive relevance across different MS stages. A cohort of 121 patients with early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 122 with late RRMS and 53 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) as well as 96 healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity changes were investigated for (1) within deep grey matter connectivity, (2) connectivity between the deep grey matter and cortex and (3) within-cortex connectivity. A post hoc regional analysis was performed to identify which regions were driving the connectivity changes. Patients with late RRMS and SPMS showed increased connectivity of the deep grey matter, especially of the putamen and palladium, with other deep grey matter structures and with the cortex. Within-cortex connectivity was decreased, especially for temporal, occipital and frontal regions, but only in SPMS relative to early RRMS. Deep grey matter connectivity alterations were related to cognition and disability, whereas within-cortex connectivity was only related to disability. Increased connectivity of the deep grey matter became apparent in late RRMS and further increased in SPMS. The additive effect of cortical network degeneration, which was only seen in SPMS, may explain the sudden clinical deterioration characteristic to this phase of the disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Verification of multimarkers for detection of early stage diabetic retinopathy using multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunggon; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Dohyun; Jin, Jonghwa; Yu, Jiyoung; Park, Kyong Soo; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes and 80% of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients whose DM duration is over 10 years can be expected to suffer with DR. The diagnosis of DR depends on an ophthalmological examination, and no molecular methods of screening DR status exist. Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is the early DR which is hard to be noticed in early NPDR, showing significant cause of adult blindness in type 2 diabetes patients. Protein biomarkers have been valuable in the diagnosis of disease and the use of multiple biomarkers has been suggested to overcome the low specificity of single ones. For biomarker development, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) has been spotlighted as an alternative method to quantify target proteins with no need for immunoassay. In this study, 54 candidate DR marker proteins from a previous study were verified by MRM in plasma samples from NPDR patients in 3 stages (mild, moderate and severe; 15 cases each) and diabetic patients without retinopathy (15 cases) as a control. Notably, 27 candidate markers distinguished moderate NPDR from type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy, generating AUC values (>0.7). Specifically, 28 candidate proteins underwent changes in expression as type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy progressed to mild and moderate NPDR. Further, a combination of 4 markers from these 28 candidates had the improved specificity in distinguishing moderate NPDR from type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy, yielding a merged AUC value of nearly 1.0. We concluded that MRM is a fast, robust approach of multimarker panel determination and an assay platform that provides improved specificity compared with single biomarker assay systems.

  10. Metabolomics Identifies Multiple Candidate Biomarkers to Diagnose and Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for human African trypanosomiasis is dependent on the species of trypanosome causing the disease and the stage of the disease (stage 1 defined by parasites being present in blood and lymphatics whilst for stage 2, parasites are found beyond the blood-brain barrier in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Currently, staging relies upon detecting the very low number of parasites or elevated white blood cell numbers in CSF. Improved staging is desirable, as is the elimination of the need for lumbar puncture. Here we use metabolomics to probe samples of CSF, plasma and urine from 40 Angolan patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, at different disease stages. Urine samples provided no robust markers indicative of infection or stage of infection due to inherent variability in urine concentrations. Biomarkers in CSF were able to distinguish patients at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 with absolute specificity. Eleven metabolites clearly distinguished the stage in most patients and two of these (neopterin and 5-hydroxytryptophan showed 100% specificity and sensitivity between our stage 1 and advanced stage 2 samples. Neopterin is an inflammatory biomarker previously shown in CSF of stage 2 but not stage 1 patients. 5-hydroxytryptophan is an important metabolite in the serotonin synthetic pathway, the key pathway in determining somnolence, thus offering a possible link to the eponymous symptoms of "sleeping sickness". Plasma also yielded several biomarkers clearly indicative of the presence (87% sensitivity and 95% specificity and stage of disease (92% sensitivity and 81% specificity. A logistic regression model including these metabolites showed clear separation of patients being either at stage 1 or advanced stage 2 or indeed diseased (both stages versus control.

  11. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Miyamoto, T; Tsujimura, K [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S; Shimizu, K [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The protective effects of high-education levels on cognition in different stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Carolina de Medeiros; Avolio, Isabella Maria Bello; Miotto, Eliane Correa; Pereira, Samira Apostolos; Mendes, Maria Fernanda; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Leite, Claudia da Costa

    2018-03-06

    Low-education attainment is associated with worse cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and possibly with a lower cognitive reserve and/or increased inflammatory activity. Cognitive reserve refers to the capability of a source of intellectual enrichment in attenuating a negative effect of a disease-related factor; while the inflammatory activity is often related to T2-lesion load (T2-LL) increase. To disentangle the effects of cognitive reserve and an increased T2-LL in MS-patients with low-education levels. The study included 136 MS patients and 65 healthy-controls, divided in low-education (12 years or less of school education without obtaining any technical superior degree) and high-education (more than 12 years of school education with technical or superior degree) groups. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied examining intelligence quotient and six cognitive domains. Test results were z-scored and subjects with z-scores ≤ -1.5 in two or more domains were considered cognitively impaired. To test the factors associated with worse cognitive performance, regression models were applied using average cognition as target; education level, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), T2-LL, disease duration, age of disease onset, age and gender as predictors. We also tested the correlation between T2-LL and cognition in the groups. To investigate the role of education level as a source of intellectual enrichment/cognitive reserve in different stages of MS, we sub-divided the MS patients in three groups according to the disease duration (less than 5 years, between 5 and 10 years and more than 10 years). Worse average cognition was associated with low-education level, higher T2-LL and male gender. A higher frequency of cognitively impaired patients was observed in MS patients with low-education level, in all stages of the disease. In patients with a disease duration shorter than five years, there was a lower correlation between

  13. PACOM: A Versatile Tool for Integrating, Filtering, Visualizing, and Comparing Multiple Large Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; López-García, Miguel Ángel; González-Tejedo, Carmen; Prieto, Gorka; Navajas, Rosana; Salazar-Donate, Emilio; Fernández-Costa, Carolina; Yates, John R; Albar, Juan Pablo

    2018-04-06

    Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics has evolved into a high-throughput technology in which numerous large-scale data sets are generated from diverse analytical platforms. Furthermore, several scientific journals and funding agencies have emphasized the storage of proteomics data in public repositories to facilitate its evaluation, inspection, and reanalysis. (1) As a consequence, public proteomics data repositories are growing rapidly. However, tools are needed to integrate multiple proteomics data sets to compare different experimental features or to perform quality control analysis. Here, we present a new Java stand-alone tool, Proteomics Assay COMparator (PACOM), that is able to import, combine, and simultaneously compare numerous proteomics experiments to check the integrity of the proteomic data as well as verify data quality. With PACOM, the user can detect source of errors that may have been introduced in any step of a proteomics workflow and that influence the final results. Data sets can be easily compared and integrated, and data quality and reproducibility can be visually assessed through a rich set of graphical representations of proteomics data features as well as a wide variety of data filters. Its flexibility and easy-to-use interface make PACOM a unique tool for daily use in a proteomics laboratory. PACOM is available at https://github.com/smdb21/pacom .

  14. Co-treatment of hydrogen sulfide and methanol in a single-stage biotrickling filter under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaomin; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2007-06-01

    Biofiltration of waste gases is cost-effective and environment-friendly compared to the conventional techniques for treating large flow rates of gas streams with low concentrations of pollutants. Pulp and paper industry off-gases usually contain reduced sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide and a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), e.g., methanol. It is desirable to eliminate both of these groups of compounds. Since the co-treatment of inorganic sulfur compounds and VOCs in biotrickling filters is a relatively unexplored area, the simultaneous biotreatment of H2S and methanol as the model VOC was investigated. The results showed that, after adaptation, the elimination capacity of methanol could reach around 236 g m(-3) h(-1) with the simultaneous complete removal (100%) of 12 ppm H2S when the empty bed residence time is 24 s. The pH of the system was around 2. Methanol removal was hardly affected by the presence of hydrogen sulfide, despite the low pH. Conversely, the presence of the VOC in the waste gas reduced the efficiency of H2S biodegradation. The maximal methanol removal decreased somewhat when increasing the gas flow rate. This is the first report on the degradation of methanol at such low pH in a biotrickling filter and on the co-treatment of H2S and VOCs under such conditions.

  15. A new powerful non-parametric two-stage approach for testing multiple phenotypes in family-based association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; Lyon, H; DeMeo, D; Raby, B; Silverman, EK; Weiss, ST

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new powerful nonparametric testing strategy for family-based association studies in which multiple quantitative traits are recorded and the phenotype with the strongest genetic component is not known prior to the analysis. In the first stage, using a population-based test based on the

  16. Fatal case of Herbaspirillum seropedicae bacteremia secondary to pneumonia in an end-stage renal disease patient with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Adams, La'Tonzia L; Romagnoli, Mark; Carroll, Karen C

    2015-08-01

    Herbaspirillum spp. are rare causes of human infections associated primarily with bacteremia in cancer patients. We report the first fatal case of bacteremia secondary to pneumonia caused by Herbaspirillum seropedicae in a 65-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Whole-body MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging for the staging of multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutoit, Julie C.; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging technique for the detection of bone marrow infiltration, and has therefore recently been included in the new diagnostic myeloma criteria, as proposed by the International Myeloma Working Group. Nevertheless, conventional MRI only provides anatomical information and is therefore only of limited use in the response assessment of patients with multiple myeloma. The additional information from functional MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, can improve the detection rate of bone marrow infiltration and the assessment of response. This can further enhance the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in the staging of multiple myeloma patients. This article provides an overview of the technical aspects of conventional and functional MRI techniques with practical recommendations. It reviews the diagnostic performance, prognostic value, and role in therapy assessment in multiple myeloma and its precursor stages. (orig.)

  18. Smoke reduction using multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no smoke teigen koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.

    1999-09-25

    A new diesel combustion concept termed MULDIC (MULtiple stage Diesel Combustion), which can reduce NO{sub x} emissions at high load conditions, was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation. The engine test showed that simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke could be obtained with MULDIC operation. In-cylinder combustion observation was carried out in order to clarify the cause of the smoke reduction of the MULDIC. In these photographs, a first stage combustion sins observed with nonluminous flame. In a second stage combustion, a highly sooting luminous flame was observed because the ignition delay was short. However this luminous flame disappeared quickly. Computational results showed that, oxygen is distributed evenly in the cylinder in later portion of the second stage combustion. Moreover, since cylinder temperature was very high, most of the soot oxidized rapidly. Thus, low smoke combustion was obtained. (author)

  19. Thermal habitat restricts patterns of occurrence in multiple life-stages of a headwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischa P. Turschwell; Stephen R. Balcombe; E. Ashley Steel; Fran Sheldon; Erin E. Peterson

    2017-01-01

    Our lack of knowledge on the spatiotemporal drivers of the distribution of many freshwater fishes, particularly as they differ among life-history stages, is a challenge to conservation of these species. We used 2-stage hurdle models to investigate drivers of occurrence and abundance of locally threatened adult and juvenile Northern River Blackfish in the upper...

  20. Attainability and minimum energy of multiple-stage cascade membrane Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    : View the MathML sourceSn=S1, View the MathML sourceγn=γ1, where n is the number of stages. The minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane process is primarily determined by the membrane selectivity and recycle ratio. A low recycle ratio can

  1. Multi-channel EEG-based sleep stage classification with joint collaborative representation and multiple kernel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yingjie; Ying, Shihui

    2015-10-30

    Electroencephalography (EEG) based sleep staging is commonly used in clinical routine. Feature extraction and representation plays a crucial role in EEG-based automatic classification of sleep stages. Sparse representation (SR) is a state-of-the-art unsupervised feature learning method suitable for EEG feature representation. Collaborative representation (CR) is an effective data coding method used as a classifier. Here we use CR as a data representation method to learn features from the EEG signal. A joint collaboration model is established to develop a multi-view learning algorithm, and generate joint CR (JCR) codes to fuse and represent multi-channel EEG signals. A two-stage multi-view learning-based sleep staging framework is then constructed, in which JCR and joint sparse representation (JSR) algorithms first fuse and learning the feature representation from multi-channel EEG signals, respectively. Multi-view JCR and JSR features are then integrated and sleep stages recognized by a multiple kernel extreme learning machine (MK-ELM) algorithm with grid search. The proposed two-stage multi-view learning algorithm achieves superior performance for sleep staging. With a K-means clustering based dictionary, the mean classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are 81.10 ± 0.15%, 71.42 ± 0.66% and 94.57 ± 0.07%, respectively; while with the dictionary learned using the submodular optimization method, they are 80.29 ± 0.22%, 71.26 ± 0.78% and 94.38 ± 0.10%, respectively. The two-stage multi-view learning based sleep staging framework outperforms all other classification methods compared in this work, while JCR is superior to JSR. The proposed multi-view learning framework has the potential for sleep staging based on multi-channel or multi-modality polysomnography signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attainability and minimum energy of multiple-stage cascade membrane Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2015-08-12

    Process design and simulation of multi-stage membrane systems have been widely studied in many gas separation systems. However, general guidelines have not been developed yet for the attainability and the minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane system. Such information is important for conceptual process design and thus it is the topic of this work. Using a well-mixed membrane model, it was determined that the attainability curve of multi-stage systems is defined by the pressure ratio and membrane selectivity. Using the constant recycle ratio scheme, the recycle ratio can shift the attainability behavior between single-stage and multi-stage membrane systems. When the recycle ratio is zero, all of the multi-stage membrane processes will decay to a single-stage membrane process. When the recycle ratio approaches infinity, the required selectivity and pressure ratio reach their absolute minimum values, which have a simple relationship with that of a single-stage membrane process, as follows: View the MathML sourceSn=S1, View the MathML sourceγn=γ1, where n is the number of stages. The minimum energy consumption of a multi-stage membrane process is primarily determined by the membrane selectivity and recycle ratio. A low recycle ratio can significantly reduce the required membrane selectivity without substantial energy penalty. The energy envelope curve can provide a guideline from an energy perspective to determine the minimum required membrane selectivity in membrane process designs to compete with conventional separation processes, such as distillation.

  3. Multiple-Stage Structure Transformation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3 ) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2 ) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  4. Study of the behavior in vitro of the banana cultivar FHIA-01 (AAAB in the multiplication stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daymí Ramírez Aguilar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work different hormonal combinations were evaluated in the way of culture for the phase of multiplication of the cv. FHIA 01 (AAAB and the most effective gelificante in the phase of multiplication. Several tests were realized where comparatively different doses of the auxinas were studied and citoquininas more used in the medium of cultures in Musa analyzing his effect in the formation of outbreaks, the coefficient of multiplication, the emission of roots and the height of the plants in the phase of multiplication. Besides different agents were compared gelificantes for multiplication stage. Since result there was obtained that 6 Bencil aminopurina (6-BAP because of 4.0mg.l-1 allowed the formation of major number of buds and a major coefficient of multiplication. The auxinas on his part affected of general form the development of the indicators evaluated in the own phase though the acid indolacético (AIA was the auxina that had a better behavior and the agent gelificante more efectiv for the phase of multiplication was the Phytagel. Key words: shoot of multiplication, growth of regulators,gelificante agents

  5. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, William; Brocato, Emily R; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Eggert, Lori S

    2016-01-01

    In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (F ST and D C ) and isolation-by-distance (IBD) among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using D C , the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  6. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Peterman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (FST and DC and isolation-by-distance (IBD among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using DC, the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  7. Combined effects of multiple large-scale hydraulic engineering on water stages in the middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianqiao; Sun, Zhaohua; Li, Yitian; Yang, Yunping

    2017-12-01

    Investigation of water stages influenced by human projects provides better understanding of riverine geomorphological processes and river management. Based on hydrological data collected over 60 years, an extreme stage-extreme discharge analysis and a specific-gauge analysis were performed to research the individual and combined effects of multiple engineering projects on a long-term time series of water stages in the middle Yangtze River. Conclusions are as follows. (1) In accordance with the operation years of the Jingjiang cutoff (CF), the Gezhouba Dam (GD), and the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the time series (1955-2012) was divided into periods of P1 (1955-1970), P2 (1971-1980), P3 (1981-2002), and P4 (2003 - 2012). Water stage changes during P1-P2, P2-P3, and P3-P4 are varied because of the differences in the types and scales of these projects. The stage decreased at Shashi and increased at Luoshan owing to the operation of the CF. Additionally, after the GD was constructed, the low-flow stage decreased in the upstream reach of Chenglingji and increased in its downstream reach, whereas the flood stage merely decreased at Yichang. Moreover, the TGD resulted in an overall decrease in low-flow stages and a limited increase in flood stages because of the differential adjustments of river geometry and resistance between the low-flow channel and flood channel. (2) Although differences existed in the scouring mechanisms between streamwise erosion associated with dams and headward erosion associated with cutoffs, particular bed textures in the gravel reach led to a similar adjustment that stage reduction at Shashi was the greatest of all stations, which caused the flow slope and sediment transport capacity to decrease in the sandy reach. (3) These engineering projects caused changes in average low-flow and flood stages that varied between Yichang (- 1.58 and - 0.08 m respectively), Shashi (- 3.54 and - 0.12 m), and Luoshan (1.15 and 0.97 m) from P1 to P4. However, less

  8. Screening for a Chronic Disease: A Multiple Stage Duration Model with Partial Observability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas A; Picone, Gabriel; Sloan, Frank; Yashkin, Arseniy P

    2016-08-01

    We estimate a dynamic multi-stage duration model to investigate how early detection of diabetes can delay the onset of lower extremity complications and death. We allow for partial observability of the disease stage, unmeasured heterogeneity, and endogenous timing of diabetes screening. Timely diagnosis appears important. We evaluate the effectiveness of two potential policies to reduce the monetary costs of frequent screening in terms of lost longevity. Compared to the status quo, the more restrictive policy yields an implicit value for an additional year of life of about $50,000, while the less restrictive policy implies a value of about $120,000.

  9. Comparison of applied dose and image quality in staging CT of neuroendocrine tumor patients using standard filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böning, G.; Schäfer, M.; Grupp, U.; Kaul, D.; Kahn, J.; Pavel, M.; Maurer, M.; Denecke, T.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Iterative reconstruction (IR) in staging CT provides equal objective image quality compared to filtered back projection (FBP). • IR delivers excellent subjective quality and reduces effective dose compared to FBP. • In patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or may other hypervascular abdominal tumors IR can be used without scarifying diagnostic confidence. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether dose reduction via adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) affects image quality and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staging. Methods: A total of 28 NET patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET and visible tumor in abdominal computed tomography (CT). In an intraindividual study design, the patients underwent a baseline CT (filtered back projection, FBP) and follow-up CT (ASIR 40%) using matched scan parameters. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 5-grade scoring system and objectively by determining signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Applied volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) of each scan was taken from the dose report. Results: ASIR 40% significantly reduced CTDI vol (10.17 ± 3.06 mGy [FBP], 6.34 ± 2.25 mGy [ASIR] (p < 0.001) by 37.6% and significantly increased CNRs (complete tumor-to-liver, 2.76 ± 1.87 [FBP], 3.2 ± 2.32 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) (complete tumor-to-muscle, 2.74 ± 2.67 [FBP], 4.31 ± 4.61 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) compared to FBP. Subjective scoring revealed no significant changes for diagnostic confidence (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]), visibility of suspicious lesion (4.8 ± 0.5 [FBP], 4.8 ± 0.5 [ASIR]) and artifacts (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]). ASIR 40% significantly decreased scores for noise (4.3 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.0 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05), contrast (4.4 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.1 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.001) and visibility of small structures (4.5 ± 0.7 [FBP], 4.3 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0

  10. Comparison of applied dose and image quality in staging CT of neuroendocrine tumor patients using standard filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böning, G., E-mail: georg.boening@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schäfer, M.; Grupp, U. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Kaul, D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Kahn, J. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Pavel, M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Maurer, M.; Denecke, T.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Iterative reconstruction (IR) in staging CT provides equal objective image quality compared to filtered back projection (FBP). • IR delivers excellent subjective quality and reduces effective dose compared to FBP. • In patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or may other hypervascular abdominal tumors IR can be used without scarifying diagnostic confidence. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether dose reduction via adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) affects image quality and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staging. Methods: A total of 28 NET patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET and visible tumor in abdominal computed tomography (CT). In an intraindividual study design, the patients underwent a baseline CT (filtered back projection, FBP) and follow-up CT (ASIR 40%) using matched scan parameters. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 5-grade scoring system and objectively by determining signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Applied volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) of each scan was taken from the dose report. Results: ASIR 40% significantly reduced CTDI{sub vol} (10.17 ± 3.06 mGy [FBP], 6.34 ± 2.25 mGy [ASIR] (p < 0.001) by 37.6% and significantly increased CNRs (complete tumor-to-liver, 2.76 ± 1.87 [FBP], 3.2 ± 2.32 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) (complete tumor-to-muscle, 2.74 ± 2.67 [FBP], 4.31 ± 4.61 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) compared to FBP. Subjective scoring revealed no significant changes for diagnostic confidence (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]), visibility of suspicious lesion (4.8 ± 0.5 [FBP], 4.8 ± 0.5 [ASIR]) and artifacts (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]). ASIR 40% significantly decreased scores for noise (4.3 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.0 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05), contrast (4.4 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.1 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.001) and visibility of small structures (4.5 ± 0.7 [FBP], 4.3 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0

  11. Radiotherapy of the solitary and multiple eosinophilic granuloma of the bone (stage I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegel, T.; Sommer, K.; Baumann, M.; Kruell, A.; Huebener, K.H.; Knop, J.; Reuter, M.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1957 and 1990 15 patients with solitary (stage Ia by Greenberger) and 2 patients with mulitple (stage Ib) eosinophilic granuloma of the bone were treated by radiotherapy in 18 locations after previous surgery. The doses applied varied from 6 Gy to 42 Gy (median for patients under 18 years: 8 Gy, for patients over 18 years: 30 Gy). Median follow-up was 9 years (range, 0,3-33 years). Local control rate and survival were 100%. Three patients with granuloma developed a second granuloma within 13 years after primary diagnosis (two bone manifestations, one cutaneous manifestation). Long term follow-up of patients with solitary eosinophilic granuloma is neccessary. (orig.) [de

  12. Occurrence, distribution and ecological risk assessment of multiple classes of UV filters in surface waters from different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Wai, Tak-Cheung; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Liu, Wenhua; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-12-15

    Organic UV filters are common ingredients of personal care products (PCPs), but little is known about their distribution in and potential impacts to the marine environment. This study reports the occurrence and risk assessment of twelve widely used organic UV filters in surface water collected in eight cities in four countries (China, the United States, Japan, and Thailand) and the North American Arctic. The number of compounds detected, Hong Kong (12), Tokyo (9), Bangkok (9), New York (8), Los Angeles (8), Arctic (6), Shantou (5) and Chaozhou (5), generally increased with population density. Median concentrations of all detectable UV filters were ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) were more likely to pose a risk to fishes and also posed high risk of bleaching in hard corals in aquatic recreational areas in Hong Kong. This study is the first to report the occurrence of organic UV filters in the Arctic and provides a wider assessment of their potential negative impacts in the marine environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple essential functions of Plasmodium falciparum actin-1 during malaria blood-stage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujaan; Lemgruber, Leandro; Tay, Chwen L; Baum, Jake; Meissner, Markus

    2017-08-15

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes intracellular parasites causing immense global disease burden, the deadliest of them being the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which invades and replicates within erythrocytes. The cytoskeletal protein actin is well conserved within apicomplexans but divergent from mammalian actins, and was primarily reported to function during host cell invasion. However, novel invasion mechanisms have been described for several apicomplexans, and specific functions of the acto-myosin system are being reinvestigated. Of the two actin genes in P. falciparum, actin-1 (pfact1) is ubiquitously expressed in all life-cycle stages and is thought to be required for erythrocyte invasion, although its functions during parasite development are unknown, and definitive in vivo characterisation during invasion is lacking. Here we have used a conditional Cre-lox system to investigate the functions of PfACT1 during P. falciparum blood-stage development and host cell invasion. We demonstrate that PfACT1 is crucially required for segregation of the plastid-like organelle, the apicoplast, and for efficient daughter cell separation during the final stages of cytokinesis. Surprisingly, we observe that egress from the host cell is not an actin-dependent process. Finally, we show that parasites lacking PfACT1 are capable of microneme secretion, attachment and formation of a junction with the erythrocyte, but are incapable of host cell invasion. This study provides important mechanistic insights into the definitive essential functions of PfACT1 in P. falciparum, which are not only of biological interest, but owing to functional divergence from mammalian actins, could also form the basis for the development of novel therapeutics against apicomplexans.

  14. A multiple stage approach to mitigate the risks of telecommunication equipment under free air cooling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analyze the challenges posed by free air cooling (FAC). ► Present a multi-stage process to mitigate the risks of FAC. ► Propose a prognostics-based method to mitigate risks in data centers in operation. ► Present a case study to show the prognostics-based method implementation. - Abstract: The telecommunication industry is concerned about the energy costs of its operating infrastructure and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. At present, more than half of the total energy consumption of data centers is devoted to the power and cooling infrastructure that supports electronic equipment. One method of reducing energy consumption is an approach called “free air cooling,” where ambient air is used to cool the equipment directly, thereby reducing the energy consumed in cooling and conditioning the air. For example, Intel demonstrated free air cooling in a 10-megawatt (MW) data center, showing a reduction in energy use and savings of US$2.87 million annually. However, the impacts of this approach on the performance and reliability of telecommunication equipment need to be identified. The implementation of free air cooling changes the operating environment, including temperature and humidity, which may have a significant impact on the performance and reliability of telecom equipment. This paper discusses the challenges posed by free air cooling and presents a multi-stage process for evaluating and mitigating the potential risks arising from this new operating environment.

  15. Multiple cervical hemivertebra resection and staged thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy in the treatment of complicated congenital scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qianyu; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Shengru; Guo, Jianwei; Qiu, Guixing

    2016-05-01

    To present our experience of staged correction with multiple cervical hemivertebra resection and thoracic pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) treating a rare and complicated congenital scoliosis. A 14-year-old male presented with progressive torticollis and spine deformity. The malformation developed since birth, and back pain after long-time sitting or exercise arose since 6 months before, which was unsuccessfully treated by physiotherapy. X-ray showed a right cervical curve of 60° and a left compensatory thoracic curve of 90°. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) scan revealed three semi-segmented hemivertebrae (C4, C5 and C6) on the right side. Based on our staged strategy, the three consecutive cervical hemivertebrae, as the major pathology causing the deformity, were firstly resected by the combined posterior and anterior approach. Six months later, T6 PSO osteotomy was used to correct the structural compensatory thoracic curve. The cervical curve was reduced to 23° while the thoracic curve to 60° after the first-stage surgery, and the thoracic curve was further reduced to 30° after the second-stage surgery. The radiograph at 5-year follow-up showed that both the coronal and sagittal balance were well restored and stabilized, with the occipital tilt reduced from 12° to 0°. Our strategy may provide an option for similar cases with multiple consecutive cervical hemivertebrae and a large structural compensatory thoracic curve, which proved to achieve excellent correction in both the coronal and sagittal planes with acceptable neurologic risk.

  16. Multiple stage MS in analysis of plasma, serum, urine and in vitro samples relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Golo M; Maurer, Hans H; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews MS approaches applied to metabolism studies, structure elucidation and qualitative or quantitative screening of drugs (of abuse) and/or their metabolites. Applications in clinical and forensic toxicology were included using blood plasma or serum, urine, in vitro samples, liquids, solids or plant material. Techniques covered are liquid chromatography coupled to low-resolution and high-resolution multiple stage mass analyzers. Only PubMed listed studies published in English between January 2008 and January 2015 were considered. Approaches are discussed focusing on sample preparation and mass spectral settings. Comments on advantages and limitations of these techniques complete the review.

  17. Analysis of Brassica oleracea early stage abiotic stress responses reveals tolerance in multiple crop types and for multiple sources of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Andrew M; Hand, Paul; Pink, David Ac; Monaghan, James M

    2017-12-01

    Brassica oleracea includes a number of important crop types such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and kale. Current climate conditions and weather patterns are causing significant losses in these crops, meaning that new cultivars with improved tolerance of one or more abiotic stress types must be sought. In this study, genetically fixed B. oleracea lines belonging to a Diversity Fixed Foundation Set (DFFS) were assayed for their response to seedling stage-imposed drought, flood, salinity, heat and cold stress. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) variation in stress tolerance response was found for each stress, for each of four measured variables (relative fresh weight, relative dry weight, relative leaf number and relative plant height). Lines tolerant to multiple stresses were found to belong to several different crop types. There was no overall correlation between the responses to the different stresses. Abiotic stress tolerance was identified in multiple B. oleracea crop types, with some lines exhibiting resistance to multiple stresses. For each stress, no one crop type appeared significantly more or less tolerant than others. The results are promising for the development of more environmentally robust lines of different B. oleracea crops by identifying tolerant material and highlighting the relationship between responses to different stresses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (pworking hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  19. Thrust Vector Control of an Upper-Stage Rocket with Multiple Propellant Slosh Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rubio Hervas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with propellant slosh dynamics is considered. The control inputs are defined by the gimbal deflection angle of a main engine and a pitching moment about the center of mass of the spacecraft. The rocket acceleration due to the main engine thrust is assumed to be large enough so that surface tension forces do not significantly affect the propellant motion during main engine burns. A multi-mass-spring model of the sloshing fuel is introduced to represent the prominent sloshing modes. A nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while suppressing the sloshing modes. The effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through a simulation example.

  20. 4-Nitro styrylquinoline is an antimalarial inhibiting multiple stages of Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bracken F; Zheng, Yongsheng; Cleaveleand, Jacob; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Ayong, Lawrence; Yuan, Yu; Chakrabarti, Debopam

    2017-04-01

    Drugs against malaria are losing their effectiveness because of emerging drug resistance. This underscores the need for novel therapeutic options for malaria with mechanism of actions distinct from current antimalarials. To identify novel pharmacophores against malaria we have screened compounds containing structural features of natural products that are pharmacologically relevant. This screening has identified a 4-nitro styrylquinoline (SQ) compound with submicromolar antiplasmodial activity and excellent selectivity. SQ exhibits a cellular action distinct from current antimalarials, acting early on malaria parasite's intraerythrocytic life cycle including merozoite invasion. The compound is a fast-acting parasitocidal agent and also exhibits curative property in the rodent malaria model when administered orally. In this report, we describe the synthesis, preliminary structure-function analysis, and the parasite developmental stage specific action of the SQ scaffold. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple congenital brachymetatarsia. A one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure without iliac bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Baek, G H; Chung, M S; Yoon, P W

    2004-09-01

    We performed nine metatarsal and three proximal phalangeal lengthenings in five patients with congenital brachymetatarsia of the first and one or two other metatarsal bones, by a one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure using intercalcary autogenous bone grafts from adjacent shortened metatarsal bones. Instead of the isolated lengthening of the first and the other metatarsal bones, we shortened the adjacent normal metatarsal and used the excised bone to lengthen the short toes, except for the great toe, to restore the normal parabola. One skin incision was used. All the operations were performed bilaterally and the patients were followed up for a mean period of 69.5 months (29 to 107). They all regained a nearly normal parabola and were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Our technique is straightforward and produces good cosmetic results. Satisfactory, bony union is achieved, morbidity is low, and no additional surgery is required for the removal of metal implants.

  2. Comparison of applied dose and image quality in staging CT of neuroendocrine tumor patients using standard filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, G; Schäfer, M; Grupp, U; Kaul, D; Kahn, J; Pavel, M; Maurer, M; Denecke, T; Hamm, B; Streitparth, F

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether dose reduction via adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) affects image quality and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staging. A total of 28 NET patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET and visible tumor in abdominal computed tomography (CT). In an intraindividual study design, the patients underwent a baseline CT (filtered back projection, FBP) and follow-up CT (ASIR 40%) using matched scan parameters. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 5-grade scoring system and objectively by determining signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Applied volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) of each scan was taken from the dose report. ASIR 40% significantly reduced CTDIvol (10.17±3.06mGy [FBP], 6.34±2.25mGy [ASIR] (pASIR]) (pASIR]) (pASIR]), visibility of suspicious lesion (4.8±0.5 [FBP], 4.8±0.5 [ASIR]) and artifacts (5.0±0 [FBP], 5.0±0 [ASIR]). ASIR 40% significantly decreased scores for noise (4.3±0.6 [FBP], 4.0±0.8 [ASIR]) (pASIR]) (pASIR]) (pASIR can be used to reduce radiation dose without sacrificing image quality and diagnostic confidence in staging CT of NET patients. This may be beneficial for patients with frequent follow-up and significant cumulative radiation exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of advanced high-temperature Brayton cycles with multiple reheat stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper presents an overview and a few point designs for multiple-reheat Brayton cycle power conversion systems using high temperature molten salts (or liquid metals). All designs are derived from the General Atomics GT-MHR power conversion unit (PCU). The GT-MHR PCU is currently the only closed helium cycle system that has undergone detailed engineering design analysis, and that has turbomachinery which is sufficiently large to extrapolate to a >1000 MW(e) multiple reheat gas cycle power conversion system. Analysis shows that, with relatively small engineering modifications, multiple GT-MHR PCU's can be connected together to create a power conversion system in the >1000 MW(e) class. The resulting power conversion system is quite compact, and results in what is likely the minimum gas duct volume possible for a multiple-reheat system. To realize this, compact offset fin plate type liquid-to-gas heat exchangers (power densities from 10 to 120 MW/m 3 ) are needed. Both metal and non-metal heat exchangers are being investigated for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors for temperatures to 1000 deg. C. Recent high temperature heat exchanger studies for nuclear hydrogen production has suggested that carbon-coated composite materials such as liquid silicon infiltrated chopped fiber carbon-carbon preformed material potentially could be used to fabricate plate fin heat exchangers with reasonable price. Different fluids such as helium, nitrogen and helium mixture, and supercritical CO 2 are compared for these multiple reheat Brayton cycles. Nitrogen and helium mixture cycle need about 40% more total PCU volume than helium cycle while keeping the same net cycle efficiency. Supercritical CO 2 needs very high pressure to optimize. Due to relatively detailed design for components such as heat exchangers, turbomachinery, and duct system, relatively accurate total pressure loss can be obtained, which results in more credible net efficiency

  4. Multiple stellar populations of globular clusters from homogeneous Ca-Cn photometry. II. M5 (NGC 5904) and a new filter system

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Using our ingeniously designed new filter systems, we investigate the multiple stellar populations of the RGB and AGB in the GC M5. Our results are the following. (1) Our cn_jwl index accurately traces the nitrogen abundances in M5, while other color indices fail to do so. (2) We find bimodal CN distributions both in the RGB and the AGB sequences, with the number ratios between the CN-weak (CN-w) and the CN-strong (CN-s) of n(CN-w):n(CN-s) = 29:71(+/- 2) and 21:79(+/- 7), respectively. (3) We...

  5. Early stage and long term treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon-β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Applebee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Applebee, Hillel PanitchDepartment of Neurology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, and Neurology Service, Fletcher Allen Health Care, Burlington, VT, USAAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS affects young adults during the most productive years of their lives, and until recently many neurologists were limited to treating symptoms and attacks without any ability to alter the disease course. The 1990s ushered in an era of possibility with the approval of three interferon-beta (IFNβ therapies for the treatment of MS. Though the mechanism of action of these agents is not completely understood, it is clear they reduce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI activity as well as improve clinical outcomes. The principal randomized, blinded, multicenter trials of IFNβ all point to the need for early treatment soon after the diagnosis of MS is made. Efficacy has also been shown in patients treated after a first demyelinating event. Data on IFNβ in the treatment of secondary progressive MS (SPMS is not impressive, although it shows some benefit in SPMS patients who continue to experience MRI activity and clinical relapses, signifying a continued inflammatory component to their disease. There has been no proven efficacy of IFNβ in the treatment of primary progressive MS (PPMS. The IFNβ therapies are generally well tolerated with a favorable side effect profile. Despite benefits in MRI and clinical measures such as relapse rates and Expanded Disability Status Scale progression, patients continue to exhibit clinical progression and radiological atrophy, pointing to confounding factors and perhaps multiple etiologies of a disease that is not yet fully understood. In addition, the subject of neutralizing antibodies has recently assumed importance. The significance of these on treatment efficacy is uncertain, and until a universally accepted reliable assay is adopted, the decision to change treatment continues to rely on the clinical interpretation of

  6. Multiple factors influence compliance with colorectal cancer staging recommendations: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa Mahmoud A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with colorectal cancer (CRC retrieval by surgeons, and assessment by pathologists of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs predicts the need for adjuvant treatment and improved survival. Different interventions (educational presentation, engaging clinical opinion leaders, performance data sent to hospital executives to improve compliance with this practice had variable results. This exploratory study examined factors hypothesized to have influenced the outcome of those interventions. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 surgeons and pathologists at eleven hospitals. Clinicians were identified by intervention organizers, public licensing body database, and referral from interviewees. An interview guide incorporating open-ended questions was pilot-tested on one surgeon and pathologist. A single investigator conducted all interviews by phone. Transcripts were analyzed independently by two investigators using a grounded approach,ho then compared findings to resolve differences. Results Improvements in LN staging practice may have occurred largely due to educational presentations that created awareness, and self-initiated changes undertaken by pathologists. Executives that received performance data may not have shared this with staff, and opinion leaders engaged to promote compliance may not have fulfilled their roles. Barriers to change that are potentially amenable to quality improvement included perceptions about the practice (perceived lack of evidence for the need to examine at least 12 LNs and associated responsibilities (blaming other profession, technical issues (need for pathology assistants, better clearing solutions and laboratory facilities, and a lack of organizational support for multidisciplinary interaction (little communication between surgeons and pathologists or quality improvement (no change leaders or capacity for monitoring. Conclusion Use of an exploratory approach provided an in

  7. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Van der Hiele

    Full Text Available Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation.To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job.Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years.Patients with a paid job (57% reported better physical functioning (p<0.001, better memory functioning (p = 0.01 and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018 than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005 and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029 correlated with an increased number of working hours.Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  8. SU-E-T-591: Optimizing the Flattening Filter Free Beam Selection in RapidArc-Based Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Stage I Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B-T; Lu, J-Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the flattening filter free (FFF) beam energy selection in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment for stage I lung cancer with different fraction schemes. Methods: Twelve patients suffering from stage I lung cancer were enrolled in this study. Plans were designed using 6XFFF and 10XFFF beams with the most widely used fraction schemes of 4*12 Gy, 3*18 Gy and 1*34 Gy, respectively. The plan quality was appraised in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage, conformity of the prescribed dose (CI100%), intermediate dose spillage (R50% and D2cm), organs at risk (OARs) sparing and beam-on time. Results: The 10XFFF beam predicted 1% higher maximum, mean dose to the PTV and 4–5% higher R50% compared with the 6XFFF beam in the three fraction schemes, whereas the CI100% and D2cm was similar. Most importantly, the 6XFFF beam exhibited 3–10% lower dose to all the OARs. However, the 10XFFF beam reduced the beam-on time by 31.9±7.2%, 38.7±2.8% and 43.6±4.0% compared with the 6XFFF beam in the 4*12 Gy, 3*18 Gy and 1*34 Gy schemes, respectively. Beam-on time was 2.2±0.2 vs 1.5±0.1, 3.3±0.9 vs 2.0±0.5 and 6.3±0.9 vs 3.5±0.4 minutes for the 6XFFF and 10XFFF one in the three fraction schemes. Conclusion: The 6XFFF beam obtains better OARs sparing in SBRT treatment for stage I lung cancer, but the 10XFFF one provides improved treatment efficiency. To balance the OARs sparing and intrafractional variation as a function of prolonged treatment time, the authors recommend to use the 6XFFF beam in the 4*12 Gy and 3*18 Gy schemes for better OARs sparing. However, for the 1*34 Gy scheme, the 10XFFF beam is recommended to achieve improved treatment efficiency

  9. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and compounds showing high removal (defined as >70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  12. Industrial Application of an Improved Multiple Injection and Multiple Staging Combustion Technology in a 600 MWe Supercritical Down-Fired Boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minhang; Zeng, Lingyan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Zhengqi; Zhu, Qunyi; Kuang, Min

    2016-02-02

    To solve the water wall overheating in lower furnace, and further reduce NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash, continuous improvement of the previously proposed multiple injection and multiple staging combustion (MIMSC) technology lies on three aspects: (1) along the furnace arch breadth, changing the previously centralized 12 burner groups into a more uniform pattern with 24 burners; (2) increasing the mass ratio of pulverized coal in fuel-rich flow to that in fuel-lean flow from 6:4 to 9:1; (3) reducing the arch-air momentum by 23% and increasing the tertiary-air momentum by 24%. Industrial-size measurements (i.e., adjusting overfire air (OFA) damper opening of 20-70%) uncovered that, compared with the prior MIMSC technology, the ignition distance of fuel-rich coal/air flow shortened by around 1 m. The gas temperature in the lower furnace was symmetric and higher, the flame kernel moved upward and therefore made the temperature in near-wall region of furnace hopper decrease by about 400 °C, the water wall overheating disappeared completely. Under the optimal OFA damper opening (i.e, 55%), NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash attained levels of 589 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 6.18%, respectively, achieving NOx and carbon in fly ash significant reduction by 33% and 37%, respectively.

  13. Growth Hormone and Disease Severity in Early Stage of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gironi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that neurohormones such as GH and IGF-I are involved in the neuroreparative processes in multiple sclerosis (MS. GH and IGF-I blood levels in naïve MS patients with different disease courses were investigated in this study. Serum GH and IGF-I in untreated MS patients (n=64, healthy controls (HC, n=62, and patients affected by other neurological diseases (OND, n=46 were evaluated with a solid-phase-enzyme-labeled-chemiluminescent-immunometric assay. No differences were detected in GH across MS, OND, and HC (MS=0.87±1.32 ng/mL; OND=1.66±3.7; and HC=1.69±3.35; P=0.858 when considering gender, disease duration, and disease course. However, GH was lower (P=0.007 in patients with more severe disease (expanded disability scale score, EDSS≥4.0 compared with milder forms (EDSS<4. IGF-I l did not differ across the 3 groups (P=0.160, as far as concern disease course, disability, and gender were. Lower IGF-I levels were detected in subjects older than 50 years compared to younger ones for all 3 groups. Lower GH was detected in patients with more severe MS, and age was confirmed as the main factor driving IGF-I levels in all subjects. These findings, relying on the natural course of the disease, could help in shedding lights on the mechanisms involved in autoreparative failure associated with poorer prognosis in MS.

  14. Optical Time Division Switching Using Multiple Stages of Fiber Optic Delay Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanke, Ronald Anthony

    Optical Time Slot Interchanges (OTSIs) can be realized by guided wave LiNbO_3 optical switches performing space division switching of optical fiber delay lines. In this dissertation the problems of reducing the total length of fiber required and also of improving the SNR characteristics of this OTSI function are addressed. Several new OTSI architectures are proposed to reduce the total fiber length while still obtaining excellent SNR characteristics. These reduced fiber architectures include the Distributed Input Delay, Distributed Output Delay, the 2-Stage decomposition and the Distributed Input/Output Delay architectures. A Parallel Feedback (PFB) OTSI architecture is proposed that achieves the theoretical minimum number of delay fibers and the theoretical minimum total length of delay fiber for a given OTSI function. Broadcast OTSI architectures are proposed that enable the data in an incoming time slot to be broadcast to one or more outgoing time slots. These broadcast OTSI architectures include the Time-Dup-Time (TDT) system, Passive Splitter/Active Combiner (PS/AC) equivalents of the point -to-point reduced fiber architectures, and the broadcast PFB architecture. For each of the point-to-point and the broadcast OTSI architectures proposed, a detailed characterization of the architecture is performed including an analysis of number of fibers, total fiber length, number of optical switches and drivers, attenuation and SNR characteristics. This dissertation also proposes several new techniques for improving the system SNR and for calibration of the OTSI architectures. A cascaded noise reduction and a differential attenuation compensation technique are used to achieve a significantly higher system SNR at the output of the OTSI. In-situ calibration techniques are discussed to determine the optimum operating voltages for the LiNbO _3 switches when alternating between states every time slot. These techniques attempt to compensate for an output power drift problem

  15. Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuncheng; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Li, Haiying; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching process on extracting and recovering multiple heavy metals from actual electroplating sludge was studied in lab tests. It provided an effective technique for separation of valuable metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) from less valuable metals (Fe and Cr) in electroplating sludge. The efficiency of the process had been measured with the leaching efficiencies and recovery rates of the metals. Enhanced by ultrasonic power, the first-stage acid leaching demonstrated leaching rates of 96.72%, 97.77%, 98.00%, 53.03%, and 0.44% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe respectively, effectively separated half of Cr and almost all of Fe from mixed metals. The subsequent second-stage leaching achieved leaching rates of 75.03%, 81.05%, 81.39%, 1.02%, and 0% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe that further separated Cu, Ni, and Zn from mixed metals. With the stabilized two-stage ultrasonically enhanced leaching, the resulting over all recovery rates of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Fe from electroplating sludge could be achieved at 97.42%, 98.46%, 98.63%, 98.32% and 100% respectively, with Cr and Fe in solids and the rest of the metals in an aqueous solution discharged from the leaching system. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and contact time. The results were also confirmed in an industrial pilot-scale test, and same high metal recoveries were performed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient design of multiplier-less digital channelizers using recombination non-uniform filter banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaeen Kalathil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for the efficient realization of digital channelizers in software defined radios using recombination filter banks is proposed in this paper. Digital channelizer is the core of software defined radio. Computationally efficient design supporting multiple channels with different bandwidths and low complexity are inevitable requirements for the digital channelizers. Recombination filter banks method is used to obtain non-uniform filter banks with rational sampling factors, using a two stage structure. It consists of a uniform filter bank and trans-multiplexer. In this work, the uniform filter bank and trans-multiplexer are designed using cosine modulated filter banks. The prototype filter design is made simple, efficient and fast, using window method. The multiplier-less realization of recombination filter banks in the canonic signed digit space using nature inspired optimization algorithms, results in reduced implementation complexity.

  17. Using Closed-Set Speaker Identification Score Confidence to Enhance Audio-Based Collaborative Filtering for Multiple Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize a closed-set speaker-identification approach to convey the ratings needed for collaborative filtering-based recommendation. Instead of explicitly providing a rating for a given program, users use a speech interface to dictate the desired rating after watching a movie. Due...... to the inaccuracies that may be imposed by a state-of-the-art speaker identification system, it is possible to mistake a user for another user in the household, especially when the users exhibit similar or identical age and gender demographics. This leads to the undesirable effect of injecting unwanted ratings...... into the collaborative rating matrix, and when the users have different tastes, can result in the recommendation of undesirable items. We therefore propose a simple confidence-based heuristic that utilizes the log-likelihood scores from the speaker identification front-end. The algorithm limits the degree to which...

  18. Nanoelectrospray high capacity ion trap multiple stage mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of human brain gangliosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelic, Zeljka; Ratiu, Cornelia; Grozescu, Ioan; Zamfir, Alina Diana

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A novel protocol based on electrospray ionization (ESI) multiple stage high capacity ion trap (HCT) mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for glycosphingolipidomic surveys. The method was optimized for detailed structural elucidation of human brain gangliosides and particularly applied to human hippocampus-associated structures. The multiple stage MS experiments allowed for a complete structural characterization of GM1 ganglioside species, which was achieved by elucidation of the oligosaccharide sequence, identification of the GM1 a structural isomer from the data upon sialic acid localization along the sugar backbone and determination of the d18:1/18:0 of fatty acid/sphingoid base composition of the ceramide moiety. The methodology developed here is of general practical applicability for glycolipids and represents a step forward in the implementation of the advanced and most modern MS methods in glycomics. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids, which consist of a mono- to polysialylated oligosaccharide chain of variable length attached to a ceramide portion of different composition with respect to the type of sphingoid base and fatty acid residues. Among all body systems, the central nervous system (CNS) possesses the highest content of gangliosides and they are playing a particularly important biological role at this level. Specific changes in the ganglioside expression and type of the expressed structures were observed to occur during brain development, maturation, and aging, and due to diseases or neurodegeneration processes. Gangliosides represent, therefore, an important class of biomarkers, carriers of information upon various CNS processes and events. Though in the human brain, their expression was observed to have a regional and tissue development induced specificity, the differences in ganglioside structure, composition and quantity were not systematically investigated or rigorously determined so far. (authors)

  19. Oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased brain atrophy in early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Rojas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if the presence of oligoclonal bands (OB at early stages of multiple sclerosis was associated with higher brain atrophy, when compared with patients without OB. METHODS: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients with less than two years of disease onset and OB detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were included. SIENAX was used for total brain volume (TBV, gray matter volume (GMV, and white matter volume (WMV. RESULTS: Forty patients were included, 29 had positive IgG-OB. No differences were found between positive and negative patients in gender, expanded disability status scale (EDSS, treatment received, and T2/T1 lesion load. TBV in positive IgG-OB patients was 1.5 mm³ x 10(6 compared with 1.64 mm³ x 10(6 in the negative ones (p=0.02. GMV was 0.51 mm³ x 10(6 in positive IgG-OB compared with 0.62 mm³ x 10(6 in negative ones (p=0.002. No differences in WMV (p=0.09 were seen. CONCLUSIONS: IgG-OB in the CSF was related to neurodegeneration magnetic resonance (MR markers in early RRMS.

  20. Fight, Flight, or Remain Silent? Juggling Multiple Accountabilities throughout the Formative Stage of a Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Stacey M; Perez, Deborah A; Marques, Denise S; Evans, Scot D; Sulma, Adrienne

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the experiences of a research team as they navigated uncertain ethical and political terrain throughout the formative stage of a public housing redevelopment project. Specifically, we discuss the challenges related to balancing multiple accountabilities and the tensions among the various roles and responsibilities that emanated from different accountabilities. Due to contractual obligations to our funding source, established relations with community partners, and an ethical imperative to align with those holding the least power, we grappled with embodying multiple and often conflicting roles. Without oversight provided by our university institutional review board or a clear ethical framework for community psychology research and action, our team was left to negotiate the challenges that emerged through critical reflection and financial considerations. Throughout the case example presented in this paper, we highlight our difficulty in ethical decision-making with respect to the principles of obligation, disclosure, consent, commitment, and professionalism. Community psychologists often straddle the realms of academia, community partnerships, and conscious engagement with little guidance in navigating often conflicting roles and value systems. We present our narrative to highlight the complexity of scholar-activism in the context of community psychology and the necessity for developing ethical standards and guidelines tailored to meet the unique needs of community psychologists. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  1. Novel signal-dependent filter bank method for identification of multiple basal ganglia nuclei in Parkinsonian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Morales, R. D.; Orozco-Gutierrez, A. A.; Castellanos-Dominguez, G.

    2011-06-01

    Microelectrode recordings are a valuable tool for assisting localization targets during deep brain stimulation procedures in Parkinson's disease neurosurgery. Attempts to automate and standardize this process have been limited by variability in patient neurophysiology and strong dynamics of microelectrode recordings. In this paper, a methodology for the identification of basal ganglia nuclei is presented that is based on a signal-dependent filter bank method using microelectrode recordings. The method is a customized realization of the discrete wavelet transform via the lifting scheme that is optimally tuned by genetic algorithms. Using this method, unique mother wavelet functions that exhibit an adaptable spectrum to the microelectrode recording dynamic are generated. Additionally, by extracting morphological features from the space-transformed microelectrode recording, it is possible to integrate them into three-dimensional (3D) feature spaces with maximum class separability. Finally, high discriminant feature spaces are fed into basic classifiers to recognize up to four basal nuclei. Comparison with several existing wavelets highlights the characteristics of new mother wavelets. Additionally, classification results show that identification of addressed nuclei in the basal ganglia can be performed with 95% confidence.

  2. Integrated QSAR study for inhibitors of Hedgehog Signal Pathway against multiple cell lines:a collaborative filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Che, Dongsheng; Zheng, Vincent W; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi

    2012-07-31

    The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway is one of signaling pathways that are very important to embryonic development. The participation of inhibitors in the Hedgehog Signal Pathway can control cell growth and death, and searching novel inhibitors to the functioning of the pathway are in a great demand. As the matter of fact, effective inhibitors could provide efficient therapies for a wide range of malignancies, and targeting such pathway in cells represents a promising new paradigm for cell growth and death control. Current research mainly focuses on the syntheses of the inhibitors of cyclopamine derivatives, which bind specifically to the Smo protein, and can be used for cancer therapy. While quantitatively structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed for these compounds among different cell lines, none of them have achieved acceptable results in the prediction of activity values of new compounds. In this study, we proposed a novel collaborative QSAR model for inhibitors of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway by integration the information from multiple cell lines. Such a model is expected to substantially improve the QSAR ability from single cell lines, and provide useful clues in developing clinically effective inhibitors and modifications of parent lead compounds for target on the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway. In this study, we have presented: (1) a collaborative QSAR model, which is used to integrate information among multiple cell lines to boost the QSAR results, rather than only a single cell line QSAR modeling. Our experiments have shown that the performance of our model is significantly better than single cell line QSAR methods; and (2) an efficient feature selection strategy under such collaborative environment, which can derive the commonly important features related to the entire given cell lines, while simultaneously showing their specific contributions to a specific cell-line. Based on feature selection results, we have proposed several

  3. Analytical approach for modeling and performance analysis of microring resonators as optical filters with multiple output bus waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Suchita; Mandal, Sanjoy

    2017-06-01

    A quadruple micro-optical ring resonator (QMORR) with multiple output bus waveguides is mathematically modeled and analyzed by making use of the delay-line signal processing approach in Z-domain and Mason's gain formula. The performances of QMORR with two output bus waveguides with vertical coupling are analyzed. This proposed structure is capable of providing wider free spectral response from both the output buses with appreciable cross talk. Thus, this configuration could provide increased capacity to insert a large number of communication channels. The simulated frequency response characteristic and its dispersion and group delay characteristics are graphically presented using the MATLAB environment.

  4. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A

    2013-08-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  5. Multi-stage gene normalization for full-text articles with context-based species filtering for dynamic dictionary entry selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Lai, Po-Ting

    2011-10-03

    Gene normalization (GN) is the task of identifying the unique database IDs of genes and proteins in literature. The best-known public competition of GN systems is the GN task of the BioCreative challenge, which has been held four times since 2003. The last two BioCreatives, II.5 & III, had two significant differences from earlier tasks: firstly, they provided full-length articles in addition to abstracts; and secondly, they included multiple species without providing species ID information. Full papers introduce more complex targets for GN processing, while the inclusion of multiple species vastly increases the potential size of dictionaries needed for GN. BioCreative III GN uses Threshold Average Precision at a median of k errors per query (TAP-k), a new measure closely related to the well-known average precision, but also reflecting the reliability of the score provided by each GN system. To use full-paper text, we employed a multi-stage GN algorithm and a ranking method which exploit information in different sections and parts of a paper. To handle the inclusion of multiple unknown species, we developed two context-based dynamic strategies to select dictionary entries related to the species that appear in the paper-section-wide and article-wide context. Our originally submitted BioCreative III system uses a static dictionary containing only the most common species entries. It already exceeds the BioCreative III average team performance by at least 24% in every evaluation. However, using our proposed dynamic dictionary strategies, we were able to further improve TAP-5, TAP-10, and TAP-20 by 16.47%, 13.57% and 6.01%, respectively in the Gold 50 test set. Our best dynamic strategy outperforms the best BioCreative III systems in TAP-10 on the Silver 50 test set and in TAP-5 on the Silver 507 set. Our experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed dynamic dictionary selection strategies over our original static strategy and most BioCreative III

  6. Targeting multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways with a resorcinol derivative leads to inhibition of advanced stages of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Rumi; Singer, Eric; Pakdel, Arash; Sarma, Pranamee; Judkins, Jonathon; Elwakeel, Eiman; Dayal, Sonali; Martinez-Martinez, Esther; Amere, Mukkanti; Gujjar, Ramesh; Mahadevan, Anu; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; McAllister, Sean D

    2014-10-01

    The psychoactive cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can both reduce cancer progression, each through distinct anti-tumour pathways. Our goal was to discover a compound that could efficiently target both cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways. To measure breast cancer cell proliferation/viability and invasion, MTT and Boyden chamber assays were used. Modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis was measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein and annexin/propidium iodide, respectively, in combination with cell flow cytometry. Changes in protein levels were evaluated using Western analysis. Orthotopic and i.v. mouse models of breast cancer metastasis were used to test the activity of cannabinoids in vivo. CBD reduced breast cancer metastasis in advanced stages of the disease as the direct result of down-regulating the transcriptional regulator Id1. However, this was associated with moderate increases in survival. We therefore screened for analogues that could co-target cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways (CBD- and THC-associated) and discovered the compound O-1663. This analogue inhibited Id1, produced a marked stimulation of ROS, up-regulated autophagy and induced apoptosis. Of all the compounds tested, it was the most potent at inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in culture and metastasis in vivo. O-1663 prolonged survival in advanced stages of breast cancer metastasis. Developing compounds that can simultaneously target multiple cannabinoid anti-tumour pathways efficiently may provide a novel approach for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. In silico repositioning-chemogenomics strategy identifies new drugs with potential activity against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno J Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD, DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes.

  8. Nontranscriptional regulation of SYK by the coactivator OCA-B is required at multiple stages of B cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rachael; Kim, Unkyu; Patke, Alina; Yu, Xin; Ren, Xiaodi; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Roeder, Robert G

    2006-05-19

    OCA-B was originally identified as a nuclear transcriptional coactivator that is essential for antigen-driven immune responses. The later identification of a membrane bound, myristoylated form of OCA-B suggested additional, unique functions in B cell signaling pathways. This study has shown that OCA-B also functions in the pre-B1-to-pre-B2 cell transition and, most surprisingly, that it directly interacts with SYK, a tyrosine kinase critical for pre-BCR and BCR signaling. This unprecedented type of interaction-a transcriptional coactivator with a signaling kinase-occurs in the cytoplasm and directly regulates SYK stability. This study indicates that OCA-B is required for pre-BCR and BCR signaling at multiple stages of B cell development through its nontranscriptional regulation of SYK. Combined with the deregulation of OCA-B target genes, this may help explain the multitude of defects observed in B cell development and immune responses of Oca-b-/- mice.

  9. Towards Improving Overview and Metering through Visualisation and Dynamic Query Filters for User Interfaces Implementing the Stage Metaphor for Music Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Uhrenholt, Anders Kirk

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with challenges involved with implementing the stage metaphor control scheme for mixing music. Recent studies suggest that the stage metaphor outperforms the traditional channel-strip metaphor in several different ways. However, the implementation of the stage metaphor poses issu...

  10. A 23Na Multiple-Quantum-Filtered NMR Study of the Effect of the Cytoskeleton Conformation on the Anisotropic Motion of Sodium Ions in Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knubovets, Tatyana; Shinar, Hadassah; Eliav, Uzi; Navon, Gil

    1996-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that23Na double-quantum-filtered NMR spectroscopy can be used to detect anisotropic motion of bound sodium ions in biological systems. The technique is based on the formation of the second-rank tensor when the quadrupolar interaction is not averaged to zero. Using this method, anisotropic motion of bound sodium in human and dog red blood cells was detected, and the effect was shown to depend on the integrity of the membrane cytoskeleton. In the present study, multiple-quantum-filtered techniques were applied in combination with a quadrupolar echo to measure the transverse-relaxation times,T2fandT2s. Line fitting was performed to obtain the values of the residual quadrupolar interaction, which was measured for sodium in a variety of mammalian erythrocytes of different size, shape, rheological properties, and sodium concentrations. Human unsealed white ghosts were used to study sodium bound at the anisotropic sites on the inner side of the RBC membrane. Modulations of the conformation of the cytoskeleton by the variation of either the ionic strength or pH of the suspending medium caused drastic changes in both the residual quadrupolar interaction andT2fdue to changes in the fraction of bound sodium ions as well as changes in the structure of the binding sites. By combining the two spectroscopic parameters, structural change can be followed. The changes in the structure of the sodium anisotropic binding sites deduced by this method were found to correlate with known conformational changes of the membrane cytoskeleton. Variations of the medium pH affected both the fraction of bound sodium ions and the structure of the anisotropic binding sites. Sodium and potassium were shown to bind to the anisotropic binding sites with the same affinity.

  11. Analysis of gene expression profiles of soft tissue sarcoma using a combination of knowledge-based filtering with integration of multiple statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Takahashi

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STS have been difficult. Of the diverse histological subtypes, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS is particularly difficult to diagnose accurately, and its classification per se is still controversial. Recent advances in genomic technologies provide an excellent way to address such problems. However, it is often difficult, if not impossible, to identify definitive disease-associated genes using genome-wide analysis alone, primarily because of multiple testing problems. In the present study, we analyzed microarray data from 88 STS patients using a combination method that used knowledge-based filtering and a simulation based on the integration of multiple statistics to reduce multiple testing problems. We identified 25 genes, including hypoxia-related genes (e.g., MIF, SCD1, P4HA1, ENO1, and STAT1 and cell cycle- and DNA repair-related genes (e.g., TACC3, PRDX1, PRKDC, and H2AFY. These genes showed significant differential expression among histological subtypes, including UPS, and showed associations with overall survival. STAT1 showed a strong association with overall survival in UPS patients (logrank p = 1.84 × 10(-6 and adjusted p value 2.99 × 10(-3 after the permutation test. According to the literature, the 25 genes selected are useful not only as markers of differential diagnosis but also as prognostic/predictive markers and/or therapeutic targets for STS. Our combination method can identify genes that are potential prognostic/predictive factors and/or therapeutic targets in STS and possibly in other cancers. These disease-associated genes deserve further preclinical and clinical validation.

  12. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  13. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396

  14. Time signal filtering by relative neighborhood graph localized linear approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1994-01-01

    A time signal filtering algorithm based on the relative neighborhood graph (RNG) used for localization of linear filters is proposed. The filter is constructed from a training signal during two stages. During the first stage an RNG is constructed. During the second stage, localized linear filters...

  15. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Brilman, Derk W.F.

    2017-01-01

    (Graph Presented) The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction

  16. Modulation method for a multiple drive system based on a two-stage direct power conversion topology with reduced input current ripple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    operation. This is a cost effective topology compared to a standard matrix converter because the multiple three-phase loads share the cost of the controlled rectification stage. A new method to reduce the high frequency ripple from the input current is also proposed based on interleaving the switching...

  17. Overall evaluation of combustion and NO(x) emissions for a down-fired 600 MW(e) supercritical boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi

    2013-05-07

    To achieve significant reductions in NOx emissions and to eliminate strongly asymmetric combustion found in down-fired boilers, a deep-air-staging combustion technology was trialed in a down-fired 600 MWe supercritical utility boiler. By performing industrial-sized measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the near wing-wall region, carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions at various settings, effects of overfire air (OFA) and staged-air damper openings on combustion characteristics, and NOx emissions within the furnace were experimentally determined. With increasing the OFA damper opening, both fluctuations in NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash were initially slightly over OFA damper openings of 0-40% but then lengthened dramatically in openings of 40-70% (i.e., NOx emissions reduced sharply accompanied by an apparent increase in carbon in fly ash). Decreasing the staged-air declination angle clearly increased the combustible loss but slightly influenced NOx emissions. In comparison with OFA, the staged-air influence on combustion and NOx emissions was clearly weaker. Only at a high OFA damper opening of 50%, the staged-air effect was relatively clear, i.e., enlarging the staged-air damper opening decreased carbon in fly ash and slightly raised NOx emissions. By sharply opening the OFA damper to deepen the air-staging conditions, although NOx emissions could finally reduce to 503 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 (i.e., an ultralow NOx level for down-fired furnaces), carbon in fly ash jumped sharply to 15.10%. For economical and environment-friendly boiler operations, an optimal damper opening combination (i.e., 60%, 50%, and 50% for secondary air, staged-air, and OFA damper openings, respectively) was recommended for the furnace, at which carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions attained levels of about 10% and 850 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, respectively.

  18. A New Generalized Two-Stage Direct Power Conversion Topology to Independently Supply Multiple AC Loads from Multiple Power Grids with Adjustable Power Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    ) and continuously adjust these power fractions will become a desired feature. This paper presents a generalized Direct Power Converter topology, which is able to connect to multiple AC supplies proving complete decoupling and no circulating power between the input ports and to independently control multiple AC...

  19. Development of a flattening filter free multiple source model for use as an independent, Monte Carlo, dose calculation, quality assurance tool for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Davidson, Scott E; Popple, Richard; Kry, Stephen F; Etzel, Carol; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Followill, David S

    2017-09-01

    The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core-Houston (IROC-H) Quality Assurance Center (formerly the Radiological Physics Center) has reported varying levels of compliance from their anthropomorphic phantom auditing program. IROC-H studies have suggested that one source of disagreement between institution submitted calculated doses and measurement is the accuracy of the institution's treatment planning system dose calculations and heterogeneity corrections used. In order to audit this step of the radiation therapy treatment process, an independent dose calculation tool is needed. Monte Carlo multiple source models for Varian flattening filter free (FFF) 6 MV and FFF 10 MV therapeutic x-ray beams were commissioned based on central axis depth dose data from a 10 × 10 cm 2 field size and dose profiles for a 40 × 40 cm 2 field size. The models were validated against open-field measurements in a water tank for field sizes ranging from 3 × 3 cm 2 to 40 × 40 cm 2 . The models were then benchmarked against IROC-H's anthropomorphic head and neck phantom and lung phantom measurements. Validation results, assessed with a ±2%/2 mm gamma criterion, showed average agreement of 99.9% and 99.0% for central axis depth dose data for FFF 6 MV and FFF 10 MV models, respectively. Dose profile agreement using the same evaluation technique averaged 97.8% and 97.9% for the respective models. Phantom benchmarking comparisons were evaluated with a ±3%/2 mm gamma criterion, and agreement averaged 90.1% and 90.8% for the respective models. Multiple source models for Varian FFF 6 MV and FFF 10 MV beams have been developed, validated, and benchmarked for inclusion in an independent dose calculation quality assurance tool for use in clinical trial audits. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Simplifying the complex 1H NMR spectra of fluorine-substituted benzamides by spin system filtering and spin-state selection: multiple-quantum-single-quantum correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baishya, Bikash; Reddy, G N Manjunatha; Prabhu, Uday Ramesh; Row, T N Guru; Suryaprakash, N

    2008-10-23

    The proton NMR spectra of fluorine-substituted benzamides are very complex (Figure 1) due to severe overlap of (1)H resonances from the two aromatic rings, in addition to several short and long-range scalar couplings experienced by each proton. With no detectable scalar couplings between the inter-ring spins, the (1)H NMR spectra can be construed as an overlap of spectra from two independent phenyl rings. In the present study we demonstrate that it is possible to separate the individual spectrum for each aromatic ring by spin system filtering employing the multiple-quantum-single-quantum correlation methodology. Furthermore, the two spin states of fluorine are utilized to simplify the spectrum corresponding to each phenyl ring by the spin-state selection. The demonstrated technique reduces spectral complexity by a factor of 4, in addition to permitting the determination of long-range couplings of less than 0.2 Hz and the relative signs of heteronuclear couplings. The technique also aids the judicious choice of the spin-selective double-quantum-single-quantum J-resolved experiment to determine the long-range homonuclear couplings of smaller magnitudes.

  1. Analysis for reflection peaks of multiple-phase-shift based sampled fiber Bragg gratings and application in high channel-count filter design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kun Hua; Yan, Lian Shan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xi Hua; Ye, Jia; Ma, Ya Nan

    2009-10-10

    An analytical expression for calculating the reflection-peak wavelengths (RPWs) of a uniform sampled fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) with the multiple-phase-shift (MPS) technique is derived through Fourier transform of the index modulation. The new expression can accurately depict the RPWs incorporating various parameters such as the duty cycle and the DC index change. The effectiveness of the derived expression is further confirmed by comparing the RPWs estimated from the expression with the simulated reflective spectra using the piecewise uniform method. And the reflective spectrum has been well optimized by introducing the Gaussian apodization function to suppress the sidelobes without any wavelength shift on the RPWs. Then, a high-channel-count comb filter based on MPS is proposed by cascading two or more SFBGs with different Bragg periods but with the same RPWs. Noticeably, the RPWs of the new structured SFBG can also be accurately calculated through the expression. Furthermore, the number of spectral channels can be controlled by choosing gratings with specified difference Bragg periods.

  2. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area.

  3. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  4. Research on Multiple-Split Load Sharing Characteristics of 2-Stage External Meshing Star Gear System in Consideration of Displacement Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Mo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the multiple-split load sharing mechanism of gears in two-stage external meshing planetary transmission system of aeroengine. According to the eccentric error, gear tooth thickness error, pitch error, installation error, and bearing manufacturing error, we performed the meshing error analysis of equivalent angles, respectively, and we also considered the floating meshing error caused by the variation of the meshing backlash, which is from the floating of all gears at the same time. Finally, we obtained the comprehensive angle meshing error of the two-stage meshing line, established a refined mathematical computational model of 2-stage external 3-split loading sharing coefficient in consideration of displacement compatibility, got the regular curves of the load sharing coefficient and load sharing characteristic curve of full floating multiple-split and multiple-stage system, and took the variation law of the floating track and the floating quantity of the center wheel. These provide a scientific theory to determine the load sharing coefficient, reasonable load distribution, and control tolerances in aviation design and manufacturing.

  5. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  6. The Applicability of the International Staging System in Chinese Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Bortezomib or Thalidomide-Based Regimens as Induction Therapy: A Multicenter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Staging System (ISS is the most important prognostic system for multiple myeloma (MM. It was identified in the era of conventional agents. The outcome of MM has significantly changed by novel agents. Thus the applicability of ISS system in the era of novel agents in Chinese patients needs to be demonstrated. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes and prognostic significance of ISS system in 1016 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in Chinese patients between 2008 and 2012, who received bortezomib- or thalidomide-based regimens as first-line therapy. The median overall survival (OS of patients for ISS stages I/II/III was not reached/55.4 months/41.7 months (p<0.001, and the median progression-free survival (PFS was 30/29.5/25 months (p=0.072, respectively. Statistically significant difference in survival was confirmed among three ISS stages in thalidomide-based group, but not between ISS stages I and II in bortezomib-based group. These findings suggest that ISS system can predict the survival in the era of novel agents in Chinese MM patients, and bortezomib may have the potential to partially overcome adverse effect of risk factors on survival, especially in higher stage of ISS system.

  7. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  8. Multiple Stellar Populations of Globular Clusters from Homogeneous Ca-CN Photometry. II. M5 (NGC 5904) and a New Filter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo

    2017-07-01

    Using our ingeniously designed new filter systems, we investigate multiple stellar populations of the red giant branch (RGB) and the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) in the globular cluster (GC) M5. Our results are the following. (1) Our {{cn}}{JWL} index accurately traces nitrogen abundances in M5, while other color indices fail to do so. (2) We find bimodal CN distributions in both RGB and AGB sequences, with number ratios between CN-weak (CN-w) and CN-strong (CN-s) of n(CN-w):n(CN-s) = 29:71 (±2) and 21:79 (±7), respectively. (3) We also find a bimodal photometric [N/Fe] distribution for M5 RGB stars. (4) Our {{cn}}{JWL}-[O/Fe] and {{cn}}{JWL}-[Na/Fe] relations show clear discontinuities between the two RGB populations. (5) Although small, the RGB bump of CN-s is slightly brighter, {{Δ }}{V}{bump} = 0.07 ± 0.04 mag. If real, the difference in the helium abundance becomes {{Δ }}Y = 0.028 ± 0.016, in the sense that CN-s is more helium enhanced. (6) Very similar radial but different spatial distributions with comparable center positions are found for the two RGB populations. The CN-s RGB and AGB stars are more elongated along the NW-SE direction. (7) The CN-s population shows a substantial net projected rotation, while that of the CN-w population is nil. (8) Our results confirm the deficiency of CN-w AGB stars previously noted by others. We show that it is most likely due to stochastic truncation in the outer part of the cluster. Finally, we discuss the formation scenario of M5. Based on observations made with the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 1 m telescope, which is operated by the SMARTS consortium.

  9. Taking into account latency, amplitude, and morphology: improved estimation of single-trial ERPs by wavelet filtering and multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Liang, M; Mouraux, A; Wise, R G; Hu, Y; Iannetti, G D

    2011-12-01

    Across-trial averaging is a widely used approach to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of event-related potentials (ERPs). However, across-trial variability of ERP latency and amplitude may contain physiologically relevant information that is lost by across-trial averaging. Hence, we aimed to develop a novel method that uses 1) wavelet filtering (WF) to enhance the SNR of ERPs and 2) a multiple linear regression with a dispersion term (MLR(d)) that takes into account shape distortions to estimate the single-trial latency and amplitude of ERP peaks. Using simulated ERP data sets containing different levels of noise, we provide evidence that, compared with other approaches, the proposed WF+MLR(d) method yields the most accurate estimate of single-trial ERP features. When applied to a real laser-evoked potential data set, the WF+MLR(d) approach provides reliable estimation of single-trial latency, amplitude, and morphology of ERPs and thereby allows performing meaningful correlations at single-trial level. We obtained three main findings. First, WF significantly enhances the SNR of single-trial ERPs. Second, MLR(d) effectively captures and measures the variability in the morphology of single-trial ERPs, thus providing an accurate and unbiased estimate of their peak latency and amplitude. Third, intensity of pain perception significantly correlates with the single-trial estimates of N2 and P2 amplitude. These results indicate that WF+MLR(d) can be used to explore the dynamics between different ERP features, behavioral variables, and other neuroimaging measures of brain activity, thus providing new insights into the functional significance of the different brain processes underlying the brain responses to sensory stimuli.

  10. Impact of Genomics Platform and Statistical Filtering on Transcriptional Benchmark Doses (BMD and Multiple Approaches for Selection of Chemical Point of Departure (PoD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Francina Webster

    Full Text Available Many regulatory agencies are exploring ways to integrate toxicogenomic data into their chemical risk assessments. The major challenge lies in determining how to distill the complex data produced by high-content, multi-dose gene expression studies into quantitative information. It has been proposed that benchmark dose (BMD values derived from toxicogenomics data be used as point of departure (PoD values in chemical risk assessments. However, there is limited information regarding which genomics platforms are most suitable and how to select appropriate PoD values. In this study, we compared BMD values modeled from RNA sequencing-, microarray-, and qPCR-derived gene expression data from a single study, and explored multiple approaches for selecting a single PoD from these data. The strategies evaluated include several that do not require prior mechanistic knowledge of the compound for selection of the PoD, thus providing approaches for assessing data-poor chemicals. We used RNA extracted from the livers of female mice exposed to non-carcinogenic (0, 2 mg/kg/day, mkd and carcinogenic (4, 8 mkd doses of furan for 21 days. We show that transcriptional BMD values were consistent across technologies and highly predictive of the two-year cancer bioassay-based PoD. We also demonstrate that filtering data based on statistically significant changes in gene expression prior to BMD modeling creates more conservative BMD values. Taken together, this case study on mice exposed to furan demonstrates that high-content toxicogenomics studies produce robust data for BMD modelling that are minimally affected by inter-technology variability and highly predictive of cancer-based PoD doses.

  11. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  12. Suppression of resistive instability of a bunched beam in the UNK first stage using a digital recursive filter in the feedback circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhabitskij, V.M.; Korenev, I.L.; Yudin, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Technique and new fast system of proton bunch beam coherent betatron oscillations suppression in the UNK first stage are suggested. The system comprises two beam monitors and two pushers. Differential equations are reduced to linear difference matrix equation which is investigated for stability using unilateral Z-transformation. 10 refs

  13. Effects of humidity on the quantitative determination of HCl, NOx, H2S, and NH3 using a three-stage filter pack with ion chromatography analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, T.T.; Wu, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    Low-level transuranic (TRU) waste to be stored underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has the potential to generate low levels of reactive gases such as HCl, NO x H 2 S, and NH 3 through radiological, biological, and chemical (corrosion) processes. Because of the low levels of gas expected to be produced (< 1 ppM), a method was developed which includes the simultaneous sampling of gases using chemically treated filter papers and analysis of the extracted ions by ion chromatography. To determine the effects of humidification on the collection and determination of reactive gases, a humidification system was added to the trace gas generator system to produce a relative humidity approximately equal to that in the Humid Test Bin. This humidification system consisted of gas washing bottles filled with saturated brine (NaCl) that has been shown to produce a relative humidity of approximately 75% in the temperature range of 68 degree F to 86 degree

  14. Hydraulic Fracture Induced Seismicity During A Multi-Stage Pad Completion in Western Canada: Evidence of Activation of Multiple, Parallel Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, S.; Garrett, D.; Huang, J.; Usher, P.; Mamer, P.

    2017-12-01

    Following reports of injection induced seismicity in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, regulators have imposed seismic monitoring and traffic light protocols for fracturing operations in specific areas. Here we describe a case study in one of these reservoirs, the Montney Shale in NE British Columbia, where induced seismicity was monitored with a local array during multi-stage hydraulic fracture stimulations on several wells from a single drilling pad. Seismicity primarily occurred during the injection time periods, and correlated with periods of high injection rates and wellhead pressures above fracturing pressures. Sequential hydraulic fracture stages were found to progressively activate several parallel, critically-stressed faults, as illuminated by multiple linear hypocenter patterns in the range between Mw 1 and 3. Moment tensor inversion of larger events indicated a double-couple mechanism consistent with the regional strike-slip stress state and the hypocenter lineations. The critically-stressed faults obliquely cross the well paths which were purposely drilled parallel to the minimum principal stress direction. Seismicity on specific faults started and stopped when fracture initiation points of individual injection stages were proximal to the intersection of the fault and well. The distance ranges when the seismicity occurs is consistent with expected hydraulic fracture dimensions, suggesting that the induced fault slip only occurs when a hydraulic fracture grows directly into the fault and the faults are temporarily exposed to significantly elevated fracture pressures during the injection. Some faults crossed multiple wells and the seismicity was found to restart during injection of proximal stages on adjacent wells, progressively expanding the seismogenic zone of the fault. Progressive fault slip is therefore inferred from the seismicity migrating further along the faults during successive injection stages. An accelerometer was also deployed close

  15. Experimental demonstration of a ferroelectric liquid crystal tunable filter for fast demodulation of FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sunish; Semenova, Yuliya; Rajan, Ginu; Farrell, Gerald

    2009-05-01

    A discretely tunable Surface-Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal based Lyot Filter, with tuning speeds in the order of microseconds, is demonstrated experimentally as a channel dropper for the demodulation of multiple Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. The 3-stage Lyot Filter designed and experimentally verified can be used together with the high-speed ratiometric wavelength measurement system employing a fibre bend loss edge filter. Such systems can be used for the demodulation of distributed Fibre Bragg Grating sensors employed in applications such as structural monitoring, industrial sensing and haptic telerobotic surgical systems.

  16. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping Reveals Multiple QTLs Governing Tolerance Response for Seedling Stage Chilling Stress in Indica Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat K. Pradhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop is sensitive to cold stress at seedling stage. A panel of population representing 304 shortlisted germplasm lines was studied for seedling stage chilling tolerance in indica rice. Six phenotypic classes were exposed to six low temperature stress regimes under control phenotyping facility to investigate response pattern. A panel of 66 genotypes representing all phenotypic classes was used for ensuring genetic diversity, population structure and association mapping for the trait using 58 simple sequence repeat (SSR and 2 direct trait linked markers. A moderate level of genetic diversity was detected in the panel population for the trait. Deviation of Hardy-Weinberg's expectation was detected in the studied population using Wright's F statistic. The panel showed 30% variation among population and 70% among individuals. The entire population was categorized into three sub-populations through STRUCTURE analysis. This revealed tolerance for the trait had a common primary ancestor for each sub-population with few admix individuals. The panel population showed the presence of many QTLs for cold stress tolerance in the individuals representing like genome-wide expression of the trait. Nineteen SSR markers were significantly associated at chilling stress of 8°C to 4°C for 7–21 days duration. Thus, the primers linked to the seedling stage cold tolerance QTLs namely qCTS9, qCTS-2, qCTS6.1, qSCT2, qSCT11, qSCT1a, qCTS-3.1, qCTS11.1, qCTS12.1, qCTS-1b, and CTB2 need to be pyramided for development of strongly chilling tolerant variety.

  18. Treatment planning with intensity modulated particle therapy for multiple targets in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderle, Kristjan; Stroom, Joep; Vieira, Sandra; Pimentel, Nuno; Greco, Carlo; Durante, Marco; Graeff, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Intensity modulated particle therapy (IMPT) can produce highly conformal plans, but is limited in advanced lung cancer patients with multiple lesions due to motion and planning complexity. A 4D IMPT optimization including all motion states was expanded to include multiple targets, where each target (isocenter) is designated to specific field(s). Furthermore, to achieve stereotactic treatment planning objectives, target and OAR weights plus objective doses were automatically iteratively adapted. Finally, 4D doses were calculated for different motion scenarios. The results from our algorithm were compared to clinical stereotactic body radiation treatment (SBRT) plans. The study included eight patients with 24 lesions in total. Intended dose regimen for SBRT was 24 Gy in one fraction, but lower fractionated doses had to be delivered in three cases due to OAR constraints or failed plan quality assurance. The resulting IMPT treatment plans had no significant difference in target coverage compared to SBRT treatment plans. Average maximum point dose and dose to specific volume in OARs were on average 65% and 22% smaller with IMPT. IMPT could also deliver 24 Gy in one fraction in a patient where SBRT was limited due to the OAR vicinity. The developed algorithm shows the potential of IMPT in treatment of multiple moving targets in a complex geometry.

  19. Design and FPGA Implementation of Variable Cutoff Frequency Filter based on Continuously Variable Fractional Delay Structure and Interpolation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedh Dhabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and FPGA implementation of interpolated continuously variable fractional delay structure based filter (ICVFD filter with fine control over the cutoff frequency. In the ICVFD filter, each unit delay of the prototype lowpass filter is replaced by a continuously variable fractional delay (CVFD element proposed in this paper. The CVFD element requires the same number of multiplications as that of the second-order fractional delay structure used in the existing fractional delay structure based variable filter (FDS based filter, however it provides fractional delays corresponding to the higher-order fractional delay structures. Hence, the proposed ICVFD filter provides wider cutoff frequency range compared to the FDS based filter. The ICVFD filter is also capable of providing variable bandpass and highpass responses. We use two-stage approach for the FPGA implementation of the ICVFD filter. First, we use pipelining stages to shorten the critical path and improve the operating frequency. Then, we make use of specific hardware resource, i.e. RAM-based Shift Register (SRL to further improve the operating frequency and resource usage.

  20. Associations between Poor Sleep Quality and Stages of Change of Multiple Health Behaviors among Participants of Employee Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-Kuen Azor; Grandner, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Using the Transtheoretical Model of behavioral change, this study evaluates the relationship between sleep quality and the motivation and maintenance processes of healthy behavior change. The current study is an analysis of data collected in 2008 from an online health risk assessment (HRA) survey completed by participants of the Kansas State employee wellness program (N=13,322). Using multinomial logistic regression, associations between self-reported sleep quality and stages of change (i.e. precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) in five health behaviors (stress management, weight management, physical activities, alcohol use, and smoking) were analyzed. Adjusted for covariates, poor sleep quality was associated with an increased likelihood of contemplation, preparation, and in some cases action stage when engaging in the health behavior change process, but generally a lower likelihood of maintenance of the healthy behavior. The present study demonstrated that poor sleep quality was associated with an elevated likelihood of contemplating or initiating behavior change, but a decreased likelihood of maintaining healthy behavior change. It is important to include sleep improvement as one of the lifestyle management interventions offered in EWP to comprehensively reduce health risks and promote the health of a large employee population.

  1. Guide to using Multiple Regression in Excel (MRCX v.1.1) for Removal of River Stage Effects from Well Water Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Spane, Frank A.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2010-09-01

    A software tool was created in Fiscal Year 2010 (FY11) that enables multiple-regression correction of well water levels for river-stage effects. This task was conducted as part of the Remediation Science and Technology project of CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). This document contains an overview of the correction methodology and a user’s manual for Multiple Regression in Excel (MRCX) v.1.1. It also contains a step-by-step tutorial that shows users how to use MRCX to correct river effects in two different wells. This report is accompanied by an enclosed CD that contains the MRCX installer application and files used in the tutorial exercises.

  2. Application of a coproantigen ELISA as an indicator of efficacy against multiple life stages of Fasciola hepatica infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S D; Vanhoff, K; Baker, K; Lake, L; Rolfe, P F; Seewald, W; Emery, D L

    2017-11-15

    At present diagnosis of true resistance and determination of drug efficacy in Fasciola hepatica infection rely solely on terminal experiments. The coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) has been reported previously as a sensitive and specific tool appropriate to detect treatment failure, and potentially drug resistance. Two studies were conducted to determine whether the cELISA was appropriate for on-farm efficacy and resistance testing in Australian Merino sheep. In Study 1 sheep were infected orally with 50 F. hepatica metacercariae on three occasions, twelve, six and two weeks prior to a single flukicide treatment with triclabendazole, closantel or albendazole. Sheep were sampled weekly for a further seven weeks prior to necropsy. Following effective treatment, no faecal antigen was detected from 1 week. When immature stages (≤6 weeks) survived treatment, coproantigen reappeared from 6 weeks post-treatment. Therefore, cELISA conducted 1-4 weeks after treatment will demonstrate obvious treatment failure against adult F. hepatica, but is not sufficiently sensitive to detect survival of immature fluke until these reach maturity. In study 2, fluke burdens of sheep necropsied 13 weeks post single infection were compared to fecal worm egg counts (FWEC) and cELISA at necropsy. Regression analysis demonstrated that cELISA correlated strongly with fluke burden, whilst FWEC correlated weakly with cELISA. The correlation between FWEC and fluke burden was also weak, although stronger than that of FWEC with cELISA. The cELISA is an appropriate tool for monitoring effectiveness of treatments against Fasciola hepatica if an adult infection is present, however when immature stages of the parasite are present it is not as reliable. Where immature parasites are present it is recommended that initial cELISA be followed with a secondary cELISA at least 6 weeks after treatment to ensure resistance to immature stages is detected. Further testing is justified for monitoring the effectiveness

  3. Study of gas production from shale reservoirs with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing horizontal well considering multiple transport mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingzhen; Liu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Development of unconventional shale gas reservoirs (SGRs) has been boosted by the advancements in two key technologies: horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. A large number of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells (MsFHW) have been drilled to enhance reservoir production performance. Gas flow in SGRs is a multi-mechanism process, including: desorption, diffusion, and non-Darcy flow. The productivity of the SGRs with MsFHW is influenced by both reservoir conditions and hydraulic fracture properties. However, rare simulation work has been conducted for multi-stage hydraulic fractured SGRs. Most of them use well testing methods, which have too many unrealistic simplifications and assumptions. Also, no systematical work has been conducted considering all reasonable transport mechanisms. And there are very few works on sensitivity studies of uncertain parameters using real parameter ranges. Hence, a detailed and systematic study of reservoir simulation with MsFHW is still necessary. In this paper, a dual porosity model was constructed to estimate the effect of parameters on shale gas production with MsFHW. The simulation model was verified with the available field data from the Barnett Shale. The following mechanisms have been considered in this model: viscous flow, slip flow, Knudsen diffusion, and gas desorption. Langmuir isotherm was used to simulate the gas desorption process. Sensitivity analysis on SGRs’ production performance with MsFHW has been conducted. Parameters influencing shale gas production were classified into two categories: reservoir parameters including matrix permeability, matrix porosity; and hydraulic fracture parameters including hydraulic fracture spacing, and fracture half-length. Typical ranges of matrix parameters have been reviewed. Sensitivity analysis have been conducted to analyze the effect of the above factors on the production performance of SGRs. Through comparison, it can be found that hydraulic fracture

  4. COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

  5. Multiple-Complex Coefficient-Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loop and Synchronization Technique for Three-phase Grid-Interfaced Converters in Distributed Utility Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Weiyang; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    and rapid extraction of the positive and negative sequence components from the polluted grid voltage, and the harmonic components can also be estimated precisely, which has the potential use for selective compensation in active filter applications. Another advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility...

  6. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine impairs mouse spermatogenesis at multiple stages through different usage of DNA methyltransferases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ning; Endo, Daisuke; Song, Bin; Shibata, Yasuaki; Koji, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a progressive process comprising spermatogonial proliferation, spermatocytic meiosis, and later spermiogenesis, which is considered to be under the regulation of epigenetic parameters. To gain insights into the significance of DNA methylation in early spermatogenesis, 5-azadC was used as a molecular biological tool to mimic the level of DNA methylation in vivo. Since the drug is incorporated into DNA during the S-phase, spermatogonia and spermatocytes would be affected primarily in mouse spermatogenesis. Adult male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with 5-azadC at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days, allowing us to examine its maximum effect on the kinetics of spermatogonia and spermatocytes. In this short-term protocol, 5-azadC induced significant histological abnormalities, such as a marked increase in apoptosis of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, followed by severe loss of spermatids, while after termination of 5-azadC treatment, normal histology was restored in the testis within 35 days. Quantification of the methylation level of CCGG sites as well as whole DNA showed spermatogonial hypomethylation, which correlated with increased apoptosis of spermatogonia. Interestingly, the hypomethylated cells were simultaneously positive for tri-methylated histone H3 at K4. On the other hand, no changes in methylation level were found in spermatocytes, but PCNA staining clearly showed disordered accumulation of S-phase spermatocytes, which increased their apoptosis in stage XII. In addition, different immunohistochemical staining pattern was found for DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs); DNMT1was expressed in the majority of all germ cells, but DNMT3a and b were only expressed in spermatogonia. Our results indicate that 5-azadC caused DNA hypomethylation in spermatogonia, but induced prolongation of S-phase in spermatocytes, resulting in the induction of apoptosis in both cases. Thus, 5-azadC affects spermatogenesis at more than

  7. Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli

  8. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  9. Using large-scale Granger causality to study changes in brain network properties in the Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) stage of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Anas Z.; Chockanathan, Udaysankar; DSouza, Adora M.; Inglese, Matilde; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) is often considered to be the first neurological episode associated with Multiple sclerosis (MS). At an early stage the inflammatory demyelination occurring in the CNS can manifest as a change in neuronal metabolism, with multiple asymptomatic white matter lesions detected in clinical MRI. Such damage may induce topological changes of brain networks, which can be captured by advanced functional MRI (fMRI) analysis techniques. We test this hypothesis by capturing the effective relationships of 90 brain regions, defined in the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas, using a large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) framework. The resulting networks are then characterized using graph-theoretic measures that quantify various network topology properties at a global as well as at a local level. We study for differences in these properties in network graphs obtained for 18 subjects (10 male and 8 female, 9 with CIS and 9 healthy controls). Global network properties captured trending differences with modularity and clustering coefficient (pdifferences in some regions of the inferior frontal and parietal lobe. We conclude that multivariate analysis of fMRI time-series can reveal interesting information about changes occurring in the brain in early stages of MS.

  10. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yiqun; Colle, Marivi; Wang, Yuhui; Yang, Luming; Rubinstein, Mor; Sherman, Amir; Ophir, Ron; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    QTL analysis in multi-development stages with different QTL models identified 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth presenting a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) of different market classes. However, the genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using F2, F2-derived F3 families and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between two inbred lines Gy14 (North American picking cucumber) and 9930 (North China fresh market cucumber). Phenotypic data of fruit length and diameter were collected at three development stages (anthesis, immature and mature fruits) in six environments over 4 years. QTL analysis was performed with three QTL models including composite interval mapping (CIM), Bayesian interval mapping (BIM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Twenty-nine consistent and distinct QTLs were detected for nine traits from multiple mapping populations and QTL models. Synthesis of information from available fruit size QTLs allowed establishment of 12 consensus QTLs underlying fruit elongation and radial growth, which presented a dynamic view of genetic control of cucumber fruit development. Results from this study highlighted the benefits of QTL analysis with multiple QTL models and different mapping populations in improving the power of QTL detection. Discussion was presented in the context of domestication and diversifying selection of fruit length and diameter, marker-assisted selection of fruit size, as well as identification of candidate genes for fruit size QTLs in cucumber.

  11. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA-IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs, unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People′s Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI, depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00 was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00, the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04 and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03 had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00, depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00 and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03 were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  12. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions.

  13. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  14. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  15. Relationship between the Increased Haemostatic Properties of Blood Platelets and Oxidative Stress Level in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with the Secondary Progressive Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Morel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with complex pathogenesis, different clinical courses and recurrent neurological relapses and/or progression. Despite various scientific papers that focused on early stage of MS, our study targets selective group of late stage secondary progressive MS patients. The presented work is concerned with the reactivity of blood platelets in primary hemostasis in SP MS patients. 50 SP MS patients and 50 healthy volunteers (never diagnosed with MS or other chronic diseases were examined to evaluate the biological activity of blood platelets (adhesion, aggregation, especially their response to the most important physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen and the effect of oxidative stress on platelet activity. We found that the blood platelets from SP MS patients were significantly more sensitive to all used agonists in comparison with control group. Moreover, the platelet hemostatic function was advanced in patients suffering from SP MS and positively correlated with increased production of O2-∙ in these cells, as well as with Expanded Disability Status Scale. We postulate that the increased oxidative stress in blood platelets in SP MS may be primarily responsible for the altered haemostatic properties of blood platelets.

  16. Filter device for high density aerozol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Endo, Masao; Utamura, Motoaki; Tozuka, Fumio; Tate, Hitoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In a reactor, filters for capturing aerozol particles at high concentration have such a structure that a great number of fine pores are formed. Aerozols are introduced to a filter portion from the place remote from a first inlet. Cloggings are caused successively from the places remote from the inlet. Even if the clogging should occur, since there are many pores, the performance of filters is not deteriorated. Further, the filter has a multi-layered structure. With such a constitution, if the filter at a first stage is clogged to increase the pressure, a partitioning plate is opened and fluids are introduced into a second filter. This is conducted successively to suppress the deterioration of the performance of the filter. In view of the above, even if cloggings should occur, the filter performance is not deteriorated and, accordingly, reactor container ventilation can be conducted at high reliability upon occurrence of accidents. (T.M.)

  17. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  18. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  19. Optimal design of monitoring networks for multiple groundwater quality parameters using a Kalman filter: application to the Irapuato-Valle aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S; González-Hita, L; Cardona, A; Mora-Rodríguez, J

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the optimal design of groundwater quality monitoring networks is introduced in this paper. Various indicator parameters were considered simultaneously and tested for the Irapuato-Valle aquifer in Mexico. The steps followed in the design were (1) establishment of the monitoring network objectives, (2) definition of a groundwater quality conceptual model for the study area, (3) selection of the parameters to be sampled, and (4) selection of a monitoring network by choosing the well positions that minimize the estimate error variance of the selected indicator parameters. Equal weight for each parameter was given to most of the aquifer positions and a higher weight to priority zones. The objective for the monitoring network in the specific application was to obtain a general reconnaissance of the water quality, including water types, water origin, and first indications of contamination. Water quality indicator parameters were chosen in accordance with this objective, and for the selection of the optimal monitoring sites, it was sought to obtain a low-uncertainty estimate of these parameters for the entire aquifer and with more certainty in priority zones. The optimal monitoring network was selected using a combination of geostatistical methods, a Kalman filter and a heuristic optimization method. Results show that when monitoring the 69 locations with higher priority order (the optimal monitoring network), the joint average standard error in the study area for all the groundwater quality parameters was approximately 90 % of the obtained with the 140 available sampling locations (the set of pilot wells). This demonstrates that an optimal design can help to reduce monitoring costs, by avoiding redundancy in data acquisition.

  20. Simultaneous determination of components released from dental composite resins in human saliva by liquid chromatography/multiple-stage ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ven-Shing; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2012-02-01

    Dental composite resins are widely used for fixing teeth; however, the monomers used in dental composite resins have been found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic, namely triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA). In this study, we incubated dental composite resins with human saliva for demonstrating the released monomers and biodegradation products. A simple saliva sample dilution method without purification or derivatization was used for quantification. We found that liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-stage ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n) ) operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was able to separate the three monomers within 10 min. The calibration curves were linear (R² >0.996) over a wide range for each monomer in saliva: TEGDMA, 5-500 ppb; UDMA, 5-100 ppb, and Bis-GMA, 5-700 ppb. Furthermore, several biodegradation products were discovered with data-dependent MS/MS scan techniques. Although TEGMA degradation products have previously been reported, we identified two previously unknown UDMA degradation products. The LC-MS/MS method developed in this study was able to successfully quantify monomers and their principal biodegradation products from dental composite resins in human saliva. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Potential for HEPA filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Fretthold, J.K. [Rocky Flats Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Slawski, J.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for BEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. A fire in a four-stage, BEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of BEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenums, additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Spikes Filtering with Neural Networks: a Two-Stage Detection System Filtrage des pics par des réseaux neuronaux : un système de détection à deux étages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousset E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage system for detecting spikes in seismic data has been developed, each stage using neural networks (NN techniques. The first stage is trained and used on a running preprocessing window over traces ; its goal is to satisfy the three following criteria (by decreasing priority :(a Maximize the number of detections. (b Minimize the CPU-cost. (c Minimize the number of false alarms. The second stage processes the first stage's alarms in order to discriminate between true and false ones. Several preprocessing techniques, and especially their discriminatory power (to separate noise and signal were tested :(a Based on energy criteria. (b Based on frequency spectrum. (c Based on signal attributes, as Hilbert attributes, or other signal features. Several NN architectures, with global, local and constrained connections were compared. NN behavior at neighborhood of decision area was observed in order to determine a selection method of relevant decision thresholds. The first stage was tested on raw traces issued from 250 shots of a real twodimensional onshore seismic campaign. Three different migrated sections (Dip Moveout were compared. The first was obtained by applying on the latter raw traces a conventional processing sequence including an equalization phase, the second by omitting the equalization phase and the third by both including a prior NN filtering of raw traces and omitting the equalization phase. Afin de détecter les spikes au sein des traces sismiques brutes, nous avons développé un système composé de deux étages, chacun d'eux faisant intervenir un réseau de neurones artificiels dans ses calculs. Le premier réseau est entraîné pour traiter chaque trace au moyen d'une fenêtre glissante et doit satisfaire les trois critères suivants (par ordre décroissant de priorité : - maximiser le nombre de détections; - minimiser la consommation CPU; - minimiser le nombre de fausses alarmes. Le second étage est entraîné à partir

  3. {sup 11}C-Acetate as a new biomarker for PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma: initial staging and postinduction response assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chieh; Tsai, Shu-Fan; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Gueishan (China); Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Ho, Chi-Lai [Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography, Hong Kong (China); Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Yu-Chun [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Po-Nan; Tang, Tzung-Chih [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Taoyuan (China); Huang, Yenlin [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Taoyuan (China); Rahmouni, Alain [AP-HP, Groupe Henri-Mondor Albert-Chenevier, CHU Henri Mondor, Department of Radiology, Creteil (France)

    2014-01-15

    We investigated the potential value of {sup 11}C-acetate (ACT) PET/CT in characterizing multiple myeloma (MM) compared with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Bone marrow histological and whole-body (WB) MRI findings served as the reference standards. In this prospective study, 15 untreated MM patients (10 men and 5 women, age range 48-69 years) underwent dual-tracer {sup 11}C-ACT and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and WB MRI for pretreatment staging, and 13 of them had repeated examinations after induction therapy. Diffuse and focal bone marrow uptake was assessed by visual and quantitative analyses, including measurement of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson test. At staging, all 15 patients had diffuse myeloma involvement upon bone marrow examination with 30-90 % of plasma cell infiltrates. Diffuse infiltration was detected in all of them (100 %) using {sup 11}C-ACT with a positive correlation between bone marrow uptake values and percentages of plasma cell infiltrates (r = +0.63, p = 0.01). In contrast, a diagnosis of diffuse infiltration could be established using {sup 18}F-FDG in only six patients (40 %). Focal lesions were shown in 13 patients on both {sup 11}C-ACT PET/CT and WB MRI, and in 10 patients on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Focal lesions demonstrated {sup 11}C-ACT uptake with a mean SUV{sub max} of 11.4 ± 3.3 (range 4.6-19.6, n = 59), which was significantly higher than the {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (mean SUV{sub max} 6.6 ± 3.1, range 2.3-13.7, n = 29; p < 0.0001). After treatment, the diffuse bone marrow {sup 11}C-ACT uptake showed a mean SUV{sub max} reduction of 66 % in patients with at least a very good partial response versus 34 % in those with at most a partial response only (p = 0.01). PET/CT using {sup 11}C-ACT as a biomarker showed a higher detection rate for both diffuse and focal myeloma lesions at diagnosis than using {sup 18}F-FDG, and may be

  4. 11C-Acetate as a new biomarker for PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma: initial staging and postinduction response assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chieh; Tsai, Shu-Fan; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Ho, Chi-Lai; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Po-Nan; Tang, Tzung-Chih; Huang, Yenlin; Rahmouni, Alain

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the potential value of 11 C-acetate (ACT) PET/CT in characterizing multiple myeloma (MM) compared with 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Bone marrow histological and whole-body (WB) MRI findings served as the reference standards. In this prospective study, 15 untreated MM patients (10 men and 5 women, age range 48-69 years) underwent dual-tracer 11 C-ACT and 18 F-FDG PET/CT and WB MRI for pretreatment staging, and 13 of them had repeated examinations after induction therapy. Diffuse and focal bone marrow uptake was assessed by visual and quantitative analyses, including measurement of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ). Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Pearson test. At staging, all 15 patients had diffuse myeloma involvement upon bone marrow examination with 30-90 % of plasma cell infiltrates. Diffuse infiltration was detected in all of them (100 %) using 11 C-ACT with a positive correlation between bone marrow uptake values and percentages of plasma cell infiltrates (r = +0.63, p = 0.01). In contrast, a diagnosis of diffuse infiltration could be established using 18 F-FDG in only six patients (40 %). Focal lesions were shown in 13 patients on both 11 C-ACT PET/CT and WB MRI, and in 10 patients on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Focal lesions demonstrated 11 C-ACT uptake with a mean SUV max of 11.4 ± 3.3 (range 4.6-19.6, n = 59), which was significantly higher than the 18 F-FDG uptake (mean SUV max 6.6 ± 3.1, range 2.3-13.7, n = 29; p 11 C-ACT uptake showed a mean SUV max reduction of 66 % in patients with at least a very good partial response versus 34 % in those with at most a partial response only (p = 0.01). PET/CT using 11 C-ACT as a biomarker showed a higher detection rate for both diffuse and focal myeloma lesions at diagnosis than using 18 F-FDG, and may be valuable for response assessment. (orig.)

  5. Particle Filtering Methods for Incorporating Intelligence Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    past time steps. 3.2.1 Particle Filtering through Bayesian Bootstrap Sampling Although SIS helps resolve the computational and complexity issues...variables. This insight was called the Bayesian bootstrap filter, or more commonly called the particle filter. Multiple particles are sampled from an...2012) 16 maps of drug flow into the United States. Business Insider Online, (July 8), http://www.businessinsider.com/16-maps-of-drug-flow-into-the

  6. Box-particle probability hypothesis density filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, M.; Gning, A.; Mihaylova, L.; Cremers, D.; Koch, W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multitarget tracking, called box-particle probability hypothesis density filter (box-PHD filter). The approach is able to track multiple targets and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic, and data association uncertainty. The box-PHD filter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The small number of box-p...

  7. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  8. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  9. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  10. Vector Directional Distance Rational Hybrid Filters for Color Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khriji

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of nonlinear filters, called vector-directional distance rational hybrid filters (VDDRHF for multispectral image processing, is introduced and applied to color image-filtering problems. These filters are based on rational functions (RF. The VDDRHF filter is a two-stage filter, which exploits the features of the vector directional distance filter (VDDF, the center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF and those of the rational operator. The filter output is a result of vector rational function (VRF operating on the output of three sub-functions. Two vector directional distance (VDDF filters and one center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF are proposed to be used in the first stage due to their desirable properties, such as, noise attenuation, chromaticity retention, and edges and details preservation. Experimental results show that the new VDDRHF outperforms a number of widely known nonlinear filters for multi-spectral image processing such as the vector median filter (VMF, the generalized vector directional filters (GVDF and distance directional filters (DDF with respect to all criteria used.

  11. Quantitative changes in proteins responsible for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit at different ripening stages: A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-06-03

    To better understand the regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, a targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing LC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring was conducted on two strawberry cultivars at three ripening stages. This quantitative proteomic workflow was improved through an OFFGEL electrophoresis to fractionate peptides from total protein digests. A total of 154 peptide transitions from 47 peptides covering 21 proteins and isoforms related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were investigated. The normalized protein abundance, which was measured using isotopically-labeled standards, was significantly changed concurrently with increased anthocyanin content and advanced fruit maturity. The protein abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanidin synthase, chalcone isomerase; flavanone 3-hydroxylase; dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2, was all significantly increased in fruit of more advanced ripeness. An interaction between cultivar and maturity was also shown with respect to chalcone isomerase. The good correlation between protein abundance and anthocyanin content suggested that a metabolic control point may exist for anthocyanin biosynthesis. This research provides insights into the process of anthocyanin formation in strawberry fruit at the level of protein concentration and reveals possible candidates in the regulation of anthocyanin formation during fruit ripening. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation of strawberry fruit during ripening is challenging due to limited molecular biology tools and established hypothesis. Our targeted proteomic approach employing LC-MS/MS analysis and MRM technique to quantify proteins in relation to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in strawberry fruit during fruit ripening is novel. The identification of peptides

  12. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  13. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.

  14. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  15. z-transform DFT filters and FFT's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper shows how discrete Fourier transformation can be implemented as a filter bank in a way which reduces the number of filter coefficients. A particular implementation of such a filter bank is directly related to the normal complex FFT algorithm. The principle developed further leads to types...... of DFT filter banks which utilize a minimum of complex coefficients. These implementations lead to new forms of FFT's, among which is acos/sinFFT for a real signal which only employs real coefficients. The new FFT algorithms use only half as many real multiplications as does the classical FFT....

  16. Modelling modulation perception : modulation low-pass filter or modulation filter bank?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dau, T.; Kollmeier, B.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    In current models of modulation perception, the stimuli are first filtered and nonlinearly transformed (mostly half-wave rectified). In order to model the low-pass characteristic of measured modulation transfer functions, the next stage in the models is a first-order low-pass filter with a typical

  17. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693

  18. Efficacy of a Film-Forming Medical Device Containing Piroxicam and Sun Filters in the Treatment of Multiple Actinic Keratosis Lesions in a Subject with a History of Kaposi Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Scotti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinic keratosis (AK is considered a premalignant form of skin cancer due to chronic sun exposure. In addition, human papilloma virus (HPV has been advocated a role in the pathogenesis of this clinical condition. HPV proteins (mainly E6 and E7 seem to act synergistically with ultraviolet (UV radiation in reducing the defensive mechanisms of keratinocyte apoptosis after UV damage. Data regarding the involvement of other viruses, i.e. human herpes viruses (HHV, in the pathogenesis of AK are so far controversial. HHV8 is considered the infective agent involved in the development of Kaposi sarcoma. Some experimental data have shown that AK lesions carry HHV8 in more than 30% of the bioptic samples. Topical piroxicam was shown to be effective in the treatment of AK. In addition, the molecule shows antiviral action against HPV and HHV8. Here, we report the efficacy of a medical device containing a film-forming substance (polyvinyl alcohol, chemical and physical sun filters (SPF 50+, and 0.8% piroxicam (ActixicamTM, Difa Cooper; ACTX in the treatment of multiple scalp AK lesions, unresponsive to other treatments, in a subject with Kaposi sarcoma and a history of severe contact dermatitis. The subject presented with severe involvement of the scalp, with multiple hypertrophic AK lesions. Previous lesion-directed and field-targeted treatments have not been effective. The subject was treated with ACTX applied twice daily on the affected scalp. Relevant clinical improvement was observed as soon as 1 month of therapy. Complete clinical resolution of all scalp lesions was observed after 3 months of treatment. The product was well tolerated.

  19. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  20. Multirate Digital Filters Based on FPGA and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf El-Din, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is one of the fastest growing techniques in the electronics industry. It is used in a wide range of application fields such as, telecommunications, data communications, image enhancement and processing, video signals, digital TV broadcasting, and voice synthesis and recognition. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) offers good solution for addressing the needs of high performance DSP systems. The focus of this thesis is on one of the basic DSP functions, namely filtering signals to remove unwanted frequency bands. Multi rate Digital Filters (MDFs) are the main theme here. Theory and implementation of MDF, as a special class of digital filters, will be discussed. Multi rate digital filters represent a class of digital filters having a number of attractive features like, low requirements for the coefficient word lengths, significant saving in computation and storage requirements results in a significant reduction in its dynamic power consumption. This thesis introduces an efficient FPGA realization of a multi rate decimation filter with narrow pass-band and narrow transition band to reduce the frequency sample rate by factor of 64 for noise thermometer applications. The proposed multi rate decimation filter is composed of three stages; the first stage is a Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC) decimation filter, the second stage is a two-coefficient Half-Band (HB) filter and the last stage is a sharper transition HB filter. The frequency responses of individual stages as well as the overall filter response have been demonstrated with full simulation using MATLAB. The design and implementation of the proposed MDF on FPGA (XILINX Virtex XCV800 BG432-4), using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL), has been introduced. The implementation areas of the proposed filter stages are compared. Using CIC-HB technique saves 18% of the design area, compared to using six stages HB decimation filters.

  1. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Long: Data from: A novel quantitative model of multiple discrete stage transitions applied to crustacean larval development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the holding temperatures and developmental stages of larvae of red and blue king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus and P. platypus) reared to...

  2. Emission characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation; Nidan nensho diesel kikan no haishutsubutsu tokusei. EGR no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    For an aim to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines, it has become possible to realize it with smoke emission maintained at low levels by taking the following steps: initial combustion is carried out as lean pre-mixed combustion by adopting early fuel injection; the fuel is injected again after completion of this combustion; and EGR is combined with two-stage combustion which performs diffusion combustion under high temperature atmosphere. When a large quantity of EGR is used, cylinder temperature drops to have ignition timing delayed in the first stage, serving for improving fuel consumption. The problem of increase in smoke generation is solved by optimizing the injection timing at the second stage to suppress smoke generation increase, resulting in realization of lower NOx emission. By completing the second-stage fuel injection before ignition of the first-stage injection, it was possible to realize further lower NOx emission. Smoke increase due to higher EGR ratio was suppressed by pre-mixing both fuels injected in the first and second stages, although this is a high load operation. In addition, oxygen concentration and cylinder temperature were reduced, the gas pre-mixture was homogenized, and combustion velocity was suppressed by delaying the angle of ignition timing. This made low smoke combustion at {lambda} = 1 possible even in compressed ignition combustion. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  4. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  5. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  6. Optimization of filter loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized

  7. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  8. CHANGE DETECTION VIA SELECTIVE GUIDED CONTRASTING FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vizilter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC. The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC, mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All

  9. Integrating multiple stressors across life stages and latitudes: Combined and delayed effects of an egg heat wave and larval pesticide exposure in a damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniegula, Szymon; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses. Exposure of eggs to the heat wave had no effect on larval traits, yet had delayed costs (lower fat and flight muscle mass) in the adult stage thereby crossing two life history transitions. These delayed costs were only present in central-latitude populations potentially indicating their lower heat tolerance. Exposure of larvae to the pesticide reduced larval growth rate and prolonged development time, and across metamorphosis reduced the adult fat content and the flight muscle mass, yet did not affect the adult heat tolerance. The pesticide-induced delayed emergence was only present in the slower growing central-latitude larvae, possibly reflecting stronger selection to keep development fast in the more time-constrained high-latitude populations. We observed no synergistic interactions between the egg heat wave and the larval pesticide exposure. Instead the pesticide-induced reduction in fat content was only present in animals that were not exposed to the egg heat wave. Our results based on laboratory conditions highlight that multistressor studies should integrate across life stages to fully capture cumulative effects of pollutants with other stressors related to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple Genes Related to Muscle Identified through a Joint Analysis of a Two-stage Genome-wide Association Study for Racing Performance of 1,156 Thoroughbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Shin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thoroughbred, a relatively recent horse breed, is best known for its use in horse racing. Although myostatin (MSTN variants have been reported to be highly associated with horse racing performance, the trait is more likely to be polygenic in nature. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants strongly associated with racing performance by using estimated breeding value (EBV for race time as a phenotype. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study to search for genetic variants associated with the EBV. In the first stage of genome-wide association study, a relatively large number of markers (~54,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs were evaluated in a small number of samples (240 horses. In the second stage, a relatively small number of markers identified to have large effects (170 SNPs were evaluated in a much larger number of samples (1,156 horses. We also validated the SNPs related to MSTN known to have large effects on racing performance and found significant associations in the stage two analysis, but not in stage one. We identified 28 significant SNPs related to 17 genes. Among these, six genes have a function related to myogenesis and five genes are involved in muscle maintenance. To our knowledge, these genes are newly reported for the genetic association with racing performance of Thoroughbreds. It complements a recent horse genome-wide association studies of racing performance that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand our knowledge of the polygenic nature of racing performance in Thoroughbreds.

  11. Tumor Control Probability Modeling for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Early-Stage Lung Cancer Using Multiple Bio-physical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tai, An; Lee, Percy; Biswas, Tithi; Ding, George X.; El Naqa, Isaam; Grimm, Jimm; Jackson, Andrew; Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring); LaCouture, Tamara; Loo, Billy; Miften, Moyed; Solberg, Timothy; Li, X Allen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze pooled clinical data using different radiobiological models and to understand the relationship between biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor control probability (TCP) for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Method and Materials The clinical data of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial or Kaplan-Meier TCP from 46 selected studies were collected for SBRT of NSCLC in the literature. The TCP data were separated for Stage T1 and T2 tumors if possible, otherwise collected for combined stages. BED was calculated at isocenters using six radiobiological models. For each model, the independent model parameters were determined from a fit to the TCP data using the least chi-square (χ2) method with either one set of parameters regardless of tumor stages or two sets for T1 and T2 tumors separately. Results The fits to the clinic data yield consistent results of large α/β ratios of about 20 Gy for all models investigated. The regrowth model that accounts for the tumor repopulation and heterogeneity leads to a better fit to the data, compared to other 5 models where the fits were indistinguishable between the models. The models based on the fitting parameters predict that the T2 tumors require about additional 1 Gy physical dose at isocenters per fraction (≤5 fractions) to achieve the optimal TCP when compared to the T1 tumors. Conclusion This systematic analysis of a large set of published clinical data using different radiobiological models shows that local TCP for SBRT of early-stage NSCLC has strong dependence on BED with large α/β ratios of about 20 Gy. The six models predict that a BED (calculated with α/β of 20) of 90 Gy is sufficient to achieve TCP ≥ 95%. Among the models considered, the regrowth model leads to a better fit to the clinical data. PMID:27871671

  12. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  13. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  14. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  15. Dynamic beam filtering for miscentered patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Andrew; Shyr, William; Gang, Grace J; Stayman, J Webster

    2018-02-01

    Accurate centering of the patient within the bore of a CT scanner takes time and is often difficult to achieve precisely. Patient miscentering can result in significant dose and image noise penalties with the use of traditional bowtie filters. This work describes a system to dynamically position an x-ray beam filter during image acquisition to enable more consistent image performance and potentially lower dose needed for CT imaging. We propose a new approach in which two orthogonal low-dose scout images are used to estimate a parametric model of the object describing its shape, size, and location within the field of view (FOV). This model is then used to compute an optimal filter motion profile by minimizing the variance of the expected detector fluence for each projection. Dynamic filtration was implemented on a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test bench using two different physical filters: 1) an aluminum bowtie and 2) a structured binary filter called a multiple aperture device (MAD). Dynamic filtration performance was compared to a static filter in studies of dose and reconstruction noise as a function of the degree of miscentering of a homogeneous water phantom. Estimated filter trajectories were found to be largely sinusoidal with an amplitude proportional to the amount of miscentering. Dynamic filtration demonstrated an improved ability to keep the spatial distribution of dose and reconstruction noise at baseline levels across varying levels of miscentering, reducing the maximum noise and dose deviation from 53% to 15% and 42% to 14% respectively for the bowtie filter, and 25% to 8% and 24% to 15% respectively for the MAD filter. Dynamic positioning of beam filters during acquisition improves dose utilization and image quality over static filters for miscentered patients. Such dynamic filters relax positioning requirements and have the potential to reduce set-up time and lower dose requirements.

  16. Proteomics-based investigation of multiple stages of OSCC development indicates that the inhibition of Trx-1 delays oral malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xijuan; Hu, Qinchao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Chunyang; Xia, Juan; Yang, Linglan; Cheng, Bin; Chen, Xiaobing

    2018-03-01

    The majority of cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develop from oral potentially malignant disorders, which have been confirmed to be involved in chronic oxidative stimulation. However, no effective treatment approaches have been used to prevent the development of dysplasia into cancerous lesions thus far. In the present study, a well-established OSCC model was used to detect proteomics profiles at different stages during oral malignant transformation. Of the 15 proteins that were found to be upregulated in both the dysplasia and carcinoma stages, the oxidative stress-associated proteins, thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), glutaredoxin-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 were note as the proteins with significant changes in expression Trx-1 was identified to be the most significantly upregulated protein in the precancerous stage. Validation experiments confirmed that Trx-1 was overexpressed both in dysplasia and cancerous tissue samples, and the inhibition of Trx-1 was able to promote the apoptosis of OSCC cells under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the experimental application of a Trx-1-specific inhibitory agent in an animal model led to a lower cancerization rate and a delay in tumor formation. The possible mechanisms were associated with the increased apoptosis via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that Trx-1 may be an important target for delaying oral malignant transformation, which provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of OSCC.

  17. Performance Comparison of Various Filters Media in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilyan Yaqup Matti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   In this research, a bench-scale filter is designed and constructed in order to compare the performance of different media namely, sand, crushed marble stone and crushed red brick. The filters are operated under various operating conditions such as filter depth, raw water turbidity, pretreatment, effective size and uniformity coefficient.          These filters are operated under conventional and direct filtration modes with different doses of alum. Statistical methods had been used to determine the best media using  Duncan multiple range test.     The result showed the superiority of crushed red brick media in the  removal of turbidity and total bacteria. The results also indicated that filters operated under direct filtration mode show better performance than that operated under conventional filtration mode. The pH of treated water show slight increase for the two modes of filtration.

  18. Particle filters for random set models

    CERN Document Server

    Ristic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    “Particle Filters for Random Set Models” presents coverage of state estimation of stochastic dynamic systems from noisy measurements, specifically sequential Bayesian estimation and nonlinear or stochastic filtering. The class of solutions presented in this book is based  on the Monte Carlo statistical method. The resulting  algorithms, known as particle filters, in the last decade have become one of the essential tools for stochastic filtering, with applications ranging from  navigation and autonomous vehicles to bio-informatics and finance. While particle filters have been around for more than a decade, the recent theoretical developments of sequential Bayesian estimation in the framework of random set theory have provided new opportunities which are not widely known and are covered in this book. These recent developments have dramatically widened the scope of applications, from single to multiple appearing/disappearing objects, from precise to imprecise measurements and measurement models. This book...

  19. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Simon-nitinol filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed

  1. Effect of Osteonecrosis Intervention Rod Versus Core Decompression Using Multiple Small Drill Holes on Early Stages of Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Prospective Study on a Series of 60 Patients with a Minimum 1-Year-Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haixiong; Ye, Dongping; Liang, Weiguo; Yao, Yicun

    2015-01-01

    The conventional CD used 10 mm drill holes associated with a lack of structural support. Thus, alternative methods such as a tantalum implant, small drill holes, and biological treatment were developed to prevent deterioration of the joint. The treatment of CD by multiple 3.2 mm drill holes could reduce the femoral neck fracture and partial weight bearing was allowed. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of osteonecrosis intervention rod versus core decompression using multiple small drill holes on early stages of necrosis of the femoral head. From January 2011 to January 2012, 60 patients undergoing surgery for osteonecrosis with core decompression were randomly assigned into 2 groups based on the type of core decompression used: (1) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 16 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with a porous tantalum rod insertion. The diameter of the drill hole for the intervention rod was 10mm.(2) a total of 30 osteonecrosis patients (with 14 hips on Steinburg stageⅠ,20 hips on Steinburg stageⅡ) were treated with core decompression using five drill holes on the lateral femur, the diameter of the hole was 3.2 mm. The average age of the patient was 32.6 years (20-45 years) and the average time of follow-up was 25.6 months (12- 28 months) in the rod implanted group. The average age of the patient was 35.2 years (22- 43 years) and the average time of follow-up was 26.3 months (12-28 months) in the small drill holes group. The average of surgical time was 40 min, and the mean volume of blood loss was 30 ml in both surgical groups. The average of Harris score was improved from 56.2 ± 7.1 preoperative to 80.2 ± 11.4 at the last follow-up in the rod implanted group (p holes group (pholes group. No significant difference was observed in radiographic stage between the two groups. There was no favourable result on the outcome of a tantalum intervention implant compared to multiple small drill holes. CD via

  2. The discrete Kalman filtering approach for seismic signals deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic signals are a convolution of reflectivity and seismic wavelet. One of the most important stages in seismic data processing is deconvolution process; the process of deconvolution is inverse filters based on Wiener filter theory. This theory is limited by certain modelling assumptions, which may not always valid. The discrete form of the Kalman filter is then used to generate an estimate of the reflectivity function. The main advantage of Kalman filtering is capability of technique to handling continually time varying models and has high resolution capabilities. In this work, we use discrete Kalman filter that it was combined with primitive deconvolution. Filtering process works on reflectivity function, hence the work flow of filtering is started with primitive deconvolution using inverse of wavelet. The seismic signals then are obtained by convoluting of filtered reflectivity function with energy waveform which is referred to as the seismic wavelet. The higher frequency of wavelet gives smaller wave length, the graphs of these results are presented.

  3. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  4. Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song

    2010-01-01

    A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R 1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R 1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R 1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems

  5. Efficient Implementation of Complex Modulated Filter Banks Using Cosine and Sine Modulated Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viholainen Ari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB is a -channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR property if the prototype filter of an -channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.

  6. The Astro-E/XRS Blocking Filter Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Michael D.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Fleetwood, Charles M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Porter, F. Scott; Stahle, Caroline K.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the transmission calibration of the Astro-E XRS blocking filters. The XRS instrument has five aluminized polyimide blocking filters. These filters are located at thermal stages ranging from 200 K to 60 mK. They are each about 1000 A thick. XRS will have high energy resolution which will enable it to see some of the extended fine structure around the oxygen and aluminum K edges of these filters. Thus, we are conducting a high spectral resolution calibration of the filters near these energies to resolve out extended flue structure and absorption lines.

  7. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Beauchemin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ. Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS. Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO archive (GSE74243. Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org.

  8. Temporal dynamics of the developing lung transcriptome in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice reveals multiple stages of postnatal alveolar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, Kyle J; Wells, Julie M; Kho, Alvin T; Philip, Vivek M; Kamir, Daniela; Kohane, Isaac S; Graber, Joel H; Bult, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize temporal patterns of transcriptional activity during normal lung development, we generated genome wide gene expression data for 26 pre- and post-natal time points in three common inbred strains of laboratory mice (C57BL/6J, A/J, and C3H/HeJ). Using Principal Component Analysis and least squares regression modeling, we identified both strain-independent and strain-dependent patterns of gene expression. The 4,683 genes contributing to the strain-independent expression patterns were used to define a murine Developing Lung Characteristic Subtranscriptome (mDLCS). Regression modeling of the Principal Components supported the four canonical stages of mammalian embryonic lung development (embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular) defined previously by morphology and histology. For postnatal alveolar development, the regression model was consistent with four stages of alveolarization characterized by episodic transcriptional activity of genes related to pulmonary vascularization. Genes expressed in a strain-dependent manner were enriched for annotations related to neurogenesis, extracellular matrix organization, and Wnt signaling. Finally, a comparison of mouse and human transcriptomics from pre-natal stages of lung development revealed conservation of pathways associated with cell cycle, axon guidance, immune function, and metabolism as well as organism-specific expression of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and protein modification. The mouse lung development transcriptome data generated for this study serves as a unique reference set to identify genes and pathways essential for normal mammalian lung development and for investigations into the developmental origins of respiratory disease and cancer. The gene expression data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) archive (GSE74243). Temporal expression patterns of mouse genes can be investigated using a study specific web resource (http://lungdevelopment.jax.org).

  9. Attempt of multiple stage injection with EGR for high load operation of a premixed compression ignition engine; Tadan funsha ni yoru yokongo asshuku chakka kikan no unten ryoiki kakudai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan); Tsujimura, K. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-01-25

    By injecting fuel at the very early stage of compression stroke and thus creating homogeneous lean mixture before ignition, (PREDIC ; PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion), simultaneous reduction of NO{sub x} and smoke was obtained. However, since increasing the mixture equivalence ratio cause knocking, it was difficult to operate at higher load conditions. In this study, in order to reduce combustion rate at high load conditions in a premixed compression ignition engine, multiple stage injection method and EGR were combined, and heterogeneous mixture was made before ignition. The engine test results showed that NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced to less than 50 ppm, without knocking even at full load conditions. In addition, smoke emissions were also maintained below invisible level. It can be understood that the premixing of fuel was advanced, smoke was reduced, and EGR rate was increased, resulting lower heat release rate and NO{sub x} emissions. (author)

  10. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  11. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  12. Filtering Redundant Data from RFID Data Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazalila Kamaludin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID enabled systems are evolving in many applications that need to know the physical location of objects such as supply chain management. Naturally, RFID systems create large volumes of duplicate data. As the duplicate data wastes communication, processing, and storage resources as well as delaying decision-making, filtering duplicate data from RFID data stream is an important and challenging problem. Existing Bloom Filter-based approaches for filtering duplicate RFID data streams are complex and slow as they use multiple hash functions. In this paper, we propose an approach for filtering duplicate data from RFID data streams. The proposed approach is based on modified Bloom Filter and uses only a single hash function. We performed extensive empirical study of the proposed approach and compared it against the Bloom Filter, d-Left Time Bloom Filter, and the Count Bloom Filter approaches. The results show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in terms of false positive rate, execution time, and true positive rate.

  13. Miniaturized and Ferrite Based Tunable Bandpass Filters in LCP and LTCC Technologies for SoP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2015-04-01

    -thin structure, the LCP filter is ten times smaller size as compared to the filters reported in published work. The filter is exible and, therefore, suitable for conformal applications. In the second part of this work, relatively higher frequency (Ku band) distributed bandpass filter is presented which can be tuned through an applied magnetic field. This has been realized in a relatively new LTCC tape with magnetic properties, known as ferrite LTCC. Traditionally, magnetically tunable filters require large external electromagnets or coils, which are non-integrable to typical planar circuit boards and are also inefficient. To demonstrate high level of integration, completely embedded windings realized in multiple layers of LTCC have been used instead of the external coils. As a result, the presented bandpass filter is several orders of magnitude smaller that the reported ones. Aside from reducing the size, the embedded windings based design is more efficient than the external coils because it can avoid the demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-ferrite interface) and thus require much smaller bias fields for tunability. Though the embedded windings bring in a number of advantages as mentioned above, the currents passing through these windings generate considerable heat which can inuence the performance of the microwave structure (bandpass filters in our case). This has never been studied before fro Ferrite LTCC based designs with embedded windings. In this work, the effect of the heat generated by these windings has been investigated. It has been found that this self-heating effect inuences the tunability of the filters considerably so it must be estimated at the design stage. Therefore, a strategy to simulate this effect has been developed. The resultant simulations agree well with the measurements verifying the simulation strategy. The designs presented in this work demonstrate the feasibility of realizing highly integrated, miniaturized and tunable filters in SoP platform

  14. Incidence and outcome of patients starting renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease due to multiple myeloma or light-chain deposit disease: an ERA-EDTA Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakiris, D.J.; Stel, V.S.; Finne, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Information on demographics and survival of patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to multiple myeloma (MM) or light-chain deposit disease (LCDD) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics, causes...... causes (non-MM) was observed overtime. Patient survival on RRT was examined, unadjusted and adjusted for age and gender. Results. Of the 159 637 patients on RRT, 2453 (1.54%) had MM or LCDD. The incidence of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD, adjusted for age and gender, increased from 0.70 pmp in 1986...

  15. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  16. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  17. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  18. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  19. A petrologic and ion microprobe study of a Vigarano Type B refractory inclusion - Evolution by multiple stages of alteration and melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.

    1993-01-01

    A Type B Ca-, Al-rich 6-m-diam inclusion (CAI) found in the Vigarano C3V chondrite was inspected using optical and scanning electron microscopies and ion microprobe analyses. It was found that the primary constituents of the CAI inclusion are (in percent), melilite (52), fassaite, (20), anorthite (18), spinel (10), and trace Fe-Ni metal. It is noted that, while many of the properties of the inclusion indicate solidification from a melt droplet, the Al-26/Mg-26 isotopic systematics and some textural relationships are incompatible with single-stage closed system crystallization of a homogeneous molten droplet, indicating that the history of this inclusion must have been more complex than melt solidification alone. Moreover, there was unusually high content of Na in melilite, suggesting that the droplet did not form by melting of pristine high-temperature nebular condensates.

  20. Differential diagnosis and cancer staging of a unique case with multiple nodules in the lung - lung adenocarcinoma, metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Qiu, Jianxing; Shang, Xueqian; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Yan; Li, Ting

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Despite this, there have been few cases of simultaneous primary and metastatic cancers in the lung reported, let alone coexisting with tumor-to-tumor metastasis. Herein, we describe an extremely unusual case. A 61-year-old man with a history of colon adenocarcinoma was revealed as having three nodules in the lung 11 months after colectomy. The nodule in the left upper lobe was primary lung adenocarcinoma, the larger one in the right upper lobe was a metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma, and the smaller one in the right upper lobe was colon adenocarcinoma metastasizing to lung adenocarcinoma. Our paper focused on the differential diagnosis and cancer staging of this unique case, and discussed the uncommon phenomenon of the lung acting as a recipient in tumor-to-tumor metastasis.

  1. A comparative study between the use of artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression for caustic concentration prediction in a stage of alumina production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Leopoldo Rozza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With world becoming each day a global village, enterprises continuously seek to optimize their internal processes to hold or improve their competitiveness and make better use of natural resources. In this context, decision support tools are an underlying requirement. Such tools are helpful on predicting operational issues, avoiding cost risings, loss of productivity, work-related accident leaves or environmental disasters. This paper has its focus on the prediction of spent liquor caustic concentration of Bayer process for alumina production. Caustic concentration measuring is essential to keep it at expected levels, otherwise quality issues might arise. The organization requests caustic concentration by chemical analysis laboratory once a day, such information is not enough to issue preventive actions to handle process inefficiencies that will be known only after new measurement on the next day. Thereby, this paper proposes using Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Networks techniques a mathematical model to predict the spent liquor´s caustic concentration. Hence preventive actions will occur in real time. Such models were built using software tool for numerical computation (MATLAB and a statistical analysis software package (SPSS. The models output (predicted caustic concentration were compared with the real lab data. We found evidence suggesting superior results with use of Artificial Neural Networks over Multiple Linear Regression model. The results demonstrate that replacing laboratorial analysis by the forecasting model to support technical staff on decision making could be feasible.

  2. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  3. Anti-Aliasing filter for reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-01-01

    We develop an anti-aliasing filter for reverse-time migration (RTM). It is similar to the traditional anti-aliasing filter used for Kirchhoff migration in that it low-pass filters the migration operator so that the dominant wavelength in the operator is greater than two times the trace sampling interval, except it is applied to both primary and multiple reflection events. Instead of applying this filter to the data in the traditional RTM operation, we apply the anti-aliasing filter to the generalized diffraction-stack migration operator. This gives the same migration image as computed by anti-aliased RTM. Download

  4. Optimal filter bandwidth for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2012-10-01

    Pulse oximeters contain one or more signal filtering stages between the photodiode and microcontroller. These filters are responsible for removing the noise while retaining the useful frequency components of the signal, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The corner frequencies of these filters affect not only the noise level, but also the shape of the pulse signal. Narrow filter bandwidth effectively suppresses the noise; however, at the same time, it distorts the useful signal components by decreasing the harmonic content. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the filter bandwidth on the accuracy of pulse oximeters. We used a pulse oximeter tester device to produce stable, repetitive pulse waves with digitally adjustable R ratio and heart rate. We built a pulse oximeter and attached it to the tester device. The pulse oximeter digitized the current of its photodiode directly, without any analog signal conditioning. We varied the corner frequency of the low-pass filter in the pulse oximeter in the range of 0.66-15 Hz by software. For the tester device, the R ratio was set to R = 1.00, and the R ratio deviation measured by the pulse oximeter was monitored as a function of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter. The results revealed that lowering the corner frequency of the low-pass filter did not decrease the accuracy of the oxygen level measurements. The lowest possible value of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter is the fundamental frequency of the pulse signal. We concluded that the harmonics of the pulse signal do not contribute to the accuracy of pulse oximetry. The results achieved by the pulse oximeter tester were verified by human experiments, performed on five healthy subjects. The results of the human measurements confirmed that filtering out the harmonics of the pulse signal does not degrade the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

  5. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  6. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  7. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  8. Evaluation of the short term 12 hour toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of Venustaconcha ellipsiformis and Epioblasma triquetra and its host fish (Percina caprodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Michael A; Newton, Teresa J; Hubert, Terrance D; Kaye, Cheryl A; Barnhart, M Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated the risk of 12-h exposures of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of the federally endangered snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra) and its primary host fish the common logperch (Percina caprodes) as well as a surrogate to the snuffbox, the ellipse (Venustaconcha ellipsiformis). Life stages examined included free glochidia, 1-wk juveniles, and adults of the ellipse; free glochidia, glochidia on host fish, and 1-wk juveniles of the snuffbox; and adult logperch. Larval sea lampreys were also tested alongside adult ellipse and logperch for direct comparison. Survival exceeded 82% among all life stages in both mussel species at levels up to 1.8 times what would be applied during treatments, suggesting that routine sea lamprey control operations would not adversely affect mussels. However, substantial mortality of adult logperch was observed at TFM concentrations typically applied to streams, and loss of host fish could adversely affect snuffbox reproduction. In addition, TFM had no significant effect on the number of glochidia that metamorphosed on adult logperch. Although the snuffbox is not likely to be acutely affected from sea lamprey control operations, mitigation efforts to minimize impacts to the host fish should be considered. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Evaluation of multistage filtration to reduce sand filter exhaust activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zippler, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    Air from the Savannah River Plant Fuel Reprocessing facilities is filtered through deep bed sand filters consisting of 8 1 / 2 feet of gravel and sand. These filters have performed satisfactorily for the past 18 years in maintaining radioactive release levels to a minimum. The apparent filter efficiency has been determined for many years by measurements of the quantity of radioactivity in the air stream before and after the filter. Such tests have indicated efficiencies of 99.9 percent or better. Even with sand filter efficiency approaching a single stage HEPA filter, new emphasis on further reduction in release of plutonium activity to the environment prompted a study to determine what value backup HEPA filtration could provide. To evaluate the specific effect additional HEPA filtration would have on the removal of Pu from the existing sand filter exhaust stream, a test was conducted by passing a sidestream of sand-filtered air through a standard 24 x 24 x 11 1 / 2 in. HEPA filter. Isokinetic air samples were withdrawn upstream and downstream of the HEPA filter and counted for alpha activity. Efficiency calculations indicated that backup HEPA filtration could be expected to provide an additional 99 percent removal of the Pu activity from the present sand-filter exhaust. (U.S.)

  10. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  11. Study of hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural formation in cakes during baking in different ovens, using a validated multiple-stage extraction-based analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisca, Catarina; Henriques, Ana Rita; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for extraction of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural from cakes was validated. Higher yield was achieved by multiple step extraction with water/methanol (70/30) and clarification with Carrez I and II reagents. Oven type and baking time strongly influenced HMF, moisture and volatile profile of model cakes, whereas furfural content was not significantly affected. No correlation was found between these parameters. Baking time influenced moisture and HMF formation in cakes from traditional and microwave ovens but not in steam oven cakes. Significant moisture decrease and HMF increase (3.63, 9.32, and 41.9 mg kg(-1)dw at 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively) were observed during traditional baking. Cakes baked by microwave also presented a significant increase of HMF (up to 16.84 mg kg(-1)dw at 2.5 min). Steam oven cakes possessed the highest moisture content and no significant differences in HMF and furfural. This oven is likely to form low HMF and furfural, maintaining cake moisture and aroma compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface-micromachined Bragg Reflectors Based on Multiple Airgap/SiO2 Layers for CMOS-compatible Fabry-perot Filters in the UV-visible Spectral Range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaderi, M.; Ayerden, N.P.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In CMOS-compatible optical filter designs, SiO2 is often used as the low-index material, limiting the optical contrast (nHi/nLo) to about 2. Using the air as low-index material improves the optical contrast by about 50%, thus increasing the reflectivity and bandwidth at a given design complexity.

  13. Software for tomographic analysis: application in ceramic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figuerola, W.B.; Assis, J.T.; Oliveira, L.F.; Lopes, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    New methods for acquiring data have been developed with the technological advances. With this, it has been possible to obtain more precise data and, consequently produce results with greater reliability. Among the variety of acquisition methods available, those that have volume description, as CT (Computerized Tomography) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) stand out. The models of volumetric data (group of data that describe a solid object from a three dimensional space) are being greatly used in diversity of areas as a way of inspection, modeling and simulation of objects in a three - dimensional space. Applications of this model are already found in Mechanic Engineering, Geosciences, Medicine and other areas. In the area of engineering it is sometimes necessary to use industrial CT as the only non-invasive form of inspection the interior of pieces without destroying them. The 3D micro focus X-ray tomography is one technique of non destructive testing used in the most different areas of science and technology, given its capacity to generate clean images (practically free of the unhappiness effect) and high resolution reconstructions. The unsharpness effect minimization and space resolution improvement are consequences of the focal spot size reduction in the X-ray micro focus tube to dimensions smaller than 50 mm. The ceramic filters are used in a wide area in the metallurgic industry, particularly in the cast aluminum where they are used to clean the waste coming through the liquid aluminum. The ceramic filters used in this work are manufactured by FUSICO (German company) and they are constructed from foams. They are manufactured at three models: 10, 20 and 30 ppi (porous per inch). In this paper we present the development of software to analyze and characterize ceramic filters, which can be divided in four stages. This software was developed in C++ language, using objects oriented programming. It is also capable of being executed in multiple platforms (Windows

  14. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  15. Multi-Stage System for Automatic Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas T.; Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Johnson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feedforward back-propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and to remove false positives. The system parameter optimizations process has been developed to adapt to various targets and datasets. The objective was to design an efficient computer vision system that can learn to detect multiple targets in large images with unknown backgrounds. Because the target size is small relative to the image size in this problem, there are many regions of the image that could potentially contain the target. A cursory analysis of every region can be computationally efficient, but may yield too many false positives. On the other hand, a detailed analysis of every region can yield better results, but may be computationally inefficient. The multi-stage ATR system was designed to achieve an optimal balance between accuracy and computational efficiency by incorporating both models. The detection stage first identifies potential ROIs where the target may be present by performing a fast Fourier domain OT-MACH filter-based correlation. Because threshold for this stage is chosen with the goal of detecting all true positives, a number of false positives are also detected as ROIs. The verification stage then transforms the regions of interest into feature space, and eliminates false positives using an

  16. Backflushable filter insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)

  17. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  18. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  19. Filters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  1. Reconstruction of multiple P-T-t stages from retrogressed mafic rocks: Subduction versus collision in the Southern Brasília orogen (SE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Mahyra; Lanari, Pierre; Rubatto, Daniela; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio; Hermann, Jörg; Dussin, Ivo; Pinheiro, Marco Aurélio P.; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2017-12-01

    The identification of markers of subduction zones in orogenic belts requires the estimation of paleo-geothermal gradients through pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) estimates in mafic rocks that potentially derive from former oceanic units once. However, such markers are rare in supracrustal sequences specially in deeply eroded and weathered Precambrian orogens, and reconstructing their metamorphic history is challenging because they are commonly retrogressed and only preserve a few mineral relicts of high-pressure metamorphism. Metamorphosed mafic rocks from Pouso Alegre region of the Neoproterozoic Southern Brasília Orogen outcrop as rare lenses within continental gneisses. They have previously been classified as retrograde eclogites, based on the presence of garnet and the characteristic symplectitic texture replacing omphacite. These rocks were interpreted to mark the suture zone between the Paranapanema and São Francisco cratons. To test the possible record of eclogitic conditions in the Pouso Alegre mafic rocks, samples including the surrounding felsic rocks have been investigated using quantitative compositional mapping, forward thermodynamic modeling and in-situ dating of accessory minerals to refine their P-T-t history. In the metamorphosed mafic rocks, the peak pressure assemblage of garnet and omphacite (Jd20, reconstructed composition) formed at 690 ± 35 °C and 13.5 ± 3.0 kbar, whereas local retrogression into symplectite or corona occurred at 595 ± 25 °C and 4.8 ± 1.5 kbar. The two reactions were coupled and thus took place at the same time. A zircon U-Pb age of 603 ± 7 Ma was obtained for metamorphic rims and linked to the retrogression stage. Monazite and metamorphic zircon U-Th-Pb ages for the surrounding rocks are at ca. 630 Ma and linked to peak pressure conditions similar to the one recorded by the mafic rocks. The low maximal pressure of 14 kbar and the high geothermal gradient do not necessarily support subduction process

  2. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Silva, Geane O.; Naves, Thaís B.; Fernandes, Taiany N.; Araújo, Sanderson C.; Diniz, José A. P.; de Farias, Luis H. S.; Sosthenes, Marcia C. K.; Diniz, Cristovam G.; Anthony, Daniel C.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F.; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  3. Laboratory-scale integrated ARP filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. There is a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. This task attempted to simulate the entire ARP process, including multiple batches (5), washing, chemical cleaning, and blending the feed with heels and recycle streams. The objective of the tests was to determine whether one of these processes is causing excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter. The authors conducted the tests with feed solutions containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 simulant supernate with no MST.

  4. New prediction methods for collaborative filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan BULUT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies, in particular e-commerce companies, aims to increase customer satisfaction, hence in turn increase their profits, using recommender systems. Recommender Systems are widely used nowadays and they provide strategic advantages to the companies that use them. These systems consist of different stages. In the first stage, the similarities between the active user and other users are computed using the user-product ratings matrix. Then, the neighbors of the active user are found from these similarities. In prediction calculation stage, the similarities computed at the first stage are used to generate the weight vector of the closer neighbors. Neighbors affect the prediction value by the corresponding value of the weight vector. In this study, we developed two new methods for the prediction calculation stage which is the last stage of collaborative filtering. The performance of these methods are measured with evaluation metrics used in the literature and compared with other studies in this field.

  5. Preconditioning Filter Bank Decomposition Using Structured Normalized Tight Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We turn a given filter bank into a filtering scheme that provides perfect reconstruction, synthesis is the adjoint of the analysis part (so-called unitary filter banks, all filters have equal norm, and the essential features of the original filter bank are preserved. Unitary filter banks providing perfect reconstruction are induced by tight generalized frames, which enable signal decomposition using a set of linear operators. If, in addition, frame elements have equal norm, then the signal energy is spread through the various filter bank channels in some uniform fashion, which is often more suitable for further signal processing. We start with a given generalized frame whose elements allow for fast matrix vector multiplication, as, for instance, convolution operators, and compute a normalized tight frame, for which signal analysis and synthesis still preserve those fast algorithmic schemes.

  6. FIR Filter of DS-CDMA UWB Modem Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyu-Min; Cho, Sang-In; Won, Hui-Chul; Choi, Sang-Sung

    This letter presents low-complexity digital pulse shaping filter structures of a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) ultra wide-band (UWB) modem transmitter with a ternary spreading code. The proposed finite impulse response (FIR) filter structures using a look-up table (LUT) have the effect of saving the amount of memory by about 50% to 80% in comparison to the conventional FIR filter structures, and consequently are suitable for a high-speed parallel data process.

  7. Particle filtering for passive fathometer tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Seabed interface depths and fathometer amplitudes are tracked for an unknown and changing number of sub-bottom reflectors. This is achieved by incorporating conventional and adaptive fathometer processors into sequential Monte Carlo methods for a moving vertical line array. Sediment layering information and time-varying fathometer response amplitudes are tracked by using a multiple model particle filter with an uncertain number of reflectors. Results are compared to a classical particle filter where the number of reflectors is considered to be known. Reflector tracking is demonstrated for both conventional and adaptive processing applied to the drifting array data from the Boundary 2003 experiment. The layering information is successfully tracked by the multiple model particle filter even for noisy fathometer outputs. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  8. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  9. Neutron Beam Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.

  10. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  11. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  12. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  13. Filtering and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Fristedt, B; Krylov, N

    2007-01-01

    Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...

  14. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  15. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  16. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  17. Pedestrian Path Prediction with Recursive Bayesian Filters: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, N.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of intelligent vehicles, we perform a comparative study on recursive Bayesian filters for pedestrian path prediction at short time horizons (< 2s). We consider Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) based on single dynamical models and Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) combining several such

  18. Wiener discrete cosine transform-based image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnyak, Oleksiy; Lukin, Vladimir V.

    2012-10-01

    A classical problem of additive white (spatially uncorrelated) Gaussian noise suppression in grayscale images is considered. The main attention is paid to discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based denoising, in particular, to image processing in blocks of a limited size. The efficiency of DCT-based image filtering with hard thresholding is studied for different sizes of overlapped blocks. A multiscale approach that aggregates the outputs of DCT filters having different overlapped block sizes is proposed. Later, a two-stage denoising procedure that presumes the use of the multiscale DCT-based filtering with hard thresholding at the first stage and a multiscale Wiener DCT-based filtering at the second stage is proposed and tested. The efficiency of the proposed multiscale DCT-based filtering is compared to the state-of-the-art block-matching and three-dimensional filter. Next, the potentially reachable multiscale filtering efficiency in terms of output mean square error (MSE) is studied. The obtained results are of the same order as those obtained by Chatterjee's approach based on nonlocal patch processing. It is shown that the ideal Wiener DCT-based filter potential is usually higher when noise variance is high.

  19. Robust multiple frequency multiple power localization schemes in the presence of multiple jamming attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulqader Hussein

    Full Text Available Localization of the wireless sensor network is a vital area acquiring an impressive research concern and called upon to expand more with the rising of its applications. As localization is gaining prominence in wireless sensor network, it is vulnerable to jamming attacks. Jamming attacks disrupt communication opportunity among the sender and receiver and deeply impact the localization process, leading to a huge error of the estimated sensor node position. Therefore, detection and elimination of jamming influence are absolutely indispensable. Range-based techniques especially Received Signal Strength (RSS is facing severe impact of these attacks. This paper proposes algorithms based on Combination Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (C-MFMPL and Step Function Multiple Frequency Multiple Power Localization (SF-MFMPL. The algorithms have been tested in the presence of multiple types of jamming attacks including capture and replay, random and constant jammers over a log normal shadow fading propagation model. In order to overcome the impact of random and constant jammers, the proposed method uses two sets of frequencies shared by the implemented anchor nodes to obtain the averaged RSS readings all over the transmitted frequencies successfully. In addition, three stages of filters have been used to cope with the replayed beacons caused by the capture and replay jammers. In this paper the localization performance of the proposed algorithms for the ideal case which is defined by without the existence of the jamming attack are compared with the case of jamming attacks. The main contribution of this paper is to achieve robust localization performance in the presence of multiple jamming attacks under log normal shadow fading environment with a different simulation conditions and scenarios.

  20. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  1. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  2. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  3. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  4. Feature-Based Nonlocal Polarimetric SAR Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images are inherently contaminated by multiplicative speckle noise, which complicates the image interpretation and image analyses. To reduce the speckle effect, several adaptive speckle filters have been developed based on the weighted average of the similarity measures commonly depending on the model or probability distribution, which are often affected by the distribution parameters and modeling texture components. In this paper, a novel filtering method introduces the coefficient of variance ( CV and Pauli basis (PB to measure the similarity, and the two features are combined with the framework of the nonlocal mean filtering. The CV is used to describe the complexity of various scenes and distinguish the scene heterogeneity; moreover, the Pauli basis is able to express the polarimetric information in PolSAR image processing. This proposed filtering combines the CV and Pauli basis to improve the estimation accuracy of the similarity weights. Then, the similarity of the features is deduced according to the test statistic. Subsequently, the filtering is proceeded by using the nonlocal weighted estimation. The performance of the proposed filter is tested with the simulated images and real PolSAR images, which are acquired by AIRSAR system and ESAR system. The qualitative and quantitative experiments indicate the validity of the proposed method by comparing with the widely-used despeckling methods.

  5. Process and device for regulating an electromagnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, Lucien.

    1980-01-01

    Process for regulating the operation of an electromagnetic filter and, in particular, for keeping the efficiency of the filter at a sufficiently high level irrespective of the degree of filter clogging, fluid flow rate and temperature of the fluid. The filter includes an envelope containing a filling that can be magnetized by a coil activated by a d.c. supply arranged around the envelope. The regulating process includes the following stages: - activating the coil by a current of lower intensity than that of the saturation current of the filling, - determining the pressure drop of the filter, fluid flow rate and fluid temperature, - increasing the intensity of the current activating the coil when the efficiency of the filter corresponding to the measured values drops below a given level [fr

  6. Testing Of The Dual Rotary Filter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  7. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  8. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  9. Economical Implementation of a Filter Engine in an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, James E.

    2009-01-01

    A logic design has been conceived for a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that would implement a complex system of multiple digital state-space filters. The main innovative aspect of this design lies in providing for reuse of parts of the FPGA hardware to perform different parts of the filter computations at different times, in such a manner as to enable the timely performance of all required computations in the face of limitations on available FPGA hardware resources. The implementation of the digital state-space filter involves matrix vector multiplications, which, in the absence of the present innovation, would ordinarily necessitate some multiplexing of vector elements and/or routing of data flows along multiple paths. The design concept calls for implementing vector registers as shift registers to simplify operand access to multipliers and accumulators, obviating both multiplexing and routing of data along multiple paths. Each vector register would be reused for different parts of a calculation. Outputs would always be drawn from the same register, and inputs would always be loaded into the same register. A simple state machine would control each filter. The output of a given filter would be passed to the next filter, accompanied by a "valid" signal, which would start the state machine of the next filter. Multiple filter modules would share a multiplication/accumulation arithmetic unit. The filter computations would be timed by use of a clock having a frequency high enough, relative to the input and output data rate, to provide enough cycles for matrix and vector arithmetic operations. This design concept could prove beneficial in numerous applications in which digital filters are used and/or vectors are multiplied by coefficient matrices. Examples of such applications include general signal processing, filtering of signals in control systems, processing of geophysical measurements, and medical imaging. For these and other applications, it could be

  10. Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauren Poole; Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology

  11. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  12. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  13. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  14. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...

  15. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  16. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  17. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  18. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  19. A momentum filter for atomic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoji; Yue, Xuguang; Zhai, Yueyang; Chen, Xuzong

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a momentum filter for atomic gas-based on a designed Talbot–Lau interferometer. It consists of two identical optical standing-wave pulses separated by a delay equal to odd multiples of the half Talbot time. The one-dimensional momentum width along the long direction of a cigar-shaped condensate is rapidly and greatly purified to a minimum, which corresponds to the ground state energy of the confining trap in our experiment. We find good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results. The filter is also effective for non-condensed cold atoms and could be applied widely. (paper)

  20. Complex noise suppression using a sparse representation and 3D filtering of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, V. F.; Ponomaryov, V. I.; Pustovoit, V. I.; Palacios-Enriquez, A.

    2017-08-01

    A novel method for the filtering of images corrupted by complex noise composed of randomly distributed impulses and additive Gaussian noise has been substantiated for the first time. The method consists of three main stages: the detection and filtering of pixels corrupted by impulsive noise, the subsequent image processing to suppress the additive noise based on 3D filtering and a sparse representation of signals in a basis of wavelets, and the concluding image processing procedure to clean the final image of the errors emerged at the previous stages. A physical interpretation of the filtering method under complex noise conditions is given. A filtering block diagram has been developed in accordance with the novel approach. Simulations of the novel image filtering method have shown an advantage of the proposed filtering scheme in terms of generally recognized criteria, such as the structural similarity index measure and the peak signal-to-noise ratio, and when visually comparing the filtered images.

  1. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  2. A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y B; Piao, W Y; Xu, J B

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements

  3. A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y. B.; Piao, W. Y.; Xu, J. B.

    2007-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements.

  4. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  5. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  6. Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Penney, B.C.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Presently, single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images are usually reconstructed by arbitrarily selecting a one-dimensional ''window'' function for use in reconstruction. A better method would be to automatically choose among a family of two-dimensional image restoration filters in such a way as to produce ''optimum'' image quality. Two-dimensional image processing techniques offer the advantages of a larger statistical sampling of the data for better noise reduction, and two-dimensional image deconvolution to correct for blurring during acquisition. An investigation of two such ''optimal'' digital image restoration techniques (the count-dependent Metz filter and the Wiener filter) was made. They were applied both as two-dimensional ''window'' functions for preprocessing SPECT images, and for filtering reconstructed images. Their performance was compared by measuring image contrast and per cent fractional standard deviation (% FSD) in multiple-acquisitions of the Jaszczak SPECT phantom at two different count levels. A statistically significant increase in image contrast and decrease in % FSD was observed with these techniques when compared to the results of reconstruction with a ramp filter. The adaptability of the techniques was manifested in a lesser % reduction in % FSD at the high count level coupled with a greater enhancement in image contrast. Using an array processor, processing time was 0.2 sec per image for the Metz filter and 3 sec for the Wiener filter. It is concluded that two-dimensional digital image restoration with these techniques can produce a significant increase in SPECT image quality

  7. A Low Cost Structurally Optimized Design for Diverse Filter Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Majida; Aziz, Arshad; Akhtar, Pervez; Ikram, Nassar

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of image processing applications deploys two dimensional (2D)-filters for performing diversified tasks such as image enhancement, edge detection, noise suppression, multi scale decomposition and compression etc. All of these tasks require multiple type of 2D-filters simultaneously to acquire the desired results. The resource hungry conventional approach is not a viable option for implementing these computationally intensive 2D-filters especially in a resource constraint environment. Thus it calls for optimized solutions. Mostly the optimization of these filters are based on exploiting structural properties. A common shortcoming of all previously reported optimized approaches is their restricted applicability only for a specific filter type. These narrow scoped solutions completely disregard the versatility attribute of advanced image processing applications and in turn offset their effectiveness while implementing a complete application. This paper presents an efficient framework which exploits the structural properties of 2D-filters for effectually reducing its computational cost along with an added advantage of versatility for supporting diverse filter types. A composite symmetric filter structure is introduced which exploits the identities of quadrant and circular T-symmetries in two distinct filter regions simultaneously. These T-symmetries effectually reduce the number of filter coefficients and consequently its multipliers count. The proposed framework at the same time empowers this composite filter structure with additional capabilities of realizing all of its Ψ-symmetry based subtypes and also its special asymmetric filters case. The two-fold optimized framework thus reduces filter computational cost up to 75% as compared to the conventional approach as well as its versatility attribute not only supports diverse filter types but also offers further cost reduction via resource sharing for sequential implementation of diversified image

  8. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.

  9. An active damping method based on biquad digital filter for parallel grid-interfacing inverters with LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Huang, Lipei

    2014-01-01

    around the switching frequency and its multiples. Although the LCL-filters have several advantages compared to single inductance filter, its resonance problem should be noticed. Conventionally, the resonance analysis is mainly focused on the single inverter system, whereas in a renewable energy system...... to the conventional active damping approaches, the biquad filter based active damping method does not require additional sensors and control loops. Meanwhile, the multiple instable closed-loop poles of the parallel inverter system can be moved to the stable region simultaneously. Real-time simulations based on d...

  10. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  11. Bearings-Only Tracking of Manoeuvring Targets Using Particle Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanjeev Arulampalam

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the problem of bearings-only tracking of manoeuvring targets using particle filters (PFs. Three different (PFs are proposed for this problem which is formulated as a multiple model tracking problem in a jump Markov system (JMS framework. The proposed filters are (i multiple model PF (MMPF, (ii auxiliary MMPF (AUX-MMPF, and (iii jump Markov system PF (JMS-PF. The performance of these filters is compared with that of standard interacting multiple model (IMM-based trackers such as IMM-EKF and IMM-UKF for three separate cases: (i single-sensor case, (ii multisensor case, and (iii tracking with hard constraints. A conservative CRLB applicable for this problem is also derived and compared with the RMS error performance of the filters. The results confirm the superiority of the PFs for this difficult nonlinear tracking problem.

  12. Anti-clogging filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  13. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  14. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  15. An approach for fixed coefficient RNS-based FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Reddy, Kotha; Sahoo, Subhendu Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In this work, an efficient new modular multiplication method for {2k-1, 2k, 2k+1-1} moduli set is proposed to implement a residue number system (RNS)-based fixed coefficient finite impulse response filter. The new multiplication approach reduces the number of partial products by using pre-loaded product block. The reduction in partial products with the proposed modular multiplication improves the clock frequency and reduces the area and power as compared with the conventional modular multiplication. Further, the present approach eliminates a binary number to residue number converter circuit, which is usually needed at the front end of RNS-based system. In this work, two fixed coefficient filter architectures with the new modular multiplication approach are proposed. The filters are implemented using Verilog hardware description language. The United Microelectronics Corporation 90 nm technology library has been used for synthesis and the results area, power and delay are obtained with the help of Cadence register transfer level compiler. The power delay product (PDP) is also considered for performance comparison among the proposed filters. One of the proposed architecture is found to improve PDP gain by 60.83% as compared with the filter implemented with conventional modular multiplier. The filters functionality is validated with the help of Altera DSP Builder.

  16. Caval penetration by retrievable inferior vena cava filters: a retrospective comparison of Option and Günther Tulip filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, Olufoladare G; Kohi, Maureen P; Fidelman, Nicholas; Westphalen, Antonio C; Kolli, Pallav K; Taylor, Andrew G; Gordon, Roy L; LaBerge, Jeanne M; Kerlan, Robert K

    2013-04-01

    To compare the frequency of vena caval penetration by the struts of the Option and Günther Tulip cone filters on postplacement computed tomography (CT) imaging. All patients who had an Option or Günther Tulip inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placed between January 2010 and May 2012 were identified retrospectively from medical records. Of the 208 IVC filters placed, the positions of 58 devices (21 Option filters, 37 Günther Tulip filters [GTFs]) were documented on follow-up CT examinations obtained for reasons unrelated to filter placement. In cases when multiple CT studies were obtained after placement, each study was reviewed, for a total of 80 examinations. Images were assessed for evidence of caval wall penetration by filter components, noting the number of penetrating struts and any effect on pericaval tissues. Penetration of at least one strut was observed in 17% of all filters imaged by CT between 1 and 447 days following placement. Although there was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of penetration when comparing the Option filter and GTF (Option, 10%; GTF, 22%), only GTFs showed time-dependent penetration, with penetration becoming more likely after prolonged indwelling times. No patient had damage to pericaval tissues or documented symptoms attributed to penetration. Although the Günther Tulip and Option filters exhibit caval penetration at CT imaging, only the GTF exhibits progressive penetration over time. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  18. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....

  19. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  20. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  1. Quantum reality filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.

  2. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  3. Computer-Based Study of MCP-Coupled Active Filters for Structures Like FLF, SCF, CBQ, and LF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Bhushan Mital

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of the realization of low sensitivity narrow BP active filter implementing multiple critical pole approximation methods. Coupled active filter structures are also studied.

  4. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  5. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  6. Face identification with frequency domain matched filtering in mobile environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Woo, Yong-Hyun; Yeom, Seokwon; Kim, Shin-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Face identification at a distance is very challenging since captured images are often degraded by blur and noise. Furthermore, the computational resources and memory are often limited in the mobile environments. Thus, it is very challenging to develop a real-time face identification system on the mobile device. This paper discusses face identification based on frequency domain matched filtering in the mobile environments. Face identification is performed by the linear or phase-only matched filter and sequential verification stages. The candidate window regions are decided by the major peaks of the linear or phase-only matched filtering outputs. The sequential stages comprise a skin-color test and an edge mask filtering test, which verify color and shape information of the candidate regions in order to remove false alarms. All algorithms are built on the mobile device using Android platform. The preliminary results show that face identification of East Asian people can be performed successfully in the mobile environments.

  7. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the α-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the “normal” equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  8. Progress on the development of NbZr Radio frequency band reject filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, J.J.; Alper, M.; Cotte, D.; Gardner, C.G.; Harvey, A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on the design and testing of a tunable superconducting filter element fabricated from Nb25%Zr having a transition temperature of 11 K. The filter element will serve as a component in a multielement filter bank to be cooled to less than 10 K by a two stage Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. A radio frequency (RF) interference rejection system composed of a set of tunable superconducting filter elements is being developed to supplement conventional interference rejection tehcniques. The thermal loading performance of the 8.5 K Gifford-McMahon refrigerator is found to exceed 2 watts at 10 K on the second stage with a 10 watt loading on the first stage. A superconducting filter bank consisting of tunable narrow band RF filters applied to strong interfering signals can be used to match the dynamic range of the RF signal environment to that of the receiving system

  9. High Pass Filtering of Satellite Altimeter Data,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    bathymetry [7] and filtered data tracks (N = 3, X = 200 km) near the Clipperton Fracture Zone just East of the Christmas Island Ridge. Along the multiple...We also notice a negative signature associated with the Clipperton Fracture Zone and extending over all the tracks. It may indicate a trough covered...in Mid-Pacific Seamount Province..Mid-Iat tic and near the Western Clipperton Fracture Zone respectively. These charts arc to he overlaid by Figures

  10. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  11. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  12. Filtered atmospheric venting of LWR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.; Ahlstroem, P.E.; Bachofner, E.; Graeslund, C.; Johansson, K.; Nilsson, L.; Persson, Aa.; Eriksson, B.

    1981-03-01

    The FILTRA project is a cooperative Swedish programme which started in February 1980. It is aimed at investigating the possibility of reducing the risk for a large release of radioactivity, assuming a severe reactor accident. The project has been focused on filtered venting of the reactor containment. The first stage of the project has dealt with two types of severe accident sequences, namely core meltdown as a result of the complete loss of water supplies to the reactor pressure vessel and insufficient cooling of the reactor containment. Some important conclusion are the following. The applicability of computer models used to describe various phenomena in the accident sequence must be scrutinized. The details of the design of the containment are important and must be taken into consideration in a more accurate manner than in previous analyses. A pressure relief area of less than 1 m 2 appears to be adequate. The following principles should guide the technical design of filtered venting systems, namely reduction of the risk for the release of those radioactive substances which could cause long term land contamination, provision for a passive function of the vent filter system during the first 24 hours and achievement of filtering capabilities which make leakages in severe accidents comparable to the leakages of radioactive substances in less severe accidents, which do not necessarily actuate the pressure relief system. Nothing indicates that a system for filtered venting of a BWR containment would have a significant negative effect on the safety within the framework of the design basis. Efforts should be directed towards designing a filtered venting system for a BWR such as Barsebaeck. (authors)

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  14. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  15. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  16. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  17. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  18. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  19. PASA - A Program for Automated Protein NMR Backbone Signal Assignment by Pattern-Filtering Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yizhuang; Wang Xiaoxia; Yang Jun; Vaynberg, Julia; Qin Jun

    2006-01-01

    We present a new program, PASA (Program for Automated Sequential Assignment), for assigning protein backbone resonances based on multidimensional heteronuclear NMR data. Distinct from existing programs, PASA emphasizes a per-residue-based pattern-filtering approach during the initial stage of the automated 13 C α and/or 13 C β chemical shift matching. The pattern filter employs one or multiple constraints such as 13 C α /C β chemical shift ranges for different amino acid types and side-chain spin systems, which helps to rule out, in a stepwise fashion, improbable assignments as resulted from resonance degeneracy or missing signals. Such stepwise filtering approach substantially minimizes early false linkage problems that often propagate, amplify, and ultimately cause complication or combinatorial explosion of the automation process. Our program (http://www.lerner.ccf.org/moleccard/qin/) was tested on four representative small-large sized proteins with various degrees of resonance degeneracy and missing signals, and we show that PASA achieved the assignments efficiently and rapidly that are fully consistent with those obtained by laborious manual protocols. The results demonstrate that PASA may be a valuable tool for NMR-based structural analyses, genomics, and proteomics

  20. Review of in-place HEPA filter testing at several DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokler, B.V.; Scripsick, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy Self-Assessment recently sponsored reviews of HEPA filter systems at several DOE facilities. One aspect emphasized in these reviews was in-place filter testing practices. Although in-place testing was generally performed as required in facility specifications, we noted several areas in which improvements were possible. Examples of some common problems and approaches to their solution will be presented. Areas of suggested improvement include: (1) ensuring the validity of test results; (2) recognizing and quantifying the uncertainty in penetration measurements; (3) expanding the analysis and reporting of test results to provide more than pass/fail information; (4) addressing the special problems of multiple stage systems; and (5) increasing the technical support and training provided in-place testing personnel. Ensuring the validity of test results, for example, requires more careful attention to the operation of test equipment, checking test measurements and system operating parameters for internal consistency, and more attention to documentation of system geometry and operation. Some issues will require additional study before the results can be incorporated into decision making on filter bank testing requirements and performance specifications.

  1. Review of in-place HEPA filter testing at several DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, B.V.; Scripsick, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy Self-Assessment recently sponsored reviews of HEPA filter systems at several DOE facilities. One aspect emphasized in these reviews was in-place filter testing practices. Although in-place testing was generally performed as required in facility specifications, we noted several areas in which improvements were possible. Examples of some common problems and approaches to their solution will be presented. Areas of suggested improvement include: (1) ensuring the validity of test results; (2) recognizing and quantifying the uncertainty in penetration measurements; (3) expanding the analysis and reporting of test results to provide more than pass/fail information; (4) addressing the special problems of multiple stage systems; and (5) increasing the technical support and training provided in-place testing personnel. Ensuring the validity of test results, for example, requires more careful attention to the operation of test equipment, checking test measurements and system operating parameters for internal consistency, and more attention to documentation of system geometry and operation. Some issues will require additional study before the results can be incorporated into decision making on filter bank testing requirements and performance specifications

  2. A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is

  3. Optimal Design of Passive Power Filters Based on Pseudo-parallel Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Li, Hongbo; Gao, Nannan; Niu, Lin; Guo, Liangfeng; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanyan; Xu, Minmin; Chen, Kerui

    2017-05-01

    The economic costs together with filter efficiency are taken as targets to optimize the parameter of passive filter. Furthermore, the method of combining pseudo-parallel genetic algorithm with adaptive genetic algorithm is adopted in this paper. In the early stages pseudo-parallel genetic algorithm is introduced to increase the population diversity, and adaptive genetic algorithm is used in the late stages to reduce the workload. At the same time, the migration rate of pseudo-parallel genetic algorithm is improved to change with population diversity adaptively. Simulation results show that the filter designed by the proposed method has better filtering effect with lower economic cost, and can be used in engineering.

  4. Preconditioner-free Wiener filtering with a dense noise matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffenberger, Kevin M.

    2018-05-01

    This work extends the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) iterative method for efficient, preconditioner-free Wiener filtering to cases in which the noise covariance matrix is dense, but can be decomposed into a sum whose parts are sparse in convenient bases. The new method, which uses multiple messenger fields, reproduces Wiener-filter solutions for test problems, and we apply it to a case beyond the reach of the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) method. We compute the Wiener-filter solution for a simulated Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) map that contains spatially varying, uncorrelated noise, isotropic 1/f noise, and large-scale horizontal stripes (like those caused by atmospheric noise). We discuss simple extensions that can filter contaminated modes or inverse-noise-filter the data. These techniques help to address complications in the noise properties of maps from current and future generations of ground-based Microwave Background experiments, like Advanced ACTPol, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4.

  5. Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Pei Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.

  6. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  7. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Environmental stresses are one of the main causes of severe yield reductions. Drought is still a serious agronomic problem and also one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss in arid and semi-arid areas in the world. Filter Cake is a byproduct of sugarcane industry and experiments on corn showed that the use of 20 tons per hectare Filter Cake increases crop productivity, total amount of dry matter, protein and forage yield compared with the control. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the Ramin Agricultural University of Khuzestan in 2012. The experiment was done as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought stress at the end of the growth period in three levels, non-stress, mild and severe drought stress, respectively irrigated after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water, and was considered as the main factor. Drought stress was applied in early stage of the male inflorescence of plants to maturity for 35 days, due to the critical stage of the plant in late spring. Soil moisture was determined by gravimetric method. Different doses of Filter Cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 tons per hectare were considered as subplot factor and was added to the soil two days before the seeding. The final harvest as green corn was performed in the first phase of dough by hand in three times and two midfields of each subplot was considered as the margin of half a meter for each side. Finally, the data were analyzed using SAS 9.1 and means were compared by Duncan’s multiple range test at probability level of 5%. Results and discussion In non-stress conditions, Filter Cake is significantly increased plant height, So the amounts of 20 and 30 tons per hectare increased by 11.7% and 10.1% of the plant’s height, respectively, but the use of 10 tons of Filter Cake did not have a significant effect on it. In severe stress conditions, the use of

  8. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  9. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  10. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  11. Two-layer type filter for removal of radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taoki, M

    1976-04-16

    The object is to provide a filter for removing radioactive iodine, which is used for disposal of gaseous waste in an atomic power plant, to particularly hold a pressure loss lower. The filter according to the present invention comprises two layers, which are filled at a front stage with active carbon, which is small in pressure loss and has a good collective efficiency relative to iodine, and at a rear stage with silver zeolite, which has a good collective efficiency relative to both iodine and methyl iodine, whereby respective adsorbent are effectively utilized to minimize pressure loss even if a large quantity of air.

  12. Two-layer type filter for removal of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoki, Masafumi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a filter for removing radioactive iodine, which is used for disposal of gaseous waste in an atomic power plant, to particularly hold a pressure loss lower. Structure: The filter according to the present invention comprises two layers, which are filled at a front stage with active carbon, which is small in pressure loss and has a good collective efficiency relative to iodine, and at a rear stage with silver zeolite, which has a good collective efficiency relative to both iodine and methyl iodine, whereby respective adsorbent are effectively utilized to minimize pressure loss even if a large quantity of air. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer: Usefulness of multiple b value SE-EPI diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3.0 T MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallini, Valentina; Ortori, Simona; Boraschi, Piero; Manassero, Francesca; Gabelloni, Michela; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Selli, Cesare; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a multiple b value SE-EPI sequence on a 3.0 T MR scanner for staging of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer candidate to radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Institutional review board approval was obtained and written informed consent was taken from all enrolled subjects. A series of 26 patients with pathologically proven prostate cancer (high or intermediate risk according to D'Amico risk groups) scheduled for radical prostatectomy and PLND underwent 3 T MRI before surgery. DWI was performed using an axial respiratory-triggered spin-echo echo-planar sequence with multiple b values (500, 800, 1000, 1500 s/mm(2)) in all diffusion directions. ADC values were calculated by means of dedicated software fitting the curve obtained from the corresponding ADC for each b value. Fitted ADC measurements were performed at the level of proximal and distal external iliac, internal iliac, and obturator nodal stations bilaterally. Lymph node appearance was also assessed in terms of short axis, long-to-short axis ratio, node contour and intranodal heterogeneity of signal intensity. A total of 173 lymph nodes and 104 nodal stations were evaluated on DWI and pathologically analysed. Mean fitted ADC values were 0.79 ± 0.14 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for metastatic lymph nodes and 1.13 ± 0.29 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s in non-metastatic ones (P < 0.0001). The cut-off for fitted ADC obtained by ROC curve analysis was 0.91 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. A two-point-level score was assigned for each qualitative parameter, and the mean grading score was 6.09 ± 0.61 for metastastic lymph nodes and 5.42 ± 0.79 for non-metastatic ones, respectively (P = 0.001). Using a score threshold of 4 for morphological, structural, and dimensional MRI analysis and a cut--off value of 0.91 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s for fitted ADC measurements of pelvic lymph nodes, per--station sensitivity

  14. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  15. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  16. Filtered cathodic arc source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures

  17. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  18. Analysis and Design of a High-Order Discrete-Time Passive IIR Low-Pass Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tohidian, M.; Madadi, I.; Staszewski, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a discrete-time IIR low-pass filter that achieves a high-order of filtering through a charge-sharing rotation. Its sampling rate is then multiplied through pipelining. The first stage of the filter can operate in either a voltage-sampling or charge-sampling mode. It uses

  19. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  20. Quick-change filter cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  1. Filter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...fuel. Sufficient analysis and qualification of filter products is becoming increasingly crucial in ground transportation vehicles to promote the...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation

  2. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  3. An Efficient State–Parameter Filtering Scheme Combining Ensemble Kalman and Particle Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa

    2017-12-11

    This work addresses the state-parameter filtering problem for dynamical systems with relatively large-dimensional state and low-dimensional parameters\\' vector. A Bayesian filtering algorithm combining the strengths of the particle filter (PF) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed. At each assimilation cycle of the proposed EnKF-PF, the PF is first used to sample the parameters\\' ensemble followed by the EnKF to compute the state ensemble conditional on the resulting parameters\\' ensemble. The proposed scheme is expected to be more efficient than the traditional state augmentation techniques, which suffer from the curse of dimensionality and inconsistency that is particularly pronounced when the state is a strongly nonlinear function of the parameters. In the new scheme, the EnKF and PF interact via their ensembles\\' members, in contrast with the recently introduced two-stage EnKF-PF (TS-EnKF-PF), which exchanges point estimates between EnKF and PF while requiring almost double the computational load. Numerical experiments are conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to assess the behavior of the proposed filter and to evaluate its performances against the joint PF, joint EnKF, and TS-EnKF-PF. Numerical results suggest that the EnKF-PF performs best in all tested scenarios. It was further found to be more robust, successfully estimating both state and parameters in different sensitivity experiments.

  4. An Efficient State–Parameter Filtering Scheme Combining Ensemble Kalman and Particle Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the state-parameter filtering problem for dynamical systems with relatively large-dimensional state and low-dimensional parameters' vector. A Bayesian filtering algorithm combining the strengths of the particle filter (PF) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed. At each assimilation cycle of the proposed EnKF-PF, the PF is first used to sample the parameters' ensemble followed by the EnKF to compute the state ensemble conditional on the resulting parameters' ensemble. The proposed scheme is expected to be more efficient than the traditional state augmentation techniques, which suffer from the curse of dimensionality and inconsistency that is particularly pronounced when the state is a strongly nonlinear function of the parameters. In the new scheme, the EnKF and PF interact via their ensembles' members, in contrast with the recently introduced two-stage EnKF-PF (TS-EnKF-PF), which exchanges point estimates between EnKF and PF while requiring almost double the computational load. Numerical experiments are conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to assess the behavior of the proposed filter and to evaluate its performances against the joint PF, joint EnKF, and TS-EnKF-PF. Numerical results suggest that the EnKF-PF performs best in all tested scenarios. It was further found to be more robust, successfully estimating both state and parameters in different sensitivity experiments.

  5. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  6. Manufacturing and testing of wavefront filters for DARWIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher, R.; Artjushenko, V.; Sakharova, T.; Pereira do Carmo, Joao

    2017-11-01

    Wavefront filtering is mandatory in the realisation of nulling interferometers with high star light suppression capability required to detect extrasolar planets, such as the one foreseen for the ESA Darwin mission. This paper presents the design, manufacturing, and test results of single mode fibres to be used as wavefront filters in mid-infrared range. Fibres made from chalcogenide glass and silver halide crystals were produced. The first class can serve as wavefront filters up to a wavelength of 11 microns, while silver halide fibres can be used over the full Darwin wavelength range from 6.5 to 18 micron. The chalcogenide glass fibres were drawn by double crucible method whereas polycrystalline fibres from silver halides were fabricated by multiple extrusion from a crystalline preform. Multi-layer AR-coatings for fibre ends were developed and environmentally tested for both types of fibres. Special fibre facet polishing procedures were established, in particular for the soft silver halide fibre ends. Cable design and assembly process were also developed, including termination by SMA-connectors with ceramic ferrules and fibre protection by loose PEEK-tubings to prevent excessive bending and chemical attacks for fibres. The wavefront filtering capability of the fibres was demonstrated on a high quality Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Two different groups of laser sources were used to measure the wavefront filtering of the fibres by using a CO-laser for testing in the lower sub-band and a CO2-laser to check the upper sub-band. Measurements of the fibres far field intensity distribution and transmission were performed for numerous cable samples. Single mode behaviour was observed in more than 25 silver halide fibre cables before AR-coating of their ends, while after that 17 cables were compliant with all technical requirements. Residual cladding modes existing in short single mode fibres were effectively removed by applying of a proper absorbing jacket to the fibre

  7. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  8. Sleep stage classification with low complexity and low bit rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkala, Jussi; Värri, Alpo; Hasan, Joel; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Müller, Kiti

    2009-01-01

    Standard sleep stage classification is based on visual analysis of central (usually also frontal and occipital) EEG, two-channel EOG, and submental EMG signals. The process is complex, using multiple electrodes, and is usually based on relatively high (200-500 Hz) sampling rates. Also at least 12 bit analog to digital conversion is recommended (with 16 bit storage) resulting in total bit rate of at least 12.8 kbit/s. This is not a problem for in-house laboratory sleep studies, but in the case of online wireless self-applicable ambulatory sleep studies, lower complexity and lower bit rates are preferred. In this study we further developed earlier single channel facial EMG/EOG/EEG-based automatic sleep stage classification. An algorithm with a simple decision tree separated 30 s epochs into wakefulness, SREM, S1/S2 and SWS using 18-45 Hz beta power and 0.5-6 Hz amplitude. Improvements included low complexity recursive digital filtering. We also evaluated the effects of a reduced sampling rate, reduced number of quantization steps and reduced dynamic range on the sleep data of 132 training and 131 testing subjects. With the studied algorithm, it was possible to reduce the sampling rate to 50 Hz (having a low pass filter at 90 Hz), and the dynamic range to 244 microV, with an 8 bit resolution resulting in a bit rate of 0.4 kbit/s. Facial electrodes and a low bit rate enables the use of smaller devices for sleep stage classification in home environments.

  9. The history of ceramic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, S

    2000-01-01

    The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly, a major emphasis has involved mass production technology, leading to low-priced devices. A typical ceramic filter includes monolithic resonators and capacitors packaged in unique configurations.

  10. Kaon Filtering For CLAS Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, J.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of data from CLAS is a multi-step process. After the detectors for a given running period have been calibrated, the data is processed in the so called pass-1 cooking. During the pass-1 cooking each event is reconstructed by the program a1c which finds particle tracks and computes momenta from the raw data. The results are then passed on to several data monitoring and filtering utilities. In CLAS software, a filter is a parameterless function which returns an integer indicating whether an event should be kept by that filter or not. There is a main filter program called g1-filter which controls several specific filters and outputs several files, one for each filter. These files may then be analyzed separately, allowing individuals interested in one reaction channel to work from smaller files than using the whole data set would require. There are several constraints on what the filter functions should do. Obviously, the filtered files should be as small as possible, however the filter should also not reject any events that might be used in the later analysis for which the filter was intended

  11. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  13. Predicting inferior vena cava (IVC) filter retrievability using positional parameters: A comparative study of various filter types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotra, A; Doucet, C; Delli Fraine, P; Bessissow, A; Dey, C; Gallix, B; Boucher, L-M; Valenti, D

    2018-05-14

    To compare changes in inferior vena cava (IVC) filter positional parameters from insertion to removal and examine how they affect retrievability amongst various filter types. A total of 447 patients (260 men, 187 women) with a mean age of 55 years (range: 13-91 years) who underwent IVC filter retrieval between 2007-2014 were retrospectively included. Post-insertion and pre-retrieval angiographic studies were assessed for filter tilt, migration, strut wall penetration and retrieval outcomes. ANCOVA and multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze factors affecting retrieval success. Pairwise comparisons between filter types were performed. Of 488 IVC filter retrieval attempts, 94.1% were ultimately successful. The ALN filter had the highest mean absolute value of tilt (5.6 degrees), the Optease filter demonstrated the largest mean migration (-8.0mm) and the Bard G2 filter showed highest mean penetration (5.2mm). Dwell time of 0-90 days (OR, 11.1; P=0.01) or 90-180 days (OR, 2.6; P=0.02), net tilt of 10-15 degrees (OR 8.9; P=0.05), caudal migration of -10 to 0mm (OR, 3.46; P=0.03) and penetration less than 3mm (OR, 2.6; P=0.01) were positive predictors of successful retrievability. Higher odds of successful retrieval were obtained for the Bard G2X, Bard G2 and Cook Celect when compared to the ALN and Cordis Optease filters. Shorter dwell time, lower mean tilt, caudal migration and less caval wall penetration are positive predictors of successful IVC filter retrieval. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial filtering precedes motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M J

    1992-01-23

    When we perceive motion on a television or cinema screen, there must be some process that allows us to track moving objects over time: if not, the result would be a conflicting mass of motion signals in all directions. A possible mechanism, suggested by studies of motion displacement in spatially random patterns, is that low-level motion detectors have a limited spatial range, which ensures that they tend to be stimulated over time by the same object. This model predicts that the direction of displacement of random patterns cannot be detected reliably above a critical absolute displacement value (Dmax) that is independent of the size or density of elements in the display. It has been inferred that Dmax is a measure of the size of motion detectors in the visual pathway. Other studies, however, have shown that Dmax increases with element size, in which case the most likely interpretation is that Dmax depends on the probability of false matches between pattern elements following a displacement. These conflicting accounts are reconciled here by showing that Dmax is indeed determined by the spacing between the elements in the pattern, but only after fine detail has been removed by a physiological prefiltering stage: the filter required to explain the data has a similar size to the receptive field of neurons in the primate magnocellular pathway. The model explains why Dmax can be increased by removing high spatial frequencies from random patterns, and simplifies our view of early motion detection.

  15. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    , and systems 'hosting' these multiple and complex mobilities are designed and how they are staging these in terms of their physical layout. By analysing specific cases of ‘mobilities design’ related to the four modes of moving; Walk, Bike, Train, and Car, the book uncover important and until now neglected...... is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments, the project...

  16. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  18. Adaptive projective filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikusar, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    The new approach to solving of the finding problem is proposed. The method is based on Discrete Projective Transformations (DPT), the List Square Fitting (LSF) and uses the information feedback in tracing for linear or quadratic track segments (TS). The fast and stable with respect to measurement errors and background points recurrent algorithm is suggested. The algorithm realizes the family of digital adaptive projective filters (APF) with known nonlinear weight functions-projective invariants. APF can be used in adequate control systems for collection, processing and compression of data, including tracking problems for the wide class of detectors. 10 refs.; 9 figs

  19. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  20. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available to the general inverter-coupled resonator bandpass filter structure in Figure 2 [6] by using the inverter shown in Figure 3. The admittance of the inverter in Figure 3 is 4 J= Y mn sin(βl) (1) where β is the propagation factor and l is the length... of the resonators (a quarter wavelength in this case). While the series quarter-wave line alone can approximate an inverter, the structure shown in Figure 3 is more accurate over wide bandwidths. At this point the circuits in Figures 1 and 2 still differ because...

  1. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  2. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  3. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...

  4. High flow ceramic pot filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J

    2017-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h -1 ), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Filtering for increased power for microarray data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Ann M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the large number of hypothesis tests performed during the process of routine analysis of microarray data, a multiple testing adjustment is certainly warranted. However, when the number of tests is very large and the proportion of differentially expressed genes is relatively low, the use of a multiple testing adjustment can result in very low power to detect those genes which are truly differentially expressed. Filtering allows for a reduction in the number of tests and a corresponding increase in power. Common filtering methods include filtering by variance, average signal or MAS detection call (for Affymetrix arrays. We study the effects of filtering in combination with the Benjamini-Hochberg method for false discovery rate control and q-value for false discovery rate estimation. Results Three case studies are used to compare three different filtering methods in combination with the two false discovery rate methods and three different preprocessing methods. For the case studies considered, filtering by detection call and variance (on the original scale consistently led to an increase in the number of differentially expressed genes identified. On the other hand, filtering by variance on the log2 scale had a detrimental effect when paired with MAS5 or PLIER preprocessing methods, even when the testing was done on the log2 scale. A simulation study was done to further examine the effect of filtering by variance. We find that filtering by variance leads to higher power, often with a decrease in false discovery rate, when paired with either of the false discovery rate methods considered. This holds regardless of the proportion of genes which are differentially expressed or whether we assume dependence or independence among genes. Conclusion The case studies show that both detection call and variance filtering are viable methods of filtering which can increase the number of differentially expressed genes identified. The

  6. Use of switched capacitor filters to implement the discrete wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kraig E.; Peterson, James N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of IIR switched capacitor filters to implement the discrete wavelet transform and the inverse transform, using quadrature mirror filters (QMF) which have the necessary symmetry for reconstruction of the data. This is done by examining the sensitivity of the QMF transforms to the manufacturing variance in the desired capacitances. The performance is evaluated at the outputs of the separate filter stages and the error in the reconstruction of the inverse transform is compared with the desired results.

  7. Multiple constant multiplication optimizations for field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kumm, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work covers field programmable gate array (FPGA)-specific optimizations of circuits computing the multiplication of a variable by several constants, commonly denoted as multiple constant multiplication (MCM). These optimizations focus on low resource usage but high performance. They comprise the use of fast carry-chains in adder-based constant multiplications including ternary (3-input) adders as well as the integration of look-up table-based constant multipliers and embedded multipliers to get the optimal mapping to modern FPGAs. The proposed methods can be used for the efficient implementation of digital filters, discrete transforms and many other circuits in the domain of digital signal processing, communication and image processing. Contents Heuristic and ILP-Based Optimal Solutions for the Pipelined Multiple Constant Multiplication Problem Methods to Integrate Embedded Multipliers, LUT-Based Constant Multipliers and Ternary (3-Input) Adders An Optimized Multiple Constant Multiplication Architecture ...

  8. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. LED induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager with eight multi-filters for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. The simple oral visual screening by clinician can reduce 37,000 oral cancer deaths annually worldwide. However, the conventional oral examination with the visual inspection and the palpation of oral lesions is not an objective and reliable approach for oral cancer diagnosis, and it may cause the delayed hospital treatment for the patients of oral cancer or leads to the oral cancer out of control in the late stage. Therefore, a device for oral cancer detection are developed for early diagnosis and treatment. A portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager is developed by our group. It contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and the rotary filter ring of eight channels to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. The advantages of LIAF imager compared to other devices for oral cancer diagnosis are that LIAF imager has a probe of L shape for fixing the object distance, protecting the effect of ambient light, and observing the blind spot in the deep port between the gumsgingiva and the lining of the mouth. Besides, the multiple excitation of LED light source can induce multiple autofluorescence, and LIAF imager with the rotary filter ring of eight channels can detect the spectral images of multiple narrow bands. The prototype of a portable LIAF imager is applied in the clinical trials for some cases in Taiwan, and the images of the clinical trial with the specific excitation show the significant differences between normal tissue and oral tissue under these cases.

  10. Estimate of energy density on CYCLOPS spatial filter pinhole structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guch, S. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The inclusion of a spatial filter between the B and C stages in CYCLOPS to reduce the effects of small-scale beam self-focusing is discussed. An estimate is made of the energy density to which the pinhole will be subjected, and the survivability of various pinhole materials and designs is discussed

  11. Optimal search filters for renal information in EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Shariff, Salimah Z; Weir, Matthew; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, Ann; Rehman, Faisal; Garg, Amit X

    2010-07-01

    EMBASE is a popular database used to retrieve biomedical information. Our objective was to develop and test search filters to help clinicians and researchers efficiently retrieve articles with renal information in EMBASE. We used a diagnostic test assessment framework because filters operate similarly to screening tests. We divided a sample of 5,302 articles from 39 journals into development and validation sets of articles. Information retrieval properties were assessed by treating each search filter as a "diagnostic test" or screening procedure for the detection of relevant articles. We tested the performance of 1,936,799 search filters made of unique renal terms and their combinations. REFERENCE STANDARD & OUTCOME: The reference standard was manual review of each article. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of each filter to identify articles with renal information. The best renal filters consisted of multiple search terms, such as "renal replacement therapy," "renal," "kidney disease," and "proteinuria," and the truncated terms "kidney," "dialy," "neph," "glomerul," and "hemodial." These filters achieved peak sensitivities of 98.7% (95% CI, 97.9-99.6) and specificities of 98.5% (95% CI, 98.0-99.0). The retrieval performance of these filters remained excellent in the validation set of independent articles. The retrieval performance of any search will vary depending on the quality of all search concepts used, not just renal terms. We empirically developed and validated high-performance renal search filters for EMBASE. These filters can be programmed into the search engine or used on their own to improve the efficiency of searching.

  12. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  13. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....

  14. Optimization of OT-MACH Filter Generation for Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Oliver C.; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    An automatic Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter generator for use in a gray-scale optical correlator (GOC) has been developed for improved target detection at JPL. While the OT-MACH filter has been shown to be an optimal filter for target detection, actually solving for the optimum is too computationally intensive for multiple targets. Instead, an adaptive step gradient descent method was tested to iteratively optimize the three OT-MACH parameters, alpha, beta, and gamma. The feedback for the gradient descent method was a composite of the performance measures, correlation peak height and peak to side lobe ratio. The automated method generated and tested multiple filters in order to approach the optimal filter quicker and more reliably than the current manual method. Initial usage and testing has shown preliminary success at finding an approximation of the optimal filter, in terms of alpha, beta, gamma values. This corresponded to a substantial improvement in detection performance where the true positive rate increased for the same average false positives per image.

  15. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  16. Digital filtering in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.

    1982-01-01

    Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine

  17. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  18. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  19. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

  20. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  1. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  2. Intelligent medical information filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles

  3. Device for filtering gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de

  4. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  5. Immobilized Filters for Air Filtration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Zaiee, Saeed

    2002-01-01

    ... (settling performance) and attrition resistance. The fabricated filter samples will be analyzed in order to determine the physical and chemical factors affecting mechanical strength and chemical filtration...

  6. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  7. FULL SCALE REGENERABLE HEPA FILTER DESIGN USING SINTERED METAL FILTER ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Ramos; Kenneth Rubow; Ronald Sekellick

    2002-01-01

    features in its design and operation. The element bundle would be an all welded assembly, which could be removed and replaced as a unit if the elements ever needed replacement. Each element had a spray nozzle mounted above it for cleaning; it could also be cleaned by a soak and backwash technique. The inlet nozzle incorporated a cyclonic separator to initially remove large suspended material and droplets. Tests indicated a significant reduction of dirt load getting to the filter elements, which would extend the operating time between cleanings. A high capacity blower was selected to overcome the higher pressure drop of the metallic elements. The blower, having a 25 horsepower motor, would be capable of operating the system to higher pressure drops than available on the glass fiber HEPA filters. This additional capacity further increases the operating duration of the filter. Upon successful testing and acceptance of the full-scale design, Phase IIB would involve the construction and test of a full-scale prototype system on an actual HLW tank. Phase IIA was completed but for funding and priority reasons the contract was halted; thus Phase IIB would not be pursued at this time. The Mott RHFS has been proven at each stage of the development process to meet the requirements of a suitable replacement system for the glass fiber HEPA filters enabling great cost savings. It remains to test a full-scale operating system on an actual high level waste tank to fully demonstrate the performance and anticipated cost savings of the Mott RHFS. Mott is confident that the performance will be more than acceptable

  8. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  9. Digital Path Approach Despeckle Filter for Ultrasound Imaging and Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szczepański

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel filtering technique capable of reducing the multiplicative noise in ultrasound images that is an extension of the denoising algorithms based on the concept of digital paths. In this approach, the filter weights are calculated taking into account the similarity between pixel intensities that belongs to the local neighborhood of the processed pixel, which is called a path. The output of the filter is estimated as the weighted average of pixels connected by the paths. The way of creating paths is pivotal and determines the effectiveness and computational complexity of the proposed filtering design. Such procedure can be effective for different types of noise but fail in the presence of multiplicative noise. To increase the filtering efficiency for this type of disturbances, we introduce some improvements of the basic concept and new classes of similarity functions and finally extend our techniques to a spatiotemporal domain. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm provides the comparable results with the state-of-the-art techniques for multiplicative noise removal in ultrasound images and it can be applied for real-time image enhancement of video streams.

  10. From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1989-01-01

    A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2) The st...

  11. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  12. A Dual-Stage Two-Phase Model of Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubner, Ronald; Steinhauser, Marco; Lehle, Carola

    2010-01-01

    The dual-stage two-phase (DSTP) model is introduced as a formal and general model of selective attention that includes both an early and a late stage of stimulus selection. Whereas at the early stage information is selected by perceptual filters whose selectivity is relatively limited, at the late stage stimuli are selected more efficiently on a…

  13. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-09-19

    Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.

  14. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  15. Specific filters applied in nuclear medicine services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Vitor S.; Crispim, Verginia R., E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Brandao, Luis E.B. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Due to its high volatility, medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system where doses of radioactive iodine are fractionated, using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon is effective for I{sub 2} capture for a large or small amount of substrate but its use is restricted due to its low flash point (150 deg C). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH{sub 3}I gas, it was necessary to increase the volume of natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO{sub 2} + Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (306 {+-} 4) m{sup 3}/h, a double stage filter using SiO{sub 2} + Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. (author)

  16. Test models for improving filtering with model errors through stochastic parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershgorin, B.; Harlim, J.; Majda, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The filtering skill for turbulent signals from nature is often limited by model errors created by utilizing an imperfect model for filtering. Updating the parameters in the imperfect model through stochastic parameter estimation is one way to increase filtering skill and model performance. Here a suite of stringent test models for filtering with stochastic parameter estimation is developed based on the Stochastic Parameterization Extended Kalman Filter (SPEKF). These new SPEKF-algorithms systematically correct both multiplicative and additive biases and involve exact formulas for propagating the mean and covariance including the parameters in the test model. A comprehensive study is presented of robust parameter regimes for increasing filtering skill through stochastic parameter estimation for turbulent signals as the observation time and observation noise are varied and even when the forcing is incorrectly specified. The results here provide useful guidelines for filtering turbulent signals in more complex systems with significant model errors.

  17. Target Response Adaptation for Correlation Filter Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer

    2016-09-16

    Most correlation filter (CF) based trackers utilize the circulant structure of the training data to learn a linear filter that best regresses this data to a hand-crafted target response. These circularly shifted patches are only approximations to actual translations in the image, which become unreliable in many realistic tracking scenarios including fast motion, occlusion, etc. In these cases, the traditional use of a single centered Gaussian as the target response impedes tracker performance and can lead to unrecoverable drift. To circumvent this major drawback, we propose a generic framework that can adaptively change the target response from frame to frame, so that the tracker is less sensitive to the cases where circular shifts do not reliably approximate translations. To do that, we reformulate the underlying optimization to solve for both the filter and target response jointly, where the latter is regularized by measurements made using actual translations. This joint problem has a closed form solution and thus allows for multiple templates, kernels, and multi-dimensional features. Extensive experiments on the popular OTB100 benchmark show that our target adaptive framework can be combined with many CF trackers to realize significant overall performance improvement (ranging from 3 %-13.5% in precision and 3.2 %-13% in accuracy), especially in categories where this adaptation is necessary (e.g. fast motion, motion blur, etc.). © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  18. Design of multi-wavelength tunable filter based on Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailing; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Song, Hongyun

    2018-05-01

    A multi-wavelength tunable filter is designed. It consists of multiple waveguides among multiple waveguide gratings. A pair of electrodes were placed on both sides of each waveguide. The tunable filter uses the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate to tune the phase caused by each waveguide. Consequently, the wavelength and wavelength spacing of the filter are tuned by changing external voltages added on the electrode pairs. The tunable property of the filter is analyzed by phase matching condition and transfer-matrix method. Numerical results show that not only multiple wavelengths with narrow bandwidth are tuned with nearly equal spacing by synchronously changing the voltages added on all electrode pairs, but also the number of wavelengths is determined by the number of phase shifts caused by electrode pairs. Furthermore, due to the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate, the tuning speed of the filter can reach the order of ns.

  19. Filters in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008

  20. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1 fi...

  1. Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, J.

    1980-12-01

    Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt

  2. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  3. Some arithmetically symmetrical bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranasi, P.; Roy, S. C. D.

    1981-01-01

    A combination of the conventional and Matthaei lowpass-bandpass transformations is shown to result in some bandpass filters having very good arithmetic symmetry. The technique presented is applicable to the Butterworth and inverse Chebyshev types of magnitude approximations and the Bessel type of delay approximations. It is not valid, however, for the Chebyshev and elliptic varieties of filters.

  4. Properties of auxiliary filtering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have studied the physicochemical and filtering properties of the perlites FP-1 and FP-2, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, wood pulp, and the diatomite powders Spidplace and Saperaid. They propose a classification for filtering materials according to their properties when mechanical impurities are being removed from the additives.

  5. High flow ceramic pot filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more

  6. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class

  7. Mobile filters in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuter, R.

    1979-01-01

    The need for filters with high efficiencies which may be used at any place originated in nuclear power plants. Filters of this type, called Filtermobil, have been developed by Sulzer. They have been used successfully in nuclear plants for several years. (orig.) [de

  8. Implicit LES using adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2018-04-01

    In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.

  9. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  10. Biochemical studies of mouse brain tubulin: colchicine binding (DEAE-cellulose filter) assay and subunits (α and β) biosynthesis and degradation (in newborn brain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    A DEAE-cellulose filter assay, measuring [ 3 H]colchicine bound to colchicine binding protein (CBP) absorbed on filter discs, has been modified to include lM sucrose in the incubation medium for complexing colchicine to CBP in samples before applying the samples to filter discs (single point assay). Due to the much greater stability of colchicine binding capacity in the presence of lM sucrose, multiple time-point assays and least squares linear regression analysis were not necessary for accurate determination of CBP in hybrid mouse brain at different stages of development. The highest concentrations of CBP were observed in the 160,000g supernatant and pellet of newborn brain homogenate. Further studies of the modified filter assay documented that the assay has an overall counting efficiency of 27.3%, that DEAE-cellulose filters bind and retain all tubulin in the assay samples, and that one molecule of colchicine binds approximately one molecule of tubulin dimer. Therefore, millimoles of colchicine bound per milligram total protein can be used to calculate tubulin content. With this technique tubulin content of brain supernatant was found to be 11.9% for newborn, and 7.15% for 11 month old mice. Quantitative densitometry was also used to measure mouse brain supernatant actin content for these two stages. In vivo synthesis and degradation rates of tubulin α and β subunits of two day mouse brain 100,000g supernatant were studied after intracerebral injection of [ 3 H]leucine. Quantitative changes of the ratio of tritium specific activities of tubulin α and β subunits with time were determined. The pattern of change was biphasic. During the first phase the ratio decreased; during the second phase the ratio increased continuously. An interpretation consistent with all the data in this study is that the α subunit is synthesized at a more rapid rate than the β subunit

  11. Biochemical studies of mouse brain tubulin: colchicine binding (DEAE-cellulose filter) assay and subunits ( α and β) biosynthesis and degradation (in newborn brain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tse, Cek-Fyne [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A DEAE-cellulose filter assay, measuring (3H)colchicine bound to colchicine binding protein (CBP) absorbed on filter discs, has been modified to include lM sucrose in the incubation medium for complexing colchicine to CBP in samples before applying the samples to filter discs (single point assay). Due to the much greater stability of colchicine binding capacity in the presence of lM sucrose, multiple time-point assays and least squares linear regression analysis were not necessary for accurate determination of CBP in hybrid mouse brain at different stages of development. The highest concentrations of CBP were observed in the 160,000g supernatant and pellet of newborn brain homogenate. Further studies of the modified filter assay documented that the assay has an overall counting efficiency of 27.3%, that DEAE-cellulose filters bind and retain all tubulin in the assay samples, and that one molecule of colchicine binds approximately one molecule of tubulin dimer. Therefore, millimoles of colchicine bound per milligram total protein can be used to calculate tubulin content. With this technique tubulin content of brain supernatant was found to be 11.9% for newborn, and 7.15% for 11 month old mice. Quantitative densitometry was also used to measure mouse brain supernatant actin content for these two stages. In vivo synthesis and degradation rates of tubulin ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of two day mouse brain 100,000g supernatant were studied after intracerebral injection of (3H)leucine. Quantitative changes of the ratio of tritium specific activities of tubulin ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits with time were determined. The pattern of change was biphasic. During the first phase the ratio decreased; during the second phase the ratio increased continuously. An interpretation consistent with all the data in this study is that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is synthesized at a more rapid rate than the ..beta.. subunit. (ERB)

  12. Image defog algorithm based on open close filter and gradient domain recursive bilateral filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqian; Liu, Wanjun; Zhao, Qingguo; Fei, Bowen

    2017-11-01

    To solve the problems of fuzzy details, color distortion, low brightness of the image obtained by the dark channel prior defog algorithm, an image defog algorithm based on open close filter and gradient domain recursive bilateral filter, referred to as OCRBF, was put forward. The algorithm named OCRBF firstly makes use of weighted quad tree to obtain more accurate the global atmospheric value, then exploits multiple-structure element morphological open and close filter towards the minimum channel map to obtain a rough scattering map by dark channel prior, makes use of variogram to correct the transmittance map,and uses gradient domain recursive bilateral filter for the smooth operation, finally gets recovery images by image degradation model, and makes contrast adjustment to get bright, clear and no fog image. A large number of experimental results show that the proposed defog method in this paper can be good to remove the fog , recover color and definition of the fog image containing close range image, image perspective, the image including the bright areas very well, compared with other image defog algorithms,obtain more clear and natural fog free images with details of higher visibility, what's more, the relationship between the time complexity of SIDA algorithm and the number of image pixels is a linear correlation.

  13. Detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion based on gradient minimization smoothing filter and shearing filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian

    2018-02-13

    In this paper, a detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion algorithm is proposed by using proposed multi-scale joint decomposition framework (MJDF) and shearing filter (SF). The MJDF constructed with gradient minimization smoothing filter (GMSF) and Gaussian low-pass filter (GLF) is used to decompose source images into low-pass layers, edge layers, and detail layers at multiple scales. In order to highlight the detail information in the fused image, the edge layer and the detail layer in each scale are weighted combined into a detail-enhanced layer. As directional filter is effective in capturing salient information, so SF is applied to the detail-enhanced layer to extract geometrical features and obtain directional coefficients. Visual saliency map-based fusion rule is designed for fusing low-pass layers, and the sum of standard deviation is used as activity level measurement for directional coefficients fusion. The final fusion result is obtained by synthesizing the fused low-pass layers and directional coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method with shift-invariance, directional selectivity, and detail-enhanced property is efficient in preserving and enhancing detail information of multimodality medical images. Graphical abstract The detailed implementation of the proposed medical image fusion algorithm.

  14. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  15. Apparatus for filtering radioactive fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischel, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for filtering radioactive particles from the cooling and/or auxiliary process water of a nuclear reactor, or nuclear fuel processing plant, or other installations wherein radioactive fluid systems are known to exist. The apparatus affords disposal of the captured particles in a manner which minimizes the exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to contain a removable filter cartridge assembly, a valve normally closing the lower end of the housing, an upwardly-open shipping cask located below the valve, and an elongated operating rod assembly projecting upwardly from the filter cartridge assembly and through the upper end of the housing to enable a workman to dismount the filter cartridge assembly from its housing and to lower the filter cartridge assembly through the valve and into the cask from a remote location above the housing. (U.S.)

  16. Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiess, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.

  17. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  18. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, D.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412640694; Imhof, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145641600; Velikov, K. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239483472

    2016-01-01

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species

  19. Development of the code for filter calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, O.O.; Vakulenko, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method, which commonly used in the Neutron Physics Department to develop a new neutron filter or to improve the existing neutron filter. This calculation is the first step of the traditional filter development procedure. It allows easy selection of the qualitative and quantitative contents of a composite filter in order to receive the filtered neutron beam with given parameters

  20. Operação de filtros biológicos percoladores pós-reatores UASB sem a etapa de decantação secundária Operation of trickling filters post-UASB reactors without the secondary sedimentation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Sertório de Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar filtros biológicos percoladores (FBP pós-reatores UASB operando sem a etapa de decantação secundária, em termos da remoção da demanda bioquímica e química de oxigênio (DBO e DQO e sólidos suspensos totais (SST. O aparato experimental consistia em um reator UASB que alimentava quatro FBP em paralelo, preenchidos com diferentes materiais suporte. O reator UASB operou em regime hidráulico permanente, e três condições operacionais foram impostas aos FBP durante o período experimental. Em geral, os sistemas UASB/FBP foram capazes de promover o atendimento aos padrões de lançamento. Em condições de baixas cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV, o uso de materiais de enchimento de maior área superficial específica não proporcionou ganhos expressivos em termos de desempenho. Contudo, o uso de meio suporte baseado em espumas de poliuretano propiciou melhoria significativa na qualidade do efluente final. O uso de sistemas UASB/FBP sem decantadores secundários parece ser uma promissora alternativa para a simplificação operacional da tecnologia, e uma importante estratégia para o tratamento de efluentes domésticos em países em desenvolvimento. No entanto, o sucesso do emprego desta tecnologia fica condicionado ao correto gerenciamento do lodo anaeróbio do reator UASB, a fim de que sejam evitadas sobrecargas nos FBP.The research aimed at evaluating the operation of trickling filters (TF post-UASB reactors without the secondary sedimentation stage, in terms of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD and total suspended solids (TSS removal. The experimental apparatus consisted of one UASB reactor followed by four TF in parallel, each one filled with a different packing media. The UASB reactor was operated at a permanent hydraulic regime, while three operational conditions were imposed to the TF during the experimental period. In general, the UASB/TF systems were able to comply with