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Sample records for stage gastro-intestinal nematode

  1. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (Hansen and Perry, 1994). Furthermore, nematode egg counting per gramme of faeces (epg) was done on the same samples using the modified McMaster technique, as described by Hansen and. Perry (1994). Identification of third stage nematode larvae. About three grammes of faeces were taken from each sample.

  2. Anthelmintic resistance and multidrug resistance in sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes in France, Greece and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Hoste, Herve; Jacquiet, Philippe; Traversa, Donato; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Gaillac, Christie; Privat, Simon; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Zanardello, Claudia; Noé, Laura; Vanimisetti, Bindu; Bartram, David

    2014-03-17

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ovine gastro-intestinal nematodes has been reported to affect the health and productivity of sheep globally. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used oral drenches in sheep in France, Greece and Italy. In each country, 10 farms were selected. On each farm, 50 animals were blocked based on the pre-treatment faecal egg count (FEC). Within each block, animals were randomly allocated to one of 5 treatment groups. In addition to an untreated control group, there were 4 groups treated per oral route: moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM), both at 0.2mg/kg bodyweight, levamisole (LEV; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight) and a benzimidazole (BZ; at 3.75-5mg/kg bodyweight). In France, animals were not treated with LEV, but with netobimin (NET; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight). The FEC was monitored using a modified McMaster technique. Two weeks after treatment, individual faecal samples were taken from all animals and efficacy was calculated as the difference between arithmetic mean FEC of the control group versus each respective treatment group. The results of the present study indicate the high efficacy of treatment with oral formulations of MOX (99-100%) and IVM (98-100%) on all farms, except on 1 farm in Greece. On this farm, multi drug resistance (MDR) was identified involving 4 anthelmintics (efficacy MOX: 91%; IVM: 0%; BZ: 58% and LEV: 87%). In Greece and Italy, AR against LEV and BZ was observed on some farms, with MDR involving both anthelmintics on 3 farms in Greece and on 2 farms in Italy. In France, AR against BZ and NET was observed on all 10 farms included. In all countries, Teladorsagia sp. was the most common nematode larva identified after treatment, followed by Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp., with differences among farms and treatments. The current study confirms the high efficacy of oral treatments with MOX and IVM, even on farms with worm populations resistant to BZ, LEV or NET. This study also

  3. Seasonal variations in the gastro-intestinal nematode populations of Scottish hil sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J F; Armour, J

    1975-05-01

    In each of two consecutive years, groups of breeding ewes were removed from a hill farm in the west of Scotland on four occasions, namely late pregnancy, early lactation, autumn and early winter. At slaughter the major nematode genus present in the alimentary tract was Ostertagia, with O circumcincta the predominant species but three species previously found in Scottish hill sheep, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Strongyloides papillosis and Chabertia ovina were absent. An absolute increase in total nematode burden and faecal egg count was apparent in the ewes commencing in late pregnancy, reaching a maximum during lactation and falling again in autumn and early winter. This peri-parturient increase in the nematode population could not be solely attributed to the maturation of previously inhibited larval stages but was primarily the result of the development of recently ingested infection; the latter situation thought to be due to a temporary relaxation of immunological response by the ewe at parturition or early lactation. Serum pepsinogen values in ewes remained elevated throughout the grazing season and were always higher than those of their lambs, suggesting that the ewe, although allowing few parasites to become established, was under considerable challenge in the autumn. The worm burdens of the lambs were always low in autumn and early winter with Ostertagia spp being the major genus present during the autumn and Trichostrongylus spp being the predominant genus during the early winter.

  4. The use of nemabiome metabarcoding to explore gastro-intestinal nematode species diversity and anthelmintic treatment effectiveness in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramenko, Russell W; Redman, Elizabeth M; Lewis, Roy; Bichuette, Murilo A; Palmeira, Bruna M; Yazwinski, Thomas A; Gilleard, John S

    2017-11-01

    Next-generation deep amplicon sequencing, or metabarcoding, has revolutionized the study of microbial communities in humans, animals and the environment. However, such approaches have yet to be applied to parasitic helminth communities. We recently described the first example of such a method - nemabiome sequencing - based on deep-amplicon sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA, and validated its ability to quantitatively assess the species composition of cattle gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) communities. Here, we present the first application of this approach to explore GIN species diversity and the impact of anthelmintic drug treatments. First, we investigated GIN species diversity in cow-calf beef cattle herds in several different regions, using coproculture derived L3s. A screen of 50 Canadian beef herds revealed parasite species diversity to be low overall. The majority of parasite communities were comprised of just two species; Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. Cooperia punctata was present at much lower levels overall, but nevertheless comprised a substantive part of the parasite community of several herds in eastern Canada. In contrast, nemabiome sequencing revealed higher GIN species diversity in beef calves sampled from central/south-eastern USA and Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In these regions C. punctata predominated in most herds with Haemonchus placei predominating in a few cases. Ostertagia ostertagi and C. oncophora were relatively minor species in these regions in contrast to the Canadian herds. We also examined the impact of routine macrocyclic lactone pour-on treatments on GIN communities in the Canadian beef herds. Low treatment effectiveness was observed in many cases, and nemabiome sequencing revealed an overall increase in the proportion of Cooperia spp. relative to O. ostertagi post-treatment. This work demonstrates the power of nemabiome metabarcoding to provide a detailed picture of GIN parasite community

  5. In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Benzimidazole and Tetrahydropyrimidine Derivatives in European Bison Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura CĂTANĂ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic agents against intestinal nematodes found in European bison. It was performed between October 2016 and May 2017, using Egg Hatch Assay (EHA and Larval Development Assay (LDA. The parasites were obtained from faecal samples, harvested from bisons in Romania and Sweden. The efficacy of albendazole (ABZ, mebendazole (MBZ thiabendazole (TBZ and pyrantel (PYR was tested. In EHA, the maximum efficacy was observed in MBZ (EC50 = - 0.227 μg/ml, and then TBZ (EC50 = - 0.2228. ABZ had a weaker result, EC50 being 0.326 μg/ml. All tested benzimidazoles registered hatching percentages below 50%, reflecting the lack of parasitic resistance. MIC obtained in the LDA tests were 0.2144 μg/ml for TBZ, 0.2792 μg/ml for PYR, 0.5429 μg/ml for MBZ, while ABZ came last (MIC = 0.8187 μg/ml. The in vitro tests proved the antiparasitic molecules efficacy against bisons nematode population and a limited risk of inducing resistance phenomena.

  6. [Recent findings on the genetics of gastro-intestinal nematode resistance in ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, A; Scala, A

    2004-06-01

    The control of helminthiases in ruminants raised in open pasture has been mainly undertaken by using prophylactic measures in the environment, but these are often inadequate due to incorrect application. With the appearance of anthelmintics, the strategy for controlling these parasitoses, passed to pharmacological treatments which became effective in reducing their impact. However, the frequent and incorrect utilisation of these molecules resulted in resistance to anthelmintics and the presence of chemical residues in animal products for human consumption. Anthelmintic resistance is widespread throughout the world, heterogeneous and probably underestimated. This has encouraged the introduction of homeopathic agents and products derived from plants whose effectiveness has not been scientifically assessed. It is well known that it is possible to detect differences in resistance to the most important parasites between breeds. In Europe, it has been reported that some ovine autochthonous breeds, Scottish Blackface and Lacaune, showed higher resistance. The implementation of breeding strategies aimed at obtaining animals with naturally low susceptibility to nematode infestations could therefore play an increasingly important role. Standard animal breeding techniques have been largely successful in improving the performance of domestic animals in the last century. Standard quantitative selection requires field data on: i) individual phenotype performance; ii) expected covariance among animals due to blood relationship between them. The whole process of predicting the breeding value of animals in order to select subsequently the genetically superior parents of the next generation is entirely based on sophisticated computations (BLUP-animal model). In sheep, the main objective is always selecting for milk yield and sometimes, in addition, milk composition. However, due to the evolution of the EU agricultural policy and consumer demand in terms of healthy and organic food

  7. Evaluation of gastro-intestinal nematode parasite control strategies for first-season grazing cattle in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimander, Sten-Olof; Höglund, Johan; Uggla, Arvid; Spörndly, Eva; Waller, Peter J

    2003-02-13

    A three-year grazing experiment (1998-2000) was conducted with first-season grazing cattle (FSGC) on improved pastures in central-eastern Sweden. Comparison was made between five groups with 10 calves in each group where four of these were set stocked and either (1) untreated, (2) ivermectin bolus treated, (3) subjected to biological control with the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans, or (4) treated with a copper wire particle bolus. The fifth treatment was an evasive grazing strategy, whereby untreated calves were turned out onto pasture used by older cattle the previous year and then these calves were moved to silage aftermath in mid-July. To introduce low-levels of parasite infection to the experiment, each animal received a 'priming dose' of approximately 5,000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 5,000 Cooperia oncophora infective third stage larvae immediately prior to the start of the first grazing year of the trial. Results showed that efficient and sustainable parasite control of FSGC was possible to achieve without the use of anthelmintics by using turnout pastures that the previous year had been grazed by older cattle, in combination with a mid-July move to aftermath leys. Biological control also proved beneficial but the efficacy was impaired if high faecal egg counts coincided with rapid dung pat degradation due to heavy rainfall. No indication of parasite control was observed with the copper wire particle bolus. It was also demonstrated that the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitism varied between years and that the level of overwintering contamination is important but likewise, is unpredictable. Although faecal egg counts in 1999 were low, due both to a delayed turnout and drought for the major part of the grazing season, deposited eggs successfully developed to infective larvae and overwintered in large numbers. The population of overwintered infective larvae at the time of turnout in early May played an important role in the course of infection

  8. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  9. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract | Wright | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximately 50% of athletes will develop gastrointestinal symptoms at some stage in their careers. These range in severity from heartburn to gastro-intestinal bleeding. Fortunately symptoms are usually mild and inconvenient, but in certain individuals they can be incapacitating. It is important to exclude the more common ...

  10. Social environment and weather during early life influence gastro-intestinal parasite loads in a group-living mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Heiko G; Starkloff, Anett

    2014-10-01

    Conditions experienced during early life have been frequently shown to exert long-term consequences on an animal's fitness. In mammals and birds, the time around and shortly after weaning is one of the crucial periods early in life. However, little is known about how social and abiotic environmental conditions experienced around this time affect fitness-related traits such as endoparasite loads. We studied consequences of social interactions and rainy weather conditions around and after weaning on gastro-intestinal nematode loads in juvenile European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Infestations with the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum and with the intestinal nematode Passalurus ambiguus were higher in animals experiencing more rain during early life. This might have been due to the higher persistence of nematodes' infective stages outside the host body together with the animals' lower energy allocation for immune defence under more humid and thus energetically challenging conditions. In contrast, infestations with P. ambiguus were lower in animals with more positive social interactions with mother and litter siblings. We propose that social support provided by familiar group members buffered negative stress effects on immune function, lowering endoparasite infestations. This is supported by the negative correlation between positive social behaviour and serum corticosterone concentrations, indicating lower stress in juveniles which integrated more successfully into the social network of their group. In conclusion, the findings offer a pathway showing how differences in the abiotic environment and social life conditions experienced early in life could translate into long-term fitness consequences via the effects on endoparasite loads.

  11. A STUDY ON UPPER GASTRO INTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS ADMITTED WITH UPPER GASTRO INTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Merugu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Endoscopy is key diagnostic tool for management of upper gastro intestinal bleeding. In addition it provides a unique therapeutic opportunity which has over years reduced the need for emergency surgery, but the impact on survival is less dramatic with the mortality from severe upper gastro intestinal bleeding remaining fairly constant. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred Patients who were giving definite history of vomiting of frank blood or coffee ground coloured vomit and or passed dark coloured stools were admitted during study period and were subjected to endoscopy to identify the aetiology. RESULTS In this study of 100 patients mean age of the patients was 48 years. Majority of them are males (82% and Male to Female ratio was 4.5:1. The most common cause of UGIB was portal hypertension related variceal bleed seen in 28% of patients. Peptic ulcer related bleed was seen in 25% of patients. Mallory Weiss tear was seen in 15% of patients, Oesophagitis (12% of patients, gastric erosions 7% of patients, duodenitis 6% of patients, GAVE accounted for 3% of patients, 2% of patients showing normal endoscopic findings, post EVL variceal bleed (1% and carcinoma stomach accounted for 1% of cases. CONCLUSION In present study variceal bleed was the most common cause of UGIB, followed by peptic ulcer bleed and variceal bleed was most common cause for major UGI bleed.

  12. Gastro-intestinal parasites among children in some orphanages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven species of gastro-intestinal parasites – Ascaris lumbricoides (59.14%), hookworm (20.43%), Hymenolepis nana (1.08%), Entamoeba histolytica (3.23%), Enterobius vermicularis (4.30%), Trichuris trichuira (5.38%) and strongyloides stecoralis egg(6.65%) – were identified. Prevalence rate was higher among males ...

  13. Gastro-Intestinal Heminthes among Slaughtered Cattle at Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cattle are a major source of animal protein, hides and skin but the constraint is infection due to gastro-intestinal helminthes. A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of helminthes, parasites affecting cattle slaughtered at abattoir in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The standard saturated salt (NaCl) floatation ...

  14. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in primates and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the red patas, mangabey and mandrill monkeys and 90.9% (10/11) of the green monkeys were infested. There were higher infestation rates in young NHP than in adults (P<0.05). The infestation rate in males and females were the same (61.1%). The most prevalent gastro-intestinal parasites were Trichuris trichiura ...

  15. Study on gastro intestinal parasite of cattle at Horoguduru Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite and protozoan emeria, to determine the common risk factor and to identify the commonly existing ... Carpological examination was done at Wollega University Shambu campus animal science and, food and nutrition department.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Gastro-Intestinal Helminth Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites infection of fresh and brackish water fishes from Warri river, Southern Nigeria, was undertaken. Eight hundred (800) fishes examined during the investigation belong to 30 families, 45 genera and 56 species. The study revealed a highly significant relationship (P ...

  17. Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Holst, J.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22 ± 2 y, BMI 21.9 ± 2.2

  18. Gastro-intestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kedia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract can be involved in up to 90% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc and is the leading cause of morbidity and third most common cause of mortality in these patients. The GI involvement can occur in the absence of cutaneous manifestations in 10% of patients. Vasculopathy, cellular and humoral immunity, and diffuse fibrosis are the principal pathogenetic mechanisms in SSc and begin with autoantibody-mediated neuronal damage followed by muscular damage and fibrosis. This leads to progressive dysmotility of the entire GI tract from mouth to anus and is responsible for the clinical manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux disease and dysphagia due to esophageal involvement, gastroparesis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation due to colonic and fecal incontinence due to anorectal involvement. The clinical features resulting from the involvement of these organs often overlap and multiple areas may be involved simultaneously. The treatment remains mostly symptomatic because effective disease-modifying therapies are lacking. These patients are at a risk of malnutrition and nutritional screening, and thus rehabilitation is very important. Refractory cases require nutritional support in the form of enteral nutrition and/or home parenteral nutrition. Future research is needed in the pathogenesis, development of biomarkers for early identification of GI involvement at the asymptomatic stage, and targeted disease-modifying therapies, which can alter/halt the disease progression.

  19. Morphometry of the Gastro-intestinal Tract in Broiler Finisher Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometric analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05) only in length of the liver with birds on control diet (11.43) having higher mean values. The proventriculus, small ... gastro-intestinal tract. Keywords: Exogenous enzymes, Fiber utilization, Growth performance, Poultry diets, Gastro- intestinal morphometry ...

  20. CHEMOTHERAPY OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL NAMATODES IN COMMON PEAFOWL (PAVO CRISTATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashraf, Faisal Noman Waraich, I.G. Ahmad and K. Pervez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus at Lahore Zoo and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of albendazole, levamisole HCI and oxfendazole. Fifty-two faecal samples of the birds were examined in Medicine Laboratory, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, with direct smear method for the identification of nematode ova. Forty two samples out of 52 were found positive (80.77% for single or mixed infection of Capillaria spp., Ascaridia galliand Heterakis gallinae, and the individual percentages being 59.62, 38.46 and 13.46 respectively. Out of 42 infected birds 40 were chosen for medication and divided into four groups, each consisting of 10 birds (A= treated with albendazole, B=treated with levamisole, C = treated with oxfendazole and group D= untreated control. Faecal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of eggs per gram of faeces on day '0' (pre-medication. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 5 and 10 post-medication and percentage reduction of EPG was calculated. Oxfendazole was found to be the most effective (98.88% among the three anthelmintics, followed by levamisole (97.3% and albendazole (95.60%.

  1. [Serrated neoplasia of the gastro-intestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Denis; Terris, Benoît; Fléjou, Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Serrated neoplasia of the gastro-intestinal tract have peculiar microscopic and molecular features that are still incompletely described. Some serrated polyps seem to be involved in a new carcinogenic pathway in the colon: the serrated neoplasia pathway, with hypermethylation of the cytosine-guanine dinucleotides, located in the promoter of some genes such as h-MLH1, BRAF and MGMT. The natural history of the serrated polyps and their risk for progression to malignancy are still unclear. There is no official guideline for the management of serrated polyps. The aim of this article is to describe the epidemiological, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics of the serrated neoplasia of the gastrointestinal tract: hyperplastic polyps, "traditional" serrated adenomas, mixed hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps, sessile serrated adenomas, hyperplastic polyposis and serrated adenocarcinomas.

  2. Gastro-Intestinal Tolerance and Renal Safety of Protein Oral Nutritional Supplements in Nursing Home Residents: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Wee, P; Kuhn, M; van der Woude, H; Van De Looverbosch, D; Heyman, H; Mikušová, L; Fouque, D

    2016-01-01

    High protein oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are regularly prescribed to undernourished patients; however usage of these in older adults is being discussed, as their renal function might have declined with age. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of 8 week long consumption of high protein ONS on the renal function of nursing home residents in need of supplementation. Furthermore, within the same setup, differences in gastro-intestinal tolerance between a standard and a more concentrated version of an ONS were investigated. Randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel-group, multi-country trial (NTR2565). Nursing home. 67 nursing home residents in need of ONS (energy-dense, small volume group n=32; standard volume group n=35). Protein supplementation was provided by either a standard (200ml, 300kcal, 20g protein) or an energy-dense, small volume (125ml, 300kcal, 18g protein) ONS during the 8 week long study. Primary outcome was gastro-intestinal tolerance, assessed by daily stool frequency and consistency, and occurrence and intensity of self-reported gastro-intestinal symptoms. Safety was measured via the occurrence of (serious) adverse events, vital signs, as well as liver- and kidney function monitoring. No clinically relevant and, except for flatulence, no statistically significant differences in gastro-intestinal tolerance were observed between groups. No significant difference between groups was found for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio at baseline and week 8, nor for the changes from baseline. Adverse events and the changes in monitored renal parameters over the study period did not point to a deterioration of renal function. High protein ONS seems to be well-tolerated and safe; there is no indication that it affects renal function in nursing home residents, including patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease, under the conditions tested. Results did not suggest a

  3. A coprological survey of gastro-intestinal parasites of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mamum, M.A.A; Begum, N.; Mondal, M.H.M

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiology of gastro-intestinal parasites of water buffaloes was investigated in Kurigram district of Bangladesh between November 2007 and October 2008 through coprological examination. A total of 236 water buffaloes were examined, among them 144 (61.02%) buffaloes were found infected with one or more species of gastro-intestinal parasites. Nine species of gastro-intestinal parasites were identified, of them four species were trematodes, namely, Paramphistomum cervi (29.24%), Fasciola gigan...

  4. Development and Validation of an in vitro Experimental GastroIntestinal Dialysis Model with Colon Phase to Study the Availability and Colonic Metabolisation of Polyphenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breynaert, Annelies; Bosscher, Douwina; Kahnt, Ariane; Claeys, Magda; Cos, Paul; Pieters, Luc; Hermans, Nina

    2015-08-01

    The biological effects of polyphenols depend on their mechanism of action in the body. This is affected by bioconversion by colon microbiota and absorption of colonic metabolites. We developed and validated an in vitro continuous flow dialysis model with colon phase (GastroIntestinal dialysis model with colon phase) to study the gastrointestinal metabolism and absorption of phenolic food constituents. Chlorogenic acid was used as model compound. The physiological conditions during gastrointestinal digestion were mimicked. A continuous flow dialysis system simulated the one-way absorption by passive diffusion from lumen to mucosa. The colon phase was developed using pooled faecal suspensions. Several methodological aspects including implementation of an anaerobic environment, adapted Wilkins Chalgren broth medium, 1.10(8) CFU/mL bacteria suspension as inoculum, pH adaptation to 5.8 and implementation of the dialysis system were conducted. Validation of the GastroIntestinal dialysis model with colon phase system showed a good recovery and precision (CV GastroIntestinal dialysis model with colon phase is comparable with in vivo studies on ileostomy patients. In the colon phase, the human faecal microbiota deconjugated chlorogenic acid to caffeic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl propionic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3- or 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 3-phenylpropionic acid. The GastroIntestinal dialysis model with colon phase is a new, reliable gastrointestinal simulation system. It permits a fast and easy way to predict the availability of complex secondary metabolites, and to detect metabolites in an early stage after digestion. Isolation and identification of these metabolites may be used as references for in vivo bioavailability experiments and for investigating their bioactivity in in vitro experiments. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polydextrose and changes in bowel function (ID 784), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract (ID 784), decreasing, potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 785) and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 784) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to polydextrose and changes in bowel function, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort. The scientific substantiation...

  6. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths of faeces from in-door ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in dogs and dog faeces collected from streets in Makurdi, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted from July-September 2013. A total of 400 faecal samples viz 300 from household dogs and 100 from streets were collected and ...

  7. A study of blood and gastro-intestinal parasites in Edo state | Mordi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-year study to determine the prevalence of both blood and gastro-intestinal parasites of man was done in all the eighteen local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The study, which commenced in January of 2000, ended in December of 2004. Of the 136,360 samples examined, 1000 that is 0.7% had parasites.

  8. Occurrence of gastro-intestinal helminths of pigs slaughtered at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the occurrence of gastro intestinal helminthes of pigs slaughtered at the Jos Abattoir was carried out between May and November 2007, to determined sex, age, and breed related rate of infection, and the possible risk factors to the spread of the epidemic, using direct smear and floatation techniques.

  9. Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in warthogs from the Nazinga Game Ranch of Burkina Faso. The study revealed that Eight different nematodes and one estode species were present in the gastrointestinal tracks of the animals. In the stomach, Simondsia paradoxa was found at ...

  10. Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Parasites of Cattle in Ogbomoso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infection in naturally infected cattle in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State using standard parasitological techniques. The results indicated that out of the 1000 cattle examined, 30(3%) were infected and parasites identified were Haemonchus contortus ...

  11. Aspects of surgical treatment for gastro-intestinal stromal tumors; Chirurgische Therapieaspekte gastrointestinaler Stromatumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberger, P. [Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Universitaet Heidelberg, Sektion Chirurgische Onkologie und Thoraxchirurgie, Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Gastro-intestinal stromal tumors (GIST) form the commonest subgroup of soft tissue sarcomas. They arise in the muscular layer of the esophagus, stomach, small intestines and rectum. Characteristic and important for the assessment of the extent of tumors is the peripheral rim vascularization of primary tumors and metastases. Indications for resection are given for tumors larger than 2 cm in size. Locally advanced GISTs can be advantageously treated with imatinib/sunitinib as neoadjuvant and it is often possible to select a low level of resection for this size of tumor and when the rim area is not hypervascularized. Even in the metastizing stage surgical treatment can be used for elimination of resistant metastases or for removal of residual tumor tissue in an attempt to counteract secondary tumor progression. The effect of this treatment is currently being tested in a randomized phase III study. (orig.) [German] Gastrointestinale Stromatumoren (GIST) stellen die haeufigste Subgruppe von Weichgewebesarkomen dar. Sie entstehen in der Muskularisschicht von Oesophagus, Magen, Duenndarm und Rektum. Charakteristisch und wichtig fuer die Einschaetzung des Tumorausmasses ist die Randvaskularisation von Primaertumoren und Metastasen. Die Indikation zur Resektion gilt fuer Tumoren ab 2 cm Groesse. Lokal fortgeschrittene GIST koennen sehr vorteilhaft mit Imatinib/Sunitinib neoadjuvant vorbehandelt werden, und es ist oft moeglich, bei der Tumorgroesse und wenn keine hypervaskularisierten Randbereiche vorliegen, ein geringeres Resektionsausmass zu waehlen. Auch im metastasierten Stadium hat die chirurgische Therapie einen Platz zur Eliminierung resistenter Metastasen bzw. zur Entfernung von Residualtumorgewebe als Versuch, einer sekundaeren Tumorprogression zu begegnen. Dieser Behandlungseffekt wird derzeit in einer randomisierten Phase-III-Studie ueberprueft. (orig.)

  12. In Vitro Model Simulating Gastro-Intestinal Digestion in the Pediatric Population (Neonates and Young Infants)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Danna; Berthelsen, Ragna; Sassene, Philip Jonas

    2017-01-01

    , it is important to simulate the gastro-intestinal conditions and processes the drug will encounter upon oral administration. When a drug is administered in the fed state, which is commonly the case for neonates, as they are typically fed every 3 h, the digestion of the milk will affect the composition...... of the fluid available for drug dissolution/solubilization. Therefore, in order to predict the solubilized amount of drug available for absorption, an in vitro model simulating digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract should be utilized. In order to simulate the digestion process and the drug solubilization...... taking place in vivo, the following aspects should be considered; physiologically relevant media, media volume, use of physiological enzymes in proper amounts, as well as correct pH and addition of relevant co-factors, e.g., bile salts and co-enzymes. Furthermore, physiological transit times...

  13. Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia Leaf Extract Against Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynda F. Pariñas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.

  14. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  15. of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), improved lactose digestion (ID 2946, 2951, 2974), and reduction in numbers of circulating CD34+ cells (ID 2947, 2952, 2975) (further assessment) pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of Lactobacillus acidophilus BCCM/LMG P-18806, Lactobacillus delbrueckii BCCM/LMG P-18805 and Streptococcus thermophilus BCCM/LMG P-18807 and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, and reduction in numbers......, might be a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, improved lactose digestion, is a beneficial physiological effect for individuals with lactose maldigestion. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific...... and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and improved lactose digestion....

  16. Integrated parasite management with special reference to gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, I; Wani, Z A; Shahardar, R A; Allaie, I M; Shah, M M

    2017-03-01

    Domestic animals are susceptible to a large number of parasitic diseases, which lead to severe economic losses to livestock industry. So, it is necessary to control parasitic infections in these animals. Control of these helminths is undertaken mostly by anthelmintics, but because of their widespread use there is development of resistance across the globe. However, total dependence on a single method of control has proved to be non-sustainable and cost ineffective in the long term. A combination of treatment and management is necessary to control parasitism so that it will not cause further economic losses to producer as well as to livestock industry. To become practically and ecologically sustainable, parasitic control schemes need to be based on integrated parasite management.

  17. Gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in three districts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify the genera of gastrointestinal strongyles infecting sheep goats in Chena and. Gimbo (Kaffa Zone) and Semen-Bench (Bench Maji zones) districts, Southwest. Ethiopia. A total of 800 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=492) and.

  18. Gastro-intestinal helminths of goliath frogs (Conraua goliath from the localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock in the Littoral Region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguiffo Nguete Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of goliath frog (Conraua goliath from the Littoral Region of Cameroon in the Localities of Loum, Yabassi and Nkondjock were surveyed. Out of the 30 goliath frogs examined (13 males and 17 females between April and May 2013, 26 (85% contained at least one helminth parasite and yielded a total of nine hundred and seventy three (973 helminths comprising: Nematodes (90.5%, Trematodes (9.4% and Pentastomids (0.1%. Nematodes included: Africana taylori (60%, Oswaldocruzia perreti (0.2%, Aplectana sp. (21%, Gendria sp. (7.1%, Amphibiophilus sp. (0.2%, Strongyluris sp. (0.1%, Physalopteroides sp. (1.6%, and Oxyuridae gen. sp. (0.3%. Trematodes comprised: Mesocoelium sp. (7.3% and Diplodiscus subclavatus (2.1%. Pentastomids were represented by Sebekia sp. (0.1%. The mean species richness and diversity were 1.97±2.12 and 0.41±0.04 respectively. The intensity of parasite infection was correlated with host body weight, positively for Africana taylori, Aplectana sp., Diplodiscus subclavatus, and Mesocoeliumsp. Infection rates were influenced by land-use pattern. Thus higher prevalences were observed in Loum (intensive agricultural area.

  19. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Gastro-Intestinal Tract of Chicken: Potential Use as Probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Harimurti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been suggested to have several beneficial effects on human and animals. These bacteria, indigenous to the gastro-intestinal tract, are important in regulating the balance among the desirable and undesirable intestinal microflora and in controlling enteric pathogenic infection in the host. Objectives of this research are to obtain lactic acid bacteria isolates from gastro-intestinal tract of chicken and to screen their ability as a probiotic agent i.e., their antagonistic against pathogenic bacteria, their survival at low pH and high concentration of bile salt. In this research, 74 samples used as sources of bacteria, and among them only 11 samples could be isolated as lactic acid bacteria with the total number of isolates of 61. Based on the preliminary screening i.e., their antagonistic factor against pathogenic bacteria, 20 isolates was further studied. Based on the identification scheme, these isolates belong to three species, i.e., Lactobacillus murinus, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The result showed that most isolates grow well in the media with the initial pH of 5.5, but their growth were retarded when the initial pH 3.5. Only one isolate Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2 showed its growth at initial pH of 3.5. All isolates did not show any growth at initial pH 2.5, though their viability still high. The result based on the isolates resistance to bile salt showed that most isolates could grow at media with 0.20% of bile salt. Their growth was inhibited with the increasing bile salt concentration. However, few isolates could grow well at media with 1% of bile salt. Based on their characteristics three isolates i.e., Lactobacillus murinus Ar-3, Streptococcus thermophilus Kp-2, and Pediococcus acidilactici Kd-6 were selected as probiotic agents for the continuing research. i.e. production of biomass and its application to chicken production. (Animal Production 9(2: 82-91 (2007 Key Words

  20. [Function of gastro-intestinal anastomoses after surgery for gastroduodenal ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, V N; Pavlishin, L B

    1997-01-01

    A comparative analyses of a functional capacity of different variants of gastro-duodenal anastomoses has been done in 108 patients operated for gastro-duodenal ulcers. Functional similarity of the direct anastomosis and the transversal termino-lateral gastro-duodenoanastomosis (TL GDA) was identified. It makes a chance to give prefferance to the direct anastomosis, being more simple in performance. The restoration of continuity of gastro-intestinal tract by TL GDA (after the Bilroth-1 operation) should be performed in case of impossibility of creation of a direct GDA. The mentioned types of anastomoses provide a low rate postgastroresection syndrome. The function of gastro-gastric anastomosis and pyloric sphincter after pyloropreserving gastric resection should be studied profoundly and the expanding of indications for this procedure is premature. The differential approach to draining anastomosis in operation of vagotomy is advocated.

  1. Controlled Release of Benzocaine from Monomer and Copolymer Carriers in Synthetic Gastro-intestinal Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houaria Merine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New dosage forms able to control drug release in the gastro-intestinal media have been prepared and investigated in this paper. Two different type of medicinal agent bonding (MA, in our case Benzocaine (Bz, were chosen in order to examine drug release. i MA attached to ethylenic monomer (m,p-vinylbenzaldehyde, condensation reaction. ii The copolymer carrier (Cp is obtained by copolymerizing this monomer. These two carriers were well characterized by microanalysis, FTIR, DSC (Tg and GPC (Ip and the two fraction α and β were calculated from elemental analyses of Cp. The results showed good polydispersity and low average molecular weight. MA linked to an organic product by the azomethine function (C=N, hydrolytically sensitive, allowed controlled release of Bz, from the monomer carrier and from the bending Schiff bases groups. Theoretical and experimental analyses of controlled release of Bz kinetics from monomer and copolymer carriers were conducted for the case of contact with synthetic gastro-intestinal fluids at various pH (1,2; 6,0 and 8,0 at 37°C. The process was found to be controlled by the nature of media (heterogeneous, which involved the preliminary hydrolysis, and the drug (Bz diffusing out of structure of copolymer (Cp to the external aqueous media. The results obtained on the rate of delivery showed a clear difference between pH = 1,2 and pH = 6,0 and 8,0 based on: i The cation of p-aminoniumbenzoic acid (PABAH+ release at pH = 1,2 ii Bz release at pH = 6,0 and 8,0

  2. Neoodjuvant imatinib mesylate for advanced primary and metastactic/recurrent gastro-intestinal stromal tumour (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Diptimay; Ganguly, Subir; Deb, Asit Ranjan; Aich, Ranen Kanti

    2013-01-01

    Therapy of gastro-intestinal stromal tumour (GIST) has changed significantly with the use of imatinib mesylate. Disease progression remains a complicated clinical issue, suggesting the need for multimodality management. This is a prospective clinical study evaluating the neoadjuvant use of Imatinib mesylate in primary GIST. There is pre-operative use of imatinib in 10 patients with operable advanced and metastatic GIST. The follow-up continued postoperatively for maximum period of two years and postoperative imatinib was given for two years. Ten patients were accrued in the study. Following imatinib mesylate therapy, the median reduction of tumour volume was 45% (range 20-60%). Six of the ten patients underwent complete resection of the tumour following neoadjuvant imatinib for a median period of three months, and are disease-free for a median follow-up of eleven months (range 6-24 months). Three patients in whom the tumours were deemed to be operable after downsizing and who refused surgery are also continuing imatinib. Imatinib did not produce serious toxicity in any patient.

  3. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  4. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Abongwa

    Full Text Available Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38, in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50. This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and

  5. ) production and/or pH in the gastrointestinal tract (ID 787, 813), changes in bowel function (ID 813, 853, 1902, 1903, 1904, 2929, 2930, 2931), and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 813, 1902, 1903, 1904, 2929, 2930, 2931) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 788), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to partially hydrolysed guar gum and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, changes in bowel function, and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort...

  6. Hospital discharge diagnostic and procedure codes for upper gastro-intestinal cancer: how accurate are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Efty

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-level health administrative datasets such as hospital discharge data are used increasingly to evaluate health services and outcomes of care. However information about the accuracy of Australian discharge data in identifying cancer, associated procedures and comorbidity is limited. The Admitted Patients Data Collection (APDC is a census of inpatient hospital discharges in the state of New South Wales (NSW. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of the APDC in identifying upper gastro-intestinal (upper GI cancer cases, procedures for associated curative resection and comorbidities at the time of admission compared to data abstracted from medical records (the ‘gold standard’. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 240 patients with an incident upper GI cancer diagnosis derived from a clinical database in one NSW area health service from July 2006 to June 2007. Extracted case record data was matched to APDC discharge data to determine sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and agreement between the two data sources (κ-coefficient. Results The accuracy of the APDC diagnostic codes in identifying site-specific incident cancer ranged from 80-95% sensitivity. This was comparable to the accuracy of APDC procedure codes in identifying curative resection for upper GI cancer. PPV ranged from 42-80% for cancer diagnosis and 56-93% for curative surgery. Agreement between the data sources was >0.72 for most cancer diagnoses and curative resections. However, APDC discharge data was less accurate in reporting common comorbidities - for each condition, sensitivity ranged from 9-70%, whilst agreement ranged from κ = 0.64 for diabetes down to κ  Conclusions Identifying incident cases of upper GI cancer and curative resection from hospital administrative data is satisfactory but under-ascertained. Linkage of multiple population-health datasets is advisable to maximise case ascertainment and minimise false

  7. Changes in the serum protein profile during radiotherapy to the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.; Lobera, A.; Legrand, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with a cancer of the upper airways of upper gastro-intestinal tract present a state of malnutrition as a result of the disease itself and, more importantly, as a result of its localisation. Loco-regional radiotherapy often leads to an aggravation, of this state. The protein profile, consisting of nine serum proteins, was determined each week in 54 patients with cancer of the upper respirato-gastro-intestinal tract receiving radiotherapy. During the course of radiotherapy, the already altered nutritional state of these patients deteriorated further, as shown by a regular and significant downturn in the weight curve. The weekly monitoring of the protein profile showed a gradual and significant decrease in the levels of nutritional proteins (prealbumin, retinol binding protein, transferrin) and immunoglobulins (IgM, IgA) and a small variation in the levels of inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, orosomucoid, C3 complement fraction, alpha 1 -antitrypsin). The protein profile, established on the basis of carefully selected proteins, can provide useful information in the monitoring of a patient's nutritional state [fr

  8. The influence of lactose intolerance and other gastro-intestinal tract disorders on L-thyroxine absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchała, Marek; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna

    2012-01-01

    The preferred treatment for hypothyroidism is oral levothyroxine (LT4) ingestion, in doses that ensure a sustained state of hormonal balance. Many different factors may significantly influence the absorption of LT4, including: interval between the ingestion of the drug and the last meal, eating habits, and different functional and organic pathologies of the gastro-intestinal tract. The main purpose of this paper is to review and systematise the available literature on the subject of the influence of different malabsorption syndromes on the effectiveness of LT4 preparations. The need to use high LT4 doses in the substitutional treatment of hypothyroidism is often the very first sign of one of the pathologies that are connected with malabsorption syndrome, which might have been asymptomatic and undiagnosed previously. Patients who require more than 2 μg/kg body weight of LT4 per day, with constantly increased thyrotropin level, should be diagnosed with the suspicion of pseudomalabsorption or real absorption disorder. An LT4 absorption test, using high doses of LT4, may be useful in the diagnosis of pseudomalabsorption. After excluding non-compliance, the differential diagnosis should include such disorders as lactose intolerance, coeliac disease, atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, bowel resection, inflammatory bowel disease, and parasite infection. Where there is a diagnosis of lactose intolerance, both a low lactose diet and a lactose-free LT4 preparation should be administered to restore euthyroidism or make it possible to decrease the dose of the LT4 preparation. In coeliac disease, a gluten-free diet usually allows a normalisation of the need for LT4, as do eradication of the H. pylori infection or parasite colonisation. In cases of atrophic gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease, treating the underlying diseases and regaining the state of remission may improve the absorption of LT4. In patients after gastro-intestinal tract surgery, a dose of

  9. Chemometric evaluation for the relation of BCR sequential extraction method and in vitro gastro-intestinal method for the assessment of metal bioavailability in contaminated soils in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadaş, Cennet; Kara, Derya

    2012-05-01

    A chemometric evaluation has been done to classify metal ions in soils and to determine whether or not the gastric and intestinal phases of a physiologically based extraction test bear any relation to any of the phases of the four-stage Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) extraction protocol. Nine trace analytes (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in extracts obtained from the BCR sequential extraction procedure as well as from in vitro gastro-intestinal experiments. The results showed that high As, Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations were found in these soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis were used as classification techniques. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was applied to the data set to determine how the bioaccessibility of a metal is linked to the operationally defined fractions of metal speciation in soil. This analysis showed that the metal concentrations in the intestinal and gastric extracts are mainly dependent on the concentrations found in BCR phases 1 and 2 for each metal ion except for Cr, which was mainly dependent on the concentrations found in BCR phase 3. From the chemometric technique of correlation analysis, it was concluded that the metals extracted using BCR phases 1 and 2 are more likely to be bioaccessible, i.e. are also extracted by gastric and intestinal digestion solutions. When the correlation and PCA results were interpreted together, it indicated that the bioaccessiblity of Zn, Pb, Mn and Cd were higher than As, Ba, Cr, Ni and Cu for these soils.

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polydextrose and changes in bowel function (ID 784), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract (ID 784), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 785) and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 784) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to polydextrose and changes in bowel function, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-in...

  11. Evaluation of lipid-based formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs in the gastro-intestinal tract using in vitro tests

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Yvonne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Novel active pharmaceutical ingredients are often poorly water-soluble. Such compounds may only partially dissolve or may precipitate during intestinal passage, potentially leading to incomplete drug absorption. Despite the importance of the process, the underlying in vivo as well as in vitro drug-precipitation mechanisms remain poorly understood. Several formulation principles, including lipid-based formulations, have been introduced to prevent drug precipitation in the gastro-intestinal tra...

  12. Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávarri, María; Marañón, Izaskun; Ares, Raquel; Ibáñez, Francisco C; Marzo, Florencio; Villarán, María del Carmen

    2010-08-15

    Chitosan was used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in calcium alginate beads. Chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were produced to encapsulate Lactobacillus gasseri (L) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B) as probiotics and the prebiotic quercetin (Q) with the objective of enhancing survival of the probiotic bacteria and keeping intact the prebiotic during exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The encapsulation yield for viable cells for chitosan-coated alginate microspheres with quercetin (L+Q and B+Q) was very low. These results, together with the study about the survival of microspheres with quercetin during storage at 4 degrees C, demonstrated that probiotic bacteria microencapsulated with quercetin did not survive. Owing to this, quercetin and L. gasseri or B. bifidum were microencapsulated separately. Microencapsulated L. gasseri and microencapsulated B. bifidum were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2h), resulting in significantly (p<0.05) improved survival when compared with free bacteria. This work showed that the microencapsulation of L. gasseri and B. bifidum with alginate and a chitosan coating offers an effective means of delivery of viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric and intestinal juice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pomegranate ellagitannins inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro and reduce starch digestibility under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesia, Andrea; Verzelloni, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate extract was tested for its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Pomegranate extract strongly inhibited rat intestinal α-glucosidase in vitro whereas it was a weak inhibitor of porcine α-amylase. The inhibitory activity was recovered in an ellagitannins-enriched fraction and punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid were identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors (IC(50) of 140.2, 191.4, and 380.9 μmol/L, respectively). Kinetic analysis suggested that the pomegranate extract and ellagitannins inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a mixed mode. The inhibitory activity was demonstrated using an in vitro digestion system, mimicking the physiological gastro-intestinal condition, and potatoes as food rich in starch. Pre-incubation between ellagitannins and α-glucosidase increased the inhibitory activity, suggesting that they acted by binding to α-glucosidase. During digestion punicalin and punicalagin concentration decreased. Despite this loss, the pomegranate extract retained high inhibitory activity. This study suggests that pomegranate ellagitannins may inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro possibly affecting in vivo starch digestion.

  14. Follow-up of gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GIST) during treatment with imatinib mesylate by abdominal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroszczynski, Christian; Jost, Dominik; Chmelik, Petra; Gaffke, Gunnar; Felix, Roland [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Reichardt, Peter; Kretzschmar, Albrecht [Klinik fuer Haematologie, Onkologie und Tumorimmunologie CCB Robert-Roessle-Klinik, Berlin (Germany); Schneider, Ulrike [Institut fuer Pathologie CCB, Berlin (Germany); Hohenberger, Peter [Klinik fuer Chirurgie und Chirurgische Onkologie CCB Robert-Roessle-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Typical MRI findings for gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GIST) under treatment with imatinib were evaluated. MRI was performed in 45 patients (25 responders, 20 non-responders) with metastatic or locally advanced, unresectable GIST. Target lesions were selected and re-evaluated after 2, 4, and 6 months of therapy with imatinib. The target tumour response (TTR) was classified according to RECIST criteria. TTR, signal intensity in the centre and border of the lesion and the presence and the extension of a hypervascular rim were analysed. The mean diameter of the marker lesions decreased significantly (P<0.001) from 7.1{+-}2.6 cm to 5.9{+-}2.3 cm after 6 months. Accuracy of RECIST criteria was 51%, 69% and 73% on MRI 2, 4 and 6 months for response assessment. In addition, responders had higher signal-to-noise ratios on T2-w images after 2 months (P<0.05) and a decrease of vascularised areas in the lesion 4 and 6 months after treatment (each P<0.01), when compared with non-responders. Beyond the size measurement for response assessment, MRI provides additional information of tumour response using SI of T2-w images and quantification of vascularised areas of GIST manifestations. (orig.)

  15. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  17. The effect of grazing forage containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal parasite infection and milk composition in Angora does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Hart, S P; Miller, D; Tomita, G M; Loetz, E; Sahlu, T

    2005-06-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of the condensed tannin (CT)-containing forage sericea lespedeza (sericea lespedeza (SL); Lespedeza cuneata; 15.2% CT), on fecal egg count (FEC), larval development (larvae/10 g of feces), worm burden and immune response compared with a crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum)/Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; control forage (CTF)) forage low in CT (0.32% CT) in grazing Angora does and their kids. Fifty worm-free mixed-age does were randomly allocated to three treatments. One treatment (10 does; initial liveweight (LW) = 45+/-1.5 kg) entailed grazing of SL forage from April 25 to July 15, 2002 with a second treatment of CTF (20 does; initial LW = 43+/-1.4 kg) grazing during the same period. Does of the third treatment (20 does; initial LW = 44+/-1.4 kg) grazed a sward of SL for 2 weeks and then one of CTF for 2 weeks followed by alternating between the two pastures every 2-week rotational grazing (ROT). To gauge levels of infective larvae on pasture, three worm-free Angora kids (initial LW = 3.6+/-0.2 kg) were randomly selected as tracers. Tracers grazed for final 60 days and were euthanized for determination of worm burden. The immune response of does was measured by skin thickness reaction after the intradermal injection of 250 microg phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Mean FEC for SL and ROT were substantially lower (P kids was lower (P milk somatic cell counts (SCC) than does grazing non-CT-containing forage. In summary, grazing CT forages reduced FEC, larval development and worm burden, and also appeared to enhance immune response. The CT-containing forage SL reduced gastro-intestinal parasite infections of Angora does and kids.

  18. Seasonal egg output of gastro-intestinal parasites in wild ungulates in a mediterranean area (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seasonal egg (or oocyst output of gastro-intestinal parasites of wild ungulates was studied in a Mediterranean protected area, the Monti Livornesi Park (Livorno, Tuscany region, Central Italy. Samples of faeces of wild boars (Sus scrofa and mouflons (Ovis ammon were collected monthly for one year. The observed trends of egg output were analysed taking into account seasonal variations of temperature and rainfall, life-cycle and survival strategy of parasites, and health condition of hosts. In our Mediterranean study area, the peaks of egg output appear in different months according to different biology and survival strategies of parasites. Riassunto Emissione stagionale di uova di parassiti gastrointestinali in cinghiali (Sus scrofa e in mufloni (Ovis ammon di un’area mediterranea (Italia centrale. E' stata studiata l'emissione stagionale di uova (o oocisti di parassiti nelle feci di ungulati selvatici in una zona mediterranea protetta, il Parco dei Monti Livornesi (Livorno, Toscana, Italia Centrale. Per un anno sono stati raccolti mensilmente campioni di feci di Cinghiale (Sus scrofa e di Muflone (Ovis ammon. Gli andamenti osservati di emissione di uova sono stati analizzati tenendo conto delle variazioni di temperatura e piovosità stagionali, del ciclo biologico e della strategia di sopravvivenza dei parassiti, e delle condizioni sanitarie dell'ospite. E’ risultato che in una zona mediterranea come quella considerata i picchi di emissione di uova appaiono in mesi differenti in relazione alla biologia e alle strategie di sopravvivenza dei diversi parassiti.

  19. In vitro characterization of cadmium transport along the gastro-intestinal tract of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinck, Joel S.; Wood, Chris M.

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro gut sac technique was used to examine the mechanism(s) of cadmium (Cd) uptake along the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The spatial distribution of Cd between three compartments (mucus-binding, mucosal epithelium, and transport into blood space) was determined using a modified Cortland saline containing 50 μM Cd (as CdCl 2 ) labeled with 109 Cd radiotracer. Taking into account total surface areas, the order of relative importance for total Cd uptake rate was: posterior intestine > anterior intestine > stomach > mid intestine. Cd transport was not inhibited by experimentally reducing fluid transport rates by manipulation of osmotic gradients using mannitol, but was sensitive to internal luminal pressure changes, suggesting a mechanosensitive pathway. Q 10 values (1, 11, and 19 o C) indicated a facilitated transport of Cd in the anterior- and mid-intestine. The effects of 10 mM Ca on the kinetics of Cd uptake suggest the presence of a common uptake pathway for Cd and Ca in the stomach, anterior-, and mid-intestine. Further evidence of a shared route of entry was found using three Ca channel blockers, lanthanum, verapamil, and nifedipine: both voltage-insensitive and voltage-sensitive Ca channels appear to be present in either some, or all portions of the GIT. Elevated Fe (500 μM), Mg (50 mM), and Zn (500 μM) showed varying degrees of inhibition of Cd transport depending on the compartment and segment of the GIT. Overall it appears that there are multiple sites, and mechanisms, of Cd uptake along the GIT of rainbow trout.

  20. In vitro characterization of cadmium transport along the gastro-intestinal tract of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinck, Joel S., E-mail: klinckjs@mcmaster.ca [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    An in vitro gut sac technique was used to examine the mechanism(s) of cadmium (Cd) uptake along the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The spatial distribution of Cd between three compartments (mucus-binding, mucosal epithelium, and transport into blood space) was determined using a modified Cortland saline containing 50 {mu}M Cd (as CdCl{sub 2}) labeled with {sup 109}Cd radiotracer. Taking into account total surface areas, the order of relative importance for total Cd uptake rate was: posterior intestine > anterior intestine > stomach > mid intestine. Cd transport was not inhibited by experimentally reducing fluid transport rates by manipulation of osmotic gradients using mannitol, but was sensitive to internal luminal pressure changes, suggesting a mechanosensitive pathway. Q{sub 10} values (1, 11, and 19 {sup o}C) indicated a facilitated transport of Cd in the anterior- and mid-intestine. The effects of 10 mM Ca on the kinetics of Cd uptake suggest the presence of a common uptake pathway for Cd and Ca in the stomach, anterior-, and mid-intestine. Further evidence of a shared route of entry was found using three Ca channel blockers, lanthanum, verapamil, and nifedipine: both voltage-insensitive and voltage-sensitive Ca channels appear to be present in either some, or all portions of the GIT. Elevated Fe (500 {mu}M), Mg (50 mM), and Zn (500 {mu}M) showed varying degrees of inhibition of Cd transport depending on the compartment and segment of the GIT. Overall it appears that there are multiple sites, and mechanisms, of Cd uptake along the GIT of rainbow trout.

  1. Microbiomes associated with infective stages of root-knot and lesion nematodes in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhady

    Full Text Available Endoparasitic root-knot (Meloidogyne spp. and lesion (Pratylenchus spp. nematodes cause considerable damage in agriculture. Before they invade roots to complete their life cycle, soil microbes can attach to their cuticle or surface coat and antagonize the nematode directly or by induction of host plant defenses. We investigated whether the nematode-associated microbiome in soil differs between infective stages of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans, and whether it is affected by variation in the composition of microbial communities among soils. Nematodes were incubated in suspensions of five organically and two integrated horticultural production soils, recovered by sieving and analyzed for attached bacteria and fungi after washing off loosely adhering microbes. Significant effects of the soil type and nematode species on nematode-associated fungi and bacteria were revealed as analyzed by community profiling using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Attached microbes represented a small specific subset of the soil microbiome. Two organic soils had very similar bacterial and fungal community profiles, but one of them was strongly suppressive towards root-knot nematodes. They were selected for deep amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS. Significant differences among the microbiomes associated with the two species in both soils suggested specific surface epitopes. Among the 28 detected bacterial classes, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria were the most abundant. The most frequently detected fungal genera were Malassezia, Aspergillus and Cladosporium. Attached microbiomes did not statistically differ between these two soils. However, Malassezia globosa and four fungal species of the family Plectosphaerellaceae, and the bacterium Neorhizobium galegae were strongly enriched on M. incognita in the suppressive soil. In conclusion, the highly specific attachment of microbes to infective stages of

  2. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fosu-Nyarko

    Full Text Available The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668 with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii.

  3. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii.

  4. Differential Metabolic Profiles during the Developmental Stages of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban Subramanian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita is a common root-knot nematode with a wide range of plant hosts. We aimed to study the metabolites produced at each stage of the nematode life cycle to understand its development. Metabolites of Meloidogyne incognita were extracted at egg, J2, J3, J4, and female stages and 110 metabolites with available standards were quantified using CE-TOF/MS. Analyses indicated abundance of stage-specific metabolites with the exception of J3 and J4 stages which shared similar metabolic profiles. The egg stage showed increased abundance in glycolysis and energy metabolism related metabolites while the J2 metabolites are associated with tissue formation, motility, and neurotransmission. The J3 and J4 stages indicated amino acid metabolism and urea cycle- related metabolites. The female stage was characterized with polyamine synthesis, antioxidant activity, and synthesis of reproduction related metabolites. Such metabolic profiling helps us understand the dynamic physiological changes related to each developmental stage of the root-knot nematode life cycle.

  5. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on developmental stages of house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Patil, Jagadeesh

    2017-09-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica is a major domestic, medical and veterinary pest. The management of these flies reliance on insecticide, causes environmental constraints, insecticide resistance and residues in the meat, skin. Therefore one of the eco-friendly alternate methods is by using biological agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). In the present study evaluated the survival of EPN species Steinernema feltiae , Heterorhabditis indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in poultry manure and also their efficacy against different developmental stages of house fly. After exposing to poultry manure, S. feltiae showed more survival as followed by H. indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in all exposition period. When the exposition period extended to 96 h, all nematode species survivability was drastically reduced. After exposing these nematodes to poultry manure at 24 h their virulence capacity against wax moth, Galleria mellonella showed all the nematode species were able cause 100% mortality. However their progeny production was significantly reduced. Fly eggs and pupae were refractory to these nematode infection. Petri dish without artificial diet assay showed that, second and 3rd-instar larvae were highly susceptible to EPNs as compared to larvae provided with artificial diet. H. indica showed high virulence capacity compared to other nematodes tested. Poultry manure assay revealed that, H. indica and S. carpocapsae caused minimal mortality where as S. feltiae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi did not cause any mortality. This may be because of poor survival and limited movement of nematodes in poultry manure which may be due to ammonia, other toxic substances in poultry manure. The decrease in larval mortality in manure suggests that biocontrol of housefly by using EPNs is unlikely.

  6. potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970), “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231), defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967) and increasing IL-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food...

  7. Upper Gastro - intestinal Haemorrhage.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7%) and gastric carcinoma (5%). Almost 70% of those with oesophageal varices had ~ tosoma mansoni infection. .... venous cannulae are inserted, and a gelatin infusion. (Gelofusine or Haemocoel) is administered. The availability of blood in ...

  8. Upper Gastro - intestinal Haemorrhage.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single-contrast barium meal examination will not provide much information, especially in the absence of screening facilities. In the district hospi- tal it is best to work on the assumption that bleeding originates from oesophageal varices if there is splenomegaly, and, in the absence of a palpable spleen, that bleeding comes ...

  9. Gastro-intestinal microbiota of two migratory shorebird species during spring migration staging in Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migratory birds travel long distances and use diverse habitats, potentially exposing them to a broad range of microbes that could negatively affect their health and survival. Gut microbiota composition has been shown to be closely related to organismal health through interactions...

  10. Transmission electron microscopic observation of body cuticle structures of phoretic and parasitic stages of Parasitaphelenchinae nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Ekino

    Full Text Available Using transmission electron microscopy, we examined the body cuticle ultrastructures of phoretic and parasitic stages of the parasitaphelenchid nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, B. conicaudatus, B. luxuriosae, B. rainulfi; an unidentified Bursaphelenchus species, and an unidentified Parasitaphelenchus species. Nematode body cuticles usually consist of three zones, a cortical zone, a median zone, and a basal zone. The phoretic stages of Bursaphelenchus spp., isolated from the tracheal systems of longhorn beetles or the elytra of bark beetles, have a thick and radially striated basal zone. In contrast, the parasitic stage of Parasitaphelenchus sp., isolated from bark beetle hemocoel, has no radial striations in the basal zone. This difference probably reflects the peculiar ecological characteristics of the phoretic stage. A well-developed basal radially striated zone, composed of very closely linked proteins, is the zone closest to the body wall muscle. Therefore, the striation is necessary for the phoretic species to be able to seek, enter, and depart from host/carrier insects, but is not essential for internal parasites in parasitaphelenchid nematodes. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from near-full-length small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences suggest that the cuticle structures of parasitic species have apomorphic characters, e.g., lack of striation in the basal zone, concurrent with the evolution of insect parasitism from a phoretic life history.

  11. Bioconversion of red ginseng saponins in the gastro-intestinal tract in vitro model studied by high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, H.; Wang, M.; Venema, K.; Maathuis, A.; Heijden, R. van der; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTICR-MS) method was developed to investigate the metabolism of ginsenosides in in vitro models of the gastro-intestinal tract. The metabolites were identified by

  12. [A rare differential diagnosis of a somatoform autonomous disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract: the hepatocellular liver carcinoma in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voll, Renate

    2008-07-01

    A severely ill 11-year-old boy came to the child psychiatric outpatient department of the Fachkrankenhaus Neckargemünd with the diagnosis of a somatoform disorder. Main symptoms included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. He wished to be examined in order to enter the Stephen-Hawking-School for physically handicapped children in the town of Neckargemünd. Manual examination revealed a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, which was imaged as a tumour of the liver. During the subsequent operation, a 500 ml hepatocellular carcinoma was found. The symptoms of the hepatocellular carcinoma, which rarely occurs in childhood, can perfectly mimic those of a somatoform disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract.

  13. Effect of ageing on the gastro-intestinal transit of a lactulose-supplemented mixed solid-liquid meal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M; Börsch, G; Schaffstein, J; Lüth, I; Rickels, R; Ricken, D

    1988-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal transit of a mixed solid-liquid meal containing wheat bread, scrambled eggs, coffee labelled with 99mTc, orange juice with lactulose and indigocarmine was evaluated in 21 young control (mean age 33.5 years) and 25 elderly subjects (mean age 81.7 years) without gastrointestinal complaints or severe medical illness. The rate of gastric emptying was determined by an anterior gamma camera technique, mouth-to-caecum transit by the hydrogen breath test and whole-gut transit by the first stool passage of indigocarmine. Gastric emptying was significantly prolonged in older subjects: t1/2 = 136 +/- (SEM) 13 versus 81 +/- 4 min; p less than 0.001. Concerning mouth-to-caecum or whole-gut transit time, significant differences between the two study groups were not detected.

  14. Divergent gene expression in the conserved dauer stage of the nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Amit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An organism can respond to changing environmental conditions by adjusting gene regulation and by forming alternative phenotypes. In nematodes, these mechanisms are coupled because many species will form dauer larvae, a stress-resistant and non-aging developmental stage, when exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, and execute gene expression programs that have been selected for the survival of the animal in the wild. These dauer larvae represent an environmentally induced, homologous developmental stage across many nematode species, sharing conserved morphological and physiological properties. Hence it can be expected that some core components of the associated transcriptional program would be conserved across species, while others might diverge over the course of evolution. However, transcriptional and metabolic analysis of dauer development has been largely restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we use a transcriptomic approach to compare the dauer stage in the evolutionary model system Pristionchus pacificus with the dauer stage in C. elegans. Results We have employed Agilent microarrays, which represent 20,446 P. pacificus and 20,143 C. elegans genes to show an unexpected divergence in the expression profiles of these two nematodes in dauer and dauer exit samples. P. pacificus and C. elegans differ in the dynamics and function of genes that are differentially expressed. We find that only a small number of orthologous gene pairs show similar expression pattern in the dauers of the two species, while the non-orthologous fraction of genes is a major contributor to the active transcriptome in dauers. Interestingly, many of the genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer and orphan genes in P. pacificus, are differentially expressed suggesting that these genes are of evolutionary and functional importance. Conclusion Our data set provides a catalog for future functional investigations and indicates novel insight

  15. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) as influenced by Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) developmental stage and host plant stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, R; Shipp, J L

    2005-10-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes were investigated as an alternative biological control strategy for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in ornamental greenhouse crops, by using potted chrysanthemum as a model crop. The susceptibility of various life stages of F. occidentalis to different concentrations of the nematode Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) was investigated in petri dish bioassays. This was followed with trials using potted chrysanthemums comparing the efficacy of nematode application to plants in vegetative (exposed habitat) versus flowering (cryptic habitat) stages. In both trials, the effect of the wetting agent Agral 90 (nonylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol), which is used in combination with the nematode spray, on F. occidentalis mortality was assessed. In petri dish trials, the prepupae and pupae were the most susceptible developmental stages of F. occidentalis to infection by S. feltiae. First and second instars were killed by very high rates of nematodes (> or =20,000 infective juveniles per milliliter), but corrected mortality was only approximately 28-37%. No significant mortality was observed for adult thrips. Results from the petri dish trials were confirmed on chrysanthemum plants. Foliar application of S. feltiae did not result in significant mortality in larvae or adults. No significant differences in efficacy were detected by application of nematodes on vegetative versus flowering chrysanthemum. Agral 90 had a significant impact on mortality on the first stage larvae and prepupae in the petri dish trials but not in the plant trials. Thrips control by S. feltiae in greenhouses may be partly or completely due to prepupal and pupal mortality.

  16. Secreted proteomes of different developmental stages of the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Javier; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Harcus, Yvonne; Pickering, Darren; Bouchery, Tiffany; Camberis, Mali; Tang, Shiau-Choot; Giacomin, Paul; Mulvenna, Jason; Mitreva, Makedonka; Berriman, Matthew; LeGros, Graham; Maizels, Rick M; Loukas, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Hookworms infect more than 700 million people worldwide and cause more morbidity than most other human parasitic infections. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (the rat hookworm) has been used as an experimental model for human hookworm because of its similar life cycle and ease of maintenance in laboratory rodents. Adult N. brasiliensis, like the human hookworm, lives in the intestine of the host and releases excretory/secretory products (ESP), which represent the major host-parasite interface. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis of infective larval (L3) and adult worm stages of N. brasiliensis to gain insights into the molecular bases of host-parasite relationships and determine whether N. brasiliensis could indeed serve as an appropriate model for studying human hookworm infections. Proteomic data were matched to a transcriptomic database assembled from 245,874,892 Illumina reads from different developmental stages (eggs, L3, L4, and adult) of N. brasiliensis yielding∼18,426 unigenes with 39,063 possible isoform transcripts. From this analysis, 313 proteins were identified from ESPs by LC-MS/MS-52 in the L3 and 261 in the adult worm. Most of the proteins identified in the study were stage-specific (only 13 proteins were shared by both stages); in particular, two families of proteins-astacin metalloproteases and CAP-domain containing SCP/TAPS-were highly represented in both L3 and adult ESP. These protein families are present in most nematode groups, and where studied, appear to play roles in larval migration and evasion of the host's immune response. Phylogenetic analyses of defined protein families and global gene similarity analyses showed that N. brasiliensis has a greater degree of conservation with human hookworm than other model nematodes examined. These findings validate the use of N. brasiliensis as a suitable parasite for the study of human hookworm infections in a tractable animal model. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  17. Plant-expressed Hepatitis B core antigen virus-like particles: Characterization and investigation of their stability in simulated and pig gastro-intestinal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Alberto; Lomonossoff, George P; Evans, David J; Barker, Susan A

    2017-04-30

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are potential oral vaccine candidates, as their highly compact structure may allow them to withstand the harsh conditions of the gastro-intestinal (GI) environment. Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an immunogenic protein that assembles into 30 or 34nm diameter VLPs. Here, the stabilities of both the HBcAg polypeptide itself and the three-dimensional structure of the VLPs upon exposure to in vitro and ex vivo simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were investigated. Plant-expressed HBcAg VLPs were efficiently purified by sucrose density gradient and characterized. The purified VLPs did not show major chemical or physical instability upon exposure to the low pH conditions typically found in the stomach; however, they completely agglomerated upon acidification and subsequent pH neutralization. The HBcAg polypeptide was highly digested upon exposure to pepsin in simulated gastric fluids. HBcAg appeared more stable in both simulated and ex vivo intestinal fluids, where despite a partial digestion of the HBcAg polypeptide, the VLPs maintained their most immunogenic epitopes and their particulate conformation. These results suggest that HBcAg VLPs are likely to be unstable in gastric fluids, yet if the gastric instability could be bypassed, they could maintain their particulate structure and immunogenicity in intestinal fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Validity of two recently-proposed prognostic grading indices for lung, gastro-intestinal, breast and renal cell cancer patients with radiosurgically-treated brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Serizawa, Toru; Sato, Yasunori; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Barfod, Bierta E; Ono, Junichi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2013-02-01

    We tested the validity of two prognostic indices for stereotactic radiosurgically (SRS)-treated patients with brain metastases (BMs) from five major original cancer categories. The two indices are Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) and our Modified Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA). Forty-six hundred and eight BM patients underwent gamma knife SRS during the 1998-2011 period. Primary cancer categories were non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 2827 patients), small cell lung cancer (SCLC, 460), gastro-intestinal cancer (GIC, 582), breast cancer (BC, 547) and renal cell cancer (RCC, 192). There were statistically significant survival differences among patients stratified into four groups based on the DS-GPA systems (p failed to reach statistical significance with this system. There were, however, statistically significant MST differences (p < 0.001) among the three groups without overlapping of 95 % CIs between any two pairs of groups with the Modified RPA system in all five categories. The DS-GPA system is applicable to our set of patients with NSCLC only. However, the Modified RPA system was shown to be applicable to patients with five primary cancer categories. This index should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving BM patients.

  19. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, a pro-oxidant, ameliorated radiation induced gastro-intestinal injury through perturbation of cellular redox and activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Lokesh

    Detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are observed at the doses above 1 Gy. Treatment modalities are available up to doses of 6 Gy including bonemarrow transplantation and administration of antibiotics. However, exposure to IR doses above 8 Gy results in gastro-intestinal (GI) syndrome characterised by denudated villi, apoptosis of crypt cells and elevated inflammatory responses. Multiple strategies have been employed to investigate novel agents to protect against IR induced injury. Since cellular redox homeostasis plays a pivotal role in deciding the cell fate, present study was undertaken to explore the potential of 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ), a pro-oxidant, to ameliorate IR induced GI syndrome. NQ protected INT 407 cells against IR induced cell death of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. NQ induced perturbation in cellular redox status and induced the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Thiol antioxidant and inhibitors of Nrf2 pathway abrogated the radioprotection offered by NQ. Further, knocking down Nrf2 rescind the NQ mediated protection against IR induced cell death. In conclusion, NQ protects against IR radiation induced GI syndrome in vitro by perturbing cellular redox and activating Nrf2 pathway. This is the first report highlighting the potential of a pro-oxidant to ameliorate IR induced GI injury.

  20. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  1. The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie van Aardt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode, Pratylenchus zeae (Nematoda: Tylenchida during non- and post-anhydrobiosisPratylenchus zeae, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is an endoparasite in roots of maize and other crop plants. The nematode is attracted to plant roots by CO2 and root exudates and feeds primarily on cells of the root cortex, making channels and openings where the eggs are deposited, with the result that secondary infection occurs due to bacteria and fungi. Nothing is known about the respiration physiology of this nematode and how it manages to survive during dry seasons. To measure the oxygen consumption rate (VO2 of individual P. zeae (less than half a millimeter long, a special measuring technique namely Cartesian diver micro-respirometry was applied. The Cartesian divers were machined from Perspex, and proved to be more accurate to measure VO2 compared with heavier glass divers used in similar experiments on free living nematodes. An accuracy of better than one nanoliter of oxygen consumed per hour was achieved with a single P. zeae inside the diver. Cartesian diver micro-respirometry measurements are based in principle on the manometric changes that occur in a fl otation tube in a manometer set-up when oxygen is consumed by P. zeae and CO2 from the animal is chemically absorbed. VO2 was measured for eggs (length: < 0.05 mm, larvae (length: 0.36 mm and adults (length: 0.47 mm before induction to anhydrobiosis. P. zeae from infected maize roots were extracted and exposed aseptically to in vitro maize root cultures in a grow cabinet at 50 % to 60% relative humidity at 28 ºC using eggs, larvae and adults. VO2 was also measured for post-anhydrobiotic eggs, larvae and adults by taking 50 individuals, eggs and larvae from the culture and placing them in Petri-dishes with 1% agar/water to dry out for 11 days at 28 ºC and 50% relative humidity. The VO2 was measured

  2. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for development of hemorrhagic gastro-intestinal disease in veterinary intensive care units in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, James W; Maunder, Christina L; Roberts, Emma; McLauchlan, Gerard; Adamantos, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of hemorrhagic gastro-intestinal (GI) disease developing in dogs and cats admitted for management of non-GI disease in veterinary intensive care units (ICUs). Retrospective study of animals presented between October 2012 and July 2013. Three ICUs located in veterinary teaching hospitals in the United Kingdom. Dogs (n = 272) and cats (n = 94) were consecutively enrolled from 3 ICUs if they were hospitalized in the unit for at least 24 hours. Cases were excluded if they had hemorrhagic GI disease in the 48-hour period before presentation or in the 24-hour period after admission. Cases were also excluded if they suffered skull fracture, epistaxis, or hemoptysis, if they underwent surgical procedures of the GI or upper respiratory tracts, or if they were presented for management of GI disease. Hemorrhagic GI disease was observed in dogs at all 3 units, but at different rates (Center 1: 10.3%, Center 2: 4.8%, Center 3: 2.2%). Hemorrhagic GI disease was not observed in cats at any of the participating centers. Construction of a multivariable logistic regression model revealed that serum albumin concentration, administration of prophylactic gastro-protectant drugs, and institution were significantly associated with the development of hemorrhagic GI disease in dogs. Development of hemorrhagic GI disease and placement of a feeding tube were significantly associated with mortality during the period of hospitalization in dogs. Thirty-seven (13.6%) dogs and 12 (12.8%) cats died or were euthanized while hospitalized, with a higher mortality rate (42.1%) in dogs with hemorrhagic GI disease. Hemorrhagic GI disease does develop in dogs hospitalized for management of non-GI disease, but this phenomenon was not observed in cats. Development of hemorrhagic GI disease appeared to have a significant impact on survival in veterinary ICUs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  4. Two simple methods for the collection of individual life stages of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, the reniform nematode, is a serious pest of cotton and soybean in the United States. In recent years, interest in the molecular biology of the interaction between R. reniformis and its plant hosts has increased; however, the unusual...

  5. Dynamics of gastropod infection by first-stage larvae of protostrongylid nematodes--a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezác, P; Kindlmann, P; Dostálková, I; Holasová, E

    1993-12-01

    For the description of the dynamics of snail infection by the 1st-stage larvae of protostrongylid nematodes, Skorping (1988) used the miracidia-snail model (Anderson, 1978). Here it is shown that, in contrast to miracidia, in protostrongylids the instantaneous rate of infection, alpha, is strongly dependent on the experimental design (factors like host size and size of the experimental arena). With respect to this, Anderson's model is modified by incorporation of the experimental design. The parameter alpha in its new sense as the rate of penetration (probability that the infective larva will penetrate into the host during a time unit) is shown to remain dependent, although much less so, on the experimental design. Only the inclusion of the assumed effect of mucus, which decreases the rate of penetration, yields a parameter alpha 0 (the initial rate of penetration), which is completely independent of the design of the experiment, is species-specific, and also gives the best fit to the empirical data. As the above-mentioned factors can strongly influence the value of the instantaneous rate of infection in the laboratory experiments, alpha 0 is more suitable as a measure of either the larval infectivity for the snail or snail susceptibility to infection by the protostrongylid larvae.

  6. The genome and life-stage specific transcriptomes of Globodera pallida elucidate key aspects of plant parasitism by a cyst nematode

    KAUST Repository

    Cotton, James A

    2014-03-03

    Background: Globodera pallida is a devastating pathogen of potato crops, making it one of the most economically important plant parasitic nematodes. It is also an important model for the biology of cyst nematodes. Cyst nematodes and root-knot nematodes are the two most important plant parasitic nematode groups and together represent a global threat to food security. Results: We present the complete genome sequence of G. pallida, together with transcriptomic data from most of the nematode life cycle, particularly focusing on the life cycle stages involved in root invasion and establishment of the biotrophic feeding site. Despite the relatively close phylogenetic relationship with root-knot nematodes, we describe a very different gene family content between the two groups and in particular extensive differences in the repertoire of effectors, including an enormous expansion of the SPRY domain protein family in G. pallida, which includes the SPRYSEC family of effectors. This highlights the distinct biology of cyst nematodes compared to the root-knot nematodes that were, until now, the only sedentary plant parasitic nematodes for which genome information was available. We also present in-depth descriptions of the repertoires of other genes likely to be important in understanding the unique biology of cyst nematodes and of potential drug targets and other targets for their control. Conclusions: The data and analyses we present will be central in exploiting post-genomic approaches in the development of much-needed novel strategies for the control of G. pallida and related pathogens. 2014 Cotton et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of common gastrointestinal nematode parasites in scavenging pigs of different ages and sexes in Eastern Centre province, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Tamboura

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The range and infestation intensities of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode species depend on the type of swine production system. The present study focused mainly on nematodes of veterinary importance in scavenging pigs in Burkina Faso, and aimed at determining the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites by means of faecal egg per gram (EPG counts. Between November 2001 and October 2002, faecal samples from 383 pigs of different sexes and ages ( 12 months were collected from the rectum and examined for gastrointestinal nematodes parasites using the Mc Master method. Of the 383 pigs examined, 91 % were infected by one or more para sites. Ascaris suum (40 %; 100-1 400 EPG was the most prevalent parasite followed by Strongyloides ransomi (21 %; 100-4 200 EPG, Oesophagostomum spp. (18 %; 100-1 000 EPG, Hyostrongylus rubidus (11 %; 100-1 800 EPG, Globocephalus spp. 10 %; 100-400 EPG and Trichuris suis (1 %; 100-200 EPG. The prevalence was significantly higher in female pigs (n = 239 than in males. In addition, females excreted significantly (P < 0.05 more eggs in their faeces than males, except in the case of Globocephalus spp. The age of the animal had no effect on the prevalence of A. suum whereas there were significant differences in age categories concerning S. ransomi, H. rubidus, Oesophagostumum spp. and Globocephalus spp. Unexpectedly, the high prevalence of these common parasites was not accompanied by elevated EPG values, which suggests the existence of moderate infestations. The present work indicates that the common nematode infestations in pigs do not necessarily need a systematic herd anthelmintic treatment, as only a small number of worms is required to induce immunity. A further study is needed to formulate appropriate and cost-effective strategies for the control of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in pigs in Burkina Faso.

  8. Influence of earthworms on development of the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes in goat faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alexis, S; Loranger-Merciris, G; Mahieu, M; Boval, M

    2009-07-07

    With the important infection of small ruminants by gastrointestinal nematodes, and in the face of reduced efficacy of anthelminthic treatments, a search for other biological options is necessary. The effect of earthworms on the free-living stages of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in faeces from goats naturally infected in tropical pastures was evaluated. Two levels (0 vs 14 individuals per container) of indigenous earthworms (50% Pontoscolex corethrus and 50% Perionyx excavatus) were added to containers filled with soil and faeces collected from 20 grazing goats. After 1 week, the numbers of free-living stages of each infective larvae species was measured. The addition of earthworms reduced by 34% (P0.21). These results must be confirmed in experiments on pasture, with other ratios and combinations of earthworms.

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 788), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastrointestinal tract (ID 787, 813), changes in bowel function (ID 813, 853, 1902, 1903, 1904, 2929, 2930, 2931), and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 813, 1902, 1903, 1904, 2929, 2930, 2931) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to partially hydrolysed guar gum and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-int...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims...... and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is lactose, which should be “decreased” or “reduced” in foods in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that lactose is sufficiently characterised....... The claimed effects are “lactose intolerance”, “decrease lactose malabsorption symptoms” and “lactose digestion”. The target population is assumed to be lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake...

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 41 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 26 and increasing numbers of gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 941, , further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to a combination...... of Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 41and Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 26 and increasing numbers of gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 41and Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 26...... of gastro-intestinal microorganisms, is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 41 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii SI 26 and a beneficial...

  12. An electron-microscopical analysis of capture and initial stages of penetration of nematodes by Arthrobotrys oligospora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, Marten; Nordbring-Hertz, Birgit; Harder, Wim

    1985-01-01

    A detailed analysis was made of the capture and subsequent penetration of nematodes by the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora using different electron-microscopical techniques. Capture of nematodes by this fungus occurred on complex hyphal structures (traps) and was effectuated by an

  13. Genomic-bioinformatic analysis of transcripts enriched in the third-stage larva of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Qin Huang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Differential transcription in Ascaris suum was investigated using a genomic-bioinformatic approach. A cDNA archive enriched for molecules in the infective third-stage larva (L3 of A. suum was constructed by suppressive-subtractive hybridization (SSH, and a subset of cDNAs from 3075 clones subjected to microarray analysis using cDNA probes derived from RNA from different developmental stages of A. suum. The cDNAs (n = 498 shown by microarray analysis to be enriched in the L3 were sequenced and subjected to bioinformatic analyses using a semi-automated pipeline (ESTExplorer. Using gene ontology (GO, 235 of these molecules were assigned to 'biological process' (n = 68, 'cellular component' (n = 50, or 'molecular function' (n = 117. Of the 91 clusters assembled, 56 molecules (61.5% had homologues/orthologues in the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae and/or other organisms, whereas 35 (38.5% had no significant similarity to any sequences available in current gene databases. Transcripts encoding protein kinases, protein phosphatases (and their precursors, and enolases were abundantly represented in the L3 of A. suum, as were molecules involved in cellular processes, such as ubiquitination and proteasome function, gene transcription, protein-protein interactions, and function. In silico analyses inferred the C. elegans orthologues/homologues (n = 50 to be involved in apoptosis and insulin signaling (2%, ATP synthesis (2%, carbon metabolism (6%, fatty acid biosynthesis (2%, gap junction (2%, glucose metabolism (6%, or porphyrin metabolism (2%, although 34 (68% of them could not be mapped to a specific metabolic pathway. Small numbers of these 50 molecules were predicted to be secreted (10%, anchored (2%, and/or transmembrane (12% proteins. Functionally, 17 (34% of them were predicted to be associated with (non-wild-type RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, the majority being embryonic lethality (Emb (13 types; 58.8%, larval arrest

  14. Use of the dynamic gastro-intestinal model TIM to explore the survival of the yogurt bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus and the metabolic activities induced in the simulated human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriot, Ophélie; Galia, Wessam; Awussi, Ahoefa Ablavi; Perrin, Clarisse; Denis, Sylvain; Chalancon, Sandrine; Lorson, Emilie; Poirson, Chantal; Junjua, Maira; Le Roux, Yves; Alric, Monique; Dary, Annie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Roussel, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium used to produce yogurts and cheeses is more and more considered for its potential probiotic properties. This implies that additional information should be obtained regarding its survival and metabolic activity in the human Gastro-Intestinal Tract (GIT). In this study, we screened 30 S. thermophilus strains for urease, small heat shock protein, and amino-acid decarboxylase functions which may play a role in survival in the upper part of the GIT. The survival kinetics of 4 strains was investigated using the TIM, a physiologically relevant in vitro dynamic gastric and small intestinal model. The three strains LMD9, PB18O and EBLST20 showed significantly higher survival than CNRZ21 in all digestive compartments of the TIM, which may be related to the presence of urease and heat shock protein functions. When LMD9 bacterial cells were delivered in a fermented milk formula, a significant improvement of survival in the TIM was observed compared to non-fermented milk. With the RIVET (Recombinase In Vivo Expression Technology) method applied to the LMD9 strain, a promoter located upstream of hisS, responsible for the histidyl-transfer RNA synthesis, was found to be specifically activated in the artificial stomach. The data generated on S. thermophilus survival and its adaptation capacities to the digestive tract are essential to establish a list of biomarkers useful for the selection of probiotic strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of temperature on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari, a mermithid nematode parasite of mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Paily,K. P.; Balaraman,K.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of temperature (20 degrees-35 degrees C) on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari was studied. In embryonic development, the single-cell stage eggs developed into mature eggs in 4.5-6.5 days at 25-35 degrees C but, required 9.5 days at 20 degrees C. Complete hatching occurred in 7 and 9 days after egg-laying at 35 and 30 degrees C, respectively. At 25 and 20 degrees C, 85-96 of the eggs did not hatch even by 30th day. Loss of infectivity and death of the preparasites occurred f...

  16. Epidemiology, sero-diagnosis and therapeutic studies on nematodes infection in balochi range-sheep at district quetta, balochistan, pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razzaq

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the infectious organisms of parasitic origin, gastrointestinal nematodes are very important as they have been reported worldwide. The main aim of the present research study to highlight the annual epidemiological contributing factors associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and their control in sheep.A total 1200 faecal samples (100 per month were collected from farmers holding Balochi-sheep (either sexes, 1-5 years old during January-December 2012 and analyzed to determine the prevalence of nematodes based on microscopy and ELISA based diagnostic assay. Therapeutic efficacies of different synthetic and herbal medicines against these nematodes were assessed by field trials.Results showed that 23.92% Balochi-sheep were infected with nematodes. Five nematodes infections were recorded with highest prevalence of Haemonchus (7.75% followed by Nematodirus (7.58%, Strongyloides (4.42%, Trichostrongylus (2.33% and Trichuris (1.83%. The younger and older ewes (one and five years presented higher nematodes prevalence with peak during March/April and August/September. Haemonchus and Trichuris positive samples based on coprological examination were also showed 92-100% positive sensitivity for these nematodes by the ELISA. Sheep treated with Ivermectin showed higher reduction (97.76% in nematode egg counts followed by Atreefal deedan (96.42% and Oxfendazole (95.44%, respectively.The gastro-intestinal nematodes are prevalent in all age and either sex of Balochi-sheep with peak during summer. The ELISA based diagnosis is more accurte. The synthetic and herbal products are very effective against sheep nematodes.

  17. Evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi and a nematode against the soil-dwelling stages of the crane fly Tipula paludosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad A; Butt, Tariq M

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of the crane fly Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) are economically important pests of grasslands, nurseries and organically grown crops. This study was conducted to evaluate several entomopathogenic fungal strains, the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the organophosphate insecticide Dursban WG (75% chlorpyrifos) against larval stages of T. paludosa under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Metarhizium robertsii strain V1005 was the most virulent, causing 100% larval mortality 4 weeks post-inoculation. Eight other M. robertsii strains and M. brunneum (ARSEF 3297) caused mortality ranging between 0 and 60%, whereas strains of Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum were non-pathogenic to T. paludosa. In greenhouse tests, medium (2 × 10(14) conidia ha(-1) ) and high (2 × 10(16) conidia ha(-1) ) concentrations of V1005 gave higher larval mortalities (90 and 100%) than lower (2 × 10(13) conidia ha(-1) ) concentrations (52 and 78%) at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment respectively. Dursban WG gave 100% larval mortality 4 weeks after treatment; H. bacteriophora UWS1 caused 28 and 65% mortality 4 and 8 weeks after treatment respectively. This study shows that M. robertsii V1005 has considerable potential for the control of T. paludosa, thereby reducing the use of chemical insecticides. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Genetic regulation of parasite infection: empirical evidence of the functional significance of an IL4 gene SNP on nematode infections in wild primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappeler Peter M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to parasite infection affects fitness-related processes, such as mate choice and survival, yet its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. Interleukin-4 (IL4 plays a central role in the humoral immune defence against nematode parasite infections, inducing IgE switch and regulation of worm expulsion from the intestines. The evolutionary and functional significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4-genes is known, yet empirical information on the effect of IL4 SNPs on gastro-intestinal infections is lacking. Using samples from a population of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Primates: Lemuridae, from western Madagascar, we explored the association of IL4-gene promoter polymorphisms with nematode infections and investigated a possible functional role of the IL4 polymorphism on male reproductive success. Results Using sequence analyses of lemur DNA we detected a new SNP in the IL4 gene promoter area. Carriers of the genotype T/T showed higher nematode infection intensities than individuals of genotypes C/T and C/C. Genetic population analyses using data from more than 10 years, suggested higher reproductive success of T/T males than expected. Conclusions Our results suggest a regulatory effect of an IL4 gene promoter polymorphism on the intensity of parasite infections in a natural population of red-fronted lemurs, with a seemingly disadvantageous genotype represented in low frequencies. Long-term population analyses, however, point in the direction of a negative frequency-dependent association, giving a fitness advantage to the rare genotype. Due to low frequencies of the genotype in question conclusive evidence of a functional role of IL4 polymorphism cannot be drawn here; still, we suggest the use of IL4 polymorphism as a new molecular tool for quick assessment of individual genetic constitution with regard to nematode infection intensities, contributing to a better

  19. Effect of temperature on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari, a mermithid nematode parasite of mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Paily

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature (20 degrees-35 degrees C on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari was studied. In embryonic development, the single-cell stage eggs developed into mature eggs in 4.5-6.5 days at 25-35 degrees C but, required 9.5 days at 20 degrees C. Complete hatching occurred in 7 and 9 days after egg-laying at 35 and 30 degrees C, respectively. At 25 and 20 degrees C, 85-96 of the eggs did not hatch even by 30th day. Loss of infectivity and death of the preparasites occurred faster at higher temperatures. The 50 survival durations of preparasites at 20 and 35 degrees C were 105.8 and 10.6 hr respectively. They retained 50 infectivity up to 69.7 and 30.3 hr. The duration of the parasitic phase increased as temperature decreased. Low temperature favoured production of a higher proportion of females which were also larger in size. The maximum time taken for the juveniles to become adults was 14 days at 20 degrees C and the minimum was 9 days at 35 degrees C. Oviposition began earlier at higher temperature than at lower temperature. However, its fecundic period was shorter at 20 degrees C than at 35 degrees C indicating enhanced rate of oviposition at 20 degrees C. Fecundity was adversely affected at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C. It is shown that the temperature range of 25 degrees-30 degrees C favours optimum development of R. iyengari.

  20. Effect of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on the free-living stages of horse parasitic nematodes: a plot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Nansen, P.

    1997-01-01

    deposition, a subsample of the herbage surrounding each dung pat was collected and the number of larvae on the grass determined. Also, the larval reduction capacity of the fungus was evaluated by faecal cultures set up from all groups of horses. The faecal cultures showed that a sufficient number of spores......A plot experiment was conducted to investigate the ability of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce the transmission of infective horse strongyle larvae from deposited dung onto surrounding herbage. At three different times during the summer 1995, three groups of horses...... the transmission of infective larvae in all groups, resulting in low numbers of larvae on the herbage. During the rainy periods a significant reduction in the number of larvae recovered was observed around all fungal containing pats. There were no significant differences between the number of fungal spares...

  1. The effectiveness of (IgG-ELISA) serology as an alternative diagnostic method for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastro-intestinal bleeding due to gastro-duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, E; Castro-Fernández, M; Romero-Gómez, M; Vargas-Romero, J

    2002-12-01

    To establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of serology (IgG ELISA) as an alternative diagnostic method for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer and digestive hemorrhage. The diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in these patients is difficult due to the low sensitivity of invasive tests and the need to discontinue treatment with proton pump inhibitors to perform a breath test with urea 13C or the detection of Helicobacter pylori antigens in feces. We included 214 patients (164 men and 50 women) with an average age of 58 +/- 15 years, who were admitted to hospital due to upper gastro-intestinal bleeding caused by a gastro-duodenal peptic ulcer. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was established by means of gastric biopsy (fast urease test histology and/or culture) and a breath test with 13C-labeled urea. Serology was performed with the ELISA method (Pyloriset EIA-G by Orion Diagnostica). Positive Helicobacter pylori infection was accepted with any positive invasive method or breath test, and no infection was established if all invasive tests performed and the breath test with 13C-labeled urea were negative. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of serology in the global series and in different subgroups of patients according to age (> 60 and peptic ulcer. 192 patients (89.7%) showed infection due to Helicobacter pylori. In the global series (n = 214) we obtained a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 87.5, 54.5, 94.3 and 33.3%, respectively. Specificity was greater in the group not exposed to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 110) as compared to the exposed group (n = 104), in the 60 years group (n = 105), in the duodenal ulcer group (n = 141) with respect to the gastric ulcer group (n = 59), and in the group with a history of gastro-duodenal peptic

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225) and improving immune defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 896), and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 (La1) (CNCM I-1225) and improving immune defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...

  3. Ultrastructural changes in the third-stage, infective larvae of ruminant nematodes treated with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, S; Fourquaux, I; Hoste, H

    2011-12-01

    Plants rich in condensed tannins are an alternative to chemical anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in ruminants. Previous functional studies have shown that sainfoin extracts affect the two forms of infective larvae (L3), ensheathed and exsheathed. However, the mechanisms of action remain unknown. The aim of this study was thus to compare ultrastructural changes in ensheathed and exsheathed L3 of two GIN species after in vitro contact with sainfoin extracts using transmission electron microscopy. The main changes identified were an alteration of the hypodermis, the presence of numerous vesicles in the cytoplasm and degeneration and/or death of muscular and intestinal cells. The changes suggested similar and nonspecies-specific lesions in the two nematode species. Comparison of the modifications found in the ensheathed vs. exsheathed L3s revealed different locations of the main cellular changes depending on the larval form. It is hypothesized that these spatial differences in lesions are mainly influenced by the presence of the sheath which favors contact between the active compounds and either the cuticle or the digestive tract. Overall, our observations suggest that the functional changes observed in the biology of GIN L3s after contact with sainfoin extracts are mediated through a direct mode of action, i.e. different interactions between the bioactive plant metabolites and the nematode structure depending on the route of contact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ( Combretaceae ) on gastro intestinal smooth muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    plague in the Gambia locally named “Alibain”, claimed many lives but a lot of ... days and then ground into a fine powder using pestle and mortar. .... Modern. Pharmacology with Clinical Applications. Fifth edition, Pergamon press. New York, Pp.93, 109-. 113. Galvez, J., Zarzuelo, A. and Crespo, M.E. (1991):. Antidiarrhoea ...

  5. Upper Gastro-intestinal'Fibre-Optic Endoscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-27

    Apr 27, 1974 ... When severe gastritis and stoma- titis (which are of dubious clinical significance and hardly amenable to radiological detection) were excluded, an ab- ..... perience and great care. This study was supported by the South African Medical. Research Council. REFERENCES. 1. Hirshowitz, B. 1., Curtiss, L. E., ...

  6. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments

  7. The effect of purified condensed tannins of forage plants from Botswana on the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibe, O; Sutherland, I A; Lesperance, L; Harding, D R K

    2013-10-18

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from forage plants from Botswana on the free-living stages of a number of species of gastrointestinal nematode parasites derived from infected sheep were investigated using in vitro assays. Fresh samples of five different plants (Viscum rotundifolium, Viscum verrucosum, Tapinanthus oleifolius, Grewia flava and Ipomoea sinensis) were collected over two summers (February 2009 and 2010). Fractionation of each crude extract on a Sephadex LH-20 column yielded low molecular weight phenolics and CT-containing fractions. The effect of each purified CT fraction on parasites was evaluated using either egg hatch, larval development or larval migration inhibition assays. Three gastrointestinal nematode species (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta) derived from infected sheep were evaluated in the study. CT from V. rotundifolium and I. sinensis fractions from samples collected in 2009 and 2010 did not inhibit larval development. However, CT isolated from V. verrucosum, T. oleifolius and G. flava collected in 2009 completely inhibited the development of all parasite species. These CT fractions were more potent in inhibiting larval development of H. contortus than fractions from the same plant species collected in 2010. However, a slight effect on larval migration was observed with some CT extracts. The results suggest that CT extracts of some forage plants from Botswana have anti-parasitic properties in vitro, and that further research is required to determine any in vivo efficacy from feeding the plants to goats in a field situation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plantas medicinais usadas nos distúrbios do trato gastrintestinal no povoado Colônia Treze, Lagarto, SE, Brasil Medicinal plants used for aliments of the gastro-intestinal tract at Colonia Treze village, Lagarto Municipality, Sergipe State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silene da Silva

    2006-12-01

    medicinal plants as genetic potential for the development of new drugs, and as the primary access to health care for many communities. Using an ethnopharmacological approach in the study of medicinal plants, this work aimed to study the medicinal plants popularly used for gastro-intestinal tract ailments, at Colonia Treze village, in Lagarto/Sergipe, since this community is culturally attuned to the use of medicinal plants. Methodology consisted of field work within the community, adopting the ethnographic Rapid Assessment Procedure. The sample was composed of community leaders, plant users and practitioners of folk medicine. Based on their indications of medicinal-plant use, eight plants were selected and subject to pharmacological experimental tests. Plants tested by the Intestinal Transit Model did not provoke alterations in motility. However, those that underwent the Acute Gastric Lesion Induction Model proved to be effective in anti-ulcerogenic activity. Based on these results, strategies for local development at the community level are proposed, which will tie the conservation of medicinal flora to improvements in life quality.

  9. Predator-prey interactions of nematode-trapping fungi and nematodes: both sides of the coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Diez de Ulzurrun, Guillermo; Hsueh, Yen-Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi develop complex trapping devices to capture and consume nematodes. The dynamics of these organisms is especially important given the pathogenicity of nematodes and, consequently, the potential application of nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents. Furthermore, both the nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi can be easily grown in laboratories, making them a unique manipulatable predator-prey system to study their coevolution. Several different aspects of these fungi have been studied, such as their genetics and the different factors triggering trap formation. In this review, we use the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (which forms adhesive nets) as a model to describe the trapping process. We divide this process into several stages; namely attraction, recognition, trap formation, adhesion, penetration, and digestion. We summarize the latest findings in the field and current knowledge on the interactions between nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi, representing both sides of the predator-prey interaction.

  10. In vitro effects of three woody plant and sainfoin extracts on 3rd-stage larvae and adult worms of three gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Hoste, H

    2004-07-01

    Most studies on the effects of tanniferous plants on nematodes have examined forages but have neglected the woody plants. Therefore, in vitro effects of extracts from 3 woody plants (Rubus fructicosus, Quercus robur, Corylus avellana) have been tested on trichostrongyles and compared to sainfoin, a legume forage. Because some in vivo results indicated that the effects of tannins differed depending on the parasitic species and/or stages, the effects were measured on 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and adult worms of Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchlus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The effects of plant extracts varied according to the plant sources, the parasite species and stages. For the woody plants, significant inhibitory effects were obtained on both stages of abomasal species. Results for T. colubriformis were more variable. Effects of sainfoin extracts were significant on T. colubriformis and H. contortus L3, and on abomasal adult worms. In order to assess the implications of tannins, polyethylene glycol (PEG), an inhibitor of tannins, was added to hazel tree, oak and sainfoin extracts. Without PEG, significant inhibitory effects on L3 and adult worms were confirmed. After addition of PEG, the larval migration and motility of adult worms were restored in most cases. These results confirm variations in effects depending on factors related to plants or parasites and suggest that tannins are partly responsible for the effects.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Clasado Ltd., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... identified eight human intervention studies, two human observational studies, and three non-human studies as being pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that owing to important methodological limitations, no conclusions with respect to the scientific substantiation of the claim can be drawn from...... the two human intervention studies which investigated the effect of Bimuno® GOS on symptoms related to gastro-intestinal discomfort. The remaining human studies, and the animal and in vitro studies, addressed the effects of either Bimuno® GOS or other galacto-oligosaccharides from a variety of sources...

  12. Phytopathogenic Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Megen, van H.H.B.; Rybarczyk-Mydlowska, K.; Quist, C.W.; Smant, G.; Bakker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil is teeming with life, and rhizosphere soil is even more densely in habited than bulk soil. In terms of biomass, bacteria and fungi are dominant groups, whereas nematodes (roundworms) are the most abundant Metazoans. Bulk soil, soil not directly affected by living plant roots, typically harbours

  13. Stage-specific excretory-secretory small heat shock proteins from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti--putative links to host's intestinal mucosal defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Geisinger, Frank; Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Soblik, Hanns; Steen, Hanno; Mitreva, Makedonka; Erttmann, Klaus D; Perbandt, Markus; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    In a search for molecules involved in the interaction between intestinal nematodes and mammalian mucosal host cells, we performed MS to identify excretory-secretory proteins from Strongyloides ratti. In the excretory-secretory proteins of the parasitic female stage, we detected, in addition to other peptides, peptides homologous with the Caenorhabditis elegans heat shock protein (HSP)-17, named Sra-HSP-17.1 (∼ 19 kDa) and Sra-HSP-17.2 (∼ 18 kDa), with 49% amino acid identity. The full-length cDNAs (483 bp and 474 bp, respectively) were identified, and the genomic organization was analyzed. To allow further characterization, the proteins were recombinantly expressed and purified. Profiling of transcription by quantitative real-time-PCR and of protein by ELISA in various developmental stages revealed parasitic female-specific expression. Sequence analyses of both the DNA and amino acid sequences showed that the two proteins share a conserved α-crystallin domain and variable N-terminals. The Sra-HSP-17s showed the highest homology with the deduced small HSP sequence of the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis. We observed strong immunogenicity of both proteins, leading to strong IgG responses following infection of rats. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the binding of Sra-HSP-17s to the monocyte-macrophage lineage but not to peripheral lymphocytes or neutrophils. A rat intestinal epithelial cell line showed dose-dependent binding to Sra-HSP-17.1, but not to Sra-HSP-17.2. Exposed monocytes released interleukin-10 but not tumor necrosis factor-α in response to Sra-HSP-17s, suggesting the possible involvement of secreted female proteins in host immune responses. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  14. Population density and phenotypic attributes influence the level of nematode parasitism in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body, Guillaume; Ferté, Hubert; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2011-11-01

    The impact of parasites on population dynamics is well documented, but less is known on how host population density affects parasite spread. This relationship is difficult to assess because of confounding effects of social structure, population density, and environmental conditions that lead to biased among-population comparisons. Here, we analyzed the infestation by two groups of nematodes (gastro-intestinal (GI) strongyles and Trichuris) in the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population of Trois Fontaines (France) between 1997 and 2007. During this period, we experimentally manipulated population density through changes in removals. Using measures collected on 297 individuals, we quantified the impact of density on parasite spread after taking into account possible influences of date, age, sex, body mass, and weather conditions. The prevalence and abundance of eggs of both parasites in females were positively related to roe deer density, except Trichuris in adult females. We also found a negative relationship between parasitism and body mass, and strong age and sex-dependent patterns of parasitism. Prime-age adults were less often parasitized and had lower fecal egg counts than fawns or old individuals, and males were more heavily and more often infected than females. Trichuris parasites were not affected by weather, whereas GI strongyles were less present after dry and hot summers. In the range of observed densities, the observed effect of density likely involves a variation of the exposure rate, as opposed to variation in host susceptibility.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients (ID 960, 961, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 960, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014), and stimulation of immunological responses (ID 962, 968, 970, 972, 976, 984, 986, 995, 997, 999, 1007, 1015) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to the claimed effects. No human studies which investigated the effects of the food constituents on appropriate measures of the claimed effects were provided. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the food...... and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and stimulation of immunological responses. The food constituents, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis THT 010801, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis THT 010201...... for the health claims related to changes in bowel function and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms included studies which assessed the effects of food constituents other than the food constituents which are the subject of the claims and/or investigated health outcomes unrelated...

  16. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    A 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern Ethiopia. During May 2003 to April 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and GI tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga in eastern Ethiopia. All animals were raised in the farming areas located within the community boundaries for each town. Collected materials were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University for immediate processing. Thirteen species belonging to 9 genera of GI nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, N. spathiger Oesopha-gostomum columbianum, O. venulosum, Strongyloides papillosus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichuris ovis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina), and 4 species belonging to 3 genera of trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Paramphistomum {Calicohoron} microbothrium and Dicrocoelium dendriticum) were recorded in both sheep and goats. All animals in this investigation were infected with multiple species to varying degrees. The mean burdens of adult nematodes were generally moderate in both sheep and goats and showed patterns of seasonal abundance that corresponded with the bi-modal annual rainfall pattern, with highest burdens around the middle of the rainy season. In both sheep and goats there were significant differences in the mean worm burdens and abundance of the different nematode species between the four geographic locations, with worm burdens in the Haramaya and Harar areas greater than those observed in the Dire Dawa and Jijiga locations. Similar seasonal variations were also observed in the prevalence of flukes. But there were no significant differences in the prevalence of each fluke species between the

  17. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  18. Adaptive radiation within marine anisakid nematodes: a zoogeographical modeling of cosmopolitan, zoonotic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kuhn

    Full Text Available Parasites of the nematode genus Anisakis are associated with aquatic organisms. They can be found in a variety of marine hosts including whales, crustaceans, fish and cephalopods and are known to be the cause of the zoonotic disease anisakiasis, a painful inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract caused by the accidental consumptions of infectious larvae raw or semi-raw fishery products. Since the demand on fish as dietary protein source and the export rates of seafood products in general is rapidly increasing worldwide, the knowledge about the distribution of potential foodborne human pathogens in seafood is of major significance for human health. Studies have provided evidence that a few Anisakis species can cause clinical symptoms in humans. The aim of our study was to interpolate the species range for every described Anisakis species on the basis of the existing occurrence data. We used sequence data of 373 Anisakis larvae from 30 different hosts worldwide and previously published molecular data (n = 584 from 53 field-specific publications to model the species range of Anisakis spp., using a interpolation method that combines aspects of the alpha hull interpolation algorithm as well as the conditional interpolation approach. The results of our approach strongly indicate the existence of species-specific distribution patterns of Anisakis spp. within different climate zones and oceans that are in principle congruent with those of their respective final hosts. Our results support preceding studies that propose anisakid nematodes as useful biological indicators for their final host distribution and abundance as they closely follow the trophic relationships among their successive hosts. The modeling might although be helpful for predicting the likelihood of infection in order to reduce the risk of anisakiasis cases in a given area.

  19. Identification of Virulence Factors in Nematode-Trapping Fungi - Insights from Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Karl-Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are soil-living organisms with the unique ability to capture and infect free-living nematodes. The interest in studying these fungi arises from their potential use as biological control agents for plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. To enter the parasitic stage, nematode-trapping fungi develop different kinds of trapping structures. In order to understand more about the evolution of parasitism in the nematode-trapping fungi and to identify virulence factors in these...

  20. Screening of the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection from Compounds Australia identifies a new chemical entity with anthelmintic activities against different developmental stages of the barber's pole worm and other parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and development of novel anthelmintic classes is essential to sustain the control of socioeconomically important parasitic worms of humans and animals. With the aim of offering novel, lead-like scaffolds for drug discovery, Compounds Australia released the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection containing 33,999 compounds, with extensive information available on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals. In the present study, we screened 14,464 prioritised compounds from the ‘Open Scaffolds’ collection against the exsheathed third-stage larvae (xL3s of Haemonchus contortus using recently developed whole-organism screening assays. We identified a hit compound, called SN00797439, which was shown to reproducibly reduce xL3 motility by ≥ 70%; this compound induced a characteristic, “coiled” xL3 phenotype (IC50 = 3.46–5.93 μM, inhibited motility of fourth-stage larvae (L4s; IC50 = 0.31–12.5 μM and caused considerable cuticular damage to L4s in vitro. When tested on other parasitic nematodes in vitro, SN00797439 was shown to inhibit (IC50 = 3–50 μM adults of Ancylostoma ceylanicum (hookworm and first-stage larvae of Trichuris muris (whipworm and eventually kill (>90% these stages. Furthermore, this compound completely inhibited the motility of female and male adults of Brugia malayi (50–100 μM as well as microfilariae of both B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm. Overall, these results show that SN00797439 acts against genetically (evolutionarily distant parasitic nematodes i.e. H. contortus and A. ceylanicum [strongyloids] vs. B. malayi and D. immitis [filarioids] vs. T. muris [enoplid], and, thus, might offer a novel, lead-like scaffold for the development of a relatively broad-spectrum anthelmintic. Our future work will focus on assessing the activity of SN00797439 against other pathogens that cause neglected

  1. Sequential transformation of the structural and thermodynamic parameters of the complex particles, combining covalent conjugate (sodium caseinate + maltodextrin) with polyunsaturated lipids stabilized by a plant antioxidant, in the simulated gastro-intestinal conditions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, Anna S; Zelikina, Darya V; Shumilina, Elena A; Semenova, Maria G

    2016-10-01

    The present work is focused on the structural transformation of the complexes, formed between covalent conjugate (sodium caseinate + maltodextrin) and an equimass mixture of the polyunsaturated lipids (PULs): (soy phosphatidylcholine + triglycerides of flaxseed oil) stabilized by a plant antioxidant (an essential oil of clove buds), in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The conjugate was used here as a food-grade delivery vehicle for the PULs. The release of these PULs at each stage of the simulated digestion was estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Description and analysis of clinical pathways for oesophago-gastric adenocarcinoma, in 10 European countries (the EURECCA upper gastro intestinal group - European Registration of Cancer Care).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messager, M; de Steur, W; Boelens, P G; Jensen, L S; Mariette, C; Reynolds, J V; Osorio, J; Pera, M; Johansson, J; Kołodziejczyk, P; Roviello, F; De Manzoni, G; Mönig, S P; Allum, W H

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes for patients with oesophago-gastric cancer are variable across Europe. The reasons for this variability are not clear. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse clinical pathways to understand differences in service provision for oesophageal and gastric cancer in the countries participating in the EURECCA Upper GI group. A questionnaire was devised to assess clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, treatment, pathology, follow-up and service frameworks across Europe for patients with oesophageal and gastric cancer. The questionnaire was issued to experts from 14 countries. The responses were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively and compared. The response rate was (10/14) 71.4%. The approach to diagnosis was similar. Most countries established a diagnosis within 3 weeks of presentation. However, there were different approaches to staging with variable use of endoscopic ultrasound reflecting availability. There has been centralisation of treatments in most countries for oesophageal surgery. The most consistent area was the approach to pathology. There were variations in access to specialist nurse and dietitian support. Although most countries have multidisciplinary teams, their composition and frequency of meetings varied. The two main areas of significant difference were research and audit and overall service provision. Observations on service framework indicated that limited resources restricted many of the services. The principle approaches to diagnosis, treatment and pathology were similar. Factors affecting the quality of patient experience were variable. This may reflect availability of resources. Standard pathways of care may enhance both the quality of treatment and patient experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat, and proposal for the reclassification of five closely related members of the genus Clostridium into the genera Romboutsia gen. nov., Intestinibacter gen. nov., Terrisporobacter gen. nov. and Asaccharospora gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Jacoline; Fuentes, Susana; Grievink, Wieke; van Niftrik, Laura; Tindall, Brian J; Timmerman, Harro M; Rijkers, Ger T; Smidt, Hauke

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-positive staining, rod-shaped, non-motile, spore-forming obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated CRIBT, was isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat and characterized. The major cellular fatty acids of strain CRIBT were saturated and unsaturated straight-chain C12-C19 fatty acids, with C16:0 being the predominant fatty acid. The polar lipid profile comprised six glycolipids, four phospholipids and one lipid that did not stain with any of the specific spray reagents used. The only quinone was MK-6. The predominating cell-wall sugars were glucose and galactose. The peptidoglycan type of strain CRIBT was A1σ lanthionine-direct. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CRIBT was 28.1 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CRIBT was most closely related to a number of species of the genus Clostridium, including Clostridium lituseburense (97.2%), Clostridium glycolicum (96.2%), Clostridium mayombei (96.2%), Clostridium bartlettii (96.0%) and Clostridium irregulare (95.5%). All these species show very low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (genus Clostridium. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related reference strains indicated reassociation values below 32%. On the basis of phenotypic and genetic studies, a novel genus, Romboutsia gen. nov., is proposed. The novel isolate CRIBT (=DSM 25109T=NIZO 4048T) is proposed as the type strain of the type species, Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., of the proposed novel genus. It is proposed that C. lituseburense is transferred to this genus as Romboutsia lituseburensis comb. nov. Furthermore, the reclassification into novel genera is proposed for C. bartlettii, as Intestinibacter bartlettii gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species of the genus), C. glycolicum, as Terrisporobacter glycolicus gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species of the genus), C. mayombei, as Terrisporobacter mayombei gen. nov., comb. nov., and C. irregulare, as Asaccharospora irregularis gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species

  4. Comparison of constitutive and thiabendazole-induced expression of five cytochrome P450 genes in fourth-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus isolates with different drug susceptibility identifies one gene with high constitutive expression in a multi-resistant isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Esra; Ramünke, Sabrina; Demeler, Janina; Krücken, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Benzimidazoles (BZs) remain amongst the most widely used anthelmintic drug classes against gastro-intestinal nematode infections, although their efficacy is increasingly compromised by resistance. The primary underlying mechanisms for BZ resistance are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene causing the substitutions F167Y, E198A or F200Y. However, resistance is believed to be multi-genic and previous studies have shown that isolates carrying 90-100% F200Y can vary considerably in their resistance level in the egg hatch assay (EHA). Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) are associated with drug resistance in mammals and arthropods and have been considered as mediators of anthelmintic resistance. In Caenorhabditis elegans, several members of the CYP34/35 and CYP31 families are BZ and/or xenobiotic inducible and thiabendazole (TBZ) is metabolised by CYP35D1. Here, expression of all 5 CYPs closely related to the C. elegans CYP34/35 and CYP31 families was investigated in fourth-stage larvae of two susceptible and three BZ-resistant Haemonchus contortus isolates following in vitro exposure to TBZ for 3 and 6 h using real-time RT-PCR. The resistance status of all isolates was determined using EHAs and quantification of resistance-associated β-tubulin SNPs using pyrosequencing. While none of the CYPs was TBZ inducible, constitutive expression of CYP34/35 family member HCOI100383400 was significantly 2.4-3.7-fold higher in the multi-drug resistant WR isolate with the strongest BZ resistance phenotype compared to susceptible and intermediate-level BZ-resistant isolates. Although this increase is only moderate, HCOI100383400 might still be involved in high-level BZ resistance by further decreasing susceptibility in isolates already carrying 100% of a β-tubulin SNP causing BZ resistance. Lower transcript levels were observed for all CYPs in the intermediately resistant IRE isolate in comparison to the susceptible HcH isolate, which, except

  5. [Multiple primary cancer of the gastro-intestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knysh, V I; Cherkes, V L; Anan'ev, V S; Sel'chuk, V Iu; Vladanov, I P

    1986-01-01

    Peculiarities of the clinical course of primary multiple malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed. Out of 25 cases of synchronous gastrointestinal malignancies, both stomach and large bowel tumors were found in 10 patients and simultaneous neoplasms in different segments of the large bowel--in 15. In the latter group, radical surgery was performed in 13 patients. Out of 54 cases of metachronous cancer, 28 revealed combinations of stomach and large bowel tumors, while in 26 cases metachronous tumors appeared in succession in different segments of the large bowel. Synchronous single and multiple polyps of the large bowel were detected in 19 out of 54 patients. Radical surgery was carried out in 33 and palliative surgery--in 6 patients.

  6. Computed tomography of the gastro-intestinal tract : its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeders, J.W.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The subject discussed include indications and accuracy of CT - computed tomography, technical considerations, common pitfalls in CT interpretation, parameters for CT evaluation, benign lesions, double halo and target signs, hyperattenuated, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal ischaemia, primary adenocarcinoma of the GIT, lymphoma and leiomyosarcoma (3 refs.)

  7. GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PERFORATION IN NEONATES R.T. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... respiratory problems, low birth weight, and nutritional factors, negatively affect the .... 1. Respiratory problems (Respiratory. 11 distress syndrome hyaline membrane disease, 9 asphyxia, pneumonia). Down's Syndrome. 2. Anorectal anomaly. 2 .... very-low-birth-weight infants - a rare complication in a.

  8. Study of Human Gastro-Intestinal Parasites Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest a very high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis (40.9%) among the pupils. Four different intestinal parasites were encountered. The respective infection rates of each parasite were; Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (13.7%), Trichuris trichiura (6.9%) and hookworms (5.4%). Infections ...

  9. Breaking Bad News for Patients with Gastro-Intestinal Malignancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No patient was told about the prognosis and the chances of cure. Conclusion: Sympathy over-ride empathy in communicating bad news to Sudanese patients suffering of cancer. Patient education and training in breaking the bad news is needed. Key words: Communication skills, breaking bad news, truth telling, Sudan.

  10. Minimum pathology reporting standard for gastro-intestinal cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To develop and adopt minimum pathology reporting checklists for gastric and colorectal cancers in Nigeria Methods: Three pathologists with special interest in Gastrointestinal (GI) pathology were mandated to develop minimum data to be included in pathology reporting of GI cancers in Nigeria. Their proposals were ...

  11. Survey of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Chimpanzees and Drill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    human primates (Gomez et al; 1996, Verwaijet et al; 2003). Protozoa parasite such Entamoeba histolytica, Gardia sp, Cryptosporidium sp and. Balantidium coli are frequently reported in non-human primate, apes and monkeys. (Levecke, 2007).

  12. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Helminthes of Slaughtered Cattle at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted to determine the prevalence of helminthes parasites affecting cattle slaughtered at the Wukari Local Government abattoir, in Taraba State, North-Eastern Nigeria. The Standard saturated salt (NaCl) floatation technique was used, and examined microscopically to determine the parasites and the ...

  13. Microbiology and the evolution of the gastro intestinal irradiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmettre, P.

    1975-01-01

    Following a review of the literature, the results of investigations on the function of the digestive tract microflora of gnotoxenic rats in the development of the gastrointestinal irradiation syndrome are presented [fr

  14. Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijlstra, Nicolien; Mars, Monica; de Wijk, René A

    2009-01-01

    /m(2)) participated in this cross-over study. Subjects received a fixed amount of a chocolate flavored milk-based liquid or semi-solid product similar in energy density and macronutrient composition. Before intake and 15, 30, 60 and 90 min thereafter, appetite was rated and blood was drawn to determine...... glucose, CCK-8, active ghrelin, desacyl ghrelin and GLP-1 concentrations. After the last blood withdrawal, subjects were offered a chocolate cake meal to consume ad libitum. In the appetite ratings we observed a small effect showing that the semi-solid product is apparently considered as more satisfying...... product effect (p 0.004). Concentrations were consistently higher after intake of the semi-solid product. Ad libitum intake of the chocolate cake was 102+/-55 g after the liquid and 96+/-46 g after the semi-solid product (ns). The results of our study show a similar response of the gastro...

  15. Fed and fasted state gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    or the fed state. Whole fat milk (3.5 %) was used in the fed state model to mimic the dynamic lipolysis events after ingestion of food. The results were compared to a dog study in this issue. In the fasted state in vitro lipolysis model, the amount of solubilized cinnarizine decreased in the order SNEDDS......-C>SNEDDS-T>Conv, which correlated well with the in vivo bioavailability. In the fed state in vitro lipolysis model, cinnarizine was solubilized to the same degree for all formulations. Compared to the fasted state model, only the performance of the conventional tablet was improved, indicating food effect....... This correlated with the in vivo study, where the tablet was the only formulation with a significant food effect. The fasted state model correlated well with the in vivo results and although the fed state model did not accurately predict the fed state in vivo results, it could predict which formulation that would...

  16. The effect of intra-abdominal hypertension on gastro- intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of care for critically ill patients, and failure of successful enteral nutrition delivery is itself associated with unfavourable clinical outcomes,12,13 there is increasing interest in the clinical impact of. IAP on gut function and enteral feeding. A recent study showed that most patients with IAH had GI symptoms, but the relationship.

  17. Prevalence Of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites In Relation To Availability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pupils in schools that had lower ratio of number of pupils per toilet had lower infection rates than those from schools with high ratio of number of pupils per toilet. This was however not statistically sgnificant (X 22.272, d = 2, P > 0.05). The following parasites were encountered, namely Ascaris lumbricoides (11.89%), ...

  18. Gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) – the Pretoria experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organ most commonly affected was the stomach, and abdominal pain and weight loss were the most common presenting symptoms. Seventy-six per cent of the patients were treated surgically, and 24% received imatinib. Conclusion. GISTs often present late with nonspecific symptoms, and are frequently discovered ...

  19. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminths in school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in order to control the disease since the high prevalence was found to be associated with unsanitary habits. There is the need to incorporate the control of intestinal helminthiasis into Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Keywords: helminth, parasites, prevalence, Mbaukwu. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  20. The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Discusses advantages of nematode use for studying patterns of cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Describes nematode development. Cites experimental approaches available for genetic studies. Reviews the topics of control of cell division and differentiation, the nervous system, and muscle assembly and function of the organism. (RT)

  1. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Levamisole and Ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in goats on natural pastures in Gomba District, Uganda Abstract PDF · Vol 16, No 1 (2015) - Articles Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

  3. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  4. The Ditylenchus destructor genome provides new insights into the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2016-07-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Proteins secreted by root-knot nematodes accumulate in the extracellular compartment during root infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Vieira, Paulo; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes are biotrophic parasites that invade the root apex of host plants and migrate towards the vascular cylinder where they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied multinucleated giant cells. Giant cells are part of the permanent feeding site required for nematode development into the adult stage. To date, a repertoire of candidate effectors potentially secreted by the nematode into the plant tissues to promote infection has been identified. However, the pre...

  6. Genomic characterisation of the effector complement of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, P.; Mantelin, S.; Cock, P.J.A.; Blok, V.C.; Coke, M.C.; Evers-van den Akker, S.; Guzeeva, E.; Lilley, C.J.; Smant, G.; Reid, A.J.; Wright, K.M.; Urwin, P.E.; Jones, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida has biotrophic interactions with its host. The nematode induces a feeding structure – the syncytium – which it keeps alive for the duration of the life cycle and on which it depends for all nutrients required to develop to the adult stage.

  7. Social networks of educated nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound...

  8. cyst nematode in tiaret a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Labdelli

    1 sept. 2017 ... Syrie par [12], en Arabie saoudite par [16, 17], en Iran par [18] en Inde par [19]en Chine par[20] . .... qui a pour principe d'évaluer le taux de multiplication du nematode en fin de culture et le comparé à ..... cereal cyst nematode complex in relation to breeding resistant durum wheat Fundam. appl. Nemat ...

  9. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  10. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  11. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D; Huffnagle, Ian M; Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  12. Gastrointestinal nematodes of donkeys in and around Alage, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of lugol's iodine was added to the sediment to differentiate the larvae which stains the free living nematode yellow, while parasitic 3rd stage larvae remain unstained. The larvae was then identified under low power microscopy (10x objective), based on the shape and number of gut cells, relative size of sheath tail and shape ...

  13. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... nematodes. RNAi should help identify gene and, hence, protein targets for nematode control strategies. Key words: RNA interference, RNAi, gene expression, plant parasitic nematodes. INTRODUCTION. Plant parasitic nematodes are found as pests of crops throughout the world with many having a severe ...

  14. Why Do Sleeping Nematodes Adopt a Hockey-Stick-Like Posture?

    OpenAIRE

    Tramm, Nora; Oppenheimer, Naomi; Nagy, Stanislav; Efrati, Efi; Biron, David

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic posture is considered one of the behavioral hallmarks of sleep, and typically includes functional features such as support for the limbs and shielding of sensory organs. The nematode C. elegans exhibits a sleep-like state during a stage termed lethargus, which precedes ecdysis at the transition between larval stages. A hockey-stick-like posture is commonly observed during lethargus. What might its function be? It was previously noted that during lethargus, C. elegans nematode...

  15. RNAseq Analysis of the Drosophila Response to the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model to study the molecular and functional basis of host–pathogen interactions. Currently, our knowledge of microbial infections in D. melanogaster is well understood; however, the response of flies to nematode infections is still in its infancy. Here, we have used the potent parasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, which lives in mutualism with its endosymbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila, to examine the transcriptomic basis of the interaction between D. melanogaster and entomopathogenic nematodes. We have employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq to investigate the transcriptomic profile of D. melanogaster larvae in response to infection by S. carpocapsae symbiotic (carrying X. nematophila or axenic (lacking X. nematophila nematodes. Bioinformatic analyses have identified the strong induction of genes that are associated with the peritrophic membrane and the stress response, as well as several genes that participate in developmental processes. We have also found that genes with different biological functions are enriched in D. melanogaster larvae responding to either symbiotic or axenic nematodes. We further show that while symbiotic nematode infection enriched certain known immune-related genes, axenic nematode infection enriched several genes associated with chitin binding, lipid metabolic functions, and neuroactive ligand receptors. In addition, we have identified genes with a potential role in nematode recognition and genes with potential antinematode activity. Findings from this study will undoubtedly set the stage for the identification of key regulators of antinematode immune mechanisms in D. melanogaster, as well as in other insects of socioeconomic importance.

  16. HOW FUNGI INTERACT WITH NEMATODE TO ACTIVATE THE PLANT DEFENCE RESPONSE TO TOMATO PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, P; Costanza, A; Zonno, M C; Molinari, S; Altomare, C

    2014-01-01

    Management of plant parasitic nematodes with nematode predators, parasites or antagonists is an eco-friendly approach that may avoid the problems arisen by the use of toxic chemicals. Fungi belonging to Trichoderma spp. are well known in literature for their role in control of plant parasitic nematodes. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), Meloidogyne spp., are obligate parasites that cause the formation of familiar galls on the roots of many cultivated plants. The interaction between the M. incognita motile second stage juveniles (J2s) and the isolate ITEM 908 of Trichoderma harzianum was examined in its effect on the nematode infestation level of susceptible tomato plants. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which ITEM 908 interacts with nematode-infected tomato plants, the expression patterns of the genes PR1 (marker of Salycilic Acid-depending resistance signalling pathway) and JERF3 (marker of the Jasmonic Acid/Ethylene-depending resistance signalling pathway) were detected over time in: i) untreated roots; ii) roots pre-treated with the fungus; iii) roots inoculated with the nematode; iv) pre-treated and inoculated roots. Infestation parameters were checked in untreated plants and plants treated with the fungus to test the effect of the fungus on nematode infestation level and to compare this effect with the expression of the genes PR1 and JERF3, involved in induced resistance.

  17. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  18. Excretory/secretory products of anisakid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Parasites from the family Anisakidae are widely distributed in marine fish populations worldwide and mainly nematodes of the three genera Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum have attracted attention due to their pathogenicity in humans. Their life cycles include invertebrates and fish...... as intermediate or transport hosts and mammals or birds as final hosts. Human consumption of raw or underprocessed seafood containing third stage larvae of anisakid parasites may elicit a gastrointestinal disease (anisakidosis) and allergic responses. Excretory and secretory (ES) compounds produced...... by the parasites are assumed to be key players in clinical manifestation of the disease in humans, but the molecules are likely to play a general biological role in invertebrates and lower vertebrates as well. ES products have several functions during infection, e.g. penetration of host tissues and evasion of host...

  19. Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferris, H.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and

  20. Disruption of prefoldin-2 protein synthesis in root-knot nematodes via host-mediated gene silencing efficiently reduces nematode numbers and thus protects plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjappala, Hemavathi; Chung, Ha Young; Sim, Joon-Soo; Choi, Inchan; Hahn, Bum-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of down-regulating endogeneous prefoldin-2 root-knot nematode transcripts by expressing dsRNA with sequence identity to the nematode gene in tobacco roots under the influence of strong Arabidopsis ubiquitin (UBQ1) promoter. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are sedentary endoparasites infecting a wide range of plant species. They parasitise the root system, thereby disrupting water and nutrient uptake and causing major reductions in crop yields. The most reliable means of controlling RKNs is via the use of soil fumigants such as methyl bromide. With the emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) technology, which permits host-mediated nematode gene silencing, a new strategy to control plant pathogens has become available. In the present study, we investigated host-induced RNAi gene silencing of prefoldin-2 in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. Reductions in prefoldin-2 mRNA transcript levels were observed when nematodes were soaked in a dsRNA solution in vitro. Furthermore, nematode reproduction was suppressed in RNAi transgenic lines, as evident by reductions in the numbers of root knots (by 34-60 % in independent RNAi lines) and egg masses (by 33-58 %). Endogenous expression of prefoldin-2, analysed via real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, revealed that the gene was strongly expressed in the pre-parasitic J2 stage. Our observations demonstrate the relevance and potential importance of targeting the prefoldin gene during the nematode life cycle. The work also suggests that further improvements in silencing efficiency in economically important crops can be accomplished using RNAi directed against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  1. On the track of the Red Queen: bark beetles, their nematodes, local climate and geographic parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirmans, S; Skorping, A; Løyning, M K; Kirkendall, L R

    2006-11-01

    Geographic parthenogenesis has been explained as resulting from parasite pressure (Red Queen hypothesis): several studies have found high degrees of sexuals where the prevalence of parasites is high. However, it is important to address whether prevalence of parasites mirrors risk of infection. We explored geographic parthenogenesis of Ips acuminatus bark beetles and their nematodes. Local climate is crucial for nematode stages outside the host, in spring and summer, and prevalence should thus be associated with those temperatures if prevalence reliably reflects exposure risk across populations. This was the case; however, high prevalence of a virulent nematode species was not associated with many sexuals, whereas highly sexual populations were characterized by high infection risk of benign nematodes. Low virulence of the latter makes Red Queen dynamics unlikely. Geographical patterns of parthenogenesis were instead associated with winter temperature and variance in temperature.

  2. IMMUNE REGULATING ES-PRODUCTS IN PARASITIC NEMATODES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per Walter

    work elucidates the effect of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed...... fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in minimizing the immune reaction of rainbow trout against invading nematodes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase lipase, valine and cysteine...... arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and a-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. Based on the notion that A. simplex ES-proteins may have an immune-depressive effect, it could also...

  3. Radiotherapy in stage 1 testicular seminoma: retrospective study and review of literature; Radiotherapie des seminomes testiculaires de stade 1: etude retrospective et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauduceau, O.; Le-Moulec, S.; Bernard, O. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service de Radiotherapie et Oncologie, 75 - Paris (France); Souleau, B. [Hopital des Armees Percy, Service d' Hematologie, 92 - Clamart (France); Houlgatte, A. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service d' Urologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-12-01

    Introduction. - Seminoma accounts for about 40% of germ cell tumours of the testicle. In this retrospective analysis, we review literature concerning management of stage I seminoma. Materials and methods. - Between March 1987 and April 2001, 65 patients with stage I pure testicular seminoma received adjuvant radiotherapy with a 25 MV linear accelerator. Results. - Median age was 33 years. Testicular tumour has been found on the right testis in 39 patients and on the left one in 24 patients. Patients have been treated using an anterior-posterior parallel pair and have received 20-25 Gy in 10-14 fractions. The target volume consisted of paraaortic, and paraaortic + homolateral iliac lymph nodes in 17 and 46 patients, respectively. Acute toxicity was mainly digestive, 38% of patients presenting nausea and vomiting. Median follow-up time was 37 months. All patients are alive in complete remission. Discussion. - Because of good radio-sensitivity of seminoma, radiotherapy is regarded as standard adjuvant treatment (5 years relapse rate: 3-5%). Acute toxicity is dominated by moderate gastro-intestinal side effects. Secondary neoplasia represents one of the worst possible long-term complications of therapy. Waiting for ongoing randomized trials, the modern literature for seminoma reflects a trend toward lower radiation doses (20-25 Gy) and smaller treatment volumes (paraaortic field). Adjuvant chemotherapy with two courses of carbo-platin, might be equivalent to radiotherapy but must be investigated in randomized trials. A surveillance policy is one of the other management options less recommended. (author)

  4. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's expanding coffee industry. PMID:19283060

  5. Phylogeny of nematodes from birds of prey

    OpenAIRE

    Honisch, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Birds of prey host a wide variety of endoparasites. The majority of these endoparasites are nematodes. They can be found mainly in the digestive and respiratory system. The current accepted phylogeny of nematodes found in birds of prey is based on morphological traits. In this study molecular data were used to assess phylogenetic relationships in this group of parasitic nematodes. The aim of the study was to evaluate a method for rapid species identification, to construct a phylogeny of paras...

  6. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  7. Identification and characterisation of a hyper-variable apoplastic effector gene family of the potato cyst nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Eves-van den Akker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism.

  8. Proteins secreted by root-knot nematodes accumulate in the extracellular compartment during root infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Vieira, Paulo; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes are biotrophic parasites that invade the root apex of host plants and migrate towards the vascular cylinder where they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied multinucleated giant cells. Giant cells are part of the permanent feeding site required for nematode development into the adult stage. To date, a repertoire of candidate effectors potentially secreted by the nematode into the plant tissues to promote infection has been identified. However, the precise role of these candidate effectors during root invasion or during giant cell induction and maintenance remains largely unknown. Primarily, the identification of the destination of nematode effectors within plant cell compartment(s) is crucial to decipher their actual functions. We analysed the fine localization in root tissues of five nematode effectors throughout the migratory and sedentary phases of parasitism using an adapted immunocytochemical method that preserves host and pathogen tissues.  We showed that secretion of effectors from the amphids or the oesophageal glands is tightly regulated during the course of infection. The analysed effectors accumulated in the root tissues along the nematode migratory path and along the cell wall of giant cells, showing the apoplasm as an important destination compartment for these effectors during migration and feeding cell formation.

  9. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal Divergent Lifestyle Features of Nematode Endoparasitic Fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiling; Liu, Keke; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Wang, Niuniu; Shu, Chi; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Chengshu; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Hirsutella minnesotensis [Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)] is a dominant endoparasitic fungus by using conidia that adhere to and penetrate the secondary stage juveniles of soybean cyst nematode. Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota). The genome of H. minnesotensis is 51.4 Mb and encodes 12,702 genes enriched with transposable elements up to 32%. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that H. minnesotensis was diverged from entomopathogenic fungi in Hypocreales. Genome of H. minnesotensis is similar to those of entomopathogenic fungi to have fewer genes encoding lectins for adhesion and glycoside hydrolases for cellulose degradation, but is different from those of nematode-trapping fungi to possess more genes for protein degradation, signal transduction, and secondary metabolism. Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi. Transcriptomics analyses for the time-scale parasitism revealed the upregulations of lectins, secreted proteases and the genes for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites that could be putatively involved in host surface adhesion, cuticle degradation, and host manipulation. Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism. PMID:25359922

  10. Ammonia concentration at emergence and its effects on the recovery of different species of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Blas, Ernesto; Pirela, Deynireth; García, Dana; Portillo, Edgar

    2014-09-01

    The life cycle of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) occurs inside an insect cadaver and an accumulation of ammonia initiates as a consequence of the nematodes defecation. This accumulation reduces the food resources quality and creates a detrimental environment for nematodes. When a given ammonia concentration is reached, the nematodes start their emergence process, searching for a new host. In the present work, this parameter, ammonia triggering point (ATP) was measured in 7 Steinernema species/strains. The effect of different ammonia concentrations on the recovery process and their consequences in the nematodes survival were also investigated. The results indicate that ATP varies among nematode species; Steinernema glaseri showed the highest ATP of the evaluated species (1.98±2.6 mg of NH4-N*g of Galleria mellonella(-1)); whereas Steinernema riobrave presented the lowest ATP (1.16±0.1 mg of NH4-N*g of G. mellonella(-1)). On the other hand, the nematode emergence could be a repulsive response when ATP is reached. As the ammonia concentration increased the recovery percentage of Steinernema feltiae (Chile strain) dropped gradually from 79.4±11.9% in the control treatment to 0% when 1mg of NH4-N*ml of bacterial broth(-1) was added. It is possible, that emergence process could be a repulsive response of the nematodes due to ammonia concentration when is reaching the ATP. The role of ammonia inside the insect cadavers, might suggests connections with some stages of the EPN life cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Dermatology and polyposis of the gastro-intestinal tract (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazex, A; Bazex, J

    1978-10-01

    The authors study three rare syndromes which are characterized by the association of cutaneous manifestations with an intestinal polyposis: Gardner's syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers-Touraine's syndrome, Cronkhite-Canada's syndrome. The Gardner's syndrome is transmitted with an autosomal prevalence, and its vital prognosis remains very porr. It is characterized by the association of various cutaneous manifestations such as fibromas, freckles, etc. with osteomas, neuro-fibromas and polyps of the large bowel. Its severity is related to the very early malignant degeneration of digestive polyps. The Peutz-Jeghers-Touraine's syndrome is transmitted in an autosomal prevalence and its vital prognosis is benign. The cutaneous manifestations are the very early occurrence of lentigines on the face, around the hiatus, and on the lips. The polyps are situated on the small bowel, and are the source of important functional phenomenons; their malignant change is rare. The Cronkhite-Canada's syndrome is rare. Its etiology is unknown and its prognosis is very poor. Its manifestation is the association of more or less wide-spread cutaneous pigmentations, alopecia, and onyxis with a digestive syndrome secondary to a pseudo-polyposis which is the origin for afecal and serous diarrhea, a cause for very severe denutrition. The diagnosis and the treatment of these three syndromes are discussed.

  12. [Endoscopic polypectomy of the upper gastro-intestinal tract: results and clinical features (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M; Busse, R; Seib, H J; Elster, K; Ottenjann, R

    1975-11-07

    247 polyps were removed by electroresection through an endoscope (and 240 recovered) in 160 patients, aged 24-81 years. The histological substrate varied widely. Comparison of histological findings in the biopsy specimen with those of the entire polyp after polypectomy gave differing results in 41 of 87 gastric polyps. Complication rate of endoscopic polypectomy was 1.6%: postoperative bleeding occurred in three, which was treated conservatively, while in one patient ligation of a blood vessel by laparotomy became necessary. There were no perforation or lethal complications. Among three patients with hyperplasiogenic gastric polyps a "borderline lesion" was found in two (early carcinoma type I; adenocarcinoma). In 13 other patients with hyperplasiogenic polyps follow-up examination after one year revealed recurrence in three, absence of polyps in eight. In one patient a small gastric carcinoma (about 1 cm in diameter) was discovered four months later. It is possible that patients with hyperplasiogenic polyps are at a higher risk of cancer. Six-monthly endoscopic observation is, therefore, indicated.

  13. Application Of Endoscopic Lasers For Operations In Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelkin, O. K.; Saphronov, A. M.; Shapovalov, A. M.; Zaharov, P. I.

    1988-06-01

    We have described our experience in the application of high energy argon and Nd:YAG lasers for endoscopic surgical manipulations. Laser was used for the removal of polyps with a wide base, villi tumours in colon, for the elimination of scar strictures in colon anastomosis, for the formation of primary-delayed colon anastomosis and for the removal of timoral stenosis in esophagus and in colon. Laser therapy has certain advantages over other endoscopic manipulations: long-term and immediate results are better. One can use this therapy in combination with others (radial therapy, surgical treatment). We have worked out a classification of polyps and stenosing tumours in the digestive system to determine indications for laser endoscopy and to choose the best parameters of laser irradiation.

  14. Flexible Gastro-intestinal Endoscopy — Clinical Challenges and Technical Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehls Kurniawan

    2017-01-01

    Various exchangeable accessories are available for resection, dissection, tunneling, hemostasis, treatment of stenosis and closure of defects, including dedicated suturing devices. Multiple arm flexible devices controlled via robotic platforms for complex intraluminal and transmural endoscopic procedures require further improvement.

  15. Fibreoptic gastro-intestinal endoscopy at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Kofi N; Archampong, Emmanuel Q

    2017-12-01

    Fibreoptic (or Flexible) endoscopy has revolutionized and completely transformed practice of gastroenterology, and many other medical specialties, over the past half century or so. At the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra the development of this facility has evolved gradually, especially involving specialists from the Departments of Medicine and Surgery since the 1970s. This article is an attempt to trace and record this journey and to highlight some of the problems and challenges yet to be overcome. It is an anecdotal account based on the authors' recollection with attempts at verification of important dates.

  16. Functional changes with feeding in the gastro-intestinal epithelia of the Burmese python (Python molurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstetter, Cécile; Reix, Nathalie; T'Flachebba, Mathieu; Pope, Robert K; Secor, Stephen M; Le Maho, Yvon; Lignot, Jean-Hervé

    2009-09-01

    The morphology of the digestive system in fasting and refed Burmese pythons was determined, as well as the localization of the proton (H(+), K(+)-ATPase) and sodium (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) pumps. In fasting pythons, oxyntopeptic cells located within the fundic glands are typically non-active, with a thick apical tubulovesicular system and numerous zymogen granules. They become active Immediately after feeding but return to a non-active state 3 days after the Ingestion of the prey. The proton pump, expressed throughout the different fasting/feeding states, is either sequestered in the tubulovesicular system in non-active cells or located along the apical digitations extending within the crypt lumen in active cells. The sodium pump is rapidly upregulated in fed animals and is classically located along the baso-lateral membranes of the gastric oxyntopeptic cells. In the Intestine, it is only expressed along the lateral membranes of the enterocytes, i.e., above the lateral spaces and not along the basal side of the cells. Thus, solute transport within the Intestinal lining is mainly achieved through the apical part of the cells and across the lateral spaces while absorbed fat massively crosses the entire height of the cells and flows into the Intercellular spaces. Therefore, in the Burmese python, the gastrointestinal cellular system quickly upregulates after feeding, due to Inexpensive cellular changes, passive mechanisms, and the progressive activation and synthesis of key enzymes such as the sodium pump. This cell plasticity also allows anticipation of the next fasting and feeding periods.

  17. THE ROLE OF COLORECTAL POLYPS IN THE ETIOLOGY OF LOWER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia OLARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In children, colorectal polyps most commonly present with rectal bleeding. The aim of this study was to establish some correlations between clinical, endoscopic/histopathological aspects and therapeutic options in pediatric colorectal polyps. The experimental group included 253 children aged between 1 and 18 years, patients being included based on the presence of rectal bleeding associated with abdominal pain and/or constipation, established through colonoscopic examination. 39 polyps were identified: 37 with single lesions and 2 with multiple lesions. The solitary polyps, located mostly in the rectum and sigmoid, having sizes between 1 and 2.5 cm, were removed during the same colonoscopy. Pathology showed inflammatory aspects and two cases of hamartomatous polyps in a Peutz-Jeghers and a Bannayan-Ryley syndrome. Colonoscopy should routinely be recommended in children with suspected polyps; in multiple lesions, periodic surveillance by colonoscopy and histology is mandatory.

  18. THE ROLE OF COLORECTAL POLYPS IN THE ETIOLOGY OF LOWER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia OLARU; Marin BURLEA; Nicoleta GIMIGA; Smaranda DIACONESCU

    2015-01-01

    In children, colorectal polyps most commonly present with rectal bleeding. The aim of this study was to establish some correlations between clinical, endoscopic/histopathological aspects and therapeutic options in pediatric colorectal polyps. The experimental group included 253 children aged between 1 and 18 years, patients being included based on the presence of rectal bleeding associated with abdominal pain and/or constipation, established through colonoscopic examination. 39 polyps were id...

  19. Usefulness of the helical CT in gastro intestinally caused acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R. A. de la; Martel, J.; Albillos, J. C.; Oliver, J. M.; Lopez, J.; Trapero, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    At present, there is a vivid debate on the role of the Helical CT (HCT) in the acute abdomen, principally on the usefulness of the non contrast HCT. We aim to present the most common semiological findings and the differential diagnoses, and to give a short description of the indications and protocols, according to the existing literature and to our experience with HCT during the last three years. We believe that the generalization of the use of HCT in emergencies avoid unnecessary surgery and shorten observation times on many occasions, with clear benefits in the clinical management of the patients. (Author) 30 refs

  20. On the assessment of radionuclide resorption from the gastro-intestinal tract of the blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhilber-Schwab, B.; Teufel, D.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of the resorption rates measured for the radionuclides Ce, Co, Pu, Ru, Sr and Zn as well as the vitamin B12 with the recommendations for calculation given by the SSK showed that the values used by the SSK partly are too low by orders of magnitude. The dose factors therefore no longer correspond to the international level of science. (DG) [de

  1. Morphoelastic control of gastro-intestinal organogenesis: Theoretical predictions and numerical insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, V.; Kuhl, E.; Ciarletta, P.

    2015-05-01

    With nine meters in length, the gastrointestinal tract is not only our longest, but also our structurally most diverse organ. During embryonic development, it evolves as a bilayered tube with an inner endodermal lining and an outer mesodermal layer. Its inner surface displays a wide variety of morphological patterns, which are closely correlated to digestive function. However, the evolution of these intestinal patterns remains poorly understood. Here we show that geometric and mechanical factors can explain intestinal pattern formation. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics, we model surface morphogenesis as the instability problem of constrained differential growth. To allow for internal and external expansion, we model the gastrointestinal tract with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. To establish estimates for the folding pattern at the onset of folding, we perform a linear stability analysis supplemented by the perturbation theory. To predict pattern evolution in the post-buckling regime, we perform a series of nonlinear finite element simulations. Our model explains why longitudinal folds emerge in the esophagus with a thick and stiff outer layer, whereas circumferential folds emerge in the jejunum with a thinner and softer outer layer. In intermediate regions like the feline esophagus, longitudinal and circumferential folds emerge simultaneously. Our model could serve as a valuable tool to explain and predict alterations in esophageal morphology as a result of developmental disorders or certain digestive pathologies including food allergies.

  2. Trends in upper gastro-intestinal cancer among the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønnemann, Katrine R; Mortensen, Michael B; Krogh, Merete

    2016-01-01

    from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013.Results The proportion of male patients over the age of 70 years diagnosed with esophageal cancer was constant over time (around 42%) but increased in females to 49...

  3. POTENTIALLY GRAVE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PROBLEMS IN PREGNANCY - A CHALLENGE TO THE OBSTETRICIAN!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Acute surgical pathology may be overlooked in pregnancy. Despite advances in medical technology, preoperative diagnosis of potentially grave pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT is often delayed due to overlap with symptoms of pregnancy non-specific elevation of some laboratory parameters due to pregnancy and a dilemma for obstetricians and surgeons in ordering radiological imaging modalities given the risk associated with fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and contrast. AIMS The aim of this study is to analyse the cases of gastrointestinal tract problems encountered in pregnancy so that increasing awareness can be created among obstetricians. This is important because early diagnosis and timely intervention can significantly improve maternal and fetal outcome in these cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN There is a retrospective case study of potentially grave GIT problems encountered at Vanivilas hospital, Bangalore, a tertiary referral institute wherein the clinical presentation was confounded by pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the included cases were analysed for age of the patient, pre-existing gastrointestinal tract disorders, gestational age at diagnosis, maternal and fetal outcome. RESULTS A total of 8 cases of GIT problems in pregnancy were studied. Though acute appendicitis is the most common cause of GIT emergency in pregnancy as quoted in literature 5, we did not encounter any case of acute appendicitis in pregnancy in the study period. Other conditions which were encountered were small bowel obstruction, stomach and bowel perforation and bleeding oesophageal varices. Whilst few of the conditions could be managed conservatively without harm to the pregnancy, others required a laparotomy and reparative procedures. Delay in diagnosis and intervention proved to be fatal in some of these women. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about potentially grave gastrointestinal tract problems during pregnancy, high index of clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis (including radiological investigations and timely intervention including laparotomy, when indicated will help to reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality.

  4. Drinking Water Quality and the Geospatial Distribution of Notified Gastro-Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilc, Eva; Gale, Ivanka; Veršič, Aleš; Žagar, Tina; Sočan, Maja

    2015-09-01

    Even brief episodes of fecal contamination of drinking water can lead directly to illness in the consumers. In water-borne outbreaks, the connection between poor microbial water quality and disease can be quickly identified. The impact of non-compliant drinking water samples due to E. coli taken for regular monitoring on the incidence of notified acute gastrointestinal infections has not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to analyse the geographical distribution of notified acute gastrointestinal infections (AGI) in Slovenia in 2010, with hotspot identification. The second aim of the study was to correlate the fecal contamination of water supply system on the settlement level with the distribution of notified AGI cases. Spatial analysis using geo-information technology and other methods were used. Hot spots with the highest proportion of notified AGI cases were mainly identified in areas with small supply zones. The risk for getting AGI was drinking water contaminated with E. coli from supply zones with 50-1000 users: RR was 1.25 and significantly greater than one (p-value less than 0.001). This study showed the correlation between the frequency of notified AGI cases and non-compliant results in drinking water monitoring.

  5. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred...... of change in the surgical procedures (2), surgical morbidity (6), medical factors (4) and psychosocial or other factors (5) all independent of pain. Pain data were incomplete in two patients and therefore excluded. In the remaining 91 patients, median time to defaecation and LOS were 24 and 48 h......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  6. Gastro-intestinal Parasites of Pigs in some parts of Wukari, Taraba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order of abundance of the parasites, Ascaris suum occurred more (66.56%) followed by Trichuris suis (9.84%) and Eimeria sp (1.64%). With respect to breed, the Large white 183(91.04%) pigs were found to harbour more of parasites with the highest number of infection than the mixed breed, 55(52.88%). Of the 140 male ...

  7. Radiolabeled keratin: an undigestible marker for gastro-intestinal transit investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedig, G.; Tellier, P.; Vulpillat, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new marker for undigestible food is described in this paper. Labeling of keratin fibers with radioactive chromium 51 was operated by a simple process. A 90 % labeling efficiency was obtained. Assessment of in vitro chromium binding stability was performed by incubating fibers in different solutions (24 hours, 37 0 C). Remaining activity on fibers was found to be 92+-2% in a pepsin solution, and 97+-1% in a pancreatic extract solution. Acid or basic solutions (pH 1 to pH 11) did not yield significant elution. In Man, scintigraphic views displayed a focal distribution of the radioactivity in the digestive tractus. Patient's irradiation during such an exploration was estimated by dosimetric calculation and found to be acceptable. Scintigraphic survey of fibers progression was possible throughout the whole digestive tractus, particularly in the intestine. This marker should become mainly interesting for intestinal studies, since it is one of the only two undigestible markers, with radiolabeled alpha-cellulose. Properties related to its original structure, and advantages of a simple labeling process should be valuable in a promizing way of exploration [fr

  8. Upper Gastro-Intestinal Endoscopy in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: An Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accurate diagnosis of disease conditions using laboratory, imaging or endoscopic investigation is essential for appropriate treatment. There is paucity of data on upper GI endoscopy in Port-Harcourt. This audit of our early experience is intended to provide data on the pattern of endoscopy findings which is ...

  9. Intraabdominal anastomotic leak after upper gastro-intestinal surgery: Definition, diagnosis, management and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ramos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Cirugía. Fecha de lectura: 25-09-2015 The augmenting number of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) procedures, specially due to bariatric surgery, entails an expected increase in the absolute number of surgical complications. Among the most devastating complications is that of a postsurgical leak, increasing morbidity and mortality thus affecting long-term survival rate and treatment’s cost. C...

  10. Viability of lactic acid bacteria coated as synbiotic during storage and gastro-intestinal simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilah, It; Priyani, Nunuk; Lusia Natalia, Santa

    2018-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been added to various food products as a probiotic agent because it has been known to provide beneficial health effects in humans. In the application of LAB, cell viability often decreased as influenced by environment stresses. Encapsulation technique is one of the cell protection techniques using a coating material. Effective coating material is required to produce maximum protection of LAB cells. In this study, candidate of probiotic LAB (isolate US7) was encapsulated with alginate-mung bean flour and alginate-gram flour with inulin prebiotic by extrusion technique. Viability of encapsulated LAB cells were able to survive by up to 108CFU g‑1 after 4 weeks of storage at 4 °C. Beads were incubated in simulated liquid gastric acid (pH=2) for 2 hrs and simulated intestinal fluid (pH=6) for 3 hrs at 37 °C. The results showed that encapsulated LAB cells maintained the survival rate of 97% with the number of cells at 9.07 Log CFU g‑1in the simulated liquid gastric acid and then followed by releasing cells in simulated intestinal fluid. In general, this study indicates that encapsulation with alginate-mung bean flour and alginategram flour with inulin successfullyprotect probiotic bacteria against simulated human gastrointestinal conditions.

  11. The dose-response relation in human volunteers for gastro-intestinal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; Heijden OG van der; Giessen JWB van der; Havelaar AH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    Published data on infection of human hosts with various protozoa, bacteria, and viruses causing gastro-enteritis are used to establish a quantitative relationship between ingested dose and the risk of infection. For all data sets analysed, this relationship is determined by fitting either an

  12. Studies on the endoparasites in the gastro-intestinal tract of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of helminth parasites of the alimentary canal of C. garienpinus was carried out in Kano, between January, 2002 and June 2002. A total of 700 fish samples were examined out of which 281 (40.14%) were infected. The parasites recovered include: Cestodes (Polyonchobothrium sp. and Monobothroids sp.) ...

  13. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal tract parasites in the inhabitants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple infections of two-three parasite combinations were encouyragee, A lumbricoides- hookworm combination being the most common. Higher prevalence rates of infection occurred in pupils of age groups 9-11 and 12-14. Infection was greater among pupils drinking water from river/stream and those using pit/bush for ...

  14. Gastro-intestinal helminth parasites of fish species in Qua Iboe River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal helminth parasites recovered were Amphibiophilus acanthociratus, Rondonia rondoni, Cosmoynemoides aguirrei, Tachygonetria sp, Goezia spinulosa, Buckleynema sp, Metaquimperia sp, Camallanus sp, Procamallanus laevichonchus, Proleptus sp, Bancroftinema dentatum, Cystidicola farioni,, ...

  15. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L

    2005-01-01

    scores were assessed during cough on a categorical scale (0: no pain, 1: slight pain, 2: moderate pain, 3: severe pain) 24 and 48 h after surgery. Sum of pain scores (24 + 48 h assessments) was compared with time to first postoperative defaecation and LOS. Data from 19 patients were excluded because...... of change in the surgical procedures (2), surgical morbidity (6), medical factors (4) and psychosocial or other factors (5) all independent of pain. Pain data were incomplete in two patients and therefore excluded. In the remaining 91 patients, median time to defaecation and LOS were 24 and 48 h......The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred...

  16. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Gharib, O.A.; El-Sheikh, M.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  17. Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Pigs in Jos, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing concern for pig parasites as a bottleneck for low productivity and reduction in the market value of pork meat. The economic losses resulting from gastrointestinal parasites of pigs are quite enormous. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Jos Plateau ...

  18. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal tract parasites in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following parasites were isolated, namely Hookworms (53.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (36.7%), Trichuris trichiura (2.3%) Entamoeba histolytica (11.7%), Entamoeba coli (0.3%) and Giardia lamblia (1.7%). Multiple parasitism were also encountered. The age groups 5-7, 8-10 and 11-13 years recorded high prevalence ...

  19. Does the reporting of gastro-intestinal endoscopy meet the minimal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Minimal Standard Terminology (MST) was developed to standardise endoscopic reporting. This study is aimed at assessing current reporting at a tertiary hospital and whether it meets this Minimal Standard Terminology. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of upper endoscopy reports ...

  20. UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL BLEEDING IN THE YOUNG - GASTRIC GIST TUMOR OR PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Atolagbe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available GIST tumors is very unusual in the young and middle aged and a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis in young patients who present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Appropriate imaging such as a Computed tomographic scan (CT scan may identify this tumor which may easily be misdiagnosed as a bleeding Peptic Ulcer Disease in the young. We present a case of a healthy 38 year old man with no alcohol use who presented with epigastric pain and melena and subsequent torrential bleeding uncontrolled during endoscopy necessitating an emergency exploratory laparotomy by the general surgery team. The bleeding intraluminal component of the tumor with gross splenic and pancreatic involvement was identified and surgical management consisted of a wedge resection of the greater curvature of the stomach incorporating the tumor and the spleen with successful dissection of the tumor off the tail of the pancreas. Histology was positive for C-KIT and DOG-1 markers. Postoperative course was uneventful and he is presently on Imatinib Mesylate.

  1. Lymphomas of the gastro-intestinal tract - Pathophysiology, pathology, and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT is the most commonly involved site of extranodal lymphomas. The close association between chronic inflammation and specific GIT lymphomas not only provide interesting insights into the pathobiology of lymphomas but also poses unique diagnostic challenges. A clear understanding of marginal zone and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT in health and disease is helpful to place GIT lymphomas in proper context. A wide variety of lymphomas besides MALT lymphomas occur in various parts of the GIT. The characteristic pathological, immunophenotypic, and genetic features of different GIT lymphomas categorized according to World Health Organization (WHO classification are presented. The epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of lymphomas occurring in each part of the GIT are summarized and the key points regarding lymphomas at each site are emphasized. A tabular summary of the important differential diagnostic considerations at each site is given and suggestions for a minimal diagnostic work up are provided.

  2. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach leading to gastric diverticulum and upper gastro-intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Stoian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is a rare condition. Gastric diverticulum is also a rare condition, mostly located at the fornix. Therefore, the existence of a pyloric gastric diverticulum containing a submucosal tumor proved to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is an extremely rare condition. The patient was a young thin male with epigastralgia chronically treated for gastritis/ulcer. Following an episode of melena, he underwent gastroscopy that diagnosed antral gastric diverticulum containing a polyp. The lesion was surgically removed. The pathology report stated: heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach with secondary development of a traction diverticulum. Heterotopic pancreas tissue of the stomach is a rare condition but the association with gastric diverticulum is completely unusual. The possibility of the ectopic tissue leading to secondary diverticulum development should be considered.

  3. [Gastroduodenal system state and levels of gastro-intestinal peptides in workers exposed to fluor compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A A; Gromov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Studies in 45 cryolite production workers (facing chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis) demonstrated that the diseases in them have moderate inflammatory activity, atrophy of gastric lining contaminated with Helicobacter pylori, hypergastrine mia, hypopancreozymine mia and hyposecretine mia in half of the examinees.

  4. Exploring the host parasitism of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus destuctor by expressed sequence tags analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Peng

    Full Text Available The potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, is a very destructive nematode pest on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, but the molecular characterization of its parasitism of plant has been limited. The effectors involved in nematode parasitism of plant for several sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes such as Heterodera glycines, Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne incognita have been identified and extensively studied over the past two decades. Ditylenchus destructor, as a migratory plant parasitic nematode, has different feeding behavior, life cycle and host response. Comparing the transcriptome and parasitome among different types of plant-parasitic nematodes is the way to understand more fully the parasitic mechanism of plant nematodes. We undertook the approach of sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived from a mixed stage cDNA library of D. destructor. This is the first study of D. destructor ESTs. A total of 9800 ESTs were grouped into 5008 clusters including 3606 singletons and 1402 multi-member contigs, representing a catalog of D. destructor genes. Implementing a bioinformatics' workflow, we found 1391 clusters have no match in the available gene database; 31 clusters only have similarities to genes identified from D. africanus, the most closely related species to D. destructor; 1991 clusters were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO; 1550 clusters were assigned enzyme commission (EC numbers; and 1211 clusters were mapped to 181 KEGG biochemical pathways. 22 ESTs had similarities to reported nematode effectors. Interestedly, most of the effectors identified in this study are involved in host cell wall degradation or modification, such as 1,4-beta-glucanse, 1,3-beta-glucanse, pectate lyase, chitinases and expansin, or host defense suppression such as calreticulin, annexin and venom allergen-like protein. This result implies that the migratory plant-parasitic nematode D. destructor secrets similar effectors to

  5. Genetic identification of anisakid nematodes isolated from largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode species belonging to genus Anisakis occur at their third larval stage in numerous marine teleost fish species worldwide and known to cause accidental human infection through the ingestion of raw or undercooked fish or squids. They may also draw the attention of consumers because of the visual impact of both alive and dead worms. Therefore, the information on their geographical distribution and clear species identification is important for epidemiological survey and further prevention of human infection. Results For identification of anisakid nematodes species isolated from largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA were conducted. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene was also sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. From the largehead hairtail (n = 9, 1259 nematodes were isolated in total. Most of the nematodes were found encapsulated throughout the viscera (56.2 %, 708/1259 or moving freely in the body cavity (41.5 %, 523/1259, and only 0.3 % (4/1259 was found in the muscles. By PCR-RFLP, three different nematode species were identified. Anisakis pegreffii was the most dominantly found (98.7 %, 1243/1259 from the largehead hairtail, occupying 98.7 % (699/708 of the nematodes in the mesenteries and 98.1 % (513/523 in the body cavity. Hybrid genotype (Anisakis simplex × A. pegreffii occupied 0.5 %, and Hysterothylacium sp. occupied 0.2 % of the nematodes isolated in this study. Conclusions The largehead hairtail may not significantly contribute accidental human infection of anisakid nematode third stage larvae because most of the nematodes were found from the viscera or body cavity, which are not consumed raw. But, a high prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in the largehead hairtail is still in concern because they may raise food safety

  6. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with ...... extracts. Our results, therefore, indicated that tannin-containing plants could act against cattle nematodes....

  7. Benthic freshwater nematode community dynamics under conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of the influence of fish aquaculture on benthic freshwater nematode assemblages are scarce, but could provide a way of gauging environmental effects. The abundance and diversity of nematode assemblages in response to Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture were investigated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, ...

  8. Msp40 effector of root-knot nematode manipulates plant immunity to facilitate parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Liu, Qian; Chen, Changlong; Guo, Quanxin; Yin, Junmei; Yang, Guangsui; Jian, Heng

    2016-01-22

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are obligate biotrophic parasites that invade plant roots and engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their hosts. Nematode secretions, some of which have immunosuppressing activity, play essential roles in successful parasitism; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the RKN-specific gene MiMsp40, cloned from Meloidogyne incognita, is expressed exclusively in subventral oesophageal gland cells and is strongly upregulated during early parasitic stages. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MiMsp40 were more susceptible to nematode infection than were wild type plants. Conversely, the host-derived MiMsp40 RNAi suppressed nematode parasitism and/or reproduction. Moreover, overexpression of MiMsp40 in plants suppressed the deposition of callose and the expression of marker genes for bacterial elicitor elf18-triggered immunity. Transient expression of MiMsp40 prevented Bax-triggered defence-related programmed cell death. Co-agroinfiltration assays indicated that MiMsp40 also suppressed macroscopic cell death triggered by MAPK cascades or by the ETI cognate elicitors R3a/Avr3a. Together, these results demonstrate that MiMsp40 is a novel Meloidogyne-specific effector that is injected into plant cells by early parasitic stages of the nematode and that plays a role in suppressing PTI and/or ETI signals to facilitate RKN parasitism.

  9. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  10. Analysis and Characterization of Vitamin B Biosynthesis Pathways in the Phytoparasitic Nematode Heterodera Glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), "Heterodera glycines" is an obligate plant parasite that can cause devastating crop losses. To aide in the study of this pathogen, the SCN genome and the transcriptome of second stage juveniles and eggs were shotgun sequenced. A bioinformatic screen of the data revealed nine genes involved in the "de novo"…

  11. Genetic analysis of root-knot nematode resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaistra, J.

    2006-01-01

    The development of potato varieties with resistance towards the potato cyst nematode, allowed a dramatic decrease of the use of nematicides. Subsequently the population of the free living nematodes and the root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.) has increased. Among the root-knot nematodes, three

  12. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Nauclea latifolia Extract Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct effects of Nauclea latifolia extracts on different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep is described. In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to determine possible anthelmintic effect of leaf extracts of Nauclea latifolia toward different ovine gastro intestinal nematodes. A larval development assay was used to ...

  13. COMPARISON OF THE EFFICACIES OF DIAZINON ® + ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacies of diazinon® + albendazole®, ivomec® and ivojec® were compared on 12 pigs naturally infested with mange mites due to Sarcoptes scabiei and gastro-intestinal nematodes. Nematode eggs encountered include those of the Ascaris, Strongyle, Strongyloid and Trichuris. These pigs were randomly divided ...

  14. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the hormone signalling network in the host to induce resistance to nematodes. We investigated the role and the timing of the jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defensive pathways in Trichoderma-induced resistance to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A split-root system of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used to study local and systemic induced defences by analysing nematode performance, defence gene expression, responsiveness to exogenous hormone application, and dependence on SA and JA signalling of Trichoderma-induced resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma impeded nematode performance both locally and systemically at multiple stages of the parasitism, that is, invasion, galling and reproduction. First, Trichoderma primed SA-regulated defences, which limited nematode root invasion. Then, Trichoderma enhanced JA-regulated defences, thereby antagonizing the deregulation of JA-dependent immunity by the nematodes, which compromised galling and fecundity. Our results show that Trichoderma primes SA- and JA-dependent defences in roots, and that the priming of responsiveness to these hormones upon nematode attack is plastic and adaptive to the parasitism stage. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. In vitro anti-parasitic effects of sesquiterpene lactones from chicory against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Boas, Ulrik

    of SL-rich extracts from 2 chicory cultivars on the viability of first-stage larvae (L1) of Ostertagia ostertagi, a pathogenic cattle nematode. Chicory Spadona and Puna II were grown at the same farm and leaves were sampled the same day. 1 g of freeze-dried leaves was extracted in methanol....../water. Resulting extracts were incubated with cellulase enzymes, recovered in ethyl acetate and purified by normal solid-phase extraction. Obtained extracts were dissolved in 100% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A calf infected with O. ostertagi served as donor of nematode eggs. Eggs were hatched and L1 obtained were...

  16. Analysis of nematode motion using an improved light-scatter based system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck S Nutting

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The detailed assessment of nematode activity and viability still remains a relatively undeveloped area of biological and medical research. Computer-based approaches to assessing the motility of larger nematode stages have been developed, yet these lack the capability to detect and analyze the more subtle and important characteristics of the motion of nematodes. There is currently a need to improved methods of assessing the viability and health of parasitic worms.We describe here a system that converts the motion of nematodes through a light-scattering system into an electrical waveform, and allows for reproducible, and wholly non-subjective, assessment of alterations in motion, as well as estimation of the number of nematode worms of different forms and sizes. Here we have used Brugia sp. microfilariae (L1, infective larvae (L3 and adults, together with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.The motion of worms in a small (200 ul volume can be detected, with the presence of immotile worms not interfering with the readings at practical levels (up to at least 500 L1 /200 ul. Alterations in the frequency of parasite movement following the application of the anti-parasitic drugs, (chloroquine and imatinib; the anti-filarial effect of the latter agent is the first demonstrated here for the first time. This system can also be used to estimate the number of parasites, and shortens the time required to estimate parasites numbers, and eliminates the need for microscopes and trained technicians to provide an estimate of microfilarial sample sizes up to 1000 parasites/ml. Alterations in the form of motion of the worms can also be depicted.This new instrument, named a "WiggleTron", offers exciting opportunities to further study nematode biology and to aid drug discovery, as well as contributing to a rapid estimate of parasite numbers in various biological samples.

  17. Genomic mechanisms accounting for the adaptation to parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejashwari Meerupati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP. An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina. The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation

  18. Feeding and the rhodopsin family G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs in nematodes and arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Carlos dos Reis Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, receptors of the rhodopsin G-protein coupled superfamily (GPCRs play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis and are activated by peptide hormones produced in the brain-gut axis. These peptides regulate appetite and energy expenditure by promoting or inhibiting food intake. Sequence and function homologues of human GPCRs involved in feeding exist in the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and the arthropod fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster, suggesting that the mechanisms that regulate food intake emerged early and have been conserved during metazoan radiation. Nematodes and arthropods are the most diverse and successful animal phyla on Earth. They can survive in a vast diversity of environments and have acquired distinct life styles and feeding strategies. The aim of the present review is to investigate if this diversity has affected the evolution of invertebrate GPCRs. Homologues of the C. elegans and D. melanogaster rhodopsin receptors were characterized in the genome of other nematodes and arthropods and receptor evolution compared. With the exception of bombesin receptors (BBR that are absent from nematodes, a similar gene complement was found. In arthropods, rhodopsin GPCR evolution is characterized by species-specific gene duplications and deletions and in nematodes by gene expansions in species with a free-living stage and gene deletions in representatives of obligate parasitic taxa. Based upon variation in GPCR gene number and potentially divergent functions within phyla we hypothesize that life style and feeding diversity practiced by nematodes and arthropods was one factor that contributed to rhodopsin GPCR gene evolution. Understanding how the regulation of food intake has evolved in invertebrates will contribute to the development of novel drugs to control nematodes and arthropods and the pests and diseases that use them as vectors.

  19. Feeding and the rhodopsin family g-protein coupled receptors in nematodes and arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Fonseca, Vera G; Power, Deborah M

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, receptors of the rhodopsin G-protein coupled superfamily (GPCRs) play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis and are activated by peptide hormones produced in the brain-gut axis. These peptides regulate appetite and energy expenditure by promoting or inhibiting food intake. Sequence and function homologs of human GPCRs involved in feeding exist in the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), and the arthropod fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), suggesting that the mechanisms that regulate food intake emerged early and have been conserved during metazoan radiation. Nematodes and arthropods are the most diverse and successful animal phyla on Earth. They can survive in a vast diversity of environments and have acquired distinct life styles and feeding strategies. The aim of the present review is to investigate if this diversity has affected the evolution of invertebrate GPCRs. Homologs of the C. elegans and D. melanogaster rhodopsin receptors were characterized in the genome of other nematodes and arthropods and receptor evolution compared. With the exception of bombesin receptors (BBR) that are absent from nematodes, a similar gene complement was found. In arthropods, rhodopsin GPCR evolution is characterized by species-specific gene duplications and deletions and in nematodes by gene expansions in species with a free-living stage and gene deletions in representatives of obligate parasitic taxa. Based upon variation in GPCR gene number and potentially divergent functions within phyla we hypothesize that life style and feeding diversity practiced by nematodes and arthropods was one factor that contributed to rhodopsin GPCR gene evolution. Understanding how the regulation of food intake has evolved in invertebrates will contribute to the development of novel drugs to control nematodes and arthropods and the pests and diseases that use them as vectors.

  20. Effect of spraying Arthrobotrys conoides conidia on pastures to control nematode infection in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Kimie Falbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of spraying pastures with conidia of the fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (GenBank ID: JN191309 for the biological control of gastrointestinal nematode infection-pressure in lambs was assessed. A 12,000-m2 area was divided into six 2,000-m2 fenced areas. Two groups were formed: the treatment group comprised three fenced areas, where conidia were sprayed on the pasture weekly at 7.5 x 104 conidia m-2; and the control group, also comprising three fenced areas, where conidia were not sprayed. The pastures included lopsided oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Five naturally infected lambs, were placed between July and September in each fenced area. The effectiveness of biological control was assessed between May and September 2009 by counting the number of third-stage larvae (L3 in each pasture. Additionally, the egg output of the sentinel animals was monitored by counting the number of gastrointestinal nematode eggs per gram of faeces (EPG and the average weight gain was measured. The negative impact on soil was assessed by counting the number of free-living nematodes and phytonematodes. The number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the treated pastures decreased. This was significant at two examination days (end August and end of September. At the end of the study, conidia treatment reduced gastrointestinal nematodes on pasture by 52.4% compared to the control group; this difference was statistically significant. Regarding the whole examination period the average reductions in EPG in treatment group was 49.1% compared to the control group. The most common genera of gastrointestinal nematodes were Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus. Animal weight gain and soil nematode counts did not differ significantly.

  1. Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Carl J; Renshaw, Hilary; Frezal, Lise; Jiang, Yanfang; Félix, Marie-Anne; Wang, David

    2014-01-05

    The discoveries of Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses, three viruses infecting either Caenorhabditis elegans or its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae, enable the study of virus-host interactions using natural pathogens of these two well-established model organisms. We characterized the tissue tropism of infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes by these viruses. Using immunofluorescence assays targeting proteins from each of the viruses, and in situ hybridization, we demonstrate viral proteins and RNAs localize to intestinal cells in larval stage Caenorhabditis nematodes. Viral proteins were detected in one to six of the 20 intestinal cells present in Caenorhabditis nematodes. In Orsay virus-infected C. elegans, viral proteins were detected as early as 6h post-infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and capsid proteins of Orsay virus exhibited different subcellular localization patterns. Collectively, these observations provide the first experimental insights into viral protein expression in any nematode host, and broaden our understanding of viral infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B; Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p < 0.001 reduced population development of D. suzukii from infested berries. All nematodes significantly reduced adult emergence from pupal cases compared to the water control. Larvae proved more susceptible to nematode infection. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora proved the best from the four nematodes investigated; readily emerging from punctured larvae and causing 95% mortality. The potential of the entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  3. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  4. Genome Evolution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Jones, John T

    2017-08-04

    Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Sequencing of a larger number of nematode genomes, including plant parasites that show different modes of parasitism or that have evolved in currently unsampled clades, and using free-living taxa as comparators would allow more detailed analysis and a better understanding of the organization of key genes within the genomes. This would facilitate a more complete understanding of the way in which parasitism has shaped the genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  5. Growing Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitic root-knot nematodes are a threat to tomato production. In this study, the effect of Procarvian carpensis manure at a rate of 5tons/ha and the balanced NPK inorganic fertilizer at a rate of 100kg/ha on the growth performance of the tomato genotype “Duluti” on a highly root-knot nematode soil was evaluated. The field ...

  6. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, A; Cabaret, J

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control)? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation) are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole). Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy) are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial: it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  7. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control ? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole. Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial : it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  8. Tropical nematode diversity: vertical stratification of nematode communities in a Costa Rican humid lowland rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Neher, D A; Mullin, P; Esquivel, A; Giblin-Davis, R M; Kanzaki, N; Stock, S P; Mora, M M; Uribe-Lorio, L

    2009-03-01

    Comparisons of nematode communities among ecosystems have indicated that, unlike many organisms, nematode communities have less diversity in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. There are, however, few studies of tropical nematode diversity on which to base conclusions of global patterns of diversity. This study reports an attempt to estimate nematode diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica. We suggest one reason that previous estimates of tropical nematode diversity were low is because habitats above the mineral soil are seldom sampled. As much as 62% of the overall genetic diversity, measured by an 18S ribosomal barcode, existed in litter and understorey habitats and not in soil. A maximum-likelihood tree of barcodes from 360 individual nematodes indicated most major terrestrial nematode lineages were represented in the samples. Estimated 'species' richness ranged from 464 to 502 within the four 40 x 40 m plots. Directed sampling of insects and their associated nematodes produced a second set of barcodes that were not recovered by habitat sampling, yet may constitute a major class of tropical nematode diversity. While the generation of novel nematode barcodes proved relatively easy, their identity remains obscure due to deficiencies in existing taxonomic databases. Specimens of Criconematina, a monophyletic group of soil-dwelling plant-parasitic nematodes were examined in detail to assess the steps necessary for associating barcodes with nominal species. Our results highlight the difficulties associated with studying poorly understood organisms in an understudied ecosystem using a destructive (i.e. barcode) sampling method.

  9. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  10. Nematode Interactions in Nature: Models for Sustainable Control of Nematode Pests of Crop Plants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Cook, R.; Costa, S.; Davies, K.G.; Fargette, M.; Freitas, H.; Hol, W.H.G.; Kerry, B.R.; Maher, N.; Mateille, T.; Moens, M.; Peña, de la E.; Piskiewicz, A.M.; Raeymaekers, A.D.W.; Rodriquez-Echeverria, S.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are major crop pests in agro-ecosystems while in nature their impact may range from substantial to no significant growth reduction. The aim of this review is to determine if nematode population control in natural ecosystems may provide us with a model for enhancing

  11. Nematode interactions in nature: models for sustainable control of nematode pests of crop plants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Cook, R.; Costa, S.R.; Davies, K.G.; Fargette, M.; Freitas, H.; Hol, W.H.G.; Kerry, B.R.; Maher, N.; Mateille, T.; Moens, M.; De la Peña, E.; Piskiewicz, A.; Raeymaekers, A.; Rodríguez-Echeverría, S.; Van der Wurff, A.W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are major crop pests in agro-ecosystems while in nature their impact may range from substantial to no significant growth reduction. The aim of this review is to determine if nematode population control in natural ecosystems may provide us with a model for enhancing

  12. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhee Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI, gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ≤ 1.0, while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0 with coefficient of variance (CV of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1.

  13. Microsporidia are natural intracellular parasites of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troemel, Emily R; Félix, Marie-Anne; Whiteman, Noah K; Barrière, Antoine; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2008-12-09

    For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode intestinal cells, and no pathogen has been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans. Here we describe an intracellular pathogen isolated from wild-caught C. elegans that we show is a new species of microsporidia. Microsporidia comprise a large class of eukaryotic intracellular parasites that are medically and agriculturally important, but poorly understood. We show that microsporidian infection of the C. elegans intestine proceeds through distinct stages and is transmitted horizontally. Disruption of a conserved cytoskeletal structure in the intestine called the terminal web correlates with the release of microsporidian spores from infected cells, and appears to be part of a novel mechanism by which intracellular pathogens exit from infected cells. Unlike in bacterial intestinal infections, the p38 MAPK and insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways do not appear to play substantial roles in resistance to microsporidian infection in C. elegans. We found microsporidia in multiple wild-caught isolates of Caenorhabditis nematodes from diverse geographic locations. These results indicate that microsporidia are common parasites of C. elegans in the wild. In addition, the interaction between C. elegans and its natural microsporidian parasites provides a system in which to dissect intracellular intestinal infection in vivo and insight into the diversity of pathogenic mechanisms used by intracellular microbes.

  14. Nematode parasite diversity in birds: the role of host ecology, life history and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tommy L F; Koprivnikar, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found that migratory birds generally have a more diverse array of pathogens such as parasites, as well as higher intensities of infection. However, it is not clear whether this is driven by the metabolic and physiological demands of migration, differential selection on host life-history traits or basic ecological differences between migratory and non-migratory species. Parasitic helminths can cause significant pathology in their hosts, and many are trophically transmitted such that host diet and habitat use play key roles in the acquisition of infections. Given the concurrent changes in avian habitats and migratory behaviour, it is critical to understand the degree to which host ecology influences their parasite communities. We examined nematode parasite diversity in 153 species of Anseriformes (water birds) and Accipitriformes (predatory birds) in relation to their migratory behaviour, diet, habitat use, geographic distribution and life history using previously published data. Overall, migrators, host species with wide geographic distributions and those utilizing multiple aquatic habitats had greater nematode richness (number of species), and birds with large clutches harboured more diverse nematode fauna with respect to number of superfamilies. Separate analyses for each host order found similar results related to distribution, habitat use and migration; however, herbivorous water birds played host to a less diverse nematode community compared to those that consume some animals. Birds using multiple aquatic habitats have a more diverse nematode fauna relative to primarily terrestrial species, likely because there is greater opportunity for contact with parasite infectious stages and/or consumption of infected hosts. As such, omnivorous and carnivorous birds using aquatic habitats may be more affected by environmental changes that alter their diet and range. Even though there were no overall differences in their ecology and life history

  15. A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E.; Meter, Jeanne M.; Horsnell, William G.; Hoving, J. Claire; Fick, Lizette; Sharp, Michael F.; Darby, Matthew G.; Parihar, Suraj P.; Brombacher, Frank; Lopata, Andreas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nematode secreted haemoglobins have unusually high affinity for oxygen and possess nitric oxide deoxygenase, and catalase activity thought to be important in protection against host immune responses to infection. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (48Eg) against haemoglobin of the nematode Anisakis pegreffii, and aimed to characterize cross-reactivity of 4E8g against haemoglobins of different nematodes and its potential to mediate protective immunity against a murine hookworm infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunoprecipitation was used to isolate the 4E8g-binding antigen in Anisakis and Ascaris extracts, which were identified as haemoglobins by peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS. Immunological cross-reactivity was also demonstrated with haemoglobin of the rodent hookworm N. brasiliensis. Immunogenicity of nematode haemoglobin in mice and humans was tested by immunoblotting. Anisakis haemoglobin was recognized by IgG and IgE antibodies of Anisakis-infected mice, while Ascaris haemoglobin was recognized by IgG but not IgE antibodies in mouse and human sera. Sequencing of Anisakis haemoglobin revealed high similarity to haemoglobin of a related marine nematode, Psuedoterranova decipiens, which lacks the four –HKEE repeats of Ascaris haemoglobin important in octamer assembly. The localization of haemoglobin in the different parasites was examined by immunohistochemistry and associated with the excretory-secretary ducts in Anisakis, Ascaris and N. brasiliensis. Anisakis haemoglobin was strongly expressed in the L3 stage, unlike Ascaris haemoglobin, which is reportedly mainly expressed in adult worms. Passive immunization of mice with 4E8g prior to infection with N. brasiliensis enhanced protective Th2 immunity and led to a significant decrease in worm burdens. Conclusion The monoclonal antibody 4E8g targets haemoglobin in broadly equivalent anatomical locations in parasitic nematodes and enhances host immunity to a hookworm

  16. Genomic and proteomic analyses of the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora provide insights into nematode-trap formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkui Yang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nematode-trapping fungi are "carnivorous" and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927 was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb assembled sequence with 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analysis showed that A. oligospora shared many more genes with pathogenic fungi than with non-pathogenic fungi. Specifically, compared to several sequenced ascomycete fungi, the A. oligospora genome has a larger number of pathogenicity-related genes in the subtilisin, cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and pectinesterase gene families. Searching against the pathogen-host interaction gene database identified 398 homologous genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The analysis of repetitive sequences provided evidence for repeat-induced point mutations in A. oligospora. Proteomic and quantitative PCR (qPCR analyses revealed that 90 genes were significantly up-regulated at the early stage of trap-formation by nematode extracts and most of these genes were involved in translation, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Based on the combined genomic, proteomic and qPCR data, a model for the formation of nematode trapping device in this fungus was proposed. In this model, multiple fungal signal transduction pathways are activated by its nematode prey to further regulate downstream genes associated with diverse cellular processes such as energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell wall and adhesive proteins, cell division, glycerol accumulation and peroxisome biogenesis. This study will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes and provide a broad foundation for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying fungi-nematodes interactions.

  17. Survey and effects of plant parasitic root nematodes of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Five thousand, one hundred and twenty cashew trees were sampled and nematodes in their rhizospheres extracted by modified Cobb's decanting and sieving technique. Pure cultures of the nematodes were further inoculated on 30 days old ...

  18. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YONGCHUN LI

    parasitic nematode that feeds on the roots of soybean and most economically ... sified pest problems (Skorupska et al. 1994). Soybean cyst nematode .... Genomic DNA extraction and pooling for bulk segregant analysis. Genomic DNA was isolated ...

  19. Nematode-plant interactions in grasslands under restoration management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : competition, fertilisation, food quality, grassland, herbivory, nitrogen, nutrients, plant-feeding nematodes, productivity, restoration management, succession, synergism, vegetation

    Plant-feeding nematodes may have a considerable

  20. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  1. Microbial ecology and nematode control in natural ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, S.R.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Kerry, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient

  2. Selectable genetic markers for nematode transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano-Santini, Rosina; Dupuy, Denis

    2011-06-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used to study genetics and development since the mid-1970s. Over the years, the arsenal of techniques employed in this field has grown steadily in parallel with the number of researchers using this model. Since the introduction of C. elegans transgenesis, nearly 20 years ago, this system has been extensively used in areas such as rescue experiments, gene expression studies, and protein localization. The completion of the C. elegans genome sequence paved the way for genome-wide studies requiring higher throughput and improved scalability than provided by traditional genetic markers. The development of antibiotic selection systems for nematode transgenesis addresses these requirements and opens the possibility to apply transgenesis to investigate biological functions in other nematode species for which no genetic markers had been developed to date.

  3. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  4. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Casey L; Koenning, Stephen R; Davis, Eric L; Opperman, Charles H; Lommel, Steven A; Mitchum, Melissa G; Sit, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines) from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC) and Missouri (MO). The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO). Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst) and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst), but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  5. Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S. L. F.; Morra, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus ‘Sunrise’ was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’, for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source

  6. Recrystallization in a Freezing Tolerant Antarctic Nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and a Alpine Weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramløv, Hans; Wharton, David A.; Wilson, Peter W.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta,Hemideina maori,and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematodePanagrolaimus davidito inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the “splat freezing” technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage. There ...

  7. Gastrointestinal nematode control programs with an emphasis on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Bert E; Gasbarre, Louis C

    2006-11-01

    Control strategies for nematode parasites rely on knowledge of the relationships between the parasites and their hosts. Specifically, these programs are based on identifying crucial points of interaction in the environment provided by the host, including genetics and the immune response, and critical periods in the physical environment in which the eggs and larval stages must develop. When these targets are identified and the interactions understood, cost-effective sustainable programs can be developed using currently available antiparasitic compounds. Resistance to the major classes of anthelmintic compounds requires consideration of new approaches, such as immunity or genetics of the host. Additionally, the efficacy of these compounds can be expanded with combined or concomitant use. Increased study of the use of novel approaches, including fungi, elements such as copper, and plant products, has also occurred. This article explores each of these areas to allow readers to appreciate how various approaches may be developed and incorporated into an effective parasite control program.

  8. The Elusive Search for Reniform Nematode Resistance in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Churamani; McGawley, Edward C; Overstreet, Charles; Stetina, Salliana R

    2018-02-05

    The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) has emerged as the most important plant-parasitic nematode of cotton in the United States cotton belt. Success in the development of reniform nematode-resistant upland cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has not been realized despite over three decades of breeding efforts. Research approaches ranging from conventional breeding to triple species hybrids to marker-assisted selection have been employed to introgress reniform nematode resistance from other species of cotton into upland cultivars. Reniform nematode-resistant breeding lines derived from G. longicalyx were developed in 2007. However, these breeding lines displayed stunting symptoms and a hypersensitive response to reniform nematode infection. Subsequent breeding efforts focused on G. barbadense, G. aridum, G. armoreanum, and other species that have a high level of resistance to reniform nematode. Marker-assisted selection has greatly improved screening of reniform nematode-resistant lines. The use of advanced molecular techniques such as CRISPER-Cas9 systems and alternative ways such as delivery of suitable "cry" proteins and specific double-stranded RNA to nematodes will assist in developing resistant cultivars of cotton. In spite of the efforts of cotton breeders and nematologists, successes are limited only to the development of reniform nematode-resistant breeding lines. In this article, we provide an overview of the approaches employed to develop reniform nematode-resistant upland cotton cultivars in the past, progress to date, major obstacles, and some promising future research activity.

  9. Nematode populations as influenced by Leucaena leucocephala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study to determine the effect of Flemingia congesta and Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows, as sources of mulch, on the population of nematode species in an alley cropping system was conducted at the Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana from May 1991 to February 1994. Treatments comprised Leucaena ...

  10. Evaluation of nematode suppression and yield improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Objective: To investigate nematode suppression and yield improvement potential of two organic materials; poultry manure ... region of Ghana. The organic materials were applied on two sweet potato varieties; Apomuden and Santom ..... but a trend similar to what happened in 2014 occurred at. Atebubu.

  11. Cell cycle activation by plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Almeida Engler, de J.; Verhees, J.; Krol, van der S.; Helder, J.; Gheysen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Sedentary nematodes are important pests of crop plants. They are biotrophic parasites that can induce the (re)differentiation of either differentiated or undifferentiated plant cells into specialized feeding cells. This (re)differentiation includes the reactivation of the cell cycle in specific

  12. TABLE PREVALENCE OF GIT NEMATODES IN CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infection in naturally infected cattle in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State using standard parasitological techniques. The results indicated that out of the 1000 cattle examined, 30(3%) were infected and parasites identified were Haemonchus contortus.

  13. Prevalence of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from December, 2014 to May, 2015 on 914 animals (345 sheep and 569 goats) at Jalingo abattoir, Taraba State, Nigeria based on faecal examination. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes in slaughtered small ...

  14. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  15. Epidemiology and Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the epidemiology and control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in lambs in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya was carried out between January 2001 and December 2001. Forty Dorper lambs were randomly recruited at the age of 6 weeks and their faecal samples examined for strongyle-type ...

  16. Isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes and control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jaime Ruiz

    This study aimed to isolate native entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca and to determine their potential for control of white grub (Phyllophaga vetula Horn). Fifty-five (55) soil samples were collected in 13 communities in the period August to October 2008 and 29.1% of these were found ...

  17. Evolution of embryonic development in nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Jens

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes can be subdivided into basal Enoplea (clades 1 and 2 and more derived Chromadorea (clades 3 to 12. Embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans (clade 9 has been analyzed in most detail. Their establishment of polarity and asymmetric cleavage requires the differential localization of PAR proteins. Earlier studies on selected other nematodes revealed that embryonic development of nematodes is more diverse than the essentially invariant development of C. elegans and the classic study object Ascaris had suggested. To obtain a more detailed picture of variations and evolutionary trends we compared embryonic cell lineages and pattern formation in embryos of all 12 nematode clades. Methods The study was conducted using 4-D microscopy and 3-D modeling of developing embryos. Results We found dramatic differences compared to C. elegans in Enoplea but also considerable variations among Chromadorea. We discovered 'Polarity Organizing Centers' (POCs that orient cleavage spindles along the anterior-posterior axis in distinct cells over consecutive cell generations. The resulting lineally arranged blastomeres represent a starting point for the establishment of bilateral symmetry within individual lineages. We can discern six different early cleavage types and suggest that these variations are due to modifications in the activity of the POCs in conjunction with changes in the distribution of PAR proteins. In addition, our studies indicate that lineage complexity advanced considerably during evolution, that is we observe trends towards an increase of somatic founder cells, from monoclonal to polyclonal lineages and from a variable (position-dependent to an invariable (lineage-dependent way of cell fate specification. In contrast to the early phase of embryogenesis, the second half ('morphogenesis' appears similar in all studied nematodes. Comparison of early cleavage between the basal nematode Tobrilus stefanskii and the tardigrade

  18. A study of interaction between Verticillium wilt Verticillium dahliae and root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica in olive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedizadeh, Ayatollah; Kheiri, Ahmad; Zad, Javad; Etebarian, Hasan Reza; Bandani, Ali Reza; Nasiri, Mohammad Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Second stage juvenile (J2) of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and microsclerotia of verticillium wilt, Verticillium dahliae, were used as the source of inoculum for nematode and fungus respectively. One-year-old seedlings of olive cultivars, Zard, Roghani, Koroneiki and Manzanilla, were transplanted to pots containing 2000g of sterilized sandy loam soil. Experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 32 treatments and five replications. Treatments were as follows: control, nematode alone, fungus alone and fungus + nematode. Pots were inoculated with (0, 2000, 3000, 4000) J2 of nematode and/or (10 no/g soil) microsclerotia of fungus according to the treatments. Experiment was terminated after 10 months and fallowing parameters were determined i.e., fresh weight of root and stem, number of galls and egg masses per root system, and percentage of incidence of symptom on aerial parts, browning of vascular tissue, decrease of seedling height and stem/root tissue colonization by fungus. Results showed that presence of nematode caused reduction on colonization of the fungus in the root and stem and vice versa i.e. presence of fungus caused reduction on number of galls and egg masses produced by the nematode. Severe fungus wilt on aerial parts of Manzanilla cultivar was observed when both pathogens were inoculated and mild fungus wilt was observed in fungus alone treatments of Koroneiki cultivar. Galling and egg mass production in root system were reduced in cvs Manzanilla, Zard, Roghani and Koroneiki, respectively (p Manzanilla, respectively (p < or = 0/05).

  19. Developmental plasticity and the evolution of parasitism in an unusual nematode, Parastrongyloides trichosuri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiuk Susan J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitism is an important life history strategy in many metazoan taxa. This is particularly true of the Phylum Nematoda, in which parasitism has evolved independently at least nine times. The apparent ease with which parasitism has evolved amongst nematodes may, in part, be due to a feature of nematode development acting as a pre-adaptation for the transition from a free-living to a parasitic life history. One candidate pre-adaptive feature for evolution in terrestrial nematodes is the dauer larva, a developmentally arrested morph formed in response to environmental signals. Results We investigated the role of dauer development in the nematode, Parastrongyloides trichosuri, which has retained a complete free-living life cycle in addition to a life cycle as a mammalian gastrointestinal parasite. We show that the developmental switch between these life histories is sensitive to the same environmental cues as dauer arrest in free-living nematodes, including sensitivity to a chemical cue produced by the free-living stages. Furthermore, we show that genetic variation for the sensitivity of the cue(s exists in natural populations of P. trichosuri, such that we derived inbred lines that were largely insensitive to the cue and other lines that were supersensitive to the cue. Conclusions For this parasitic clade, and perhaps more widely in the phylum, the evolution of parasitism co-opted the dauer switch of a free-living ancestor. This lends direct support to the hypothesis that the switch to developmental arrest in the dauer larva acted as a pre-adaptation for the evolution of parasitism, and suggests that the sensory transduction machinery downstream of the cue may have been similarly co-opted and modified.

  20. Understanding the interaction between an obligate hyperparasitic bacterium, Pasteuria penetrans and its obligate plant-parasitic nematode host, Meloidogyne spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Keith G

    2009-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is an endospore-forming bacterium, which is a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. that are economically important pests of a wide range of crops. The life cycle of the bacterium and nematode are described with emphasis on the bacterium's potential as a biocontrol agent. Two aspects that currently prohibit the commercial development of the bacterium as a biocontrol agent are the inability to culture it outside its host and its host specificity. Vegetative growth of the bacterium is possible in vitro; however, getting the vegetative stages of the bacterium to enter sporogenesis has been problematic. Insights from genomic survey sequences regarding the role of cation concentration and the phosphorylation of Spo0F have proved useful in inducing vegetative bacteria to sporulate. Similarly, genomic data have also proved useful in understanding the attachment of endospores to the cuticle of infective nematode juveniles, and a Velcro-like model of spore attachment is proposed that involves collagen-like fibres on the surface of the endospore interacting with mucins on the nematode cuticle. Ecological studies of the interactions between Daphnia and Pasteuria ramosa are examined and similarities are drawn between the co-evolution of virulence in the Daphnia system and that of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  1. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals of Ukraine. Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varodi E. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes information on the nematodes parasitic in wild Carnivora of Ukraine. Totally, 50 species of nematodes are known to parasitise carnivorans in the country, 30 species were registered in the present study. Nematodes were found in 14 species of examined hosts from the families Canidae, Mustelidae and Felidae. Maximum diversity of nematodes of carnivorans was observed in Polissia (forest zone in the north of the country and in Kherson Region in the south. Hosts from the family Canidae harboured 19 nematode species; studied species of the Mustelidae were infected with 15 nematode species, 6 of them were also found in Canidae. The wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber and the lynx (Lynx lynx Linnaeus harboured only two species of nematodes, both are specific parasites of these hosts. The most comprehensive information concerns the nematode communities of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus and the wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, with 19 and 9 nematode species found, correspondingly. From 1 to 6 nematode species were found in other species of carnivorans.

  3. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 16, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in commercial goat farms in Central Uganda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Nsereko, P Emudong, H Mulindwa, J Okwee-Acai, 99-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ujas.v16i1.8 ...

  4. Pathology of worm infestation in ovine and its treatment with two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to obtain the effects of plant extraction of Fumariaceae on the control of experimental multiple nematodes infection as an antihelminthic and Scrophularia striata plant extraction as an anti-inflammatory of gastro intestinal tract (GIT) in lambs, and their effects on body weight gain. 24 lambs, 9 to 13 ...

  5. Mating clusters in the mosquito parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Limin; Sanad, Manar; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yanli; Shamseldean, Muhammad S M; Gaugler, Randy

    2014-03-01

    Mating aggregations in the mosquito parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus, were investigated in the laboratory. Female postparasites, through their attraction of males and, remarkably, other females, drive the formation of mating clusters. Clusters may grow in size by merging with other individual or clusters. Female molting to the adult stage and reproductive success are enhanced in larger clusters. Male mating behavior is initiated when the female begins to molt to the adult stage by shedding dual juvenile cuticles posteriorly. Males coil their tail around the adult cuticle, migrating progressively along the female in intimate synchrony with the molting cuticle until the vulva is exposed and mating can occur. The first arriving male is assured of access to a virgin female, as his intermediate location between the vulva and subsequently arriving males blocks these competitors. Males deposit an adhesive gelatinous copulatory plug into and over the vulva before departing the female. Fecundity was greater in larger mating clusters, but this was a function of a greater rate of molting which is a prerequisite for mating. Males compete for virgin females by emerging and molting to the adult stage earlier than females. Mating aggregations have previously only been examined in snakes, but these studies have tended to be observational as snakes offer a challenging system for study. The relatively easy to culture and manipulate mermithid system may offer a model for experimental studies of male-male competition, protandry, copulatory plugs and female choice in mating clusters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... larvae (L3) of three anisakid species were found, including Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802), Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). Molecular identification by PCR-RFLP indicated the presence of A. simplex s.s. and the sibling species C. osculatum B and C...

  7. A model for nematode locomotion in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, H. William; Wall, Diana H.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; Brenner, John S.

    2001-01-01

    Locomotion of nematodes in soil is important for both practical and theoretical reasons. We constructed a model for rate of locomotion. The first model component is a simple simulation of nematode movement among finite cells by both random and directed behaviours. Optimisation procedures were used to fit the simulation output to data from published experiments on movement along columns of soil or washed sand, and thus to estimate the values of the model's movement coefficients. The coefficients then provided an objective means to compare rates of locomotion among studies done under different experimental conditions. The second component of the model is an equation to predict the movement coefficients as a function of controlling factors that have been addressed experimentally: soil texture, bulk density, water potential, temperature, trophic group of nematode, presence of an attractant or physical gradient and the duration of the experiment. Parameters of the equation were estimated by optimisation to achieve a good fit to the estimated movement coefficients. Bulk density, which has been reported in a minority of published studies, is predicted to have an important effect on rate of locomotion, at least in fine-textured soils. Soil sieving, which appears to be a universal practice in laboratory studies of nematode movement, is predicted to negatively affect locomotion. Slower movement in finer textured soils would be expected to increase isolation among local populations, and thus to promote species richness. Future additions to the model that might improve its utility include representing heterogeneity within populations in rate of movement, development of gradients of chemical attractants, trade-offs between random and directed components of movement, species differences in optimal temperature and water potential, and interactions among factors controlling locomotion.

  8. Gene expression and pharmacology of nematode NLP-12 neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Paul; Leech, Suzie; Marks, Nikki J; Geary, Timothy G; Maule, Aaron G

    2006-05-31

    This study examines the biology of NLP-12 neuropeptides in Caenorhabditis elegans, and in the parasitic nematodes Ascaris suum and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. DYRPLQFamide (1 nM-10 microM; n > or =6) produced contraction of innervated dorsal and ventral Ascaris body wall muscle preparations (10 microM, 6.8+/-1.9 g; 1 microM, 4.6+/-1.8 g; 0.1 microM, 4.1+/-2.0 g; 10 nM, 3.8+/-2.0 g; n > or =6), and also caused a qualitatively similar, but quantitatively lower contractile response (10 microM, 4.0+/-1.5 g, n=6) on denervated muscle strips. Ovijector muscle displayed no measurable response (10 microM, n=5). nlp-12 cDNAs were characterised from A. suum (As-nlp-12) and T. colubriformis (Tc-nlp-12), both of which show sequence similarity to C. elegans nlp-12, in that they encode multiple copies of -LQFamide peptides. In C. elegans, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis showed that nlp-12 was transcribed throughout the life cycle, suggesting that DYRPLQFamide plays a constitutive role in the nervous system of this nematode. Transcription was also identified in both L3 and adult stages of T. colubriformis, in which Tc-nlp-12 is expressed in a single tail neurone. Conversely, As-nlp-12 is expressed in both head and tail tissue of adult female A. suum, suggesting species-specific differences in the transcription pattern of this gene.

  9. Association of nematodes and dogwood cankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, L H; Bernard, E C

    1994-03-01

    Dogwood canker is a serious production problem of unknown etiology. From May 1985 through April 1989, cankers from 290 flowering dogwood trees in 15 separate nurseries were sampled for nematodes. Seventy-three percent (213) of the cankers contained nematodes. Panagrolaimus rigidus (Schneider) Thorne (115/290) and Aphelenchoides spp. (91/290) were the most frequently collected taxa. Panagrolaimus rigidus was reared on 2% water agar with unidentified bacteria as the food source. Aphelenchoides spp. were reared in antibiotic-amended agar culture with the fungus Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. &Schrenk as a food source. Repeated attempts to culture Aphelenchoides spp. on dogwood callus tissue were unsuccessful. Artificially created stem wounds inoculated with combinations of Aphelenchoides spp. and P. rigidus callused completely in 60 days with no indication of canker development. Very low numbers of nematodes were recovered from inoculated trees, but P. rigidus and one Aphelenchoides sp. were efficient dispersers and occurred in treatments other than those in which they were inoculated.

  10. Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Mondino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB- for extracting nucleic acid (DNA from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. After DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplifications were performed and considered as indicators of successful DNA extraction. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes on agroecosystems.

  11. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the NW of the Iberian Peninsula: assessment of some risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, F J; Vázquez, L; Díez-Baños, N; López, C; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Fernández, G; Díez-Baños, P; Panadero, R; Díaz, P; Morrondo, P

    2013-09-01

    Intestinal contents of 218 roe deer hunted in the northwest (NW) of the Iberian Peninsula during the 2008-2009 hunting seasons were examined in order to provide information on the gastrointestinal (GI) nematode prevalence and intensity of infection and the possible influence of some environmental and intrinsic factors such as climatic conditions, age and sex. All the animals studied harboured GI nematodes, and a total of 20 different species belonging to ten genera were identified. Spiculopteragia spiculoptera/Spiculopteragia mathevossiani, Ostertagia leptospicularis/Ostertagia kolchida and Nematodirus filicollis were the most common. This is the first citation for Chabertia ovina, Cooperia pectinata, Cooperia punctata, Cooperia oncophora, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus spathiger, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Teladorsagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus capricola, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Trichuris capreoli in roe deer from the Iberian Peninsula. Prevalence and intensity were significantly higher in the abomasum, where infections with more than one GI nematode species were the most common; in the other intestinal segments infections with only one GI nematode species were the most prevalent. When considering the influence of the different risk factors on the prevalence of GI nematodes, the highest prevalence for most of the genera were observed in roe deer from coastal areas, where climatic conditions are more favourable for the development and survival of third stage larvae in the environment. Regarding the sex of the animals, the prevalence was, in general, higher in males than in females, probably due to behavioural and physiological sex-related differences. On the contrary, no differences were found in relation to the age of the animals. This study reveals that roe deer from the NW of the Iberian Peninsula are widely and intensely infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, which probably affect the health status of these

  12. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggle, Benjamin N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  13. Transgenesis in parasitic nematodes: building a better array

    OpenAIRE

    Lok, James B.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of recent progress in the development of transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, several impediments remain before this methodology can become a practical and widely employed tool in parasitology. Recently published studies on transgenesis in the necromenic nematode Pristionchus pacificus from the laboratory of Ralf Sommer highlight several leads that might be valuable as efforts to refine current systems in obligate parasites go forward.

  14. Microsatellite diversity of isolates of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsen, M.; Plas, M. E.; Lenstra, J. A.; Roos, M. H.; Hoekstra, R.

    2000-01-01

    The alarming development of anthelmintic resistance in important gastrointestinal nematode parasites of man and live-stock is caused by selection for specific genotypes. In order to provide genetic tools to study the nematode populations and the consequences of anthelmintic treatment, we isolated

  15. Cyst nematode-induced changes in plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes a first attempt to investigate the biological activity of cyst nematode secretions on plant cell proliferation and the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding cell development in plant roots upon cyst nematode infection.

    To investigate the role of

  16. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of the cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to many crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria, El Behera and Sohag governorates during 2012-...

  17. Occurence of plant parasitic nematodes and factors that enhance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant parasitic nematodes remain a major challenge to crop production that has hitherto received minmum research attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper gives the diversity of nematode genera and species associated with cereal crops and indicates the possibility of nemadode population build up due to production ...

  18. Free-living Marine Nematodes. Part 1 British Enoplids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first of three volumes dealing with the most abundant group of animals on the sea-bed and sea-shore, the free-living marine nematodes, and is devoted to those marine nematodes belonging to the subclass Enoplia. Separate volumes will deal with the orders Chromadorida and. Monhysterida. To most marine ...

  19. Evaluation of fallow and cover crops for nematode suppression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in three agroecological zones of south-western Nigeria to evaluate the effect of siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) and mucuna (Mucuna utilis) cover/fallow crops on plant-parasitic nematode population. The natural bush regrowth was used as control. Plant-parasitic nematodes were identified and ...

  20. Soybean lines evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four wild and domestic soybean (Glycine max and G. soja) lines were evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in growth chamber tests with a day length of 16 hours and temperature held constant at 28 C. Several entries for which reactions to reniform nematode w...

  1. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  2. Molecular and genetic analyses of potato cyst nematode resistance loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genomic localisation and organisation of loci that harbour resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis . Resistance to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis is an important aspect in potato breeding. To gain

  3. Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) for tomato production and productivity. Bayuh Belay1* ... less gall formation, number of eggs per egg mass and final nematode population over the untreated control in the pot house experiment. ...... to Control Plant Pests. University of Idaho. Moscow ...

  4. A Survey of Nematode Infection in Oreochromis niloticus (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence and intensity of nematode infection was investigated in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Kyoga, Uganda and 11% of the 406 fish examined were parasitized by nematodes of the genus Contracaecum. The prevalence of these parasites was greatest in the smallest and largest size classes, but this ...

  5. Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

  6. Prevalence of trichostrongylid nematode in sheeps in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitism of Trichostrongylid nematode is a world-wide problem for both small and large scale farmers and is a great threat to the livestock industry and also a major constraint to the wellbeing and productive performance of ruminant animals. This study was carried out to determine the effect of Trichostrongylid nematode in ...

  7. Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, T.; Ferris, H.

    1999-01-01

    Four of every five multicellular animals on the planet are nematodes. They occupy any niche that provides an available source of organic carbon in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Nematodes vary in sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbance. Recent development of indices

  8. Epidemiological study on abomasal nematodes in slaughtered small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the major causes of productivity losses in small ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence, worm burden of abomasal nematodes and associated faecal egg counts (FEC) of small ruminants slaughtered from November, 2011 to October, 2012.

  9. Freshwater nematodes from South Africa. 4. The genus Monhystera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater nematodes from South Africa. 4. The genus Monhystera Bastian, 1865. A.P. Joubert and J. Heyns. Department of Zoology. Rand Afrikaans University. During a survey of freshwater nematodes in South Africa, five species of Monhystera Bastian, 1865, were encountered. The five species, three of which are new to ...

  10. Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to invade host tissues and extract nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode ...

  11. Occurrence and prevalence of nematodes in yam fields from four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematodes is one of the major biotic constraints affecting profitable yam production throughout Nigeria. They affect yams both in the field and in storage thus threatening food security and economic deprivation to growers and their households. The research work identified the types, frequency and population of nematodes ...

  12. occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes and factors that enhance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Plant parasitic nematodes remain a major challenge to crop production that has hitherto received minmum research attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper gives the diversity of nematode genera and species associ- ated with cereal crops and indicates the possibility of nemadode population build up due to production ...

  13. Native nematodes as new bio-insecticides for cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2015, an effort was made in central Wisconsin to find an entomopathogenic nematode capable controlling Wisconsin’s cranberry pests. Using a standard baiting method, a nematode of the Oscheius genus was collected from the mossy, sandy, peat-filled soils of a wild cranberry marsh. Thi...

  14. Plants producing pyrrolizidine alkaloids: sustainable tools for nematode management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden, T.C.; Boppre, M.

    2010-01-01

    1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (pyrrolizidine alkaloids; PAs) are a class of secondary plant metabolites found in hundreds of plant species. In vitro, PAs are known to affect plant-parasitic nematodes. Thus, PA-producing plants might be used in nematode management. So far, however,

  15. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  16. Comparison of ELISA and histopathologic and bacteriologic findings in diagnosis of helicobacter pylori in gastro-intestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsalehian A

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H.Pylori is the most common human infection in the world. This agent has a strong role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. Therefore introducing of simple and cost effective tests are important for diagnosis of H.Pylori infections. ELISA has been considered as an alternative test compare with biopsy, histological staining, culture and urease test in diagnosis of H.Pylori infection. In this investigation, 111 patients referred to GI endoscopy department of Imam Khomeini Hospitals for U.G.I problems which were evaluated for H.Pylori infection. Culture and histological staining (GIMSA and H & E were used as a gold standard test compare with ELISA-IgG and urease test. Sensitivity and specificity for ELISA were 90%, 93% respectively. This report suggests that ELISA is a cost effect and valid test in diagnosis of H.Pylori infection

  17. Variation in faecal water content may confound estimates of gastro-intestinal parasite intensity in wild African herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, W C; Cizauskas, C A; Getz, W M

    2010-03-01

    Estimates of parasite intensity within host populations are essential for many studies of host-parasite relationships. Here we evaluated the seasonal, age- and sex-related variability in faecal water content for two wild ungulate species, springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and plains zebra (Equus quagga). We then assessed whether or not faecal water content biased conclusions regarding differences in strongyle infection rates by season, age or sex. There was evidence of significant variation in faecal water content by season and age for both species, and by sex in springbok. Analyses of faecal egg counts demonstrated that sex was a near-significant factor in explaining variation in strongyle parasite infection rates in zebra (P = 0.055) and springbok (P = 0.052) using wet-weight faecal samples. However, once these intensity estimates were re-scaled by the percent of dry matter in the faeces, sex was no longer a significant factor (zebra, P = 0.268; springbok, P = 0.234). These results demonstrate that variation in faecal water content may confound analyses and could produce spurious conclusions, as was the case with host sex as a factor in the analysis. We thus recommend that researchers assess whether water variation could be a confounding factor when designing and performing research using faecal indices of parasite intensity.

  18. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN PATIENTS WITH DYSPEPSIA UNDERGOING UPPER GASTRO INTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Babu K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acid peptic disease comprises of a wide spectrum of diseases, which cause considerable morbidity. Helicobacter pylori, a curved rod-shaped bacterium, has been consistently associated with patients suffering from acid peptic diseases, more in ulcer disease than in non-ulcer disease. Due to this high association, it is now believed that Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of acid peptic disease. Several studies have revealed the association of Helicobacter pylori in 70-75 percent of patients with dyspepsia. Endoscopic studies have shown that, Helicobacter pylori is found in 80-100% of patients with duodenal ulcers and 60-75 per cent of patients with gastric ulcers. Amidst these profound variations proposed by many workers in the previous studies, we have attempted to study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at our hospital and its association with acid-peptic disease. The objectives of this study were- 1. To study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. 2. To study the association of Helicobacter pylori with acid peptic Diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS 344 cases of dyspepsia were studied clinically as per the proforma over a period of one and half years from July 2014 to October 2015. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were as follows; RESULTS Out of 344 patients, there were 224 male patients and 120 female patients, age ranging from 19 years to 60 years (Mean44.8. Out of 344 patients, 156 patients were diagnosed to have been infected with Helicobacter pylori (45.3%. CONCLUSION This was a prospective study conducted to determine the role of Helicobacter pylori in acid-peptic diseases. This study design was based on clinical study and endoscopic biopsy of gastric mucosa (and duodenal mucosa whenever necessary in 344 patients with a history of dyspepsia. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. Rapid urease test and Giemsa staining were conducted on endoscopy biopsy specimens and Helicobacter pylori positivity was based on either Rapid urease test and/or histopathological examination was positive. From the present study it is evident that, there was no specific symptom attributable to H. pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is more common in males than females. Helicobacter pylori is consistently associated with peptic ulcer disease than non-ulcer dyspepsia, which is in broad agreement with the studies done earlier. Thus we conclude that, Helicobacter pylori infection may have a role in the aetiopathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. There appears to be no significant association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dyspeptic cases with normal endoscopy. This finding does not exclude the possibility that a small undefined subset of infected individuals will have symptoms induced by the infection, but only large randomized trials will be able to establish this. Hence, we recommend eradication of the bacteria only in patients positive for the bacterium, who have peptic ulceration. We believe in, Peter C Robin’s dictum: “If a person with peptic ulcer disease is shown to have Helicobacter pylori, then eradication is indicated”.

  19. Polyester-Solid Lipid Mixed Nanoparticles with Improved Stability in Gastro-Intestinal Tract Facilitated Oral Delivery of Larotaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jingxin; Feng, Shuangshuang; Liang, Yuheng; Fang, Guihua; Zhang, Haotian; Yin, Tian; Zhang, Yu; He, Haibing; Wang, Yanjiao; Tang, Xing

    2017-11-06

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of core stability of nanoparticles on their performances in oral drug delivery. Solid lipids (Geleol Mono and Diglycerides Nf) were incorporated into nanoparticles composed of mPEG-b-PCL by the dialysis method. The prepared solid lipid loaded nanoparticles were found to be spherical nanoparticles with a core state and size distribution dependent on the amount of solid lipid incorporated. The critical aggregation concentrations of lipid-loaded nanoparticles were determined using pyrene fluorescence. Then, the stability of block copolymer in nanoparticles with different solid lipid contents was studied in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid. Solid lipids were found to stabilize nanoparticle cores by improving not only the thermodynamic stability (lowered CAC) of the nanoparticle but also the chemical stability of the block copolymer in the gastrointestinal environment. The stability of the loaded drug (larotaxel, LTX) in nanoparticles with different solid lipid contents was challenged by intestinal homogenate and rat liver microsome, and solid lipid loaded nanoparticles showed superior drug-protecting capability. Solid lipid incorporation exhibited limited influence on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake but improved the transcytosis of nanoparticles in Caco-2 monolayers. The results of pharmacokinetic study indicated that core stabilization was helpful in promoting oral larotaxel absorption as the absolute bioavailability of LTX delivered by solid lipid loaded nanoparticles was found to be 13.17%, compared with that by the lipid-free nanoparticles (6.264%) and LTX solution (2.435%). Additionally, the results of biodistribution study indicated relatively higher particle integrity of solid lipid loaded nanoparticles, shown by slower liver and spleen accumulation rate, compared with its lipid-free counterpart. Overall, incorporation of solid lipids made the nanoparticles more suitable for oral drug delivery.

  20. Impact of the Fenton process in meat digestion as assessed using an in vitro gastro-intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Khaled; de La Pomélie, Diane; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Gatellier, Philippe

    2016-10-15

    The production of oxygen free radicals catalysed by non-haem iron was investigated in an in vitro mimetic model of the digestive tract using specific chemical traps. Superoxide radicals (O2(∗-)) and their protonated form (hydroperoxyl radicals, HO2(∗)) were detected by the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium into formazan, and hydroxyl radicals (OH(∗)) were detected by the hydroxylation of terephthalate. Under gastric conditions, O2(∗-)/HO2(∗) were detected in higher quantity than OH(∗). Increasing the pH from 3.5 to 6.5 poorly affected the kinetics of free radical production. The oxidations generated by these free radicals were estimated on myofibrils prepared from pork rectus femoris muscle. Myofibrillar lipid and protein oxidation increased with time and oxidant concentration, with a negative impact on the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins. Plant food antioxidants considerably decreased free radical production and lipid oxidation but not protein oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of growth performance and gastro-intestinal parameters on the response of weaned piglets to dietary organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENRIQUE A.T. GRECCO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments (E were carried out to evaluate the effects of fumaric acid and an acidifier blend [composed by calcium formate, calcium lactate and medium-chain fatty acids (capric and caprylic] in piglet diets containing colistin (40 ppm or halquinol (120 ppm on performance, diarrhea incidence (E1, organs relative weight, pH values, intestinal morphometry and microbiota (E2. In E1, 192 and E2, 24 piglets weaned at 21-day-old were randomly assigned to blocks with 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments [absence or presence of fumaric acid x absence or presence of acidifier blend], six replicates of eight (E1 and one piglet per pen (E2. For E1, the treatments were control (CD: no acidifier product + 40 ppm of colistin, FA: fumaric acid in absence of acidifier blend, AB: acidifier blend in absence of fumaric acid and, AF+AB: presence of fumaric acid and acidifier blend. For E2, the pre-starter I diet were used and the same treatments as E1 evaluated. No treatment effects (P>0.05 were observed on performance, diarrhea incidence (E1, gut pH values and duodenum morphometry of piglets (E2. However, the addition of AB increased (P<0.05 large intestine relative weight and, FA addition decreased (P<0.05 pancreas relative weight, jejunum villi height and, total coliform and E. coli counts in cecum. The inclusion of FA and AB in diets containing colistin or halquinol did not improve performance, although FA exerted an inhibitory effect on cecum microbiota.

  2. Immunoreactivity for thymosin beta 4 and thymosin beta 10 in the adult rat oro-gastro-intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nemolato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4 and thymosin beta 10 (Tβ10 are two members of the β-thymosin family, involved in multiple cellular activities in different organs in multiple animal species. Here we report the expression pattern of Tβ4 and Tβ10 in rat tissues, in the gut and in annexed glands. The two peptide were differently expressed: Tβ4 was absent in salivary glands whereas Tβ10 was expressed in parotid and in submandibular glands. Tβ4 was mildly expressed in the tongue and in the oesophagus, where Tβ10 was absent. A similar expression was found in the stomach, ileum and colon mucosa. In pancreas Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the Langerhans islet cells; Tβ4 was also detected in the exocrine cells. Both peptide were not expressed in liver cells. When the rat expression pattern in rat organs was compared to reactivity for Tβ4 and Tβ10 in humans, marked differences were found. Our data clearly indicate a species-specific expression of Tβ4 and Tβ10, characterized by the actual unpredictability of the expression of these peptides in different cells and tissues. The common high expression of Tβ4 in mast cells, both in humans and in rats, represents one of the few similarities between these two species.

  3. Persistent Pediatric Gastro-Intestinal Myiasis: A Case Report of Fly Larval Infestation with Musca Domestica with Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila,; Shruthi,; Sandhya, K.; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may b...

  4. Persistent pediatric gastro-intestinal myiasis: A case report of fly larval infestation with musca domestica with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramana Kandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae.

  5. Persistent pediatric gastro-intestinal myiasis: a case report of fly larval infestation with Musca domestica with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila; Shruthi; Sandhya, K; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D

    2013-07-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae.

  6. Neuropilin-2 mediated β-catenin signaling and survival in human gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaija Samuel

    Full Text Available NRP-2 is a high-affinity kinase-deficient receptor for ligands belonging to the class 3 semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor families. NRP-2 has been detected on the surface of several types of human cancer cells, but its expression and function in gastrointestinal (GI cancer cells remains to be determined. We sought to determine the function of NRP-2 in mediating downstream signals regulating the growth and survival of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. In human gastric cancer specimens, NRP-2 expression was detected in tumor tissues but not in adjacent normal mucosa. In CNDT 2.5 cells, shRNA mediated knockdown NRP-2 expression led to decreased migration and invasion in vitro (p<0.01. Focused gene-array analysis demonstrated that loss of NRP-2 reduced the expression of a critical metastasis mediator gene, S100A4. Steady-state levels and function of β-catenin, a known regulator of S100A4, were also decreased in the shNRP-2 clones. Furthermore, knockdown of NRP-2 sensitized CNDT 2.5 cells in vitro to 5FU toxicity. This effect was associated with activation of caspases 3 and 7, cleavage of PARP, and downregulation of Bcl-2. In vivo growth of CNDT 2.5 cells in the livers of nude mice was significantly decreased in the shNRP-2 group (p<0.05. Intraperitoneal administration of NRP-2 siRNA-DOPC decreased the tumor burden in mice (p = 0.01. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor cell-derived NRP-2 mediates critical survival signaling in gastrointestinal cancer cells.

  7. Alleviating gastro-intestinal symptoms and concerns by integrating patient-tailored complementary medicine in supportive cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Aharonson, Michal Livne; Schiff, Elad; Samuels, Noah

    2015-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities often impair quality-of-life (QOL) and require reduction of the chemotherapy dose intensity. We explored the effects of a complementary integrative medicine (CIM) therapeutic process, administered in conjunction with conventional supportive care, on GI-related symptoms and concerns in patients undergoing chemotherapy. We conducted a prospective, pragmatic study among patients undergoing chemotherapy referred by their healthcare providers to a CIM-trained integrative physician (IP) for consultation, followed by CIM treatments. Symptom severity and patient concerns were assessed at baseline and at an IP follow-up visit at 6-12 weeks, using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCAW) questionnaires. Adherence to the integrative care (AIC) program was defined as attendance of ≥4 CIM treatments, with ≤30 days between sessions. Of the 308 patients referred to the IP consultation, 275 (89.3%) expressed GI symptoms and concerns, 189 of whom attended the follow-up IP assessment. Of these, 144 (46%) were found to be adherent to the treatment plan (AIC group). Repeated measure analysis indicated a statistical interaction between baseline and follow-up scores, for ESAS (appetite, p = 0.005; drowsiness, p = 0.027; shortness of breath, p = 0.027; and sleep, p = 0.034) and for MYCAW outcomes. This when comparing the AIC to the non-AIC group responses. Reduction of GI concerns (p = 0.024) was greater among patients in the AIC group (MYCAW questionnaire), with significantly less chemotherapy-related hospitalizations found in this group (p = 0.008). The participation of a registered dietitian during CIM treatments led to greater reduction in nausea (from 4.24 to 1.85 vs. 2.73 to 1.36, respectively; p = 0.017). Integration of CIM with standard supportive care, especially in patients adhering to the CIM treatment regimen, may help reduce chemotherapy-induced GI symptoms and concerns, as well as QOL-related non-GI symptoms. Further research is needed in order to explore the effects of specific CIM modalities on GI symptoms and concerns during chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  9. Gelatin hydrolysates from farmed Giant catfish skin using alkaline proteases and its antioxidative function of simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to evaluate the ability of different alkaline proteases to prepare active gelatin hydrolysates. Fish skin gelatin was hydrolysed by visceral alkaline-proteases from Giant catfish, commercial trypsin, and Izyme AL®. All antioxidant activity indices of the hydrolysates increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (Palkaline-proteases showed the highest and lowest radical scavenging capacity, while prepared with commercial trypsin was the most effective in reducing ferric ions and showed the best metal chelating properties. The hydrolysate obtained with Izyme AL® showed the lowest iron reducing ability, but provided the highest average molecular weight (⩾ 7 kDa), followed by commercial trypsin (2.2 kDa) and visceral alkaline-proteases (1.75 kDa). After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the hydrolysates showed significant higher radical scavenging, reducing ferric ions and chelating activities. Gelatin hydrolysates, from fish skin, could serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients for health promotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The experimental study on melatonin gastro intestinal motility and plasma levels of stress hormones in overtraining rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hui-feng; Wang, Xiao-mei

    2015-09-01

    To study the effect of melatonin on the gastrointestinal motility and plasma levels of the stress hormone in overtraining rats. Thirty adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10): control group, over-training group, melatonin intervention group. 30 min before each training, rats in the control and over-training groups were fed with normal saline (15 mg/kg) once a day and 5 times per week, while rats in the melatonin intervention group were administrated with melatonin, perfusion in the intervention group (15 mg/kg). Excessive training group and melatonin intervention group rats were subjected to excessive training at 5 times a week for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma motilin (MTL) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), cortisol (CORT) and catecholamines (CA) were observed in all groups. Compared with the control group, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma MTL, CORT and CA were increased significantly (P melatonin, this trend was reversed, that was, the gastric emptying rate, small intestinal propulsion ratio and levels of plasma MTL, CORT and CA were surpressed significantly (P Melatonin plays an important role in protecting gastrointestinal tract from dysfunction, in which MTL, CGRP, CORT and CA are all involved.

  11. [Evaluation of stomach emptying under extreme obstruction of gastrointestinal transit treated with gastro-intestinal or duodenal-intestinal anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, S; Górka, Z; Jonderko, K; Nalewajka-Kołodziejczak, J; Gruszka, Z; Kuśnierz, K; Leidgens, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare gastric emptying in two groups of dogs in which a gastrojejunal or duodenojejunal Roux-en-Y anastomosis was performed over the site of an experimental obstruction in the distal duodenum. The experiment was carried out on 10 mongrel dogs. Gastric emptying was assessed twice in each dog before the experiment (control examination); the solid phase of the test meal was labelled with 99mTc. Following a control examination, the dogs were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, and subjected to the above mentioned surgical procedures. Postoperative gastric emptying was carried out 3 weeks after the operation, and then at 3 and 6 months following the procedure. The following parameters describing quantitatively gastric emptying were determined: mean transit time MTT0-60. MTT0-120 and total mean transit time MTT0-180. The comparison of these parameters revealed statistically significant differences confirming delay of gastric emptying in dogs with a gastrojejunal anastomosis.

  12. Advances in the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal nematode infections in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Francisco Talamini do Amarante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enumeration of nematode eggs in fecal samples using the McMaster technique and morphological identification of third stage larvae from fecal cultures have been extensively used with satisfactory results in the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal nematode infections in ruminants. In order to improve sensitivity and accuracy, other approaches for quantification of eggs have been employed, like the FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC techniques. Results obtained in different studies indicate that fecal egg counts are a reliable measure of the size of the worm burden. However, the immunological status of the animals should be taken into consideration to interpret the results of the fecal examination. Molecular techniques have also been useful in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. The ultimate in diagnosis has been the development of robotic platforms that enable separation of eggs from feces. Because manipulation is minimal, good quality DNA from eggs is obtained, which is used for amplification, and finally, produces a result indicating the degree of the infection by the different parasite species in mix infections. The ideal method should be reliable, friendly to non-experts and quick to perform. With the advance in robotics, bioinformatics and molecular biology, methods with such characteristics are expected to become available and affordable to be used in laboratories for the routine diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants.

  13. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  14. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1 Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Phani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans, is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans’ endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  15. Conservation of a microRNA cluster in parasitic nematodes and profiling of miRNAs in excretory-secretory products and microvesicles of Haemonchus contortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Y Gu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo. As observed for other parasitic nematodes, H. contortus adult worms release extracellular vesicles (EV. Small RNA libraries were prepared from vesicle-enriched and vesicle-depleted supernatants from both adult worms and L4 stage larvae. Comparison of the miRNA species in the different fractions indicated that specific miRNAs are packaged within vesicles, while others are more abundant in vesicle-depleted supernatant. Hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that the gut is the likely source of vesicle-associated miRNAs in the L4 stage, but not in the adult worm. These findings add to the growing body of work demonstrating that miRNAs released from parasitic helminths may play an important role in host-parasite interactions.

  16. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

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    Casey L Ruark

    Full Text Available Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC and Missouri (MO. The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2, and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO. Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst, but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  17. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  18. Deep small RNA sequencing from the nematode Ascaris reveals conservation, functional diversification, and novel developmental profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbin; Czech, Benjamin; Crunk, Amanda; Wallace, Adam; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hannon, Gregory J; Davis, Richard E

    2011-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells express several classes of small RNAs that regulate gene expression and ensure genome maintenance. Endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) mainly control gene and transposon expression in the germline, while microRNAs (miRNAs) generally function in post-transcriptional gene silencing in both somatic and germline cells. To provide an evolutionary and developmental perspective on small RNA pathways in nematodes, we identified and characterized known and novel small RNA classes through gametogenesis and embryo development in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and compared them with known small RNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. piRNAs, Piwi-clade Argonautes, and other proteins associated with the piRNA pathway have been lost in Ascaris. miRNAs are synthesized immediately after fertilization in utero, before pronuclear fusion, and before the first cleavage of the zygote. This is the earliest expression of small RNAs ever described at a developmental stage long thought to be transcriptionally quiescent. A comparison of the two classes of Ascaris endo-siRNAs, 22G-RNAs and 26G-RNAs, to those in C. elegans, suggests great diversification and plasticity in the use of small RNA pathways during spermatogenesis in different nematodes. Our data reveal conserved characteristics of nematode small RNAs as well as features unique to Ascaris that illustrate significant flexibility in the use of small RNAs pathways, some of which are likely an adaptation to Ascaris' life cycle and parasitism. The transcriptome assembly has been submitted to NCBI Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly Sequence Database(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/TSA.html) under accession numbers JI163767–JI182837 and JI210738–JI257410.

  19. Reverse taxonomy for elucidating diversity of insect-associated nematodes: a case study with termites.

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    Natsumi Kanzaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU has recently been applied to microbial and microscopic animal biodiversity surveys. However, in many cases, some of the MOTUs cannot be definitively tied to any of the taxonomic groups in current databases. To surmount these limitations, the concept of "reverse taxonomy" has been proposed, i.e. to primarily list the MOTUs with morphological information, and then identify and/or describe them at genus/species level using subsamples or by re-isolating the target organisms. Nevertheless, the application of "reverse taxonomy" has not been sufficiently evaluated. Therefore, the practical applicability of "reverse taxonomy" is tested using termite-associated nematodes as a model system for phoretic/parasitic organisms which have high habitat specificity and a potential handle (their termite host species for re-isolation attempts. METHODOLOGY: Forty-eight species (from 298 colonies of termites collected from the American tropics and subtropics were examined for their nematode associates using the reverse taxonomy method and culturing attempts (morphological identification and further sequencing efforts. The survey yielded 51 sequence types ( =  MOTUs belonging to 19 tentatively identified genera. Within these, four were identified based on molecular data with preliminary morphological observation, and an additional seven were identified or characterized from successful culturing, leaving eight genera unidentified. CONCLUSIONS: That 1/3 of the genera were not successfully identified suggests deficiencies in the depth of available sequences in the database and biological characters, i.e. usually isolated as phoretic/parasitic stages which are not available for morphological identification, and too many undiscovered lineages of nematodes. Although there still is the issue of culturability of nematodes, culturing attempts could help to make reverse taxonomy methods more effective. However

  20. Transgenesis in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinshe; Shao, Hongguang; Junio, Ariel; Nolan, Thomas J; Massey, Holman C; Pearce, Edward J; Viney, Mark E; Lok, James B

    2011-10-01

    Strongyloides and related genera are advantageous subjects for transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, primarily by gonadal microinjection as has been used with Caenorhabditis elegans. Transgenesis has been achieved in Strongyloides stercoralis and in Parastrongyloides trichosuri, but both of these lack well-adapted, conventional laboratory hosts in which to derive transgenic lines. By contrast, Strongyloides ratti develops in laboratory rats with high efficiency and offers the added advantages of robust genomic and transcriptomic databases and substantial volumes of genetic, developmental and immunological data. Therefore, we evaluated methodology for transgenesis in S. stercoralis as a means of transforming S. ratti. S. stercoralis-based GFP reporter constructs were expressed in a proportion of F1 transgenic S. ratti following gonadal microinjection into parental free-living females. Frequencies of transgene expression in S. ratti, ranged from 3.7% for pAJ09 to 6.8% for pAJ20; respective frequencies for these constructs in S. stercoralis were 5.6% and 33.5%. Anatomical patterns of transgene expression were virtually identical in S. ratti and S. stercoralis. This is the first report of transgenesis in S. ratti, an important model organism for biological investigations of parasitic nematodes. Availability of the rat as a well-adapted laboratory host will facilitate derivation of transgenic lines of this parasite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Some nematodes of freshwater fishes in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Prouza, A; Royero, R

    1997-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of nematodes found in 88 specimens of 24 species of freshwater fishes in Venezuela in 1992 and 1994. The following 13 species of nematodes were recorded: Adults; Guyanema longispiculum Moravec, Prouza et Royero, 1996, Guyanema sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus Travassos, Artigas et Pereira, 1928, P. (S.) krameri (Petter, 1974) comb. n., P.(S.) pintoi (Kohn et Fernandes, 1988) comb, n., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) mahnerti (Petter et Cassone, 1984). Larvae: Anisakidae gen. sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Contracaecum sp. Type 2, Contracaecum sp. Type 3, Eustrongylides sp. All these parasites are reported from Venezuela for the first time and all findings represent new host records. Brevimulticaecum larvae are reported from fishes for the first time. Almost all parasites are briefly described and illustrated and problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. A new name, Terranova diazungriai nom.nov. is proposed for T. caballeroi Díaz-Ungría, 1968 (a junior homonym of T. caballeroi Barus et Coy Otero, 1966).

  2. Experimental Evolution withCaenorhabditisNematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotónio, Henrique; Estes, Suzanne; Phillips, Patrick C; Baer, Charles F

    2017-06-01

    The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C . briggsae and C. remanei , by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis as model systems. We then review three exemplars of Caenorhabditis experimental evolution studies, underlining representative evolution experiments that have addressed the: (1) maintenance of genetic variation; (2) role of natural selection during transitions from outcrossing to selfing, as well as the maintenance of mixed breeding modes during evolution; and (3) evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its role in adaptation to variable environments, including host-pathogen coevolution. We conclude by suggesting some future directions for which experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis would be particularly informative. Copyright © 2017 Teotónio et al.

  3. Incidence and Identification of Root-Knot Nematode in Plastic-House Fields of Central Area of Korea

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    Hyoung Rai Ko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate occurrence of root-knot nematode (RKN in plastic house of central area of Korea, 132 soil samples were collected in cucumber, water melon, tomato, red pepper and strawberry fields from 2013 to 2015. Among 132 soil samples, 65 soil samples (49% were infested with RKN and mean density of RKN was 178 second-stage juveniles per 100 cm³ soil (min. 1 ~ max. 3,947. The frequency of RKN by regional was the highest in Chuncheon with 80%, followed by Cheonan (68%, Nonsan (36%, Buyeo (33% and Yesan (30%. The frequency of RKN by crops was the highest in tomato with 83%, followed by cucumber (61%, strawberry (41%, red pepper (30%, watermelon (26%. To identify the species of RKN, fifteen populations were selected for representative populations. As a phylogenetic analysis of 15 populations, southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita, peanut root-knot nematode (M. arenaria and northern root-knot nematode (M. hapla were identified with 47%, 20% and 33% ratio, respectively. In crops, M. incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla were detected in tomato, M. incognita and M. arenaria were detected in cucumber and watermelon, and M. hapla was detected in strawberry and lettuce. Thus, there should be a continuous management to major species of each crops to prevent dispersal of RKN damages.

  4. Vertebrate herbivores influence soil nematodes by modifying plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, G F; Olff, Han; Duyts, Henk; van der Putten, Wim H

    2010-03-01

    Abiotic soil properties, plant community composition, and herbivory all have been reported as important factors influencing the composition of soil communities. However, most studies thus far have considered these factors in isolation, whereas they strongly interact in the field. Here, we study how grazing by vertebrate herbivores influences the soil nematode community composition of a floodplain grassland while we account for effects of grazing on plant community composition and abiotic soil properties. Nematodes are the most ubiquitous invertebrates in the soil. They include a variety of feeding types, ranging from microbial feeders to herbivores and carnivores, and they perform key functions in soil food webs. Our hypothesis was that grazing affects nematode community structure and composition through altering plant community structure and composition. Alternatively, we tested whether the effects of grazing may, directly or indirectly, run via changes in soil abiotic properties. We used a long-term field experiment containing plots with and without vertebrate grazers (cattle and rabbits). We compared plant and nematode community structure and composition, as well as a number of key soil abiotic properties, and we applied structural equation modeling to investigate four possible pathways by which grazing may change nematode community composition. Aboveground grazing increased plant species richness and reduced both plant and nematode community heterogeneity. There was a positive relationship between plant and nematode diversity indices. Grazing decreased the number of bacterial-feeding nematodes, indicating that in these grasslands, top-down control of plant production by grazing leads to bottom-up control in the basal part of the bacterial channel of the soil food web. According to the structural equation model, grazing had a strong effect on soil abiotic properties and plant community composition, whereas plant community composition was the main determinant of

  5. Mining the secretome of root-knot nematodes for cell wall modifying proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The products of parasitism genes in nematodes must be secreted to reach their targets at the nematode-plant interface. These nematode secretory proteins are therefore recognised to play an important role in the nematode-plant interaction and as a result have been subject of intense study for years.

  6. Ultraestructural study of effects of alkylphospholipid analogs against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant' Anna, Viviane; Railbolt, Marcelle; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; Calogeropoulou, Theodora; Pinheiro, Jairo; de Souza, Wanderley

    2018-02-26

    Alkylphospholipid analogs were initially developed as anticancer agents and were later found to antiparasitic activity. Miltefosine is the prototype alkylphosphocholine and is the first oral treatment against visceral leishmaniasis. Here we investigated the effects of miltefosine and two ring-substituted alkylphosphocholine derivatives, TCAN26 and TC70, on the viability, morphology, and ultrastructure of the life stages of Caenorhabditis elegans and infective larvae of the parasite Strongyloides venezuelensis. Miltefosine displayed activity against C. elegans adults at low concentrations and was more effective than TCAN26 and TC70. Miltefosine inhibited the hatching of eggs, leading to embryonic lethality, and showed larvicidal activity against C. elegans and S. venezuelensis larvae after 24 h. Mitelfosine also induced alterations in the reproductive system of hermaphrodites, causing vulvar prolapse and general effects in the body wall. Electron microscopy analysis showed that miltefosine induced selective embryonic lethality, leading to cell death. Our results suggest that alkylphospholipid analogs are a potential new alternative for anti-nematode chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) on Oats. II. Early Root Development and Nematode Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmar, K. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Heterodera avenae infestation on early seminal and lateral root growth was examined in four oat genotypes differing in tolerance to H. avenae. Recently emerged seminal roots were inoculated with a range of H. avenae larval densities, then transferred a hydroponic system to remove the effect of later nematode penetration on root development. Intolerance to H. avenae was assessed in terms of impairment of seminal root extension resulting in fewer primary lateral roots emerging fro...

  8. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces. Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  9. Parasitism by Oestrus ovis: influence of sheep breed and nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B F; Bassetto, C C; Shaw, R J; Canavessi, A M O; Amarante, A F T

    2012-05-25

    Previous studies showed that Santa Ines (SI) hair sheep were more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode infections (GIN) than Ile de France (IF) sheep. The present experiment aimed to evaluate if that reported resistance difference against GIN also occurred against Oestrus ovis infestation and also to evaluate the influence of O. ovis infestation on the gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infections. SI (n=12) and IF (n=12) young male lambs were weaned at 2 months of age and moved to a paddock (0.3 ha) with Brachiaria decumbens grass, where they also received concentrate ration. The animals were kept together during the experimental period (September to early December 2009). Fecal and blood samples were taken from all animals every 2 weeks and body weight and nasal discharge score (oestrosis clinic signs) were recorded on the same occasion. In early December 2009, all lambs were sacrificed and O. ovis larvae and GIN were recovered, counted and identified according to the larval stage. All animals were infested by different larval instars of O. ovis without any statistical difference between breeds (P>0.05). The SI lambs had an average of 24.8 larvae, and the intensity of infection ranged between 14 and 39 larvae, while the IF lambs showed an average of 23.5 larvae with the minimum and maximum from 11 to 36 larvae, respectively. SI lambs presented the lowest nematode fecal egg counts (FECs) and the lowest mean numbers of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Strongyloides papillosus, however, there was no significant differences between group means (P>0.05). Inverse relationship between numbers of O. ovis larvae and gastrointestinal nematodes was observed in both breeds. SI sheep showed a significant increase in blood eosinophils and total IgE serum levels and these variables were negatively correlated with nematode FEC. A negative correlation was observed between total IgE serum level and H. contortus burden in both breeds. In conclusion, there was

  10. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

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    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  11. Ultrastructural immunogold localization of major sperm protein (MSP) in spermatogenic cells of the nematode Acrobeles complexus (Nematoda, Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushin, Vladimir V; Claeys, Myriam; Bert, Wim

    2016-10-01

    The nematode spermatozoa represent a highly modified (aberrant) type of male gametes that lack a flagellum but for which the process of spermatogenesis culminates in the production of a crawling spermatozoon on the basis of the cytoskeletal component known as "major sperm protein", or MSP. MSP is also known as an important hormone triggering oocyte maturation and ovulation in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where this protein was first identified. However, direct evidence of MSP localization and of its fate in nematode spermatogenic cells is rare. In this study, the spermatogenesis and sperm structure in the rhabditid nematode Acrobeles complexus (Rhabditida: Tylenchina: Cephalobomorpha: Cephaloboidea: Cephalobidae) has been examined with electron microscopy. Morphological observations were followed by high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation which allows post-embedding immunogold localization of MSP in all stages of sperm development using antibodies raised for MSP of C. elegans. In spermatocytes, synthetic activity results in the development of specific cellular components, fibrous bodies (FB) and membranous organelles (MO), which appear as FB-MO complexes where the filamentous matter of FB has been MSP-labeled. The spermatids subdivide into a residual body with superfluous cytoplasm, and a main cell body which contains nucleus, mitochondria and FB-MO complexes. These complexes dissociate into individual components, MO and FB, with the MSP being localized in FB. Immature spermatozoa from testes are opaque cells where a centrally located nucleus is surrounded by mitochondria, MO and FB clustered together, the MSP still being localized only in FB. Cytoplasm of mature spermatozoa from spermatheca is segregated into external pseudopods lacking organelles and a central cluster of mitochondria with intact MO surrounding the central nucleus. The FB ultimately disappear, and the MSP labeling becomes concentrated in the filamentous content of

  12. Variation in estuarine littoral nematode populations over three spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodda, M.

    1990-04-01

    The population characteristics of the nematode fauna from five replicate cores taken over four seasons at nine sites within mangroves, at three different estuaries on the south-east coast of Australia, are compared. Using cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis and other statistical techniques, the variation in nematode populations is identified as arising from several sources: temperature changes between the more northerly and southerly estuaries (5%); changes in grain size and organic content of the sediment between sites (22%); changes between sites in the frequency of samples containing certain types of food, particularly associated with pools of water and surface topography (30%); stochastic changes in nematode populations within individual samples, probably caused by small scale spatial and temporal variability in food sources (35%); and seasonal changes at all the sites and estuaries (8%). The implications of this pattern of variation for the biology of the nematodes is discussed.

  13. Excretory/secretory products from the gastrointestinal nematode Trichuris muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritten, Lucienne; Tam, Mifong; Vargas, Mireille; Jardim, Armando; Stevenson, Mary M; Keiser, Jennifer; Geary, Timothy G

    2017-07-01

    To better control gastrointestinal nematode infections in humans and animals, it is important to understand the strategies used by these parasites to modulate the host immune system. In this regard, molecules released by parasites have been attributed crucially important roles in host-parasite negotiations. We characterized the excretory/secretory (E/S) microRNA (miRNA) and protein profiles from the mouse gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Released miRNAs were subjected to miRNA sequencing and E/S proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry. Fourteen miRNAs were identified in T. muris exosome-like vesicles, as well as 73 proteins of nematode origin, 11 of which were unique to this study. Comparison with published nematode protein secretomes revealed high conservation at the functional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transgenesis in parasitic nematodes: building a better array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, James B.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent progress in the development of transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, several impediments remain before this methodology can become a practical and widely employed tool in parasitology. Recently published studies on transgenesis in the necromenic nematode Pristionchus pacificus from the laboratory of Ralf Sommer highlight several leads that might be valuable as efforts to refine current systems in obligate parasites go forward. PMID:19617000

  15. Why Do Sleeping Nematodes Adopt a Hockey-Stick-Like Posture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramm, Nora; Oppenheimer, Naomi; Nagy, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic posture is considered one of the behavioral hallmarks of sleep, and typically includes functional features such as support for the limbs and shielding of sensory organs. The nematode C. elegans exhibits a sleep-like state during a stage termed lethargus, which precedes ecdysis at the transition between larval stages. A hockey-stick-like posture is commonly observed during lethargus. What might its function be? It was previously noted that during lethargus, C. elegans nematodes abruptly rotate about their longitudinal axis. Plausibly, these “flips” facilitate ecdysis by assisting the disassociation of the old cuticle from the new one. We found that body-posture during lethargus was established using a stereotypical motor program and that body bends during lethargus quiescence were actively maintained. Moreover, flips occurred almost exclusively when the animals exhibited a single body bend, preferentially in the anterior or mid section of the body. We describe a simple biomechanical model that imposes the observed lengths of the longitudinally directed body-wall muscles on an otherwise passive elastic rod. We show that this minimal model is sufficient for generating a rotation about the anterior-posterior body axis. Our analysis suggests that posture during lethargus quiescence may serve a developmental role in facilitating flips and that the control of body wall muscles in anterior and posterior body regions are distinct. PMID:25025212

  16. Ecostructuring of marine nematode communities by submarine groundwater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Tamborski, Joseph; Kotwicki, Lech; Bokuniewicz, Henry

    2018-05-01

    Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed. Their presence in the marine coastal zone is exceptional and underlines the structuring role that fresh SGD plays in the local ecosystem. Saline SGD structured nematode assemblages differently compared to sites impacted by fresh SGD. The number of nematode genera was markedly higher at saline SGD sites, with a different community structure. This study highlights the importance to which inputs of fresh SGD may have on local ecosystem diversity in marine coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeted mutagenesis in a human-parasitic nematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer S Gang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes infect over 1 billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. Despite their prevalence, our understanding of the biology of parasitic nematodes has been limited by the lack of tools for genetic intervention. In particular, it has not yet been possible to generate targeted gene disruptions and mutant phenotypes in any parasitic nematode. Here, we report the development of a method for introducing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene disruptions in the human-parasitic threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis. We disrupted the S. stercoralis twitchin gene unc-22, resulting in nematodes with severe motility defects. Ss-unc-22 mutations were resolved by homology-directed repair when a repair template was provided. Omission of a repair template resulted in deletions at the target locus. Ss-unc-22 mutations were heritable; we passed Ss-unc-22 mutants through a host and successfully recovered mutant progeny. Using a similar approach, we also disrupted the unc-22 gene of the rat-parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. Our results demonstrate the applicability of CRISPR-Cas9 to parasitic nematodes, and thereby enable future studies of gene function in these medically relevant but previously genetically intractable parasites.

  18. Communities of terrestrial nematodes after different approaches to heathland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radochova, Petra; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Since the 20th century, the distribution of European heathlands rapidly decreased due to agricultural intensification, heavy use of artificial fertilizers or acidification (Aerts & Heil, 1993). Therefore, various attempts of heathland restoration are under way in these days. Analysis of nematode community composition can be one of the tools suitable for succession evaluation (Ferris et al., 2001). In 2011, 2013 and 2014, soil samples were collected from heathland restoration experiment (launched in 2011) where different restoration methods were applied in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment; existing heathlands were also sampled to identify the target community both in dry and wet heathland. A total of 60 samples of extracted nematodes were analysed for absolute abundance, trophic groups, and genera dominance. Various indices were calculated to describe the nematode community. We were able to prove faster development of wet heathlands towards the target community. However, because of large data variability, there was no significant difference between treatments. Development of wet and dry heathlands differed also in increased proportion of omniphagous nematodes in 2013 and predators in 2014 in dry heathlands. After three years of heathland restoration, nematode community has not yet reached parameters of the target community. References Aerts, R., Heil, G. W., 1993. Heathlands: patterns and processes in a changing environment, 1st ed, Geobotany: 20. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 229. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., De Goede, R. G. M., 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis oncept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18, 13-29.

  19. Plant elicitor peptides promote plant defences against nematodes in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Huffaker, Alisa; Crippen, Devany; Robbins, Robert T; Goggin, Fiona L

    2018-04-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are widely distributed among angiosperms, and have been shown to amplify immune responses in multiple plant families. Here, we characterize three Peps from soybean (Glycine max) and describe their effects on plant defences against two damaging agricultural pests, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Seed treatments with exogenous GmPep1, GmPep2 or GmPep3 significantly reduced the reproduction of both nematodes. Pep treatment also protected plants from the inhibitory effects of root-knot nematodes on above-ground growth, and up-regulated basal expression levels of nematode-responsive defence genes. GmPep1 induced the expression of its propeptide precursor (GmPROPEP1), a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein (NBS-LRR), a pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI), Respiratory Burst Oxidase Protein D (RBOHD) and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaves. In addition, GmPep2 and GmPep3 seed treatments up-regulated RBOHD expression and ROS accumulation in roots and leaves. These results suggest that GmPeps activate plant defences through systemic transcriptional reprogramming and ROS signalling, and that Pep seed treatments represent a potential strategy for nematode management. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Relationship between production, nematodes and "redness" in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira Curi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In recent years "redness" has increasingly appeared in strawberry plants with leaves taking on a reddish color. No causal agent has been associated with plants. Since strawberries presented problems due to the incidence of nematodes, the purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between production, resistance to the Meloidogyne hapla nematode and the "redness" symptom in strawberry cultivars. Two experiments were performed, both with the 'Camino Real', 'Festival', 'Oso Grande', 'Albion' and 'Camarosa' cultivars. The first experiment was performed in the field, where the following were evaluated: strawberry production, fruit quality, macro and micronutrient contents in fruit and leaves, percentage of plant survival, incidence of nematodes, quantity of eggs in the roots and juveniles in the soil, and the incidence of Botrytis cinerea . In the second experiment, the strawberries were transplanted into pots and filled with pinus bark-based commercial substrate. Half the pots were inocculated with Meloidogyne hapla . Cultivars presented differences in fruit production and also in the incidence of "redness". Lowest performance in production was related to the high incidence of the nematode Meloidogyne hapla. 'Oso Grande' and 'Albion' presented nematode-resistant behavior. It was possible find a relationship between the incidence of the Meloidogyne hapla nematode, and the incidence of "redness" only 'Camino Real' cultivar.

  1. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  2. Some camallanid nematodes from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou; Rigby, Mark C

    2006-09-01

    Two new, one known and three unidentified species of the nematode family Camallanidae are reported and described from the intestines of marine perciform fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia, South Pacific: Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1952 from the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae), the yellowstriped goatfish Upeneus vittatus and the whitesaddle goatfish Parupeneus ciliatus (both Mullidae) (new host records); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) variolae sp. n. from the white-edged lyretail Variola albimarginata (type host) and the blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus (both Serranidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) longus sp. n. from the twotone tang Zebrasoma scopas (Acanthuridae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 1 (female tail with 2 terminal spikes on a digit-like projection) from the speckled sand-perch Parapercis hexophtalma (Pinguipedidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 2 (female tail with 1 spike on a digit-like projection) from the drab emperor Lethrinus ravus (Lethrinidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 3 (female tail with a smooth digit-like protrusion) from the two-lined monocle bream Scolopsis bilineata (Nemipteridae). Camallanus paracarangis Velasquez, 1980 is synonymized with C. carangis. Several additional species of Camallanus from marine fish of the Indo-Pacific region may be synonymous with C. carangis as it has a poorly sclerotized left spicule and 3 small caudal projections on the tail of young (i.e., non-gravid) females. The fourth-stage larva of C. carangis is described for the first time. P. (S.) variolae differs from most similar species of this region mainly in the position (i.e., at level or posterior to the nerve ring) and shape of deirids. P. (S.) longus differs from the similar P. (S.) chaimha mainly in a different arrangement of postanal papillae, shape of the female tail, much longer right spicule (429 microm) and longer body of gravid females (38-55 mm). All Camallanus and

  3. Tv-RIO1 – an atypical protein kinase from the parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus vitrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternberg Paul W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases are key enzymes that regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell-cycle progression, transcription, DNA replication and metabolic functions. These enzymes catalyse the transfer of phosphates to serine, threonine and tyrosine residues, thus playing functional roles in reversible protein phosphorylation. There are two main groups, namely eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs and atypical protein kinases (aPKs; RIO kinases belong to the latter group. While there is some information about RIO kinases and their roles in animals, nothing is known about them in parasites. This is the first study to characterise a RIO1 kinase from any parasite. Results A full-length cDNA (Tv-rio-1 encoding a RIO1 protein kinase (Tv-RIO1 was isolated from the economically important parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus vitrinus (Order Strongylida. The uninterrupted open reading frame (ORF of 1476 nucleotides encoded a protein of 491 amino acids, containing the characteristic RIO1 motif LVHADLSEYNTL. Tv-rio-1 was transcribed at the highest level in the third-stage larva (L3, and a higher level in adult females than in males. Comparison with homologues from other organisms showed that protein Tv-RIO1 had significant homology to related proteins from a range of metazoans and plants. Amino acid sequence identity was most pronounced in the ATP-binding motif, active site and metal binding loop. Phylogenetic analyses of selected amino acid sequence data revealed Tv-RIO1 to be most closely related to the proteins in the species of Caenorhabditis. A structural model of Tv-RIO1 was constructed and compared with the published crystal structure of RIO1 of Archaeoglobus fulgidus (Af-Rio1. Conclusion This study provides the first insights into the RIO1 protein kinases of nematodes, and a foundation for further investigations into the biochemical and functional roles of this molecule in biological processes in parasitic nematodes.

  4. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  5. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  6. In vitro proteolysis of nematode FLPs by preparations from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the la...

  7. Plant and soil nematodes from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohilal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study soil samples were collected from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary to investigate about what nematode species are associated with different plant hosts. This study shows rich nematode diversity in the sanctuary.

  8. Predation rates and prey selectivity in two predacious estuarine nematode species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Verbeeck, L.; Steyaert, M.; Vincx, M.

    2000-01-01

    Enoploides longispiculosus and Adoncholaimus fuscus are representatives of nematode genera prominent in sediments of the North Sea and adjacent estuaries. Both are predatory nematodes, although predation is facultative in the latter. The present study investigates functional responses and prey

  9. Nucleic acid transfection and transgenesis in parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, James B

    2012-04-01

    Transgenesis is an essential tool for assessing gene function in any organism, and it is especially crucial for parasitic nematodes given the dwindling armamentarium of effective anthelmintics and the consequent need to validate essential molecular targets for new drugs and vaccines. Two of the major routes of gene delivery evaluated to date in parasitic nematodes, bombardment with DNA-coated microparticles and intragonadal microinjection of DNA constructs, draw upon experience with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bombardment has been used to transiently transfect Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi and Litomosoides sigmodontis with both RNA and DNA. Microinjection has been used to achieve heritable transgenesis in Strongyloides stercoralis, S. ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and for additional transient expression studies in B. malayi. A third route of gene delivery revisits a classic method involving DNA transfer facilitated by calcium-mediated permeabilization of recipient cells in developing B. malayi larvae and results in transgene inheritance through host and vector passage. Assembly of microinjected transgenes into multi-copy episomal arrays likely results in their transcriptional silencing in some parasitic nematodes. Methods such as transposon-mediated transgenesis that favour low-copy number chromosomal integration may remedy this impediment to establishing stable transgenic lines. In the future, stable transgenesis in parasitic nematodes could enable loss-of-function approaches by insertional mutagenesis, in situ expression of inhibitory double-stranded RNA or boosting RNAi susceptibility through heterologous expression of dsRNA processing and transport proteins.

  10. The FMRFamide-like peptide family in nematodes

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    Katleen ePeymen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes.

  11. Smart Parasitic Nematodes Use Multifaceted Strategies to Parasitize Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants. In this review, we have summarized which physiological and molecular changes occur when endoparasitic nematodes invade the plant roots and how they develop a successful interaction with plants using the effector proteins. We have also mentioned the host genes which are induced by the nematodes for a compatible interaction. Additionally, we discuss how nematodes modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS and RNA silencing pathways in addition to post-translational modifications in their own favor for successful parasitism in plants.

  12. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Amendments to Soil as Nematode Suppressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or formulations releasing this form of N in the soil are most effective for suppressing nematode populations. Anhydrous ammonia has been shown to reduce soil populations of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Heterodera glycines. The rates required to obtain significant suppression of nematode populations are generally in excess of 150 kg N/ha. Urea also suppresses several nematode species, including Meloidogyne spp., when applied at rates above 300 kg N/ha. Additional available carbon must be provided with urea to permit soil microorganisms to metabolize excess N and avoid phytotoxic effects. There is a direct relation between the amount of "protein" N in organic amendments and their effectiveness as nematode population suppressants. Most nematicidal amendments are oil cakes, or animal excrements containing 2-7% (w:w) N; these materials are effective at rates of 4-10 t/ha. Organic soil amendments containing mucopolysaccharides (e.g., mycelial wastes, chitinous matter) are also effective nematode suppressants. PMID:19294153

  13. Soy desiccants herbicides acting in nematode populations on community land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Baiochi Riboldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbicides is the main method of weed control in soybeans. Desiccants are also being used routinely to anticipate the harvest and / or minimize the deterioration of seed quality. There is the possibility of direct or indirect contact with such pesticides, affect the community of nematodes in the soil. However, such effects and their magnitudes are yet to be clarified, especially in the case of selective herbicides. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of selective herbicides in soybean on nematodes harmful to the crop. The experiment was conducted with transgenic soybean (‘M-SOY 7908RR’. The experimental design was a randomized block design with the following treatments: paraquat (400 g a.i ha-1, diquat (200 g a.i ha-1, a mixture of paraquat and diquat (300 + 150 g a.i ha-1, two doses of carfentrazone ethyl (20 g a.i ha-1 and 30 g a.i ha-1 and control (without desiccant application. The nematode community in the area was monitored in four periods. In none of those was found significant variation in the populations of nematodes harmful to soybeans, due to the application of any of desiccants. However, especially in the last sampling time, the desiccant application always resulted in increased populations of free-living nematodes and parasites those considered weak for soybean.

  14. Signatures of adaptation to plant parasitism in nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David McK; Jones, John T; Opperman, Charles H; Kikuchi, Taisei; Danchin, Etienne G J

    2015-02-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to global agriculture. The ability to parasitize plants is a derived character that appears to have independently emerged several times in the phylum Nematoda. Morphological convergence to feeding style has been observed, but whether this is emergent from molecular convergence is less obvious. To address this, we assess whether genomic signatures can be associated with plant parasitism by nematodes. In this review, we report genomic features and characteristics that appear to be common in plant-parasitic nematodes while absent or rare in animal parasites, predators or free-living species. Candidate horizontal acquisitions of parasitism genes have systematically been found in all plant-parasitic species investigated at the sequence level. Presence of peptides that mimic plant hormones also appears to be a trait of plant-parasitic species. Annotations of the few genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes available to date have revealed a set of apparently species-specific genes on every occasion. Effector genes, important for parasitism are frequently found among those species-specific genes, indicating poor overlap. Overall, nematodes appear to have developed convergent genomic solutions to adapt to plant parasitism.

  15. Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates.

  16. Experience-dependent olfactory behaviors of the parasitic nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Ruiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes of humans and livestock cause extensive disease and economic loss worldwide. Many parasitic nematodes infect hosts as third-stage larvae, called iL3s. iL3s vary in their infection route: some infect by skin penetration, others by passive ingestion. Skin-penetrating iL3s actively search for hosts using host-emitted olfactory cues, but the extent to which passively ingested iL3s respond to olfactory cues was largely unknown. Here, we examined the olfactory behaviors of the passively ingested murine gastrointestinal parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus. H. polygyrus iL3s were thought to reside primarily on mouse feces, and infect when mice consume feces containing iL3s. However, iL3s can also adhere to mouse fur and infect orally during grooming. Here, we show that H. polygyrus iL3s are highly active and show robust attraction to host feces. Despite their attraction to feces, many iL3s migrate off feces to engage in environmental navigation. In addition, H. polygyrus iL3s are attracted to mammalian skin odorants, suggesting that they migrate toward hosts. The olfactory preferences of H. polygyrus are flexible: some odorants are repulsive for iL3s maintained on feces but attractive for iL3s maintained off feces. Experience-dependent modulation of olfactory behavior occurs over the course of days and is mediated by environmental carbon dioxide (CO2 levels. Similar experience-dependent olfactory plasticity occurs in the passively ingested ruminant-parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus, a major veterinary parasite. Our results suggest that passively ingested iL3s migrate off their original fecal source and actively navigate toward hosts or new host fecal sources using olfactory cues. Olfactory plasticity may be a mechanism that enables iL3s to switch from dispersal behavior to host-seeking behavior. Together, our results demonstrate that passively ingested nematodes do not remain inactive waiting to be swallowed, but rather display

  17. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  18. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Audsley, Neil

    2016-06-09

    Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B); Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  19. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  20. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.

  1. Efficacy of organic matter and some bio-inoculants for the management of root-knot nematode infesting tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of an organic matter like Tagetes erecta and bioinoculants Azotobacter chroococcum and Glomus fasciculatum was investigated in tomato cultivar ‘Pusa Ruby’ when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly for the management of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in terms of growth parameters such as plant length, fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll content, per cent pollen fertility and mycorrhization. Greatest reduction in the numbers of second-stage juveniles in soil, number of root-galls, egg-masses and nematode multiplication was recorded with combined application of T. erecta and bio-inoculants A. chroococcum and G. fasciculatum as compared to untreated control and other treatments. Similarly, the greatest improvement in the plant growth and biomass of tomato was noted in the same treatments. However, individual inoculation of these bio-inoculants and organic fertilizers also showed significant enhancement but was less as compared to combined treatment. A. chroococcum was found most effective against disease incidence followed by G. fasciculatum and T. erecta. Parameters like NP and K contents were significantly enhanced in those plants which received combined treatments of organic matter and bio-inoculants. Azotobacter was found more efficacious against nematodes than Glomus fasciculatum. Organic matter also influenced the activity of bio-inoculants, more with the Azotobacter than G. fasciculatum. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12643 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 206-220

  2. Gnathostomatidae nematode parasite of Colomesus psittacus (Osteichthyes, Tetraodontiformes) in the Ilha de Marajó, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Raul Henrique da Silva; Santana, Ricardo Luís Sousa; Melo, Francisco Tiago Vasconcelos; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro

    2017-01-01

    The genus Gnathostoma comprises 17 species, whose adult specimens are found in the stomach serosa of animals that consume raw fish; some species of the genus are zoonotic agents. The present study describes the presence of a nematode (Gnathostomatidae) parasitizing the digestive tract of Colomesus psittacus in the Ilha de Marajó in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens of C. psittacus were collected in the municipality of Soure, Ilha de Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil, transported to the laboratory, necropsied and the helminths were collected and fixed. Of the 30 fish that were studied, 16.67% were parasitized with nematodes. The nematode larvae found encysted in the intestinal serosa have anterior region with two lips, each with a pair of papillae; a cephalic bulb armed with six rows of discontinuous spines; four cervical sacs; a claviform esophagus; cuticular striations along the body; a simple excretory pore; and a short tail ending in a mucron. These morphological structures are diagnostic characters of the genus Gnathostoma, whose adults parasitize the stomach of carnivorous mammals and, rarely, the stomach of fish. However, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds are intermediate hosts of the third-stage larvae (L3), and humans may act as accidental hosts.

  3. A Treadmill to Localize, Exercise, and Measure the Propulsive Power of Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Chuan, Han-Sheng; Gnatt, Michael; Raizen, David; Bau, Haim

    2011-11-01

    The nematodes C. elegans is often used as model biological system to study the genetic basis of behavior, disease-progression, and aging, as well as to develop new therapies and screen drugs. On occasion, it is desirable to quantify the nematode's muscle power. Here, we present a kind of nematode treadmill. The device consists of a tapered conduit filled with aqueous solution. The conduit is subjected to a DC electric field and to pressure-driven flow directed from the narrow end. The nematode is inserted at the conduit's wide end. Directed by the electric field (through electrotaxis), the nematode swims deliberately upstream toward the negative pole. As the conduit narrows, the average fluid velocity and the drag force on the nematode increase. Eventually, the nematode arrives at an equilibrium position, at which its propulsive power balances the viscous drag force. The nematode's propulsive power is estimated with direct numerical simulations of the flow field around the nematode. The calculations utilize the experimentally imaged gait as a boundary condition. The device is useful to retain the nematode at a nearly fixed position for prolonged observations under a microscope, to keep the nematode exercising, and to estimate the nematode's power based on the conduit's width at the equilibrium position.

  4. Towards isolation of the tomato root-knot nematode resistance gene MI via positional cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daelen, van R.A.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are severe pathogens of plants and worldwide they cause damage to many economically important crops like potato, rice, cotton, and tomato. So the control of nematodes and the protection of plants against nematode damage are

  5. A SNARE-like protein and biotin are implicated in soybean cyst nematode virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytoparasitic nematodes have the ability to infect and reproduce on plants that are normally considered resistant to nematode infection. Such nematodes are referred to as virulent and the mechanisms they use to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here, we report the ...

  6. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-04

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before.

  7. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Knoff

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S. pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  8. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoff, M; de São Clemente, S C; Pinto, R M; Gomes, D C

    2001-01-01

    New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S.) pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  9. Small-molecule pheromones and hormones controlling nematode development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca A

    2017-05-17

    The existence of small-molecule signals that influence development in Caenorhabditis elegans has been known for several decades, but only in recent years have the chemical structures of several of these signals been established. The identification of these signals has enabled connections to be made between these small molecules and fundamental signaling pathways in C. elegans that influence not only development but also metabolism, fertility, and lifespan. Spurred by these important discoveries and aided by recent advances in comparative metabolomics and NMR spectroscopy, the field of nematode chemistry has the potential to expand dramatically in the coming years. This Perspective will focus on small-molecule pheromones and hormones that influence developmental events in the nematode life cycle (ascarosides, dafachronic acids, and nemamides), will cover more recent work regarding the biosynthesis of these signals, and will explore how the discovery of these signals is transforming our understanding of nematode development and physiology.

  10. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  11. A 2-year field study shows little evidence that the long-term planting of transgenic insect-resistant cotton affects the community structure of soil nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    Full Text Available Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010, we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages, collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical 'real world' conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects-adverse or otherwise-on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants.

  12. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.

  13. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes. PMID:24643451

  14. Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Panic, Gordana; Adelfio, Roberto; Cowan, Noemi; Vargas, Mireille; Scandale, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3). Active compounds were scrutinized and toxic compounds, drugs indicated solely for topical use, and already well-studied anthelmintics were excluded. The remaining hit compounds were tested in parallel against Trichuris muris first-stage larvae (L1), Heligmosomoides polygyrus third-stage larvae (L3), and adult stages of the three species in vitro. In vivo studies were performed in the H. polygyrus and T. muris mice models. Fifty-four of the 1,600 compounds tested revealed an activity of > 60 % against A. ceylanicum L3 (hit rate of 3.4 %), following incubation at 200 μM for 72 h. Twelve compounds progressed into further screens. Adult A. ceylanicum were the least affected (1/12 compounds active at 50 μM), while eight of the 12 test compounds revealed activity against T. muris L1 (100 μM) and adults (50 μM), and H. polygyrus L3 (200 μM). Trichlorfon was the only compound active against all stages of A. ceylanicum, H. polygyrus and T. muris. In addition, trichlorfon achieved high worm burden reductions of 80.1 and 98.9 %, following a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg in the T. muris and H. polygyrus mouse model, respectively. Drug screening on the larval stages of intestinal parasitic nematodes is feasible using small libraries and important given the empty drug discovery and development pipeline for STH infections. Differences and commonalities in drug activities across the different STH species and stages were confirmed. Hits identified might serve as a

  15. Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis and Functional Identification of Sex Differentiation Genes from the Mosquito Parasitic Nematode, Romanomermis wuchangensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Duan

    Full Text Available Mosquito-transmitted diseases like malaria and dengue fever are global problem and an estimated 50-100 million of dengue or dengue hemorrhagic fever cases are reported worldwide every year. The mermithid nematode Romanomermis wuchangensis has been successfully used as an ecosystem-friendly biocontrol agent for mosquito prevention in laboratory studies. However, this nematode can not undergo sex differentiation in vitro culture, which has seriously affected their application of biocontrol in the field. In this study, based on transcriptome sequencing analysis of R. wuchangensis, Rwucmab-3, Rwuclaf-1 and Rwuctra-2 were cloned and used to investigate molecular regulatory function of sex differentiation. qRT-PCR results demonstrated that the expression level of Rwucmab-3 between male and female displayed obvious difference on the 3rd day of parasitic stage, which was earlier than Rwuclaf-1 and Rwuctra-2, highlighting sex differentiation process may start on the 3rd day of parasitic stage. Besides, FITC was used as a marker to test dsRNA uptake efficiency of R. wuchangensis, which fluorescence intensity increased with FITC concentration after 16 h incubation, indicating this nematode can successfully ingest soaking solution via its cuticle. RNAi results revealed the sex ratio of R. wuchangensis from RNAi treated groups soaked in dsRNA of Rwucmab-3 was significantly higher than gfp dsRNA treated groups and control groups, highlighting RNAi of Rwumab-3 may hinder the development of male nematodes. These results suggest that Rwucmab-3 mainly involves in the initiation of sex differentiation and the development of male sexual dimorphism. Rwuclaf-1 and Rwuctra-2 may play vital role in nematode reproductive and developmental system. In conclusion, transcript sequences presented in this study could provide more bioinformatics resources for future studies on gene cloning and other molecular regulatory mechanism in R. wuchangensis. Moreover, identification

  16. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz C.; Raetano, Carlos G. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal - Defesa Fitossanitaria]. E-mails: lcgarcia@fca.unesp.br; raetano@fca.unesp.br; Leite, Luis G. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico]. E-mail: lgleite@biologico.sp.gov.br

    2008-05-15

    The effects of different application technologies were evaluated on the concentration, viability, and efficiency of infective juveniles of the nematodes Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David and Steinernema sp. (IBCB-n6) to control Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on corn plants. Two hundred and eighty infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. were required to kill 100% third-instar fall army worms in petri dishes, as compared to 400 infective juveniles of the H. indica nematode to obtain 75% fall army worm control. It is possible to spray entomopathogenic nematodes without significant loss in their concentration and viability, with equipment that produces electrical charges to the spraying mix, and with those using hydraulic and rotary nozzle tips. The concentrations of infective juveniles of H. indica and Steinernema sp. nematodes were reduced by 28% and 53%, respectively, when hydraulic spraying nozzles that require 100-mesh filtrating elements were used. Tensoactive agents of the organo silicone and ethoxylate groups did not affect the viability of infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. juveniles. Spraying corn plants (V6 growth stage) with up to 288 million infective juveniles of Steinernema sp. per hectare, diluted in the spraying mix up to 800 L ha{sup -1}, with 0.01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment. (author)

  17. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  18. Possible presence of common tyvelose-containing glycans in Trichinella L1 larvae and embryonated eggs of several nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb US4 recognising an epitope containing tyvelose within the T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL-1 antigens was tested in western-blot against various antigenic preparations from different stages of the following nematodes: T. spiralis (L1,adult, T. muris (egg, L1, L3, adult, Ascaris suum (egg, adult, Toxocara canis (egg, adult, Anisakis simplex (L3 and Haemochus contortus (egg. Positive reaction was present in antigen preparations from L1 larvae of T. spiralis and T. muris and from embryonated eggs of T. muris, A. suum, T. canis and H. conlortus.

  19. Cross-reactivity between antigens of Anisakis simplex s.l. and other ascarid nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Maldonado J.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the cross-reactivity among somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of the third stage larvae of Anisakis simplex s.l. and somatic antigens of other ascarid nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Toxocara canis, Anisakis physeteris, Hysterothylacium aduncum and H. fabri was carried out by immunoblotting. It was revealed a high degree of cross-reactivity among ascarids in the 30 and > 212 kDa range by using sera against somatic and excretory-secretory antigens of A. simplex s.l. It has been revealed also specific components of the Anisakis genus (< 7.2, 9, 19 and 25 kDa that will be interesting in diagnosis.

  20. In vitro anti-parasitic effects of sesquiterpene lactones from chicory against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Boas, Ulrik

    . In this study we tested the effect of SL-rich extracts from 2 chicory cultivars on the viability of first-stage larvae (L1) of Ostertagia ostertagi, a pathogenic cattle nematode. Chicory Spadona and Puna II were grown at the same farm and leaves were sampled the same day. 1 g of freeze-dried leaves...... obtained were incubated in 8 extract concentrations for each cultivar (in duplicates) ranging from 2000 μg to 16 μg dry matter (DM) extract/mL (final concentration 1% DMSO in PBS). Ivermectin (1 mg/mL) and 1% DMSO in PBS were used as positive and negative controls, resp. Viability of L1 was evaluated...

  1. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Enemark, Heidi L.; Mueller-Harvey, I.

    2013-01-01

    Some plant secondary metabolites as tannins have direct anthelminthic properties and may play a role in the control of nematodes in livestock. However, their great diversity in structural characteristics and different levels of content in plants are responsible for a highly variable response...... in anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between tannin structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (m......DP), prodelphinidin/procyanidin (PC/PD) ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1...

  2. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground.

  3. High-throughput sequencing of nematode communities from total soil DNA extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    nematodes without the need for enrichment was developed. Using this strategy on DNA templates from a set of 22 agricultural soils, we obtained 64.4% sequences of nematode origin in total, whereas the remaining sequences were almost entirely from other metazoans. The nematode sequences were derived from...... in previous sequence-based studies are not nematode specific but also amplify other groups of organisms such as fungi and plantae, and thus require a nematode enrichment step that may introduce biases. Results: In this study an amplification strategy which selectively amplifies a fragment of the SSU from...... a broad taxonomic range and most sequences were from nematode taxa that have previously been found to be abundant in soil such as Tylenchida, Rhabditida, Dorylaimida, Triplonchida and Araeolaimida. Conclusions: Our amplification and sequencing strategy for assessing nematode diversity was able to collect...

  4. Parasitic nematodes in the chimpanzee population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hasegawa, H.; Moscovice, L. R.; Kaur, T.; Issa, M. H.; Huffman, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2006), s. 767-777 ISSN 0164-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chimpanzee * introduced population * nematode * new parasite record * Rubondo Island Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  5. Systemic induced tolerance against root-knot nematodes in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    c Institute of Biotechnology Research, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O.. Box 62000, City ... of information from fundamental research in order to get more insight on the interaction between these nematodes ..... 1200TM Automated PCR Set up robot (Corbett Life Science, 2009). All PCR samples ...

  6. Genetic diversity of the potato cyst nematode in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, R.T.

    1997-01-01


    The potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida (Stone) originate from the Andes region in South America and have been introduced into Western Europe since 1850. Both species are

  7. GESTION DES NEMATODES A GALLES PARASITES DE LA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Galeano, M. 2003. Evaluating Pochonia chlamydosporia in a double-cropping system of lettuce and tomato in plastic houses infested with Meloidogyne javanica. Plant Pathology 52: 521-528. Westerdahl, B.B. et Becker, J.O. 2009. Cucurbit Nematodes. UC Pest Management. Guidelines: Cucurbits. UC ANR Publication.

  8. Occurence of Anisakids nematodes on Frozen Hake ( Merluccius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of the frozen hake were obtained once a week as corresponding to supply in Yenagoa Market Bayelsa State ,Nigeria . From every supply of 10 cartons, 10 pieces of hake were examined for the presence of Anisakids nematodes .The incidence was concluded after sampling continuously every week for 8weeks ...

  9. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.T.; Haegeman, A.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Gaur, H.S.; Helder, J.; Jones, M.G.K.; Kikuchi, T.; Manzanilla-López, R.; Palomares-Rius, J.E.; Wesemael, W.M.L.; Perry, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a ‘top 10’ list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2010 and February 2011 to assess the prevalence of intestinal nematode infections among children aged 1 – 14 years living in two communities of rural Ebonyi State, Nigeria, characterize the risk factors for infection and develop environmental ...

  11. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 384 faecal samples for the coproscopic examination were collected and processed using direct faecal floatation method in parasitology laboratory of Jimma University, School of Veterinary medicine. Out of the total sampled cattle, 190 (49.5%) had a gastrointestinal nematode infection. Coprological investigation ...

  12. Faecal nematode egg counts in Merino sheep following natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    This study reports line differences in faecal nematode egg counts in strains of Merino sheep after natural challenge, and genetic (co)variances of egg counts with other traits of economic importance. Material and Methods. Sheep from a Merino selection experiment on the Tygerhoek experimental farm in the Southern Cape.

  13. Maintenance of genetic variation in automictic root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Beek, J. G. ( Hans); Punacker, Laas P.

    2008-01-01

    Differences in amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) between isolates and between mono-female lines of facultative automictic Meloidogyne hapla race A and obligate apomictic M incognita were determined to test the hypothesis that inverted meiosis occurs. DNA of the parthenogenetic nematode

  14. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood

  15. Nematode Parasitemia in School aged Children in Sapele, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) faecal samples were collected from school aged children in four randomly selected primary schools in Sapele metropolis of Delta State, Nigeria, to determine gastrointestinal nematode parasitemia. The formal-ether concentration technique was used to analyse the specimens and data obtained revealed ...

  16. Risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Nakuru and Mukurweini districts of Kenya to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in cattle on 128 dairy farms between June 16th 2010 and August 30th 2010. Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 419 heads of cattle that were above three ...

  17. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infection and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Nakuru and Mukurweini districts of Kenya to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and the financial impact of such infections among smallholder dairy farms. Parasitological examination involving feacal egg count and larval culture was employed to determine ...

  18. Gastrointestinal Nematodes and Body Condition Scores of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of 210 trade goats slaughtered in Nsukka area of Enugu state and their effects on body conditions was studied between May and August, 2011. The body condition of each goat were determined and scored on a scale of 1 – 5. Faecal samples were then collected from the goats before ...

  19. Efficacy of two anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) and ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in naturally infected goats in the pastoral region of Karamoja, Uganda. Fifty four (54) small East African goats (female = 36, male = 18), of 4-6 months and from 18 flocks, were allocated to ...

  20. Seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal patterns of trichostrongylid nematode infections in Dorper yearlings in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District, Kenya were investigated by analysis faecal egg output, herbage infectivity and post-mortem worm recovery. Rectal faecal samples from 60 animals as well as herbage samples from their grazing fields ...

  1. Field study on nematode resistance in Nelore-breed cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricarello, P A; Zaros, L G; Coutinho, L L; Rocha, R A; Kooyman, F N J; De Vries, E; Gonçalves, J R S; Lima, L G; Pires, A V; Amarante, A F T

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated Nelore cattle with different degrees of resistance to natural infections by gastrointestinal nematodes. One hundred weaned male cattle, 11-12 months of age, were kept on the same pasture and evaluated from October 2003 to February 2004. Faecal and blood samples were

  2. A survey of gastrointestinal nematodes in soil samples in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was to determine the comparative level of soil contamination by these helminthes. Out of the 60 top and deep soil samples collected from high-density areas, 12(20%) were positive for various pathogenic gastrointestinal nematodes. They include Ascaris sp., Toxocara canis, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, ...

  3. 5 Spatial Distribution of Nematodes at Organic.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    live in the thin films of water surrounding soil particles because water aids their mobility (Freckman ... Geostatistics can be used to analyse and quantify spatial autocorrelation by distance and direction (Evans et al., 1999). Geostatistical analysis in previous studies has shown that field-scale autocorrelation in nematode ...

  4. Nematodes and Weeds Control Effects of Pueraria phaseoloides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield of plantain (Musa spp., AAB Simmonds) declines sharply after 1–2 years of cropping in West and Central Africa, due mainly to weeds and nematodes. A trial was carried out from January 2002 to October 2005 under two land-use systems (LUS) comprising 4–5 year-old bush fallow, dominated by Chromolaena ...

  5. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes | Karakas | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conserved in most eukaryotic organisms, the RNAi pathway is thought to have evolved as a form of innate immunity against viruses and also plays a major role in regulating development and genome maintenance. RNAi has recently been demonstrated in plant parasitic nematodes. It is a potentially powerful investigative ...

  6. testinal nematodes of sheep owned by smallholder farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analyzed using the formula described by Dash et al. (1988), arithmetic means, and Presidente (1985), geometric means, of FECR. Nematodes egg counts were subject to logarithmic transformation, [log (x+1)], to stabilize variances (Mar- tin, 1982) and expressed as geometric means for the groups; and also for analy-.

  7. Effect of tanniniferous browse meal on nematode faecal egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tanniniferous browse meal on faecal egg counts (FEC) and intestinal worm burdens was investigated in sheep and goats infested experimentally with gastrointestinal nematodes. Initially, leaves of different browse tree species were assayed for condensed tannin (CT) content using a colorimetric method to ...

  8. Analysis of nematode infection levels among indoor pigs in Thika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infection levels of various species of nematode infection were studied in 35 indoor pig herds in Thika district, Kenya. Faecal samples were ... To reduce these costs, it is recommended that animals should be treated after faecal examination and laboratory determination of the EPG levels.. Kenya Veterinarian Vol.

  9. Population and molecular genetics of root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautova, M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes studies of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. - an economically important pest in agriculture - using population and molecular genetics. Variability in virulence to Mi bearing tomato genotypes is shown for

  10. Foraging behavior and virulence of some entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manana A. Lortkipanidze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present the biological control as a pest control technology is becoming more desirable. Biological formulations on basis of entomopathogenic nematodes are one of the effective means for the protection of agricultural and forest plants from harmful insects. Nowadays, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents is a key component in IPM system. The foraging strategies of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs vary between species. This variation is consistent with use of different foraging strategies between ambush, cruise and intermediate to find their host insects. In order to ambush prey, some species of EPNs nictate, or raise their bodies of the soil surface so they are better poised to attach passing insects, other species adopt a cruising strategy and rarely nictate. Some species adopt an intermediate strategy between ambush and cruise. We compared in laboratory the foraging strategies of the entomopathogenic nematode species: Steinernema carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the recently described species Steinernema tbilisiensis and assessed their virulence against mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The tests showed that S. tbilisiensis adopts both foraging strategies.

  11. The dynamics of nematode infections of farmed ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.G.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics and control of nematode parasites of farmed ruminants are discussed via a qualitative analysis of a differential equation model. To achieve this a quantity, 'the basic reproduction quotient' (Q0), whose definition coincides with previous definitions of R0 for

  12. A critique of current methods in nematode taxonomy | Abebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past few decades, there have been efforts to integrate molecular methods and digital 3D image-capturing technology in nematode taxonomy, the former to enhance the accuracy of identification of such a taxonomically challenging group and the latter to communicate morphological data. While the employment of ...

  13. Reproduction of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The sedentary endoparasite Meloidogyne incognita is an important plant parasitic nematode that infects cotton causing significant yield losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate reproduction of M. incognita in Bt cotton (06Z604D), isoline (99M03) and HART 89M (local ...

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two races of Heterodera glycines at different developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng Wang

    Full Text Available The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is an important pest of soybeans. Although resistance is available against this nematode, selection for virulent races can occur, allowing the nematode to overcome the resistance of cultivars. There are abundant field populations, however, little is known about their genetic diversity. In order to elucidate the differences between races, we investigated the transcriptional diversity within race 3 and race 4 inbred lines during their compatible interactions with the soybean host Zhonghuang 13. Six different race-enriched cDNA libraries were constructed with limited nematode samples collected from the three sedentary stages, parasitic J2, J3 and J4 female, respectively. Among 689 putative race-enriched genes isolated from the six libraries with functional annotations, 92 were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, including eight putative effector encoding genes. Further race-enriched genes were validated within race 3 and race 4 during development in soybean roots. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of all the race-enriched genes at J3 and J4 female stages showed that most of them functioned in metabolic processes. Relative transcript level analysis of 13 selected race-enriched genes at four developmental stages showed that the differences in their expression abundance took place at either one or more developmental stages. This is the first investigation into the transcript diversity of H. glycines races throughout their sedentary stages, increasing the understanding of the genetic diversity of H. glycines.

  15. Profiling nematode communities in unmanaged flowerbed and agricultural field soils in Japan by DNA barcode sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Morise

    Full Text Available Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples and 48 (field samples isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs, indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis.

  16. Population development of beet cyst nematodes and their damage potential to sugar beets under different temperature regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Vandenbossche; Björn Niere; Stefan Vidal

    2011-01-01

    _Heterodera schachtii_, the white beet cyst nematode, is considered as one of the most important nematode pests on sugar beet and is present in most sugar-beet growing areas. The yellow beet cyst nematode, _Heterodera betae_, is less prevalent but has also been found damaging beet crops. However, knowledge about the damage potential and population dynamics of the yellow beet cyst nematode is limited. The amount of damage inflicted by nematodes is dependent on different factors. An important f...

  17. Activated entomopathogenic nematode infective juveniles release lethal venom proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dihong Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are unique parasites due to their symbiosis with entomopathogenic bacteria and their ability to kill insect hosts quickly after infection. It is widely believed that EPNs rely on their bacterial partners for killing hosts. Here we disproved this theory by demonstrating that the in vitro activated infective juveniles (IJs of Steinernema carpocapsae (a well-studied EPN species release venom proteins that are lethal to several insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We confirmed that the in vitro activation is a good approximation of the in vivo process by comparing the transcriptomes of individual in vitro and in vivo activated IJs. We further analyzed the transcriptomes of non-activated and activated IJs and revealed a dramatic shift in gene expression during IJ activation. We also analyzed the venom proteome using mass spectrometry. Among the 472 venom proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors are especially abundant, and toxin-related proteins such as Shk domain-containing proteins and fatty acid- and retinol-binding proteins are also detected, which are potential candidates for suppressing the host immune system. Many of the venom proteins have conserved orthologs in vertebrate-parasitic nematodes and are differentially expressed during IJ activation, suggesting conserved functions in nematode parasitism. In summary, our findings strongly support a new model that S. carpocapsae and likely other Steinernema EPNs have a more active role in contributing to the pathogenicity of the nematode-bacterium complex than simply relying on their symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, we propose that EPNs are a good model system for investigating vertebrate- and human-parasitic nematodes, especially regarding the function of excretory/secretory products.

  18. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  19. Damage-associated responses of the host contribute to defence against cyst nematodes but not root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Syed Jehangir; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Mendy, Badou; Anwer, Muhammad Arslan; Habash, Samer S.; Lozano-Torres, Jose L.; Grundler, Florian M.W.; Siddique, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    When nematodes invade and subsequently migrate within plant roots, they generate cell wall fragments (in the form of oligogalacturonides; OGs) that can act as damage-associated molecular patterns and activate host defence responses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating damage responses in

  20. Application of Nuclear Volume Measurements to Comprehend the Cell Cycle in Root-Knot Nematode-Induced Giant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dijair Antonino de Souza Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes induce galls that contain giant-feeding cells harboring multiple enlarged nuclei within the roots of host plants. It is recognized that the cell cycle plays an essential role in the set-up of a peculiar nuclear organization that seemingly steers nematode feeding site induction and development. Functional studies of a large set of cell cycle genes in transgenic lines of the model host Arabidopsis thaliana have contributed to better understand the role of the cell cycle components and their implication in the establishment of functional galls. Mitotic activity mainly occurs during the initial stages of gall development and is followed by an intense endoreduplication phase imperative to produce giant-feeding cells, essential to form vigorous galls. Transgenic lines overexpressing particular cell cycle genes can provoke severe nuclei phenotype changes mainly at later stages of feeding site development. This can result in chaotic nuclear phenotypes affecting their volume. These aberrant nuclear organizations are hampering gall development and nematode maturation. Herein we report on two nuclear volume assessment methods which provide information on the complex changes occurring in nuclei during giant cell development. Although we observed that the data obtained with AMIRA tend to be more detailed than Volumest (Image J, both approaches proved to be highly versatile, allowing to access 3D morphological changes in nuclei of complex tissues and organs. The protocol presented here is based on standard confocal optical sectioning and 3-D image analysis and can be applied to study any volume and shape of cellular organelles in various complex biological specimens. Our results suggest that an increase in giant cell nuclear volume is not solely linked to increasing ploidy levels, but might result from the accumulation of mitotic defects.

  1. A synthetic peptide shows retro- and anterograde neuronal transport before disrupting the chemosensation of plant-pathogenic nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyst nematodes are a group of plant pathogens each with a defined host range that cause major losses to crops including potato, soybean and sugar beet. The infective mobile stage hatches from dormant eggs and moves a short distance through the soil to plant roots, which it then invades. A novel strategy for control has recently been proposed in which the plant is able to secrete a peptide which disorientates the infective stage and prevents invasion of the pathogen. This study provides indirect evidence to support the mechanism by which one such peptide disrupts chemosensory function in nematodes. The peptide is a disulphide-constrained 7-mer with the amino acid sequence CTTMHPRLC that binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A fluorescently tagged version of this peptide with both epifluorescent and confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that retrograde transport occurs from an aqueous environment along bare-ending primary cilia of chemoreceptive sensilla. The peptide is transported to the cell bodies of these neurons and on to a limited number of other neurons to which they connect. It appears to be localised in both neuronal processes and organelles adjacent to nuclei of some neurons suggesting it could be transported through the Golgi apparatus. The peptide takes 2.5 h to reach the neuronal cell bodies. Comparative studies established that similar but less abundant uptake occurs for Caenorhabditis elegans along its well studied dye-filling chemoreceptive neurons. Incubation in peptide solution or root-exudate from transgenic plants that secrete the peptide disrupted normal orientation of infective cyst nematodes to host root diffusate. The peptide probably undergoes transport along the dye-filling non-cholinergic chemoreceptive neurons to their synapses where it is taken up by the interneurons to which they connect. Coordinated responses to chemoreception are disrupted when the sub-set of cholinergic interneurons secrete the peptide

  2. A Large Collection of Novel Nematode-Infecting Microsporidia and Their Diverse Interactions with Caenorhabditis elegans and Other Related Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaotian; Sachse, Martin; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Troemel, Emily R.; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Microsporidia are fungi-related intracellular pathogens that may infect virtually all animals, but are poorly understood. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has recently become a model host for studying microsporidia through the identification of its natural microsporidian pathogen Nematocida parisii. However, it was unclear how widespread and diverse microsporidia infections are in C. elegans or other related nematodes in the wild. Here we describe the isolation and culture of 47 nematodes with microsporidian infections. N. parisii is found to be the most common microsporidia infecting C. elegans in the wild. In addition, we further describe and name six new species in the Nematocida genus. Our sampling and phylogenetic analysis further identify two subclades that are genetically distinct from Nematocida, and we name them Enteropsectra and Pancytospora. Interestingly, unlike Nematocida, these two genera belong to the main clade of microsporidia that includes human pathogens. All of these microsporidia are horizontally transmitted and most specifically infect intestinal cells, except Pancytospora epiphaga that replicates mostly in the epidermis of its Caenorhabditis host. At the subcellular level in the infected host cell, spores of the novel genus Enteropsectra show a characteristic apical distribution and exit via budding off of the plasma membrane, instead of exiting via exocytosis as spores of Nematocida. Host specificity is broad for some microsporidia, narrow for others: indeed, some microsporidia can infect Oscheius tipulae but not its sister species Oscheius sp. 3, and conversely some microsporidia found infecting Oscheius sp. 3 do not infect O. tipulae. We also show that N. ausubeli fails to strongly induce in C. elegans the transcription of genes that are induced by other Nematocida species, suggesting it has evolved mechanisms to prevent induction of this host response. Altogether, these newly isolated species illustrate the diversity and ubiquity of

  3. Endosymbiont-based immunity in Drosophila melanogaster against parasitic nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Frazer, Joanna; Banga, Ashima; Pruitt, Katherine; Harsh, Sneh; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively). We find that the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma promotes the survival of larvae in response to infection with S. carpocapsae symbiotic nematodes, but not against axenic nematodes. We also find that Wolbachia numbers are reduced in Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic compared to symbiotic nematodes, and they are also reduced in Spiroplasma-containing compared to Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic nematodes. We further show that S. carpocapsae axenic nematode infection induces the Toll pathway in the absence of Wolbachia, and that symbiotic nematode infection leads to increased phenoloxidase activity in D. melanogaster larvae devoid of endosymbionts. Finally, infection with either type of nematode alters the metabolic status and the fat body lipid droplet size in D. melanogaster larvae containing only Wolbachia or both endosymbionts. Our results suggest an interaction between Wolbachia endosymbionts with the immune response of D. melanogaster against infection with the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae. Results from this study indicate a complex interplay between insect hosts, endosymbiotic microbes and pathogenic organisms.

  4. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  5. Fast, automated measurement of nematode swimming (thrashing without morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattelle David B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "thrashing assay", in which nematodes are placed in liquid and the frequency of lateral swimming ("thrashing" movements estimated, is a well-established method for measuring motility in the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans as well as in parasitic nematodes. It is used as an index of the effects of drugs, chemicals or mutations on motility and has proved useful in identifying mutants affecting behaviour. However, the method is laborious, subject to experimenter error, and therefore does not permit high-throughput applications. Existing automation methods usually involve analysis of worm shape, but this is computationally demanding and error-prone. Here we present a novel, robust and rapid method of automatically counting the thrashing frequency of worms that avoids morphometry but nonetheless gives a direct measure of thrashing frequency. Our method uses principal components analysis to remove the background, followed by computation of a covariance matrix of the remaining image frames from which the interval between statistically-similar frames is estimated. Results We tested the performance of our covariance method in measuring thrashing rates of worms using mutations that affect motility and found that it accurately substituted for laborious, manual measurements over a wide range of thrashing rates. The algorithm used also enabled us to determine a dose-dependent inhibition of thrashing frequency by the anthelmintic drug, levamisole, illustrating the suitability of the system for assaying the effects of drugs and chemicals on motility. Furthermore, the algorithm successfully measured the actions of levamisole on a parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, which undergoes complex contorted shapes whilst swimming, without alterations in the code or of any parameters, indicating that it is applicable to different nematode species, including parasitic nematodes. Our method is capable of analyzing a 30 s movie in

  6. Ascaroside expression in Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly dependent on diet and developmental stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A group of small signaling molecules called ascarosides, associated with dauer formation, male attraction and social behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, are shown to be regulated by developmental stage and environmental factors. The concentration of dauer-inducing ascaroside, ascr#2, i...

  7. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. © F. Moravec et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  8. Activity of components of the antioxidant system in the roots of potato plants at short-term temperature drop and invasion with parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, V V; Matveeva, E M; Zinovieva, S V

    2017-09-01

    The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the roots of susceptible plants and plants exposed to alternating temperatures, which were infected with the phytoparasitic nematode G. rostochiensis, was studied. It was found that, throughout the invasion period, the plants susceptible to invasion exhibited a high activity of these enzymes, which allowed them to maintain an active defense against the oxidative stress caused by the invasion and subsequent life activity of larvae. For the plants exposed to alternating temperatures, a decrease in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase at the early stages of invasion and an increase in the activity of these enzymes at the later stages was detected.

  9. Identification, Validation and Utilization of Novel Nematode-Responsive Root-Specific Promoters in Arabidopsis for Inducing Host-Delivered RNAi Mediated Root-Knot Nematode Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kakrana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite that infects a large number of crops and severely affects productivity. The commonly used nematode control strategies have their own limitations. Of late, RNA interference (RNAi has become a popular approach for the development of nematode resistance in plants. Transgenic crops capable of expressing dsRNAs, specifically in roots for disrupting the parasitic process, offer an effective and efficient means of producing resistant crops. We identified nematode-responsive and root-specific (NRRS promoters by using microarray data from the public domain and known conserved cis-elements. A set of 51 NRRS genes was identified which was narrowed down further on the basis of presence of cis-elements combined with minimal expression in the absence of nematode infection. The comparative analysis of promoters from the enriched NRRS set, along with earlier reported nematode-responsive genes, led to the identification of specific cis-elements. The promoters of two candidate genes were used to generate transgenic plants harboring promoter GUS constructs and tested in planta against nematodes. Both promoters showed preferential expression upon nematode infection, exclusively in the root in one and galls in the other. One of these NRRS promoters was used to drive the expression of splicing factor, a nematode-specific gene, for generating host-delivered RNAi-mediated nematode-resistant plants. Transgenic lines expressing dsRNA of splicing factor under the NRRS promoter exhibited upto a 32% reduction in number of galls compared to control plants.

  10. Nematodes Parasites of Teiid Lizards from the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L C; Gardner, S L; Melo, F T V; Giese, E G; Santos, J N

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the helminth composition and parameters of infection by several species of nematodes in teiid lizards, Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Cnemidophorus cryptus Cole and Dessauer, 1993, and Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from the Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest. The population of lizards studied were parasitized by 6 species of Phylum Nemata including: Spinicauda spinicauda (Olfers, 1919), Parapharyngodon alvarengai Freitas, 1957, Physaloptera sp. (adults), Physaloptera sp. (larvae), Piratuba digiticauda Lent and Freitas, 1941, and Anisakidae (larvae). The overall prevalence was 66.17% and the mean intensity of infection was 19.40 ± 25.48. The association between the body-length of lizards and the abundance and richness of parasitic nematodes was statistically significant only in Ameiva a. ameiva. A new host record is reported here with 1 specimen of the family Anasakidae in Ameiva a. ameiva. Both S. spinicauda and Physaloptera sp. represent new records from C. cryptus.

  11. Optimizing the application of entomopathogenic nematodes: experimental set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselman, E; Steurbaut, W; Sonck, B

    2007-01-01

    The complex issue concerning the spray application of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (EPNs) with a hydraulic sprayer is still not solved. This research project focuses on the effect of spray application technique on the viability and deposition of EPNs. In this paper the experimental set-up used for this evaluation is described. A modular spray application system has been developed and is currently used to evaluate the effect of different parts of a sprayer on the viability of the EPNs. Based on the results of experiments using this modular spray application system, recommendations regarding pump type, mixing system, nozzle type and filter size will be formulated. Because of the large number of experiments in this research project, an image analysis system for the determination of the viability of the nematodes is developed. This paper describes two experiments comparing the new developed image processing technique with the standard microscopic counting technique.

  12. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.C.; Chen, P.C. [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Tsay, T.T., E-mail: tttsay@nchu.edu.t [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  13. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.C.; Chen, P.C.; Tsay, T.T.

    2010-01-01

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  14. Molecular characterization of the Drosophila responses towards nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Arefin, Md. Badrul

    2016-01-01

    A sophisticated evolutionary conserved innate immune system has evolved in insects to fight pathogens and to restrict damage in harmful (danger) situations including cancer. A significant amount of knowledge about different infection models in Drosophila has been generated in past decades, which revealed functional resemblances and implications for vertebrate systems. However, how Drosophila responds towards multicellular parasitic nematodes and in danger situations is still little understood...

  15. Nematode Species Identification-Current Status, Challenges and Future Perspectives for Cyathostomins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredtmann, Christina M; Krücken, Jürgen; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Kuzmina, Tetiana; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal health is globally affected by a variety of parasitic helminths. The impact of co-infections and development of anthelmintic resistance requires improved diagnostic tools, especially for parasitic nematodes e.g., to identify resistant species or attribute pathological effects to individual species or particular species combinations. In horses, co-infection with cyathostomins is rather a rule than an exception with typically 5 to 15 species (out of more than 40 described) per individual host. In cyathostomins, reliable morphological species differentiation is currently limited to adults and requires highly specialized expertize while precise morphological identification of eggs and early stage larvae is impossible. The situation is further complicated by a questionable validity of some cyathostomins while others might actually represent cryptic species complexes. Several molecular methods using different target sequences were established to overcome these limitations. For adult worms, PCR followed by sequencing of mitochondrial genes or external or internal ribosomal RNA spacers is suitable to genetically confirm morphological identifications. The most commonly used method to differentiate eggs or larvae is the reverse-line-blot hybridization assay. However, both methods suffer from the fact that target sequences are not available for many species or even that GenBank® entries are unreliable regarding the cyathostomin species. Recent advances in proteomic tools for identification of metazoans including insects and nematodes of the genus Trichinella will be evaluated for suitability to diagnose cyathostomins. Future research should focus on the comparative analysis of morphological, molecular and proteomic data from the same cyathostomin specimen to optimize tools for species-specific identification.

  16. Nematode Species Identification—Current Status, Challenges and Future Perspectives for Cyathostomins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Bredtmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal health is globally affected by a variety of parasitic helminths. The impact of co-infections and development of anthelmintic resistance requires improved diagnostic tools, especially for parasitic nematodes e.g., to identify resistant species or attribute pathological effects to individual species or particular species combinations. In horses, co-infection with cyathostomins is rather a rule than an exception with typically 5 to 15 species (out of more than 40 described per individual host. In cyathostomins, reliable morphological species differentiation is currently limited to adults and requires highly specialized expertize while precise morphological identification of eggs and early stage larvae is impossible. The situation is further complicated by a questionable validity of some cyathostomins while others might actually represent cryptic species complexes. Several molecular methods using different target sequences were established to overcome these limitations. For adult worms, PCR followed by sequencing of mitochondrial genes or external or internal ribosomal RNA spacers is suitable to genetically confirm morphological identifications. The most commonly used method to differentiate eggs or larvae is the reverse-line-blot hybridization assay. However, both methods suffer from the fact that target sequences are not available for many species or even that GenBank® entries are unreliable regarding the cyathostomin species. Recent advances in proteomic tools for identification of metazoans including insects and nematodes of the genus Trichinella will be evaluated for suitability to diagnose cyathostomins. Future research should focus on the comparative analysis of morphological, molecular and proteomic data from the same cyathostomin specimen to optimize tools for species-specific identification.

  17. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  18. Nematode parasite control of livestock in the tropics/subtropics: the need for novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P J

    1997-10-01

    Because parasites are more abundant, small ruminants in the tropical/subtropical regions of the world experience much greater ravages from internal parasitic disease than those in the temperate regions. In the tropics/subtropics, the limiting ecological factor influencing the severity of parasitism is rainfall, as temperatures almost always favour hatching and development of the free-living stages. Attempts to expand sheep and goat production by replacing traditional village production systems, which rarely involve anthelmintic treatment, with large-scale intensive commercial enterprises invariably induce complete reliance on anthelmintics to control nematode parasites. This has led to the widespread development of high level, multiple anthelmintic resistance throughout the tropics/subtropics, and in certain regions this has reached the ultimate disastrous scenario of total chemotherapeutic failure. Immediate concerted efforts are needed to resolve this crisis. Significant benefits are likely to emerge from research into non-chemotherapeutic approaches to nematode parasite control, such as grazing management, worm vaccines, breed selection and biological control. However, it is likely that none, in isolation or collectively, will completely replace the need for effective anthelmintics. What is needed is the integration of all methods of parasite control as they come to hand, with the underlying aim of reducing the use and thus preserving the effectiveness of anthelmintics. Although cheap and simple procedures, based on sound epidemiological principles, can achieve dramatic benefits in worm control, they have been poorly adopted by livestock owners. Clearly then, the greatest need is for technology transfer and education programmes, but these activities are generally found to be chronically under-resourced.

  19. Prevalence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in eastern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulišić, Z.; Aleksić, Nevenka; Đorđević, M.; Gajić, B.; Tambur, Z.; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Stanimirović, Z.

    2013-01-01

    A coprological examination of 680 grazing sheep was performed in Eastern Serbia from March 2011 to November 2012 in order to determine the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode parasites. Fecal samples were randomly collected and examined by using qualitative and quantitative coprological techniques. It was found that 74.56% sheep were infected. Samples that contained nematode eggs were processed for larval development and eleven nematode genera were i...

  20. Partitioning Yield Loss on Yellow Squash into Nematode and Insect Components

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Waddill, V. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression....

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute...

  2. A nematode that can manipulate the behaviour of slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alex; Green, Michael; Martin, Hayley; Crossland, Katie; Swaney, William T; Williamson, Sally M; Rae, Robbie

    2018-02-27

    The ability of parasites to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts has evolved multiple times, and has a clear fitness benefit to the parasite in terms of facilitating growth, reproduction and transfer to suitable hosts. The mechanisms by which these behavioural changes are induced are poorly understood, but in many cases parasite manipulation of serotonergic signalling in the host brain is implicated. Here we report that Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a parasite of terrestrial gastropod molluscs, can alter the behaviour of slugs. Uninfected slugs (Deroceras panormitanum, Arion subfuscus and Arion hortensis) avoid areas where P. hermaphrodita is present, but slugs infected with P. hermaphrodita are more likely to be found where the nematodes are present. This ability is specific to P. hermaphrodita and other nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) do not induce this behavioural change. To investigate how P. hermaphrodita changes slug behaviour we exposed slugs to fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and cyproheptadine (a serotonin receptor antagonist). Uninfected slugs fed fluoxetine no longer avoided areas where P. hermaphrodita was present; and conversely, infected slugs fed cyproheptadine showed no increased attraction to areas with nematodes. These findings suggest that a possible mechanism by whichP. hermaphrodita is able to manipulate parasite avoidance behaviour in host slugs is by manipulating serotonergic signalling in the brain, and that increased serotonin levels are potentially associated with a reduction in parasite avoidance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.

  4. Scaleable downstream recovery of nematodes used as biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J A; Pearce, J D; Ayazi Shamlou, P

    2001-12-20

    This study assesses the suitability of sieving as a scaleable technique for the separation of adult nematodes from infective juveniles, the latter is an effective bioinsecticide whereas the former is waste material resulting from the fermentation process. Batch and semibatch experiments using conventional flow-assisted wet sieving and a novel cross-flow sieving technique were used to study the separation of juveniles from adult nematodes. The experiments were carried out using small-scale devices and the data were analyzed in terms of the screen effectiveness factor. The results were used to identify the sieve size and operating conditions for optimum juvenile recovery. It was found that, for a given species of nematode, optimum recovery was achieved when sieving was carried out in the cross-flow mode, the maximum recovery being a function of the size of the screen. Industrial-scale self-cleaning equipment capable of large-scale continuous screening was used to confirm the capacity of the small-scale operation for scale-up. Experimental results with this unit showed that in continuous operation sieving time is an additional parameter that influences separation performance. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Gene Silencing and Sex Determination by Programmed DNA Elimination in Parasitic Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Adrian; Wang, Jianbin; Kang, Yuanyuan; Davis, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is essential. However, programmed DNA elimination removes specific DNA sequences from the genome during early development. DNA elimination occurs in unicellular ciliates and diverse metazoa ranging from nematodes to vertebrates. Two distinct groups of nematodes use DNA elimination to silence germline-expressed genes in the soma (ascarids) or for sex determination (Strongyloides spp.). Data suggest that DNA elimination likely evolved independently in these nematodes. Recent studies indicate that differential CENP-A deposition within chromosomes determines which sequences are retained and lost during Ascaris DNA elimination. Additional studies are needed to determine the distribution, functions, and mechanisms of DNA elimination in nematodes. PMID:27315434

  6. The importance, biology and management of cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mokrini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic stresses, plant-parasitic nematodes play an important role in decreasing crop yield. Cereal cyst nematodes (CCNs are known to be a major constraint to wheat production in several parts of the world. Significant economic losses due to CCNs have been reported. Recognition and identification of CCNs are the first steps in nematode management. This paper reviews the current distribution of CCNs in different parts of the world and the recent advances in nematode identification. The different approaches for managing CCNs are also discussed.

  7. Nematodes as a source of total coliforms in a distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locas, Annie; Barbeau, Benoit; Gauthier, Vincent

    2007-05-01

    In a distribution system of a large North American city, recurring total coliforms and atypical coliforms were detected at the exit (distribution pumps) of a storage reservoir. The presence of total coliforms and atypical coliforms was noted when the pumps were in operation and the water temperature was higher than 18 degrees C. The total coliform and atypical coliform concentrations at the volute pump casings ranged from 0 to 93.5 colony forming units (cfu)/100 mL. Significant concentrations of nematodes were also detected at this sampling location, averaging 12.0 nematodes/L in 2001 and 17.4 nematodes/L in 2002. The hypothesis that coliforms were released from the nematodes during their transit through the high-pressure pump was tested by recovering nematodes by filtering large volumes of water and grinding the nematodes in the laboratory, using various techniques. Total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria concentrations ranged from 0 to 27 cfu/nematode and 0 to 643 cfu/nematode, respectively. The origin of the nematodes was traced back to the sand filters located at the two water treatment plants. The importance of invertebrates in the distribution system should not be dismissed and the associated health risks, if any, should be assessed.

  8. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  9. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  10. Sensory interaction between attractant diacetyl and repellent 2-nonanone in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Izumi, Junichi; Hioki, Mamoru; Nagaya, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yasuaki

    2013-06-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the odorant diacetyl is sensed by AWA sensory neurons in the amphid sensory organ and elicits an attractive response, whereas 2-nonanone is sensed by AWB amphid sensory neurons and elicits an avoidance response. In the present study, we report that nematodes exhibit a sensory interaction between the attractant diacetyl and repellent 2-nonanone. In the presence of food, the chemotactic response to 0.01% diacetyl in nematodes preexposed to 0.1% diacetyl was greater than that in nonexposed naive nematodes (P < 0.05). The response to diacetyl was also greater in nematodes preexposed to 3% 2-nonanone in the presence of food than that in naive nematodes (P < 0.01). In the absence of food, the response to diacetyl in nematodes preexposed to diacetyl or 2-nonanone was significantly lower than that in nonexposed control nematodes (P < 0.01). The avoidance response to 10% 2-nonanone in nematodes preexposed to each odorant in the presence or absence of food was lower than that in nonexposed nematodes (P < 0.05). To confirm the validity of our results, the chemotactic responses to diacetyl and 2-nonanone were observed using che-3, odr-4, and odr-10 mutants, which exhibited defective sensitivity to diacetyl or 2-nonanone. From the results of our experiments, we conclude that nematodes exhibit a sensory interaction between diacetyl and 2-nonanone and speculate that this interaction is driven by higher-level neuronal circuits that underlie sensory integration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  12. Insights into Adaptations to a Near-Obligate Nematode Endoparasitic Lifestyle from the Finished Genome of Drechmeria coniospora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Zhou, Z.; Guo, Q.; Fokkens, L.; Miskei, M.; Pócsi, I.; Zhang, W.; Chen, M.; Wang, L.; Sun, Y.; Donzelli, B.G.G.; Gibson, D.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Luo, J.G.; Rep, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, S.; Wang, J.; Krasnoff, S.B.; Xu, Y.; Molnár, I.; Lin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nematophagous fungi employ three distinct predatory strategies: nematode trapping, parasitism of females and eggs, and endoparasitism. While endoparasites play key roles in controlling nematode populations in nature, their application for integrated pest management is hindered by the limited

  13. Submerged monoxenic culture of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in an internal-loop airlift bioreactor using two configurations of the inner tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Sanjuan-Galindo, René; Rodríguez-Pastrana, Blanca-Rosa; Medina-Torres, Luis; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana-Inés

    2007-09-01

    This article reports the submerged culture of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae and its symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, within an internal-loop airlift bioreactor. Two configurations of the inner cylinder were tested: a standard draft tube (SDT) and a static mixer (SM), as well as two production media: MP1 (500 mL/L whey, among other ingredients) and MP2 (82 mL/L agave-juice from Agave spp., among other ingredients). Three fermentations were carried out: F1 --> SDT-MP1, F2 --> SM-MP1 and F3 --> SM-MP2. The operating conditions were expressed on the basis of dimensionless Reynolds number (Re) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), both of them determined on riser and downcomer sections within the bioreactor. The experiments began with fewer than 1,000 infective juvenile nematode stages (IJ) per mL and at t = 20 d, they achieved (nematodes/mL-%IJ) 222,000-87%, 62,200-23% and 114,600-80%, within F1, F2 and F3 experiments, respectively. Nonetheless, the achieved maximum nematode biomass concentrations (g/L) were F1 --> 408, F2 --> 557 and F3 --> 613, and occurred at t = 16, 10 and 12 d, respectively. The fermentation operating conditions involved 0.042 (-) < Re < 647 (-) and 2.8 x 10(-4) s(-1) < k(L)a < 0.0447 s(-1), as functions of 0.004 m/s < superficial gas velocity (within the riser) < 0.079 m/s, 0.001 m/s < mean downcomer velocity < 0.014 m/s, and culture broth rheological properties which evolved from nearly the Newtonian behaviour to the pseudoplastic one. The maximum IJ concentration was achieved within F1 experiment (193,406 IJ/mL). Also, fermentation conditions involving higher riser-Re and lower downcomer-Re as well as higher nutriment concentrations in culture medium, promote higher nematode biomass concentrations but lower %IJ, maybe as a result of better conditions for the nematode population development.

  14. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  15. Fly ash effect on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gufran Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of fly ash on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots. For hatching experiment different fly ash-extract concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% were prepared. Hatching was significantly reduced in all concentrations, maximum being at 50% concentration. The mortality (% of juveniles was observed in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7th days with different levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of fly ash-extract. All the levels were found harmful to juveniles. As the level was increased, the killing percentage of juveniles was also increased. Highest mortality was observed in 7th day with 50% level.For the penetration experiment, fly ash was mixed with soil to prepare different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Seeds of pumpkin were grown in coffee cups filled with different mixtures. At two leaf stage, seedlings were inoculated with 2000 larvae. The penetrated larvae in roots were observed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Root penetration was found inversely proportional to concentration. Significant results in the suppression of nematode penetration were noted up to 40% concentration. However, none of the juveniles was penetrated at 50% concentration.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.66-73

  16. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) keralaensis sp. nov. (Rhabdochonidae) and some other nematodes in the Indian mottled eel Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Sheeba, Sarasamma; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2012-03-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode, Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) keralaensis sp. nov., is described based on specimens recovered from the intestine of Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (Gray) collected from the freshwater bodies of Kerala State, southern India. It is characterized mainly by the presence of ten anterior prostomal teeth, absence of basal teeth, simple deirids, length of spicules, number and arrangement of preanal papillae and non-filamented eggs. Two species of camallanid nematodes, adults of Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927 and a single Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. fourth-stage larva, were also recorded from A. bengalensis. Camallanus cotti, a pathogenic parasite of many species of wild and aquarium-reared fishes in many countries of South and East Asia, Europe, South and North America, West Indies and Australia, is reported for the first time from a representative of the fish family Anguillidae. Descriptions of R. (R.) keralaensis and Indian specimens of C. cotti, based on light and scanning electron microscopical examinations, are provided. Camallanus oxygasterae Gupta et Bakshi, 1983 is considered a junior synonym of C. cotti.

  17. Immune recognition of excretory and secretory products of the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi in cattle and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafsia, B; Ndjonka, D; Dikti, J V; van Hoorn, S; Manchang, K; Brattig, N; Liebau, E

    2015-09-11

    Excretory-secretory (ES) products of nematodes and other helminths are the first molecules to interact with cell surfaces and soluble proteins within the host. In the present study, ES products of the filarial nematode Onchocerca ochengi were investigated as a model for Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness. These products were collected from adult and larval stages in vitro over a period of 7 days, to compare their immunological recognition in cattle and human sera, infected with species of Onchocerca. From the 156 sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) ES products or extracts, protein bands showed different patterns between female and male products. A comparison of antibody recognition of the different ES products by sera from infected cattle and humans, when analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), revealed a relatively higher reactivity of the female somatic extract to human and cattle sera compared to ES products of both genders. Nevertheless, similar reactivity of the O. ochengi male and female ES products to human and cattle sera was noticed. As a result, the interaction of ES products with the surface of the host and immune system often led to host responses, including the generation of antibodies. The O. ochengi ES products are therefore good sources of potential immunogenic proteins. The identification of these ES products is in progress, with the aim of developing vaccine candidates against human onchocerciasis.

  18. The specific diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in livestock: larval culture technique, its limitations and alternative DNA-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Florian; Kahn, Lewis

    2014-10-15

    The specific diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in ruminants is routinely based on larval culture technique and on the morphological identification of developed third-stage larvae. However, research on the ecology and developmental requirements of different species suggests that environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and humidity) for optimal development to occur vary between the different species. Thus, employing a common culture protocol for all species will favour the development of certain species over others and can cause a biased result in particular when species proportions in a mixed infection are to be determined. Furthermore, the morphological identification of L3 larvae is complicated by a lack of distinctive, obvious features that would allow the identification of all key species. In the present paper we review in detail the potential limitations of larval culture technique and morphological identification and provide account to some modern molecular alternatives to the specific diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infection in ruminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil and freshwater nematodes of the Iberian fauna: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Santiago, R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first available compilation of Iberian soil and freshwater nematodes is presented in this paper. The inventory is currently made up of 981 species belonging to 236 genera, 77 families and 12 orders. Data of the Iberian nematode fauna are compared with other components of the Iberian biota, as well as the nematode fauna of other geographical regions. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the nematode inventory are analyzed and discussed, paying special attention to the kind of information available for each species, and concluding that practically one-third of Iberian species are deficiently characterized and need further study. Endemicity of Iberian species is also considered: 143 species, 14.6% of the total, are restricted (in their distribution to the Iberian geography, most of them being members of the orders Dorylaimida (87 and Tylenchida (29, which are also the most diversified nematode taxa. Practical or applied interest of knowledge of the Iberian nematode fauna is commented and supported with examples and recent contributions. Finally, an alphabetical list of the species, ordered by specific name, is provided.

    En esta contribución se presenta una recopilación de las especies ibéricas de nematodos de suelo y de agua dulce, la primera de este tipo realizada hasta el momento. El inventario actual lo componen 981 especies de 236 géneros, 77 familias y 12 órdenes. Los datos correspondiente a la fauna ibérica de nematodos se compara con la de otros táxones de la biota ibérica. Se analizan y se discuten distintos aspectos cuantitativos y cualitativos de la fauna nematológica, con especial énfasis en el tipo de información disponible sobre cada especie, y se concluye que casi una tercera parte de las especies ibéricas permanecen insuficientemente caracterizadas, razón por la cual requieren de estudios adicionales. La endemicidad de las especies es así mismo objeto de atención: 143 especies, un 14.6% del total est

  20. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  1. Product evaluation for reniform nematode suppression in Mississippi Delta sweetpotato production, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, can cause significant losses in sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas, production in the Mississippi Delta. Reniform nematode is a microscopic plant parasite that feeds on sweetpotato roots causing severe stunting of root growth. Reduction in yield due to the ...

  2. Azadirachtin powder for control of root-knot nematodes in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA ARS Daniel K. Inouye U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, 64 Nowelo St., Hilo, HI 96720. Root-knot nematodes cause root galling and yield reductions in many vegetable crops, including tomato. Three organic treatments to improve root growth and reduce nematode infestation were eval...

  3. Successes and failures in the use of parasitic nematodes for pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgis, R.; Koppenhöfer, A.M.; Lacey, L.A.; Bélair, G.; Duncan, L.W.; Grewal, P.S.; Samish, M.; Tan, L.; Torr, P.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in mass-production and formulation technology of entomopathogenic nematodes, the discovery of numerous isolates/strains and the desirability of reducing pesticide usage have resulted in a surge of scientific and commercial interest in these nematodes. The lessons learned from earlier

  4. Sunn Hemp cover cropping and organic fertilizer effects on the nematode community under temperate growing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantings of sunn hemp as a cover crop have been experimentally shown to improve soil health, reduce plant-parasitic nematodes, and increase nematode-antagonistic microorganisms. However, these studies have been largely conducted in tropical and subtropical regions. To investigate the impacts of sun...

  5. A model plant pathogen from the kingdom Animalia: Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblack, T L; Lambert, K N; Tylka, G L

    2006-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, adversely affects the production of soybean, Glycine max, in many areas of the world, particularly in the United States, where it is the most economically important soybean pathogen. Despite the availability of hundreds of H. glycines-resistant soybean cultivars, the nematode continues to be a major limiting factor in soybean production. The use of nonhost rotation and resistance are the primary means of reducing losses caused by the nematode, but each of these options has disadvantages. As a subject for study of nematode parasitism and virulence, H. glycines provides a useful model despite its obligately parasitic nature. Its obligately sexual reproduction and ready adaptation to resistant cultivars, formerly referred to as "race shift," presents an excellent opportunity for the study of virulence in nematodes. Recent advances in H. glycines genomics have helped identify putative nematode parasitism genes, which, in turn, will aid in the understanding of nematode pathogenicity and virulence and may provide new targets for engineering nematode resistance.

  6. NEMATODE DIVERSITY IN A RANGE OF LAND USE TYPES IN JAMBI BENCHMARK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Swibawa & Titik Nur Aeny .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nematode Diversity in a Range of Land Use Types in Jambi Benchmark Indonesia. This study was conducted in Jambi  Benchmark, Indonesia from May 2004 to March 2005.  Out of 70 sampling points, 35 soil cores were taken from five land use types including forest less intensive, forest intensive, shrub, tree-based intensive, and crop-based less intensive.  From each soil core, 300 ml of soil was extracted by flotation and centrifugation technique using sucrose solution. One hundred randomly picked nematodes from each sample were identified to  genus level. The collected data were nematode abundance, number of genera, and trophic groups. The results showed that a total of 100 nematode genera within 31 families and 8 orders were found from soil samples of Jambi Benchmark. The abundance of total nematodes, bacterial feeding, and plant feeding nematodes were low in the intensive land use but high in less intensive land uses, i.e. shrub, intensive forest, and less intensive forest.  There was no significant correlation between land use intensity and the diversity of nematode taxa.  Nematode maturity indices were not sensitive enough to measure ecosystem disturbance caused by human intervention in Jambi Benchmark.

  7. Optimization of a host diet for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous studies, we developed an improved diet for Tenebrio molitor, a host that is used for in vivo nematode production, and we demonstrated that single insect diet components (e.g., lipids and proteins) can have a positive or negative impact on entomopathogenic nematode fitness and quality. I...

  8. Low cost production of nematodes for biological control of insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are produced in two ways: in artificial media using liquid or solid fermentation methods (in vitro) or by mass producing insect hosts to be artificially exposed to mass infection by nematodes (in vivo). The yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) is a good host for in vivo nema...

  9. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  10. Evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to root-knot nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most popular vegetable crops worldwide, owing to its high nutritive value and diversified use. Tomato production in Ghana is threatened by plant parasitic nematodes, especially the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), which are responsible for huge economic yield losses.

  11. Mind the gaps in research on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of farmed ruminants and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, J; Thamsborg, S M; Bartley, D J

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode control has an important role to play in increasing livestock production from a limited natural resource base and to improve animal health and welfare. In this synthetic review, we identify key research priorities for GI nematode control in farmed ruminants and pigs...

  12. Parallel adaptations and common host cell responses enabling feeding of obligate and facultative plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smant, Geert; Helder, Johannes; Goverse, Aska

    2018-01-01

    Parallel adaptations enabling the use of plant cells as the primary food source have occurred multiple times in distinct nematode clades. The hallmark of all extant obligate and facultative plant-feeding nematodes is the presence of an oral stylet, which is required for penetration of plant cell

  13. RNA Interference: A Novel Source of Resistance to Combat Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Banerjee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage and yield loss in major crops all over the world. Available control strategies include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to the environment, while other strategies like crop rotation and resistant cultivars have serious limitations. This scenario provides an opportunity for the utilization of technological advances like RNA interference (RNAi to engineer resistance against these devastating parasites. First demonstrated in the model free living nematode, Caenorhabtidis elegans; the phenomenon of RNAi has been successfully used to suppress essential genes of plant parasitic nematodes involved in parasitism, nematode development and mRNA metabolism. Synthetic neurotransmitants mixed with dsRNA solutions are used for in vitro RNAi in plant parasitic nematodes with significant success. However, host delivered in planta RNAi has proved to be a pioneering phenomenon to deliver dsRNAs to feeding nematodes and silence the target genes to achieve resistance. Highly enriched genomic databases are exploited to limit off target effects and ensure sequence specific silencing. Technological advances like gene stacking and use of nematode inducible and tissue specific promoters can further enhance the utility of RNAi based transgenics against plant parasitic nematodes.

  14. Controlling tulip stem nematodes in tulip bulbs by a hot water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    A hot water treatment (HWT) protocol is needed to control tulip stem nematode (TSN) in tulip bulbs. A HWT above approximately 45°C in tulips is assumed to be harmful to the bulbs. Experience with HWT to destroy stem nematodes in daffodils shows that the required temperature for this is 4 hours at

  15. The Activation and Suppression of Plant Innate Immunity by Parasitic Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their host plants, often involving complex alterations in host cell morphology and function. It is puzzling how nematodes can achieve this, seemingly without activating the innate immune system of their hosts. Secretions

  16. Heterodera schachtii Tyrosinase-like protein a novel nematode effector modulating plant hormone homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habash, S.; Radakovic, Z.S.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Siddique, S.; Dobrev, Petre; Gleason, C.; Grundler, F.M.W.; Elashry, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL 31 (2017), č. článku 6874. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis-thaliana * cyst-nematode * parasitic nematode * transient expression * host plants * sequence * identification * infection * model * transformation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  17. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii modulates the expression of WRKY transcription factors in syncytia to favour its development in Arabidopsis roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amjad Ali

    Full Text Available Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is the only source of nutrients throughout their life. A recent transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that thousands of genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in syncytia as compared to root segments from uninfected plants. Among the down-regulated genes are many which code for WRKY transcription factors. Arabidopsis contains 66 WRKY genes with 59 represented by the ATH1 GeneChip. Of these, 28 were significantly down-regulated and 6 up-regulated in syncytia as compared to control root segments. We have studied here the down-regulated genes WRKY6, WRKY11, WRKY17 and WRKY33 in detail. We confirmed the down-regulation in syncytia with promoter::GUS lines. Using various overexpression lines and mutants it was shown that the down-regulation of these WRKY genes is important for nematode development, probably through interfering with plant defense reactions. In case of WRKY33, this might involve the production of the phytoalexin camalexin.

  18. The Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii Modulates the Expression of WRKY Transcription Factors in Syncytia to Favour Its Development in Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Kreil, David P.; Bohlmann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is the only source of nutrients throughout their life. A recent transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that thousands of genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in syncytia as compared to root segments from uninfected plants. Among the down-regulated genes are many which code for WRKY transcription factors. Arabidopsis contains 66 WRKY genes with 59 represented by the ATH1 GeneChip. Of these, 28 were significantly down-regulated and 6 up-regulated in syncytia as compared to control root segments. We have studied here the down-regulated genes WRKY6, WRKY11, WRKY17 and WRKY33 in detail. We confirmed the down-regulation in syncytia with promoter::GUS lines. Using various overexpression lines and mutants it was shown that the down-regulation of these WRKY genes is important for nematode development, probably through interfering with plant defense reactions. In case of WRKY33, this might involve the production of the phytoalexin camalexin. PMID:25033038

  19. Characterization of microRNAs from Arabidopsis galls highlights a role for miR159 in the plant response to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Clémence; da Rocha, Martine; Magliano, Marc; Ratpopoulo, Alizée; Revel, Benoît; Marteu, Nathalie; Magnone, Virginie; Lebrigand, Kevin; Cabrera, Javier; Barcala, Marta; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Millar, Anthony; Escobar, Carolina; Abad, Pierre; Favery, Bruno; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie

    2017-11-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKN) are root parasites that induce the genetic reprogramming of vascular cells into giant feeding cells and the development of root galls. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression during development and plant responses to various stresses. Disruption of post-transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis ago1 or ago2 mutants decrease the infection rate of RKN suggesting a role for this mechanism in the plant-nematode interaction. By sequencing small RNAs from uninfected Arabidopsis roots and from galls 7 and 14 d post infection with Meloidogyne incognita, we identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed in gall as putative regulators of gall development. Moreover, strong activity within galls was detected for five miRNA promoters. Analyses of nematode development in an Arabidopsis miR159abc mutant had a lower susceptibility to RKN, suggesting a role for the miR159 family in the plant response to M. incognita. Localization of mature miR159 within the giant and surrounding cells suggested a role in giant cell and gall. Finally, overexpression of miR159 in galls at 14 d post inoculation was associated with the repression of the miR159 target MYB33 which expression is restricted to the early stages of infection. Overall, these results implicate the miR159 in plant responses to RKN. © 2017 INRA. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Molecular contest between potato and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida: modulation of Gpa2-mediated resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koropacka, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Gpa2 recognition specificity
    Among all the multicellular animals, nematodes are the most numerous. In soil, a high variety
    of free living nematodes feeding on bacteria can be found as well as species that parasitize
    insects, animals or plants. The potato cyst nematode (PCN)

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M B; Bevilaqua, C M L; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Barros, R S; Rodrigues, A C M; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Morais, S M; Lima, Y C; Vieira, L S; Navarro, A M C

    2009-01-22

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to in vitro and in vivo tests. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatching (EHT) and larval development tests (LDT) with Haemonchus contortus. The concentrations tested in the EHT were 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg ml(-1), while in the LDT they were 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg ml(-1). The in vivo assay was a controlled test. In this experiment, 18 sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into three groups (n=6), with the following doses administered: G1-400 mg kg(-1) LGCHF ethyl acetate extract, G2-0.2 mg kg(-1) moxidectin (Cydectin) and G3-3% DMSO. The worm burden was analyzed. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests were submitted to ANOVA and analyzed by the Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. The extract efficacy in the EHT and LDT, at the highest concentrations tested, was 100% on egg hatching and 99.77% on larval development. The parameters evaluated in the controlled test were not statistically different, showing that despite the significant results of the in vitro tests, the LGCHF ethyl acetate extract showed no activity against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

  2. Controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle by Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Natália Berne; de Castro, Leonardo Mortagua; de Almeida Capella, Gabriela; Motta, Tairan Ourique; de Souza Stori de Lara, Ana Paula; de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested the in vitro and in vivo larvicidal activity of Bacillus species against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle, and their viability in the presence of anthelmintics. For in vitro tests, cattle feces naturally infected with trichostrongylides were incubated with spore suspensions of Bacillus circulans (Bcir), B. thuringiensis var. osvaldocruzi (Bto), B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) or B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Subsequently, residual larvae were counted and identified. All of the Bacillus species showed 60% or more larvicidal effects. Bcir and Bti were selected to be incubated with anthelmintics (moxidectin, nitroxynil and levamisole), and after 24, 72, and 144h, their viability was evaluated. Bti showed highest drug resistance, maintaining a concentration of 1×10 7 CFU/mL. Based on this result, Bti was selected for in vivo tests on calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The calves were dived into four groups: Group 1, Bti suspension of ∼1×10 9 CFU orally administered; Group 2, Bti suspension of ∼1×10 9 CFU orally administered with levamisole (subcutaneously, 150mg); Group 3, only levamisole (subcutaneously, 150mg), and Group 4 untreated. Then 24 and 48h after treatment, larvae numbers were counted. We observed a reduction of 84%, 100%, and 100% after 48h of treatment, respectively, for Groups 1, 2 and 3 treatments in comparison with the untreated. The tested Bacillus species showed larvicidal activity against bovine trichostrongylides, and its association with anthelmintics. It may serve as a promising integrated alternative for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cadmium toxicity in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popham, J.D.; Webster, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The effect of cadmium on the fecundity, growth, and fine structure of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. High concentrations of cadmium significantly decreased the fecundity and growth of these organisms. Electron microscopy showed that cadmium modifies the structure of the mitochondria in the esophagus and intestine, causes the formation of inclusion bodies in the nucleus of esophageal cells, and alters the morphology of cytosomes in the intestinal cells. The results suggest that the decreased fecundity and growth of cadmium-exposed C. elegans may be due to cadmium interfering with nutrient uptake or assimilation or both.

  4. Evaluation the effect of albendazole against nematodes in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole group (10 mg/kg BW. Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.

  5. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C

    2014-07-30

    The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective

  6. Role of nematodes as bioindicators in marine and freshwater habitats

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Geetanjali; Malhotra, S.K.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    of frequency is less than 6000 Hz. These differences may be con - si dered as an indication of geographical variations and the possibility of the existence of a species complex. 1. Daniels, R. J. R., Cobra , 2001, 46 , in press. 2.../l and acidity, 3.5 ? 8.0 mg/l). On the con trary, in the nematode species infested M. tengra in river Ganges Sali - nity, 6.54 ppt; hardness, 115 ? 130 mg/l; DO, 7.4 ? 8.0 mg/l; phosphates 9 , 0.25 ? 0.65 mg/l; nitrates, < 50.0 mg/l; nitrit es...

  7. Treatment of Nematodes with Ozone Gas: A Sustainable Alternative to Nematicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msayleb, Nahed; Ibrahim, Saiid

    This study tests Ozone as a Nematicides' alternative. Nematode-infected soil samples were treated with ascending doses of O3 by submerging the outlet of an "MB1000 Ozone Generator" in the 40 ml samples; then to test the O3 nematicidal effect by gas fumigation, Ozone gas was released into a sealed bag containing 80 g of each of the 6 nematode-infected soil samples with ascending doses and a repetition of each. With water-ozonation, 900 mg O3 were needed to kill 100% of nematodes, and the O3-Nematodes LD50 was identified by 420 mg. With the second experiment, O3 soil fumigation for 50 minutes at a dose of 1,125 mg in an air volume of 5 litres, were needed to control 95% of living nematodes.

  8. The impact of whale falls on nematode abundance in the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, Nicola J.; Lambshead, P. John D.; Ferrero, Timothy J.; Smith, Craig R.

    2004-05-01

    Abundance of nematode assemblages from the sediment surrounding an experimentally implanted whale carcass in the Santa Cruz Basin were investigated at 1.5 and 18 months after placement. Samples were taken at 0, 1, 3, 9 and 30 m distance away from the carcass. Abundance is positively correlated with distance from the carcass out to at least 30 m. Analyses of nematode abundance at 18 months after implantation showed a non-linear inverse pattern to that of the macrofauna implying that enhanced macrofaunal activity immediately around the carcass was decreasing nematode abundance through predation or competition. The increased nematode abundance at 30 m after 18 months may be a response to organic enrichment from the whale fall occurring where macrofaunal abundance no longer limits nematode densities.

  9. THE PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF BALI CATTLE BREEDERS IN NUSA PENIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Agus Trisna Kusuma Antara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nusa Penida is a pure breeding area of bali cattle, in which the cattle are mainly kept in conventional maintenance system and potentially infected by parasite, especially gastrointestinal nematodes. This study aims were to determine the prevalence and type of gastrointestinal nematodes in bali cattle breeders in Nusa Penida. Fecal samples were taken from 50 bali cattle breeders kept in cages (simantri and another 50 samples were from cattle not kept in cage. The floating method was used for morphological examination and prevalence, the data was analyzed with descriptive analysis. The results showed, the prevalence of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes in Nusa Penida was 25%. The prevalence of nematode infection in bali cattle that kept cages was lower compared to the cattle that were not kept in cage. Strongyloides papillosus and Capillaria bovis were the gastrointestinal nematodes found in the infected cattle.

  10. Benign tumours of the upper gastro-intestinal tract (stomach, duodenum, small bowel): a review of 178 surgical cases. Belgian multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes da Costa, P; Beernaerts, A

    1993-01-01

    The results of retrospective series counting 178 cases of surgically resected stomach, duodenum and small bowel benign tumours are analysed. It is a Belgian retrospective multicentric study that extend over a mean duration of 7 years 9 months. The main symptoms are haemorrhage, dyspepsia, obstruction and invagination. The most frequent tumours are leiomyoma, adenomatous polyps, lipoma and schwannoma. Preoperative investigations are endoscopy and radiology. To finish off the gastro-duodenal tumours examinations, endoscopy is necessary and arteriography can be helpful in small bowel tumours. Operative mortality of this series is 2.2%; local and general postoperative complications are 34.2%. Observed local recurrence in 118 patients with mean follow-up of 27 months is 1.7%. The authors emphasize the surgical resection necessity of these tumours as their malignant potentiality is not inconsiderable. Considering local recurrence, malign change and afar dissemination, a long-term follow-up is recommended.

  11. Synthesis of quinoline attached-furan-2(3H-ones having anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties with reduced gastro-intestinal toxicity and lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter Mymoona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 3-[2-chloroquinolin-3-ylmethylene]-5-aryl-furan-2(3H-ones {3(a-p} were synthesized. The required 3-(substitutedbenzoyl propionic acids {2(a-d} were prepared under Friedal Craft acylation reaction conditions. The substituted 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehydes {1(a-d} were synthesized by reaction of substitutedphenylethanone-oxime with phosphorus oxychloride in presence of dimethyl formamide using the Vilsmeir Haack reaction method. These compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities along with their ulcerogenic and lipid peroxidation potentials. The compounds that showed significant anti-inflammatory activity were further screened for their analgesic activity. The compounds were less toxic in terms of ulcerogenicity as compared to a standard, which was also supported by lipid peroxidation studies. The antibacterial activities were performed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compounds 3f, 3n and 3o showed significant activity against both S. aureus and E. coli having an MIC value of 6.25μg mL-1.

  12. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

    2014-10-15

    Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidation and nitrosation of meat proteins under gastro-intestinal conditions: Consequences in terms of nutritional and health values of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Pomélie, Diane; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Sayd, Thierry; Gatellier, Philippe

    2018-03-15

    The chemical changes (oxidation/nitrosation) of meat proteins during digestion lead to a decrease in their nutritional value. Moreover, oxidized and nitrosated amino acids are suspected to promote various human pathologies. To investigate the mechanisms and the kinetics of these endogenous protein modifications, we used a dynamic artificial digestive system (DIDGI®) that mimics the physicochemical conditions of digestion. The combined effect of meat cooking and endogenous addition of ascorbate and nitrite was evaluated on protein oxidation (by measuring carbonyl groups), protein nitrosation (by measuring nitrosamines), and proteolysis. Considerable carbonylation was observed in the digestive tract, especially under the acidic conditions of the stomach. Nitrosamines, caused by ammonia oxidation, were formed in conditions in which no nitrite was added, although the addition of nitrite in the model significantly increased their levels. Meat cooking and nitrite addition significantly decreased protein digestion. The interactions between all the changes affecting the proteins are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Cotton; Christina B. Amat; Andre G. Buret

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested tha...

  15. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A; Amat, Christina B; Buret, Andre G

    2015-11-10

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host's immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed.

  16. Gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary morbidity after 3D conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer: observations of a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, Peter C.; Jansen, Peter; Putten, Wim van; Os, Marjolein van; Wijnmaalen, Arend J.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: The late morbidity of a randomized study was analyzed after a follow up of 2 years. The difference in intestinal morbidity was analyzed as a function of the treatment arm and dose volume parameters. The correlation with acute toxicity and (pre-existing) bowel complaints was investigated. Patients and methods: 266 T1-4N0M0 prostate cancer patients were randomized for conventional (open fields) and 3D conformal radiotherapy using beams eye view blocked fields with the same dose (66 Gy) and gross target volume-planning target volume margin (15 mm). Apart from the RTOG toxicity scoring system a patient self-assessment questionnaire was used to obtain detailed information on morbidity. Results: At 2 years there is only a trend for less rectal toxicity (grade≥1) in favor of the conformal radiotherapy (grade 1, 47 versus 40% and grade 2, 10 versus 7% for conventional and conformal radiotherapy, respectively (P=0.1). A significant relation was found between late rectal toxicity (grade≥1) and the volume of the anus and rectum exposed to≥90% tumor dose (TD). A highly significant relationship is observed between acute rectum and anal toxicity and late rectal toxicity. The patient self-assessment questionnaire analysis revealed that patients are most bothered by compliance related symptoms like urgency, soiling and fecal loss. In a multivariate analysis, all other variables loose significance, when anal volume exposed to≥90% TD and pre-treatment defaecation frequency are accounted for. Late anal toxicity is low and related only to acute anal toxicity. Late bladder toxicity is related solely to pre-treatment frequency and overall urological symptoms. The incidence of grade 2 toxicity increases with a factor 2.5-4 when (stool or urine) frequency is unfavorable at the start of treatment. Conclusions: Conformal radiotherapy at the dose level of 66 Gy does not significantly decrease the incidence of rectal, anal and bladder toxicity compared to conventional radiotherapy. There is a significant relationship between acute and late toxicity and the anal volume exposed to 90% TD. Intestinal (and urological) symptoms at start have a major impact on late toxicity

  17. Associations between extreme precipitation and acute gastro-intestinal illness due to cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in an urban Canadian drinking water system (1997-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Takaro, Tim K; Balshaw, Robert; Otterstatter, Michael; Mak, Sunny; Lem, Marcus; Zubel, Marc; Lysyshyn, Mark; Clarkson, Len; Edwards, Joanne; Fleury, Manon D; Henderson, Sarah B; Galanis, Eleni

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water related infections are expected to increase in the future due to climate change. Understanding the current links between these infections and environmental factors is vital to understand and reduce the future burden of illness. We investigated the relationship between weekly reported cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (n = 7,422), extreme precipitation (>90th percentile), drinking water turbidity, and preceding dry periods in a drinking water system located in greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1997-2009) using distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models adjusted for seasonality, secular trend, and the effect of holidays on reporting. We found a significant increase in cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis 4-6 weeks after extreme precipitation. The effect was greater following a dry period. Similarly, extreme precipitation led to significantly increased turbidity only after prolonged dry periods. Our results suggest that the risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis increases with extreme precipitation, and that the effects are more pronounced after a prolonged dry period. Given that extreme precipitation events are expected to increase with climate change, it is important to further understand the risks from these events, develop planning tools, and build resilience to these future risks.

  18. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  19. Nematode infection in liver of the fish Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from the Pantanal Region in Brazil: pathobiology and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram; Fernandes, Carlos E; Galindo, Gizela M; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Manera, Maurizio; DePasquale, Joseph A; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Bertin, Sara; Giari, Luisa

    2016-08-30

    A survey on endoparasitic helminths from freshwater fishes in the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil) revealed the occurrence of third-larval stage of the nematode Brevimulticaecum sp. (Heterocheilidae) in most organs of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (Gymnotidae) also known by the local name tuvira. The aim of the present study was to examine Brevimulticaecum sp.-infected tuvira liver at the ultrastructural level and clarify the nature of granulomas and the cellular elements involved in the immune response to nematode larvae. Thirty-eight adult specimens of tuvira from Porto Morrinho, were acquired in January and March 2016. Infected and uninfected liver tissues were fixed and prepared for histological and ultrastructure investigations. The prevalence of infection of tuvira liver by the nematode larvae was 95 %, with an intensity of infection ranging from 4 to 343 larvae (mean ± SD: 55.31 ± 73.94 larvae per liver). In livers with high numbers of nematode larvae, almost entire hepatic tissue was occupied by the parasites. Hepatocytes showed slight to mild degenerative changes and accumulation of pigments. Parasite larvae were surrounded by round to oval granulomas, the result of focal host tissue response to the infection. Each granuloma was typically formed by three concentric layers: an outer layer of fibrous connective tissue with thin elongated fibroblasts; a middle layer of mast cells entrapped in a thin fibroblast-connective mesh; and an inner layer of densely packed epithelioid cells, displaying numerous desmosomes between each other. Numerous macrophage aggregates occurred in the granulomas and in the parenchyma. Our results in tuvira showed that the larvae were efficiently sequestered within the granulomas, most of the inflammatory components were confined within the thickness of the granuloma, and the parenchyma was relatively free of immune cells and without fibrosis. Presumably this focal encapsulation of the parasites permits uninfected

  20. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said K. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Said K., Ibrahim Azar, Christian Naser, Badran Akikki and Ludmilla Ibrahim. 2016. Plant-parasitic nematodes on stone fruits and citrus in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(1: 9-24. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes. The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%. All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%, followed by citrus (97.6%, apple (88.7%, pear and quince (85.7%, and cherry (81.4%. The lowest infection (66.6% was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1 and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide was the most effective (88.48% in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52% followed by Tageta patula (72.0%, Cucurbita maxima (71.84% and Inula viscosa (63.96%. Origanum syriacum (55.04% and Thymus (53.72% were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials.