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Sample records for stage ii-iv invasive

  1. Cost-Utility Analysis of Lipegfilgrastim Compared to Pegfilgrastim for the Prophylaxis of Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia in Patients with Stage II-IV Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esse I. H. Akpo

    2017-09-01

    -to-pay thresholds (WTP of €10,000, €30,000 and €50,000 per QALY gained, respectively. At a WTP threshold of €30,000 per QALY gained, lipegfilgrastim was cost-effective up to €1,500 across all age bands and cancer stages, compared to the current price.Conclusions: Lipegfilgrastim is a cost-effective use of health care resources in patients with stage II-IV breast cancer.

  2. Family Caregiver Palliative Care Intervention in Supporting Caregivers of Patients With Stage II-IV Gastrointestinal, Gynecologic, Urologic and Lung Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-12

    Healthy Subject; Localized Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Urethral Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIA Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC

  3. PET-Adjusted Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Brain; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  4. Palliative Care Intervention in Improving Symptom Control and Quality of Life in Patients With Stage II-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Caregiver; Psychological Impact of Cancer and Its Treatment; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  5. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Tumor; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC V6 and v7; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer AJCC v7; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. Five-year disease-free survival among stage II-IV breast cancer patients receiving FAC and AC chemotherapy in phase II clinical trials of Panagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurina, Anastasia S; Gvozdeva, Tatiana S; Potter, Ekaterina A; Dolgova, Evgenia V; Orishchenko, Konstantin E; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Sidorov, Sergey V; Chernykh, Elena R; Ostanin, Alexandr A; Leplina, Olga Y; Dvornichenko, Victoria V; Ponomarenko, Dmitriy M; Soldatova, Galina S; Varaksin, Nikolay A; Ryabicheva, Tatiana G; Uchakin, Peter N; Rogachev, Vladimir A; Shurdov, Mikhail A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-08-18

    We report on the results of a phase II clinical trial of Panagen (tablet form of fragmented human DNA preparation) in breast cancer patients (placebo group n = 23, Panagen n = 57). Panagen was administered as an adjuvant leukoprotective agent in FAC and AC chemotherapy regimens. Pre-clinical studies clearly indicate that Panagen acts by activating dendritic cells and induces the development of adaptive anticancer immune response. We analyzed 5-year disease-free survival of patients recruited into the trial. Five-year disease-free survival in the placebo group was 40 % (n = 15), compared with the Panagen arm - 53 % (n = 51). Among stage III patients, disease-free survival was 25 and 52 % for placebo (n = 8) and Panagen (n = 25) groups, respectively. Disease-free survival of patients with IIIB + C stage was as follows: placebo (n = 6)-17 % vs Panagen (n = 18)-50 %. Disease-free survival rate (17 %) of patients with IIIB + C stage breast cancer receiving standard of care therapy is within the global range. Patients who additionally received Panagen demonstrate a significantly improved disease-free survival rate of 50 %. This confirms anticancer activity of Panagen. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02115984 from 04/07/2014.

  7. Invasive cervical carcinoma (Stages IB-IIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironi, S.; Zanello, A.; Rodighiero, M.G.; Vanzulli, A.; Del Maschio, A.; Taccagni, G.L.; Belloni, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, the accurate assessment of parametrial invasion greatly affects the therapeutic choice between surgery and radiation therapy. As a matter of fact, surgery is usually performed only in the patients with carcinoma confined to the cervix, whereas those with parametrial involvement, or more advanced stages, are treated with radiation therapy. This prospective study was aimed at investigating the comparative adequecy of CT and MR imaging in assessing parametrial status in the patients with invasive cervical cancer. Twenty-one consecutive patients, with histologic diagnosis of cervical carcinoma, were investigated. All of them were clinically considered as having invasive cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB-IIB) and subsequently underwent surgery. In all cases, detailed histology of the parametrium was obtained. Pathological data were compared with CT and MR findings in all cases. As for assessing parametrial involvement by cancer, CT had 62% accuracy, 63% sensitivity, and 60% specificity, versus MR imaging 81% accuracy, 69% sensitivity, and 80% specificify. Therefore, MR imaging appears to be superior to CT in assessing the parametrial status of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma; the method yields valuable information for treatment planning

  8. Diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of early stage breast carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esser, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the diagnostic work up and minimally invasive surgical treatment of early stage breast carcinoma is studied. Although the surgical treatment of breast carcinoma has improved significantly over the past decades, there is still room for improvement. On the one hand the focus is on early

  9. Mammographic detection and staging of invasive lobular carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.; Boetes, C.; Die, L. van; Bult, P.; Blickman, J.G.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate mammography in detecting and staging of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in order to assess the performance and impact of observer variability. Forty-two cases of ILC were retrospectively evaluated twice by two breast radiologists. Mammographic performance as

  10. Evolving strategies for liver fibrosis staging: Non-invasive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Cristina; Milani, Stefano

    2017-01-14

    Transient elastography and the acoustic radiation force impulse techniques may play a pivotal role in the study of liver fibrosis. Some studies have shown that elastography can detect both the progression and regression of fibrosis. Similarly, research results have been analysed and direct and indirect serum markers of hepatic fibrosis have shown high diagnostic accuracy for advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. The prognosis of different stages of cirrhosis is well established and various staging systems have been proposed, largely based on clinical data. However, it is still unknown if either non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis or elastography may contribute to a more accurate staging of liver cirrhosis, in terms of prognosis and fibrosis regression after effective therapy. In fact, not enough studies have shown both the fibrosis regression in different cirrhosis stages and the point beyond which the prognosis does not change - even in the event of fibrosis regression. Therefore, future studies are needed to validate non-invasive methods in predicting the different phases of liver cirrhosis.

  11. Prediction of invasion from the early stage of an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Neri, Franco M; Taraskin, Sergei N; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2012-09-07

    Predictability of undesired events is a question of great interest in many scientific disciplines including seismology, economy and epidemiology. Here, we focus on the predictability of invasion of a broad class of epidemics caused by diseases that lead to permanent immunity of infected hosts after recovery or death. We approach the problem from the perspective of the science of complexity by proposing and testing several strategies for the estimation of important characteristics of epidemics, such as the probability of invasion. Our results suggest that parsimonious approximate methodologies may lead to the most reliable and robust predictions. The proposed methodologies are first applied to analysis of experimentally observed epidemics: invasion of the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in replicated host microcosms. We then consider numerical experiments of the susceptible-infected-removed model to investigate the performance of the proposed methods in further detail. The suggested framework can be used as a valuable tool for quick assessment of epidemic threat at the stage when epidemics only start developing. Moreover, our work amplifies the significance of the small-scale and finite-time microcosm realizations of epidemics revealing their predictive power.

  12. II-IV-V Based Thin Film Tandem Photovoltaic Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Nathan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States); van Schilfgaarde, Mark [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2012-10-04

    [Through a combination of theory and experiment that, absent unknown mitigating factors, a tandem cell whose (wide-gap. 1.8 eV) top layer is made of ZnSnP2 and whose (narrow gap, 1.1 eV) bottom layer consisting of ZnGeAs2 are near-ideal materials for a tandem cell. Not only are there gaps optimally adjusted to the solar spectrum, but the two compounds are lattice-matched, and their energy band structure and optical absorption are also near-ideal (they closely resemble that of GaAs). Our first major challenge is to establish that high-quality II-IV-V thin films can be synthesized. We have begun growing and characterizing films of ZnGeAs2 and ZnSnP2, initially grown on Ge substrates (the lattice constant of Ge matches these compounds) by pulsed laser ablation and sputtering. In tandem are theoretical calculations to guide the experiments. The goal is to develop methods that can be used to produce a pair of lattice-matched thin films that will be useful in tandem cells.

  13. Developmental stages in experimental liver metastases: relation to invasiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, K. P.; van den Bergh Weerman, M. A.; Keep, R. F.; Das, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported that an invasive morphotype can be evoked in a rat colon carcinoma by transplanting it into pre-induced subcutaneous granulation tissue. We have now studied the interaction of the same tumor with liver tissue, which is extremely poor in connective tissue in comparison

  14. Influence of invasive Spartina growth stages on associated macrofaunal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Neira, Carlos; Levin, Lisa A.; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Mendoza, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    In coastal wetlands, invasive plants often act as ecosystem engineers altering flow, light and sediments which, in turn, can affect benthic animal communities. However, the degree of influence of the engineer will vary significantly as it grows, matures and senesces, and surprisingly little is known about how the influence of an ecosystem engineer varies with ontogeny. We address this issue on the tidal flats of San Francisco Bay where hybrid Spartina (foliosa x alterniflora) invaded 30 years...

  15. Is axillary sonographic staging less accurate in invasive lobular breast cancer than in ductal breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaye, Prashant; Chhatani, Sharmila; Porter, Gareth; Steel, Jim; Doyle, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether axillary sonography is less accurate in invasive lobular breast cancer than in ductal breast cancer. Patients with invasive breast cancer were retrospectively identified from histologic records from 2010 to 2012. Staging axillary sonograms from 96 patients with primary breast cancer in each of 2 subgroups, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), were reviewed. Preoperative sonographically guided 14-gauge core biopsy was performed on morphologically abnormal lymph nodes. Thirty-one of 96 patients (32%) in each subgroup were node positive on final postoperative histopathologic analysis. Axillary staging sensitivity was 17 of 31 patients (54%) in the IDC subgroup and 15 of 31(48%) in the ILC subgroup. Further analysis of the data showed no statistically significant differences between these subgroups. We found that there was no statistically significant difference in the accuracy of axillary sonographic staging between ILC and IDC. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. Invasive cervical carcinoma (stage IB-IIB): assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sironi, S.; Del Maschio, A.; Belloni, C.; Taccagni, L.

    1990-01-01

    In patients with cervical carcinoma the selection of the optimal therapy depends on the precise preoperative assessment of the extent of disease. Currently, decisions regarding the management of these patients are made on the basis of clinical (FIGO) staging that has 50% mean error rate. To investigate the value of MR imaging in staging patients with invasive cervical cancer, we performed 25 MR examinations on 23 patients with histologic diagnosis of cervical cancer. All patients were clinically considered as having stage IB or IIB disease and underwent radical hysterectomy, providing specimens for pathologic correlation. The overall accuracy of MR imaging in staging cervical carcinoma (stage IB-IIB) was 78.1%. MR imaging seems to be the most reliable preoperative modality for staging invasive cervical cancer

  17. Stage T3a renal cell carcinoma: staging accuracy of CT for sinus fat, perinephric fat or renal vein invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhi, H K; Mok, W Y; Patel, U

    2015-01-01

    To study the accuracy of CT for staging T3a (TNM 2009) renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Unenhanced and nephrographic phase CT studies of 117 patients (male:female = 82:35; age range, 21-86 years) with T1-T3a RCC were independently reviewed by 2 readers. The presence of sinus or perinephric fat, or renal vein invasion and tumour characteristics were noted. Median (range) tumour size was 5.5 (0.9-19.0) cm; and 46 (39%), 16 (14%) and 55 (47%) tumours were pT1, pT2 and pT3a RCC, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for sinus fat, perinephric fat and renal vein invasion were 71/79%, 83/76% and 59/93% (Reader 1) and 88/71%, 68/72% and 69/91% (Reader 2) with κ = 0.41, 0.43 and 0.61, respectively. Sinus fat invasion was seen in 47/55 (85%) cases with T3a RCC vs 16/55 (29%) and 33/55 (60%) for perinephric fat and renal vein invasion. Tumour necrosis, irregularity of tumour edge and direct tumour contact with perirenal fascia or sinus fat increased the odds of local invasion [odds ratio (OR), 2.5-3.7; p fat invasion was the most common invasive feature. Centrally situated renal tumours with an irregular tumour edge, inseparable from sinus structures or the perirenal fascia and CT features of tumour necrosis should alert the reader to the possibility of Stage T3a RCC (OR, 2.5-3.9).

  18. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Early-Stage Lung Cancer: From Innovation to Standard of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Abby; Swanson, Scott J

    2016-11-15

    The era of minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer follows decades of research; the collection and interpretation of countless qualitative and quantitative data points; and tireless efforts by a few pioneering thoracic surgeons who believed they could deliver a safe and oncologically sound operation with less tissue trauma, an improved physiologic profile, and fewer complications than traditional open surgery. This review highlights those efforts and the role of minimally invasive surgery for early-stage lung cancer in light of evolving technology, the emerging understanding of the biology of early-stage lung cancer, and lung cancer screening.

  19. Minimally invasive approaches for diagnosis and treatment of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Verkooijen, Helena M

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer management has been evolving toward minimally invasive approaches. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy techniques provide accurate histologic diagnosis without the need for surgical biopsy. Breast conservation therapy has become the treatment standard for early-stage breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a new procedure that can predict axillary lymph node status without the need of axillary lymph node dissection. The next challenge is to treat primary tumors without surgery. For this purpose, several new minimally invasive procedures, including radiofrequency ablation, interstitial laser ablation, focused ultrasound ablation, and cryotherapy, are currently under development and may offer effective tumor management and provide treatment options that are psychologically and cosmetically more acceptable to the patients than are traditional surgical therapies. In this review, we give an overview of minimally invasive approaches for the diagnostic and therapeutic management of early-stage breast cancer.

  20. Seasonal dynamics of early life stages of invasive and native ctenophores give clues to invasion and bloom potential in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Lombard, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance and distri......Recently, both the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the arctic Mertensia ovum were discovered in the Baltic Sea but their range expansion remains unclear due to misidentification of their larval stages. Supported by molecular species verification we describe seasonal abundance...

  1. Apollonius de Perge, Coniques tome 2.3, livres II-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Decorps-Foulquier, Micheline

    2010-01-01

    Volume 2.3, containing the Greek translations of books II-IV, completes the edition of the Conica of Apollonius of Perga. It is arranged according to the same principle as the previous volume on book I: the critical edition of the Greek text is accompanied by numerous notes and a lexicon of all mathematical terms. An introduction and a French translation provide further insights into the text. The edition of the Greek books of the Conica will be thematically complemented by volume 3 of the SGA series, containing the critical edition of Eutocius of Ascalon's commentary on the Conica and its Fre

  2. Physical properties of the wide band gap II-IV nitride MgSiN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råsander, Mikael; Quirk, James; Moram, Michelle

    The Group II-IV nitride semiconductors are emerging as promising alternatives to III-nitrides in ultraviolet LED applications. These materials have wurtzite-derived orthorhombic crystal structures and can be obtained by substituting pairs of Group III atoms in a III-nitride for a single Group II atom and a single Group IV atom. Here we will focus on MgSiN2, which is the equivalent II-IV nitride to wurtzite AlN. A detailed comparison of the properties obtained by first principles calculations and experiment of these two systems will be performed. It will be shown that MgSiN2 has a large indirect band gap of similar size to the direct band gap of AlN, while having a crystal size which is intermediate between AlN and GaN. MgSiN2 should therefore facilitate better lattice matching during film growth compared to AlN, and therefore constitutes a good candidate material to be used in novel high efficiency UV-LEDs.

  3. Double immunohistochemistry enhances detection of lymphatic and venous invasion in early-stage colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervine, A J; McBride, H A; Kelly, P J; Loughrey, M B

    2015-09-01

    Lymphatic invasion (LI) and venous invasion (VI) are regarded as important risk factors of nodal disease in early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) but with variable reporting and poor distinction of these parameters in previous studies. This study examines the application of a double immunohistochemistry (D-IHC) method to help detect and distinguish LI and VI, in comparison with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, in a clinical series of cases of stage pT1 CRC. The aims were to demonstrate feasibility of this methodology in routine practice and compare rates of LI and VI reporting with and without D-IHC application. D-IHC utilising CAM5.2 with the endothelial marker CD34 and with the specific lymphatic endothelial marker D2-40 was performed on parallel sections from single representative paraffin tissue blocks in 28 cases of stage pT1 CRC from routine clinical practice. D-IHC significantly increased rates of both LI and VI reporting, from 14.3 to 35.7 % and from 14.3 to 28.6 %, respectively. The D-IHC methodology described is technically feasible in routine practice and potentially offers a more sensitive and robust assay for detection and distinction of LI and VI in early CRC pathology reporting. The reproducibility and clinical significance of enhanced LI and VI detection by this method and the relative importance of LI and VI in this clinical setting require further study.

  4. Minimally Invasive, Single-Stage, Multilevel Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Friedman, Michael; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Bonzelaar, Lauren; Salapatas, Anna M; Lin, Meng-Chih; Huang, Kuo-Tung

    2017-02-01

    This study adds to the literature on the efficacy and low complication rates associated with minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery for Asian adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for whom conservative treatment had failed. Overall, our experience has produced results that make this procedure an option for select patients with snoring and OSA. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of anatomy-based, minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery in the treatment of OSA in an Asian population. This retrospective study enrolled 59 consecutive patients with OSA from a tertiary academic medical center who had multilevel obstruction and unsuccessful conservative therapy and then underwent minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery. The subjective symptoms and objective polysomnographic findings were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of 3 months postoperatively. The Global Patient Assessment questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction after minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery. Scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and bed partner evaluation of patient's snoring on a visual analog scale (scale of 0-10, with 0 indicating no snoring and 10 indicating the bed partner to leave the room or sleep separately, as assessed by the bed partner). The primary outcomes are a 50% decrease in bed partner's snoring visual analog scale level postoperatively and an improvement of 50% or more in apnea-hypopnea index by an at least 3-month follow-up. Adverse events and patient-reported quality measures were also assessed. Forty-seven patients (36 men and 11 women; mean [SD], 47.3 [10.9] years) with a minimum 3-month follow-up and complete data were included in the analysis. None of the patients had serious perioperative or postoperative complications. Three months postoperatively, the mean (SD) scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and bed partner evaluation of patient's snoring on the visual analog scale decreased

  5. Preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer. Accurate staging for bladder preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Norio; Arima, Kiminobu; Kawamura, Juichi; Tochigi, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of bladder preservation by preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion (BOAI) chemotherapy was studied in 111 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer. BOAI was performed by blocking the blood flow of the internal iliac artery and by performing intra-arterial infusion of adriamycin (50 mg/body) and cisplatin (100 mg/body). Before BOAI the clinical diagnosis was T2 in 36, T3a in 29, T3b in 27, T4 in 11 and after BOAI it was T0 in 1, T1 in 27, T2 in 25, T3a in 20, T3b in 20, and T4 in 10. Down staging was observed on diagnostic images in 46.6%. Thirty patients (27.0%) received transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt) and their bladder could be preserved. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 100% in pT0 (n=9), 97.5% in pT1 (n=47), 79.9% in pT2 (n=21), 80.0% in pT3a (n=6), 39.9% in pT3b (n=18) and 51.9% in pT4 cases (n=9). For the bladder preservation, accurate staging diagnosis is required. Since 1992, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in addition to imaging diagnosis for improving the accuracy of staging diagnosis. The accuracies of staging diagnosis with and without endorectal MRI were 62.5% and 44.0%, respectively. BOAI as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the possibility of bladder-preserving therapy in locally invasive bladder cancer. Also, the endorectal MRI can improve the accuracy of staging diagnosis, which is important for the bladder preservation. (author)

  6. Radical trachelectomy in early-stage cervical cancer: A comparison of laparotomy and minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo A; Rendón, Gabriel J; Munsell, Mark; Echeverri, Lina; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Pareja, Rene; Escobar, Pedro F; Reis, Ricardo Dos; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2015-09-01

    Radical trachelectomy is considered standard of care in patients with early-stage cervical cancer interested in future fertility. The goal of this study was to compare operative, oncologic, and fertility outcomes in patients with early-stage cervical cancer undergoing open vs. minimally invasive radical trachelectomy. A retrospective review was performed of patients from four institutions who underwent radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer from June 2002 to July 2013. Perioperative, oncologic, and fertility outcomes were compared between patients undergoing open vs. minimally invasive surgery. A total of 100 patients were included in the analysis. Fifty-eight patients underwent open radical trachelectomy and 42 patients underwent minimally invasive surgery (MIS=laparoscopic or robotic). There were no differences in patient age, body mass index, race, histology, lymph vascular space invasion, or stage between the two groups. The median surgical time for MIS was 272min [range, 130-441min] compared with 270min [range, 150-373min] for open surgery (p=0.78). Blood loss was significantly lower for MIS vs. laparotomy (50mL [range, 10-225mL] vs. 300mL [50-1100mL]) (psurgery group (p=0.010). Length of hospitalization was shorter for MIS than for laparotomy (1day [1-3 days] vs. 4days [1-9 days]) (psurgery group. The median lymph node count was 17 (range, 5-47) for MIS vs. 22 (range, 7-48) for open surgery (p=0.03). There were no differences in the rate of postoperative complications (30% MIS vs. 31% open surgery). Among 83 patients who preserved their fertility (33 MIS vs. 50 open surgery), 34 (41%) patients attempted to get pregnant. Sixteen (47%) patients were able to do so (MIS: 2 vs. laparotomy: 14, p=0.01). The pregnancy rate was higher in the open surgery group when compared to the MIS group (51% vs. 28%, p=0.018). However, median follow-up was shorter is the MIS group compared with the open surgery group (25months [range, 10-69] vs. 66months [range, 11

  7. Two Stage Enucleation and Deflation of a Large Unicystic Ameloblastoma with Mural Invasion in Mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Ando, Tomohiro; Akizuki, Tanetaka

    2014-01-01

    A treatment for strategy of unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) should be decided by its pathology type including luminal or mural type. Luminal type of UA can be treated only by enucleation alone, but UA with mural invasion should be treated aggressively like conventional ameloblastomas. However, it is difficult to diagnose the subtype of UA by an initial biopsy. There is a possibility that the lesion is an ordinary cyst or keratocystic odontogenic tumor, leading to a possible overtreatment. Therefore, this study performed the enucleation of the cyst wall and deflation at first, and the pathological finding confirmed mural invasion into the cystic wall, leading to the second surgery. The second surgery enucleated scar tissue, bone curettage, and deflation, and was able to contribute to the reduction of the recurrence rate by removing tumor nest in scar tissue or new bone, enhancing new bone formation, and shrinking the mandibular expanding by fenestration. In this study, a large UA with mural invasion including condyle was treated by “two-stage enucleation and deflation” in a 20-year-old patient. PMID:25050148

  8. Two stage enucleation and deflation of a large unicystic ameloblastoma with mural invasion in mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Ando, Tomohiro; Akizuki, Tanetaka

    2014-06-01

    A treatment for strategy of unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) should be decided by its pathology type including luminal or mural type. Luminal type of UA can be treated only by enucleation alone, but UA with mural invasion should be treated aggressively like conventional ameloblastomas. However, it is difficult to diagnose the subtype of UA by an initial biopsy. There is a possibility that the lesion is an ordinary cyst or keratocystic odontogenic tumor, leading to a possible overtreatment. Therefore, this study performed the enucleation of the cyst wall and deflation at first, and the pathological finding confirmed mural invasion into the cystic wall, leading to the second surgery. The second surgery enucleated scar tissue, bone curettage, and deflation, and was able to contribute to the reduction of the recurrence rate by removing tumor nest in scar tissue or new bone, enhancing new bone formation, and shrinking the mandibular expanding by fenestration. In this study, a large UA with mural invasion including condyle was treated by "two-stage enucleation and deflation" in a 20-year-old patient.

  9. Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Establishment in China: Stages of Invasion and Potential Future Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central Asia, it was not known to occur in China until 1953. For the first three decades the spread of codling moth within China was slow. Within the last three decades, addition of new commercial apple orchards and improved transportation, this pest has spread to over 131 counties in seven provinces in China. We developed regional (China) and global ecological niche models using MaxEnt to identify areas at highest potential risk of codling moth establishment and spread. Our objectives were to 1) predict the potential distribution of codling moth in China, 2) identify the important environmental factors associated with codling moth distribution in China, and 3) identify the different stages of invasion of codling moth in China. Human footprint, annual temperature range, precipitation of wettest quarter, and degree days ≥10 °C were the most important predictors associated with codling moth distribution. Our analysis identified areas where codling moth has the potential to establish, and mapped the different stages of invasion (i.e., potential for population stabilization, colonization, adaptation, and sink) of codling moth in China. Our results can be used in effective monitoring and management to stem the spread of codling moth in China. PMID:28973489

  10. A new tool for distinguishing muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: the initial application of flexible ultrasound bronchoscope in bladder tumor staging.

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    Chuanliang Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope (FUB as a tool in distinguishing muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive bladder tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2010 to April 2012, 62 patients (11 female and 51 male with 92 bladder urothelial carcinoma were treated in our study. The mean (±SD patient age was 64.0±12.5 years old (ranged from 22 to 87. Clinical T stage was assessed by FUB at first in operating room, then immediately initial diagnostic transurethral resection (TUR was performed. A second TUR would be done 2-4 weeks after initial TUR when the latter was incomplete (in large and multiple tumours, no muscle in the specimen or when an exophytic high-grade and/or T1 tumour was detected. And radical cystectomy would be performed for the patients who were diagnosed with muscle-invasive tumors. FUB staging and initial TUR staging, final pathological results were compared. RESULTS: In ultrasonic images, the normal muscle layer of bladder wall could be clearly distinguished into three layers, which were hyperechogenic mucosa, hypoechogenic muscle and hyperechogenic serosal. For non-muscle invasive tumors, the muscle layers were continuous. And distorted or discontinuous muscle layers could be seen in muscle-invasive case. The overall accuracy (95.7% and the specificity of muscle invasion detection of FUB (98.8% were comparable to TUR (overall accuracy 90.2% and specificity 100%, but sensitivity of muscle invasion detection of FUB was significantly higher than initial TUR (72.7%VS18.2%. Moreover, the tumor's diameter could not affect the FUB's accuracy of muscle invasion detection. For tumors near the bladder neck, FUB also showed the similar validity as those far from bladder neck. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope is an effective tool for muscle invasion detection of bladder tumor with ideal ultrasonic images. It is an alternative option for bladder tumor staging besides TUR. It might

  11. Transposition of cardinal ligaments for stages II–III uterine prolapse: A minimally invasive procedure

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    Mohamad K Ramadan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine and other pelvic organ prolapse (POP are becoming more frequently encountered due to increased life expectancy among menopausal women. Traditionally, most surgical procedures included hysterectomy as an integral part of the management. POP might, however, though less commonly, affect women not willing to accept hysterectomy, especially young females who did not complete their family. For these patients, uterine prolapse could be managed by a number of uterine-sparing surgical procedures that are performed through either abdominal or vaginal route according to patient's condition, surgeon's choice, and skills. Most of these operations, however, are usually lengthy, invasive, need good experience, and sometimes special accessories and instruments. We performed anterior transposition of the cardinal ligaments on two patients with POP quantification Stages II-III uterine prolapse without amputating the cervix. Both patients were interviewed at 6, 12, and 18-month intervals and reported no undue pain or dyspareunia with complete satisfaction regarding self-assessment of gynecologic anatomy. Furthermore, examination by the lead author revealed satisfactory anatomic correction. We recommend this simple, easy, and minimally invasive vaginal procedure to fellow gynecologists for repair of mild degrees of uterine prolapse in women declining hysterectomy or amputation of the cervix.

  12. Frequency of Treponema pallidum invasion into cerebrospinal fluid in primary or secondary early-stage syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Mao; Yamagishi, Yuka; Kato, Hideo; Shibata, Yuichi; Shiota, Arufumi; Sakanashi, Daisuke; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Hiroki; Asai, Nobuhiro; Koizumi, Yusuke; Furui, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Izumi, Koji; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2017-12-08

    Frequency of Treponema pallidum invasion into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not been clear at this present. Since it is impossible to culture T. pallidum in vitro at this present, we need molecular based-approach to detect it in CSF. Additionally, neurosyphilis is usually a late sequela, however it might result in asymptomatic neurosyphilis even at primary or secondary syphilis. This study was to reveal the frequency of T. pallidum invasion into CSF especially at primary or secondary syphilis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. All patients were visited the Aichi Medical University Hospital or Izumi ladies' clinic between 2016 and 2017. Clinical CSF samples were collected from patients with early and late stages of syphilis. The PCR was done using primers targeting the tpN47gene. CSF samples were collected from 9 patients (4 patients with primary syphilis, 3 with secondary syphilis, and 1 early latent syphilis and 1 with late latent syphilis). PCR showed positive reaction in 2 of 7 (28.6%) primary and secondary syphilis patients, in 1 of 1 (100%) early latent syphilis patients, and in 1 of 1 (100%) late latent syphilis patients. Despite its lack of sensitivity for use alone as a diagnostic test, this PCR test should be preferred for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Because, T. pallidum was detected in the 28.6% CSF of patients at primary and secondary syphilis, which indicated that they invade the central nervous system from the early stages of infection. However, studies in a larger population are required to confirm these preliminary results. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DPEP1, expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis, affects cancer cell invasiveness.

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    Toiyama, Yuji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Hiromi; Saigusa, Susumu; Yokoe, Takeshi; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Tanaka, Koji; Miki, Chikao; Kusunoki, Masato

    2011-02-01

    We investigated changes in the gene expression profile in colon cancer in order to identify gene markers that may be useful in the management of this disease. The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project was used to detect differences in gene expression between normal and cancer tissue. The overexpression of dipeptidase-1 (DPEP1) in cancer tissue was confirmed in a sample of 76 patients by real-time PCR. To identify the function of DPEP1, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to inactivate this gene in the colon cancer cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize the pattern of DPEP1 expression in colon cancer. DPEP1 expression in cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissue. However, DPEP1 expression decreased with pathological differentiation, lymph-node and distant metastasis. Patients with tumors with decreased DPEP1 expression showed a poorer prognosis, and this was also true of patients with tumors who are treated with curative intent. RNAi-mediated DPEP1 reduction in the colon cancer cell line did not result in cell proliferation or apoptosis, but was associated with an increased invasive ability. DPEP1 protein was observed on the apical side of the cancer cells, and is expressed in the early stages of carcinogenesis, even in adenomas of both sporadic colorectal cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis patients. DPEP1 expression in normal colonic mucosa is very low, but it is highly expressed in colorectal adenoma and cancer specimens and is negatively correlated with parameters of pathological aggressiveness and poor prognosis. DPEP1 is expressed in the early stages of colon carcinogenesis and affects cancer cell invasiveness.

  14. Proliferation of endogenous retroviruses in the early stages of a host germ line invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Zhao, Kai; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 8% of the human genome and are common in all vertebrate genomes. The only retrovirus known to be currently transitioning from exogenous to endogenous form is the koala retrovirus (KoRV), making koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) ideal for examining the early stages of retroviral endogenization. To distinguish endogenous from exogenous KoRV proviruses, we isolated koala genomic regions flanking KoRV integration sites. In three wild southern Australian koalas, there were fewer KoRV loci than in three captive Queensland koalas, consistent with reports that southern Australian koalas carry fewer KoRVs. Of 39 distinct KoRV proviral loci examined in a sire-dam-progeny triad, all proved to be vertically transmitted and endogenous; none was exogenous. Of the 39 endogenous KoRVs (enKoRVs), only one was present in the genomes of both the sire and the dam, suggesting that, at this early stage in the retroviral invasion of a host germ line, very large numbers of ERVs have proliferated at very low frequencies in the koala population. Sequence divergence between the 5'- and 3'-long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a provirus can be used as a molecular clock. Within each of ten enKoRVs, the 5'-LTR sequence was identical to the 3'-LTR sequence, suggesting a maximum age for enKoRV invasion of the koala germ line of approximately 22,200-49,900 years ago, although a much younger age is possible. Across the ten proviruses, seven LTR haplotypes were detected, indicating that at least seven different retroviral sequences had entered the koala germ line. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Surgical staging identified false HPV-negative cases in a large series of invasive cervical cancers.

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    Petry, Karl Ulrich; Liebrich, Clemens; Luyten, Alexander; Zander, Martina; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We examined a large series of biopsy-proven invasive cervical cancers with surgical staging and HPV re-testing to estimate the relevance of HPV-negative cervical cancers in a Caucasian population. We prospectively collected smears from 371 patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of cervical cancer for HC2 testing of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV). In HC2-negative cases, smears and paraffin embedded tissue blocks underwent additional HPV genotyping. HC2 tests showed 31/371 cases (8.8%) had negative findings. Surgical staging showed that 21/31 HC2-negative cases (68%) were not cervical cancer. Overall, 340/350 cases of primary cervical cancer confirmed by surgical staging tested HC2 positive (97.2%). Non-high-risk HPV subtypes were detected in five cases (one HPV-53, one HPV-70, and three HPV-73) and high-risk subtypes in four patients with HC2-negative cervical cancer (two HPV 16 and two HPV-18). The remaining case, a primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the uterine cervix, tested negative for HPV-DNA with all tests. The main explanation for HPV-negative cervical cancer was a false diagnosis, followed by cancers associated with non-HR-HPV types, and false-negative HR-HPV results. Truly HPV negative seem to be very rare in Caucasian populations. Retrospective analyses without surgical staging may overestimate the proportion of HPV negative cervical cancers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Spartina alterniflora invasion stages on macrobenthic communities on a tidal flat in Wenzhou Bay, China

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    Bao-Ming Ge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal habitats in eastern China are being substantially altered by the invasion of Spartina alterniflora. The species richness, density, Margalef's diversity index (R and Shannon's diversity index (H' of macrobenthic communities on a tidal flat in Wenzhou Bay, China, were analyzed with the factors of invasion stage and season, in 2007. A significant effect of invasion stage, season, and the interaction between them on communities was detected. The macrobenthic community was more complex in the patch of initial S. alterniflora invasion than in the patches of some other invasion stages. Macrobenthic communities were classified by cluster and ordination in accordance with the habitat character of the S. alterniflora invasion stage. Our research demonstrated that the S. alterniflora invasion stage affected the macrobenthic communities significantly. The results indicated that biodiversity increased in the initial stage of invasion (invasion age 1-2 years and then decreased in the stage of invasion underway (invasion age 3-4 years and in the stage of invasion completed (invasion age 5-6 years; this phenomenon was related to the change in the S. alterniflora canopy which accompanied the invasion stages.Muitos habitats costeiros vêm sendo alterados substancialmente pela invasão de Spartina alterniflora no leste da China. Em 2007, em uma planície de maré situada em Wenzhou Bay, foram analisadas riqueza de espécies, densidade e diversidade da macrofauna bêntica em relação a diferentes estágios da invasão da gramínea e à estação do ano. Para as medidas de diversidade foram usados os índices de Margalef (R e de Shannon (H'. Foram detectados efeitos significativos do estágio de invasão e época do ano sobre a macrofauna. As comunidades macrofaunais foram mais complexas nas manchas onde a invasão de S. alterniflora estava no seu início, quando considerados os locais onde as manchas estavam em estágios mais avançados. Através das

  17. Mammographic findings predicting an extensive intraductal component in early stage invasive breast cancer : analysis on microcalcification

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    Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Mi Hye; Lee, Mi Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Pundang CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    To analyze the mammographic findings of extensive intraductal component (EIC)-positive early invasive breast carcinoma and to determine the mammographic features which predict an EIC positivity in an invasive carcinoma. The mammographic and pathologic findings in 71 patients aged 34-79 (mean 50) years in whom stage I or II invasive breast carcinoma had been diagnosed were retrospectively analysed. The mammographic findings were assigned to one of three groups: mass, mass with microcalcification, or microcalcification only. The shape and distribution of a calcification were classified according to the BI-RADS lexicon, and its extent was classified as either more or less than 3 cm. To detect the presence or absence of EIC and the type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the findings were re-examined by means of slide mappings. Twenty-eight of 71 patients (39%) showed ECI positivity. The mammographic findings of EIC-positive invasive cancer (n=3D28) were mass with microcalcification (n=3D14), microcalcification only (n=3D7) and mass only (n=3D7). The mammographic finding which predicted EIC positivity was mass with microcalcification (PPV:0.67, NPV:0.33, p=3D0.02). A mammographic of mass only (n=3D39) showed a significantly high negative predictive value for EIC positivity. (PPV 0.18, NPV 0.82, P less than 0.01). A comparison of cases with or without calcification showed that those with microcalcifications (n=3D32) showed a significantly high PPV of 0.66 (NPV:0.34, p less than 0.01) while those without calcification (n=3D39) showed a significantly high NPV of 0.82 (PPV:0.18, p less than 0.01). There were no significant differences in positive predictive values for EIC between the shape, distribution and extent of calcifications. Whenever microcalcification with or without mass is seen on mammographs obtained during early breast cancer, we can predict EIC-positivity, regardless of shape or distribution according to the BI-RADS lexicon. (author)

  18. Rectal cancer staging: Multidetector-row computed tomography diagnostic accuracy in assessment of mesorectal fascia invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Davide; Drago, Silvia Girolama; Franzesi, Cammillo Talei; Fior, Davide; Sironi, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in identifying mesorectal fascia (MRF) invasion in rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with biopsy proven rectal adenocarcinoma referred for thoracic and abdominal CT staging were enrolled in this study. The contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were performed on a 256 row scanner (ICT, Philips) with the following acquisition parameters: tube voltage 120 KV, tube current 150-300 mAs. Imaging data were reviewed as axial and as multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) images along the rectal tumor axis. MRI study, performed on 1.5 T with dedicated phased array multicoil, included multiplanar T2 and axial T1 sequences and diffusion weighted images (DWI). Axial and MPR CT images independently were compared to MRI and MRF involvement was determined. Diagnostic accuracy of both modalities was compared and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: According to MRI, the MRF was involved in 51 patients and not involved in 40 patients. DWI allowed to recognize the tumor as a focal mass with high signal intensity on high b-value images, compared with the signal of the normal adjacent rectal wall or with the lower tissue signal intensity background. The number of patients correctly staged by the native axial CT images was 71 out of 91 (41 with involved MRF; 30 with not involved MRF), while by using the MPR 80 patients were correctly staged (45 with involved MRF; 35 with not involved MRF). Local tumor staging suggested by MDCT agreed with those of MRI, obtaining for CT axial images sensitivity and specificity of 80.4% and 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 80.4%, negative predictive value (NPV) 75% and accuracy 78%; while performing MPR the sensitivity and specificity increased to 88% and 87.5%, PPV was 90%, NPV 85.36% and accuracy 88%. MPR images showed higher diagnostic accuracy, in terms of MRF involvement, than native axial images

  19. Rectal cancer staging: Multidetector-row computed tomography diagnostic accuracy in assessment of mesorectal fascia invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Davide; Drago, Silvia Girolama; Franzesi, Cammillo Talei; Fior, Davide; Sironi, Sandro

    2016-05-28

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in identifying mesorectal fascia (MRF) invasion in rectal cancer patients. Ninety-one patients with biopsy proven rectal adenocarcinoma referred for thoracic and abdominal CT staging were enrolled in this study. The contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were performed on a 256 row scanner (ICT, Philips) with the following acquisition parameters: tube voltage 120 KV, tube current 150-300 mAs. Imaging data were reviewed as axial and as multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) images along the rectal tumor axis. MRI study, performed on 1.5 T with dedicated phased array multicoil, included multiplanar T2 and axial T1 sequences and diffusion weighted images (DWI). Axial and MPR CT images independently were compared to MRI and MRF involvement was determined. Diagnostic accuracy of both modalities was compared and statistically analyzed. According to MRI, the MRF was involved in 51 patients and not involved in 40 patients. DWI allowed to recognize the tumor as a focal mass with high signal intensity on high b-value images, compared with the signal of the normal adjacent rectal wall or with the lower tissue signal intensity background. The number of patients correctly staged by the native axial CT images was 71 out of 91 (41 with involved MRF; 30 with not involved MRF), while by using the MPR 80 patients were correctly staged (45 with involved MRF; 35 with not involved MRF). Local tumor staging suggested by MDCT agreed with those of MRI, obtaining for CT axial images sensitivity and specificity of 80.4% and 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 80.4%, negative predictive value (NPV) 75% and accuracy 78%; while performing MPR the sensitivity and specificity increased to 88% and 87.5%, PPV was 90%, NPV 85.36% and accuracy 88%. MPR images showed higher diagnostic accuracy, in terms of MRF involvement, than native axial images, as compared to the

  20. Invasive Earthworms and Forest Successional Stage Interact to Impact Plant Litter Inputs and Particulate Organic Matter Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The landscapes colonized by invasive earthworms in the eastern U.S. are often patchworks of forest stands in various stages of successional development. We established six field sites in tulip poplar dominated forests in the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Forest (SERC), MD, that span you...

  1. Staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Oh, Jong-Keon; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Park, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee-June; Jung, Jae-Wook; Jung, Young-Soo

    2017-06-01

    High-energy proximal tibial fractures often accompany compartment syndrome and are usually treated by fasciotomy with external fixation followed by secondary plating. However, the initial soft tissue injury may affect bony union, the fasciotomy incision or external fixator pin sites may lead to postoperative wound infections, and the staged procedure itself may adversely affect lower limb function. We assess the results of staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome. Twenty-eight patients with proximal tibial fractures accompanied by acute compartment syndrome who underwent staged MIPO and had a minimum of 12 months follow-up were enrolled. According to the AO/OTA classification, 6 were 41-A, 15 were 41-C, 2 were 42-A and 5 were 42-C fractures; this included 6 cases of open fractures. Immediate fasciotomy was performed once compartment syndrome was diagnosed and stabilization of the fracture followed using external fixation. After the soft tissue condition normalized, internal conversion with MIPO was done on an average of 37 days (range, 9-158) after index trauma. At the time of internal conversion, the external fixator pin site grades were 0 in 3 cases, 1 in 12 cases, 2 in 10 cases and 3 in 3 cases, as described by Dahl. Radiographic assessment of bony union and alignment and a functional assessment using the Knee Society Score and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were carried out. Twenty-six cases achieved primary bony union at an average of 18.5 weeks. Two cases of nonunion healed after autogenous bone grafting. The mean Knee Society Score and the AOFAS score were 95 and 95.3 respectively, at last follow-up. Complications included 1 case of osteomyelitis in a patient with a grade IIIC open fracture and 1 case of malunion caused by delayed MIPO due to poor wound conditions. Duration of external fixation and the external fixator pin site grade were not related to the

  2. Subcompartmentalisation of proteins in the rhoptries correlates with ordered events of erythrocyte invasion by the blood stage malaria parasite.

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    Elizabeth S Zuccala

    Full Text Available Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction - the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion.

  3. Primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina after Le Fort partial colpocleisis for stage IV pelvic organ prolapse: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moon Kyoung; Kim, Chul Hong; Kim, Yoon Ha

    2011-11-01

    We present here the case report of a postmenopausal woman who complained of recurrent pus-like vaginal discharge and perianal pain 1 year after Le Fort colpocleisis, which was subsequently identified as a primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Biopsy confirmed a squamous cell carcinoma in the vagina, and the disease was classified as stage III according to FIGO staging. The patient received pelvic radiotherapy. This case emphasizes that differential diagnosis of recurrent vaginal discharge that presents remote from obliterative procedure for pelvic organ prolapse should consider not only pyometra, but also other causes.

  4. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types

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    Roxana Aragón

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently biological invasions are considered one of the world’s most serious conservation problems. Ligustrum lucidum is the most abundant exotic tree in secondary forest patches of montane forests of NW Argentina. We studied the determinants of success of the early stages of its life cycle in distinct habitat types, with the hope of identifying vulnerabilities that could be exploited to control the invasion. Seed arrival, germination, seedling recruitment and survival, and sapling growth were studied in edges, gaps and forest interior. Seed arrival was also assessed under perches and in open fields. Germination was studied in forest and grass-land patches. L. lucidum seedling survival and sapling growth were compared with the most abundant native species survival and growth. Seed arrival was strongly seasonal with a peak in mid-August. Seed rain did not differ significantly among habitat types, however there was a tendency for edges to receive more seeds when only dispersed seeds were considered. Perches strongly enhanced seed arrival; more than 40 times the number of seeds were dispersed beneath citrus plants (i.e. perches than found in paired open areas. In the forest, seeds in gaps and edges had higher germination rates, but there was no difference in seedling survival. Fruits under closed canopy exhibited the lowest germination. Germination and survival were low in open areas. Neither seedling recruitment nor sapling growth differed between gaps and forest interior. L. lucidum saplings grew significantly more than saplings of the most common native species, and also showed higher seedling survival. L. lucidum is a prolific fruit producer, is capable of germinating and surviving in a broad range of forest environments, it is relatively shade tolerant and has higher survival and faster growth rate in comprison to the most common native species. All these characteristics highlight its potency as a successful invader, and point to few

  5. B Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes Tumor Invasion and Predicts Poor Prognosis of Early-Stage Colorectal Cancer

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    Jiali Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well established that many non-trophoblastic tumors secrete HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin and that such secretion is correlated with the poor prognosis of tumor patients. This study aims to analyze the correlation between β-HCG expression and outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC and understand its role in CRC pathology Methods: We detected the mRNA and protein expression of β-HCG in human CRC tissues with RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, and we compared the clinical-pathological characteristics, prognosis and progression between the β-HCG positive and negative groups. We also generated CRC cell lines with β-HCG over-expression as well as β-HCG stable knockout, and evaluated cell function and mechanism in vitro and in vivo. Results: Fifty out of 136 CRC patients (37% expressed β-HCG at the invasive front. Clinical-pathological data showed that β-HCG was positively correlated with Dukes staging (P=0.031 and lymph node metastasis (P=0.012. Survival analysis suggested that the patients with high expression of β-HCG had poorer prognosis than those with low β-HCG expression (P=0.0289. β-HCG expression level was also positively correlated with tumor invasion in early-stage CRC patient tissues (P=0.0227. Additionally β-HCG promoted the migration and invasion of CRC in vitro and in vivo but had no effect on the proliferation of tumor cells. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that β-HCG was ectopically expressed in the CRC patients and its high expression correlated with poor prognosis of early-stage CRC. Additionally it worked as an oncogene that promotes the migration and invasion of CRC by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT.

  6. B Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes Tumor Invasion and Predicts Poor Prognosis of Early-Stage Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiali; Yin, Mingzhu; Song, Wanjing; Cui, Fengyun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shuyang; Zhu, Hongguang

    2018-01-01

    It is well established that many non-trophoblastic tumors secrete HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and that such secretion is correlated with the poor prognosis of tumor patients. This study aims to analyze the correlation between β-HCG expression and outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) and understand its role in CRC pathology Methods: We detected the mRNA and protein expression of β-HCG in human CRC tissues with RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, and we compared the clinical-pathological characteristics, prognosis and progression between the β-HCG positive and negative groups. We also generated CRC cell lines with β-HCG over-expression as well as β-HCG stable knockout, and evaluated cell function and mechanism in vitro and in vivo. Fifty out of 136 CRC patients (37%) expressed β-HCG at the invasive front. Clinical-pathological data showed that β-HCG was positively correlated with Dukes staging (P=0.031) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.012). Survival analysis suggested that the patients with high expression of β-HCG had poorer prognosis than those with low β-HCG expression (P=0.0289). β-HCG expression level was also positively correlated with tumor invasion in early-stage CRC patient tissues (P=0.0227). Additionally β-HCG promoted the migration and invasion of CRC in vitro and in vivo but had no effect on the proliferation of tumor cells. Our study demonstrated that β-HCG was ectopically expressed in the CRC patients and its high expression correlated with poor prognosis of early-stage CRC. Additionally it worked as an oncogene that promotes the migration and invasion of CRC by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Inhibition of Host Cell Lysosome Spreading by Trypanosoma cruzi Metacyclic Stage-Specific Surface Molecule gp90 Downregulates Parasite Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João Paulo Ferreira; Sant'ana, Guilherme Hideki Takahashi; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2017-09-01

    Successful infection by Trypanosoma cruzi , the agent of Chagas' disease, is critically dependent on host cell invasion by metacyclic trypomastigote (MT) forms. Two main metacyclic stage-specific surface molecules, gp82 and gp90, play determinant roles in target cell invasion in vitro and in oral T. cruzi infection in mice. The structure and properties of gp82, which is highly conserved among T. cruzi strains, are well known. Information on gp90 is still rather sparse. Here, we attempted to fill that gap. gp90, purified from poorly invasive G strain MT and expressing gp90 at high levels, inhibited HeLa cell lysosome spreading and the gp82-mediated internalization of a highly invasive CL strain MT expressing low levels of a diverse gp90 molecule. A recombinant protein containing the conserved C-terminal domain of gp90 exhibited the same properties as the native G strain gp90: it counteracted the host cell lysosome spreading induced by recombinant gp82 and exhibited an inhibitory effect on HeLa cell invasion by CL strain MT. Assays to identify the gp90 sequence associated with the property of downregulating MT invasion, using synthetic peptides spanning the gp90 C-terminal domain, revealed the sequence GVLYTADKEW. These data, plus the findings that lysosome spreading was induced upon HeLa cell interaction with CL strain MT, but not with G strain MT, and that in mixed infection CL strain MT internalization was inhibited by G strain MT, suggest that the inhibition of target cell lysosome spreading is the mechanism by which the gp90 molecule exerts its downregulatory role. Copyright © 2017 Rodrigues et al.

  8. Association of C-MYC amplification with progression from the in situ to the invasive stage in C-MYC-amplified breast carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robanus-Maandag, Els C.; Bosch, Cathy A. J.; Kristel, Petra M.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Faneyte, Ian F.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Peterse, Johannes L.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2003-01-01

    Human carcinoma in situ of the breast already demonstrates genomic changes found in invasive lesions. However, no specific genetic alterations have previously been identified that are associated with progression from the in situ to the invasive stage. By comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and

  9. Gut microbiota of an invasive subcortical beetle, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, across various life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana Vasanthakumar; Jo Handelsman; Patrick D. Schloss; Leah S. Bauer; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2008-01-01

    We characterized gut microbial communities in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive phloem-feeding and wood-boring beetle that has caused extensive mortality to urban and forest ash trees. Analyses included both 16S rRNA gene-based and culture-based approaches. We estimated that the emerald ash borer gut harbors 44, 71,...

  10. Competition among native and invasive Impatiens species: the roles of environmental factors, population density and life stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuda, Jan; Skálová, Hana; Janovský, Zdeněk; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-04-01

    Many invasive species are considered competitively superior to native species, with the strongest competition expected in species with similar niches and/or in closely related species. However, competition outcome is strongly context-dependent as competitive strength varies along environmental gradients, and life stages, and also depends on abundances. To explore the importance of these factors, we examined competition effects in an experiment with three Impatiens species (Balsaminaceae) widespread in central Europe and sharing similar life-history characteristics and habitats: the native I. noli-tangere, and two invasive species, I. parviflora and I. glandulifera. We compared their competitive strength and reciprocal impacts under two levels of water and light availability, two overall planting densities and three competitor densities. We assessed species performance (ability to complete the life-cycle, biomass and fecundity) and temporal competition dynamics in a garden pot experiment. Environmental variables had lower explanatory power than overall planting and competitor density, which indicates the importance of competitive interactions when evaluating plant performance and potential invasion success. Despite poor and delayed germination, the invasive I. glandulifera attained dominance even at a high competitor density and was competitively superior across all treatments, exceeding the height of both congeners. Impatiens parviflora was competitively weakest, having a negligible impact on both native I. noli-tangere and invasive I. glandulifera. The intermediate competitive strength of the native I. noli-tangere probably results from its intermediate height, and good germination rate and timing. The difference in height among species increased during the experiment when I. glandulifera was involved; this species continues growing until autumn, enhancing its competitive superiority. The results provide a mechanistic understanding for the competitive exclusion of

  11. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    immunoreactivity was determined with antibody PAB 1801. RESULTS: The study comprised 143 patients including 31 (22%) with stage T1a disease, 60 (42%) with stage T1b and 52 (36%) with stage T1c. Mean patient age was 67 years (range 38 to 92) and mean followup was 4.7 years (range 2.4 to 9.7). Tumor grade related...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p ...PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...

  12. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Stage I Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, N; Koskivuo, I; Boström, P; Saunavaara, J; Aaltonen, R; Parkkola, R

    2018-03-01

    Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging has become an important complementary imaging technique in patients with breast cancer, providing additional information for preoperative local staging. Magnetic resonance imaging is recommended selectively in lobular breast cancer and in patients with dense breast tissue in the case when mammography and ultrasound fail to fully evaluate the lesion, but the routine use of magnetic resonance imaging in all patients with invasive ductal carcinoma is controversial. The purpose of this randomized study was to investigate the diagnostic value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and its impact on short-term surgical outcome in newly diagnosed unifocal stage I invasive ductal carcinoma. A total of 100 patients were randomized to either receive preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging or to be scheduled directly to operation without magnetic resonance imaging on a 1:1 basis. There were 50 patients in both study arms. In 14 patients (28%), breast magnetic resonance imaging detected an additional finding and seven of them were found to be malignant. Six additional cancer foci were found in the ipsilateral breast and one in the contralateral breast. Magnetic resonance imaging findings caused a change in planned surgical management in 10 patients (20%). Mastectomy was performed in six patients (12%) in the magnetic resonance imaging group and in two patients (4%) in the control group ( p = 0.140). The breast reoperation rate was 14% in the magnetic resonance imaging group and 24% in the control group ( p = 0.202). The mean interval between referral and first surgical procedure was 34 days in the magnetic resonance imaging group and 21 days in the control group ( p magnetic resonance imaging may be beneficial for some patients with early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma, but its routine use is not recommended without specific indications.

  13. Axillary fine needle aspiration cytology for pre-operative staging of patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of radiologically abnormal axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer can identify patients suitable for primary axillary clearance (AC) rather than sentinel node biopsy, enabling surgical axillary staging by a single operation. This study assessed the accuracy of FNAC in predicting positive axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: 161 patients with screen-detected invasive carcinoma and who had pre-operative FNAC of a radiologically abnormal axillary lymph node were identified from two screening units, The axillary FNAC reports were correlated with sentinel node biopsy and AC reports, and sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated. RESULTS: FNAC had a moderate sensitivity (66.3%) and NPV (71.8%), and a high specificity (98.7%) and PPV (98.3%). Most patients (86%) had a single axillary operation. The sensitivity was highest in grade 3 (81.8%) and ductal type (77.8%) tumours. The sensitivity was lower in tumours of special type (34.8%), grade 1 tumours (50%) and those without lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (55.9%). The NPV was highest in pT1 (86.7%) and in grade 1 (84.5%) tumours, and lowest (44%) in tumours with LVI. The PPV was 100% in grade 1 and 3 tumours, stage pT2 and pT3 tumours and those without LVI, and was high (>96%) in all other groups. In lymph-node-positive patients, the mean number of lymph nodes involved was higher in the case of a positive (6.4) than negative FNAC (4.4). CONCLUSIONS: FNAC of ultrasonically abnormal axillary lymph nodes achieved surgical staging by a single operation in most patients with screen-detected invasive breast carcinoma, with moderate sensitivity and high specificity.

  14. Comparing treatment outcomes of stage IIIB cervical cancer patients between those with and without lower third of vaginal invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanyoo, Kanyarat

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate treatment outcomes between stage IIIB cervical cancer with and without lower third of vaginal invasion (LTI) in terms of response to treatment and overall survival (OS). Matching one patient with LTI for 2 patients without LTI who had completed treatment between 1995 and 2012 were conducted by using treatment modalities (radiation therapy [RT] alone vs. concurrent chemoradiation therapy [CCRT]) and tumor histology (squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] vs. adenocarcinoma [ADC]). Treatment outcomes including complete response (CR) rate of RT/CCRT, patterns of treatment failure and survival outcomes were analyzed. Of 216 stage IIIB cervical cancer patients, 114 of them had no LTI and 72 had LTI. Most of the patients (83.8%) had tumor histology as SCC. The CR rates between stage IIIB without LTI and with LTI were 93.8% and 81.9% (p=0.009), and corresponding with disease progression at pelvis accounted for 18.2% and 34.4% (p=0.017), respectively. Distant metastasis was comparable between 2 groups of patients, 28.9% in patients without LTI and 29.5% in patients with LTI (p=0.988). The 2-year and 5-year OS of stage IIIB without LTI were 66.5% and 46.8% compared to stage IIIB with LTI which were 43.1% and 28.9% (p=0.004), respectively. For multivariable analysis, stage IIIB with LTI was only the influential factor on OS with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.63 (p=0.012). Stage IIIB cervical cancer patients with LTI have poorer treatment outcomes including response to treatment and survival outcomes than patients in the same stage without LTI. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  15. Satellite lymphovascular space invasion: An independent risk factor in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, F.J.M.; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Ham, M.A. van; Kuijpers, D.A.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to determine whether satellite LVSI in women with early stage cervical carcinoma is an independent prognostic factor for recurrence and survival. METHODS: A total of 210 eligible patients with FIGO stages IA2 and IB1 cervical carcinoma, who underwent radical

  16. Spectral Discrimination of the Invasive Plant Spartina alterniflora at Multiple Phenological Stages in a Saltmarsh Wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Tao Ouyang

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora has widely invaded the saltmarshes of the Yangtze River Estuary and brought negative effects to the ecosystem. Remote sensing technique has recently been used to monitor its distribution, but the similar morphology and canopy structure among S. alterniflora and its neighbor species make it difficult even with high-resolution images. Nevertheless, these species have divergence on phenological stages throughout the year, which cause distinguishing spectral characteristics among them and provide opportunities for discrimination. The field spectra of the S. alterniflora community as well as its major victims, native Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter, were measured in 2009 and 2010 at multi-phenological stages in the Yangtze River Estuary, aiming to find the most appropriate periods for mapping S. alterniflora. Collected spectral data were analyzed separately for every stage firstly by re-sampling reflectance curves into continued 5-nm-wide hyper-spectral bands and then by re-sampling into broad multi-spectral bands - the same as the band ranges of the TM sensor, as well as calculating commonly used vegetation indices. The results showed that differences among saltmarsh communities' spectral characteristics were affected by their phenological stages. The germination and early vegetative growth stage and the flowering stage were probably the best timings to identify S. alterniflora. Vegetation indices like NDVI, ANVI, VNVI, and RVI are likely to enhance spectral separability and also make it possible to discriminate S. alterniflora at its withering stage.

  17. Applying Life Stage Sensitivity Data in Chemical Control Strategies for Invasive Animal Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millward, R. N; Kennedy, A. J; Lynn, J. W; Perry, K. D; Ruiz, S; Steevens, J. A

    2007-01-01

    ... product cost and risk for non-target species. Generation of chemical life stage toxicity data for different ANS is critical for the development of such an approach, providing supporting guidance for dosages used in field applications...

  18. An iPSC Line from Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Undergoes Early to Invasive Stages of Pancreatic Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC carries a dismal prognosis and lacks a human cell model of early disease progression. When human PDAC cells are injected into immunodeficient mice, they generate advanced-stage cancer. We hypothesized that if human PDAC cells were converted to pluripotency and then allowed to differentiate back into pancreatic tissue, they might undergo early stages of cancer. Although most induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines were not of the expected cancer genotype, one PDAC line, 10–22 cells, when injected into immunodeficient mice, generated pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN precursors to PDAC that progressed to the invasive stage. The PanIN-like cells secrete or release proteins from many genes that are known to be expressed in human pancreatic cancer progression and that predicted an HNF4α network in intermediate-stage lesions. Thus, rare events allow iPSC technology to provide a live human cell model of early pancreatic cancer and insights into disease progression.

  19. The sensitivity of pre-operative axillary staging in breast cancer: comparison of invasive lobular and ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topps, A; Clay, V; Absar, M; Howe, M; Lim, Y; Johnson, R; Bundred, N

    2014-07-01

    Axillary ultrasound (AUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of abnormal lymph nodes is important for pre-operative staging and planning the surgical management of the axilla. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) metastases are thought to be difficult to detect because the cells are small and on cytology resemble lymphocytes. To investigate this we directly compared the sensitivity of pre-operative axillary staging between ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Consecutive patients that presented in a single breast unit with pure IDC between April 2005 and December 2006 and pure ILC between January 2008 and December 2012 were retrospectively identified from pathology records. Pre-operative axillary ultrasound and FNA biopsy results were compared with post-operative histopathology from the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). A total of 275 and 142 axillae were identified in the IDC and ILC groups respectively. In the node positive patients there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of AUS (IDC vs. ILC; 58.7% vs. 52.8%). However, there was a significant difference in the sensitivity of ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy of abnormal nodes (IDC vs. ILC; 98.4% vs. 53.6%; p < 0.001). AUS has comparative sensitivities between IDC and ILC populations. In contrast, FNA biopsy of abnormal axillary nodes is clearly less sensitive in the ILC group. In these patients, who have abnormal AUS, we suggest that a core biopsy is required to improve the pre-operative staging and prevent unnecessary surgical procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Value of diffusion-weighted imaging in predicting parametrial invasion in stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Jae; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Sung Yoon; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Bohyun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in evaluating parametrial invasion (PMI) in stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer. A total of 117 patients with stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer who underwent preoperative MRI and radical hysterectomy were included in this study. Preoperative clinical variables and MRI variables were analysed and compared between the groups with and without pathologically proven PMI. All variables except age were significantly different between patients with and without pathologic PMI (P < 0.05). All variables except squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen were also significantly correlated with pathologic PMI on univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that PMI on MRI (P < 0.001) and tumour apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) (P = 0.029) were independent predictors of pathologic PMI. Area under the curve of PMI on MRI increased significantly from 0.793 to 0.872 when combined with tumour ADC (P = 0.002). When PMI on MRI was further stratified by tumour ADC, the false negative rate was 2.0 % (1/49). In stage IA2-IIA cervical cancer, tumour ADC and PMI on MRI seem to be independent predictors of pathologic PMI. Combining the two predictors improved the diagnostic performance of identifying patients at low risk of pathologic PMI. (orig.)

  1. A Carbohydrate Moiety of Secreted Stage-Specific Glycoprotein 4 Participates in Host Cell Invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi Extracellular Amastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar T. V. Florentino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease. It is known that amastigotes derived from trypomastigotes in the extracellular milieu are infective in vitro and in vivo. Extracellular amastigotes (EAs have a stage-specific surface antigen called Ssp-4, a GPI-anchored glycoprotein that is secreted by the parasites. By immunoprecipitation with the Ssp-4-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb 2C2 and 1D9, we isolated the glycoprotein from EAs. By mass spectrometry, we identified the core protein of Ssp-4 and evaluated mRNA expression and the presence of Ssp-4 carbohydrate epitopes recognized by mAb1D9. We demonstrated that the carbohydrate epitope recognized by mAb1D9 could promote host cell invasion by EAs. Although infectious EAs express lower amounts of Ssp-4 compared with less-infectious EAs (at the mRNA and protein levels, it is the glycosylation of Ssp-4 (identified by mAb1D9 staining only in infectious strains and recognized by galectin-3 on host cells that is the determinant of EA invasion of host cells. Furthermore, Ssp-4 is secreted by EAs, either free or associated with parasite vesicles, and can participate in host-cell interactions. The results presented here describe the possible role of a carbohydrate moiety of T. cruzi surface glycoproteins in host cell invasion by EA forms, highlighting the potential of these moieties as therapeutic and vaccine targets for the treatment of Chagas’ disease.

  2. A comparison of different non-invasive screening methods in the diagnosis of stage T1 breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Euller, A.; Pfersmann, C.; Bernaschek, G.; Breitenecker, G.

    1984-01-01

    52 women with stage T 1 breast cancer were investigated by thermography, mammography and ultrasound and the results compared with the patients age, histological tumour type and the degree of malignancy. The best results were achieved by mammography (sensitivity: 85%). In tumours with a large amount of connective tissue (scirrhous or invasive lobular cancer) sensitivity rose to 94%, whilst in tumours with little connective tissue (solid, medullary, adenomatous and papillary) sensitivity decreased to 69%. The respective values for thermographic sensitivity were 44% and 77% and for ultrasound sensitivity in palpable tumours 85% and 65%, respectively. On mammography 3 carcinomas were not recognized, all three in younger patients; on thermography also three false negative results were obtained, but all in older patients. The sensitivity of thermography increases in parallel with increasing degree of tumour malignancy. Whilst ultrasound is a valuable aid for differential diagnosis in palpable tumours only, screening results can evidently be improved by a combination of thermography and mammography. (Author)

  3. Clonal expansion and linear genome evolution through breast cancer progression from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    necessitates knowledge of the degree of genomic concordance between different steps of malignant progression as primary tumors often are used as surrogates of systemic disease. Based on exome sequencing we performed copy number profiling and point mutation detection on successive steps of breast cancer...... progression from one breast cancer patient, including two different regions of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS), primary tumor and an asynchronous metastasis. We identify a remarkable landscape of somatic mutations, retained throughout breast cancer progression and with new mutational events emerging at each......Evolution of the breast cancer genome from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis is complex and mostly unexplored, but highly demanded as it may provide novel markers for and mechanistic insights in cancer progression. The increasing use of personalized therapy of breast cancer...

  4. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... immunoreactivity was determined with antibody PAB 1801. RESULTS: The study comprised 143 patients including 31 (22%) with stage T1a disease, 60 (42%) with stage T1b and 52 (36%) with stage T1c. Mean patient age was 67 years (range 38 to 92) and mean followup was 4.7 years (range 2.4 to 9.7). Tumor grade related...... to the depth of lamina propria invasion (p grade (p

  5. Minimally invasive surgical treatment for early-stage ovarian cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pupo-Nogueira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Case report of a 54-year-old patient, with no complaints and noalterations detected during the physical examination, who underwenta routine pelvic ultrasound that showed a complex cyst on the rightovary which was confirmed with a CT scan. The serum CA125 levelwas elevated while other tumor markers – carcinoembryonic antigen,alphafetoprotein antigen and the beta human chorionic gonadotrophinwere normal. Videolaparoscopy was used for the diagnosis andtherapeutic management, revealing vegetating lesions on bothovaries but no other alterations. Biopsies were performed on thetumor masses and analyzed using the frozen section technique duringthe surgical procedure which revealed a serous neoplasm of lowmalignant potential - borderline. Next, ovarian carcinoma stagingwas performed in accordance with the standards recommended bythe International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics: bilateralsalpingo-oophorectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateralpelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. To complete the staging,an omentectomy was performed by means of a 4 cm transverseincision in the epigastric region which was enlarged using a specialDexterity Protractor™retractor. The incision also enabled the removalof surgical specimens. The patient was discharged from the hospitalon the following day and recovered without any complications.Histological analysis confirmed the borderline tumor and no malignantcells were found on the other surgical specimens. Videolaparoscopy,minilaparotomy and the special retractor enabled adequate diagnosis,staging and removal of the localized ovarian tumor.

  6. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  7. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1) acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs), whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs). Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time. Results Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M) and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these observations, the repression of Bmi

  8. Life-stage-specific physiology defines invasion extent of a riverine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Beauchamp, David A.; Olden, Julian D.

    2015-01-01

    -history stage that likely sets the distributional limits of all other life-history stages. We anticipate the framework developed here could be employed to identify how similar stage-specific environmental sensitivity determines distribution in many other ectothermic species.

  9. Depression, anxiety and body image after treatment for invasive stage one epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseling, Karin C H M; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Janda, Monika; Obermair, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in young women has major implications including those to their reproductive potential. We evaluated depression, anxiety and body image in patients with stage I EOC treated with fertility sparing surgery (FSS) or radical surgery (RS). We also investigated fertility outcomes after FSS. A retrospective study was undertaken in which 62 patients completed questionnaires related to anxiety, depression, body image and fertility outcomes. Additional information on adjuvant therapy after FSS and RS and demographic details were abstracted from medical records. Both bi- and multivariate regression models were used to assess the relationship between demographic, clinical and pathological results and scores for anxiety, depression and body image. Thirty-nine patients underwent RS and the rest, FSS. The percentage of patients reporting elevated anxiety and depression (subscores > or = 11) were 27% and 5% respectively. The median (interquartile range) score for Body Image Scale (BIS) was 6 (3-15). None of the demographic or clinical factors examined showed significant association with anxiety and BIS with the exception of 'time since diagnosis'. For depression, post-menopausal status was the only independent predictor. Among those 23 patients treated by FSS, 14 patients tried to conceive (seven successful), resulting in seven live births, one termination of pregnancy and one miscarriage. This study shows that psychological issues are common in women treated for stage I EOC. Reproduction after FSS is feasible and led to the birth of healthy babies in about half of patients who wished to have another child. Further prospective studies with standardised instruments are required.

  10. The Final Stage of Mongol Invasion of Europe: A Military Force and Secret Diplomacy (2 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Mayorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the sources of information on the direct contact of the Emperor Frederick II with the Mongols before the attack of the latter on Europe, the persistent rumors of his collusion with the invaders, who came to blow mainly to the enemies of Frederick, the refusal of the Emperor of an armed clash with the Tatars, the refusal to participate in the Crusade prepared by the German prelates against the Tatars, but instead – a withdrawal of the imperial troops in Italy and the siege of Rome in order to force the pope to recognize the supremacy of the Emperor, the sudden retreat of the Tartars themselves from the German border and the abandonment of the original plans for the conquest of Germany, unexpected counteraction against Frederick of the German prelates who had been previously loyal to the Emperor and who accused him of a serious crime against the Church and the whole of Christianity. The author concludes that the Emperor Frederick and the leaders of the Western Mongol campaign were associated with secret mutual obligations. Many of his contemporaries were aware of the Emperor’s secret contacts with the Tartars (Albert von Beheim, Matthew Paris, and others.. The author analyzes the information and is trying to separate the elements of political propaganda from the established facts. The Emperor’s conspiracy with the Tatar leaders is indicated both by direct evidence and numerous indirect information analyzed in the article. On the one hand, the Emperor did everything possible to avoid a direct military confrontation with the Tatars and disrupt plans of his supporters in Germany to combat the invaders. On the other hand, the Tatar impact in Europe fell entirely on the Frederick’s enemies who took the side of the pope in the latter’s conflict with Emperor. As a result of the Tatar invasion of Europe position of the Emperor in his confrontation with the Roman church greatly strengthened. This change in the balance of power

  11. The Final Stage of Mongol Invasion of Europe: A Military Force and Secret Diplomacy (1 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Maiorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the sources of information on the direct contact of the Emperor Frederick II with the Mongols before the attack of the latter on Europe, the persistent rumors of his collusion with the invaders, who came to blow mainly to the enemies of Frederick, the refusal of the Emperor of an armed clash with the Tatars, the refusal to participate in the Crusade prepared by the German prelates against the Tatars, but instead – a withdrawal of the imperial troops in Italy and the siege of Rome in order to force the pope to recognize the supremacy of the Emperor, the sudden retreat of the Tartars themselves from the German border and the abandonment of the original plans for the conquest of Germany, unexpected counteraction against Frederick of the German prelates who had been previously loyal to the Emperor and who accused him of a serious crime against the Church and the whole of Christianity. The author concludes that the Emperor Frederick and the leaders of the Western Mongol campaign were associated with secret mutual obligations. Many of his contemporaries were aware of the Emperor’s secret contacts with the Tartars (Albert von Beheim, Matthew Paris, and others.. The author analyzes the information and is trying to separate the elements of political propaganda from the established facts. The Emperor’s conspiracy with the Tatar leaders is indicated both by direct evidence and numerous indirect information analyzed in the article. On the one hand, the Emperor did everything possible to avoid a direct military confrontation with the Tatars and disrupt plans of his supporters in Germany to combat the invaders. On the other hand, the Tatar impact in Europe fell entirely on the Friedrich’s enemies who took the side of the pope in the latter’s conflict with Emperor. As a result of the Tatar invasion of Europe position of the Emperor in his confrontation with the Roman church greatly strengthened. This change in the balance of power

  12. Pelvic reconstruction with different rod-screw systems following Enneking type I/I + IV resection: a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huigen; Zhang, Zhengliang; Lin, Haiqing; Wang, Shengdong; Li, Binghao; Li, Hengyuan; Wang, Zhan; Lin, Nong; Ye, Zhaoming

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical outcomes of patients with pelvic bone tumors involving zone I or zone I + IV who received resection and different reconstructions are not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of different rod-screw systems in reconstruction for these patients, and evaluate the relative risk of mechanical failure for them. We reviewed 30 patients for a mean duration of 40.4 months of follow-up (range, 13.1–162.2 months), five patients had mechanical complications. The mechanical survival rate of two-rod and four-screw (TRFS) group was significantly higher than one-rod and two-screw (ORTS) group (p = 0.000). The implant survival rate was correlated with ages (p = 0.010), younger people are more likely to fail. Thus, TRFS fixation for pelvic reconstruction after Enneking type I/I + IV resection can provide better short to long-term mechanical stability compared with ORTS fixation, the strength of ORTS fixation is not enough. In addition, biological reconstruction such as autologous bone graft is recommended for the patients who are younger or suffered from benign tumor. As for the patients who are older, with malignant tumors, underwent adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, functional reconstruction with bone cement is a good choice. PMID:28465495

  13. Crystal and phonon structure of ZnSiP{sub 2}, a II-IV-V{sub 2} semiconducting compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Pedraza, H., E-mail: heribertopp@ula.ve [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona 54518000 (Colombia); Lopez-Rivera, S.A.; Martin, J.M. [Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, ULA, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Delgado, J.M. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia, ULA, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Power, Ch. [Centro de Estudios en Semiconductores, ULA, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-09-20

    Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, the characterization of a member of the II-IV-V{sub 2} family of semiconducting compounds, ZnSiP{sub 2}, is presented in this work. The diffraction experiment showed that ZnSiP{sub 2} crystallizes in a chalcopyrite-type of structure (space group: I4{sup Macron }2d) with unit cell parameters a = 5.407(9) Angstrom-Sign and c = 10.454(2) Angstrom-Sign . The structure is based on a cubic close-packed arrangement of phosphorus atoms with the two cations in an orderly way occupying one-half of the tetrahedral sites. In this structure, two Zn and two Si are bonded to each phosphorus atom and four phosphorus atoms are bonded to each cation. The results obtained are consistent with previous reports. Raman spectroscopy, Group Theory, and a modified correlation method allowed the assignment of the characteristics of the thirteen first-order Raman active optical vibrational modes observed for this material.

  14. Effect of minimally invasive surgery for cerebral hematoma evacuation in different stages on motor evoked potential and thrombin in dog model of intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guofeng; Zhong, Weibin

    2010-03-01

    To observe the effect of minimally invasive surgery for cerebral hematoma evacuation in different stages on motor evoked potential (MEP) and thrombin in dog model of intracranial hemorrhage. Twenty dogs were selected to prepare the intracranial hemorrhage model, which were randomly divided into 6, 12, 18 and 24 hour groups, respectively. The animals in each group underwent a minimally invasive surgery to evacuate the cerebral hematoma after the models were prepared. Before and after procedures, Purdy score, MEP and thrombin in hematoma region were determined and compared. Significant decreases in Purdy score, latency of MEP and thrombin expression were observed in 6 and 12 hour groups as compared with the 18 and 24 hour groups (pintracranial hemorrhage, which was minimally invasive, easy to operate, highly repeated, simulating the pathological and physiological changes of clinical hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage. Both the latency of MEP and the expression of thrombin decreased after evacuation of intracranial hematoma in early stages by minimally invasive procedures, indicating that minimally invasive procedures for cerebral hematoma in ultra-early and early stages might be more effective to limit brain injury and decrease the latency of MEP and thrombin expression.

  15. The Value of Preoperative CA 125 Levels in Prediction of Myometrial Invasion in Patients with Early-stage Endometrioid- type Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atguden, Zeynep; Yildiz, Askin; Aksut, Hayri; Yalcin, Serenat Eris; Yalcin, Yakup; Uysal, Dilek; Yetimalar, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between pre-operative CA-125 levels and myometrial invasion in patients with early-stage endometrioid-type endometrial cancer. Two-hundred and sixty patients were diagnosed with endometrial cancer between January 2007 and December 2012. Of these, 136 patients with stage 1 endometrioid histologic-type and documented pre-operative serum CA-125 levels were included in the study. Age, preoperative CA-125 level, histologic grade, surgical grade, and presence of deep myometrial invasion were recorded. Additionally, 16, 20, and 35 IU/ml cutoff values were used and compared to evaluate the relationship between pre-operative CA-125 levels and myometrial invasion. The average serum CA-125 level was 35.4±36.7 in patients with deep myometrial invasion, and 21.5±35.8 in cases without deep myometrial invasion. The relationship between the presence of deep myometrial invasion and CA-125 cut-off values (16, 20, 35 IU/ml) was statistically significant, although the correlation was weak (pCA-125 cut-off values and the presence of deep myometrial invasion was studied, specifity and sensitivity values were identified as: 0.60-0.68 for 16 IU/ml; 0.73-0.48 for 20 IU/ml; and 0.89-0.33 for 35 IU/ml. The sensitivity of 16 IU/ml cut-off value was higher when compared to other values. This study demonstrates that preoperative serum CA-125 values maybe used as a predictive test in patients with early stage endometrioid-type endometrium cancer, and as a prognostic factor alone. Further studies should be conducted to identify different CA-125 cut-off values in patients with low risk endometrial cancer.

  16. Myometrial invasion and overall staging of endometrial carcinoma: assessment using fusion of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu Guo,1,2 Ping Wang,2 Penghui Wang,2 Wei Gao,1 Fenge Li,3 Xueling Yang,1 Hongyan Ni,2 Wen Shen,2 Zhi Guo1 1Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, The First Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 3Department of Gynecology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Background: The age of onset of endometrial carcinoma has been decreasing in recent years. In endometrial carcinoma, it is important to accurately assess invasion depth and preoperative staging. Fusion of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2WI and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI may contribute to the improvement of anatomical localization of lesions.Materials and methods: In our study, a total of 58 endometrial carcinoma cases were included. Based on the revised 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system, a fusion of T2WI and DWI was utilized for the evaluation of invasion depth and determination of the overall stage. Postoperative pathologic assessment was considered as the reference standard. The consistency of T2WI image staging and pathologic staging, and the consistency of fused T2WI and DWI and pathologic staging were all analyzed using Kappa statistics.Results: Compared with the T2WI group, a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy was observed for myometrial invasion with fusion of T2WI and DWI (77.6% for T2WI; 94.8% for T2WI-DWI. For the identification of deep invasion, we calculated values for diagnostic sensitivity (69.2% for T2WI; 92.3% for T2WI-DWI, specificity (80% for T2WI; 95.6% for T2WI-DWI, positive predictive value (50% for T2WI; 85.7% for T2WI-DWI, and negative predictive value (90% for

  17. Multinary I-III-VI2 and I2-II-IV-VI4 Semiconductor Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulacio, Michelle D; Han, Ming-Yong

    2016-03-15

    are the multinary chalcogenide semiconductors (MCSs), which include the ternary I-III-VI2 semiconductors (e.g., AgGaS2, CuInS2, and CuInSe2) and the quaternary I2-II-IV-VI4 semiconductors (e.g., Cu2ZnGeS4, Cu2ZnSnS4, and Ag2ZnSnS4). These inorganic compounds consist of environmentally benign elemental components, exhibit excellent light-harvesting properties, and possess band gap energies that are well-suited for solar photon absorption. Moreover, the band structures of these materials can be conveniently modified through alloying to boost their ability to harvest visible photons. In this Account, we provide a summary of recent research on the use of ternary I-III-VI2 and quaternary I2-II-IV-VI4 semiconductor nanostructures for light-induced photocatalytic applications, with focus on hydrogen production and organic dye degradation. We include a review of the solution-based methods that have been employed to prepare multinary chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures of varying compositions, sizes, shapes, and crystal structures, which are factors that are known to have significant influence on the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. The enhancement of photocatalytic performance through creation of hybrid nanoscale architectures is also presented. Lastly, views on the current challenges and future directions are discussed in the concluding section.

  18. Screening intervention to identify eligible patients and improve accrual to phase II-IV oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leo; Grant, Janice; Cheung, Winson Y; Kennecke, Hagen F

    2013-07-01

    Low enrolment rates in clinical trials present a barrier to the development of novel cancer therapies. Currently, only 3% of patients with cancer participate, and many studies fail to achieve necessary enrolment. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a screening intervention to identify potentially eligible patients (PEPs) would increase accrual rates. Over a 4-month intervention period, PEPs for 21 phase II-IV breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecology, and lung cancer trials were identified by a screening coordinator. This individual reviewed the electronic medical records of patients attending outpatient clinics and flagged PEPs for 10 medical oncologists at the BC Cancer Agency. Patients who were already documented to be trial eligible by physicians were not flagged. Oncologists were surveyed regarding the helpfulness and accuracy of the intervention. During the intervention period, 73 patients were enrolled, compared with 61 patients enrolled in the 4 months prior and 51 patients in the 4 months after. A total of 2,098 charts were reviewed, and 120 PEPs were identified during the intervention period, resulting in 19 PEPs who enrolled and four PEPs who declined a clinical trial. Relative accrual rates adjusted for oncologist appointments were 0.85 (P = .15) before and 0.70 (P < .005) after, relative to the intervention period. Oncologist-returned surveys indicated that 67% of flags were helpful, and 70% were accurate. In this study, manually screening patient records increased enrolment to specific clinical trials. A screening intervention process, involving a dedicated screening coordinator, should be considered to improve clinical trial accrual.

  19. Clinical Outcomes in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IA Endometrial Cancer With Myometrial Invasion Treated With or Without Postoperative Vaginal Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diavolitsis, V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Rademaker, A. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Lurain, J.; Hoekstra, A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Strauss, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Small, W., E-mail: wsmall@nmff.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcomes of patients with Stage IA endometrial cancer with myometrial invasion treated with postoperative vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) with those who received no adjuvant therapy (NAT). Methods and Materials: All patients treated with hysterectomy for endometrial cancer at Northwestern Memorial Hospital between 1978 and 2005 were identified. Those patients with Stage IA disease with myometrial invasion who were treated with VBT alone or NAT were identified and included in the present analysis. Results: Of 252 patients with Stage IA endometrial cancer with superficial (<50%) myometrial invasion who met the inclusion criteria, 169 underwent VBT and 83 received NAT. The median follow-up in the VBT and NAT groups was 103 and 61 months, respectively. In the VBT group, 56.8% had Grade 1, 37.9% had Grade 2, and 5.3% had Grade 3 tumors. In the NAT group, 75.9%, 20.5%, and 3.6% had Grade 1, 2, and 3 tumors, respectively. Lymphatic or vascular space invasion was noted in 12.4% of the VBT patients and 5.6% of the NAT patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 95.5%. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 92.4% for all patients, 94.4% for the VBT group, and 87.4% for the NAT group (p = NS). Of the 169 VBT patients and 83 NAT patients, 8 (4.7%) and 6 (7.2%) developed recurrent disease. One vaginal recurrence occurred in the VBT group (0.6%) and three in the NAT group (3.8%). Recurrences developed 2-102 months after surgical treatment. Two of the four vaginal recurrences were salvaged. No Grade 3 or higher acute or late radiation toxicity was noted. Conclusions: The use of postoperative VBT in patients with Stage I endometrial cancer with <50% myometrial invasion yielded excellent vaginal disease control and disease-free survival, with minimal toxicity.

  20. Dissecting the active site of the collagenolytic cathepsin L3 protease of the invasive stage of Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Corvo

    Full Text Available A family of secreted cathepsin L proteases with differential activities is essential for host colonization and survival in the parasitic flatworm Fasciola hepatica. While the blood feeding adult secretes predominantly FheCL1, an enzyme with a strong preference for Leu at the S2 pocket of the active site, the infective stage produces FheCL3, a unique enzyme with collagenolytic activity that favours Pro at P2.Using a novel unbiased multiplex substrate profiling and mass spectrometry methodology (MSP-MS, we compared the preferences of FheCL1 and FheCL3 along the complete active site cleft and confirm that while the S2 imposes the greatest influence on substrate selectivity, preferences can be indicated on other active site subsites. Notably, we discovered that the activity of FheCL1 and FheCL3 enzymes is very different, sharing only 50% of the cleavage sites, supporting the idea of functional specialization. We generated variants of FheCL1 and FheCL3 with S2 and S3 residues by mutagenesis and evaluated their substrate specificity using positional scanning synthetic combinatorial libraries (PS-SCL. Besides the rare P2 Pro preference, FheCL3 showed a distinctive specificity at the S3 pocket, accommodating preferentially the small Gly residue. Both P2 Pro and P3 Gly preferences were strongly reduced when Trp67 of FheCL3 was replaced by Leu, rendering the enzyme incapable of digesting collagen. In contrast, the inverse Leu67Trp substitution in FheCL1 only slightly reduced its Leu preference and improved Pro acceptance in P2, but greatly increased accommodation of Gly at S3.These data reveal the significance of S2 and S3 interactions in substrate binding emphasizing the role for residue 67 in modulating both sites, providing a plausible explanation for the FheCL3 collagenolytic activity essential to host invasion. The unique specificity of FheCL3 could be exploited in the design of specific inhibitors selectively directed to specific infective stage

  1. Assessment of Serosal Invasion and Criteria for the Classification of Pathological (p) T4 Staging in Colorectal Carcinoma: Confusions, Controversies and Criticisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Colin J. R.; Hillery, Simon; Platell, Cameron; Puppa, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Transmural spread by colorectal carcinoma can result in tumor invasion of the serosal surface and, hence, more likely dissemination within the peritoneal cavity and potentially to additional metastatic sites. The adverse prognostic significance of serosal invasion is widely accepted and its presence may be considered an indication for chemotherapy in patients with node negative disease. However, controversy persists regarding the most appropriate criteria for diagnosis and there are also practical difficulties associated with histological assessment in some cases. Therefore, serosal invasion may be under-diagnosed in a significant proportion of tumors, potentially leading to sub-optimal treatment of high-risk patients. The examination of multiple microscopic sections combined with ancillary studies such as cytology preparations, elastin stains, and immunohistochemistry may prove beneficial in selected problematic cases, but these are not used routinely. The relative prognostic significance of serosal invasion and of direct tumor spread to other organs, both of which are incorporated within the pT4 category of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, remains unclear. Further studies are required to demonstrate whether recent adjustments to the TNM staging of pT4 tumors are appropriate

  2. [Application of minimally invasive, decompression bone graft implantation combined with metal trabecular bone reconstruction system for early stage osteonecrosis of femoral head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-tao; Tan, Xu-yi; Liu, You-wen; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Liu, Li-yun; Jia, Yu-dong

    2015-05-01

    To observe the application effect of minimally invasive decompression, bone graft implantation and metal trabecular bone reconstruction system for early stage osteonecrosis of femoral head and discuss the treatment of hip-salvage operation in early stage osteonecrosis of femoral head; From January 2010 to June 2011, 50 patients (62 hips) Which were osteonecrosis of femoral head of early stake,were treated with minimally invasive decompression, bone graft implantation and metal trabecular bone reconstruction system, including 31 males (40 hips), 19 females (22 hip) with an average age of 36.2 years old ranging from 22 to 54 years old. The course of disease was from 6 to 15 months (averaged 10.5 months). Among them, 19 cases (23 hips) were steroid-induced, 25 cases (33 hips) were alcohol-induced, 6 cases (6 hips) were idiopathic; According to ARCO stage, 28 hips were at stage I, 34 hips were at stage II. All of them were diagnosed as femoral head necrosis by imaging examination before operation. Then each patient was followed to assess by Harris hip score, curative effect, and conduct the femoral head survival analysis during the postoperation. All patients had finished operation, the operation time was between 30 and 85 min, intraoperative blood loss was 50 to 220 ml, and 47 cases (58 hips) were follow-up from 24 to 46 months with an average of 34.05 months. As compared with preoperative, the Harris hip score at the last follow-up was improved, the difference was statistically significant (Pfemoral head in ARCO stage I was superior to these in ARCO Stage II, the difference was statistically significant (Posteonecrosis of femoral head was good,it could significantly improve the Harris hip score, increase the femoral head survival time, delay the hip replacement, and performance better in ARCO stage I.

  3. Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: Effects of seed provenance, consumers and disturbance on productivity and species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Maron; Harald Auge; Dean E. Pearson; Lotte Korell; Isabell Hensen; Katharine N. Suding; Claudia Stein

    2014-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions are thought to alter productivity and species richness, yet these patterns are typically correlative. Few studies have experimentally invaded sites and asked how addition of novel species influences ecosystem function and community structure and examined the role of competitors and/or consumers in mediating these patterns. We invaded disturbed...

  4. Processes affecting altitudinal distribution of invasive Ageratina adenophora in western Himalaya: The role of local adaptation and the importance of different life-cycle stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Datta

    Full Text Available The spread of invasive plants along elevational gradients is considered a threat to fragile mountain ecosystems, but it can also provide the opportunity to better understand some of the basic processes driving the success of invasive species. Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution along elevational gradients in the Western Himalayas. Our study aimed at understanding the role of evolutionary processes (e.g. local adaptation and clinal differentiation and different life history stages in shaping the distribution pattern of the invasive plant along an elevational gradient in the Western Himalaya. We carried out extensive distributional surveys, established a reciprocal transplant experiment with common gardens at three elevational levels, and measured a suite of traits related to germination, growth, reproduction and phenology. Our results showed a lack of local adaptation, and we did not find any evidence for clinal differentiation in any measured trait except a rather weak signal for plant height. We found that seed germination was the crucial life-cycle transition in determining the lower range limit while winter mortality of plants shaped the upper range limit in our study area, thus explaining the hump shaped distribution pattern. Differences in trait values between gardens for most traits indicated a high degree of phenotypic plasticity. Possible causes such as apomixis, seed dispersal among sites, and pre-adaptation might have confounded evolutionary processes to act upon. Our results suggest that the success and spread of Ageratina adenophora are dependent on different life history stages at different elevations that are controlled by abiotic conditions.

  5. Processes affecting altitudinal distribution of invasive Ageratina adenophora in western Himalaya: The role of local adaptation and the importance of different life-cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arunava; Kühn, Ingolf; Ahmad, Mustaqeem; Michalski, Stefan; Auge, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The spread of invasive plants along elevational gradients is considered a threat to fragile mountain ecosystems, but it can also provide the opportunity to better understand some of the basic processes driving the success of invasive species. Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution along elevational gradients in the Western Himalayas. Our study aimed at understanding the role of evolutionary processes (e.g. local adaptation and clinal differentiation) and different life history stages in shaping the distribution pattern of the invasive plant along an elevational gradient in the Western Himalaya. We carried out extensive distributional surveys, established a reciprocal transplant experiment with common gardens at three elevational levels, and measured a suite of traits related to germination, growth, reproduction and phenology. Our results showed a lack of local adaptation, and we did not find any evidence for clinal differentiation in any measured trait except a rather weak signal for plant height. We found that seed germination was the crucial life-cycle transition in determining the lower range limit while winter mortality of plants shaped the upper range limit in our study area, thus explaining the hump shaped distribution pattern. Differences in trait values between gardens for most traits indicated a high degree of phenotypic plasticity. Possible causes such as apomixis, seed dispersal among sites, and pre-adaptation might have confounded evolutionary processes to act upon. Our results suggest that the success and spread of Ageratina adenophora are dependent on different life history stages at different elevations that are controlled by abiotic conditions.

  6. Outcomes in women with invasive ductal or invasive lobular early stage breast cancer treated with anastrozole or exemestane in CCTG (NCIC CTG) MA.27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser-Weippl, K; Sudan, G; Ramjeesingh, R; Shepherd, L E; O'Shaughnessy, J; Parulekar, W R; Liedke, P E R; Chen, B E; Goss, P E

    2018-02-01

    Histological subtype, (invasive ductal breast cancer (IDBC)/invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC)), might be a marker for differential response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Clinical trial MA.27 compared 5 years of adjuvant anastrozole or exemestane in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor positive early breast cancer. We evaluated IDBC versus ILBC (based on original pathology reports) as predictor for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 5709 patients (5021 with IDBC and 688 with ILBC) were included (1876 were excluded because of missing or other histological subtype). Median follow-up was 4.1 years. Overall, histological subtype did not influence OS or EFS (HR (hazard ratio) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.79-1.63], P = 0.49 and HR 1.04, 95% CI [0.77-1.41], P = 0.81, respectively). There was no significant difference in OS between treatment with exemestane versus treatment with anastrozole in the IDBC group (HR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.73-1.16], P = 0.46). In the ILBC group, a marginally significant difference in favour of treatment with anastrozole was seen (HR = 1.79, 95% CI [0.98-3.27], P = 0.055). In multivariable analysis a prognostic effect of the interaction between treatment and histological subtype on OS (but not on EFS) was noted, suggesting a better outcome for patients with ILBC on anastrozole (HR 2.1, 95% CI [0.99-4.29], P = 0.05). After stepwise selection in the multivariable model, a marginally significant prognostic effect for the interaction variable (treatment with histological subtype) on OS (but not on EFS) was noted (Ratio of HR 2.1, 95% CI [1.00-4.31], P = 0.05). Our data suggest an interaction effect between treatment and histology (P = 0.05) on OS. Here, patients with ILBC cancers had a better OS when treated with anastrozole versus exemestane, whereas no difference was noted for patients with IDBC. NCT00066573. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Density of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Adults and Larvae at Three Stages of the Invasion Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Stephen J; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M

    2018-02-08

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding buprestid, has killed hundreds of millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in the United States and two Canadian provinces. We evaluated EAB persistence in post-invasion sites and compared EAB adult captures and larval densities in 24 forested sites across an east-west gradient in southern Michigan representing the Core (post-invasion), Crest (high EAB populations), and Cusp (recently infested areas) of the EAB invasion wave. Condition of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) trees were recorded in fixed radius plots and linear transects in each site. Ash mortality was highest in Core sites in the southeast, moderate in Crest sites in central southern Michigan, and low in Cusp sites in the southwest. Traps and trap trees in Crest sites accounted for 75 and 60% of all EAB beetles captured in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Populations of EAB were present in all Core sites and traps in these sites captured 13% of all beetles each year. Beetle captures and larval densities at Cusp sites roughly doubled between 2010 and 2011, reflecting the increasing EAB populations. Sticky bands on girdled trees captured the highest density of EAB beetles per m2 of area, while baited double-decker traps had the highest detection rates and captured the most beetles. Larval densities were higher on girdled ash than on similar ungirdled trees and small planted trees. Woodpecker predation and a native larval parasitoid were present in all three invasion regions but had minor effects on ash survival and EAB densities. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Clinical stage I carcinoma of the cervix; Value of MR imaging in determining invasion into the parametrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, H.H. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Gynecologic Oncology and Pathology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Blomlie, V. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Gynecologic Oncology and Pathology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Iversen, T. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Gynecologic Oncology and Pathology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Trope, C. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Gynecologic Oncology and Pathology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Sundfoer, K. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Gynecologic Oncology and Pathology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Abeler, V.M. (Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Gynecologic Oncology and Pathology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    1993-03-01

    Using MR imaging with a body coil parametrial invasion was determined prospectively in 169 consecutive patients considered on the basis of clinical examination to have carcinoma confined to the cervix. After radical hysterectomy correlation with histologic examination was performed for the left and right parametrium separately. The criterion for parametrial invasion was a high-signal-intensity lesion with disruption of the full thickness of the cervical stroma combined with areas of abnormal signal intensity within the parametrial region on T2-weighted images. Histologic examination showed that 18 parametria in 13 patients were invaded by tumor. MR had an overall accuracy of 93%, a sensitivity of 89%, and a specificity of 93% in demonstrating parametrial involvement. Positive and negative predictive values were 43% and 99%. The main weakness of MR was 21 false-positive tests. This represents a limitation when MR is performed with a body coil. (orig.).

  9. A data mining methodology for predicting early stage Parkinson's disease using non-invasive, high-dimensional gait sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Conrad; Han, Yixiang; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Lewis, Mechelle; Lee, Wang-Chien; Sterling, Nicholas W; Huang, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Key clinical features of PD are motor-related and are typically assessed by healthcare providers based on qualitative visual inspection of a patient's movement/gait/posture. More advanced diagnostic techniques such as computed tomography scans that measure brain function, can be cost prohibitive and may expose patients to radiation and other harmful effects. To mitigate these challenges, and open a pathway to remote patient-physician assessment, the authors of this work propose a data mining driven methodology that uses low cost, non-invasive sensors to model and predict the presence (or lack therefore) of PD movement abnormalities and model clinical subtypes. The study presented here evaluates the discriminative ability of non-invasive hardware and data mining algorithms to classify PD cases and controls. A 10-fold cross validation approach is used to compare several data mining algorithms in order to determine that which provides the most consistent results when varying the subject gait data. Next, the predictive accuracy of the data mining model is quantified by testing it against unseen data captured from a test pool of subjects. The proposed methodology demonstrates the feasibility of using non-invasive, low cost, hardware and data mining models to monitor the progression of gait features outside of the traditional healthcare facility, which may ultimately lead to earlier diagnosis of emerging neurological diseases.

  10. [A Retrospective Study of Mean Computed Tomography Value to Predict 
the Tumor Invasiveness in AAH and Clinical Stage Ia Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanran; Liu, Changqing; Xu, Meiqing; Xiong, Ran; Xu, Guangwen; Li, Caiwei; Xie, Mingran

    2018-03-20

    Recently, the detectable rate of ground-glass opacity (GGO ) was significantly increased, a appropriate diagnosis before clinic treatment tends to be important for patients with GGO lesions. The aim of this study is to validate the ability of the mean computed tomography (m-CT) value to predict tumor invasiveness, and compared with other measurements such as Max CT value, GGO size, solid size of GGO and C/T ratio (consolid/tumor ratio, C/T) to find out the best measurement to predict tumor invasiveness. A retrospective study was conducted of 129 patients who recieved lobectomy and were pathological confirmed as atypical adenomatous pyperplasia (AAH) or clinical stage Ia lung cance in our center between January 2012 and December 2013. Of those 129 patients, the number of patients of AAH, AIS, AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma were 43, 26, 17 and 43, respectively. We defined AAH and AIS as noninvasive cancer (NC), MIA and invasive adenocarcinoma were categorized as invasive cancer(IC). We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to compare the ability to predict tumor invasiveness between m-CT value, consolidation/tumor ratio, tumor size and solid size of tumor. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent variables for prediction of pathologic more invasive lung cancer. 129 patients were enrolled in our study (59 male and 70 female), the patients were a median age of (62.0±8.6) years (range, 44 to 82 years). The two groups were similar in terms of age, sex, differentiation (P>0.05). ROC curve analysis was performed to determine the appropriate cutoff value and area under the cure (AUC). The cutoff value of solid tumor size, tumor size, C/T ratio, m-CT value and Max CT value were 9.4 mm, 15.3 mm, 47.5%, -469.0 HU and -35.0 HU, respectively. The AUC of those variate were 0.89, 0.79, 0.82, 0.90, 0.85, respectively. When compared the clinical and radiologic data between two groups, we found the IC group was strongly

  11. Variability in the contribution of different life stages to population growth as a key factor in the invasion success of Pinus strobus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Münzbergová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing number of studies attempting to model population growth in various organisms, we still know relatively little about the population dynamics of long-lived species that reproduce only in the later stages of their life cycle, such as trees. Predictions of the dynamics of these species are, however, urgently needed for planning management actions when species are either endangered or invasive. In long-lived species, a single management intervention may have consequences for several decades, and detailed knowledge of long-term performance can therefore elucidate possible outcomes during the management planning phase. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the population dynamics of an invasive tree species, Pinus strobus, in three habitat types represented by their position along the elevation gradient occupied by the species. In agreement with previous studies on the population dynamics of long-lived perennials, our results show that the survival of the largest trees exhibits the highest elasticity in all of the studied habitats. In contrast, life table response experiments (LTRE analysis showed that different stages contribute the most to population growth rates in different habitats, with generative reproduction being more important in lower slopes and valley bottoms and survival being more important on rock tops and upper slopes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that P. strobus exhibits different growth strategies in different habitats that result in similar population growth rates. We propose that this plasticity in growth strategies is a key factor in the invasion success of the white pine. In all of the investigated habitats, the population growth rates are above 1, indicating that the population of the species is still increasing and has the ability to spread and occupy a wide range of habitats.

  12. Characterization of increasing stages of invasiveness identifies stromal/cancer cell crosstalk in rat models of mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Joëlle S; Abadie, Jérôme; Deshayes, Sophie; Boissard, Alice; Blandin, Stéphanie; Blanquart, Christophe; Boisgerault, Nicolas; Coqueret, Olivier; Guette, Catherine; Grégoire, Marc; Pouliquen, Daniel L

    2018-03-27

    Sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) is a devastating cancer associated with one of the poorest outcome. Therefore, representative preclinical models reproducing different tumor microenvironments (TME) observed in patients would open up new prospects for the identification of markers and evaluation of innovative therapies. Histological analyses of four original models of rat SM revealed their increasing infiltrative and metastatic potential were associated with differences in Ki67 index, blood-vessel density, and T-lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration. In comparison with the noninvasive tumor M5-T2, proteomic analysis demonstrated the three invasive tumors F4-T2, F5-T1 and M5-T1 shared in common a very significant increase in the abundance of the multifunctional proteins galectin-3, prohibitin and annexin A5, and a decrease in proteins involved in cell adhesion, tumor suppression, or epithelial differentiation. The increased metastatic potential of the F5-T1 tumor, relative to F4-T2, was associated with an increased macrophage vs T-cell infiltrate, changes in the levels of expression of a panel of cytokine genes, an increased content of proteins involved in chromatin organization, ribosome structure, splicing, or presenting anti-adhesive properties, and a decreased content of proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress, normoxia and intracellular trafficking. The most invasive tumor, M5-T1, was characterized by a pattern of specific phenotypic and molecular features affecting the presentation of MHC class I-mediated antigens and immune cell infiltration, or involved in the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and composition of the extracellular matrix. These four preclinical models and data represent a new resource available to the cancer research community to catalyze further investigations on invasiveness.

  13. Preimaginal stages of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: an invasive pest on ash trees (Fraxinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lourdes Chamorro

    Full Text Available This study provides the most detailed description of the immature stages of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire to date and illustrates suites of larval characters useful in distinguishing among Agrilus Curtis species and instars. Immature stages of eight species of Agrilus were examined and imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy. For A. planipennis all preimaginal stages (egg, instars I-IV, prepupa and pupa were described. A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis. Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former. Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

  14. [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emission tomography/computed tomography improves staging in patients with high-risk muscle-invasive bladder cancer scheduled for radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollberg, Petter; Almquist, Helen; Bläckberg, Mats; Cronberg, Carin; Garpered, Sabine; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Kleist, Jakob; Lyttkens, Kerstin; Patschan, Oliver; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in addition to conventional preoperative radiological investigations in a defined group of patients with high-risk muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In total, 103 patients with high-risk muscle-invasive bladder cancer defined as stage T3/T4 disease or as stage T2 with hydronephrosis or high-risk histological features, who were provisionally scheduled to undergo cystectomy, were prospectively recruited to the study. The patients were referred to FDG-PET/CT in addition to standard preoperative investigation with computed tomography (CT). The final treatment decision was reached at a multidisciplinary conference based on all available information including the FDG-PET/CT findings. Compared to CT alone, FDG-PET/CT provided more supplemental findings suggesting malignant manifestations in 48 (47%) of the 103 patients. The additional FDG-PET/CT findings led to an altered provisional treatment plan in 28 out of 103 patients (27%), detection of disseminated bladder cancer and subsequent cancellation of the initially intended cystectomy in 16 patients, and identification of disseminated disease and treatment with induction chemotherapy before radical cystectomy in 12 patients. Preoperative FDG-PET/CT changed the treatment plan for a considerable proportion (27%) of the present patients. Accordingly, such examination can potentially improve the preoperative staging of cystectomy patients with high-risk features, and may also reduce the number of futile operations in patients with advanced disease who are beyond cure.

  15. The impact of lymph vascular space invasion on recurrence and survival in patients with early stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzi, V; Cormio, G; Lorusso, M; Latorre, D; Falagario, M; Demitri, P; Scardigno, D; Selvaggi, L E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine impact of lymph vascular space involvement (LVSI) on recurrence and survival in early stage of endometrial cancer. From 1991 through 2010, all endometrial cancer patients at University Hospital of Bari, Italy were identified. The Log-rank test and Kaplan-Meyer methods were used for time-to-event analysis to evaluate the effects of on lymph vascular space involvement recurrence rate and survival time. Of the 560 endometrial cancer patients, 525 underwent primary surgery. Of those, 399 had early stage disease. Three hundred and forty women were not found to have LVSI, whereas 59 were found to have lymph vascular space involvement. Forty-nine (12%) patients developed a recurrence and 20 of them showed lymph vascular space involvement. The statistical analysis demonstrated that LVSI was strongly associated with a poor survival (P < 0.0001). Lymph vascular space involvement is associated with a high risk of recurrence and poor overall survival in early stage of endometrial cancer; therefore, the clinical decision to decide whether or not a patient with early stage endometrial cancer should receive adjuvant therapy should be included the evaluation of lymph vascular space involvement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Assessment of early-stage optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma using high-resolution 1.5 Tesla MRI with surface coils: a multicentre, prospective accuracy study with histopathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Institut CURIE, Imaging Department, Paris (France); Graaf, Pim de; Rodjan, Firazia; Jong, Marcus C. de; Castelijns, Jonas A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Galluzzi, Paolo [Neuroimaging and Neurointerventional Unit (NINT) Azienda Ospedaliera e Universitaria Senese, Siena (Italy); Cosker, Kristel; Savignoni, Alexia [Institut Curie, Department of Biostatistics, Paris (France); Maeder, Philippe [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Goericke, Sophia [University Hospital Essen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Aerts, Isabelle [Institut Curie, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Desjardins, Laurence [Institut Curie, Department of Ophthalmology, Paris (France); Moll, Annette C. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hadjistilianou, Theodora [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Department of Ophthalmology, Siena (Italy); Toti, Paolo [University of Siena, Department of Medical Biotechnologies, Pathology Unit, Siena (Italy); Valk, Paul van der [VU University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sastre-Garau, Xavier [Institut Curie, Department of Biopathology, Paris (France); Collaboration: European Retinoblastoma Imaging Collaboration (ERIC)

    2015-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of high-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing early-stage optic nerve (ON) invasion in a retinoblastoma cohort. This IRB-approved, prospective multicenter study included 95 patients (55 boys, 40 girls; mean age, 29 months). 1.5-T MRI was performed using surface coils before enucleation, including spin-echo unenhanced and contrast-enhanced (CE) T1-weighted sequences (slice thickness, 2 mm; pixel size <0.3 x 0.3 mm{sup 2}). Images were read by five neuroradiologists blinded to histopathologic findings. ROC curves were constructed with AUC assessment using a bootstrap method. Histopathology identified 41 eyes without ON invasion and 25 with prelaminar, 18 with intralaminar and 12 with postlaminar invasion. All but one were postoperatively classified as stage I by the International Retinoblastoma Staging System. The accuracy of CE-T1 sequences in identifying ON invasion was limited (AUC = 0.64; 95 % CI, 0.55 - 0.72) and not confirmed for postlaminar invasion diagnosis (AUC = 0.64; 95 % CI, 0.47 - 0.82); high specificities (range, 0.64 - 1) and negative predictive values (range, 0.81 - 0.97) were confirmed. HR-MRI with surface coils is recommended to appropriately select retinoblastoma patients eligible for primary enucleation without the risk of IRSS stage II but cannot substitute for pathology in differentiating the first degrees of ON invasion. (orig.)

  17. Is vascular and lymphatic space invasion a main prognostic factor in uterine neoplasms with a sarcomatous component? a retrospective study of prognostic factors of 60 patients stratified by stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovirosa, Angeles; Ascaso, Carlos; Ordi, Jaume; Abellana, Rosa; Arenas, Meritxell; Lejarcegui, Jose-Antonio; Pahisa, Jaume; Puig-Tintore, Luis M.; Mellado, Begona M.D.; Armenteros, Beatriz; Iglesias, Xavier; Biete, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Background: Sarcomatous neoplasms of the uterine corpus are still a challenge in terms of obtaining prognostic factors and the most optimum complementary treatment to surgery. The most important prognostic factor is stage; relapses usually appear during the first 2 years, and most patients die within the first 3 years. We have performed a multivariate study of prognostic factors, stratifying patients by stage, to determine their impact on overall survival, disease-free survival, local relapse-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. Special emphasis has been given to vascular and lymphatic space invasion (VLSI). Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed with uterine neoplasms with a main sarcomatous component were treated at Hospital Clinic i Universitari of Barcelona between January 1975 and June 1999. Pathologic type: 32 carcinosarcomas, 14 leiomyosarcomas, 9 adenosarcomas, and 5 endometrial stromal sarcomas. Treatment: 58/60 surgery, 35/60 postoperative radiotherapy, 2/60 exclusive chemotherapy, and 3/60 complementary chemotherapy. FIGO stages: 43 Stage I, 4 Stage II, 11 Stage III, and 2 Stage IV. Variables analyzed: age, stage, vascular and lymphatic space invasion, myometrial invasion, mitotic index, tumor size, unicentricity/multicentricity, necrosis, and radiotherapy. Statistics: the S and Cox proportional risk models. The partial effect of each risk factor was calculated by hazard ratio (HR) with a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Early stages: Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size larger than 8 cm and VLSI had an impact on overall survival (HR=4.01 and HR=24.45, respectively). VLSI was present in 23% of the cases. Myometrial invasion greater than 50% had an impact on disease-free survival and local relapse-free survival (HR was 9.75 and 3.20, respectively). VLSI had an impact on distant metastasis-free survival (HR=2.92). Advanced stages: VLSI was present in 89% of the cases. Only leiomyosarcoma type made the overall survival worse (HR=10

  18. Is [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET/CT better than CT alone for the preoperative lymph node staging of muscle invasive bladder cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Mete; Pravin, Nayak; Anish, Bhattacharya; Nandita, Kakkar; Arup, Mandal, E-mail: uttam_mete@yahoo.com [PGIMER, Chandigarh, (India)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate whether the use of [F-18]-FDG-PET/CT can accurately predict pelvic lymph node metastasis in patients with muscle invasive TCC of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer had undergone FDG-PET/CT scan from the skull base to the mid-thighs after IV injection of 6.5MBq (Mega-Becquerel)/Kg of FDG. After intravenous hydration IV furosemide was given to overcome the difficulties posed by urinary excretion of {sup 18}F-FDG. PET/ CT data were analyzed as PET and CT images studied separately as well as fused PET/ CT images. The imaging findings were correlated with the histopathology of the nodes (gold standard). Results: CT and FDG-PET had demonstrated positive lymph nodes in 9 & 8 patients respectively. Among the 15 patients 3 had documented metastasis on histopathology. Both CT and PET could detect the nodes in all these 3 patients (100% sensitivity). Nodes were histologically negative amongst 6&5 patients who had node involvement by CT and PET respectively. Therefore, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) & negative predictive value (NPV) for CT and PET/CT were 50%, 33.3%, 100% and 58.3%, 37.5%, 100% respectively. Conclusion: The theoretical advantage of this cutting edge technology for whole body imaging has not been translated into clinical practice as we found minimal advantage of combined FDG-PET/CT over CT alone for nodal staging of muscle invasive bladder cancer. This may be due to substantial overlap between standardized uptake values (SUVs) from active inflammatory processes with those of malignant lesion. (author)

  19. Effect of Interval to Definitive Breast Surgery on Clinical Presentation and Survival in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Perera, Francisco; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Hammond, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of clinical presentation and interval to breast surgery on local recurrence and survival in early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The data from 397 patients with Stage T1-T2N0 breast carcinoma treated with conservative surgery and breast radiotherapy between 1985 and 1992 were reviewed at the London Regional Cancer Program. The clinical presentation consisted of a mammogram finding or a palpable lump. The intervals from clinical presentation to definitive breast surgery used for analysis were 0-4, >4-12, and >12 weeks. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of the time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival were determined for the three groups. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical presentation and interval to definitive surgery on survival. Results: The median follow-up was 11.2 years. No statistically significant difference was found in local recurrence as a function of the interval to definitive surgery (p = .424). A significant difference was noted in disease-free survival (p = .040) and cause-specific survival (p = .006) with an interval of >12 weeks to definitive breast surgery. However, the interval to definitive surgery was dependent on the presentation for cause-specific survival, with a substantial effect for patients with a mammographic presentation and a negligible effect for patients with a lump presentation (interaction p = .041). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an interval of >12 weeks to breast surgery might be associated with decreased survival for patients with a mammographic presentation, but it appeared to have no effect on survival for patients presenting with a palpable breast lump.

  20. Experimental assessment of the water quality influence on the phosphorus uptake of an invasive aquatic plant: biological responses throughout its phenological stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldy, Virginie; Thiebaut, Gabrielle; Fernandez, Catherine; Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Monnier, Yogan; Perez, Thierry; Tremolieres, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how an invasive plant can colonize a large range of environments is still a great challenge in freshwater ecology. For the first time, we assessed the relative importance of four factors on the phosphorus uptake and growth of an invasive macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John. This study provided data on its phenotypic plasticity, which is frequently suggested as an important mechanism but remains poorly investigated. The phosphorus uptake of two Elodea nuttallii subpopulations was experimentally studied under contrasting environmental conditions. Plants were sampled in the Rhine floodplain and in the Northern Vosges mountains, and then maintained in aquaria in hard (Rhine) or soft (Vosges) water. Under these conditions, we tested the influence of two trophic states (eutrophic state, 100 μg x l(-1) P-PO4(3-) and hypertrophic state, 300 μg x l(-1) P-PO4(3-)) on the P metabolism of plant subpopulations collected at three seasons (winter, spring and summer). Elodea nuttallii was able to absorb high levels of phosphorus through its shoots and enhance its phosphorus uptake, continually, after an increase of the resource availability (hypertrophic > eutrophic). The lowest efficiency in nutrient use was observed in winter, whereas the highest was recorded in spring, what revealed thus a storage strategy which can be beneficial to new shoots. This experiment provided evidence that generally, the water trophic state is the main factor governing P uptake, and the mineral status (softwater > hardwater) of the stream water is the second main factor. The phenological stage appeared to be a confounding factor to P level in water. Nonetheless, phenology played a role in P turnover in the plant. Finally, phenotypic plasticity allows both subpopulations to adapt to a changing environment.

  1. Experimental assessment of the water quality influence on the phosphorus uptake of an invasive aquatic plant: biological responses throughout its phenological stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Baldy

    Full Text Available Understanding how an invasive plant can colonize a large range of environments is still a great challenge in freshwater ecology. For the first time, we assessed the relative importance of four factors on the phosphorus uptake and growth of an invasive macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Planch. St. John. This study provided data on its phenotypic plasticity, which is frequently suggested as an important mechanism but remains poorly investigated. The phosphorus uptake of two Elodea nuttallii subpopulations was experimentally studied under contrasting environmental conditions. Plants were sampled in the Rhine floodplain and in the Northern Vosges mountains, and then maintained in aquaria in hard (Rhine or soft (Vosges water. Under these conditions, we tested the influence of two trophic states (eutrophic state, 100 μg x l(-1 P-PO4(3- and hypertrophic state, 300 μg x l(-1 P-PO4(3- on the P metabolism of plant subpopulations collected at three seasons (winter, spring and summer. Elodea nuttallii was able to absorb high levels of phosphorus through its shoots and enhance its phosphorus uptake, continually, after an increase of the resource availability (hypertrophic > eutrophic. The lowest efficiency in nutrient use was observed in winter, whereas the highest was recorded in spring, what revealed thus a storage strategy which can be beneficial to new shoots. This experiment provided evidence that generally, the water trophic state is the main factor governing P uptake, and the mineral status (softwater > hardwater of the stream water is the second main factor. The phenological stage appeared to be a confounding factor to P level in water. Nonetheless, phenology played a role in P turnover in the plant. Finally, phenotypic plasticity allows both subpopulations to adapt to a changing environment.

  2. Suppression of microRNA-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs with important biological and pathological functions. Although several studies have shown that microRNA-31 (miR-31 is obviously up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC, there is no study on the functional roles of miR-31 in CRC. Methods Anti-miR™ miRNA 31 inhibitor (anti-miR-31 is a sequence-specific and chemically modified oligonucleotide to specifically target and knockdown miR-31 molecule. The effect of anti-miR-31 transfection was investigated by real-time PCR. HCT-116p53+/+ and HCT-116p53-/-colon cancer cells were treated by anti-miR-31 with or without 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was detected by DAPI staining; cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry; colony formation, migration and invasion assays were performed to investigate the effect of suppression of miR-31 on the cell lines. Results Real-time PCR results showed that anti-miR-31 was efficiently introduced into the cells and reduced miR-31 levels to 44.1% in HCT-116p53+/+ and 67.8% in HCT-116p53-/-cell line (p = 0.042 and 0.046. MTT results showed that anti-miR-31 alone had no effect on the proliferation of HCT-116p53+/+ or HCT-116p53-/-. However, when combined with 5-FU, anti-miR-31 inhibited the proliferation of the two cell lines as early as 24 h after exposure to 5-FU (p = 0.038 and 0.044. Suppression of miR-31 caused a reduction of the migratory cells by nearly 50% compared with the negative control in both HCT-116p53+/+ and HCT-116p53-/-(p = 0.040 and 0.001. The invasive ability of the cells were increased by 8-fold in HCT-116p53+/+ and 2-fold in HCT-116p53-/- (p = 0.045 and 0.009. Suppression of miR-31 had no effect on cell cycle and colony formation (p > 0.05. Conclusions Suppression of miR-31 increases sensitivity to 5-FU at an early stage, and affects cell migration and invasion in HCT-116 colon cancer cells.

  3. MR diffusion imaging for preoperative staging of myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreano, Anita; Rebora, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Galimberti, Stefania [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center of Biostatistics for Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences, Monza, MB (Italy); Rechichi, Gilda [S. Gerardo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Monza, MB (Italy); Sironi, Sandro [University of Milano-Bicocca, Center of Biostatistics for Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences, Monza, MB (Italy); S. Gerardo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Monza, MB (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging in detecting deep myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, using surgical-pathological staging as reference standard. After searching a wide range of electronic databases and screening titles/abstracts, we obtained full papers for potentially eligible studies and evaluated according to predefined inclusion criteria. Quality assessment was conducted by adapting the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) checklist. From each study, we extracted information on diagnostic performance of DW and DCE sequences. After exploring heterogeneity, we adopted a bivariate generalized linear mixed model to compare the effect of the two MR sequences jointly on sensitivity and specificity. Nine studies (442 patients) were considered. Significant evidence of heterogeneity was found only for specificity, both in DW and DCE imaging (I {sup 2} = 70.8 % and 70.6 %). Pooled sensitivity of DW and DCE was 0.86 and specificity did not significantly differ (p = 0.16) between the two sequences (DW = 0.86 and DCE = 0.82). No difference was found between 3-T and 1.5-T MR. There was no evidence of publication bias. MR diagnostic accuracy in presurgical detection of deep myometrial infiltration in endometrial cancer is high. DCE and DW imaging do not differ in sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  4. Clinical significance of perineural invasion diagnosed by immunohistochemistry with anti-S100 antibody in Stage I-III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yoshifumi; Kido, Tomoki; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Nakano, Mae; Yagi, Ryoma; Tajima, Yosuke; Okamura, Takuma; Nakano, Masato; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Takashi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2015-12-01

    Perineural invasion (PN) diagnosed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining is an important prognostic factor after curative-intent surgery in patients with colorectal cancer. However, the clinical significance of PN diagnosed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has not been investigated. The present study assessed the clinical significance of PN diagnosed by IHC with an anti-S100 antibody in patients with colorectal cancer. We retrospectively enrolled 184 consecutive patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer who had undergone curative-intent surgery. We analyzed the absence/presence of PN diagnosed by HE staining (HE-PN) compared to that diagnosed by IHC with the anti-S100 antibody (S100-PN). Potential prognostic factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses of the overall and relapse-free survival. The [Formula: see text] statistics were used to assess the inter-observer reproducibility. The incidence of HE-PN and S100-PN among the 184 patients was 60 patients (32.6%) and 113 patients (61.4%), respectively (P colorectal cancer. An inter-observer assessment showed superior judgment reproducibility for S100-PN compared with HE-PN.

  5. Prognostic impact of proliferation for resected early stage 'pure' invasive lobular breast cancer: Cut-off analysis of Ki67 according to histology and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Fabi, Alessandra; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Kadrija, Dzenete; Griguolo, Gaia; Pilotto, Sara; Guarneri, Valentina; Zampiva, Ilaria; Brunelli, Matteo; Orvieto, Enrico; Nortilli, Rolando; Fiorio, Elena; Parolin, Veronica; Manfrin, Erminia; Caliò, Anna; Nisticò, Cecilia; Pellini, Francesca; Scarpa, Aldo; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Conte, Pierfranco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this analysis was to investigate and validate the prognostic potential of Ki67 in a multi-center series of patients affected by early stage 'pure' invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Clinical-pathological data of patients affected by ILC were correlated with overall survival and disease-free survival (OS/DFS); data from a parallel invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients' cohort were gathered as well. The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to Ki67 continuous variable to estimate the appropriate cut-off. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed as well. Data from overall 1097 (457/222 ILC: training/validation set; 418 IDC) patients were gathered. The identified optimal Ki67 cut-offs were 4% and 14% for DFS in ILC and IDC cohort, respectively. In ILC patients, the Ki67 cut-off was an independent OS predictor. Ten-years OS and DFS were 89.9% and 77.2% (p = 0.007) and 79.4% and 69.2% (p = 0.03) for patients with Ki67 ≤ 4% and >4%, respectively. In IDC patients, 10-years OS was 93.8% and 71.7%, p = 0.02, DFS was 84.0% and 52.6%, p = 0.0003, for patients with Ki67 ≤ 14% and >14%, respectively. In the validation set, the optimal Ki67 OS cut-off was 5%. The STEPP analysis showed that in the presence of low Ki67 values, IDC patients have a better DFS than ILC patients, while with the increase of values the prognosis tends to overlap. Despite the retrospective design of the study, the prognostic relevance of Ki67 (as well as its optimal cut-off) seems to significantly differ according to breast cancer histology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The presence of proliferative breast disease with atypia does not significantly influence outcome in early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowble, B.; Hanlon, A.L.; Patchefsky, A.; Freedman, G.; Hoffman, J.P.; Sigurdson, E.R.; Goldstein, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of the benign background breast-tissue change of atypical hyperplasia (AH) on outcome in patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty women with Stage I--II breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation from 1982-1994 had pathologic assessment of their background adjacent benign breast tissue. The median follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.1-15). The median age was 55 years (range 24-88). Of these, 23% had positive axillary nodes; 25% received adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF or CAF) with (9%) or without (17%) tamoxifen. Of the total, 24% received adjuvant tamoxifen alone. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 131 patients with atypical hyperplasia (ductal, 99 patients; lobular, 20 pts; and type not specified, 12 pts), and 329 patients with no proliferative changes or proliferative changes without atypia. Result: A statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups for method of detection, primary tumor size, presence of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), pathologic nodal status, region(s) treated with radiation, and type of adjuvant therapy. Patients with atypical hyperplasia (AH) had smaller primary tumors (T1 80% vs. 70%) more often detected solely by mammography (51% vs. 36%) with negative axillary nodes (87% vs. 73%) and radiation treatment to the breast only (93% vs. 78%). LCIS was observed in 9% of the patients with AH and 3% of those without AH. Patients with AH more often received tamoxifen alone (32% vs. 21%), rather than chemotherapy (15% vs. 29%). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups for race, age, menopausal status, family history, histology, histologic subtype DCIS when present, the presence or absence of an extensive intraductal component, final margin status, estrogen or progesterone receptor status, use of re-excision, or total radiation dose to the

  7. Development of a non-invasive model to improve the accuracy of determining liver fibrosis stage in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2017-11-01

    linear correlation between fibrosis stage and the indices of both apolipoprotein A1 and haptoglobin (r = –0.61; r = –0.35, respectively, p < 0.05. The positive correlation was determined between activity of the inflammatory process and the content of hyaluronic acid, α2-macroglobulin and fibronectin (r = 0.54, 0.67 and 0.55 at p < 0.05, while the reverse moderate relation observed for apolipoprotein A1 and hapthoglobin (r = –0.56 and –0.33, p < 0.05. Conclusions. The analysis of obtained results showed that α2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein A1, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin had the greatest diagnostic validity among non-invasive markers of fibrosis. Every of them get the AUROC level higher than 0.75 for minimal fibrosis and, moreover, for moderate, significant fibrosis and cirrhosis they had an area more than 0.9.

  8. Low folate metabolic stress reprograms DNA methylation-activated sonic hedgehog signaling to mediate cancer stem cell-like signatures and invasive tumour stage-specific malignancy of human colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsin-Chun; Lin, Jhuan-Yu; Hsu, Shu-Han; Lan, Wen-Yu; Kuo, Chang-Sheng; Tian, Yu-Feng; Sun, Ding-Ping; Huang, Rwei-Fen Syu

    2017-12-15

    The mechanistic role of colonic low folate metabolic stress (LFMS) in colorectal cancer (CRC) malignancy development remains unknown. Folate analysis on the 99 paired human CRC tissues localized LFMS to the deep invasive T3/T4 staged tumours with hypo-methylated sonic hedgehog (Shh) promoter region and amplified expressions of Shh ligand and Gli1 effector, which coincided with deregulated expressions of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediators. Colonic folate levels of CRC were inversely correlated with pluripotent expressions of the SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 markers (p cells to LFMS microenvironment significantly hypomethylated Shh promoter region, activated Shh signaling, induced transcript and protein expressions of the pluripotent markers, promoted trans-differentiation as EMT by deregulation of Snail mediator and epithelial marker E-cadherin, increased MMP2/MMP9 enzymatic digestion on matrix protein for invasion, and promoted self-renewal capability of anchorage-independent tumor-spheroid formation. LFMS-induced cancer stem cell (CSC) signature and CRC invasion is synergized with inhibition of DNA methylation by 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5AZA) in rewiring EMT genotypes, which can be blockade by the Shh inhibitor (cyclopamine). The in vivo and in vitro data corroboratively identify CSC-like molecular targets specific to the LFMS-predisposed invasive CRC through reprogramming DNA methylation-activated Shh signaling. The study highlights CSC targets specific to LFMS-predisposed invasive CRC in optimizing folate co-chemotherapy to minimize tumour metastasis potential of CRC patients. © 2017 UICC.

  9. Screening of superior fiber-quality-traits among wild accessions of Bambusa balcooa: efficient and non-invasive evaluation of fiber developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Samik; Ghosh, Jayadri S.; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Dey, Nrisingha; Pal, Amita

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The search for alternative fiber resources is receiving worldwide attention for the potential role of these fibers in climate and forest restoration. Among bamboos, Bambusa balcooa is generally preferred for industrial use due to its rapid growth, excellent flexibility and tensile strength. The aim of this study is to establish a non-invasive and efficient method of screening superior fiber quality from the wild gene pool of B. balcooa.* Anatomical features of B. balco...

  10. Feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion in predicting early distant metastasis in patients with stage T3 rectal cancer based on rectal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Jai Keun; Lee, Jei Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University Health system, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Bae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion (MVI) in predicting early distant metastasis developed within 1 year of diagnosis of T3 rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Sixty-five patients with T3 rectal cancer (early metastasis, n = 28; non-metastasis, n = 37) were enrolled in this study. Early distant metastases developed in 28 patients (liver, n = 15; lung, n = 9; both, n = 4). Logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors for early distant metastasis. In univariate analysis, tumour location, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), MRI-detected MVI, and mesorectal fat infiltration (MFI) (odds ratio [OR], 4.533, 9.583, 5.539, 27.046, and 5.539, respectively) were associated with early distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MVI (OR, 29.949; P < 0.002) and LVI (OR, 6.684; P = 0.033) were independent factors for early distant metastasis. Specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of MVI (94.59 %, and 89.47 %, respectively) were significantly higher than those of LVI (64.86 %, and 61.76 %), but sensitivity and negative predictive value were not significantly different between MVI (60.71 %, and 76.09 %) and LVI (75.00 %, and 77.42 %). While sensitivity of MRI-detected MVI was equal to that of CEA in predicting early distant metastasis from T3 rectal cancer, specificity and PPV may be improved by assessing MVI. (orig.)

  11. Mediastinal staging of non-small-cell lung cancer among Australasian thoracic physicians: clinical practice and constraints on minimally invasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabscheck, E J; Steinfort, D P; Irving, L B; Hew, M

    2012-06-01

    We determined current practice among Australasian thoracic physicians in the mediastinal staging of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We focused on the availability of endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and constraints to its use, as there has been no systematic analysis regarding the availability and uptake of this new technology among thoracic physicians. Physician members of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand were emailed a survey seeking their current approach to three scenarios requiring mediastinal staging of NSCLC. Respondents were also asked for their preferred investigation for each scenario if any current constraints were removed. Relevant demographic information was sought. We received 164 responses from 512 Australasian physicians (34%). Without constraints, EBUS-TBNA was the preferred investigation for all three clinical scenarios, but only 33% of respondents had access to EBUS-TBNA. Constraints included lack of availability and lack of expertise. Reduced EBUS-TBNA access was associated with a number of clinician factors. Australasian thoracic physicians prefer EBUS-TBNA for the mediastinal staging of NSCLC, but access to EBUS-TBNA services is limited. We recommend targeted measures to improve access to EBUS-TBNA use and optimise mediastinal staging of NSCLC. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Solving no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem with unrelated parallel machines and rework time by the adjusted discrete Multi Objective Invasive Weed Optimization and fuzzy dominance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarzadeh, Hassan; Moradinasab, Nazanin; Gerami, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Adjusted discrete Multi-Objective Invasive Weed Optimization (DMOIWO) algorithm, which uses fuzzy dominant approach for ordering, has been proposed to solve No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem. Design/methodology/approach: No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times and probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs and rework times for both stations as well as unrelated parallel machines with regards to the simultaneous minimization of maximum job completion time and average latency functions have been investigated in a multi-objective manner. In this study, the parameter setting has been carried out using Taguchi Method based on the quality indicator for beater performance of the algorithm. Findings: The results of this algorithm have been compared with those of conventional, multi-objective algorithms to show the better performance of the proposed algorithm. The results clearly indicated the greater performance of the proposed algorithm. Originality/value: This study provides an efficient method for solving multi objective no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times, probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs, rework times for both stations and unrelated parallel machines which are the real constraints.

  13. Solving no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem with unrelated parallel machines and rework time by the adjusted discrete Multi Objective Invasive Weed Optimization and fuzzy dominance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, Hassan; Moradinasab, Nazanin; Gerami, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Adjusted discrete Multi-Objective Invasive Weed Optimization (DMOIWO) algorithm, which uses fuzzy dominant approach for ordering, has been proposed to solve No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem. Design/methodology/approach: No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times and probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs and rework times for both stations as well as unrelated parallel machines with regards to the simultaneous minimization of maximum job completion time and average latency functions have been investigated in a multi-objective manner. In this study, the parameter setting has been carried out using Taguchi Method based on the quality indicator for beater performance of the algorithm. Findings: The results of this algorithm have been compared with those of conventional, multi-objective algorithms to show the better performance of the proposed algorithm. The results clearly indicated the greater performance of the proposed algorithm. Originality/value: This study provides an efficient method for solving multi objective no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times, probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs, rework times for both stations and unrelated parallel machines which are the real constraints.

  14. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  15. One stage resection of spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the triangular ligament with diaphragm invasion: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kwang-Kuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC can lead to extensive hemorrhage and is a rare but life-threatening event. A 58-year-old male patient with no history of trauma presented at our institution with severe epigastric pain and abdominal distension for 6 h. His blood pressure was a 60/40 mmHg, and pulse rate was 132/min. Abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT imaging revealed a ruptured mass under the left diaphragm and fluid collection in the upper abdomen, flanks and pelvic cavity. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the presence of an active bleeding tumor in the triangular ligament invading into the diaphragm. The tumor was resected with an appropriate diaphragm margin. The resected tumor was 5 cm in diameter and pathologically identified as hepatocellular carcinoma with a negative surgical margin. This case report shows that ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of non-traumatic hemoperitoneum. And it is necessary to set a surgical plan for unpredictable HCC rupture with direct diaphragm invasion.

  16. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage 0-IIB Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-05

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  17. Novel circulating microRNA signature as a potential non-invasive multi-marker test in ER-positive early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kodahl, Annette R; Lyng, Maria Bibi; Binder, Harald

    2014-01-01

    controls using LNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). A signature of miRNAs was subsequently validated in an independent set of 111 serum samples from 60 patients with early-stage breast cancer and 51 healthy controls and further tested for reproducibility in 3 independent data sets from the GEO......RNA signature to stratify samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls was confirmed in the validation set (p = 0.012) with a corresponding AUC = 0.665 in the ROC-curve analysis. No association between miRNA expression and tumor grade, tumor size, menopausal- or lymph node status was observed...... be used as a screening tool to identify individuals who would benefit from further diagnostic assessment....

  18. Invasive amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, F; Bulgariu, Teodora; Blanaru, Oana; Dragomir, C; Lunca, Claudia; Stratan, I; Manciuc, Carmen; Luca, V

    2006-01-01

    Digestive amoebiasis with his invasive form is an unusual pathology encountered in the temperate zone. This could lead to a life threatening complication: systemic amoebiasis. A 55-year-old male was treated successfully of systemic amoebiasis in a third referral hospital. The diagnosis was established based on epidemiology data and microscopical identification of trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The amoebicidal, antibiotic and supportive treatments was firstly administrated. The clinical picture of intestinal amoebiasis raised from dysenteric syndrome to necrotizing enteritis. The bowel perforation with localized peritonitis was followed by chronic enteric fistula. Amoebic liver abscess, as the most frequent extraintestinal complication, was concomitantly diagnosed and treated. Urinary amoebiasis was considered as complication in the context of systemic dissemination: any other location could become a site of an amoebic abscess. Multidisciplinary approach was the successful key in the management of the patient, including antiparasitic therapy and antibiotic prophylaxis, intensive care and multiple surgical approaches. The diagnosis of digestive amoebiasis and systemic complication may be delayed in nonendemic areas, leading to advanced and complicated stages of the disease. The surgical approach is most efficiently to treat a large liver amoebic abscess and intraperitoneal collections.

  19. Preoperative Concurrent Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy for Bulky Stage IB2, IIA, and IIB Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix With Proximal Parametrial Invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, Florence; Cojocariu, Oana-Maria; Levy, Pierre; Lefranc, Jean-Pierre; Darai, Emile; Jannet, Denis; Ansquer, Yan; Lhuillier, Pierre-Eugene; Benifla, Jean-Louis; Seince, Nathalie; Touboul, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicity, local tumor control, and survival after preoperative chemoradiation for operable bulky cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Between December 1991 and July 2006, 92 patients with operable bulky stage IB2, IIA, and IIB cervical carcinoma without pelvic or para-aortic nodes on pretreatment imaging were treated. Treatment consisted of preoperative external beam pelvic radiation therapy (EBRT) and concomitant chemotherapy (CT) during the first and fourth weeks of radiation combining 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The pelvic radiation dose was 40.5 Gy over 4.5 weeks. EBRT was followed by low-dose rate uterovaginal brachytherapy with a total dose of 20 Gy in 62 patients. After a median rest period of 44 days, all patients underwent Class II modified radical hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Thirty patients who had not received preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy underwent postoperative low-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy at a dose of 20 Gy. The mean follow-up was 46 months. Results: Pathologic residual tumor was observed in 43 patients. After multivariate analysis, additional preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy was the single significant predictive factor for pathologic complete response rate (p = 0.019). The 2- and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 80.4% and 72.2%, respectively. Pathologic residual cervical tumor was the single independent factor decreasing the probability of DFS (p = 0.020). Acute toxicities were moderate. Two severe ureteral complications requiring surgical intervention were observed. Conclusions: Concomitant chemoradiation followed by surgery for operable bulky stage I-II cervical carcinoma without clinical lymph node involvement can be used with acceptable toxicity. Pathologic complete response increases the probability of DFS

  20. The Commentary of al-Nayrizi on Books II-IV of Euclid's Elements of Geometry With a Translation of That Portion of Book I Missing from MS Leiden Or 3991 but Present in the Newly Discovered Qom Manuscript Edited by Rüdiger Arnzen

    CERN Document Server

    Bello, Anthony Lo

    2009-01-01

    "The Commentary of al-Nayrizi (circa 920) on Euclid's Elements" occupies an important place in the history of mathematics and of philosophy. This work presents an annotated English translation of Books II-IV and of a hitherto lost portion of Book I.

  1. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa and heat-labile toxin (LT of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosai Ruan

    Full Text Available Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2:243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3, CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5:1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in

  2. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa) and heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent

  3. Long-term prognostic performance of Ki67 rate in early stage, pT1-pT2, pN0, invasive breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Reyal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular signatures may become of use in clinical practice to assess the prognosis of breast cancers. However, although international consensus conferences sustain the use of these new markers in the near future, concerns remain about their degree of discordance and cost-effectiveness in different international settings. The present study aims to validate Ki67 as prognostic factor in a large cohort of early-stage (pT1-pT2, pN0 breast cancer patients. METHODS: 456 patients treated in 1995-1996 were identified in the Institut Curie database. Ki67 (MIB1 was retrospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry for all cases. The prognostic value of this index was compared to that of histological grade (HG, Estrogen receptor (ER and HER2 status. Distant disease free interval, loco-regional recurrence, time-lapse from first metastatic diagnosis to death were analyzed. RESULTS: All 456 patients were treated by lumpectomy plus axillary dissection and radiotherapy. 27 patients (5.9% received systemic treatment. Tumors were classified as HG1 in 35%, HG2 in 42% and HG3 in 23% of cases. ER was expressed in 86% of the tumors, HER2 in 5% and 14% were triple negative. The median follow-up was 151 [5-191] months. Distant and loco-regional disease recurrences were observed in 16% and 18%, respectively. High (>20% Ki67 rate [HR = 3 (1.8-4.8, p<10e-06] and HG3 [HR = 4.4 (2.2-8.6, p = 0.00002] were associated with an increased rate of distant relapse. In multivariate analysis, the Ki67 remained the only significant prognostic factor in the subgroups of ER positive HER2 negative [HR = 2.6 (1.5-4.6, p = 0.0006] and ER positive HER2 negative HG2 tumors [HR = 2.2 (1.01-4.8, p = 0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: We validate the prognosis value of the Ki67 rate in small size node negative breast cancer. We conclude that Ki67 is a potential cost-effective decision marker for adjuvant therapy in early-stage HG2, pT1-pT2, pN0, breast cancers.

  4. Completeness of revascularization and its impact on the outcomes of a staged approach of percutaneous coronary intervention followed by minimally invasive valve surgery for patients with concomitant coronary artery and valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Andrés M; Chandra, Ramesh; Gowani, Saqib A; Santana, Orlando; Mihos, Christos G; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Kurlansky, Paul; Smith, Craig R; Beohar, Nirat

    2016-09-01

    A staged approach of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by minimally invasive valve surgery (MIVS) is an alternative to the conventional combined coronary artery bypass and valve surgery for patients with concomitant coronary artery and valve disease. Limited data exist on degree of the completeness of revascularization achieved with this approach and its impact on outcomes. A total of 138 patients, who underwent a staged approach between January 2009 and June 2013, were retrospectively evaluated. Coronary angiograms were reviewed by two cardiologists blinded to outcomes and were then categorized into two groups: complete or incomplete revascularization, which was defined as ≥1 major epicardial coronary arteries of at least 2.0 mm diameter with ≥70% untreated obstruction after the index PCI and before MIVS. Complete and incomplete revascularization was achieved in 105 (76%) and 33 (24%) patients, respectively. The patients with incomplete revascularization had a lower ejection fraction, a higher STS score, and more prior myocardial infarctions and multi-vessel coronary artery disease. There were no differences in the post-operative complications, 30-day mortality, or 3-year survival (84 vs. 83%, P = 0.68). After a median follow-up of 29 months, incompletely revascularized patients had a higher incidence of acute coronary syndrome (2.9 vs. 12.9%, P = 0.05). In patients undergoing a staged approach of PCI followed by MIVS, incomplete revascularization did not significantly impact the short or mid-term survival, but was associated with an increased incidence of acute coronary syndrome at follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Patterns of Primary Tumor Invasion and Regional Lymph Node Spread Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early-Stage Nasal NK/T-cell Lymphoma: Implications for Clinical Target Volume Definition and Prognostic Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Run-Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Song, Yong-Wen; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Bo; Qi, Shu-Nan; Lu, Ning-Ning; Tang, Yu; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. Methods and Materials: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The incidences of PTI and regional LN involvement were 64.7% and 25.7%, respectively. Based on the incidence of PTI, involved sites surrounding the nasal cavity were classified into 3 risk subgroups: high-risk (>20%), intermediate-risk (5%-20%), and low-risk (<5%). The most frequently involved site was the nasopharynx (35.2%), followed by the maxillary (21.9%) and ethmoid (21.9%) sinuses. Local disease and regional LN spread followed an orderly pattern without LN skipping. The retropharyngeal nodes (RPNs) were most frequently involved (19.0%), followed by level II (11.4%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates for all patients were 72.8%, 65.2%, and 90.0%, respectively. The presence of PTI and regional LN involvement based on MRI significantly and negatively affected PFS and OS. Conclusions: Early-stage nasal NKTCL presents with a high incidence of PTI but a relatively low incidence of regional LN spread. Locoregional spread followed an orderly pattern, and PTI and regional LN spread are powerful prognostic factors for poorer survival outcomes. CTV reduction may be feasible for selected patients.

  6. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ji-Won; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Park, Michael Yong; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The solid component of all invasive epithelial cancers showed high b 1000 signal intensity. •ADCs can predict the histologic grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs correlate negatively to the surgical stage of epithelial ovarian cancer. •ADCs may be useful imaging biomarkers to assess epithelial ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. Materials and methods: We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. Results: The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P = 0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P = 0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P = 0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P = 0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. Conclusion: The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging biomarkers for assessment

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzenesulphonamide-bearing 1,4,5-trisubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles possessing human carbonic anhydrase I, II, IV, and IX inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Vikas; Bua, Silvia; Supuran, Claudiu T; Sharma, Pawan K

    2017-12-01

    A library of benzenesulphonamides incorporating 1,2,3-triazole rings functionalised with ester, carboxylic acid, carboxamide, carboxyhydrazide, and hydroxymethyl moieties were synthesised. The carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory activity of the new compounds was assessed against four human (h) isoforms, hCA I, hCA II, hCA IV, and hCA IX. Among them, hCA II and IV are anti-glaucoma drug targets, being involved in aqueous humour secretion within the eye. hCA I was inhibited with Ki's ranging between 8.3 nM and 0.8737 µM. hCA II, the physiologically dominant cytosolic isoform, was excellently inhibited by these compounds, with Ki's in the range of 1.6-9.4 nM, whereas hCA IV was effectively inhibited by most of them, with Ki's in the range of 1.4-55.3 nM. Thirteen of the twenty sulphonamides were found to be excellent inhibitors of tumour associated hCA IX with Ki's ≤ 9.5 nM. Many of the new compounds reported here showed low nM inhibitory action against hCA II, IV, and IX, isoforms involved in glaucoma and some tumours, making them interesting candidates for further medicinal chemistry/pharmacologic studies.

  8. Invasive thymoma: CT diagnosis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhonghua; Yu Hong; Liu Hengshun; Yan Hongzhen; Zhang Shurong

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the CT manifestation of invasive thymoma for staging and treatment planning. Materials and methods: The authors reviewed and analyzed the CT scans of 26 patients with invasive thymoma confirmed by surgery and pathology with emphasis on lesion density, invasion of adjacent mediastinal structures, pleural seeding mediastinal nodes and extra-mediastinal metastases. Results: In 26 cases of invasive thymoma, all CT scans demonstrated the soft tissue mass in anterior mediastinum, with heterogeneous density in 16 patients. Irregular invasion to adjacent organs was found in 24 patients. The main findings were mediastinal pleura invasion in 7, lung invasion 9, pleural implants 3, cardiovascular involvement in 20, and cardiophrenic and abdominal invasion in 3. CT is especially effective in detecting the involvement of pleura, pericardium and lung. Conclusion: Computed tomography provides the most reliable assessment of the extent of the disease. Conventional CT scan allows accurate staging and treatment planning

  9. Outcomes of sentinel lymph node dissection alone vs. axillary lymph node dissection in early stage invasive lobular carcinoma: a retrospective study of the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG Z0011 trial demonstrated no difference in local-regional recurrence (LRR, disease-specific survival (DSS or overall survival (OS for sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND and completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND among patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy for clinical T1-T2, N0 breast cancer with 1 or 2 positive SLNs. However, Only 7% of study participants had invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC. Because ILC has a different pattern of metastases, frequently presenting as small foci requiring immunohistochemistry for detection, the applicability of ACOSOG Z0011 trial data to ILC patients is unclear.We identified all ILC patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database (1998-2009 who met the ACOSOG Z0011 eligibility criteria. Patients were evaluated on the basis of the extent of axillary surgery (SLND alone or ALND, and the clinical outcomes of these 2 groups were compared.1269 patients (393 SLND and 876 ALND were identified from the SEER database. At a median follow-up time of 71 months, there were no differences in OS or disease-specific survival between the two groups.SLND alone may result in outcomes comparable to those achieved with ALND for patients with early-stage ILC who meet the ACOSOG Z0011 eligibility criteria.

  10. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. A comparative study of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the staging and invasion of adjacent structures by renal tumors; Estudo comparativo dos metodos de ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonancia magnetica no estadiamento e invasao das estruturas adjacentes por tumores renais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, S.M.; Ajzen, S.A.; Trindade, J.C.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; E-mail: sribeiro@fmb.unesp.br

    2001-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US), Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MR) were compared for the staging of renal tumors. The differences between these imaging techniques were also studied for their ability to detect adenopathies, vascular invasion, distant intra-abdominal metastases, and particularly adjacent organ invasion. Thirty-one patients with solid or complex renal masses were prospectively studied using US, CT, and MR. Differences between the results obtained were studied using the Cochran G test and the Mc NEMAR test. The sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic technique were compared against a 'gold standard' of the surgical and histopathological findings. The following sensitivities were obtained: For the detection of adenopathy, US 63.6%, CT and MR 90.9%. For vascular invasion, US 42.8%, CT and MR 85.7%. For the adjacent organ invasion, US 28.5%, CT 85.7%, and MR 71.4%. Some of the criteria that suggest invasion of adjacent structures include: the envelopment of the adjacent structures by the tumor, tumor extension into the adjacent structures with an irregular appearance, and alterations in shape, size, and density of adjacent structures. Loss of fat planes between the tumor and adjacent structures is not a sign of tumor invasion. Significant differences were found in the detection capacity of US in relation to CT and MR, which were similar. All three techniques were highly sensitive and specific only in the detection of distant abdominal metastases. In addition to the accuracy of these diagnostic modalities for the detection and staging of tumors, invasiveness, risks and cost should be considered in relation to relative costs and benefits. (author)

  12. Physiological effects of marine natural organic matter and metals in early life stages of the North Pacific native marine mussel Mytilus trossulus; a comparison with the invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lygia Sega; Bianchini, Adalto; Smith, Scott; Jorge, Marianna Basso; Diamond, Rachael L; Wood, Chris M

    2018-04-01

    The role of seawater NOM in reducing metal toxicity for marine organisms is not well understood. We investigated the effects of five different marine NOMs (two autochthonous, one allochthonous, two of mixed origin, at 8 mg C/L), three metals (6 μg Cu/L; 20 μg Pb/L; 25 μg Zn/L), and combinations between them, to early life stages of Mytilus trossulus (a North Pacific native) in 48-h tests. Endpoints were whole body Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ -ATPase activity, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and lipid peroxidation. Comparisons were made with previously reported tests (identical conditions) on the invasive M. galloprovincialis. Unexposed M. trossulus had lower Ca 2+ +Mg 2+ -ATPase but similar baseline CA activity and lipid peroxidation to unexposed M. galloprovincialis. NOMs alone induced increased enzyme activities, and increased lipid peroxidation, but the latter did not occur with NOMs of mixed origin in M. trossulus. There was no clear difference in the sensitivity to various NOMs between species. In M. trossulus, all three metals by themselves caused increases in lipid peroxidation, as did many metal-NOM combinations. The origin of the NOMs influenced the nature of the responses to NOM-metal combinations in both species, but no clear relationship to NOM chemistry was apparent. Overall, M. trossulus was more sensitive to metals and NOM-metal combinations, with a greater number of significant responses (27 versus 22 treatment endpoints, out of a total of 72) and a greater proportion of negative effects (81% versus 50%) than in M. galloprovincialis. Therefore, marine NOMs by themselves, as well as metals by themselves and NOM-metal combinations, can induce both positive and negative physiological responses. Lipid peroxidation appears to be a particularly common negative response. In future studies, NOM quality and mussel species should be considered since native M. trossulus and invasive M. galloprovincialis exhibited markedly different responses after exposure to

  13. Pollination of a native plant changes with distance and density of invasive plants in a simulated biological invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Daniela; Campbell, Diane R

    2016-08-01

    Effects of an exotic plant on pollination may change as the invasive increases in density. Quantity of pollinator visits to a native may increase, decrease, or change nonlinearly, while visit quality is likely to decrease with greater interspecific pollen movement. How visit quantity and quality contribute to the effect on reproductive success at each invasion stage has not been measured. We simulated four stages of invasion by Brassica nigra by manipulating the neighborhood of potted plants of the native Phacelia parryi in a field experiment. Stages were far from the invasion, near the invasion, intermixed with the invasive at low density, and intermixed at high density. We measured pollinator visitation, conspecific and invasive pollen deposition, and seed set for P. parryi at each stage. Native individuals near invasive plants and within areas of low invasive density showed greatest seed production, as expected from concurrent changes in conspecific and invasive pollen deposition. Those plants experienced facilitation of visits and received more conspecific pollen relative to plants farther from invasives. Native individuals within high invasive density also received frequent visits by many pollinators (although not honeybees), but the larger receipt of invasive pollen predicted interference with pollen tubes that matched patterns in seed set. Pollinator visitation was highest when exotic plants were nearby. Detrimental effects of heterospecific pollen deposition were highest at high exotic density. Our study quantified how reproduction benefits from near proximity to a showy invasive, but is still vulnerable when the invasive reaches high density. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Uncharismatic Invasives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark, Jonathan L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although philosophers have examined the ethics of invasive species management, there has been little research approaching this topic from a descriptive, ethnographic perspective. In this article I examine how invasive species managers think about the moral status of the animals they seek to manage. I do so through a case study of Oregon’s efforts to manage the invasive species that are rafting across the Pacific attached to tsunami debris in the wake of the Japanese tsunami of 2011. Focusing on the state’s response to a dock that washed ashore on Agate Beach with various marine invertebrates attached to it, I argue that these animals’ position on two intersecting scales of moral worth—the sociozoologic scale and the phylogenetic scale—rendered them unworthy of moral consideration.

  15. The impact of lobular carcinoma in situ in association with invasive breast cancer on the rate of local recurrence in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Shruti; Kestin, Larry L.; Goldstein, Neal S.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The significance of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) associated with invasive breast cancer in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT) remains controversial. We examined the impact of the presence and extent of LCIS associated with invasive breast cancer on clinical outcome in BCT patients. Methods and Materials: From 1980 to 1996, 607 cases of invasive breast cancer were treated with BCT. All slides were reviewed by a single pathologist. Positive margin was defined as presence of invasive carcinoma/ductal carcinoma in situ at the inked margin. Multiple clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed for their association with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and true recurrence/marginal miss (TR/MM). Median follow-up was 8.7 years. Results: Fifty-six patients (9%) had LCIS in association with invasive cancer. On univariate analysis, positive final margin, positive/no reexcision, smaller maximum specimen dimension, and the presence of LCIS predicted for IBTR. The 10-year IBTR rate was 14% for cases with LCIS vs. 7% without LCIS (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, positive margin (p < 0.01), positive/no reexcision (p = 0.04), and presence of LCIS (p = 0.02) remained independently associated with IBTR; positive margin (p < 0.01) and LCIS (p = 0.04) were also associated with TR/MM failure. When examining only cases with negative final margins, the presence of LCIS remained associated with higher IBTR and TR/MM rates (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The presence of LCIS was independently associated with higher rate of IBTR and TR/MM after BCT for invasive breast cancer. LCIS may have significant premalignant potential and progress to an invasive IBTR at the site of index lesion. The adequacy of excision of LCIS associated with invasive carcinoma should be considered in patients undergoing BCT

  16. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  17. Economic Analysis of Biological Invasions in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas P. Holmes; Julian Aukema; Jeffrey Englin; Robert G. Haight; Kent Kovacs; Brian Leung

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions of native forests by nonnative pests result from complex stochastic processes that are difficult to predict. Although economic optimization models describe efficient controls across the stages of an invasion, the ability to calibrate such models is constrained by lack of information on pest population dynamics and consequent economic damages. Here...

  18. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Adhesin-Toxoid Multiepitope Fusion Antigen CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTaN12S-mnLTG192G/L211A-Derived Antibodies Inhibit Adherence of Seven Adhesins, Neutralize Enterotoxicity of LT and STa Toxins, and Protect Piglets against Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul; Ruan, Xiaosai; Lu, Ti; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David; Zhang, Weiping

    2018-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Vaccines inducing antibodies to broadly inhibit bacterial adherence and to neutralize toxin enterotoxicity are expected to be effective against ETEC-associated diarrhea. 6×His-tagged adhesin-toxoid fusion proteins were shown to induce neutralizing antibodies to several adhesins and LT and STa toxins (X. Ruan, D. A. Sack, W. Zhang, PLoS One 10:e0121623, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121623). However, antibodies derived from His-tagged CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTa A14Q -dmLT or CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTa N12S -dmLT protein were less effective in neutralizing STa enterotoxicity and were not evaluated in vivo for efficacy against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, His-tagged proteins are considered less desirable for human vaccines. In this study, we produced a tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) protein, enhanced anti-STa immunogenicity by including a third copy of STa toxoid STa N12S , and examined antigen immunogenicity in a murine model. Moreover, we immunized pregnant pigs with the tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA protein and evaluated passive antibody protection against STa + or LT + ETEC infection in a pig challenge model. Results showed that tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broad antiadhesin and antitoxin antibody responses in the intraperitoneally immunized mice and the intramuscularly immunized pigs. Mouse and pig serum antibodies significantly inhibited adherence of seven colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins (CFA/I and CS1 to CS6) and effectively neutralized both toxins. More importantly, suckling piglets born to the immunized mothers acquired antibodies and were protected against STa + ETEC and LT + ETEC diarrhea. These results indicated that tagless CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broadly protective antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies and demonstrate that this adhesin

  19. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  20. Management of invasive thymoma at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen patients (median age 55 years; range 23 - 69 years) with macroscopic invasive thymoma or thymic carcinoma were treated at Groote Schuur Hospital between 1969 and 1988. Stage 3 (macroscopically invasive) disease was present in 12 patients (80%) and stage 4 (metastatic disease) in 3 (20%). Ten of the patients ...

  1. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  2. 1p36 deletion is a marker for tumour dissemination in microsatellite stable stage II-III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Markus; Kultima, Hanna Göransson; Birgisson, Helgi; Sundström, Magnus; Mathot, Lucy; Edlund, Karolina; Viklund, Björn; Sjöblom, Tobias; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Påhlman, Lars; Glimelius, Bengt; Isaksson, Anders

    2014-11-24

    The clinical behaviour of colon cancer is heterogeneous. Five-year overall survival is 50-65% with all stages included. Recurring somatic chromosomal alterations have been identified and some have shown potential as markers for dissemination of the tumour, which is responsible for most colon cancer deaths. We investigated 115 selected stage II-IV primary colon cancers for associations between chromosomal alterations and tumour dissemination. Follow-up was at least 5 years for stage II-III patients without distant recurrence. Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays and allele-specific copy number analysis were used to identify chromosomal alterations. Fisher's exact test was used to associate alterations with tumour dissemination, detected at diagnosis (stage IV) or later as recurrent disease (stage II-III). Loss of 1p36.11-21 was associated with tumour dissemination in microsatellite stable tumours of stage II-IV (odds ratio = 5.5). It was enriched to a similar extent in tumours with distant recurrence within stage II and stage III subgroups, and may therefore be used as a prognostic marker at diagnosis. Loss of 1p36.11-21 relative to average copy number of the genome showed similar prognostic value compared to absolute loss of copies. Therefore, the use of relative loss as a prognostic marker would benefit more patients by applying also to hyperploid cancer genomes. The association with tumour dissemination was supported by independent data from the The Cancer Genome Atlas. Deletions on 1p36 may be used to guide adjuvant treatment decisions in microsatellite stable colon cancer of stages II and III.

  3. Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Schnitt, Stuart J. [Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Giuliano, Armando E. [Department of Surgery, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Khan, Seema A. [Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Horton, Janet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Klimberg, Suzanne [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Fayetteville, Arkansas (United States); Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Freedman, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Houssami, Nehmat [School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Johnson, Peggy L. [Advocate in Science, Susan G. Komen, Wichita, Kansas (United States); Morrow, Monica, E-mail: morrowm@mskcc.org [Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To convene a multidisciplinary panel of breast experts to examine the relationship between margin width and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and develop a guideline for defining adequate margins in the setting of breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary consensus panel used a meta-analysis of margin width and IBTR from a systematic review of 33 studies including 28,162 patients as the primary evidence base for consensus. Results: Positive margins (ink on invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) are associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of IBTR compared with negative margins. This increased risk is not mitigated by favorable biology, endocrine therapy, or a radiation boost. More widely clear margins than no ink on tumor do not significantly decrease the rate of IBTR compared with no ink on tumor. There is no evidence that more widely clear margins reduce IBTR for young patients or for those with unfavorable biology, lobular cancers, or cancers with an extensive intraductal component. Conclusions: The use of no ink on tumor as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of IBTR and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs.

  4. The radiological diagnosis of invasive thymomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewes, W.; Schrappe-Baecher, M.; Focke-Wenzel, E.K.; Schmitz-Draeger, H.G.; Staedtische Krankenanstalten Koeln-Merheim

    1986-01-01

    Between January 1981 and September 1985, invasive thymomas were diagnosed in 13 patients attending the municipal hospital at Koeln-Merheim. All these patients were examined radiologically and the tumour removed at thoracotomy, and irradiated in our Radiotherapy Clinic. Invasive thymomas appear as space-occupying lesions on chest radiographs taken in two planes, or on computed tomography. Infiltration by the thymoma in stages III and IV can be demonstrated by computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  5. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  6. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Eun; Choi, Jin-Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei (Korea); Yonsei University Health System, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Park, Young Nyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yonsei (Korea); Lee, Yoon-Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yonsei (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    Preoperative staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is important in determining the best treatment plan. Several classification systems have been suggested to determine the operability and extent of surgery. Longitudinal tumor extent is especially important in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma because operative methods differ depending on the tumor extent. The Bismuth-Corlette classification system provides useful information when planning for surgery. However, this classification system is not adequate for selecting surgical candidates. Anatomic variation of the bile duct and gross morphology of the tumor must be considered simultaneously. Lateral spread of the tumor can be evaluated based on the TNM staging provided by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, there is a potential for ambiguity in the distinction of T1 and T2 cancer from one another. In addition, T stage does not necessarily mean invasiveness. Blumgart T staging is helpful for the assessment of resectability with the consideration of nodal status and distant metastasis as suggested by the AJCC cancer staging system. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the primary tools used in the assessment of longitudinal and lateral spread of a tumor when determining respectability. Diagnostic laparoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) may play additional roles in this regard. (orig.)

  7. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  8. Long-term results of breast conserving surgery vs. mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: 20-year follow-up of the Danish randomized DBCG-82TM protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Nielsen, M.; During, M.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the present study aims at comparing the long-term efficacy of breast conserving surgery (BCS) vs. mastectomy (M) based on a randomized design. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) conducted the trial (DBCG-82TM) from January 1983 to March 1989 recruiting 1154...... patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Follow-up time ended 1(st) May 2006 with a median follow-up time of 19.6 years (time span 17.1-23.3 years). Eligibility criteria included a one-sided, unifocal, primary operable breast carcinoma, patient age below 70 years, probability of satisfactory cosmetic......% of the complete series. 10-year recurrence free survival (RFS) and 20-year overall survival (OS) based on intent to treat did not reveal significant differences in outcome between breast conserving surgery vs. mastectomy, p=0.95 and p=0.10, respectively. Including the complete series comprising 1133 eligible...

  9. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  10. Postoperative radiation therapy for completely resected invasive thymoma. Prognostic value of pleural invasion for intrathoracic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Kamata, Minoru; Koja, Kageharu [Ryukyus Univ., Uehara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Genga, Keiichiro

    1999-10-01

    Optimal management of postoperative radiation therapy for completely resected invasive thymoma remains controversial. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of postoperative mediastinal irradiation in patients with completely resected invasive thymoma. Between 1981 and 1996, 21 patients with completely resected invasive thymoma were referred for postoperative mediastinal irradiation. The distribution of Masaoka stages was stage II in 14 patients and stage III in seven patients. Nine patients had pleural invasion by the tumor. Thirteen patients were treated with a localized field and eight were treated with the whole mediastinal field with boost. The total dose to the primary tumor was 40-61 Gy (median: 52 Gy). The median follow-up time of the 16 living patients was 67 months (range: 29-202 months). The 5- and 10-year actuarial overall survival rates in all patients were both 77%. Relapses were observed in five patients, in all of whom the sites of the first relapse involved pleural dissemination. There were no relapses within the irradiated field in any of the 21 cases. Five of nine (56%) patients with pleural invasion had relapse of pleural dissemination, while 0 of 12 (0%) patients without pleural invasion had relapse. In univariate analysis, pleural invasion had a statistically significant impact on intrathoracic control (P=0.01). The results indicated that pleural invasion might be predictive of pleural-based relapse for completely resected invasive thymoma. In patients with pleural invasion, mediastinal irradiation alone might be insufficient to avoid pleural-based relapse even after complete resection. (author)

  11. Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Kathryn M; Mortensen, David A; Drohan, Patrick J; Averill, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence. A piecewise structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect factors associated with invasive plant establishment on well pads. The model included the following measured or calculated variables: current propagule pressure on local access roads, the spatial extent of the pre-development road network (potential source of invasive propagules), the number of wells per pad (indicator of traffic density), and pad age. Sixty-one percent of the 127 well pads surveyed had at least one invasive plant species present. Invasive plant presence on well pads was positively correlated with local propagule pressure on access roads and indirectly with road density pre-development, the number of wells, and age of the well pad. The vast reserves of unconventional oil and gas are in the early stages of development in the US. Continued development of this underground resource must be paired with careful monitoring and management of surface ecological impacts, including the spread of invasive plants. Prioritizing invasive plant monitoring in unconventional oil and gas development areas with existing roads and multi-well pads could improve early detection and control of invasive plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the prognostic significance of perirenal fat invasion and tumor size in patients with pT1-pT3a localized renal cell carcinoma in a comprehensive multicenter study of the CORONA project. Can we improve prognostic discrimination for patients with stage pT3a tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-May, Sabine D; May, Matthias; Wolff, Ingmar; Zigeuner, Richard; Hutterer, Georg C; Cindolo, Luca; Schips, Luigi; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Rocco, Bernardo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Coman, Ioman; Truss, Michael; Dalpiaz, Orietta; Feciche, Bogdan; Figenshau, Robert S; Madison, Kerry; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Santiago Martin, Maria del Carmen; Salzano, Luigi; Lotrecchiano, Giuseppe; Zastrow, Stefan; Wirth, Manfred; Sountoulides, Petros; Shariat, Shahrokh; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian; Gunia, Sven

    2015-05-01

    The current TNM system for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) merges perirenal fat invasion (PFI) and renal vein invasion (RVI) as stage pT3a despite limited evidence concerning their prognostic equivalence. In addition, the prognostic value of PFI compared to pT1-pT2 tumors remains controversial. To analyze the prognostic significance of PFI, RVI, and tumor size in pT1-pT3a RCC. Data for 7384 pT1a-pT3a RCC patients were pooled from 12 centers. Patients were grouped according to stages and PFI/RVI presence as follows: pT1-2N0M0 (n=6137; 83.1%), pT3aN0M0 + PFI (n=1036; 14%), and pT3aN0M0 (RVI ± PFI; n=211; 2.9%). Radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) (1992-2010). Cancer-specific survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression models, as well as sensitivity and discrimination analyses, were used to evaluate the impact of clinicopathologic parameters on cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Compared to stage pT1-2, patients with stage pT3a RCC were significantly more often male (59.4% vs 53.1%) and older (64.9 vs 62.1 yr), more often had clear cell RCC (85.2% vs 77.7%), Fuhrman grade 3-4 (29.4% vs 13.4%), and tumor size >7 cm (39.1% vs 13%), and underwent NSS less often (7.5% vs 36.6%; all p<0.001). According to multivariate analysis, CSM was significantly higher for the PFI and RVI ± PFI groups compared to pT1-2 patients (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94 and 2.12, respectively; p<0.001), whereas patients with PFI only and RVI ± PFI did not differ (HR 1.17; p=0.316). Tumor size instead enhanced CSM by 7% per cm in stage pT3a (HR 1.07; p<0.001) with a 7 cm cutoff yielding the highest prediction accuracy. Since the prognostic impact of PFI and RVI on CSM seems to be comparable, merging both as stage pT3a RCC might be justified. Enhanced prognostic discrimination of stage pT3a RCC appears to be possible by applying a tumor size cutoff of 7 cm within an alternative staging system. Prognosis prediction for

  13. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  14. National invasive species program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rinick

    2007-01-01

    The structure and function of the National Invasive Species Council was presented below. The names and contact information for the USDA Invasive Species coordinators as of February 2006 were presented on the next page.

  15. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, André L; Giannini, Tereza C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Saraiva, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species) and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.

  16. Worldwide Alien Invasion: A Methodological Approach to Forecast the Potential Spread of a Highly Invasive Pollinator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L Acosta

    Full Text Available The ecological impacts of alien species invasion are a major threat to global biodiversity. The increasing number of invasion events by alien species and the high cost and difficulty of eradicating invasive species once established require the development of new methods and tools for predicting the most susceptible areas to invasion. Invasive pollinators pose serious threats to biodiversity and human activity due to their close relationship with many plants (including crop species and high potential competitiveness for resources with native pollinators. Although at an early stage of expansion, the bumblebee species Bombus terrestris is becoming a representative case of pollinator invasion at a global scale, particularly given its high velocity of invasive spread and the increasing number of reports of its impacts on native bees and crops in many countries. We present here a methodological framework of habitat suitability modeling that integrates new approaches for detecting habitats that are susceptible to Bombus terrestris invasion at a global scale. Our approach did not include reported invaded locations in the modeling procedure; instead, those locations were used exclusively to evaluate the accuracy of the models in predicting suitability over regions already invaded. Moreover, a new and more intuitive approach was developed to select the models and evaluate different algorithms based on their performance and predictive convergence. Finally, we present a comprehensive global map of susceptibility to Bombus terrestris invasion that highlights priority areas for monitoring.

  17. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  18. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  19. False positive CT findings of parametrial invasion of cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chi Soon; Moon, Ki Ho; Park, Jong Yeon; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the causative factors of the false positive CT findings of parametrial invasions of cervial cancer. We analyzed 17 parametria of 14 patients with the diseases staged over IIb on CT, but confirmed to be under stage IIa on pathology. The CT findings were retrospectively reviewed, and compared with pathologic findings. The causes of false positive diagnosis of parametrial invasions on CT were prominent cardinal ligaments (n = 12), vaginal fornix (n = 3), and prominent uterine vessels (n = 2). Familiarity with these CT finding may be helpful in avoiding false positive diagnosis of parametrial invasion in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma

  20. False positive CT findings of parametrial invasion of cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chi Soon; Moon, Ki Ho; Park, Jong Yeon; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    To evaluate the causative factors of the false positive CT findings of parametrial invasions of cervial cancer. We analyzed 17 parametria of 14 patients with the diseases staged over IIb on CT, but confirmed to be under stage IIa on pathology. The CT findings were retrospectively reviewed, and compared with pathologic findings. The causes of false positive diagnosis of parametrial invasions on CT were prominent cardinal ligaments (n = 12), vaginal fornix (n = 3), and prominent uterine vessels (n = 2). Familiarity with these CT finding may be helpful in avoiding false positive diagnosis of parametrial invasion in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma.

  1. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jessica J; Byers, James E; Bierwagen, Britta G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2008-06-01

    Scientific and societal unknowns make it difficult to predict how global environmental changes such as climate change and biological invasions will affect ecological systems. In the long term, these changes may have interacting effects and compound the uncertainty associated with each individual driver. Nonetheless, invasive species are likely to respond in ways that should be qualitatively predictable, and some of these responses will be distinct from those of native counterparts. We used the stages of invasion known as the "invasion pathway" to identify 5 nonexclusive consequences of climate change for invasive species: (1) altered transport and introduction mechanisms, (2) establishment of new invasive species, (3) altered impact of existing invasive species, (4) altered distribution of existing invasive species, and (5) altered effectiveness of control strategies. We then used these consequences to identify testable hypotheses about the responses of invasive species to climate change and provide suggestions for invasive-species management plans. The 5 consequences also emphasize the need for enhanced environmental monitoring and expanded coordination among entities involved in invasive-species management.

  2. Current research in perineural invasion of cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xi-Yun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perineural invasion is a common path for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA metastasis, and it is highly correlated with postoperative recurrence and poor prognosis. It is often an early event in a disease that is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages, and thus it could offer a timely therapeutic and diagnostic target if better understood. This article systematically reviews the progress of CCA neural invasion-related molecules. Methods Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE and PubMed databases for articles from January 1990 to December 2009, using the keywords "cholangiocarcinoma," "perineural invasion," "nerve growth factor"(NGF, "neural cell adhesion molecule" (NCAM, "matrix metalloproteinase"(MMP, "neurotransmitter," "acetylcholine" (Ach, and "transforming growth factor" (TGF." Additional papers and book chapters were identified by a manual search of references from the key articles. Results From above we found that the molecules NGF, NCAM, MMP, Ach and TGF may have prognostic significance in, and offer clues to the mechanism of CCA neural invasion. Conclusions Cholangiocarcinoma's increasing worldwide incidence is especially poignant in view of both the lacking effective therapies, and the fact that it is commonly diagnosed in advanced stages. As CCA neural invasion often appears early, more complete characterization of its molecular pathology could lead to the identification of targets for the diagnosis and therapy of this devastating malignancy.

  3. Estudo comparativo dos métodos de ultra-sonografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética no estadiamento e invasão das estruturas adjacentes por tumores renais A comparative study of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the staging and invasion of adjacent structures by renal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. RIBEIRO

    2001-09-01

    para o diagnóstico como no estadiamento, devem ser considerados aspectos relativos à invasibilidade, riscos e preço na ponderação dos custos e benefícios dos diversos exames de diagnóstico por imagem.BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (US, Computed Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MR were compared for the staging of renal tumors. The differences between these imaging techniques were also studied for their ability to detect adenopathies, vascular invasion, distant intra-abdominal metastases, and particularly adjacent organ invasion. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with solid or complex renal masses were prospectively studied using US, CT, and MR. Differences between the results obtained were studied using the COCHRAN G test and the Mc NEMAR test. The sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic technique were compared against a "gold standard" of the surgical and histopathological findings. RESULTS: The following sensitivities were obtained: For the detection of adenopathy, US 63.6%, CT and MR 90.9%. For vascular invasion, US 42.8%, CT and MR 85.7%. For the adjacent organ invasion, US 28.5%, CT 85.7%, and MR 71.4%. Some of the criteria that suggest invasion of adjacent structures include: the envelopment of the adjacent structures by the tumor, tumor extension into the adjacent structures with an irregular appearance, and alterations in shape, size, and density of adjacent structures. Loss of fat planes between the tumor and adjacent structures is not a sign of tumor invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were found in the detection capacity of US in relation to CT and MR, which were similar. All three techniques were highly sensitive and specific only in the detection of distant abdominal metastases. In addition to the accuracy of these diagnostic modalities for the detection and staging of tumors, invasiveness, risks and cost should be considered in relation to relative costs and benefits.

  4. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2012-01-01

    members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5) families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr). Moreover, the invasion...... blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to preclude a simple one size fits all type of vaccine....

  5. Clinicopathological features of stomach cancer with invasive micropapillary component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeo; Gotohda, Naoto; Kato, Yuichiro; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Konishi, Masaru; Daiko, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Mitsuyo; Kuwata, Takeshi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Taira

    2012-04-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma has been recognized as a rare disease entity with aggressive tumor behavior. However, few reports have described invasive micropapillary carcinoma in the gastrointestinal tract, particularly its involvement in gastric cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 930 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy, and we then histopathologically evaluated the existence of a regional invasive micropapillary component. Clinicopathological features were investigated in patients with an invasive micropapillary component and compared with such features in 100 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, selected as stage-matched controls, who underwent gastrectomy during the same period. Of the 930 patients, 14 were histopathologically diagnosed with gastric cancer with a regional invasive micropapillary component. There were no significant differences in age, gender, tumor location, macroscopic type, or type of surgery between patients with an invasive micropapillary component and the pT-matched controls. Histopathologically, significant differences were observed in lymphatic infiltration, venous invasion, the percentage of cases with lymph node metastasis, and the median number of metastatic lymph nodes. The three-year disease-free and overall survival rates of patients with an invasive micropapillary component were 40.5 and 59.3%, respectively, compared with those for the stage-matched controls, which were 72.6 and 80.6%, respectively (p = 0.02 and 0.07). Patients with gastric cancer with a regional invasive micropapillary component showed marked cancer infiltration in the lymphatic pathway and poor prognosis after gastrectomy.

  6. Acceptors in II-IV Semiconductors - Incorporation and Complex Formation

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A strong effort is currently devoted to the investigation of defects and the electrical activation of dopant atoms in II-VI semiconductors. In particular, the knowledge about the behaviour of acceptors, prerequisite for the fabrication of p-type semiconductors, is rather limited. The perturbed $\\,{\\gamma\\gamma}$ -angular correlation technique (PAC) and the photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) using the radioactive isotopes $^{77}\\!$Br and $^{111}\\!$Ag will be applied for investigating the behaviour of acceptor dopant atoms and their interactions with defects in II-VI semiconductors. The main topic will be the identification of the technical conditions for the incorporation of electrically active acceptors in the II-VI semiconductors ~ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe with particular emphasis on the compounds~ CdTe, ZnSe, and ZnTe. The investigations will be supplemented by first exploratory PL experiments with the group V acceptors $^{71}\\!$As and $^{121}\\!$Sb. With help of the probe $^{111}\\!$Ag, the pos...

  7. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  8. Cryptic invasions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morais, Pedro Miguel; Reichard, Martin

    613-614, February (2018), s. 1438-1448 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conspecific invader * Biological invasions * Bibliometric * Invasiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental science s (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  9. Genomic abnormalities in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma correlate with pattern of invasion: biologic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Anjelica; Amemiya, Yutaka; Seth, Arun; Cesari, Matthew; Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    The pattern-based classification system for HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinoma, which classifies tumors based on the destructiveness of stromal invasion, is predictive of the risk of nodal metastases and adverse outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated clinically important molecular alterations in endocervical adenocarcinoma, including KRAS and PIK3CA mutations; however, correlation between the molecular landscape and pathological variables including pattern of invasion has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, 20 endocervical adenocarcinomas were classified using the pattern-based classification system and were subjected to targeted sequencing using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) that surveys hotspot regions of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were correlated with clinical and pathologic variables including pattern of invasion. Five (25%), six (30%), and nine (45%) cases were classified as patterns A, B, and C respectively. Lymph node metastases, advanced stage at presentation and mortality from disease were exclusively seen in destructively invasive tumors (patterns B or C). Prevalent mutations in the cohort involved PIK3CA (30%), KRAS (30%), MET (15%), and RB1 (10%). Most (94%) relevant genomic alterations were present in destructively invasive tumors with PIK3CA, KRAS, and RB1 mutations seen exclusively in pattern B or C subgroups. KRAS mutations correlated with advanced stage at presentation (FIGO stage II or higher). Our findings indicate that the pattern of stromal invasion correlates with genomic abnormalities detected by next-generation sequencing, suggesting that tumors without destructive growth (pattern A) are biologically distinct from those with destructive invasion (patterns B and C), and that pattern B endocervical adenocarcinoma is more closely related to its pattern C counterpart. The pattern-based classification may be used as a triage

  10. [An analysis of 68 invasive lobular breast cancer cases in clinicopathological characteristics and the prognostic determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Xiang, H Y; Ye, J M; Xu, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, S; Duan, X N; Liu, Y H

    2018-02-01

    Objective: To study the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognostic determinants of the invasive lobular carcinoma breast cancer. Methods: This was a retrospective single-center study of invasive lobular breast cancer cases diagnosed from January 2008 to December 2014 at Peking University First Hospital Breast Disease Center. The study enrolled 68 invasive lobular breast cancer patients, which represented 3.64% (68/1 870) of total invasive breast cancer. The median age of all selected patients was 46 years ranging from 36 to 83 years. All patients were restaged based on the 8(th) edition of AJCC cancer staging system and follow-up data including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed to explore the prognostic determinants. The 5-year OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method; the significance of correlations between clinicopathological features and prognostic factors was estimated using log-rank test. Results: There were significant differences in OS between patients with different anatomic stage, prognostic stage, lymph node metastasis, progesterone receptor (PR) expression, lymphvascular invasion and perineural invasion (χ(2:) 4.318 to 32.394, all P invasion (χ(2:) 4.347 to 27.369, all P invasion are the prognostic factors of invasive lobular breast cancer. Regard to invasive lobular breast cancer patients, clinicians should pay close attention to the differences between prognostic stage and anatomic stage.

  11. Staging of colorectal cancer using serum metabolomics with 1HNMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Vahabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Determination of stages of colon cancer is done by biopsy usually after surgery. Metabolomics is the study of all the metabolites using LC-MS and 1HNMR spectroscopy with chemometric techniques. The stages of colon cancer were detected from patients' sera using 1HNMR. Materials and Methods: Five ml blood was collected from 16 confirmed patients referred for colonoscopy.  One group of eight patients were diagnosed with stage 0 to I colon cancer and the second group of 8 patients with II-IV stage colon cancer.  Sera were sent for 1HNMR. The differentiating metabolites were identified using HMDB  and the metabolic cycles from Metaboanalyst. Results: Six metabolites of which pyridoxine levels lowered, and glycine, cholesterol, taurocholic acid, cholesteryl ester and deoxyinosine increased. Conclusion: The different stages of cancer were identified by the main metabolic cycles such as primary bile acid biosynthesis, purine and vitamin B metabolic pathways and the glutathione cycle.

  12. Reevaluation of renal cell carcinoma and perirenal fat invasion only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, In Gab; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Lee, Sang Eun; Lee, Eunsik

    2009-11-01

    Controversy continues over whether perirenal fat invasion in pT3a renal cell carcinoma is a prognostic factor. We investigated the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma with perirenal fat invasion compared to the prognosis of other pathological stages by tumor size. We reviewed the medical records of 946 patients who underwent curative surgery for pT1-pT3bN0M0 renal cell carcinoma between 1988 and 2006. Patients with pT3a stage disease and perirenal fat invasion only were divided into 2 subgroups by a 7 cm tumor size cutoff. The prognostic impact of perirenal fat invasion on disease-free and cancer specific survival was investigated. Patients with perirenal fat invasion and lesions greater than 7 cm had lower 5-year disease-free (49.5% vs 77.2%, p = 0.004) and cancer specific (58.5% vs 95.6%, p = 0.003) survival than those with lesions 7 cm or less. Patients with perirenal fat invasion and lesions 7 cm or less had similar 5-year disease-free and cancer specific survival compared to those with pT1 tumors (p = 0.109 and 0.602, respectively). For tumors 7 cm or less multivariate analysis showed that perirenal fat invasion was not a significant predictor of disease-free (p = 0.119) or cancer specific (p = 0.208) survival. In contrast, perirenal fat invasion was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free (p = 0.002) and cancer specific (p = 0.027) survival in patients with tumors greater than 7 cm. Findings suggest that the prognostic significance of perirenal fat invasion depends on primary tumor size. Perirenal fat invasion included in the pT3a stage regardless of tumor size should be reevaluated by tumor size for a more accurate patient prognosis.

  13. The Effect of Simvastatin on Breast Cancer Cell Growth in Women With Stage I-II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  14. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  15. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Thymic Malignances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao FANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the most important therapy for thymic malignances. The last decade has seen increasing adoption of minimally invasive surgery (MIS for thymectomy. MIS for early stage thymoma patients has been shown to yield similar oncological results while being helpful in minimize surgical trauma, improving postoperative recovery, and reduce incisional pain. Meanwhile, With the advance in surgical techniques, the patients with locally advanced thymic tumors, preoperative induction therapies or recurrent diseases, may also benefit from MIS in selected cases.

  16. Multidetector CT of Locally Invasive Advanced Gastric Cancer: Value of Oblique Coronal Reconstructed Images for the Assessment of Local Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Ah Yong; Kim, Hye Jin; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Yu, Eun Sil; Jang, Yoon Jin; Park, Seong Ho; Shin, Yong Moon; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of oblique coronal reconstructed CT images to determine the local invasion of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Thirty-four consecutive patients, who were suspected to have locally invasive advanced gastric cancer (more than T3 stage) on a preoperative MDCT scan and underwent a diagnostic or curative laparotomy, were enrolled in this study. Two reviewers performed an independent blind review of three series of MDCT images in random order; axial (AXI), conventional coronal (CCI), and oblique coronal (OCI) (parallel to long axis of gastric body and pancreas) images. In assessing the local invasion, the reader's confidence for the local invasion of AGC was graded using a five point scale (1 = definitely negative, 5 = definitely positive: T4). With surgical findings and histopathological proofs as reference standards, the diagnostic performance of the three different plans of CT images was employed for the verification of local invasion of AGC on a preoperative CT scan using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. Agreements between the two reviewers were analyzed using weighted kappa statistics. Results: In 19 out of 34 patients, local invasion was confirmed surgically or histopathologically (13 pancreas invasion, 6 liver invasion, 4 major vascular invasion, 3 colon and mesocolon invasion, and 2 spleen invasion). The diagnostic performance of OCI was superior to AXI or CCI in the local invasion of AGC. The differences in the area under the curve of AXI (0.770 {+-} 0.087, 0.700 {+-} 0.094), CCI (0.884 {+-} 0.058, 0.958 {+-} 0.038), and OCI (0.954 {+-} 0.050, 0.956 {+-} 0.049), were statistically significant for both reviewers. Inter-observer agreement was excellent for OCI ({kappa}= .973), which was greater than CCI (({kappa}= .839), and AXI (({kappa}= .763). On a CT scan, OCI might be a useful imaging technique in evaluating locally invasive advanced gastric cancer.

  17. Invasion biology of thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G; Hoddle, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    Thrips are among the stealthiest of insect invaders due to their small size and cryptic habits. Many invasive thrips are notorious for causing extensive crop damage, vectoring viral diseases, and permanently destabilizing IPM systems owing to irruptive outbreaks that require remediation with insecticides, leading to the development of insecticide resistance. Several challenges surface when attempting to manage incursive thrips species. Foremost among these is early recognition, followed by rapid and accurate identification of emergent pest species, elucidation of the region of origin, development of a management program, and the closing of conduits for global movement of thrips. In this review, we examine factors facilitating invasion by thrips, damage caused by these insects, pre- and post-invasion management tactics, and challenges looming on the horizon posed by invasive Thysanoptera, which continually challenge the development of sustainable management practices.

  18. Staging of carcinoma of the uterine cervix and endometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Takashi; Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Carcinoma of the uterine cervix and endometrium are common gynecologic malignancies. Both carcinomas are staged and managed by means of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. In uterine cervical cancer, the FIGO staging system is determined preoperatively by limited conventional procedures. Although this system is effective for early stage disease, it has inherent inaccuracies in advanced stage diseases and does not address nodal involvement. CT and MR imaging are widely used as comprehensive imaging modalities to evaluate tumor size and extent, and nodal involvement. MR imaging is an excellent modality for depicting invasive cervical carcinoma and can provide objective measurement of tumor volume, and provides high negative predictive value for parametrial invasion and stage IVA disease. In contrast, endometrial cancer is surgically staged. Beside recognition of the important prognostic factors, including histologic subtype and grade, accurate assessment of the tumor extent on preoperative MR imaging is expected to greatly optimize surgical procedure and therapeutic strategy. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging can offer ''one stop'' examination for evaluating the depth of myometrial invasion cervical invasion and nodal metastases. Evaluation of myometrial invasion on MR imaging may be an alternative to gross inspection of the uterus during the surgery. (orig.)

  19. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-26

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  20. Size of Non-lepidic Invasive Pattern Predicts Recurrence in Pulmonary Mucinous Adenocarcinoma: Morphologic Analysis of 188 Resected Cases with Reappraisal of Invasion Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohyun Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background We reviewed a series of 188 resected pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinomas (MAs to clarify the prognostic significance of lepidic and non-lepidic patterns. Methods Non-lepidic patterns were divided into bland, non-distorted acini with uncertain invasiveness (pattern 1, unequivocal invasion into stroma (pattern 2, or invasion into alveolar spaces (pattern 3. Results The mean proportion of invasive patterns (patterns 2 and 3 was lowest in small (≤ 3 cm tumors, and gradually increased in intermediate (> 3 cm and ≤ 7 cm and large (> 7 cm tumors (8.4%, 34.3%, and 50.1%, respectively. Adjusted T (aT stage, as determined by the size of invasive patterns, was positively correlated with adverse histologic and clinical features including older age, male sex, and ever smokers. aTis tumors, which were exclusively composed of lepidic pattern (n = 9, or a mixture of lepidic and pattern 1 (n = 40 without any invasive patterns, showed 100% disease- free survival (DFS. The aT1mi tumors, with minimal (≤ 5 mm invasive patterns (n = 63, showed a 95.2% 5-year DFS, with recurrences (n = 2 limited to tumors greater than 3 cm in total size (n = 23. Both T and aT stage were significantly associated with DFS; however, survival within the separate T-stage subgroups was stratified according to the aT stage, most notably in the intermediatestage subgroups. In multivariate analysis, the size of invasive patterns (p = .020, pleural invasion (p < .001, and vascular invasion (p = .048 were independent predictors of recurrence, whereas total size failed to achieve statistical significance (p = .121. Conclusions This study provides a rationale for histologic risk stratification in pulmonary MA based on the extent of invasive growth patterns with refined criteria for invasion.

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns of tree establishment are indicative of biotic interactions during early invasion of a montane meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Rice; C.B. Halpern; J.A. Antos; J.A. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Tree invasions of grasslands are occurring globally, with profound consequences for ecosystem structure and function. We explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of tree invasion of a montane meadow in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, where meadow loss is a conservation concern. We examine the early stages of invasion, where extrinsic and intrinsic processes can be clearly...

  2. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detailed information about the cancer stage. TNM Staging System The most common system for staging cancer in the form of solid tumor is the TNM system. Most providers and cancer centers use it to stage ...

  3. Emergent Minimally Invasive Esophagogastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Esophageal perforation in the setting of a malignancy carries a high morbidity and mortality. We describe our management of such a patient using minimally invasive approach. Methods. An 83-year-old female presented with an iatrogenic esophageal perforation during the workup of dysphagia. She was referred for surgical evaluation immediately after the event which occurred in the endoscopy suite. Minimally invasive esophagectomy was chosen to provide definitive treatment for both her malignancy and esophageal perforation. Results. Following an uncomplicated operative course, she was eventually discharged to extended care for rehabilitation and remains alive four years after her resection. Conclusion. Although traditional open techniques are the accepted gold standard of treatment for esophageal perforation, minimally invasive esophagectomy plays an important role in experienced hands and may be offered to such patients.

  4. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a randomised-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, L; Beeckman, D; Vanderwee, K; Defloor, T; Grypdonck, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2012-04-01

    The duration and the amount of pressure and shear must be reduced in order to minimize the risk of pressure ulcer development. Alternating low pressure air mattresses with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells have been developed to relieve pressure by sequentially inflating and deflating the air cells. Evidence about the effectiveness of this type of mattress in clinical practice is lacking. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of an alternating low pressure air mattress that has a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells with an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. A randomised controlled trial was performed in a convenience sample of 25 wards in five hospitals in Belgium. In total, 610 patients were included and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=298) or the control group (n=312). In the experimental group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. In the control group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. The outcome was defined as cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. There was no significant difference in cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV) between both groups (Exp.=5.7%, Contr.=5.8%, p=0.97). When patients developed a pressure ulcer, the median time was 5.0 days in the experimental group (IQR=3.0-8.5) and 8.0 days in the control group (IQR=3.0-8.5) (Mann-Whitney U-test=113, p=0.182). The probability to remain pressure ulcer free during the observation period in this trial did not differ significantly between the experimental group and the control group (log-rank χ(2)=0.013, df=1, p=0.911). An alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation

  5. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  6. Thymoma and minimally invasive surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajc, T.; Spalek, P.; Lucenic, M.; Benej, R.; Harustiak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the current thymoma classification schemes, diagnosis and surgical treatment options. Many minimally invasive techniques do not provide sufficient extensiveness when compared to complete sternotomy. The Zieliński technique combines transcervical, subxiphoidal and bilateral thoracoscopic approach in a hybrid procedure (MMIT, maximal minimally invasive thymectomy) based on double sternal traction, and allows for removal of the thymus gland, the thymoma and all the relevant mediastinal adipose tissue, thus adhering to principles of oncological radicality. Of the 28 patients undergoing MMIT there were 7 with myasthenia associated thymoma (MGAT) and 5 with a thymoma and no myasthenia, tumors staged Masaoka I-II. Apart from one temporary recurrent nerve palsy there were no postoperative complications. The largest thymoma measured 70 x 65 x 55 mm. Adjuvant radiotherapy was applied in 5 patients. Ectopic thymic tissue was identified in 100 % of patients with thymoma and no myasthenia and in 42.9 % of MGAT patients. Until now there were no recurrences, however, the follow-up median is very short, the longest follow-up period being 30 months. MMIT is a safe technique suitable also for Masaoka I-II thymoma patients and for some specific cases with Masaoka III stage (lung parenchyma invasion). The authors approach all the anterior mediastinal tumors with no mediastinal lymphadenopathy and no myasthenia as a potential thymoma and always attempt the MMIT procedure starting as VATS procedure on the side of tumor. (author)

  7. Stably Integrated luxCDABE for Assessment of Salmonella Invasion Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N. Flentie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans and also localizes to neoplastic tumors in animals. Invasion of specific eukaryotic cells is a key mechanism of Salmonella interactions with host tissues. Early stages of gastrointestinal cell invasion are mediated by a Salmonella type III secretion system, powered by the adenosine triphosphatase invC. The aim of this work was to characterize the invC dependence of invasion kinetics into disparate eukaryotic cells traditionally used as models of gut epithelium or neoplasms. Thus, a nondestructive real-time assay was developed to report eukaryotic cell invasion kinetics using lux+ Salmonella that contain chromosomally integrated luxCDABE genes. Bioluminescence-based invasion assays using lux+ Salmonella exhibited inoculum dose-response correlation, distinguished invasion-competent from invasion-incompetent Salmonella, and discriminated relative Salmonella invasiveness in accordance with environmental conditions that induce invasion gene expression. In standard gentamicin protection assays, bioluminescence from lux+ Salmonella correlated with recovery of colony-forming units of internalized bacteria and could be visualized by bioluminescence microscopy. Furthermore, this assay distinguished invasion-competent from invasion-incompetent bacteria independent of gentamicin treatment in real time. Bioluminescence reported Salmonella invasion of disparate eukaryotic cell lines, including neoplastic melanoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and glioma cell lines used in animal models of malignancy. In each case, Salmonella invasion of eukaryotic cells was invC dependent.

  8. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  9. Mechanisms Regulating Glioma Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw, Ivy; Carpenter, Richard C.; Watabe, Kounosuke; Debinski, Waldemar; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive, deadliest, and most common brain malignancy in adults. Despite the advances made in surgical techniques, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for GBM patients has remained at a mere 14 months. GBM poses several unique challenges to currently available treatments for the disease. For example, GBM cells have the propensity to aggressively infiltrate/invade into the normal brain tissues and along the vascular tracks, which prevents complete resection of all malignant cells and limits the effect of localized radiotherapy while sparing normal tissue. Although anti-angiogenic treatment exerts anti-edematic effect in GBM, unfortunately, tumors progress with acquired increased invasiveness. Therefore, it is an important task to gain a deeper understanding of the intrinsic and post-treatment invasive phenotypes of GBM in hopes that the gained knowledge would lead to novel GBM treatments that are more effective and less toxic. This review will give an overview of some of the signaling pathways that have been shown to positively and negatively regulate GBM invasion, including, the PI3K/Akt, Wnt, sonic hedgehog-GLI1, and microRNAs. The review will also discuss several approaches to cancer therapies potentially altering GBM invasiveness. PMID:25796440

  10. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  11. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    In this paper, we conduct a number of cost-benefit analyses to clarify whether the establishment of invasive species should be prevented or the damage of such species should be mitigated after introduction. We use the potential establishment of ragweed in Denmark as an empirical case. The main...... of information externalities, altruistic preferences, possible catastrophic events and ethical considerations....

  12. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans.

  13. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, A.; Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A.; Bankart, M.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial (≤T1) from invasive (≥T2) and in differentiating organ-confined (≤T2) from non-organ-confined (≥T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial (≤T1) from invasive (≥T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined (≤T2) from non-organ confined (≥T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  14. Bladder cancer: Evaluation of staging accuracy using dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, A., E-mail: arajesh27@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Sokhi, H.K.; Fung, R.; Mulcahy, K.A. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester General Hospital (United Kingdom); Bankart, M.J.G. [Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging bladder cancer and to assess whether dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequences have any added benefit in staging. Materials and methods: Over a 22 month period, the MRI findings of 100 consecutive patients with histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were reviewed. The T stage was assessed independently on T2-weighted imaging alone and in combination with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. The final histological diagnosis was considered the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed to ascertain stage-by-stage accuracy. Accuracy of MRI in differentiating superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) and in differentiating organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ-confined ({>=}T3) disease was assessed. Results: On a stage-by-stage basis, tumours were correctly staged using MRI in 63% of patients (observed agreement = 0.63, weighted kappa = 0.57). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between superficial ({<=}T1) from invasive ({>=}T2) disease was 78.2 and 93.3%. The observed agreement for this group was 85% (kappa = 70%; p < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of MRI to differentiate between organ-confined ({<=}T2) from non-organ confined ({>=}T3) disease was 90.5 and 60%. The observed agreement for this group was 89% (kappa = 30%; p < 0.01). Gadolinium-enhanced images improved staging in only three patients. Conclusion: In the present study MRI was found to be a moderately accurate tool in assessing the T stage. Agreement on a stage-by-stage basis was good. Agreement for differentiating between non-invasive versus muscle-invasive disease was good and that for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease was fair. Routine use of gadolinium-enhanced images is not routinely required.

  15. Invasive Crabs in the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Fernandez, Linda; Kourantidou, Melina

    compare differences in the ecology and economics of the two species to enhance understanding of the trade-offs inherent in managing these economically profitable yet risky invaders. We then expand the application by using these ongoing invasions to illustrate the anticipated disruptions (with potentially......The recent invasions of the red king crab (RKC) and the snow crab (SC) in the Barents Sea represent the sorts of integrated ecological and economic shifts we may expect as climate change affects arctic seas. Economic incentives and ecological unknowns have combined to change the current...... both positive and negative impacts) from other introductions or range expansions of commercial species and the management steps that should be taken at earlier stages, including monitoring and preventive measures, in the changing ecological processes to minimize negative impacts....

  16. Invasive Plants -- A Horticultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiera, Alexander Xavier, 1951-; Von Holle, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    This publication explains how nonnative invasive plants are harmful and why you should care, how to predict the invasive potential of a plant, and how gardeners and landscape professionals can make informed choices when choosing plants.

  17. Primary cilia are lost in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia B Hassounah

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Little is known about the role of primary cilia in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. However, reduced cilia expression has been observed in human cancers including pancreatic cancer, renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and melanoma. The aim of this study was to characterize primary cilia expression in preinvasive and invasive human prostate cancer, and to investigate the correlation between primary cilia and the Wnt signaling pathway. Human prostate tissues representative of stages of prostate cancer formation (normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, and invasive prostate cancer (including perineural invasion were stained for ciliary proteins. The frequency of primary cilia was determined. A decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells in PIN, invasive cancer and perineural invasion lesions was observed when compared to normal. Cilia lengths were also measured to indirectly test functionality. Cilia were shorter in PIN, cancer, and perineural invasion lesions, suggesting dysfunction. Primary cilia have been shown to suppress the Wnt pathway. Increased Wnt signaling has been implicated in prostate cancer. Therefore, we investigated a correlation between loss of primary cilia and increased Wnt signaling in normal prostate and in preinvasive and invasive prostate cancer. To investigate Wnt signaling in our cohort, serial tissue sections were stained for β-catenin as a measure of Wnt signaling. Nuclear β-catenin was analyzed and Wnt signaling was found to be higher in un-ciliated cells in the normal prostate, PIN, a subset of invasive cancers, and perineural invasion. Our results suggest that cilia normally function to suppress the Wnt signaling pathway in epithelial cells and that cilia loss may play a role in increased Wnt signaling in some prostate cancers. These results suggest that cilia are dysfunctional in human

  18. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  19. Effects of native vegetation on invasion success of Chinese tallow in a floating marsh ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.L. Battaglia; J.S. Denslow; J.R. Inczauskis; S.G. Baer

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between resident and exotic species have been shown to control the biotic resistance of communities to invasion. With different life stages of the exotic species, each sequential interaction may dampen or strengthen previous ones, thereby influencing invasion success.We assessed the effects of resident vegetation type on...

  20. Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe treatment results in a large cohort with stage I nonseminoma germ cell cancer (NSGCC) treated in a surveillance program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2007, 1,226 patients with stage I NSGCC, including high-risk patients with vascular invasion....... Relapses after 5 years were seen in 0.5% of the whole cohort or in 1.6% of relapsing patients. The majority of relapses (94.4%) belonged to the good prognostic group according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The disease-specific survival at 15 years was 99...

  1. Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, William S.; Carter, Kristine M.; Fuhrman, George M.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, laparoscopy has been the most innovative surgical movement in general surgery. Minimally invasive surgery performed through a few small incisions, laparoscopy is the standard of care for the treatment of gallbladder disease and the gold standard for the treatment of reflux disease. The indications for a laparoscopic approach to abdominal disease continue to increase, and many diseases may be treated with laparoscopic techniques. At Ochsner, laparoscopic techniques have dem...

  2. Plant invasions: Merging the concepts of species invasiveness and community invasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-431 ISSN 0309-1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species invasiveness * community invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2006

  3. Staging of rectal cancer by transrectal US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Whan; Ryu, Sie Tae; Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of preoperative staging of rectal cancer by transrectal US(7.5MHz linear array transducer), 17 cases with primary rectal cancer who were examined by transrectal US and histopathologically proven, were analyzed. We correlated the sonographic features of the depth of rectal wall invasion, perirectal fat infiltration and perirectal lymph node metastasis with histopathologic findings. The tumor staging was analyzed according to the TNM classification. The depth of rectal wall invasion was in accordance with histopathologic findings in 15 of 17 cases (accuracy:88.2%). The sensitivity and specificity of transrectal US in predicting perirectal lymph node metastasis were 20% and 75%, respectively (accuracy : 58.8%). The sensitivity and specificity in predicting perirectal fat infiltration were 92.9% and 100%, respectively (accuracy : 94%). Perirectal fat infiltration and depth of rectal wall invasion were preoperatively diagnosed with relatively high accuracy, while perirectal lymph node metastasis with low accuracy. In conclusion, transrectal US is a useful imaging modality for preoperative staging of rectal cancer

  4. Invasive treatment in complicated monochorionic twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundberg, Karin; Søgaard, Kirsten; Jensen, Lisa Neerup

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Monochorionic twin pregnancies are associated with increased risk of severe complications. Umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) and fetoscopic selective laser coagulation (FSLC) are used as invasive treatment. The study aim was to document treatment indications and pregnancy outcome where UCO......). Umbilical cord occlusion was undertaken in 49 TTTS cases, in four cases with fetal abnormality and TTTS and in 12 cases because of fetal anomaly only. Main outcome measures. Overall survival per fetus, survival per pregnancy of at least one fetus and further survival according to the Quintero stages. Infant...

  5. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong-Xin; Song, Hai-Yan; Dong, Yin-Ying; Hu, Chao; Zheng, Qiong-Dan; Xue, Tong-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Jie; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Liu, Yin-Kun; Cui, Jie-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion into the surrounding matrix has been well documented as an early event of metastasis occurrence. However, the dynamic expression patterns of proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are largely unknown. Using a three-dimensional HCC invasion culture model established previously, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of identified proteins during early invasion of HCC. Highly metastatic MHCC97H cells and a liver tissue fragment were long-term co-cultured in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor to simulate different pathological states of HCC invasion. The established spherical co-cultures were collected on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 for dynamic expression pattern analysis. Significantly different proteins among spheroids at different time points were screened and identified using quantitative proteomics of iTRAQ labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins were further categorized by K-means clustering. The expression modes of several differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by Western blot and qRT-PCR. Time course analysis of invasion/metastasis gene expressions (MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, CD44, SPP1, CXCR4, CXCL12, and CDH1) showed remarkable, dynamic alterations during the invasion process of HCC. A total of 1,028 proteins were identified in spherical co-cultures collected at different time points by quantitative proteomics. Among these proteins, 529 common differential proteins related to HCC invasion were clustered into 25 types of expression patterns. Some proteins displayed significant dynamic alterations during the early invasion process of HCC, such as upregulation at the early invasion stage and downregulation at the late invasion stage (e.g., MAPRE1, PHB2, cathepsin D, etc.) or continuous upregulation during the entire invasion process (e.g., vitronectin, Met, clusterin, ICAM1, GSN, etc.). Dynamic expression patterns of candidate proteins during the early invasion

  6. Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features: a comparison study to invasive ductal and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arps, David P; Healy, Patrick; Zhao, Lili; Kleer, Celina G; Pang, Judy C

    2013-04-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features (IDC-L) is not recognized as a distinct subtype of breast cancer, and its clinicopathologic features and outcomes are unknown. In this retrospective study, we focused on characterization of clinicopathologic features and outcomes of IDC-L and compared them to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). 183 cases of IDC-L from 1996 to 2011 were compared with 1,499 cases of IDC and 375 cases of ILC. Available slides of IDC-L (n = 150) were reviewed to quantify the lobular component (≤ 20, 21-50, 51-80, >80 %), defined as small cells individually dispersed, arranged in linear cords, or in loose aggregates without the formation of tubules or cohesive nests. E-cadherin immunostain was performed to confirm ductal origin. Compared to IDC, IDC-L was more likely to have lower histologic grade (p lobular component in IDC-L had no impact on the size, nodal status, stage, or outcome. Our data suggest that although IDC-L may be a variant of IDC, with >90 % of cases being E-cadherin positive, the clinical and biological characteristics are more similar to that of ILC.

  7. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  8. Endometrial carcinoma: MR staging and causes of error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, P V; Farina, R; Coronella, M; Ruggeri, C; Palmucci, S; Montana, A; Milone, P; Zarbo, G; Caltabiano, R; Lanzafame, S; Politi, G; Ettorre, G C

    2013-04-01

    This study was undertaken to prospectively determine the diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in detecting myometrial and cervical invasion and lymph node involvement in endometrial carcinoma and to identify the causes of errors in staging endometrial carcinoma. Twenty consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma underwent preoperative MR imaging. MR findings were compared with surgical staging, considered as the standard of reference. In assessing myometrial invasion, MR imaging showed 70% accuracy, 80% sensitivity, 40% specificity, 80% positive predictive value (PPV), and 40% negative predictive value (NPV). In detecting cervical invasion, MR imaging had 95% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, 94.4% specificity, 66.7% PPV, and 100% NPV. In evaluating lymph node involvement, MR imaging showed 100% accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. Errors in evaluating myometrial invasion were caused by polypoid tumour, adenomyosis and leiomyomas, whereas those in evaluating cervical invasion were caused by dilatation and curettage. MR imaging is a reliable technique for preoperative evaluation of endometrial carcinoma. Its main limitation is differentiating between stage IA and IB carcinomas, which is not highly important for surgical planning. Cooperation between the gynaecologist and radiologist is mandatory to avoid staging errors.

  9. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopez-Perez

    Full Text Available Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1 and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5 families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr. Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to

  11. Can species distribution models really predict the expansion of invasive species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Rome, Quentin; Villemant, Claire; Courchamp, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Predictive studies are of paramount importance for biological invasions, one of the biggest threats for biodiversity. To help and better prioritize management strategies, species distribution models (SDMs) are often used to predict the potential invasive range of introduced species. Yet, SDMs have been regularly criticized, due to several strong limitations, such as violating the equilibrium assumption during the invasion process. Unfortunately, validation studies-with independent data-are too scarce to assess the predictive accuracy of SDMs in invasion biology. Yet, biological invasions allow to test SDMs usefulness, by retrospectively assessing whether they would have accurately predicted the latest ranges of invasion. Here, we assess the predictive accuracy of SDMs in predicting the expansion of invasive species. We used temporal occurrence data for the Asian hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax, a species native to China that is invading Europe with a very fast rate. Specifically, we compared occurrence data from the last stage of invasion (independent validation points) to the climate suitability distribution predicted from models calibrated with data from the early stage of invasion. Despite the invasive species not being at equilibrium yet, the predicted climate suitability of validation points was high. SDMs can thus adequately predict the spread of V. v. nigrithorax, which appears to be-at least partially-climatically driven. In the case of V. v. nigrithorax, SDMs predictive accuracy was slightly but significantly better when models were calibrated with invasive data only, excluding native data. Although more validation studies for other invasion cases are needed to generalize our results, our findings are an important step towards validating the use of SDMs in invasion biology.

  12. Clinicopathologic Factors of Cervical Adenocarcinoma Stages IB to IIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Yasushi; Yahata, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Aya; Tanizaki, Yuko; Shiro, Michihisa; Ota, Nami; Yagi, Shigetaka; Minami, Sawako; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathologic factors of stages IB to IIB cervical adenocarcinoma. Several clinicopathologic factors were compared between 35 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy due to cervical adenocarcinoma stages IB to IIB and 77 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In patients with adenocarcinoma, univariate analysis demonstrated that International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, tumor size, and lymphovascular space invasion were significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS), whereas FIGO stage, lymphovascular space invasion, and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). However, multivariate analysis revealed that FIGO stage was the only significant factor for PFS in patients with adenocarcinoma. In patients with SCC, univariate analysis demonstrated that FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with PFS, whereas FIGO stage, lymphovascular space invasion, and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with OS. Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis was the only significant factor for PFS and OS in patients with SCC. In 26 patients who were positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), including both adenocarcinoma and SCC patients, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HPV18 was significantly associated with poorer PFS compared with non-HPV18. There was a significant difference in distribution of HPV genotype between adenocarcinoma and SCC. Careful treatment may be necessary for the patients with lymphovascular space invasion in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma. The presence of HPV18 may have an influence on the prognosis of early-stage cervical carcinoma.

  13. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recent...

  14. Intratumoral oxygen gradients mediate sarcoma cell invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel M.; Park, Kyung Min; Tang, Vitor; Xu, Yu; Pak, Koreana; Eisinger-Mathason, T. S. Karin; Simon, M. Celeste; Gerecht, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a critical factor in the progression and metastasis of many cancers, including soft tissue sarcomas. Frequently, oxygen (O2) gradients develop in tumors as they grow beyond their vascular supply, leading to heterogeneous areas of O2 depletion. Here, we report the impact of hypoxic O2 gradients on sarcoma cell invasion and migration. O2 gradient measurements showed that large sarcoma mouse tumors (>300 mm3) contain a severely hypoxic core [≤0.1% partial pressure of O2 (pO2)] whereas smaller tumors possessed hypoxic gradients throughout the tumor mass (0.1–6% pO2). To analyze tumor invasion, we used O2-controllable hydrogels to recreate the physiopathological O2 levels in vitro. Small tumor grafts encapsulated in the hydrogels revealed increased invasion that was both faster and extended over a longer distance in the hypoxic hydrogels compared with nonhypoxic hydrogels. To model the effect of the O2 gradient accurately, we examined individual sarcoma cells embedded in the O2-controllable hydrogel. We observed that hypoxic gradients guide sarcoma cell motility and matrix remodeling through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation. We further found that in the hypoxic gradient, individual cells migrate more quickly, across longer distances, and in the direction of increasing O2 tension. Treatment with minoxidil, an inhibitor of hypoxia-induced sarcoma metastasis, abrogated cell migration and matrix remodeling in the hypoxic gradient. Overall, we show that O2 acts as a 3D physicotactic agent during sarcoma tumor invasion and propose the O2-controllable hydrogels as a predictive system to study early stages of the metastatic process and therapeutic targets. PMID:27486245

  15. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  16. Invasive v. non-invasive blood pressure measurements the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A reasonable correlation exists between invasive and noninvasive methods of measuring systemic blood pressure. However, there are frequent individual differences between these methods and these variations have often caused the validity of the non-invasive measurement to be questioned. The hypothesis that certain ...

  17. Different traits determine introduction, naturalization and invasion success in woody plants: Proteaceae as a test case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desika Moodley

    Full Text Available A major aim of invasion ecology is to identify characteristics of successful invaders. However, most plant groups studied in detail (e.g. pines and acacias have a high percentage of invasive taxa. Here we examine the global introduction history and invasion ecology of Proteaceae--a large plant family with many taxa that have been widely disseminated by humans, but with few known invaders. To do this we compiled a global list of species and used boosted regression tree models to assess which factors are important in determining the status of a species (not introduced, introduced, naturalized or invasive. At least 402 of 1674 known species (24% have been moved by humans out of their native ranges, 58 species (14% have become naturalized but not invasive, and 8 species (2% are invasive. The probability of naturalization was greatest for species with large native ranges, low susceptibility to Phytophthora root-rot fungus, large mammal-dispersed seeds, and with the capacity to resprout. The probability of naturalized species becoming invasive was greatest for species with large native ranges, those used as barrier plants, tall species, species with small seeds, and serotinous species. The traits driving invasiveness of Proteaceae were similar to those for acacias and pines. However, while some traits showed a consistent influence at introduction, naturalization and invasion, others appear to be influential at one stage only, and some have contrasting effects at different stages. Trait-based analyses therefore need to consider different invasion stages separately. On their own, these observations provide little predictive power for risk assessment, but when the causative mechanisms are understood (e.g. Phytophthora susceptibility they provide valuable insights. As such there is considerable value in seeking the correlates and mechanisms underlying invasions for particular taxonomic or functional groups.

  18. Different Traits Determine Introduction, Naturalization and Invasion Success In Woody Plants: Proteaceae as a Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Desika; Geerts, Sjirk; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R. U.

    2013-01-01

    A major aim of invasion ecology is to identify characteristics of successful invaders. However, most plant groups studied in detail (e.g. pines and acacias) have a high percentage of invasive taxa. Here we examine the global introduction history and invasion ecology of Proteaceae—a large plant family with many taxa that have been widely disseminated by humans, but with few known invaders. To do this we compiled a global list of species and used boosted regression tree models to assess which factors are important in determining the status of a species (not introduced, introduced, naturalized or invasive). At least 402 of 1674 known species (24%) have been moved by humans out of their native ranges, 58 species (14%) have become naturalized but not invasive, and 8 species (2%) are invasive. The probability of naturalization was greatest for species with large native ranges, low susceptibility to Phytophthora root-rot fungus, large mammal-dispersed seeds, and with the capacity to resprout. The probability of naturalized species becoming invasive was greatest for species with large native ranges, those used as barrier plants, tall species, species with small seeds, and serotinous species. The traits driving invasiveness of Proteaceae were similar to those for acacias and pines. However, while some traits showed a consistent influence at introduction, naturalization and invasion, others appear to be influential at one stage only, and some have contrasting effects at different stages. Trait-based analyses therefore need to consider different invasion stages separately. On their own, these observations provide little predictive power for risk assessment, but when the causative mechanisms are understood (e.g. Phytophthora susceptibility) they provide valuable insights. As such there is considerable value in seeking the correlates and mechanisms underlying invasions for particular taxonomic or functional groups. PMID:24086442

  19. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  20. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementias . Learn more: Daily Care and Behaviors Severe Alzheimer's disease (late-stage) Get support Late-stage care decisions can be some of the hardest families face. Connect with other caregivers who have been through the process on our ...

  1. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  2. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  4. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  11. Computerized tomography for diagnosis and staging of renal pelvic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Goto, Akihiko; Kitamura, Hajime

    1985-01-01

    Although we have no definite criteria available yet for clinical staging of renal pelvic tumor, the preoperative staging of this disease is nevertheless important in view of the current tendency that the necessity for renal conservative operation is considered. CT is now a routine work also for diagnosing renal pelvic tumor. The present study was performed in order to validate its usefulness for diagnosing and staging the disease. Our series consisted of 8 patients with renal pelvic tumor, in 6 of whom a definite diagnosis was established after demonstrating filling defect on pyelogram, but in the remaining two with extensive infiltration, and squamous cell carcinoma associated with staghorn calculus respectively, CT failed to provide a definite diagnosis. CT findings of an extension of the mass in the renal pelvis or renal calyces into adipose tissue of the renal sinus or renal parenchyma were judged to indicate an invasive type (Stage III), while a non-invasive type (Stage I or II) was defined on the basis of otherwise CT findings. Consistency with pathological stages was noted in 7 of the 8 cases (87.5 %). It was difficult to differentiate Stage I and Stage II on CT findings. CT was considered to be extremely useful tool for preoperative staging of renal pelvic tumor. (author)

  12. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials.

  13. Microbial ecology of biological invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Klironomos, J.N.; Wardle, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive microbes, plants and animals are a major threat to the composition and functioning of ecosystems; however, the mechanistic basis of why exotic species can be so abundant and disruptive is not well understood. Most studies have focused on invasive plants and animals, although few have

  14. Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

  15. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recently discovered that invadopodia breach basement membrane during anchor cell invasion in C. elegans, a genetically and visually tractable in vivo invasion event. Further, we found that the netrin receptor DCC localizes to the initial site of basement membrane breach and directs invasion through a single gap in the matrix. In this commentary, we examine how the dynamics and structure of AC-invadopodia compare with in vitro invadopodia and how the netrin receptor guides invasion through a single basement membrane breach. We end with a discussion of our surprising result that the anchor cell pushes the basement membrane aside, instead of completely dissolving it through proteolysis, and provide some ideas for how proteases and physical displacement may work together to ensure efficient and robust invasion. PMID:24778942

  16. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritsenko, P.G.; Ilina, O.; Friedl, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In

  17. Earthworm invasions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Ching Yu Huang; Xiaoming Zou; Carlos Rodriguez

    2006-01-01

    The effects and implications of invasive species in belowground terrestrial ecosystems are not well known in comparison with aboveground terrestrial and marine environments. The study of earthworm invasions in the tropics is limited by a lack of taxonomic knowledge and the potential for loss of species in native habitats due to anthropogenic land use change. Alteration...

  18. Invasive tightly coupled processor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    LARI, VAHID

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces new massively parallel computer (MPSoC) architectures called invasive tightly coupled processor arrays. It proposes strategies, architecture designs, and programming interfaces for invasive TCPAs that allow invading and subsequently executing loop programs with strict requirements or guarantees of non-functional execution qualities such as performance, power consumption, and reliability. For the first time, such a configurable processor array architecture consisting of locally interconnected VLIW processing elements can be claimed by programs, either in full or in part, using the principle of invasive computing. Invasive TCPAs provide unprecedented energy efficiency for the parallel execution of nested loop programs by avoiding any global memory access such as GPUs and may even support loops with complex dependencies such as loop-carried dependencies that are not amenable to parallel execution on GPUs. For this purpose, the book proposes different invasion strategies for claiming a desire...

  19. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  20. Staging cancer of the uterus: A national audit of MRI accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.A.; Drinkwater, K.J.; Frost, C.; Remedios, D.; Barter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To report the results of a nationwide audit of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging in uterine body cancer when staging myometrial invasion, cervical extension, and lymph node spread. Materials and methods: All UK radiology departments were invited to participate using a web-based tool for submitting anonymized data for a 12 month period. MRI staging was compared with histopathological staging using target accuracies of 85, 86, and 70% respectively. Results: Of the departments performing MRI staging of endometrial cancer, 37/87 departments contributed. Targets for MRI staging were achieved for two of the three standards nationally with diagnostic accuracy for depth of myometrial invasion, 82%; for cervical extension, 90%; and for pelvic nodal involvement, 94%; the latter two being well above the targets. However, only 13/37 (35%) of individual centres met the target for assessing depth of myometrial invasion, 31/36 (86%) for cervical extension and 31/34 (91%) for pelvic nodal involvement. Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant difference for the use of intravenous contrast medium, but did show some evidence of increasing accuracy in assessment of depth of myometrial invasion with increasing caseload. Conclusion: Overall performance in the UK was good, with only the target for assessment of depth of myometrial invasion not being met. Inter-departmental variation was seen. One factor that may improve performance in assessment of myometrial invasion is a higher caseload. No other clear factor to improve performance were identified.

  1. Staging cancer of the uterus: A national audit of MRI accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, K.A., E-mail: k.duncan@nhs.net [Clinical Radiology Audit Committee, Royal College of Radiologists, London (United Kingdom); Drinkwater, K.J. [Clinical Radiology Audit Committee, Royal College of Radiologists, London (United Kingdom); Frost, C. [Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London (United Kingdom); Remedios, D.; Barter, S. [Clinical Radiology Audit Committee, Royal College of Radiologists, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Aim: To report the results of a nationwide audit of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging in uterine body cancer when staging myometrial invasion, cervical extension, and lymph node spread. Materials and methods: All UK radiology departments were invited to participate using a web-based tool for submitting anonymized data for a 12 month period. MRI staging was compared with histopathological staging using target accuracies of 85, 86, and 70% respectively. Results: Of the departments performing MRI staging of endometrial cancer, 37/87 departments contributed. Targets for MRI staging were achieved for two of the three standards nationally with diagnostic accuracy for depth of myometrial invasion, 82%; for cervical extension, 90%; and for pelvic nodal involvement, 94%; the latter two being well above the targets. However, only 13/37 (35%) of individual centres met the target for assessing depth of myometrial invasion, 31/36 (86%) for cervical extension and 31/34 (91%) for pelvic nodal involvement. Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant difference for the use of intravenous contrast medium, but did show some evidence of increasing accuracy in assessment of depth of myometrial invasion with increasing caseload. Conclusion: Overall performance in the UK was good, with only the target for assessment of depth of myometrial invasion not being met. Inter-departmental variation was seen. One factor that may improve performance in assessment of myometrial invasion is a higher caseload. No other clear factor to improve performance were identified.

  2. Invasive spindle cell thymomas (WHO Type A): a clinicopathologic correlation of 41 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Cesar A; Kalhor, Neda; Suster, Saul

    2010-11-01

    We report 41 cases of invasive spindle cell thymomas (World Health Organization type A). The patients were 16 women and 25 men between the ages of 38 and 80 years. Clinically, the patients had diverse symptomatology, including chest pain, cough, and dyspnea. None of the patients had a history of myasthenia gravis. According to the Mazaoka surgical staging system, 34 patients had stage II disease, 6 had stage III, and 1 had stage IV. Follow-up information showed that 30 patients were alive after a period ranging from 12 to 96 months; for 8 patients who are alive, the follow-up was less than 12 months; 1 patient died 10 months after initial diagnosis. For 2 patients, no follow-up information was obtained. This study stresses the fact that histologic features do not correlate with invasion or encapsulation because all thymomas, regardless of their histologic type, are capable of invasion.

  3. Two-stage unilateral versus one-stage bilateral single-port sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohsen; Menna, Cecilia; Andreetti, Claudio; Ciccone, Anna Maria; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Maurizi, Giulio; Poggi, Camilla; Vanni, Camilla; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy is currently the best treatment for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. It can be performed through either one or two stages of surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the operative and postoperative results of two-stage unilateral vs one-stage bilateral thoracoscopic sympathectomy. METHODS From November 1995 to February 2011, 270 patients with severe palmar and/or axillary hyperhidrosis were recruited for this study. One hundred and thirty patients received one-stage bilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy (one-stage group) and 140, two-stage unilateral, single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy, with a mean time interval of 4 months between the procedures (two-stage group). RESULTS The mean postoperative follow-up period was 12.5 (range: 1–24 months). After surgery, hands and axillae of all patients were dry and warm. Sixteen (12%) patients of the one-stage group and 15 (11%) of the two-stage group suffered from mild/moderate pain (P = 0.8482). The mean operative time was 38 ± 5 min in the one-stage group and 39 ± 8 min in the two-stage group (P = 0.199). Pneumothorax occurred in 8 (6%) patients of the one-stage group and in 11 (8%) of the two-stage group. Compensatory sweating occurred in 25 (19%) patients of the one-stage group and in 6 (4%) of the two-stage group (P = 0.0001). No patients developed Horner's syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Both two-stage unilateral and one-stage bilateral single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomies are effective, safe and minimally invasive procedures. Two-stage unilateral sympathectomy can be performed with a lower occurrence of compensatory sweating, improving permanently the quality of life in patients with palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. PMID:23442937

  4. Invasive meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Strelow

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD is a major public health and continues to cause substantial mortality and morbidity. Serotype C is the most frequent in Brazil. The clinical spectrum of IMD is broad (meningitis, meningococcemia or both and the clinical evolution may be unpredictable. Main features associated with mortality are: age higher than 50 years old, seizures, shock, and meningococcemia without meningitis. Blood cultures should be obtained immediately. Lumbar puncture can be performed without previous computed tomography scan (CT in most cases. Clinical features can be useful to predic patients where an abnormal CT scan is likely. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture and Gram stain should always be required. Latex agglutination sensitivity is highly variable. Polymerase chain reaction is specially useful when other methods are negative or delayed. Usually ceftriaxone should not be delayed while awaiting CSF study or CT. Dexamethasone can be used in meningococcal meningitis. Early suspicion of IMD and antibiotic in primary care before hospitalization, rapid transportation to a hospital, and stabilization in an intensive-care unit has substantially reduced the case-fatality rate. Vaccines against serotypes A, C, W-135, and Y are available while vaccines against serotype B are expected.

  5. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  6. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  8. Defining progression in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: it is time for a new, standard definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Donald; Persad, Raj; Brausi, Maurizio; Buckley, Roger; Witjes, J Alfred; Palou, Joan; Böhle, Andreas; Kamat, Ashish M; Colombel, Marc; Soloway, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most important clinical outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there is currently no standard definition of disease progression. Major clinical trials and meta-analyses have used varying definitions or have failed to define this end point altogether. A standard definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as determined by reproducible and reliable procedures is needed. We examine current definitions of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression, and propose a new definition that will be more clinically useful in determining patient prognosis and comparing treatment options. The IBCG (International Bladder Cancer Group) analyzed published clinical trials and meta-analyses that examined nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as of December 2012. The limitations of the definitions of progression used in these trials were considered, as were additional parameters associated with the advancement of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. The most commonly used definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression is an increase in stage from nonmuscle invasive to muscle invasive disease. Although this definition is clinically important, it fails to include other important parameters of advancing disease such as progression to lamina propria invasion and increase in grade. The IBCG proposes the definition of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer progression as an increase in T stage from CIS or Ta to T1 (lamina propria invasion), development of T2 or greater or lymph node (N+) disease or distant metastasis (M1), or an increase in grade from low to high. Investigators should consider the use of this new definition to help standardize protocols and improve the reporting of progression. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of in situ to invasive breast carcinoma transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min; Yao, Jun; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen, Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Violette, Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Bissell, Mina J.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2008-05-07

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  10. Regulation of In Situ to Invasive Breast CarcinomaTransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Min; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen,Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Bissell, Mina; Violette,Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-03-13

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  11. [Peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Symptoms, basic diagnosis and staged therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, H F; Kettmann, R; Grothe, A

    2002-06-13

    Intermittent claudication or rest pain are typical symptoms of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) affecting the lower limbs. The pain is localized one level below that of the occlusion. Initial investigations should determine skin temperature and color, pulse status, stenotic sounds and Doppler occlusive pressures. If intermittent claudication is present, angiography of the pelvis and legs then follows. Treatment is stage-dependent: while in stages I and IIa conservative treatment such as cessation of smoking, administration of acetylsalicylic acid and walking training suffices, stages IIb and higher require invasive measures extending from PTA to amputation of gangrenous parts of the limb.

  12. Minimally invasive hysterectomy in Coatis ( Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno W. Minto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some wildlife species, such as coatis, have a high degree of adaptability to adverse conditions, such as fragmented urban forests, increasingly common on the world stage. The increase in the number of these mesopredators causes drastic changes in the communities of smaller predators, interferes with reproductive success of trees, as well as becoming a form of exchange between domestic and wild areas, favoring the transmission of zoonosis and increasing the occurrence of attacks to animals or people. This report describes the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy in two individuals of the species Nasua nasua, which can be accomplished through the use of hook technique, commonly used to castrate dogs and cats. The small incision and healing speed of incised tissues are fundamental in wild life management since the postoperative care is limited by the behavior of these animals. This technique proved to be effective and can greatly reduce the morbidity of this procedure in coatis.

  13. The mathematics behind biological invasions

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Mark A; Potts, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates the mathematical analysis of biological invasions. Unlike purely qualitative treatments of ecology, it draws on mathematical theory and methods, equipping the reader with sharp tools and rigorous methodology. Subjects include invasion dynamics, species interactions, population spread, long-distance dispersal, stochastic effects, risk analysis, and optimal responses to invaders. While based on the theory of dynamical systems, including partial differential equations and integrodifference equations, the book also draws on information theory, machine learning, Monte Carlo methods, optimal control, statistics, and stochastic processes. Applications to real biological invasions are included throughout. Ultimately, the book imparts a powerful principle: that by bringing ecology and mathematics together, researchers can uncover new understanding of, and effective response strategies to, biological invasions. It is suitable for graduate students and established researchers in mathematical ecolo...

  14. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  15. Invasive Meningococcal Men Y Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-18

    Dr. Leonard Mayer, a public health microbiologist at CDC, discusses invasive meningococcal disease.  Created: 4/18/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  16. Capmatinib, Ceritinib, Regorafenib, or Entrectinib in Treating Patients With BRAF/NRAS Wild-Type Stage III-IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-20

    ALK Fusion Protein Expression; BRAF wt Allele; Invasive Skin Melanoma; MET Fusion Gene Positive; NRAS wt Allele; NTRK1 Fusion Positive; NTRK2 Fusion Positive; NTRK3 Fusion Positive; RET Fusion Positive; ROS1 Fusion Positive; Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7

  17. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekici, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    The rate of newborns with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) who have been referred to our pediatric newborn clinic is very high. This shows that prenatal screening in the region is not carried out well. Prenatal diagnosis and screening methods include invasive prenatal diagnosis methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and cordocentesis) and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPT) which cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening of maternal blood samples. After the discovery of the signs ...

  18. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    McGillivray, Barbara C.

    1988-01-01

    The rate of newborns with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) who have been referred to our pediatric newborn clinic is very high. This shows that prenatal screening in the region is not carried out well. Prenatal diagnosis and screening methods include invasive prenatal diagnosis methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and cordocentesis) and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPT) which cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) screening of maternal blood samples. After the discovery of the signs ...

  19. Quantifying the invasiveness of species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Parker, J. D.; Cadotte, M. W.; Pyšek, Petr; Brown, C. S.; Sax, D. F.; Richardson, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-27 ISSN 1619-0033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * biogeographical comparison * invasiveness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Staging of cutaneous melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mohr (P.); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); A. Hauschild (Axel); A. Buzaid (A.)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of cutaneous melanoma is a continuously evolving system. The identification of increasingly more accurate prognostic factors has led to major changes in melanoma staging over the years, and the current system described in this review

  1. Accuracy and consequences of same-day, invasive lung cancer workup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Riis; Høegholm, Asbjørn; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Though widely used, little is known about accuracy and efficacy of same-day, invasive workup of suspected lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of same-day, invasive lung cancer workup (diagnosis and mediastinal staging), and to identify differences between...... patients without (Group A) or with (Group B) need for resampling. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on all consecutive patients referred for surgical treatment for localised lung cancer after invasive diagnostic and staging workup at our unit. Data were extracted from electronic medical files...... pulmonary disease. Tumour located in right upper lobe was associated with need for resampling. DISCUSSION: Our retrospective study suggests that same-day, invasive workup for lung cancer is safe, accurate, and efficacious in reducing time to therapy, even in patients with small lesions and low tumour burden....

  2. Staging Lung Cancer: Current Controversies and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Karmy-Jones

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A consistent approach to staging is required for the rational management of lung cancer. This paper was prepared at the request of the Standards Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society, and reviews and discusses the relative merits of the available methods of staging. Whichever methods are chosen by a particular institution, the following points must be stressed. No patient can be considered automatically "unresectable" when chest radiography and/ or computed tomography demonstrate adenopathy or only suggest local invasion. Clinical and/or radiographical evidence suggesting extensive local or metastatic disease should be evaluated as completely as possible before subjecting the patient to a possible "nontherapeutic" thoracotomy. Finally, in some cases thoracotomy is required to decide whether the lesion is "completely" resectable.

  3. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive...

  4. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive...

  5. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory... of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive...

  6. Development of non-invasive ventilation treatment practice for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle M; Titlestad, Ingrid L; Huniche, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    and identifying end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease posed difficulties and caused doubts concerning initiation and continuation of non-invasive ventilation as life-sustaining treatment. Health professionals expressed a need for knowledge of patients' perspectives and attitude towards non...... experienced fear and 14 discomfort during treatment. The co-researcher group described health professionals' perspectives and analysed treatment practice based on data from patients' perspectives developing new management strategies in clinical practice with non-invasive ventilation. Conclusion...

  7. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We here review the evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids. The strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises) have non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation, although this is thought to be derived from a more...... invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma...... into the lumen of the spiral arteries. They are responsible for remodelling these vessels to form wide, low-resistance conduits. In human and great apes, there is additional invasion of the endometrium and its vessels by trophoblasts originating from the base of the anchoring villi. Deep trophoblast invasion...

  8. Modifying gummy smile: a minimally invasive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Walid Ahmed; Khalil, Hesham S; Alhindi, Maryam M; Marzook, Hamdy

    2014-11-01

    Excessive gingival display is a problem that can be managed by variety of procedures. These procedures include non-surgical and surgical methods. The underlying cause of gummy smile can affect the type of procedure to be selected. Most patients prefer minimally invasive procedures with outstanding results. The authors describe a minimally invasive lip repositioning technique for management of gummy smile. Twelve patients (10 females, 2 males) with gingival display of 4 mm or more were operated under local anesthesia using a modified lip repositioning technique. Patients were followed up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and gingival display was measured at each follow up visit. The gingival mucosa was dissected and levator labii superioris and depressor septi muscles were freed and repositioned in a lower position. The levator labii superioris muscles were pulled in a lower position using circumdental sutures for 10 days. Both surgeon's and patient's satisfaction of surgical outcome was recorded at each follow-up visit. At early stage of follow-up the main complaints of patients were the feeling of tension in the upper lip and circum oral area, mild pain which was managed with analgesics. One month postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded to be between 2 and 4 mm with a mean of (2.6 mm). Patient satisfaction records after 1 month showed that 10 patients were satisfied with the results. Three months postoperatively, the gingival display in all patients was recorded and found to be between 2 and 5 mm with a mean of 3 mm. Patient satisfaction records showed that 8 patients were satisfied with the results as they gave scores between. Surgeon's satisfaction at three months follow up showed that the surgeons were satisfied in 8 patients. The same results were found in the 6 and 12 months follow-up periods without any changes. Complete relapse was recorded only in one case at the third postoperative month. This study showed that the proposed lip

  9. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Staging for vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shalini; Maheshwari, Amita; Srivastava, Astha

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer comprising about 3% of all gynecologic cancers. Primary vaginal cancer should be carefully assigned as spread from cervix, vulva, and other metastatic tumors to vagina can occur. Although vaginal cancer traditionally occurs in older postmenopausal women, the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers is increasing in younger women. Squamous cell carcinoma is still the most common histopathologic type followed by adenocarcinoma. With decreasing use of diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy, non-diethylstilbestrol-associated cancers are described. The Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) staging of vaginal cancer (2009) follows the same rules as cervical cancer; it is clinically staged and allows the use of routine investigative modalities for staging. Although FIGO encourages the use of advanced imaging modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), to guide therapy, the imaging findings may not be used to change or reassign the stage. TNM staging is the pathologic staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and information available from examination of the resected specimen, including pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes, may be used for staging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  12. Modified Masaoka stage and size are independent prognostic predictors in thymoma and modified Masaoka stage is superior to histopathologic classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Anja C; Yi, Eunhee S; Jenkins, Sarah M; Edwards, Kelly K; Donovan, Janis L; Cassivi, Stephen D; Marks, Randolph S; Garces, Yolanda I; Aubry, Marie Christine

    2015-04-01

    The prognostic value of histopathologic classifications of thymoma is debated. Problematic reproducibility might cause this controversy. We studied the prognostic significance of three histopathologic classifications of thymomas after three thoracic pathologists agreed upon thymoma subtype and invasion. We also compared the outcome to established prognostic parameters. Patients, surgically treated for thymic epithelial neoplasm at Mayo Clinic (1942-2008), were staged according to the modified Masaoka staging and the recently proposed staging by Moran. Three thoracic pathologists independently classified all cases according to the World Health Organization, Bernatz, and proposed Suster and Moran classification. Only thymoma that all three pathologists diagnosed as the same histopathologic subtype and extent of invasion were included in outcome analysis. In 214 (proposed Suster and Moran classification), 145 (World Health Organization classification), and 120 cases (Bernatz classification), reviewers agreed upon subtype of thymoma and invasion and follow-up was available. Median follow-up time was 7.5-7.7 years (range between classifications). All histopathologic classifications were associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (p ≤ 0.0001 to p = 0.048); only Bernatz classification was independent of modified Masaoka staging associated with OS (p = 0.04). Modified Masaoka stage predicted outcome independent of all histopathologic classifications and resection status and strongly correlated with the proposed Moran stage (correlation coefficient, 0.95). Thymoma size and age were prognostic parameters for OS independent of any histopathologic classification. Histopathologic classifications of thymomas are associated with prognosis but are in general not independent predictors of outcome. Modified Masaoka stage and proposed Moran staging are independent prognostic parameters for thymoma and superior to histopathologic classifications.

  13. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  14. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  16. Cannibalism in invasive, native and biocontrol populations of the harlequin ladybird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannibalism is widespread in both vertebrates and invertebrates but its extent is variable between and within species. Cannibalism depends on population density and nutritional conditions, and could be beneficial during colonisation of new environments. Empirical studies are needed to determine whether this trait might facilitate invasion of a new area in natural systems. We investigated whether the propensity for cannibalism in H. axyridis differs both between native and invasive populations and between invasive populations from the core and from the front of the invasive area in Western Europe. We also compared the propensity for cannibalism of these natural populations with that of laboratory-reared biocontrol populations. We measured the cannibalism rates of eggs by first instar larvae and adult females at two different individual densities of ladybirds from three types of population (invasive, native and biocontrol), in laboratory-controlled conditions. Results Cannibalism was significantly greater in larvae from invasive populations compared to native or biocontrol populations, but there was no difference in cannibalism rates between populations from the core or front of the invaded range. Cannibalism was significantly lower in larvae from biocontrol populations compared to wild (invasive and native) populations. No differences in cannibalism rates of adult females were found between any populations. While high population density significantly increased cannibalism in both larvae and adults, the norm of reaction of cannibalism to individual density did not change significantly during the invasion and/or laboratory rearing processes. Conclusion This study is the first to provide evidence for a higher propensity for cannibalism in invasive populations compared to native ones. Our experiments also shed light on the difference in cannibalism evolution with respect to life stages. However, we are still at an early stage in understanding the underlying

  17. Activity of components of the antioxidant system in the roots of potato plants at short-term temperature drop and invasion with parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, V V; Matveeva, E M; Zinovieva, S V

    2017-09-01

    The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the roots of susceptible plants and plants exposed to alternating temperatures, which were infected with the phytoparasitic nematode G. rostochiensis, was studied. It was found that, throughout the invasion period, the plants susceptible to invasion exhibited a high activity of these enzymes, which allowed them to maintain an active defense against the oxidative stress caused by the invasion and subsequent life activity of larvae. For the plants exposed to alternating temperatures, a decrease in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase at the early stages of invasion and an increase in the activity of these enzymes at the later stages was detected.

  18. High resolution MR imaging of bladder cancer: new criteria for determining depth of wall invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Kressel, Herbert Y

    1993-01-01

    To establish new criteria to determine the depth of bladder cancer as well as to obtain the findings of each stage of bladder cancer we reviewed high resolution MR images of 18 bladder cancer patients including seven cases (26%) with superficial bladder wall invasion. All MR scans were done before biopsy or surgery. Multiple layers of the bladder wall (inner black, middle white, outer black) were demonstrated in 11 cases out of a total 18 cases. Thickening of the middle layer caused by tumor infiltration or edema of lamina propria was seen in 8 of 12 patients with stage T2 or greater, and was suggestive of superficial muscle invasion when multiple layers were demonstrated. Disruption of outer layer (as well as inner layer) and external protrusion of tumor itself were indicative of perivesical invasion. When multiple layers were not demonstrated, the depth of tumor invasion could not be judged. High resolution MR imaging can depict submucosal invasion, muscle invasion, and perivesical invasion secondary to bladder cancer

  19. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma in an orthotopic zebrafish tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jian; Cao, Ziquan; Hosaka, Kayoko; Jensen, Lasse; Yang, Huasheng; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Liu, Yizhi; Cao, Yihai

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly invasive malignant tumor that often invades the brain and metastasizes to distal organs through the blood stream. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma can occur at the early stage of tumor development. However, an optimal preclinical model to study retinoblastoma invasiveness and metastasis in relation to drug treatment has not been developed. Here, we developed an orthotopic zebrafish model in which retinoblastoma invasion and metastasis can be monitored at a single cell level. We took the advantages of immune privilege and transparent nature of developing zebrafish embryos. Intravitreal implantation of color-coded retinoblastoma cells allowed us to kinetically monitor tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Further, interactions between retinoblastoma cells and surrounding microvasculatures were studied using a transgenic zebrafish that exhibited green fluorescent signals in blood vessels. We discovered that tumor cells invaded neighboring tissues and blood stream when primary tumors were at the microscopic sizes. These findings demonstrate that retinoblastoma metastasis occurs at the early stage and antiangiogenic drugs such as Vegf morpholino and sunitinib could potentially interfere with tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Thus, this orthotopic retinoblastoma model offers a new and unique opportunity to study the early events of tumor invasion, metastasis and drug responses. PMID:26169357

  20. Invasive amphibians in southern Africa: A review of invasion pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Measey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, invasive amphibians are known for their environmental and social impacts that range from poisoning of local fauna and human populations to direct predation on other amphibians. Although several countries on most continents have had multiple introductions of many species, southern Africa appears to have escaped allochthonous introductions. Instead, it has a small number of domestic exotic species that have rapidly expanded their ranges and established invasive populations within South Africa. Objectives & methods: We used the literature to provide a historical overview of dispersal by some of the world’s major invasive amphibians, give examples of species that are commonly moved as stowaways and discuss historical and current amphibian trade in the region. In addition, we give an overview of new South African legislation and how this is applied to amphibian invasions, as well as providing updates on the introduced populations of three domestic exotics: Hyperolius marmoratus, Sclerophrys gutturalis and Xenopus laevis. Results: We show that frogs are mainly moved around southern Africa through ‘jump’ dispersal, although there are a number of records of ‘cultivation’, ‘leading-edge’ and ‘extreme long-distance’ dispersal types. Important pathways include trade in fruit and vegetables, horticultural products and shipping containers. Conclusion: We suggest that southern Africa is becoming more vulnerable to amphibian invasions because of an increase in trade, agricultural and domestic impoundments as well as global climate change. Increasing propagule pressure suggests that preventing new introductions will become a key challenge for the future. Currently, trade in amphibians in the region is practically non-existent, suggesting potential for best practice to prevent importation of species with high invasion potential and to stop the spread of disease.

  1. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  2. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Moms Need Blog News & Media News Videos Mission stories Ambassadors Spotlights Tools & Resources Frequently asked media questions ... can be born. This stage can last as short as 20 minutes or as long as several ...

  3. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  4. Stages of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat esophageal cancer. A plastic ...

  5. Stages of Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat anal cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  6. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat penile cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  7. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous...

  8. Anesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Mahajan, Charu; Kapoor, Indu

    2017-10-01

    With an ultimate aim of improving patients overall outcome and satisfaction, minimally invasive surgical approach is becoming more of a norm. The related anesthetic evidence has not expanded at the same rate as surgical and technological advancement. This article reviews the recent evidence on anesthesia and perioperative concerns for patients undergoing minimally invasive neurosurgery. Minimally invasive cranial and spinal surgeries have been made possible only by vast technological development. Points of surgical interest can be precisely located with the help of stereotaxy and neuronavigation and special endoscopes which decrease the tissue trauma. The principles of neuroanethesia remain the same, but few concerns are specific for each technique. Dexmedetomidine has a favorable profile for procedures carried out under sedation technique. As the new surgical techniques are coming up, lesser known anesthetic concerns may also come into light. Over the last year, little new information has been added to existing literature regarding anesthesia for minimally invasive neurosurgeries. Neuroanesthesia goals remain the same and less invasive surgical techniques do not translate into safe anesthesia. Specific concerns for each procedure should be taken into consideration.

  9. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  11. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  12. Staging of transitional cell carcinoma: Has anything changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J N Kulkarni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article is a systematic review of various changes in the evolution of the contemporary clinico-pathological staging of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC. Materials and Methods: A thorough search of the literature was done by Medline and other internet references. Results: Accurate staging of TCC is necessary for designing optimal therapy in clinical practice. Further, the current emphasis on bladder conservation and improved long-term disease free survival (DFS necessitates minimal errors in staging and it′s predictability towards recurrence and progression. Traditionally, the staging of TCC revolves around clinical and pathological findings. The staging has evolved through the understanding of various clinico- pathological factors like tumor appearance, number, size, grade, depth of invasion, muscle substratification, lymphovascular invasion and has reached the standard TNM classification. Cystoscopy and transurethral resection still remain the mainstay of staging and noninvasive imaging techniques have further enhanced the accuracy. Conclusion: The TNM classification for bladder cancer is currently the gold standard for TCC.

  13. Bioluminescence Imaging to Detect Late Stage Infection of African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell-Saward, Hollie; Ward, Theresa H

    2016-05-18

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a multi-stage disease that manifests in two stages; an early blood stage and a late stage when the parasite invades the central nervous system (CNS). In vivo study of the late stage has been limited as traditional methodologies require the removal of the brain to determine the presence of the parasites. Bioluminescence imaging is a non-invasive, highly sensitive form of optical imaging that enables the visualization of a luciferase-transfected pathogen in real-time. By using a transfected trypanosome strain that has the ability to produce late stage disease in mice we are able to study the kinetics of a CNS infection in a single animal throughout the course of infection, as well as observe the movement and dissemination of a systemic infection. Here we describe a robust protocol to study CNS infections using a bioluminescence model of African trypanosomiasis, providing real time non-invasive observations which can be further analyzed with optional downstream approaches.

  14. Contemporary Management of Early-Stage Melanoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, Andrew J; Vankoevering, Kyle K; McLean, Scott A; Johnson, Timothy M; Moyer, Jeffrey S

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing, with 76 380 new cases of invasive melanoma and 68 480 new cases of melanoma in situ expected in 2016. To review the contemporary management of early-stage melanoma. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases from January 1, 2011, to May 1, 2016, yielding 966 articles. We focused our search on early-stage (melanoma in situ, stage I, and stage II) cutaneous melanoma. After excluding articles, 41 articles were manually reviewed. A review of the bibliographies of selected articles generated additional references. While the majority of recent advances have been in the treatment of advanced melanoma, surgical excision with margins based on the presence and depth of invasion continues to be the cornerstone of management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy plays a central role in the staging and treatment of melanoma. Accurate diagnosis and adequate surgical excision are critical in reducing local recurrences and improving outcomes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is useful in staging the regional nodal basin and guiding treatment in appropriately selected patients.

  15. Evaluation of four non-invasive methods for examination and characterization of pressure ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Karlsmark, T.

    2008-01-01

    , we here report on usability of four non-invasive techniques for evaluation of pressure ulcers. Methods: Fifteen pressure ulcers in stage 0-IV were examined using four different non-invasive techniques [redness index, skin temperature, skin elasticity (i.e. retraction time), and ultrasound scanning...... at all pressure ulcers, but none at the reference points. The skin retraction time was often higher at the location of a pressure ulcer than at the reference location. We found no correlation between the stage of the ulcers and temperature, redness index, subepidermal layer thickness, or retraction time...

  16. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Xin Chen

    Full Text Available Tumor cell invasion into the surrounding matrix has been well documented as an early event of metastasis occurrence. However, the dynamic expression patterns of proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are largely unknown. Using a three-dimensional HCC invasion culture model established previously, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of identified proteins during early invasion of HCC.Highly metastatic MHCC97H cells and a liver tissue fragment were long-term co-cultured in a rotating wall vessel (RWV bioreactor to simulate different pathological states of HCC invasion. The established spherical co-cultures were collected on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 for dynamic expression pattern analysis. Significantly different proteins among spheroids at different time points were screened and identified using quantitative proteomics of iTRAQ labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins were further categorized by K-means clustering. The expression modes of several differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by Western blot and qRT-PCR.Time course analysis of invasion/metastasis gene expressions (MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, CD44, SPP1, CXCR4, CXCL12, and CDH1 showed remarkable, dynamic alterations during the invasion process of HCC. A total of 1,028 proteins were identified in spherical co-cultures collected at different time points by quantitative proteomics. Among these proteins, 529 common differential proteins related to HCC invasion were clustered into 25 types of expression patterns. Some proteins displayed significant dynamic alterations during the early invasion process of HCC, such as upregulation at the early invasion stage and downregulation at the late invasion stage (e.g., MAPRE1, PHB2, cathepsin D, etc. or continuous upregulation during the entire invasion process (e.g., vitronectin, Met, clusterin, ICAM1, GSN, etc..Dynamic expression patterns of candidate proteins during the

  17. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion...... in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... invasion. Prelaminar/laminar optic nerve invasion was in multivariate analysis associated with focal retinal invasion, neovascularization of the chamber angle, and scleral invasion. Postlaminar invasion was further associated with non-spindle cell type and rupture of the inner limiting membrane...

  18. Invasive exotic plants suffer less herbivory than non-invasive exotic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuccino, Naomi; Carpenter, David

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed naturally occurring leaf herbivory in nine invasive and nine non-invasive exotic plant species sampled in natural areas in Ontario, New York and Massachusetts, and found that invasive plants experienced, on average, 96% less leaf damage than non-invasive species. Invasive plants were also more taxonomically isolated than non-invasive plants, belonging to families with 75% fewer native North American genera. However, the relationship between taxonomic isolation at the family level ...

  19. Lymphatic invasion and the Shields index in predicting melanoma metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirić, Zorica; Erić, Mirela; Eri, Živka

    2017-11-01

    Findings of the prognostic significance of lymphatic invasion are contradictory. To determine an as efficient cutaneous melanoma metastasis predictor as possible, Shields et al. created a new prognostic index. This study aimed to examine whether the lymphatic invasion analysis and the Shields index calculation can be used in predicting lymph node status in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Lymphatic invasion of 100 melanoma specimens was detected by dual immunohistochemistry staining for the lymphatic endothelial marker D2-40 and melanoma cell S-100 protein. The Shields index was calculated as a logarithm by multiplying the melanoma thickness, square of peritumoural lymphatic vessel density and the number "2" for the present lymphatic invasion. No statistically significant difference was observed between lymph node metastatic and nonmetastatic melanomas regarding the lymphatic invasion. Metastatic melanomas showed a significantly higher Shields index value than nonmetastatic melanomas (p = 0.00). Area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) proved that the Shields index (AUC = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.93, p = 0.00) was the most accurate predictor of lymph node status, followed by the melanoma thickness (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.86, p = 0.00) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging (AUC = 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.85, p = 0.00), while lymphatic invasion was not successful in predicting (AUC = 0.56, 95% CI 0.45-0.67, p = 0.31). The Shields index achieved 81.3% sensitivity and 75% specificity (cut-off mean value). Our findings show that D2-40/S-100 immunohistochemical analysis of lymphatic invasion cannot be used for predicting the lymph node status, while the Shields index calculation predicts disease outcome more accurately than the melanoma thickness and AJCC staging. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Potential effects of invasive Pterois volitans in coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banamali Maji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasion of predatory lionfish (Pterois volitans represents a major threat to the western Atlantic coral reef ecosystems. The proliferation of venomous, fast reproducing and aggressive P. volitans in coral reefs causes severe declines in the abundance and diversity of reef herbivores. There is also widespread cannibalism amongst P. volitans populations. A mathematical model is proposed to study the effects of predation on the biomass of herbivorous reef fishes by considering two life stages and intraguild predation of P. volitans population with harvesting of adult P. volitans. The system undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation when the invasiveness of P. volitans crosses a certain critical value. It is observed that cannibalism of P. volitans induces stability in the system even with high invasiveness of adult P. volitans. The dynamic instability of the system due to higher invasiveness of P. volitans can be controlled by increasing the rate of harvesting of P. volitans. It is also proven that P. volitans goes extinct when the harvest rate is greater than some critical threshold value. These results indicate that the dynamical behaviour of the model is very sensitive to the harvesting of P. volitans, which in turn is useful in the conservation of reef herbivores.

  1. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...... to rise the following questions: What happens to the status of the author, when he suddenly (re-)appears on stage? How is this appearance to be understood in both a contemporary and historical context: Is it the musical virtuous appearing again, are we witnessing musical works turning...

  2. Bigger is better: characteristics of round gobies forming an invasion front in the Danube river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Brandner

    Full Text Available Few studies have systematically investigated differences in performance, morphology and parasitic load of invaders at different stages of an invasion. This study analyzed phenotype-environment correlations in a fish invasion from initial absence until establishment in the headwater reach of the second largest European river, the Danube. Here, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus formed 73% of the fish abundance and 58% of the fish biomass in rip-rap bank habitats after establishment. The time from invasion until establishment was only about two years, indicating rapid expansion. Founder populations from the invasion front were different from longer established round goby populations in demography, morphology, feeding behaviour, sex ratio and parasitic load, indicating that plasticity in these traits determines invasion success. Competitive ability was mostly dependent on growth/size-related traits rather than on fecundity. As revealed by stable isotope analyses, specimens at the invasion front had a higher trophic position in the food web and seem to benefit from lower food competition. Somatic performance seems to be more important than investment in reproduction during the early stages of the invasion process and upstream-directed range expansion is not caused by out-migrating weak or juvenile individuals that were forced to leave high density areas due to high competition. This mechanism might be true for downstream introductions via drift. Greater abundance and densities of acanthocephalan endoparasites were observed at the invasion front, which contradicts the expectation that invasion success is determined by lower parasitic pressure in newly invaded areas. Overall, the pronounced changes in fish and invertebrate communities with a dominance of alien species suggest invasional meltdown and a shift of the upper Danube River towards a novel ecosystem with species that have greater resistance to goby predation. This seems to contribute to

  3. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    failure may benefit from a trial of NIV. Increased work of breathing, as noted by use of accessory breathing. SAJCC. 10. July 2005, V ol. 21, No. 1. University of Manitoba and Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada. B Louise Giles, MD, FRCPC. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a modality of providing airway and ...

  4. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  5. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  6. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  7. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  8. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  9. Relative effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive lobular compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Schelomo; Hui, Jane Yuet Ching; Huang, Jing Li; Kizy, Scott; Beckwith, Heather; Blaes, Anne H; Rueth, Natasha M; Tuttle, Todd M

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have distinct clinical, pathologic, and genomic characteristics. The objective of the current study was to compare the relative impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with ILC versus those with IDC. Women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER2) -negative, stage I/II IDC and ILC who received endocrine therapy were identified from the 2000 to 2014 California Cancer Registry. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were collected. Ten-year overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards modeling. In total, 32,997 women with IDC and 4638 with ILC were identified. The receipt of chemotherapy significantly decreased during the study for both subtypes. For patients with IDC, the 10-year OS rate was 95% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 93% (P cancer treatment for a large proportion of patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2017;123:3015-21. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Mini-invasive nonsurgical treatment of class 4 invasive cervical resorption: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Salzano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Cervical Resorption (ICR is a pathological process that can lead to a progressive tooth destruction over time, as dentin is gradually replaced by granulomatous tissue. Unfortunately ICR is difficult to diagnose because it is often asymptomatic and can easily be mistaken for a carious lesion, especially in the early stages. According to the existing literature, class IV ICR treatment shows a success rate of 12.5% when the lesion affects more than one third of the root. In this paper we describe the conservative, nonsurgical approach we adopted in treating 5 cases of class IV ICR with the help of cone-beam computed tomography and operating microscope. Resorptions were filled with MTA in three cases and with Biodentine in two cases. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 2 years. All patients were found to be asymptomatic and check-up radiographic examinations did not show any signs of ICR relapse.

  11. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000500.htm End-stage kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term ( ...

  12. Pattern-based classification of invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma, depth of invasion measurement and distinction from adenocarcinoma in situ: interobserver variation among gynecologic pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Herran, Carlos; Taljaard, Monica; Djordjevic, Bojana; Reyes, M Carolina; Schwartz, Lauren; Schoolmeester, John K; Lastra, Ricardo R; Quick, Charles M; Laury, Anna; Rasty, Golnar; Nucci, Marisa R; Howitt, Brooke E

    2016-08-01

    A pattern-based classification for invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma has been proposed as predictive of the risk of nodal metastases. We aimed to determine the reproducibility of such classification in the context of common diagnostic challenges: distinction between in situ and invasive adenocarcinoma and depth of invasion measurement. Nine gynecologic pathologists independently reviewed 96 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma (two slides per case). They diagnosed each case as in situ or invasive carcinoma classifying the latter following the pattern-based classification as pattern A (non-destructive), B (focally destructive) or C (diffusely destructive). Depth of invasion, when applicable, was measured (mm). Overall, diagnostic reproducibility of pattern diagnosis was good (κ=0.65). Perfect agreement (9/9 reviewers) was seen in only 11 cases (11%), all destructively invasive (10 pattern C and 1 pattern B). In all, ≥5/9 reviewer concordance was achieved in 82/96 cases (85%). Distinction between in situ and invasive carcinoma, regardless of the pattern, showed only slight agreement (κ=0.37). Likewise, distinction restricted to in situ versus pattern A was poor (κ=0.23). Distinction between non-destructive (in situ+pattern A) and destructive (patterns B+C) carcinoma showed significantly higher agreement (κ=0.62). Estimation of depth of invasion showed excellent reproducibility (ICC=0.82). However, different measurements resulting in differing FIGO stages were common (from at least 1 reviewer in 79% cases). On the basis of interobserver agreement, the pattern-based classification is best at diagnosing destructive invasion, which carries a risk for nodal metastases. Agreement in diagnosing in situ versus invasive carcinoma, including pattern A, was poor. Given the nil risk of nodal spread in in situ and pattern A lesions, the term 'endocervical adenocarcinoma with non-destructive growth' can be considered when the distinction is difficult, after excluding

  13. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  14. High-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: definition and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porten, Sima P; Cooperberg, Matthew R

    2012-09-01

    Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer represents a large majority of patients diagnosed with this disease. Precise definition and risk stratification are paramount in this group as high-risk patients have higher rates of progression and mortality and may benefit from early identification and aggressive treatment. The mainstay definitions of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer are based on grade and stage. Recently, efforts have been made to incorporate other clinical variables into multivariate risk assessment tools and nomograms to predict disease behavior and guide management. Variant histology and molecular biomarkers are being explored as tools to refine risk stratification; however, results are still preliminary and need validation. Future research should concentrate on ways to better risk-stratify patients and identify early those that are most likely to recur and progress quickly. Topics of focus should be on better multivariate risk assessment tools and nomograms providing continuous scales and incorporating molecular markers with validation in large multi-institutional cohorts.

  15. Approaching invasive species in Madagascar | Kull | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    invasive', the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both ...

  16. Stage theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)

  17. "Stage 40" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill River Union High School, North Clarendon, VT.

    The policies, purposes, and guidelines of "Stage 40," an educational repertory company for students, are presented in this paper, which also explains how the company functions. The paper discusses the company's history, the relationship between the company and academics, and the responsibilities of a company member. Letters by the board…

  18. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  19. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  20. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  1. MRI in local staging of rectal cancer: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapan, Ümit; Özbayrak, Mustafa; Tatlı, Servet

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative imaging for staging of rectal cancer has become an important aspect of current approach to rectal cancer management, because it helps to select suitable patients for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and determine the appropriate surgical technique. Imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in assessing the depth of tumor penetration, lymph node involvement, mesorectal fascia and anal sphincter invasion, and presence of distant metastatic diseases. Currently, there is no consensus on a preferred imaging technique for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. However, high-resolution phased-array MRI is recommended as a standard imaging modality for preoperative local staging of rectal cancer, with excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability, and absence of ionizing radiation. This review will mainly focus on the role of MRI in preoperative local staging of rectal cancer and discuss recent advancements in MRI technique such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. PMID:25010367

  2. Staging with computed tomography of patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrom, M. L.; Brisling, S.; Klausen, T. W.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Accurate staging of colonic cancer is important for patient stratification. We aimed to correlate the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative computed tomography (CT) with final histopathology as reference standard. Methods Data was collected retrospectively on 615 consecutive patients operated...... for colonic cancer. Evaluation was based upon T-stage. Patients were stratified into high-risk and low-risk groups, based on the extent of tumor invasion beyond the proper muscle layer of more or less than 5 mm. The Kendall tau correlation coefficient was used to calculate concordance between radiological (r...... to overstaging among all individuals was calculated as the number needed to harm 11.7 (95% CI, 9–16). Conclusions There is basis for improvement of CT-based preoperative staging of patients with colorectal cancer. Supplementary modalities may be needed for correct staging of patients preoperatively, especially...

  3. Strong human association with plant invasion success for Trifolium introductions to New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravuer, Kelly; Sullivan, Jon J; Williams, Peter A; Duncan, Richard P

    2008-04-29

    It has proven difficult, when focused only on biological determinants, to explain why some plant species become naturalized in or invade new locations, whereas others fail. We analyzed the invasion of Trifolium (true clover) species into New Zealand, assessing a range of human, biogeographic, and biological influences at three key invasion stages: introduction, naturalization, and spread. We used sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) to define suites of related attributes and aggregated boosted trees to model relationships with invasion outcomes. Human and biogeographic attributes were strongly associated with success at all stages. Whereas biogeographic attributes, notably large native range, were consistently associated with success, different human factors appeared to favor success at different stages, such as presence in early trade/immigration hotspots (introduction), intentional large-scale planting (naturalization), and frequent presence as a seed contaminant (relative spread rate). Biological traits were less strongly associated with success for introduction and spread and little if at all for naturalization; we found that tall perennials with long flowering periods were more frequently selected for introduction, whereas species with extended flowering in New Zealand spread more rapidly. In addition to causal relationships, the importance of human factors may reflect indirect associations, including ecological traits associated with both human use and invasion. Nevertheless, our results highlight key roles that humans can play in facilitating plant invasion via two pathways: (i) commercial introduction leading to widespread planting and concomitant naturalization and spread and (ii) unintentional introduction and spread of species associated with human activities, such as seed contaminants.

  4. Foraging Behavior Interactions Between Two non-Native Social Wasps, Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Implications for Invasion Success?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Julia; Pirk, Gabriela I.; Corley, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded ? 35 yrs earlier ? by another wasp, Vespula germanica. Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion proc...

  5. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  6. Invasive plants in 21st Century landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie. Rapp

    2005-01-01

    A plant species is defined as invasive if it is nonnative to the ecosystem under consideration, and if it causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. Nonnative plant invasions are generally considered to have reached the Pacific Northwest in the mid-1800s with the arrival of European-American settlers. Invasive species such as...

  7. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Runyon

    2017-01-01

    This newsletter is designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as to highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), a core group of scientists who volunteer to disseminate RMRS invasive species...

  8. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  9. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by...

  10. Invasive species and climate change (Chapter 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Jack L. Butler; Megan M. Friggens; Susan E. Meyer; Sharlene E. Sing

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species present one of the greatest threats to the health and sustainability of ecosystems worldwide. Invasive plants, animals, and diseases are known to have significant negative effects on biological diversity and the ecological structure and functions of native ecosystems. Moreover, the economic cost imposed by invasive species is enormous—the damage...

  11. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; Brian W. Geils

    2010-01-01

    The fourth issue of Invasive Species Science Update has finally arrived. This newsletter has no set publication schedule, but our intent is to deliver invasive species information on a timely basis. The RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG) has been reorganized and recharged. General information on the ISWG is presented in a publication by Butler and others (2009...

  12. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  13. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Welcome to the fifth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate outreach of RMRS invasive species science to managers and the public. After publishing the past four newsletters, we...

  14. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY... notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect..., March 6, 2013; 9 a.m. to 1:45 p.m. Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday...

  15. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...

  16. Terrestrial animals as invasive species and as species at risk from invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...

  17. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  18. MR imaging for staging of cervical carcinoma: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seong Kuk; Kim, Dong Won [Dong A University Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Uterine cervical cancer is globally the third most common cancer among women, and shows high mortality with invasive cervical carcinoma. Early detection of the disease, its correct staging, and treatment are therefore of great importance. The staging system updated in 2009 by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), is commonly used for planning the treatment. However, there are significant inaccuracies in the FIGO staging system. Accurate tumor staging is very important to decide the treatment strategy. Although not included in the staging system, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a valuable tool for local staging of the disease, and is useful in assessing the spread of the tumor and metastatic lymph nodes, thereby becoming a more accurate substitute for clinical staging of cervical carcinoma. In addition, it is capable of assessing the disease response to surgery or chemoradiation. This review briefly describes the role of MR imaging and the basic MR scanning protocol in evaluating cervical carcinoma. The MR findings with staging, and MR evaluation of treatment response, are further addressed.

  19. The risk of establishment of aquatic invasive species: joining invasibility and propagule pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2007-10-22

    Invasive species are increasingly becoming a policy priority. This has spurred researchers and managers to try to estimate the risk of invasion. Conceptually, invasions are dependent both on the receiving environment (invasibility) and on the ability to reach these new areas (propagule pressure). However, analyses of risk typically examine only one or the other. Here, we develop and apply a joint model of invasion risk that simultaneously incorporates invasibility and propagule pressure. We present arguments that the behaviour of these two elements of risk differs substantially--propagule pressure is a function of time, whereas invasibility is not--and therefore have different management implications. Further, we use the well-studied zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) to contrast predictions made using the joint model to those made by separate invasibility and propagule pressure models. We show that predictions of invasion progress as well as of the long-term invasion pattern are strongly affected by using a joint model.

  20. Patients with Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer Are Less Likely to Undergo Breast-Conserving Surgery: A Population Based Study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, W.; Roumen, R.M.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Heiden-van der Loo, M.; Duijm, E.M.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.G.; Voogd, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) between early-stage invasive ductal (IDC) and invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC). Methods Women with primary non-metastatic pT1 and pT2 IDC or ILC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were selected from the

  1. Two Invasive Thymomas Incidentally Found during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Omidifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymoma, the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum, is a rare tumor of thymic epithelium that can be locally invasive. We reported 2 cases of invasive thymoma incidentally found during routine coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery at Faghihee Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences of Iran in a period of about 6 months. The 2 patients were male and above 60 years old. They had no clinical symptoms and radiological evidence of mediastinal mass before detection of the tumor during operation. For both patients mass was completely excised and sent to the laboratory. The ultimate pathological diagnosis of both masses was invasive thymoma (stage 2. There are few reports in which thymomas were found incidentally during cardiac surgery. In spite of rare coincidence, due to being asymptomatic and possibly invasive, special attention to thymus gland during cardiac surgery or other mediastinal surgery and preoperative imaging studies seem to be reasonable approach.

  2. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible.

  3. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...... the diverse matters of concern into a coherent product or service concept, and 2) in the same process move these diverse holders of the matters of concern into a translated actor network which carry or support the concept....

  4. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  5. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  6. Radiologic aspects in invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, C.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Attal, P.; Cyna-Gorse, F.; Frija, J.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening illness, whose diagnosis is difficult: clinical signs are indeed not specific, and biological and mycological exams are not always conclusive. Radiological exams are essential for the diagnosis of this disease allowing to start an early intensive appropriate therapy. According to the literature and to their own experience the authors report the main radiological patterns with emphasis on the pulmonary and cerebral affections. (authors). 26 refs., 5 figs

  7. Non-invasive extending prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Meswania, Jayantilal Mohanlal

    2006-01-01

    Most sarcomas of the bone occur in patients of a relatively young age including skeletally immature patients. Approximately 50 child sarcomas are treated with limb salvage surgery per year in the United Kingdom. These children need an extendible implant that can be lengthened periodically to keep pace with the growth in the opposite limb. Surgically, invasive devices have been used for the past thirty years with intrinsic problems of infection and long-term recurrent trauma to the patient. To...

  8. Detection of cartilage invasion in laryngeal carcinoma with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Jan W; Oosterbroek, Jaap; Jager, Elise A; de Jong, Hugo W; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P; Willems, Stefan M; Terhaard, Chris H; Philippens, Marielle E; Pameijer, Frank A

    2017-12-01

    Staging of laryngeal cancer largely depends on cartilage invasion. Presence of cartilage invasion affects treatment choice and prognosis. On MRI and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) it may be challenging to differentiate cartilage invasion from inflammation. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic properties of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCECT) and CECT for visual detection of cartilage invasion in laryngeal cancer. Prospective cohort study. Patients with T3 or T4 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with total laryngectomy were evaluated using 0.625 mm slice CT. DCECT derived permeability and blood volume maps and CECT images were visually evaluated for the presence of invasion of the cartilaginous T-stage subsites of laryngeal cancer, by detecting continuity with the tumor-bulk of increased permeability, increased blood volume, and enhancement. Histological evaluation of the surgical total laryngectomy specimen served as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were calculated and compared using the McNemar and Chi-squared test. From 14 included patients, a total of 462 subsites were available for T-stage analys i s, of which 84 were cartilage. The median time between CT imaging and total laryngectomy was 1 day (range 1-34 days). There was no significant difference in the detection of cartilage invasion between DCECT and CECT. The sensitivity of CECT was better for all subsites combined (0.85 vs. 0.75; p  < 0.01). DCECT does not improve visual detection of cartilage invasion in T3 and T4 laryngeal cancer compared to CECT. 2b, individual cohort study.

  9. Detection of cartilage invasion in laryngeal carcinoma with dynamic contrast‐enhanced CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbroek, Jaap; Jager, Elise A.; de Jong, Hugo W.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.; Willems, Stefan M.; Terhaard, Chris H.; Philippens, Marielle E.; Pameijer, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Staging of laryngeal cancer largely depends on cartilage invasion. Presence of cartilage invasion affects treatment choice and prognosis. On MRI and contrast‐enhanced CT (CECT) it may be challenging to differentiate cartilage invasion from inflammation. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic properties of dynamic contrast‐enhanced CT (DCECT) and CECT for visual detection of cartilage invasion in laryngeal cancer. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Patients with T3 or T4 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with total laryngectomy were evaluated using 0.625 mm slice CT. DCECT derived permeability and blood volume maps and CECT images were visually evaluated for the presence of invasion of the cartilaginous T‐stage subsites of laryngeal cancer, by detecting continuity with the tumor‐bulk of increased permeability, increased blood volume, and enhancement. Histological evaluation of the surgical total laryngectomy specimen served as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were calculated and compared using the McNemar and Chi‐squared test. Results From 14 included patients, a total of 462 subsites were available for T‐stage analysis, of which 84 were cartilage. The median time between CT imaging and total laryngectomy was 1 day (range 1–34 days). There was no significant difference in the detection of cartilage invasion between DCECT and CECT. The sensitivity of CECT was better for all subsites combined (0.85 vs. 0.75; p < 0.01). Conclusion DCECT does not improve visual detection of cartilage invasion in T3 and T4 laryngeal cancer compared to CECT. Level of Evidence 2b, individual cohort study. PMID:29299511

  10. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Isolated Tumor Cells in Invasive Lobular Versus Ductal Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, Wilfred; Roumen, Rudi M.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Heiden-van der Loo, Margriet; Lobbezoo, Dorien J.; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C.G.; Voogd, Adri C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in invasive breast cancer. The introduction of SLN biopsy with an extensive pathology examination, in addition to the introduction of the 2002 TNM classification, led to different axillary classification

  11. Minimally invasive diagnosis of sarcoidosis by EBUS when conventional diagnostics fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, J; Olsen, K E; Jørgensen, O D

    2010-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS) is a minimally invasive method used routinely for mediastinal staging of patients with lung cancer. EBUS has also proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for patients with different intrathoracic lesions who remain undia...

  12. Can transgenerational plasticity contribute to the invasion success of annual plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Annamária; Dyer, Andrew R; Geréd, Júliánna; Sándor, Dorottya; Ruprecht, Eszter

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive transgenerational plasticity (TGP), i.e., significantly higher fitness when maternal and offspring conditions match, might contribute to the population growth of non-native species in highly variable environments. However, comparative studies that directly test this hypothesis are lacking. Therefore, we performed a reciprocal split-brood experiment to compare TGP in response to N and water availability in single populations of two invasive (Amaranthus retroflexus, Galinsoga parviflora) and two congeneric non-invasive introduced species (Amaranthus albus, Galinsoga ciliata). We hypothesized that the transgenerational effect is adaptive: (1) in invasive species compared with non-invasive adventives, and (2) in stressful conditions compared with resource-rich environments. The phenotypic variation among offspring was generated, in large part, by our experimental treatments in the maternal generation; therefore, we demonstrated a direct TGP effect on the offspring's adult fitness. We found evidence, for the first time, that invasive and non-invasive adventive species differ regarding the expression of TGP in the adult stage, as adaptive responses were found exclusively in the invasive species. The manifestation of TGP was more explicit under resource-rich conditions; therefore, it might contribute to the population dynamics of non-native species in resource-rich sites rather than to their ecological tolerance spectra.

  13. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY OF INVASIVE LIONFISH (PTEROIS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G Gardner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Pacific lionfishes, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758 and Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828, native to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, respectively, were first observed in the western Atlantic off Florida in 1985. They have since spread and are established throughout the broader Caribbean region. Despite potentially devastating ecological and economic effects, information on key life history characteristics for lionfish in the invaded range is sparse. Objectives of this study were to quantify 1 periodicity in gonad development and spawning, 2 spawning frequency, 3 batch fecundity and 4 female size at maturity for fish from Little Cayman. Calculation of gonadosomatic indices, histological and macroscopic staging of gonads, and counts of hydrated oocytes were applied to determine reproductive characteristics. Higher gonadosomatic indices were recorded for females during periods of stable warm or cool water temperatures indicating that extreme temperatures did not constrain reproduction. Histological and macroscopic staging suggested that male and female lionfish were capable of reproducing year-round. However, higher gonadosomatic indices in females, as expected before spawning, were most pronounced in March/April and August. Based on the proportion of females containing hydrated oocytes, mature lionfish had the potential to spawn every 2–3 d. Ovaries of mature females contained 1800–41945 oocytes that were hydrated in preparation for spawning, with greater numbers of oocytes in larger females. Female lionfish matured at 189–190 mm total length. Parameters estimated in this study can improve outputs from population dynamic models, which will help resource managers design removals and other efforts to control invasive lionfish.

  14. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  15. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Angeler, David G.; Herrmann, Dustin L.; Stow, Craig A.; Nystrom, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E.; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  16. Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Glen, Alistair S; Nimmo, Dale G; Ritchie, Euan G; Dickman, Chris R

    2016-10-04

    Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally, and invasive mammalian predators are particularly damaging, having contributed to considerable species decline and extinction. We provide a global metaanalysis of these impacts and reveal their full extent. Invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal, and 10 reptile species extinctions-58% of these groups' contemporary extinctions worldwide. These figures are likely underestimated because 23 critically endangered species that we assessed are classed as "possibly extinct." Invasive mammalian predators endanger a further 596 species at risk of extinction, with cats, rodents, dogs, and pigs threatening the most species overall. Species most at risk from predators have high evolutionary distinctiveness and inhabit insular environments. Invasive mammalian predators are therefore important drivers of irreversible loss of phylogenetic diversity worldwide. That most impacted species are insular indicates that management of invasive predators on islands should be a global conservation priority. Understanding and mitigating the impact of invasive mammalian predators is essential for reducing the rate of global biodiversity loss.

  17. Will climate change promote future invasions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellard, Celine; Thuiller, Wilfried; Leroy, Boris; Genovesi, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion is increasingly recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Using ensemble forecasts from species distribution models to project future suitable areas of the 100 of the world's worst invasive species defined by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we show that both climate and land use changes will likely cause drastic species range shifts. Looking at potential spatial aggregation of invasive species, we identify three future hotspots of invasion in Europe, northeastern North America, and Oceania. We also emphasize that some regions could lose a significant number of invasive alien species, creating opportunities for ecosystem restoration. From the list of 100, scenarios of potential range distributions show a consistent shrinking for invasive amphibians and birds, while for aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates distributions are projected to substantially increase in most cases. Given the harmful impacts these invasive species currently have on ecosystems, these species will likely dramatically influence the future of biodiversity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 3D-CRT, Proton, or Brachytherapy APBI in Treating Patients With Invasive and Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Grade 1 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 2 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 3 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  19. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  20. Radiologic techniques in staging malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strijk, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the evaluation of radiologic techniques in staging patients with newly diagnosed and untreated malignant lymphoma, or restaging patients with recurrent disease after a period of complete remission. Lymphography and, more recently, CT are available to examine the infradiaphragmatic nodes. CT also offers the possibility to examine other organ systems in the abdomen, and to visualize more lymph-node regions than lymphography. In ch. 2 and 4 the diagnostic performance of CT and lymphography in HD and NHL respectively are discussed. Literature data are summarized, and own results are given. The main goal is to determine whether the two methods are overlapping, competitive or complementary, and to answer the question what would be required for optimal staging. Staging laparotomy showed the unreliability of non-invasive examination methods for determining the presence or absence of lymphoma in the spleen. In ch. 3 and 5 the results of CT-based estimations of size of the spleen in relation to its histologic state, in patients with HD and NHL respectively are presented. The chest can be examined for lymphoma by conventional radiography, conventional tomography or computed tomography (CT). In ch. 6 the literature is reviewed, and the results with our patients are presented. The diagnostic performance of each examination is evaluated, and the results are analysed to define the most desirable approach in the examination of the chest for staging purposes. In ch. 7 the uncommon radiologic observation of calcification in lymph nodes, afflicted with HD and NHL is described. The literature is reviewed, and the clinical significance is indicated. 180 refs.; 22 figs.; 24 tabs

  1. Health insurance and stage at diagnosis of laryngeal cancer: does insurance type predict stage at diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Amy Y; Schrag, Nicole M; Halpern, Michael; Stewart, Andrew; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2007-08-01

    To examine whether patients with no insurance or Medicaid are more likely to present with advanced-stage laryngeal cancer. Retrospective cohort study from the National Cancer Database, 1996-2003. Hospital-based practice. Patients with known insurance status diagnosed as having invasive laryngeal cancer at Commission on Cancer facilities (N = 61 131) were included. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models analyzed the likelihood of presenting at a more advanced stage. Overall stage of laryngeal cancer (early vs advanced) and tumor size (T stage) at diagnosis. Patients with advanced-stage laryngeal cancer at diagnosis were more likely to be uninsured (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-2.15) or covered by Medicaid (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 2.21-2.61) compared with those with private insurance. Similarly, patients were most likely to present with the largest tumors (T4 disease) if they were uninsured (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.60-3.28) or covered by Medicaid (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 3.56-4.34). Patients who were black, between ages 18 and 56 years, and who resided in zip codes with low proportions of high school graduates or low median household incomes were also more likely to be diagnosed as having advanced disease and/or larger tumors. Individuals lacking insurance or having Medicaid are at greatest risk for presenting with advanced laryngeal cancer. Results for the Medicaid group may be influenced by the postdiagnosis enrollment of uninsured patients. It is important to consider the impact of insurance coverage on stage at diagnosis and associated morbidity, mortality, quality of life, and costs.

  2. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  3. The valve of CT in diagnosing the invasive and non-invasive thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wenyan; Jiang Kuiming; Song Ting; Lin Wenjian; Chen Zhanhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To Study CT features of thymoma and its value in differentiating the invasive from non-invasive thymoma. Methods: CT findings of 17 cases with thymoma (11 non-invasive and 6 invasive) confirmed by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 11 cases were non-invasive thymoma. On CT, the tumors were round or oval in 6 cases, lobulate in 4 cases, and irregular in 1 case. The lesions showed homogeneous density and mild enhancement in 9 cases. 10 of them showed complete capsules without invasion. The mass-cardiovascular interface was: convex type in 5 cases, flat type in 3 cases and concave type in 2 cases. 6 cases were invasive thymoma, tumors were irregular and heterogeneous in 5 cases. Significant and inhomogeneous enhancement on post contrast CT was found. Conclusion: The CT features of thymoma was specific, and CT is of great value in differentiating the invasive from non-invasive thymoma. (authors)

  4. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBazzaz Pishtewan H

    2009-01-01

    The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations. (author)

  5. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bazzaz Pishtewan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations.

  6. Intracervical US with a high-frequency miniature probe: a method for diagnosing early invasive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, A; Okai, T; Kobayashi, K; Yoshikawa, H; Shiromizu, K; Matsuzawa, M; Taketani, Y

    1996-02-01

    To determine whether intracervical ultrasound (US) with a high-frequency miniature probe can depict cervical neoplasms, especially in early invasive stages. Forty-eight women with cervical cancer underwent preoperative transvaginal and intracervical US. US scans were compared with findings from histologic examination or surgery. Intracervical US was completed in 45 of the 48 patients. Both intracervical and transvaginal US were unable to depict preinvasive cancer. Intracervical US depicted the lesion in eight of 16 patients (50%) in whom the depth of cancer invasion was less than or equal to 5 mm, whereas transvaginal US failed to depict the lesion in all 16 patients. Intracervical US depicted the lesions in all 19 patients in whom the depth of cancer invasion was more than 5 mm, whereas transvaginal US was successful only in 14 (74%). Intracervical US is useful for evaluating invasive cervical cancer and is especially suitable for detecting early invasion in the endocervix.

  7. A subcontinental view of forest plant invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, considerable attention has focused on small-scale studies of invasive plants and invaded systems. Unfortunately, small scale studies rarely provide comprehensive insight into the complexities of biological invasions at macroscales. Systematic and repeated monitoring of biological invasions at broad scales are rare. In this report, we highlight a unique invasive plant database from the national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program of the United States Forest Service. We demonstrate the importance and capability of this subcontinental-wide database by showcasing several critical macroscale invasion patterns that have emerged from its initial analysis: (1 large portion of the forests systems (39% in the United States are impacted by invasive plants, (2 forests in the eastern United States harbor more invasive species than the western regions, (3 human land-use legacies at regional to national scales may drive large-scale invasion patterns. This accumulated dataset, which continues to grow in temporal richness with repeated measurements, will allow the understanding of invasion patterns and processes at multi-spatial and temporal scales. Such insights are not possible from smaller-scale studies, illustrating the benefit that can be gained by investing in the development of regional to continental-wide invasion monitoring programs elsewhere.

  8. Secretome signature of invasive glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formolo, Catherine A; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J; Lee, Norman H; Hathout, Yetrib

    2011-07-01

    The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times more invasive than U118 cells, suggesting that additional proteins secreted by U87 cells may contribute to the highly invasive phenotype. Indeed, we identified a number of proteins highly or exclusively expressed by U87 cells as compared to the less invasive cell lines. The most striking of these include ADAM9, ADAM10, cathepsin B, cathepsin L1, osteopontin, neuropilin-1, semaphorin-7A, suprabasin, and chitinase-3-like protein 1. U87 cells also expressed significantly low levels of some cell adhesion proteins such as periostin and EMILIN-1. Correlation of secretome profiles with relative levels of invasiveness using Pavlidis template matching further indicated potential roles for these proteins in U87 glioblastoma invasion. Antibody inhibition of CH3L1 reduced U87 cell invasiveness by 30%.

  9. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  10. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings.

  11. Invasive ductal carcinoma vs. invasive lobular carcinoma; mammographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Chun; Do, Young Soo; Oh, Hoon Il; Han, Yoon Hee; Kim, Ki Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate mammographic findings of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma(ILC) and to find differential points between the two. 239 patients, who underwent mammography prior to surgery and were proved to have IDC(patients) or ILC(15 patients) pathologically, were analized retrospectively. On mammogram, presence of mass and microcalcification were analized. When there was a mass on mammogram, lesion opacity was classified into high, equal, or low opacity and border of the mass was classified into spiculated, poorly marginated, and well-marginated. When there was no definite mass, mammographic findings were classifie into asymmetric opacity and no mass. Masses were observed in 168 patients(75%) of IDC and 12 patients(80%) of ILC. Border of the masses were spiculated(n=50, 22.3%), poorly marginated(n=112, 50%), or well-marginated(n=6, 2.7%) in patients with IDC. Spiculated and poorly marginated borders were observed in 8 patients(53.3%) and 4 patients(26.7%) respectively, in patients with ILC. Microcalcifications were seen in 88 patients(17.3%) of IDC and patients(33.3%) of ILC. Although equal or low opacities were observed more frequently in ILC and microcalcifications were noted more frequently in IDC, it was difficult to differentiate the two diseases based on mammographic findings

  12. Prevailing Trends in Haptic Feedback Simulation for Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, David; Byrns, Simon; Zheng, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Background The amount of direct hand-tool-tissue interaction and feedback in minimally invasive surgery varies from being attenuated in laparoscopy to being completely absent in robotic minimally invasive surgery. The role of haptic feedback during surgical skill acquisition and its emphasis in training have been a constant source of controversy. This review discusses the major developments in haptic simulation as they relate to surgical performance and the current research questions that remain unanswered. Search Strategy An in-depth review of the literature was performed using PubMed. Results A total of 198 abstracts were returned based on our search criteria. Three major areas of research were identified, including advancements in 1 of the 4 components of haptic systems, evaluating the effectiveness of haptic integration in simulators, and improvements to haptic feedback in robotic surgery. Conclusions Force feedback is the best method for tissue identification in minimally invasive surgery and haptic feedback provides the greatest benefit to surgical novices in the early stages of their training. New technology has improved our ability to capture, playback and enhance to utility of haptic cues in simulated surgery. Future research should focus on deciphering how haptic training in surgical education can increase performance, safety, and improve training efficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  14. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  15. Prognostic factors in Taiwanese patients with penile-invasive squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Hung Geng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwanese patients, carcinoma of the penis is an uncommon disease. We retrospectively reviewed potential prognostic factors in Taiwanese patients with invasive-penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. From 1997 to 2009, 52 patients were enrolled. The median patient age at diagnosis was 66.5 years and the peak incident occurred during the 6th and 7th decades of life. Thirteen patients (25% died of penile cancer, with a mean follow-up time of 45 months (interquartile range: 15–64 months. The 5-year cumulative cancer-specific survival rate was 81%, with 100% for those with Stage I, 90% for those with Stage II, 60% for those with Stage III, and 14% for those with Stage IV. Eleven variables, including grade, tumor, node, metastasis (TNM stage, involvement of corpus spongiosum or corpora cavernosa, lymphovascular or perineural invasion, lymphadenectomy, and palpable lymph node, with p < 0.05 using univariate analysis were chosen for multivariate regression analysis. Three of these potential prognostic factors, including histological grade, distant metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion, remained statistically significant. Our study is the first report using the latest TNM classification (2009 to determine these potential predictors with penile SCC in Taiwan.

  16. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, J.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France)]|[Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France); Visy, J.M. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Belin, C. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Gaston, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Henri-Mondor, Creteil (France); Goldlust, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Avicenne, Bobigny (France); Dumas, M. [Inst. of Tropical Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Limoges (France)

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow-up and staging by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, J.L.; Visy, J.M.; Belin, C.; Gaston, A.; Goldlust, D.; Dumas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the evolution of parenchymal cerebral cysticerci on MRI, to assess signs of early cyst degeneration. We studied 15 lesions in four treated and one untreated patient. MRI was performed before therapy and repeated in the 1st month after each course of anticysticercus drugs, every 4 months during the 1st year and then annually; the follow-up period was 8-48 months. Lesions were classified according to changes in four features: cyst content and capsule signal, gadolinium enhancement and oedema signal. We were able to recognise each of the pathological phases; five MRI stages were identified. Stage 1 showed oedema and/or nodular gadolinium enhancement in the tissue invasion phase; stage 2 was cerebrospinal fluid-like signal within a cyst in the vesicular phase; stage 3 showed a thick capsule with an impure liquid content signal and surrounding oedema, in the cystic phase; stage 4 showed the disappearance of the cyst fluid content signal in the degenerative phase; stage 5 showed a calcified lesion in the residual phase. Stage 1 lesions disappeared after therapy; the other progressed from one stage to another. Stage 4 indicated the end of viability of the parasite and determined the point after which treatment was useless. On T2-weighted images changes in the cyst content differed according to the history of the lesion; nodular low intensity followed the natural degeneration of the parasite and a mixed fluid signal with punctate low signal seemed to represent the specific result of therapy. MRI staging can help in the evaluation of indications for treatment and facilitate clinical therapeutic trials. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Visualizing the Early Stages of Phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidfarrokhi, Ali; Richina, Veronica; Tafesse, Fikadu G

    2017-02-03

    The mammalian body is equipped with various layers of mechanisms that help to defend itself from pathogen invasions. Professional phagocytes of the immune system - such as neutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophages - retain the innate ability to detect and clear such invading pathogens through phagocytosis 1 . Phagocytosis involves choreographed events of membrane reorganization and actin remodeling at the cell surface 2 , 3 . Phagocytes successfully internalize and eradicate foreign molecules only when all stages of phagocytosis are fulfilled. These steps include recognition and binding of the pathogen by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) residing at the cell surface, formation of phagocytic cup through actin-enriched membranous protrusions (pseudopods) to surround the particulate, and scission of the phagosome followed by phagolysosome maturation that results in the killing of the pathogen 3 , 4 . Imaging and quantification of various stages of phagocytosis is instrumental for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of this cellular process. The present manuscript reports methods to study the different phases of phagocytosis. We describe a microscope-based approach to visualize and quantify the binding, phagocytic cup formation, and the internalization of particulate by phagocytes. As phagocytosis occurs when innate receptors on phagocytic cells encounter ligands on a target particle bigger than 0.5 µm, the assays we present here comprise the use of pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and other particulates such as zymosan and IgG-coated beads.

  19. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  20. [Interactions between invasive plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan-fang; Guo, Shao-xia; Li, Min

    2011-09-01

    The invasion of invasive plants changes the biological community structure in their invaded lands, leading to the biodiversity loss. As an important component of soil microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystem, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can affect the growth performance of invasive plants. This kind of specific relations between AM fungi and invasive plants also implies that AM fungi can affect plant invasion. On the other hand, the invasion of invasive plants can affect the community structure and function of AM fungi. This paper summarized the species and harms of invasive plants in China, and discussed the relationships between AM fungi and invasive plants invasion, including the roles of AM fungi in the processes of invasive plants invasion, the effects of the invasion on AM fungi, and the interactive mechanisms between the invasion and AM fungi.

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound for staging of colonic cancer proximal to the rectum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of colonic cancer patients is highly dependent on the depth of tumor invasion (T-stage) as well as the extension of lymph node involvement (N-stage). We aimed to systematically review the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for staging of colonic cancer......, and EMBASE. RESULTS: Six studies were identified comparing EUS staging of colonic cancer to histopathology. The pooled-staging sensitivity and specificity were 0.90 and 0.98 for T1 tumors, 0.67 and 0.96 for T2 tumors, and 0.97 and 0.83 for T3/T4 tumors, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for N...... + disease were 0.59 and 0.78, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: EUS is a feasible method for T-staging of cancers of the colon proximal to the rectum. The accuracy of lymph node staging needs to be verified by prospective multicenter studies including larger patient populations....

  2. Invasive candidiasis and oral manifestations in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Araujo, José Endrigo; Araújo, Diana Ferreira Gadelha; Barbosa, Patrícia Gomes; Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Medeiros, Ana Myriam Costa de

    2013-01-01

    To investigate prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to evaluate oral diseases and Candida spp. colonization in low birth weight preterm newborns. A descriptive epidemiological study performed in two stages. First, prevalence of candidiasis was analyzed in a database of 295 preterm patients admitted to hospital for over 10 days and birth weight less than 2,000g. In the second stage, oral changes and Candida spp. colonization were assessed in 65 patients weighing less than 2,000g, up to 4 week-old, hospitalized for over 10 days and presenting oral abnormalities compatible with fungal lesions. Swab samples were collected in the mouth to identify fungi. Prevalence of candidiasis was 5.4% in the database analyzed. It correlated with prolonged hospital length of stay (poral mucosa and tongue. Intense oral colonization by Candida spp was observed (80%). The frequency of invasive candidiasis was low and correlated with low birth weight and prolonged hospital stay. The most common oral changes were white plaques compatible with pseudomembranous candidiasis and colonization by Candida spp. was above average.

  3. Tumor-associated macrophages: Oblivious confederates in invasive mammary carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The infiltrating margins of carcinomas are associated with presence of inflammatory cell infiltrate which are an integral part of the tumor microenvironment. Amongst the inflammatory cells, Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs play a key role in the tumorigenesis. This study elucidates the density of TAMs in invasive mammary carcinomas and attempts to establish aa association with the following pathological variables: tumor size, histological grade, nodal status, hormonal expression status and Her2Neu overexpression. Materials and Methods: 90 diagnosed archival cases of invasive mammary carcinomas at a tertiary care centre were included. Density of TAMs was assessed by using CD68 which is a pan-macrophage marker by immunohistochemistry on the archival tissue blocks. The density TAMs (CD68 positive cells was dichotomised into high (>50 CD68 positive cells/ HPF and low (<5050 CD68 positive cells/ HPF and compared with the above mentioned pathological variables using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The density of TAMs was significantly higher around the infiltrating edge of the carcinoma in comparison to the adjoining normal terminal duct lobular units. The density of TAMs was more in the infiltrating edge of the tumor than within the tumor nodule/nests. A higher TAM density showed a significant association in tumors having large tumor size, higher histological grade, nodal metastasis, absence of ER and PR expression and Her2Neu overexpression (p value <0.05. Conclusion: TAMs play an important role in tumor progression in invasive mammary carcinomas. This is as a result of the multiple roles enacted by TAMs in the various stages of tumor development starting from tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastases. Targeted therapy against TAMs has great potential in the being important components of future treatment strategies against breast carcinomas.

  4. The principles of cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, James; Gospodarowicz, Mary; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The anatomic disease extent or tumour stage of a cancer at diagnosis as a determinant of prognosis is discussed. The importance of cancer stage in individual patient prognosis and determination of treatment is reviewed as well as its value in research and cancer control activities. The conflict between the need for stability of cancer stage definitions over time and the need to evolve with advances in medicine are examined. The e cancer elearning modules on Cancer Stage are introduced.

  5. Survival in Operated Early and Local Advanced-Stage (IA-IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsuk Taylan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The early and local advanced stages (IA-IIIA of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC warrant the curative treatment approach of surgery. However, despite the surgical approach, survival depends on a number of factors. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that affect survival in operated NSCLC patients with these stages. Methods: A cohort of 231 operated patients with IA, IB, IIA, IIB, and IIIA stages of NSCLC were analyzed. The effects of age, sex, comorbidity, performance status, histopathology of the tumor, T stage, N stage, pleural invasion, surgical resection type and postoperative resection margin invasion on the survival of the patients were examined with Kaplan-Meier and Cox Regression analyses. Results: Advanced age (OR=1.042 for every passing year, CI=1.020-1.064, adenocarcinoma histopathology (OR=1.676 CI=1.178-2.384, N2 invasion (OR=2.389 CI=1.46-4.239, pleural invasion (OR=2.403 CI=1.569-3.678, resection margin invasion (OR=2.401, CI=1.141-5.048 and pneumonectomy as the type of surgical operation (OR=2.313, CI=1.467-3.647 were found to be independent prognostic factors of mortality. Conclusion: Follow-up of the NSCLC cases with advanced age, an adenocarcinoma type, visceral pleural invasion, N2-lymph node invasion, a history of pneumonectomy, and a resection margin invasion should be undertaken more atten­tively during planning of surgical operation and postoperative period. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (2: 125-133

  6. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steven I; Richardson, David M

    2014-07-22

    Invasive species cost the global economy billions of dollars each year, but ecologists have struggled to predict the risk of an introduced species naturalizing and invading. Although carefully designed experiments are needed to fully elucidate what makes some species invasive, much can be learned from unintentional experiments involving the introduction of species beyond their native ranges. Here, we assess invasion risk by linking a physiologically based species distribution model with data on the invasive success of 749 Australian acacia and eucalypt tree species that have, over more than a century, been introduced around the world. The model correctly predicts 92% of occurrences observed outside of Australia from an independent dataset. We found that invasiveness is positively associated with the projection of physiological niche volume in geographic space, thereby illustrating that species tolerant of a broader range of environmental conditions are more likely to be invasive. Species achieve this broader tolerance in different ways, meaning that the traits that define invasive success are context-specific. Hence, our study reconciles studies that have failed to identify the traits that define invasive success with the urgent and pragmatic need to predict invasive success.

  7. Secretome Signature of Invasive Glioblastoma Multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Formolo, Catherine A.; Williams, Russell; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Lee, Norman H.; Hathout, Yetrib

    2011-01-01

    The incurability of malignant glioblastomas is mainly attributed to their highly invasive nature coupled with resistance to chemo- and radiation therapy. Because invasiveness is partially dictated by the proteins these tumors secrete we used SILAC to characterize the secretomes of four glioblastoma cell lines (LN18, T98, U118 and U87). Although U87 and U118 cells both secreted high levels of well-known invasion promoting proteins, a Matrigel invasion assay showed U87 cells to be eight times m...

  8. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...... in response to growth temperature. Populations of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum from New Zealand, where the species is introduced and invasive, and from Denmark, where the species is native and non-invasive, were grown in a common garden setup at temperatures of 12, 18, 25 and 35 ◦C. We...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1...

  9. Comparison of the Invasion of Crete and the Proposed Invasion in Malta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kavanaugh, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    .... The invasion of Crete was executed from 20 May to 1 June 1941 with heavy German losses. The invasion of Malta never took place even though the senior military leaders in the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW...

  10. Citizen Science and Open Data: a Model for Invasive Alien Plant Species in Kenya's Northern Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirazodi, S.; Griffin, R.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Ouko, E.; Omondi, S.; Mugo, R. M.; Farah, H.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Adams, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Invasive species in African savannas pose great threat to the native biodiversity and changes ecosystem functioning. In the forest sector, for instance Acacia species are important sources of fuel-wood, yet at the same time they have increased strain on water resources and shrunken forage spaces for both livestock and wildlife. In recently infested regions, invasive species can progress through the stages of introduction, establishment and dispersal to a full range. Currently there is much worldwide interest in predicting distributions of invasive species, and several organizations are faced with questions of whether and how to tackle such environmental challenges, or how to interpret predictions from the science community. Conservation practioners require mapped estimates of where species could persist in a given region, and this is associated to information about the biotope - i.e. the geographic location of the species' niche. The process of collecting species distribution data for identifying the potential distribution of the invasive species in the invaded ranges has become a challenge both in terms of resource and time allocation. This study highlights innovative approaches in crowdsourcing validation data in mapping and modelling invasive species (Acacia reficiens and Cactus) through involvement of the local communities. The general approach was to model the distribution of A. reficiens and Cactus (Opuntia Spp) using occurrence records from native range, then project the model into new regions to assess susceptibility to invasion using climatic and topographic environmental variables. The models performed better than random prediction (P 0.75.

  11. CD207+/langerin positive dendritic cells in invasive and in situ cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dyduch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Dendritic cells are crucial for cutaneous immune response. Their role in melanoma progression is however a matter of controversy. Material and methods : The number of dendritic cells within epidermis and in peri- and intratumoral location was analyzed using CD207 immunostain in 17 cases of in situ and 25 case of invasive melanoma. Results : Average peritumoral CD207+ cells count was 22.88 for all cases, 17.94 for in situ lesions and 26.24 for invasive cases. Average epidermal CD207+ cells count was 164.47 for all cases, 183.00 for in situ lesions and 150.78 – for invasive cases. In case of invasive melanomas, peritumoral CD207+ cells count was positively correlated with Breslow stage (R = 0.59 mitotic activity within the tumor (R = 0.62. Invasive cases with regression showed higher intratumoral and epidermal CD207+ cells count than the ones without (275.00 vs. 95.32 and 173.20 vs. 148.35 but lower peritumoral CD207+ cells count (17.60 vs. 27.26. Invasive cases with ulceration showed higher intratumoral and peritumoral CD207+ cells count than the ones without ulceration (220.08 vs. 55.67 and 44.17 vs. 9.69. Conclusions : CD207+ cells play a role in both progression and regression of melanoma but their exact role needs further studies.

  12. Invasion speeds of Triatoma dimidiata, vector of Chagas disease: An application of orthogonal polynomials method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesk, Mohammed; Mahdjoub, Tewfik; Gourbière, Sébastien; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Menu, Frédéric

    2016-04-21

    Demographic processes and spatial dispersal of Triatoma dimidiata, a triatomine species vector of Chagas disease, are modeled by integrodifference equations to estimate invasion capacity of this species under different ecological conditions. The application of the theory of orthogonal polynomials and the steepest descent method applied to these equations, allow a good approximation of the abundance of the adult female population and the invasion speed. We show that: (1) under the same mean conditions of demography and dispersal, periodic spatial dispersal results in an invasion speed 2.5 times larger than the invasion speed when spatial dispersal is continuous; (2) when the invasion speed of periodic spatial dispersal is correlated to adverse demographic conditions, it is 34.7% higher as compared to a periodic dispersal that is correlated to good demographic conditions. From our results we conclude, in terms of triatomine population control, that the invasive success of T. dimidiata may be most sensitive to the probability of transition from juvenile to adult stage. We discuss our main theoretical predictions in the light of observed data in different triatomines species found in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer mutations using single molecule, third generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Russo

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study that applies the high read accuracy and depth of single molecule, real time, circular consensus sequencing (SMRT-CCS to the detection of mutations in stool DNA in order to provide a non-invasive, sensitive and accurate test for CRC. In stool DNA isolated from patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, we are able to detect mutations at frequencies below 0.5% with no false positives. This approach establishes a foundation for a non-invasive, highly sensitive assay to screen the population for CRC and the early stage adenomas that lead to CRC.

  14. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 14-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Byung Joo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of General Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Breast cancer is rare in children and adolescents. In particular, there are very few cases of invasive ductal carcinoma in childhood. We report a case of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 14-year-old girl presenting as a palpable mass. While the tumor demonstrated a relatively benign appearance on ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging revealed typical malignant features. Several polymorphisms of single nucleotide variation were observed on gene analysis. The patient underwent breast conserving surgery and received subsequent concurrent chemo-radiation therapy. An awareness that ductal carcinoma of the breast rarely occurs in children is important to detect early stage breast cancer. (orig.)

  15. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nortriptyline Hydrochloride Using Sudan II, IV and Black B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A S; Saleh, H M

    2017-08-17

    A simple spectrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in pure and in pharmaceuticalformulations based on the formation of ion-pair complexes with sudun II (S II ), sudan (IV) (S IV ) and sudan black B (S BB ). The selectivity of the method was improved through extraction with chloroform. The optimum conditions for complete extracted colour development were assessed. The absorbance measurements were made at 534, 596 and 649 nm for S II , S IV and S BB complexes, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the ranges 0.5- 280. 0.5- 37.5 and 0.5 - 31.0 μg ml -1 of the drug usiny the same reagents, respectively. The precision of the procedure was checked by calculating the relative standard deviation of ten replicate determinations on 15 μg ml -1 of nortriptyline HCI and was found to be 1.7, 1.3 and 1.55% using S II , S IV , and S BB complexes, respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity for each ion-pair were calculated. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the deterniination of pure nortriptyline HCI and in pharmaceutical formulations, and the results demonstrated that the method is equally accurate, precise and reproducible as the official method.

  16. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nortriptyline Hydrochloride Using Sudan II, IV and Black B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Amin

    2017-08-01

    formulations based on the formation of ion-pair complexes with sudun II (SII, sudan (IV (SIV and sudan black B (SBB. The selectivity of the method was improved through extraction with chloroform. The optimum conditions for complete extracted colour development were assessed. The absorbance measurements were made at 534, 596 and 649 nm for SII, SIV and SBB complexes, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the ranges 0.5- 280. 0.5- 37.5 and 0.5 – 31.0 μg ml−1 of the drug usiny the same reagents, respectively. The precision of the procedure was checked by calculating the relative standard deviation of ten replicate determinations on 15 μg ml−1 of nortriptyline HCI and was found to be 1.7, 1.3 and 1.55% using SII, SIV, and SBB complexes, respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity for each ion-pair were calculated. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the deterniination of pure nortriptyline HCI and in pharmaceutical formulations, and the results demonstrated that the method is equally accurate, precise and reproducible as the official method.

  17. Crystalline Nanosuspensions as Potential Toxicology and Clinical Oral Formulations for BCS II/IV Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Mitra, Amitava

    2012-01-01

    Nanosuspensions, formulations based on the reduction of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particle size in the sub-micron range and most typically around 100–200 nm, represent a valuable option for formulators to facilitate oral absorption of Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II and IV compounds. Their ability to increase the API dissolution rate and subsequent absorption and thus oral bioavailability has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical settings. This review ...

  18. Alabama invasive plant council: list of invasive plants by cultural use categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Nancy J. Loewenstein; Curtis J. Hansen

    2006-01-01

    Shortly after formation of the Alabama Invasive Plant Council (ALIPC) in 2003, a committee dedicated to assessment and listing of invasive plants was convened – the ALIPC Invasive Plant Listing Committee. Committee members were drawn from the wide diversity of expertise of the Council, which welcomes participation by all land-use and water-use managers, owners,...

  19. Comparative anatomy of invasive and non-invasive species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foliar and stem micromorphological study of the invasive and non-invasive species were undertaken using Light Microscope (LM). The occurrence of vessels in the pillar of the abundant sclerenchyma tissues are important component of the skeletal system in the invasive species. The prominent tiles of parenchymatous ...

  20. Invasion of a mined landscape: what habitat characteristics are influencing the occurrence of invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lemke; I.A. Tazisong; Y. Wang; J.A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, the invasion of alien plants is an increasing threat to native biodiversity. Invasion is especially prevalent in areas affected by land transformation and anthropogenic disturbance. Surface mines are a major disturbance, and thus may promote the establishment and expansion of invasive plant communities. Environmental and habitat factors that may...

  1. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. © 2015 Society for

  2. Evaluation of a prognostic model for risk of relapse in stage I seminoma surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    of 3 cm) was a predictor for relapse, HR 1.87 (95% CI 1.15, 3.06), whereas rete testis invasion HR 1.36, (95% CI 0.81, 2.28) was not statistically significant. The 3-year relapse risk based on the primary tumor size alone increased from 9% for 1 cm primary tumor to 26% for 8 cm tumor. A clinically...... useful, highly discriminating prognostic model remains elusive in stage I seminoma surveillance as we were unable to validate the previously developed model. However, primary tumor size retained prognostic importance and a scale of relapse risk based on the unit increment of tumor size was developed...... analyzed. Variables including age and pathology of the primary tumor: small vessel invasion, tumor size, and invasion of rete testis were analyzed. Specifically median tumor size and rete testis invasion was tested to evaluate the performance of the published model. Median follow-up was 3.85 years (0...

  3. Science on stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceri, Piera

    2017-04-01

    Pictures and diaries of the legendary Antarctic Expedition of sir E. Shackleton and his crew aboard the Endurance (1914/16) have become the starting point to learn about Natural Science, Earth Science and Climate Change. Students, 12 years old, were involved in hands on activities, took part to a network project, used interactive virtual labs, talked to university researchers on Skype and became the writers of a play. The theater was the place to act the story of Shackleton's expedition, to "stage" some scientific experiments and to tell to the audience about ice cores, climate change, physical and geographical characteristic of polar regions, thermal phenomena related to adaptations of polar animals, solar radiation at different latitude, day/night duration. The project was carried out from teachers of science, letters, geography and English in collaboration with the "Piccolo Teatro di Milano", the association "Scienza Under 18", researchers of the "Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center of Ohio State University" and of "M. Zucchelli Station" based in Antarctica. In our opinion drama activities improve both verbal and non-verbal communication skills and soft skills such as teamwork, responsibility and commitment. To be able to write and to act, students need a deep understanding of contents. To have an audience different from their own teachers and classmates and to interact with university researchers offer real tasks. The project aims to develop a relevant skill for the students: to become awareness citizens in a changing word.

  4. Science on stage

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  5. Minimally invasive surgery for stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunobe, Souya; Kumagai, Koshi; Ida, Satoshi; Ohashi, Manabu; Hiki, Naoki

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer has become extremely widespread in recent years especially in Asian countries due to its low invasiveness. As to evidence of indication for laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer, laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer often appears to be indicated for early gastric cancer at many institutions, while evidence was considered to be insufficient to recommend laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer at Stage II and above. There are also problems with indications for cases other than tumour factors. No meta-analyses and prospective studies have been reported, but outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer in gastric cancer patients with co-morbid and/or existing diseases have been reported in retrospective studies. Indications in the elderly appear to be favourable in terms of post-operative ambulation considering factors such as the degree of dissection in accordance with the status of the patient. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and several retrospective studies have compared the short-term usefulness of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer with that of conventional gastrectomy. The superiority of laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer has been reported in terms of the reduced amount of bleeding, a reduction in the administration frequency and period of analgesic doses, a reduction in the duration of fever, early recovery of intestinal movement and early return to oral intake. A small-scale randomized controlled trial and several retrospective studies have demonstrated no significant differences in survival rate, recurrence rate and type of recurrence between laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer and conventional gastrectomy. The results of the aforementioned trials in early gastric cancer in Japan and Korea for which enrolment is complete remain to be published. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Benefits of non invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, D; Kirpalani, H

    2004-10-01

    Mechanical ventilation of the newborn infant has increased neonatal survival. However, this increased survival has come at the expense of increased morbidity, in the form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and at the cost of an expensive technology. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is accepted as conferring clinical benefit in supporting the recently extubated preterm infant and in the management of apnea of prematurity. Attention is now being drawn to physiologic and clinical evidence to support CPAP use, with or without early surfactant, as a primary treatment of hyaline membrane disease. The purpose of this review is to explore these proposed benefits of non invasive ventilation and place them in the context of current clinical evidence.

  7. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  8. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  9. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  10. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  11. A minimally invasive smile enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive dentistry refers to a wide variety of dental treatments. On the restorative aspect of dental procedures, direct resin bonding can be a very conservative treatment option for the patient. When tooth structure does not need to be removed, the patient benefits. Proper treatment planning is essential to determine how conservative the restorative treatment will be. This article describes the diagnosis, treatment options, and procedural techniques in the restoration of 4 maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin. The procedural steps are reviewed with regard to placing the composite and the variety of colors needed to ensure a natural result. Finishing and polishing of the composite are critical to ending with a natural looking dentition that the patient will be pleased with for many years.

  12. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-05-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  13. Future strategies in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der; Witjes, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review new modalities in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of superficial and invasive bladder cancer are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Urinary markers still cannot replace cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder cancer. However, DNA micro-array has shown promise for diagnosis.

  14. Understanding macroscale invasion patterns and processes with FIA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Basil V. Iannone III; Christopher M. Oswalt; Qinfeng Guo; Kevin M. Potter; Sonja N. Oswalt; Bryan C. Pijanowski; Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir

    2015-01-01

    Using empirical data from FIA, we modeled invasion richness and invasion prevalence as functions of 22 factors reflective of propagule pressure and/or habitat invasibility across the continental US. Our statistical models suggest that both propagule pressure and habitat invasibility contribute to macroscale patterns of forest plant invasions. Our investigation provides...

  15. Thyroid gland invasion in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangussi-Gomes, João; Danelon-Leonhardt, Fernando; Moussalem, Guilherme Figner; Ahumada, Nicolas Galat; Oliveira, Cleydson Lucena; Hojaij, Flávio Carneiro

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx has the potential to invade the thyroid gland. Despite this risk, the proposition of either partial or total thyroidectomy as part of the surgical treatment of all such cases remains controversial. To evaluate the frequency of invasion of the thyroid gland in patients with advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma submitted to total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy and thyroidectomy; to determine whether clinic-pathological characteristics can predict glandular involvement. A retrospective case series with chart review, from January 1998 to July 2013, was undertaken in a tertiary care university medical center. An inception cohort of 83 patients with larynx/hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma was considered. All patients had advanced stage disease (clinically T3-T4) and underwent total laryngectomy or total pharyngolaryngectomy in association with thyroidectomy. Adjuvant therapy was indicated when tumor or neck conditions required. Frequency of thyroid cartilage invasion was calculated; univariate and multivariate analysis of demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics associated with cartilage invasion were performed. The overall frequency of invasion of the thyroid gland was 18.1%. Glandular involvement was associated with invasion of the following structures: anterior commissure (odds ratio=5.13; 95% confidence interval 1.07-24.5), subglottis (odds ratio=12.44; 95% confidence interval 1.55-100.00) and cricoid cartilage (odds ratio=15.95; 95% confidence interval 4.23-60.11). Invasion of the thyroid gland is uncommon in the context of laryngopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical and pathological features such as invasion of the anterior commissure, subglottis and cricoid cartilage are more associated with glandular invasion. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  16. Non-invasive index of liver fibrosis induced by alcohol, thioacetamide and schistosomal infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagy Doha M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non invasive approaches will likely be increasing utilized to assess liver fibrosis. This work provides a new non invasive index to predict liver fibrosis induced in mice. Methods Fibrosis was generated by thioacetamide (TAA, chronic intake of ethanol, or infection with S. mansoni in 240 mice. Both progression and regression of fibrosis (after treatment with silymarin and/or praziquantel were monitored. The following methods were employed: (i The METAVIR system was utilized to grade and stage liver inflammation and fibosis; (ii Determination of hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen; and (iii Derivation of a new hepatic fibrosis index from the induced changes, and its prospective validation in a group of 70 mice. Results The index is composed of 4 serum variable including total proteins, γ-GT, bilirubin and reduced glutathione (GSH, measured in diseased, treated and normal mice. These parameters were highly correlated with both the histological stage and the grade. They were combined in a logarithmic formula, which non-invasively scores the severity of liver fibrosis through a range (0 to 2, starting with healthy liver (corresponding to stage 0 to advanced fibrosis (corresponding stage 3.Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC for the accuracy of the index to predict the histological stages demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC were 0.954, 0.979 and 0.99 for index values corresponding to histological stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Also, the index was correlated with stage and grade, (0.947 and 0.859, respectively. The cut off values that cover the range between stages 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 are 0.4, 1.12 and 1.79, respectively. The results in the validation group confirmed the accuracy of the test. The AUROC was 0.869 and there was good correlation with the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. Conclusion The index fulfils the basic criteria of non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis since it is liver

  17. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  18. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero Fernandez, R.; Garcia Revillo, J.; Paez Moreno, J.; Zurera Tendero, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  19. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Pyšek, Petr; Bacher, S.; Carlton, J. T.; Duncan, R. P.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2011), s. 333-339 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0563; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : biological invasions * invasion process * general framework Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 15.748, year: 2011

  20. Principles for ecologically based invasive plant management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Brenda S. Smith; Edward A. Vasquez; Roger L. Sheley

    2010-01-01

    Land managers have long identified a critical need for a practical and effective framework for designing restoration strategies, especially where invasive plants dominate. A holistic, ecologically based, invasive plant management (EBIPM) framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes, and adaptive management into a successional...

  1. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jack Butler

    2008-01-01

    This electronic newsletter (Invasive Species Science Update) is published by the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Cross-Program, Interdisciplinary Project team on Invasive Species. This newsletter will be published 3 times per year and is intended to enhance communication among RMRS scientists, wildland managers, other partners, stakeholders, and customers about...

  2. Invasive Species Science Update (No. 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Fornwalt

    2013-01-01

    The sixth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update is now complete. Published approximately once per year, this newsletter keeps managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, and covers breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by...

  3. Book review: Encyclopedia of biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    Species introductions and consequent biotic invasions and homogenization are major components of global change that are drawing increasing concern and various levels of actions and reactions around the world. Invasion ecology has advanced rapidly during the last few decades, and the discipline is now increasingly integrated with the social and economic sciences. A...

  4. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  5. Domestic exotics and the perception of invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Robert Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility of an area to invasion by exotic species is often judged by the fraction of introduced species in the local biota. However, the degree of invasion, particularly in mainland areas, has often been underestimated because of the exclusion of ‘domestic exotics’ (those introduced to internal units from within the national border) in calculations. Because all...

  6. Impact of the invasive parasitic copepod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Bedolfe; Drent, J.; van der Meer, J.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect native species by modifying parasite–host dynamics and disease occurrence. This scenario applies to European coastal waters where the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) co-introduced the parasitic copepod Mytilicola orientalis that spills

  7. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their... primarily on invaders in the intermountain West. The meeting will focus on adapting management of invasive... ecology, climate change, land development, introduction pathways, and new invaders. ISAC will also consult...

  8. Invasive behaviour and depolarization effect of Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a constitutive calcium dependent NOS and that of an inducible NOS activated by LPS. Ours results also suggest that P. fluorescens cytotoxicity and invasion are not mutually exclusive events. Key Words: Cytotoxicity, Lipopolysaccharide, Patch-clamp, Invasion, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol.

  9. When can efforts to control nuisance and invasive species backfire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, E.F.; Kraft, C.E.; Cooch, E.G.; Sullivan, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Population control through harvest has the potential to reduce the abundance of nuisance and invasive species. However, demographic structure and density-dependent processes can confound removal efforts and lead to undesirable consequences, such as overcompensation (an increase in abundance in response to harvest) and instability (population cycling or chaos). Recent empirical studies have demonstrated the potential for increased mortality (such as that caused by harvest) to lead to overcompensation and instability in plant, insect, and fish populations. We developed a general population model with juvenile and adult stages to help determine the conditions under which control harvest efforts can produce unintended outcomes. Analytical and simulation analyses of the model demonstrated that the potential for overcompensation as a result of harvest was significant for species with high fecundity, even when annual stage-specific survivorship values were fairly low. Population instability as a result of harvest occurred less frequently and was only possible with harvest strategies that targeted adults when both fecundity and adult survivorship were high. We considered these results in conjunction with current literature on nuisance and invasive species to propose general guidelines for assessing the risks associated with control harvest based on life history characteristics of target populations. Our results suggest that species with high per capita fecundity (over discrete breeding periods), short juvenile stages, and fairly constant survivorship rates are most likely to respond undesirably to harvest. It is difficult to determine the extent to which overcompensation and instability could occur during real-world removal efforts, and more empirical removal studies should be undertaken to evaluate population-level responses to control harvests. Nevertheless, our results identify key issues that have been seldom acknowledged and are potentially generic across taxa

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging for the treatment planning in invasive of the cervix in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, G.; Bidzinski, M.; Krynicki, R.; Sobiczewski, P.; Ceran, A.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the planning of optimal treatment- radiotherapy or radical surgery in pregnant patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Material and methods. Four patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix in pregnancy underwent MRI for evaluation of the tumor extent with an emphasis on parametrial invasion and pelvic lymph node metastases. In all 4 patients the diagnosis of carcinoma of the cervix was established in the first trimester of pregnancy. Clinical stage I B was confirmed in two patients, II B in one patient and I A in one patient. The first patient with stage I B disease was treated with radical Wertheim 's hysterectomy. The second patient with stage I B was found inoperable due to bladder involvement not revealed by the MRI. This patient was subsequently treated with radiotherapy. The microscopic examination confirmed deep infiltration of the cervical stroma as detected by preoperative MRI in the radically operated case and the presence of metastases to the pelvic nodes in both patients, also detected by MRI. The third patient with stage IIB disease was treated with external beam irradiation to the pelvis and intracavitary brachytherapy. In the course of follow-up ranging from 9 to 35 months one patient recurred in the paraaortic region and was subsequently treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. MRI is a useful tool for noninvasive staging of pregnant patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix. All data suggesting a subclinical spread of the tumor outside the cervix may be helpful in selecting the optimal method of treatment. (author)

  11. Minimally invasive surgical treatment for temporomandibular joint in patients with various rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Drobyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint (TMJ involvement occurs in patients with different rheumatic diseases (RDs. Pain, limitation of mouth opening can lead to significant problems in both oral hygiene and when eating. Conservative treatments for TMJ lesions are not always effective. Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of minimally invasive surgical interventions (TMJ arthrocentesis and arthroscopy in patients with RDs. Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 64 patients with different RDs (43 with rheumatoid arthritis, 11 with psoriatic arthritis, 8 with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 2 with ankylosing spondylitis who were divided into three groups in relation to the severity of TMJ involvement in accordance with the Wilkes classification. All the patients underwent TMJ magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 6 months after treatment. Also at baseline, 14 days, and 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery, the investigators assessed TMJ pain intensity by visual analogue scale and the parameters of mandibular movements. Patients with Wilkes stages IV and V TMJ involvement underwent arthroscopic intervention into the TMJ and those with III stage received TMJ arthrocentesis with arthrolavage. Results and discussion. After surgical treatment, all the groups were noted to have a significant decrease in TMJ pain intensity compared with the baseline level; moreover, the severity of TMJ pain most significantly decreased on day 7 after surgery. Later on, positive changes remained within subsequent follow-up months. There were data similar in the higher degree of mouth opening. The results of surgical treatment in patients with Wilkes stage V TMJ involvement were worse than in those with stages III and IV. Conclusion. Minimally invasive TMJ surgery in patients with RDs is effective and associated with the low frequency of postoperative complications and exacerbations of RDs. The efficiency of minimally invasive TMJ surgery is higher in patients with the

  12. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its...... rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus....... We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus...

  13. HYAL-1 Hyaluronidase: A Potential Prognostic Indicator for Progression to Muscle Invasion and Recurrence in Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Mario W.; Golshani, Roozbeh; Merseburger, Axel S.; Knapp, Judith; Garcia, Alfredo; Hennenlotter, Joerg; Duncan, Robert C.; Soloway, Mark S.; Jorda, Merce; Kuczyk, Marcus A.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Lokeshwar, Vinata B

    2009-01-01

    Background For bladder cancer (BCa) patients undergoing bladder-sparing treatments, molecular markers may aid in accurately predicting progression to muscle invasion and recurrence. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan that promotes tumor metastasis. Hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL-1)–type hyaluronidase (HAase) promotes tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis. Urinary HA and HAase levels are diagnostic markers for BCa. Objective We evaluated whether HA and HYAL-1 can predict progression to muscle invasion and recurrence among patients with non–muscle-invasive BCa. Design, setting, and participants Based on tissue availability, tissue microarrays were prepared from a cohort of 178 BCa specimens (144 non–muscle invasive, 34 muscle invasive). Follow-up information was available on 111 patients with non–muscle-invasive BCa (mean follow-up: 69.5 mo); 58 patients recurred and 25 progressed to muscle invasion (mean time to progress: 22.3 mo). Measurements HA and HYAL-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and graded for intensity and area of staining. Association of HA and HYAL-1 staining with BCa recurrence and muscle invasion was evaluated by univariate and multivariate models. Results and limitations HA and HYAL-1 expression correlated with tumor grade, stage, and multifocality (p < 0.05). In non–muscle-invasive BCa specimens, HYAL-1 staining was higher (234.3 ± 52.2; 200.6 ± 61.4) if patients experienced progression to muscle invasion or recurrence when compared with no progression or recurrence (164.1 ± 48.2; 172.1 ± 57; p < 0.001). HA staining correlated with muscle invasion (p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), multifocality (p = 0.023), and HYAL-1 staining (p < 0.001) correlated with muscle invasion, whereas only HYAL-1 correlated with recurrence (p = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, significantly associated with muscle invasion (p < 0.001; 76.8% accuracy) and recurrence (p = 0.01; 67.8% accuracy). Conclusions

  14. Diagnostic value of computed tomography in the colon cancer; In terms of the staging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Mi; Moon, Jang Ho; Lee, Dong Joong; Choi, Chul Soon; Kang, Ik Won; Chung, Soo Young; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sub

    1989-01-01

    The CT findings of thirty-three patients with proven colon cancer were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The accuracy for detecting pericolic fat invasion on CT was 81%. 2. The accuracy for detecting lymph node involvement on CT was 67%. 3. The overall accuracy for staging of colon cancer on CT was 64%(67% for stage A, 30% for stage B, 60% for stage C, 100% for stage D). 4. The overall detection rate of mass on CT was 80%(89% for rectum, 100% for rectosigmoid colon and sigmoid colon, 30% for ascending and transverse colon). 5. The CT is useful, noninvasive technique for assessing extension and staging of colon cancer

  15. Codling moth establishment in China: stages of invasion and potential future distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central ...

  16. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  17. Loss of KCNQ1 expression in stage II and stage III colon cancer is a strong prognostic factor for disease recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uil, Sjoerd H; Coupé, Veerle M H; Linnekamp, Janneke F; van den Broek, Evert; Goos, Jeroen A C M; Delis-van Diemen, Pien M; Belt, Eric J Th; van Grieken, Nicole C T; Scott, Patricia M; Vermeulen, Louis; Medema, Jan Paul; Bril, Herman; Stockmann, Hein B A C; Cormier, Robert T; Meijer, Gerrit A; Fijneman, Remond J A

    2016-12-06

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurately identifying stage II CRC patients at risk for recurrence is an unmet clinical need. KCNQ1 was previously identified as a tumour suppressor gene and loss of expression was associated with poor survival in patients with CRC liver metastases. In this study the prognostic value of KCNQ1 in stage II and stage III colon cancer patients was examined. KCNQ1 mRNA expression was assessed in 90 stage II colon cancer patients (AMC-AJCCII-90) using microarray gene expression data. Subsequently, KCNQ1 protein expression was evaluated in an independent cohort of 386 stage II and stage III colon cancer patients by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays. Low KCNQ1 mRNA expression in stage II microsatellite stable (MSS) colon cancers was associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.025). Loss of KCNQ1 protein expression from epithelial cells was strongly associated with poor DFS in stage II MSS (PKCNQ1 seemed an independent prognostic value in addition to other high-risk parameters like angio-invasion, nodal stage and microsatellite instability-status. We conclude that KCNQ1 is a promising biomarker for prediction of disease recurrence and may aid stratification of patients with stage II MSS colon cancer for adjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  19. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  20. What makes the plant invasion possible? Paradigm of invasion mechanisms, theories and attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasion is the second most severe threat to biodiversity after habitat fragmentation. Invasive species are alien species whose introduction and spread threatens ecosystems, habitats or species with socio-cultural, economic and/or environmental harm, and harm to human health. Present review precisely describes the global problems of invasion in different ecosystems, continents and its multifaceted impacts. Plant invasion is now increasingly being recognized as global problem and various continents are adversely affected, although to a differential scale. Quest for the ecological mechanism lying behind the success of invasive species over native species has drawn the attention of researches worldwide particularly in context of diversity-stability relationship. Transport, colonization, establishment and landscape spread may be different steps in success of invasive plants and each and every step is checked through several ecological attributes. Further, several ecological attribute and hypothesis (enemy release, novel weapon, empty niche, evolution of increased competitive ability etc. were proposed pertaining to success of invasive plant species. However, single theory will not be able to account for invasion success among all environments as it may vary spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to formulate a sustainable management plan for invasive plants, it is necessary to develop a synoptic view of the dynamic processes involved in the invasion process. Moreover, invasive species can act synergistically with other elements of global change, including land-use change, climate change, increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen deposition. Henceforth, a unified framework for biological invasions that reconciles and integrates the key features of the most commonly used invasion frame-works into a single conceptual model that can be applied to all human-mediated invasions.

  1. Dynamics of Sleep Stage Transitions in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Akifumi; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-07-01

    Sleep dynamics emerges from complex interactions between neuronal populations in many brain regions. Annotated sleep stages from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings could potentially provide a non-invasive way to obtain valuable insights into the mechanisms of these interactions, and ultimately into the very nature of sleep regulation. However, to date, sleep stage analysis has been restricted, only very recently expanding the scope of the traditional descriptive statistics to more dynamical concepts of the duration of and transitions between vigilance states and temporal evaluation of transition probabilities among different stages. Physiological and/or pathological implications of the dynamics of sleep stage transitions have, to date, not been investigated. Here, we study detailed duration and transition statistics among sleep stages in healthy humans and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, known to be associated with disturbed sleep. We find that the durations of waking and non-REM sleep, in particular deep sleep (Stages III and IV), during the nighttime, follow a power-law probability distribution function, while REM sleep durations follow an exponential function, suggestive of complex underlying mechanisms governing the onset of light sleep. We also find a substantial number of REM to non-REM transitions in humans, while this transition is reported to be virtually non-existent in rats. Interestingly, the probability of this REM to non-REM transition is significantly lower in the patients than in controls, resulting in a significantly greater REM to awake, together with Stage I to awake, transition probability. This might potentially account for the reported poor sleep quality in the patients because the normal continuation of sleep after either the lightest or REM sleep is disrupted. We conclude that the dynamical transition analysis of sleep stages is useful for elucidating yet-to-be-determined human sleep regulation mechanisms with a

  2. ALEX index enables detection of alien macroalgae invasions across habitats within a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, L; Gennaro, P; Atzori, F; Cadoni, N; Cinti, M F; Frau, F; Ceccherelli, G

    2018-03-01

    A modified version of the ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) has been recently proposed to evaluate biological invasions in macroalgal assemblages. ALEX was applied in a Marine Protected Area where a recreational-fishing port is present testing the following hypotheses: ALEX increases with the distance from the port, it changes between the two directions off the port and it changes among three different habitats: Cystoseira beds, algal turf and dead matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. A total of 78 native macroalgal taxa and 4 introduced species were found, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa cylindracea and the Rhodophyta Apoglossum gregarium, Acrothamnion preissii and Womersleyella setacea. All study sites were in high quality status highlighting that the assemblages investigated were at an early stage of NIS invasion. However, ALEX detected different values among conditions and habitats within the MPA, suggesting a local dynamics of NIS spread and different resistance to invasion of the investigated habitats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L; Carter, Anthony Michael

    2011-01-01

    . The availability of two well-documented pregnant chimpanzee uteri in the Hubrecht Collection (Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin) allowed us to evaluate the extent of trophoblast invasion in this species. By adjusting currently used protocols, we obtained successful immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin and α...... to begin at a different gestational age in the chimpanzee. In the later specimen endovascular trophoblast was associated with spiral artery remodelling in the inner myometrium, and this invasion was extended to include a radial artery, which at that stage still showed relatively intact vascular smooth...... muscle and elastic lamina. We conclude that invasion depth and spiral artery remodelling are basically similar in chimpanzees and humans, although the seemingly different time of onset may have implications for uteroplacental oxygen supply and fetal development....

  4. [History and development trend of minimally invasive techniques for gastric cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiwu; Hao, Yingxue

    2016-08-25

    Laparoscopic gastrectomy is one of the main directions of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer. Since 1999, the first laparoscopic gastrectomy was reported, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer in China has undergone three stages: initial exploration period, rapid development period and gradual maturation period. The hospitals which performed laparoscopic gastrectomy and the reported cases have been increasing, at the same time the clinical efficacy is satisfied. However, there is still lack of standard and insufficient evidence in the treatment of gastric cancer by laparoscopic gastrectomy. The 3D laparoscopic and robotic gastrectomies still can not be performed in the most hospitals in China. So we should strengthen the standardization training of laparoscopic gastrectomy, develop the evidence-based medical research, promote the 3D laparoscopic and robotic gastrectomies to enhance the level of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer.

  5. TRPV2 mediates adrenomedullin stimulation of prostate and urothelial cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Oulidi

    Full Text Available Adrenomedullin (AM is a 52-amino acid peptide initially isolated from human pheochromocytoma. AM is expressed in a variety of malignant tissues and cancer cell lines and was shown to be a mitogenic factor capable of stimulating growth of several cancer cell types. In addition, AM is a survival factor for certain cancer cells. Some data suggest that AM might be involved in the progression cancer metastasis via angiogenesis and cell migration and invasion control. The Transient Receptor Potential channel TRPV2 is known to promote in prostate cancer cell migration and invasive phenotype and is correlated with the stage and grade of bladder cancer. In this work we show that AM induces prostate and urothelial cancer cell migration and invasion through TRPV2 translocation to plasma membrane and the subsequent increase in resting calcium level.

  6. Recent research findings on non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Qiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of liver fibrosis and dynamic monitoring of relevant changes have great implications for the treatment and prognosis improvement of chronic liver diseases. So far, liver biopsy remains the “golden standard” for the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis. However, due to its inherent limitations, a great effort has been made to develop more accurate non-invasive diagnostic methods, including serum fibrosis markers and mathematical models, ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, ultrasonic elastography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine. The advantages and disadvantages of relevant methods are discussed. Furthermore, proper selection of the non-invasive diagnostic methods for clinical application and the means for mutual verification are analyzed. As for the future direction, it is expected to employ the above methods for combined analysis and comprehensive assessment, in order to enhance the clinical value of non-invasive liver fibrosis diagnosis.

  7. Invasive aspergillosis in two patients with Pearson syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.; Barton, R.C.; Crabbe, D.C.G.; Evans, E.G.V.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a serious opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised host. In the pediatric population invasive aspergillosis is seen predominantly in patients with hematologic malignancie, chronic granullamotous disease (CGD) and AIDS. Invasive aspergillosis carries a high case

  8. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  9. Carcinoma of the cervix: Staging with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggenspack, G.A.; Amparo, E.G.; Fagan, C.J.; Hannigan, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    Forty MR imaging examinations in 38 patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were retrospectively evaluated and compared with clinical and surgical findings for staging. There was poor correlation between loss of fat planes and extension of tumor into the rectum or bladder, and it was impossible to differentiate bladder edema from direct invasion. MR imaging underestimated parametrial and pelvic sidewall extension when compared with physical exam under anesthesia. MR imaging was useful in the direct demonstration of a cervical mass and in detecting enlarged pelvic nodes

  10. Efficiency of Staging Work-Ups in the Evaluation of Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Ha, Sung Whan

    1991-01-01

    A series of 510 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix given the curative radiation therapy from March 1979 through December 1986 was evaluated to determine the value of intravenous pyelography(IVP), cystoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and abdomino-pelvic CT as staging work-up prior to treatment. On IVP and cystoscopy, 10.7%(49/456) and 5/3%(24/452) showed abnormality, respectively, but only 0.7% (3/413) did on signoidoscopy. As a result of these work-ups prerequisite to FIGO staging, twenty six (5.1%) out of 510 patients were upstaged from the stage determined by the findings of physical examination alone. The proportions of upstaging in each stage were as follows none in stage IB(35), IIA (89) and IIIA(8), 7.9%(20/252) in stage IIB(14 patients to FIGO Stage IIIB, 6 patients to FIGO stage IVA), and 4.8% (6/126) in stage IIIB (all to FIGO stage IVA). Positive findings of staging work-ups were found only in patients with advanced stages of stage IIB or over determined by physical examination alone but not in those with earlier stages. CT was performed in 337 patients. CT detected pelvic lymph node (LN) enlargement in 25.2% (85/337) and paraaortic LN enlargement in 7.4% (25/337). Pelvic LN positivity was well correlated with increasing stage but paraaortic LN positivity was not. In the evaluation of parametrial involvement, CT findings were in accordance with those of physical examination only in 65.6%(442/674). When compared with endoscopic studies, CT had much lower positive predictive value than negative predictive value in the evaluation of adjacent organ invasion. The staging work-ups should be individualized by the disease extent of each patient, and then the efficiency of work-ups may be increased without compromising the appropriate FIGO staging and treatment

  11. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  12. Prognostic value of WHO histological and Masaoka clinical stage in postoperative radiotherapy for thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongxuan; Lu Changxing; Liu Jun; Wang Jiaming; Guo Jindong; Wang Changlu; Gao Lanting

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic significance of WHO histological subtype and Masaoka clinical stage in postoperative radiotherapy for thymoma. Methods: Between October 2000 and December 2006, 94 eligible patients with thymoma were retrospectively analyzed, including 40 male and 54 female. The median age was 46 years. The WHO histological subtypes were type AB in 3 patients, type B 1 in 7, type B 2 in 22, type B 3 44, and type C in 18. The Masaoka clinical staging was stage I in 9 patients, stage II in 36, stage III in 38, and stage IV in 11. All patients received conventional radiotherapy after thymoma resection. The median dose was 5442 cGy (4011-6213 cGy). Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rate, and correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between WHO histological subtype and Masaoka clinical stage. Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: The follow-up rate was 91%, with a 5-year follow-up in 31 patients. The 5-year overall survival rate was 72%. According to Masaoka staging system, the 5-year survival rates of stage I, II, III and IV were 100 %, 83%, 66% and 36%, respectively. In patients with WHO type AB, B 1 , B 2 , B 3 and C, the 5-year survival rates were 100%, 86%, 76%, 67% and 44%, respectively. There was a correlation between WHO histological subtype and Masaoka clinical stage (r=0.614, P=0.000). In multivariate analysis, WHO histological subtype, resection completeness and capsule invasion were independent prognostic factors for long-term survival. Conclusions: Masaoka clinical stage, WHO histological subtype, resection completeness and capsule invasion are important prognostic factors for long-term survival in patients with thymoma after surgery. There is a certain correlation between WHO histological subtype and Masaoka clinical stage, and their combination is valuable for guiding postoperative treatment in thymoma. (authors)

  13. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  14. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-05

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  15. Assessing biofuel crop invasiveness: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Evan Buddenhagen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the "polluter-pays" principle.

  16. Non invasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A non-invasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present non-invasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45 degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (male and female) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the non-invasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, non-invasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and characterization of a novel Plasmodium falciparum adhesin involved in erythrocyte invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Hans

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide. All clinical symptoms of malaria are attributed to the asexual blood stages of the parasite life cycle. Proteins resident in apical organelles and present on the surface of P. falciparum merozoites are considered promising candidates for the development of blood stage malaria vaccines. In the present study, we have identified and characterized a microneme associated antigen, PfMA [PlasmoDB Gene ID: PF3D7_0316000, PFC0700c]. The gene was selected by applying a set of screening criteria such as transcriptional upregulation at late schizogony, inter-species conservation and the presence of signal sequence or transmembrane domains. The gene sequence of PfMA was found to be conserved amongst various Plasmodium species. We experimentally demonstrated that the transcript for PfMA was expressed only in the late blood stages of parasite consistent with a putative role in erythrocyte invasion. PfMA was localized by immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy to be in the micronemes, an apical organelle of merozoites. The functional role of the PfMA protein in erythrocyte invasion was identified as a parasite adhesin involved in direct attachment with the target erythrocyte. PfMA was demonstrated to bind erythrocytes in a sialic acid independent, chymotrypsin and trypsin resistant manner and its antibodies inhibited P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion. Invasion of erythrocytes is a complex multistep process that involves a number of redundant ligand-receptor interactions many of which still remain unknown and even uncharacterized. Our work has identified and characterized a novel P. falciparum adhesin involved in erythrocyte invasion.

  18. Stage-associated overexpression of the ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JB; Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Borden, EC

    2006-01-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent malignancies, and is characterised by frequent tumour recurrences and localised inflammation, which may promote tissue invasion and metastasis. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in normal bladder urothelium with that in tumours...... at different stages of progression. The innate immune response gene, interferon-stimulated gene 15 kDa (ISG15, GIP2), was highly expressed at all stages of bladder cancer as compared to normal urothelium. Western blotting revealed a tumour-associated expression of ISG15 protein. ISG15 exhibited a stage...... component of bladder cancer-associated gene expression....

  19. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  20. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix stage IB and early stage II. Prognostic value of the histological tumor regression after initial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, G.; Le Floch, O.; Chauvet, B.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P.

    1989-01-01

    In our center limited centro pelvic invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix (less than 4 cm) are treated with brachytherapy and surgery. With these therapeutic modalities no residual carcinoma was observed for 80% of the patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our results with this treatment, and to evaluate the prognostic value of the pathological status of the cervix. From 1976 to 1987 we have treated 115 patients with these modalities. Staging system used was the FIGO classification modified for Stage II (divided in early Stage II and late Stage II). Patients were Stage IB (70 cases) and early Stage II (45 cases); 60 Gy were delivered with utero vaginal brachytherapy before any treatment. Six weeks later a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Twenty-one patients with positive nodes received a pelvic radiotherapy (45 to 55 Gy). Local control rate was 97% (100% for Stage IB and 93% for early Stage II). Uncorrected 10-year actuarial survival rate was 96% for Stage IB and 80% for early Stage II patients. No treatment failure was observed for Stage IB patients. Ninety-two patients (80%) had no residual carcinoma in the cervix (group 1) and 23 patients (20%) had a residual tumor (group 2). The sterilization rate of the cervix was 87% for Stage IB tumors versus 69% for early Stage II, and was 82% for N- patients versus 68% for N+ patients. Ten year actuarial survival rate was 92% for group 1 and 78% for group 2 (p = 0, 1). Grade 3 complications rate was 6%. We conclude that brachytherapy + surgery is a safe treatment for limited centro pelvic carcinomas of the uterine cervix (especially Stage IB) and that pathological status of the cervix after brachytherapy is not a prognostic factor

  1. Uterine cervical cancer. Preoperative staging with magnetic resonance imaging; Zervixkarzinom. Praeoperatives Staging mittels Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collettini, F.; Hamm, B. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma is largely dependent on the tumor stage. Despite significant inaccuracies in the clinical examination, uterine cervical cancer remains the only gynecological form of cancer still largely staged according to clinical findings. Although imaging is still not included in the staging the recently published revised FIGO (Federation International de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique) system encourages the use of modern cross-sectional imaging (magnetic resonance imaging MRI and computed tomography CT). Due to its high soft tissue contrast MRI allows excellent non-invasive assessment of the cervix with direct tumor delineation as well as assessment of the prognosis based on morphological factors. Studies in the literature report an accuracy of 93% for MRI in the preoperative assessment of tumor size and in the differentiation of operable from advanced cervical cancer. Therefore MRI is considered to be the optimal modality for diagnostic evaluation starting from FIGO stage IB1, for radiation therapy planning, and for exclusion of recurrence in follow-up. In this paper we give an overview of the role of magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative staging of uterine cervical cancer. (orig.) [German] Die Therapieplanung beim Zervixkarzinom ist weitgehend von der Stadieneinteilung nach FIGO (Federation International de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique) abhaengig, die trotz erheblicher Ungenauigkeiten bei der klinischen Stadieneinteilung weiterhin aufgrund klinischer Untersuchungsbefunde erfolgt. Obwohl bildgebende Verfahren nach wie vor fuer die Stadieneinteilung nicht vorgesehen sind, wird im kuerzlich erschienen revidierten Stagingsystem der FIGO zum ersten Mal die Verwendung moderner Schnittbilddiagnostik (MRT und CT) befuerwortet. Die MRT ermoeglicht dank ihres hohen Weichteilkontrasts ein ausgezeichnetes nichtinvasives Staging des Zervixkarzinoms mit direkter Tumordarstellung sowie einer Prognoseabschaetzung anhand

  2. Invasion exponents in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Gundlach, Volker Matthias; Ochs, Gunter

    2009-03-01

    This article is concerned with the characterization of invasion exponents in biological networks defined by a population of replicating elements: molecules, cells, higher organisms. We show that the outcome of competition between an invader and a resident population is a stochastic process, determined by the rate at which a population returns to its steady state after a random perturbation in the parameters that characterize the replicating elements. This return rate is defined by the macroscopic parameter evolutionary entropy, a measure of the diversity of the interaction between the individuals in the population. We also show that the evolutionary stability of a population, that is the invulnerability of a resident to the introduction of an invader competing for the available resources, are given by extremal states of entropy. These results which pertain to networks of interacting molecules, cells and higher organisms, are generalizations of results established for demographic networks, that is populations of replicating organisms parametrized by the ages at which they reproduce and die.

  3. Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palep Jaydeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "robot" was coined by the Czech playright Karel Capek in 1921 in his play Rossom′s Universal Robots. The word "robot" is from the check word robota which means forced labor.The era of robots in surgery commenced in 1994 when the first AESOP (voice controlled camera holder prototype robot was used clinically in 1993 and then marketed as the first surgical robot ever in 1994 by the US FDA. Since then many robot prototypes like the Endoassist (Armstrong Healthcare Ltd., High Wycombe, Buck, UK, FIPS endoarm (Karlsruhe Research Center, Karlsruhe, Germany have been developed to add to the functions of the robot and try and increase its utility. Integrated Surgical Systems (now Intuitive Surgery, Inc. redesigned the SRI Green Telepresence Surgery system and created the daVinci Surgical System ® classified as a master-slave surgical system. It uses true 3-D visualization and EndoWrist ® . It was approved by FDA in July 2000 for general laparoscopic surgery, in November 2002 for mitral valve repair surgery. The da Vinci robot is currently being used in various fields such as urology, general surgery, gynecology, cardio-thoracic, pediatric and ENT surgery. It provides several advantages to conventional laparoscopy such as 3D vision, motion scaling, intuitive movements, visual immersion and tremor filtration. The advent of robotics has increased the use of minimally invasive surgery among laparoscopically naοve surgeons and expanded the repertoire of experienced surgeons to include more advanced and complex reconstructions.

  4. Impact of a prior diagnosis of DCIS on survival from invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-07-01

    A diagnosis of invasive breast cancer after DCIS can be described as a new primary cancer or as a local invasive recurrence. It is of interest to determine if, among women with early-stage breast cancer, a past history of DCIS influences survival. We retrieved the records of 306,249 women diagnosed with stage I or stage II breast cancer between 2004 and 2012, in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results registries database, of whom 5395 had a previous diagnosis of DCIS. For each patient, we extracted information on the year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, grade, estrogen receptor status, type of surgery (lumpectomy/mastectomy), use of radiotherapy (no/yes), prior DCIS (no/yes), cause of death, and follow-up time. For each case with prior DCIS, we recorded information on the year of diagnosis of DCIS, laterality of DCIS, and treatments received for DCIS. We matched 3979 patients with a prior DCIS to 3979 patients without a prior DCIS, according to the various prognostic features of the invasive cancer. We estimated the risk of death from breast cancer for patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, with and without a prior diagnosis of DCIS. We identified 306,249 women with stage I/II breast cancer, of whom 2335 had a prior ipsilateral DCIS and 3060 had a prior contralateral DCIS. Breast cancer-specific survival at 9 years was 94.6 % for patients with a prior DCIS (ipsilateral or contralateral) and was 95.2 % for patients with no prior DCIS (p = 0.32). In a matched analysis (3979 matched pairs), the hazard ratio for death from breast cancer for patients with a prior ipsilateral DCIS, compared to patients with no prior DCIS, was 0.91 (95 % CI = 0.49-1.68; p = 0.75). A prior diagnosis of ipsilateral DCIS does not impact upon the prognosis of women with early-stage invasive breast cancer. This suggests that primary breast cancers and local invasive recurrences following DCIS are similar conditions and should be treated in the same

  5. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  6. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-10-07

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at 'invasion hubs'. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2,242,000 to 1,385,000 km(2). Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

  7. Clinical features and outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated with bile duct invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun An

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Little is known about the treatment or outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC complicated with bile duct invasion. Methods A total of 247 consecutive HCC patients with bile duct invasion at initial diagnosis were retrospectively included. Results The majority of patients had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC stage C HCC (66.8%. Portal vein tumor thrombosis was present in 166 (67.2% patients. Median survival was 4.1 months. Various modalities of treatment were initially employed including surgical resection (10.9%, repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE (42.5%, and conservative management (42.9%. Among the patients with obstructive jaundice (n=88, successful biliary drainage was associated with better overall survival rate. Among the patients with BCLC stage C, overall survival differed depending on the initial treatment for HCC; surgical resection, TACE, systemic chemotherapy, and conservative management showed overall survival rates of 11.5, 6.0 ,2.4, and 1.6 months, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, surgical resection and repeated TACE were significant prognostic factors for HCC patients with bile duct invasion (hazard ratios 0.47 and 0.39, Ps <0.001, respectively. Conclusions The survival of HCC patients with bile duct invasion at initial diagnosis is generally poor. However, aggressive treatments for HCC such as resection or biliary drainage may be beneficial therapeutic options for patients with preserved liver function.

  8. Fibronectin-degrading activity of Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine proteinase plays a role in host cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Cortez, Cristian; Izidoro, Mario Augusto; Juliano, Luiz; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, binds to diverse extracellular matrix proteins. Such an ability prevails in the parasite forms that circulate in the bloodstream and contributes to host cell invasion. Whether this also applies to the insect-stage metacyclic trypomastigotes, the developmental forms that initiate infection in the mammalian host, is not clear. Using T. cruzi CL strain metacyclic forms, we investigated whether fibronectin bound to the parasites and affected target cell invasion. Fibronectin present in cell culture medium bound to metacyclic forms and was digested by cruzipain, the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase. G strain, with negligible cruzipain activity, displayed a minimal fibronectin-degrading effect. Binding to fibronectin was mediated by gp82, the metacyclic stage-specific surface molecule implicated in parasite internalization. When exogenous fibronectin was present at concentrations higher than cruzipain can properly digest, or fibronectin expression was stimulated by treatment of epithelial HeLa cells with transforming growth factor beta, the parasite invasion was reduced. Treatment of HeLa cells with purified recombinant cruzipain increased parasite internalization, whereas the treatment of parasites with cysteine proteinase inhibitor had the opposite effect. Metacyclic trypomastigote entry into HeLa cells was not affected by anti-β1 integrin antibody but was inhibited by anti-fibronectin antibody. Overall, our results have indicated that the cysteine proteinase of T. cruzi metacyclic forms, through its fibronectin-degrading activity, is implicated in host cell invasion. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress of malaria parasites from red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaganan, Aditi; Singh, Pallavi; Chitnis, Chetan E

    2017-05-01

    Malaria parasites invade and multiply in diverse host cells during their complex life cycle. Some blood stage parasites transform into male and female gametocytes that are transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes. The gametocytes are activated in the mosquito midgut to form male and female gametes, which egress from RBCs to mate and form a zygote. Here, we will review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate invasion and egress by malaria parasites at different life cycle stages. A number of key effector molecules such as parasite protein ligands for receptor-engagement during invasion as well as proteases and perforin-like proteins that mediate egress have been identified. Interestingly, these parasite-encoded effectors are located in internal, vesicular organelles and are secreted in a highly regulated manner during invasion and egress. Here, we will review our current understanding of the functional roles of these effectors as well as the signaling pathways that regulate their timely secretion with accurate spatiotemporal coordinates. Understanding the molecular basis of key processes such as host cell invasion and egress by malaria parasites could provide novel targets for development of inhibitors to block parasite growth and transmission.

  10. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem.

  11. Candida albicans hyphal invasion: thigmotropism or chemotropism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Stacey, A J; Gilligan, C A

    1999-02-15

    Hyphae of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans exhibit thigmotropic behaviour in vitro, in common with phytopathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. An examination of the literature on C. albicans hyphal penetration of epithelial and endothelial membranes does not support the premise that hyphal thigmotropism plays a major role in tissue invasion. Further experimentation is now required to assess thigmotropic behaviour on host membranes and vaginal epithelial cells are suggested as a test model. It is proposed that while thigmotropism may and invasion of tissue invaginations, chemotropism can explain C. albicans hyphal invasion patterns of both endothelium and epithelium.

  12. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  13. Estimation of the pathological invasive size of pulmonary adenocarcinoma using high-resolution computed tomography of the chest: A consideration based on lung and mediastinal window settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Noriaki; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Sakao, Yukinori

    2016-05-01

    Since the proposal of the new classification of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PADC), the size of pathological invasion has become more important. We aimed to determine whether high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) could be used to preoperatively evaluate PADC invasive size. We investigated 360 complete resected cT1a-1b-2aN0 PADCs. We examined the correlation of pathological invasive size with three HRCT parameters [whole tumor dimension in the lung window (LD), consolidation dimension in the lung window (CD), and tumor dimension in the mediastinal window (MD)]. HRCT prediction of an invasive size of ≤5 mm was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Pathological invasive size correlated well with both CD (r(2)=0.710) and MD (r(2)=0.743) comparably, and moderately with LD (r(2)=0.514). CD and MD tended to be slightly larger and smaller, respectively, than the actual invasive size. Invasive size roughly approximated to MD+3mm, and an invasive size of ≤5 mm was best predicted by MD, followed by CD. MD of ≤2 mm and 0mm predicted an invasive size of ≤5 mm with 64.1% and 47.4% sensitivity and 96.5% and 98.9% specificity, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was best predicted by MD followed by CD. Pleural invasion and lymph node metastasis was predicted well by both MD and CD. Preoperative estimation of the invasive size of PADC and evaluation of other parameters of invasiveness were possible using MD. This approach using HRCT may play a complementary role in more thorough clinical staging of PADC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Whole mediastinal irradiation with or without entire hemithoracic irradiation for invasive thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Aburano, Tamio [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan); Yasuda, Shigeo; Aruga, Takashi; Isobe, Kouichi; Aruga, Moriyo; Itami, Jun; Hatano, Kazuo

    1995-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of 45 patients with invasive thymoma who underwent postoperative or definitive radiotherapy. Patients in stage II or stage III were classified according to the treatment volume as follows: those who received irradiation confined to the primary tumor site with a generous margin (involved field group, n=17) and those who received prophylactic whole mediastinal irradiation with or without entire hemithoracic irradiation (prophylactic group, n=21). Seven recurrences were observed among the involved field group, while all patients in the prophylactic group were relapse-free and alive after a median follow-up interval of 50 months. Major side effects were observed in two patients who received entire hemithoracic irradiation. One developed severe pneumonitis resulting in lung fibrosis that required hospitalization, while the other developed nephrotic syndrome of unknown cause. We conclude that whole mediastinal irradiation with or without entire hemithoracic irradiation can be used as a treatment of choice for postoperative invasive thymoma. (author).

  15. Whole mediastinal irradiation with or without entire hemithoracic irradiation for invasive thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Aburano, Tamio; Yasuda, Shigeo; Aruga, Takashi; Isobe, Kouichi; Aruga, Moriyo; Itami, Jun; Hatano, Kazuo.

    1995-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of 45 patients with invasive thymoma who underwent postoperative or definitive radiotherapy. Patients in stage II or stage III were classified according to the treatment volume as follows: those who received irradiation confined to the primary tumor site with a generous margin (involved field group, n=17) and those who received prophylactic whole mediastinal irradiation with or without entire hemithoracic irradiation (prophylactic group, n=21). Seven recurrences were observed among the involved field group, while all patients in the prophylactic group were relapse-free and alive after a median follow-up interval of 50 months. Major side effects were observed in two patients who received entire hemithoracic irradiation. One developed severe pneumonitis resulting in lung fibrosis that required hospitalization, while the other developed nephrotic syndrome of unknown cause. We conclude that whole mediastinal irradiation with or without entire hemithoracic irradiation can be used as a treatment of choice for postoperative invasive thymoma. (author)

  16. Gene expression signatures predict outcome in non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma - a multi-center validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Real, Francisco X.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Clinically useful molecular markers predicting the clinical course of patients diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer are needed to improve treatment outcome. Here, we validated four previously reported gene expression signatures for molecular diagnosis of disease stage and ca...

  17. Declining trends in invasive orthopedic interventions for people with hemophilia enrolled in the Universal Data Collection program (2000–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOBASE, P.; LANE, H.; SIDDIQI, A.-E-A.; INGRAM-RICH, R.; WARD, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recurrent joint hemarthroses due to hemophilia (Factor VIII and Factor IX deficiency) often lead to invasive orthopedic interventions to decrease frequency of bleeding and/or to alleviate pain associated with end-stage hemophilic arthropathy. Aim Identify trends in invasive orthopedic interventions among people with hemophilia who were enrolled in the Universal Data Collection (UDC) program during the period 2000–2010. Methods Data were collected from 130 hemophilia treatment centers in the United States annually during the period 2000–2010, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The number of visits in which an invasive orthopedic intervention was reported was expressed as a proportion of the total visits in each year of the program. Invasive orthopedic interventions consisted of arthroplasty, arthrodesis, and synovectomy. Joints included in this study were the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Results A 5.6% decrease in all invasive orthopedic interventions in all joints of people with hemophilia enrolled in the UDC program over the 11-year study period was observed. Conclusions These data reflect a declining trend in invasive orthopedic interventions in people with hemophilia. Further research is needed to understand the characteristics that may influence invasive orthopedic interventions. PMID:27030396

  18. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling.

  19. Solitary uterine metastasis of invasive lobular carcinoma after adjuvant endocrine therapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Masafumi; Iwahashi, Hideki; Shima, Takashi; Hayasaka, Atsushi; Kudo, Takako; Makino, Hiromitsu; Igeta, Saori; Matsuura, Rui; Ishigaki, Nobuko; Akagi, Kozo; Sakurada, Junko; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Yoshinaga, Kosuke

    2015-02-14

    Solitary uterine metastases from extragenital cancers are very rare. Breast cancer is the most frequent primary site of metastasis to the uterine corpus, with invasive lobular carcinoma more likely to spread to gynecologic organs than invasive ductal carcinoma. A 62-year-old postmenopausal Japanese woman was diagnosed with uterine leiomyomata more than 20 years ago and had been managed conservatively until menopause. Seven years prior to her presentation, she was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a partial resection of her right breast for stage IIA invasive lobular carcinoma. She underwent adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and five years of anastrozole hormonal therapy. She presented with a growing uterine mass. Her tumor marker levels were markedly increased over the course of her follow-up, but a systemic examination revealed only a solitary uterine tumor. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A histopathological examination, including detailed immunohistochemistry, confirmed metastatic invasive lobular carcinoma, infiltrating both her uterine myometrium and fibroid tissue. We report a very rare metastatic pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma and demonstrate that gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and mammaglobin are useful in the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer.

  20. Studies on MRI diagnostic accuracy of invasion to body muscular layer and cervix of endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Yumi; Fujiyoshi, Keizou; Takemoto, Shuji; Kawano, Kouichirou; Ohta, Shunichirou; Murakami, Fumihiro; Komai, Kan; Ushijima, Kimio; Kamura, Toshiharu

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to know usefulness of preoperative MRI to detect invasions of endometrial cancer to uterine body muscular layer and cervix. Subjects were 132 patients (median age of 57 y, pre- and post-menopause, 11.2 and 78.8%, respectively) with the cancer at stage I (66 cases) and >II in authors' facility, who had undergone the preoperative MRI with 1.5T Siemens machine by imaging with T1 and T2 weighted, Gd-enhanced T1 weighted, dynamic study and STIR. Imaging findings were compared with histopathological ones to assess the accuracy of imaging diagnosis. Positive predictive accuracy for muscular invasion was found to be as high as 95.5% and negative one, as low as 29.5%: especially, in pre-menopause group, tendency of underestimation for the invasion was thought notable. In contrast, negative accuracy was found low for cervical invasion and positive one, high: overestimation was possibly occurring. Thus, MRI diagnosis of those invasions should be seriously judged with careful consideration of menopause state. (R.T.)

  1. Mechanisms of invasion from sporozoite and merozoíto of Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Spencer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria or paludismo is caused in humans by four species of Plasmodium belonging to phylum Apicomplexa: ovale, malaria, vivax and falciparum, being the last, the responsible of the clinical complication and death in the vertebrate host. Plasmodium parasite possess a specialized secretory organelles called rhoptries, micronemes and dense granules that facilitate invasion of host cells. The sporozoite stage of Plasmodium travels through the different cells of vertebrate host until it reaches the hepatocyte and have been form the parasitophorous vacuole. The infected hepatocytes rupture, results in the releasing thousands of daughter merozoites that invade the erythrocytes with the formation of parasitophorous vacuole too. Several researchers suggest the gliding motility mechanism as the responsible of hepatocyte invasion. While, which the erythrocyte invasion process has been described as the result of tree steps: first contact, re-orientation and invasion. In this review the surface proteins of merozoites and esporozoites are pointed out as the most important factors for the molecular invasion mechanisms until the elaboration of the parasitophorous vacuole. These proteins that take part in these mechanisms are the possible candidates in the design of an anti-malaria vaccine.

  2. How Shigella Utilizes Ca2+ Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemic...

  3. Case report of invasive, disseminated candidiasis with peripheral nodular cavitary lesions in the lung

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Hafiza; Garcia, Silvia; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of invasive candidiasis presenting as multiple lung nodules and cavitary lesions with minimal pleural effusion. Candida infections of the lung are rare but can occur after hematologic dissemination of the yeast from other body sites, such as the skin and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Here, we describe the case of a 56-year-old female with a history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who presented with fever, productive cough, and pulmonary nodules and cavitary...

  4. Value of platelet count in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Chen; Mao, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a platelet count (PLT) in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants. Based on clinical diagnosis combined with blood culture results, 72 premature infants of 5354 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in the neonatal ward of our hospital between September 2009 and February 2013 were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive fungal infections (fungal infection group). There were 58 premature infants diagnosed with bacterial infections during the same period (bacterial infection group). The control group included 74 premature infants without nosocomial infections who were hospitalized during the same period. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficacy of the PLT and white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in the diagnosis of fungal infections in premature infants. The risk factors for invasive fungal infections included birth weight infection group decreased in the early and acute stages of infection (p infection group decreased in the early and acute stages of infection (p infection group was more significant than the bacterial infection group (p infection group in the early stage of infection (p infection groups in the acute stage of infection (p > 0.05). ROC curve analysis of the WBC and PLT counts and the CRP level in the early diagnosis of fungal infections showed that the area under the curve of the PLT count was 0.912 (95% confidence interval:0.863-0.961), thus indicating a high accuracy with a cutoff PLT count of 157.0 × 10 9 /L. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 77.8% and 94.6%, respectively. We conclude that the PLT count is a convenient, economical, and effective predictor of invasive fungal infections in premature infants and has potential in the early diagnosis of fungal infections.

  5. Cardiac abnormalities assessed by non-invasive techniques in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    inflammatory myopathies (IIM) by means of non-invasive techniques. METHODS: Fourteen patients with IIM (8 polymyositis, 4 dermatomyositis, 2 cancer-associated dermatomyositis) and 14 gender- and age- matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Participant assessments included a cardiac questionnaire......OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of cardiac involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) is limited, especially in the early stage of disease. The objective of the present study was to perform a controlled evaluation of cardiac abnormalities in newly diagnosed, untreated patients with idiopathic...

  6. Effects of white-tailed deer and invasive plants on the herb layer of suburban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janet A

    2017-11-01

    Lack of hunting and predators and proximity to human communities make suburban forests prone to high deer abundance and non-native plant invasions. I investigated these likely drivers of community structure in the herb layers of six suburban forests in one region of New Jersey, USA. In 223 plots I assessed the herb layer response to 2.5 years with or without deer fencing and the early stage of invasion from seed additions of Microstegium vimineum , an invasive, annual grass. Non-native plants and herbaceous native plants were affected very little by fencing or M. vimineum invasion. In contrast, across all forests the combination of deer access and M. vimineum addition had a strongly negative effect on woody native percent cover. Forests differed in overall fencing effects on woody natives; their cover was greater in fenced plots in just three forests, suggesting greater deer pressure in those forests during the experiment. The early invasion by M. vimineum was greatest in two of these same forests, but was not influenced by fencing. Multi-group structural equation modelling compared two groups of forests that differed in vegetation abundance and other characteristics. It paralleled the results above and also showed no negative influence of non-native cover on native cover, even in the forests where non-native cover was greater. It identified a positive effect of light level on herb layer plants in the forests with less vegetation, and also revealed a positive effect of soil water potential (SWP) on non-native plants in the forests with more vegetation, which had higher SWP. These suburban forests within a common region varied widely in native and non-native herb layer abundance, the early success of M. vimineum invasion and the herb layer's response to early invasion and protection from deer.

  7. Slug contributes to cadherin switch and malignant progression in muscle-invasive bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaijie; Zeng, Jin; Zhou, Jiancheng; Fan, Jinhai; Chen, Yule; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, TingTing; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin

    2013-11-01

    The Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors (i.e., Snail and Slug) predicts the tumor recurrence in superficial bladder cancers, while their roles in the development of muscle-invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance in muscle-invasive bladder cancers with poor prognosis have not been investigated. This study evaluates the clinical significance of Slug in aggressive bladder cancer. A pair of sublines (i.e., T24-P and T24-L) from a unique orthotropic metastatic model of bladder cancer was firstly utilized to identify the potential precursors contributing to those aggressive phenotypes. The coexpression of Slug, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin in bladder cancer cell lines (i.e., 5637, RT4, 253 J, J82, and T24) and tissues was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry staining analysis. The function of Slug expression on E- to N-cadherin switch, cell invasion, and chemoresistance to proapoptotic treatment was validated by gain-in-function and knockdown strategy in vitro. Slug was identified as one of the novel targets contributed to the aggressive phenotypes of T24-L cells, which showed enhanced cell invasive, metastatic, and chemoresistant potentials in vitro and in vivo as previously described. Up-regulation of Slug was significantly correlated with a higher tumor stage and the E- to N-cadherin switch in bladder cancer cells and tissues, whereas ectopic expression of Slug in bladder cancer 5637 and RT-4 cell lines promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased cell invasiveness and chemoresistance. By contrast, knocking down Slug using siRNA in T24-L cell lines reversed these changes. Slug elevates in invasive or metastatic bladder cancer and plays a critical role in EMT via control of cadherin switch. Slug may be a potential marker or target for improving the diagnosis and treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mountain Matokit and Vrgorac city: a new localities of threatened and invasive plant taxa in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Vukojević

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is first inventarisation of threatened and invasive vascular plants on the rocky grasslands situated on northern slopes of mountain Matokit and abandoned arable land in vicinity of town of Vrgorac. These sites represent a new site for the Croatian flora. This research was conducted in year 2010 and 2011. We found 11 species of threatened vascular plants that by the Red Book (Nikolić and Topić [14] and Flora Croatica Database (Nikolić [13] and 15 invasive species, according to preliminary list of invasive alien species (IAS in Croatia (Boršić et al. [3]. In this paper the habitat of some species, their distribution in Croatia, life forms and floral elements are described. It was found that threatened species occur exclusively on the rocky grassland habitat, except two species: critically endangered (CR Papaver argemone and endangered (EN Hibiscus trionum which were recorded on arable land. All inventoried invasive species, were recorded at the abandoned arable land, except the species Robinia pseudoacacia. Tendency for uncontrolled spread showed species Ailanthus altissima and Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Habitats of rocky grassland are on the stage of secondary succession (healing with the forest, and on the arable land the spread of invasive species exist (due to socio-economic changes: abandonment of agriculture and animal husbandry, and depopulation of the population. The results of these studies are contribution to the distribution map of threatened and invasive species in Croatia, and to the conservation of grassland habitat study area, as well as to preventing of the spread of invasive species.

  9. Effect of laminin 332 on motility and invasion in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Gu Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the correlation between laminin 332 and malignancy in bladder cancer patients, and, using a strain of invasive bladder cancer cells, determined whether laminin 332 causes bladder cancer motility and invasion. To investigate the correlation between laminin 332 g2 distribution and patient outcome, we performed a semiquantitative immunohistochemical analysis of 35 paraffin-embedded samples using the antibody D4B5, which is specific for the laminin 5 γ2 chain. To evaluate the role of laminin 332 in NBT-II cell motility and invasion, we used a scratch assay and the Boyden chamber chemoinvasion system. Tumor stage and grade were significantly correlated with a loss of laminin 332 γ2 chain from the basement membrane (p = 0.001 and its retention in the cytoplasm (p = 0.001 (Kruskal–Wallis test. Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed an association between the risk of progression and cytoplasmic retention of the laminin 332 γ2 chain. In addition, an in vitro scratch assay showed an increase in the migration of cells treated with laminin 332 from their cluster. The Boyden chamber assay showed that laminin 332 potentiated NBT-II cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry results showed that bladder cancer patients with a higher malignancy expressed more laminin 332. The in vitro scratch and invasion assay showed that laminin 332 stimulated the motility and invasion of bladder cancer cells. The invasion assay explains the correlation between laminin 332 expression and bladder cancer malignancy.

  10. Management of Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma with Invasion of the Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Schlussel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is rare but aggressive, with greater than 20% of patients presenting with stage III or IV, disease. Surgical resection of the primary tumor regardless of stage is the treatment of choice, and en bloc resection of involved organs provides the only potential chance for cure. This case report describes a patient with metastatic right-sided RCC with invasion of the inferior vena cava and duodenum managed by en block resection and pancreaticoduodenectomy. This report will review the workup and treatment of locally advanced RCC, as well as the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in the setting of metastatic disease.

  11. Staging of endometrial cancer with MRI: Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinkel, K. [Geneva University Hospital and Institut de Radiologie, Clinique des Grangettes, Chene-Bougeries/Geneva (Switzerland); Clinique des Grangettes, Institut de radiologie, Chene-Bougerie/Geneva (Switzerland); Forstner, R. [LandesklinikenSalzburg, Zentralroentgeninstitut, Salzburg (Austria); Danza, F.M. [Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Dipartimento di Bioimmagini e scienze radiologiche, Rome (Italy); Oleaga, L. [Hospital Clinic, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Cunha, T.M. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Department of Radiology, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Bergman, A. [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Barentsz, J.O. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Balleyguier, C. [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif Cedex (France); Brkljacic, B. [University Hospital ' ' Dubrava' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zagreb (Croatia); University of Zagreb, Medical School, Zagreb (Croatia); Spencer, J.A. [St James' s Institute of Oncology, Department of Clinical Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to define guidelines for endometrial cancer staging with MRI. The technique included critical review and expert consensus of MRI protocols by the female imaging subcommittee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, from ten European institutions, and published literature between 1999 and 2008. The results indicated that high field MRI should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine body) of the pelvic content. High-resolution post-contrast images acquired at 2 min {+-} 30 s after intravenous contrast injection are suggested to be optimal for the diagnosis of myometrial invasion. If cervical invasion is suspected, additional slice orientation perpendicular to the axis of the endocervical channel is recommended. Due to the limited sensitivity of MRI to detect lymph node metastasis without lymph node-specific contrast agents, retroperitoneal lymph node screening with pre-contrast sequences up to the level of the kidneys is optional. The likelihood of lymph node invasion and the need for staging lymphadenectomy are also indicated by high-grade histology at endometrial tissue sampling and by deep myometrial or cervical invasion detected by MRI. In conclusion, expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  12. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  13. Mycorrhizal status helps explain invasion success of alien plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas; Hempel, Stefan; Klotz, Stefan; Moora, Mari; Pyšek, Petr; Rillig, Matthias C; Zobel, Martin; Kühn, Ingolf

    2017-01-01

    It is still debated whether alien plants benefit from being mycorrhizal, or if engaging in the symbiosis constrains their establishment and spread in new regions. We analyzed the association between mycorrhizal status of alien plant species in Germany and their invasion success. We compared whether the representation of species with different mycorrhizal status (obligate, facultative, or non-mycorrhizal) differed at several stages of the invasion process. We used generalized linear models to explain the occupied geographical range of alien plants, incorporating interactions of mycorrhizal status with plant traits related to morphology, reproduction, and life-history. Non-naturalized aliens did not differ from naturalized aliens in the relative frequency of different mycorrhizal status categories. Mycorrhizal status significantly explained the occupied range of alien plants; with facultative mycorrhizal species inhabiting a larger range than non-mycorrhizal aliens and obligate mycorrhizal plant species taking an intermediate position. Aliens with storage organs, shoot metamorphoses, or specialized structures promoting vegetative dispersal occupied a larger range when being facultative mycorrhizal. We conclude that being mycorrhizal is important for the persistence of aliens in Germany and constitutes an advantage compared to being non-mycorrhizal. Being facultative mycorrhizal seems to be especially advantageous for successful spread, as the flexibility of this mycorrhizal status may enable plants to use a broader set of ecological strategies. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-07-28

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs.

  15. Treatment of stage I and II ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Koji; Okada, Etsuko; Numoto, Atsuo; Nakazuma, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    74 cases of primary ovarian cancer treated here previously were classified into three groups, no residual (corresponding to Stage Ia, Ib), cell residual (Ic-IIc) and mass residual (III,IV), and prognoses were compared. The 5 year survival rates were 83.3%, 29.4% and 12.6% respectively. In Stage I and II cases, almost all of the tumor mass would be removed by operation. Therefore the target of postoperative treatment should be the residual cancer as cell units spread widely throughout the abdominal cavity. For this purpose, IPCP. has been performed on 35 cases of Stage I and II since 1977. The 3 year survival rate for this series is as good as 88.6%, and the sites of recurrence were localized in the small pelvic cavity adjacent to the Douglas pouch in 5 out of 6 relapsed cases. This fact suggests that IPCP is capable of controlling the cancer cells in the upper abdominal cavity, but still insufficient to control them in the pelvic cavity where deeper invasion is suspected. In order to improve the local control ability, utilization of the uterus as the applicator for prophylactic intracavitary irradiation came to be considered. The spread of cancer to the uterus was found in 5 out of 38 cases in Stage I and II(13.2%), but silent invasion was found in only one case. These results suggests that the utilization of the uterus as the applicator for prophylactic intracavitary irradiation would be feasible if no macroscopical cancer extention to the uterus exists and the uterus is suitable for application. Several combinations with Tandem and Ovoid have been tested and an adequate method has been proposed. (author)

  16. Hepatosplenic volumetric assessment at MDCT for staging liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Malecki, Kyle; Hunt, Oliver F.; Beaumont, Claire; Kloke, John; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J.; Lubner, Meghan G. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-07-15

    To investigate hepatosplenic volumetry at MDCT for non-invasive prediction of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatosplenic volume analysis in 624 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 311 M/313 F) at MDCT was performed using dedicated software and compared against pathological fibrosis stage (F0 = 374; F1 = 48; F2 = 40; F3 = 65; F4 = 97). The liver segmental volume ratio (LSVR) was defined by Couinaud segments I-III over segments IV-VIII. All pre-cirrhotic fibrosis stages (METAVIR F1-F3) were based on liver biopsy within 1 year of MDCT. LSVR and total splenic volumes increased with stage of fibrosis, with mean(±SD) values of: F0: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 215.1 ± 88.5 mm{sup 3}; F1: 0.25 ± 0.08 and 294.8 ± 153.4 mm{sup 3}; F2: 0.331 ± 0.12 and 291.6 ± 197.1 mm{sup 3}; F3: 0.39 ± 0.15 and 509.6 ± 402.6 mm{sup 3}; F4: 0.56 ± 0.30 and 790.7 ± 450.3 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Total hepatic volumes showed poor discrimination (F0: 1674 ± 320 mm{sup 3}; F4: 1631 ± 691 mm{sup 3}). For discriminating advanced fibrosis (≥F3), the ROC AUC values for LSVR, total liver volume, splenic volume and LSVR/spleen combined were 0.863, 0.506, 0.890 and 0.947, respectively. Relative changes in segmental liver volumes and total splenic volume allow for non-invasive staging of hepatic fibrosis, whereas total liver volume is a poor predictor. Unlike liver biopsy or elastography, these CT volumetric biomarkers can be obtained retrospectively on routine scans obtained for other indications. (orig.)

  17. A Case of Giant Bladder Carcinosarcoma without Submucosal Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Zaitsu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinosarcoma is a rare biphasic neoplasia containing both malignant mesenchymal and epithelial elements. Bladder carcinosarcoma commonly presented as high-grade, advanced stage, and aggressive behavior with a poor prognosis. An 83-year-old male presented with painless gross hematuria to our hospital. Cystoscopy revealed massive nonpapillary bladder tumor on the right wall. The 91 g tumor could be completely removed with transurethral resection. Histology of the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma with no submucosal invasion composed of biphasic malignant epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Epithelial malignancy was urothelial cancer and mesenchymal one was chondrosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. The specimens taken at the second-look TUR-Bt revealed that carcinoma in situ (urothelial cancer but not sarcoma existed at the mucosa surrounding the previous tumor site. 80 mg of BCG instillation intravesically every week for six weeks was successfully administered to the patient. There is no tumor recurrence for 6 months after treatments.

  18. How can phytochemists benefit from invasive plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peihong; Marston, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    The phenomenon of invasive alien species has become one of the greatest threats to the biological diversity of the planet, placing major constraints on development. In order to provide the tools needed to address this pervasive issue, the current knowledge on invasive species must be further developed with a cross-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach. Recent theories of invasion propose that exotic plants probably produce secondary metabolites which can be allelopathic, anti-herbivore, anti-microbial and which are either unique or underrepresented in the plants' new range. This review attempts to attract the attention of phytochemists to study either the mechanisms of plant invasion or to use this widespread plant resource for humans.

  19. The social dimensions of invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Lesley

    2017-06-06

    Invasive plants pose a major environmental management issue. Research into the social dimensions of this issue has flourished over the past decade, as part of the critical examination of relations between human and nonhuman worlds. The social sciences and humanities have made substantial contributions to conceptualizing invasiveness and nativeness; understanding the perceptions, attitudes and values of diverse stakeholders; and analysing the politics and practices of invasive plant management. Cultural analysis allows areas of conflict and commonality to be identified. Social complexity must be added to ecological complexity to understand the causal relationships underlying invasions; and linear understandings of science-policy relationships are too simplistic. Productive connections have been established between recent social and natural science approaches in the context of rapid environmental change and unpredictable futures. Nonetheless, the prevalence of human exceptionalism in the ecological sciences constitutes a major point of divergence between social and natural science perspectives.

  20. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B N; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals.