WorldWideScience

Sample records for stage fuhrman nuclear

  1. [Reproducibility of Fuhrman nuclear grade: advantages of a two-grade system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneux, Hervé; Lindner, Véronique; Lang, Hervé; Massfelder, Thierry; Meyer, Nicolas; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2006-06-01

    The Fuhrman nuclear grade is the reference histoprognostic grading system routinely used all over the world for renal cell carcinoma. Studies measuring the inter-observer and intra-observer concordance of Fuhrman grade show poor results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. These variations are due to a certain degree of subjectivity of the pathologist in application of the definition of tumour grade, particularly nuclear grade. Elements able to account for this subjectivity in renal cell carcinoma are identified from a review of the literature. To improve the reliability of nuclear grade, the territory occupied by the highest grade must be specified and the grades should probably be combined. At the present time, regrouping of grade 1 and 2 tumours as low grade and grade 3 and 4 tumours as high grade would achieve better reproducibility, while preserving the prognostic: value for overall survival. The development of new treatment modalities and their use in adjuvant situations will imply the use of reliable histoprognostic factors to specify, indications.

  2. The Fuhrman grading system has no prognostic value in patients with nonsarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Sandra; Janssen, Martin; Roos, Frederik C; Becker, Frank; Steinestel, Julie; Abbas, Mahmoud; Steinestel, Konrad; Wegener, Gerd; Siemer, Stefan; Thüroff, Joachim W; Hofmann, Rainer; Stöckle, Michael; Schrader, Mark; Hartmann, Arndt; Hasenfus, Andrea; Kuczyk, Markus A; Junker, Kerstin; Schrader, Andres J

    2014-12-01

    The prognostic value of the Fuhrman nuclear grading system has been questioned for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) because this subtype frequently displays nuclear and nucleolar pleomorphism. The present study reevaluates this grading system in a series of patients with nonsarcomatoid chRCC. We identified 176 patients (3.6%) with nonsarcomatoid chRCC in a total of 4897 patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma at 5 centers in Germany between 1990 and 2010. The mean follow-up was 51.1 months. The 3 groups (G1 versus G2 versus G3/4) were comparable in terms of age, sex, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis. They only differed significantly in tumor stage (P = .01) and the incidence of synchronous visceral metastasis (P = .04). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 84.4% for G1 (n = 32), 84.3% for G2 (n = 108), and 74.1% for G3/4 tumors (n = 33) (P = .58). Accordingly, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor stage, and metastatic disease did not identify Fuhrman grading as an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with chRCC (P = .4). We were able to demonstrate in a large multicenter cohort that the Fuhrman grading system does not qualify as a prognostic tool in patients with chRCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  4. Computer approach to recognition of Fuhrman grade of cells in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Michal; Osowski, Stanislaw; Markiewicz, Tomasz; Slodkowska, Janina; Koktysz, Robert; Kozlowski, Wojciech; Swiderski, Bartosz

    2014-06-01

    To present a computerized system for recognition of Fuhrman grade of cells in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma on the basis of microscopic images of the neoplasm cells in application of hematoxylin and eosin staining. The applied methods use combined gradient and mathematical morphology to obtain nuclei and classifiers in the form of support vector machine to estimate their Fuhrman grade. The starting point is a microscopic kidney image, which is subject to the advanced methods of preprocessing, leading finally to estimation of Fuhrman grade of cells and the whole analyzed image. The results of the numerical experiments have shown that the proposed nuclei descriptors based on different principles of generation are well connected with the Fuhrman grade. These descriptors have been used as the diagnostic features forming the inputs to the classifier, which performs the final recognition of the cells. The average discrepancy rate between the score of our system and the human expert results, estimated on the basis of over 3,000 nuclei, is below 10%. The obtained results have shown that the system is able to recognize 4 Fuhrman grades of the cells with high statistical accuracy and agreement with different expert scores. This result gives a good perspective to apply the system for supporting and accelerating the research of kidney cancer.

  5. Two-stage nuclear refrigeration with enhanced nuclear moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunik, R.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described in which an enhanced nuclear system is used as a precoolant for a nuclear demagnetisation stage. The results show the promising advantages of such a system in those circumstances for which a large cooling power is required at extremely low temperatures. A theoretical review of nuclear enhancement at the microscopic level and its macroscopic thermodynamical consequences is given. The experimental equipment for the implementation of the nuclear enhanced refrigeration method is described and the experiments on two-stage nuclear demagnetisation are discussed. With the nuclear enhanced system PrCu 6 the author could precool a nuclear stage of indium in a magnetic field of 6 T down to temperatures below 10 mK; this resulted in temperature below 1 mK after demagnetisation of the indium. It is demonstrated that the interaction energy between the nuclear moments in an enhanced nuclear system can exceed the nuclear dipolar interaction. Several experiments are described on pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance, as utilised for thermometry purposes. It is shown that platinum NMR-thermometry gives very satisfactory results around 1 mK. The results of experiments on nuclear orientation of radioactive nuclei, e.g. the brute force polarisation of 95 NbPt and 60 CoCu, are presented, some of which are of major importance for the thermometry in the milli-Kelvin region. (Auth.)

  6. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Affordable Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Glen E.; Gerrish, H. P.; Kenny, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear power for space use in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems will involve significant expenditures of funds and require major technology development efforts. The development effort must be economically viable yet sufficient to validate the systems designed. Efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage Project (NCPS) to study what a viable program would entail. The study will produce an integrated schedule, cost estimate and technology development plan. This will include the evaluation of various options for test facilities, types of testing and use of the engine, components, and technology developed. A "Human Rating" approach will also be developed and factored into the schedule, budget and technology development approach.

  7. Small Renal Masses in Close Proximity to the Collecting System and Renal Sinus Are Enriched for Malignancy and High Fuhrman Grade and Should Be Considered for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Andres F; Toussi, Amir; Amin, Milon; Hrebinko, Ronald L; Gayed, Bishoy A; Parwani, Anil V; Maranchie, Jodi K

    2018-02-05

    Recent reports show a correlation between renal tumor radiographic characteristics and pathologic features. We hypothesize that a more central location within the relatively hypoxic renal medulla might confer a more aggressive tumor phenotype. To test this, radiographic tumor characteristics were compared with tumor grade and histology. We retrospectively reviewed renal masses anatomic features with incidence of malignancy and high nuclear grade. A total of 334 renal tumors had information available for analysis. Univariate analysis showed that increasing endophycity and proximity to the collecting system (anatomical variable predictive of malignancy (odds ratio [OR], 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-12.05; P = .04) and high nuclear grade (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.44-5.51; P = .003). Malignancy and high tumor grade occur with much greater frequency when tumors are located deep in the kidney, in close proximity to the collecting system and renal sinus. Ninety-six percent of small renal masses in this region were cancers and nearly half were Fuhrman Grade 3 or 4, suggesting that these small centrally located tumors should be targeted for early intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementing national nuclear safety plan at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yabin; Cui Shaozhang; Pan Fengguo; Zhang Lizhen; Shi Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the importance of nuclear power project design and engineering methods at the preliminary stage of its development on nuclear power plant's operational safety from the professional view. Specifically, we share our understanding of national nuclear safety plan's requirement on new reactor accident probability, technology, site selection, as well as building and improving nuclear safety culture and strengthening public participation, with a focus on plan's implications on preliminary stage of nuclear power project development. Last, we introduce China Huaneng Group's work on nuclear power project preliminary development and the experience accumulated during the process. By analyzing the siting philosophy of nuclear power plant and the necessity of building nuclear safety culture at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development, this study explicates how to fully implement the nuclear safety plan's requirements at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development. (authors)

  9. Critical path analysis in early stage of nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ahai

    2009-01-01

    The technical program and contract model as well as project management system and preliminary design defined in the early stage of nuclear power project are the key condition impact on the quality, schedule and cost of the nuclear power project. This paper, taking the CPR1000 coastal nuclear power station as an example, analyzes the critical path in the early stage of nuclear power project for five fields, i.e. licensing, design and procurement, site preparation, tender of construction contracts and construction preparation, and organization. (authors)

  10. A new stage of nuclear electronics-particle electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of high energy physics experiments has pushed the nuclear electronics to a new stage, i.e. the particle electronics. In this paper the background, main features and recent trends of the particle electronics are expounded

  11. GROUND TRANSPORTATION OF NUCLEAR PROPULSION STAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjon, P. L.

    1963-08-15

    The results of studies on transportation problems associated with the development and testing of nuclear rocket powered space vehicles at the static test size are presented. Factors involved in selecting a transport mode are discussed. Radiation shutdown considerations and a conceptual transporter capable of handling test articles of foreseeable size are examined. (D.C.W.)

  12. A rapidly negotiable first-stage nuclear freeze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the objective of a nuclear freeze which is to slow down or stop the so-far inexorable development and deployment of more and more (read destructive and deadly) nuclear warheads. The essential notion is not new. The proposed treaty for a comprehensive ban on nuclear tests that was very nearly negotiated in 1959 was perhaps the first serious effort to obtain a nuclear freeze, albeit a partial one. Growing concern about the nuclear arms race has led to greatly increased interest in much broader and more effective freezes. A comprehensive nuclear freeze, one that would stop all stages in the manufacture, testing, and deployment of nuclear warheads, would clearly be very desirable and have a great impact. It would not, however, deal with the other worrisome aspects of nuclear weapons, which is the very large number of such weapons that already exist

  13. Development costs for a nuclear electric propulsion stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Prickett, W. Z.

    1973-01-01

    Development costs are presented for an unmanned nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stage based upon a liquid metal cooled, in-core thermionic reactor. A total of 120 kWe are delivered to the thrust subsystem which employs mercury ion engines for electric propulsion. This study represents the most recent cost evaluation of the development of a reactor power system for a wide range of nuclear space power applications. These include geocentric, and outer planet and other deep space missions. The development program is described for the total NEP stage, based upon specific development programs for key NEP stage components and subsystems.

  14. Dynamics of process at the final stage of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koljari, I.G.; Mavlitov, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous experimental data show, that the final stage of nuclear fission near to a scission point plays an essential role at formation of characteristics of fission products. At the description of a final stage of fission there is a number of problems: Definition of the form of the nuclear near the scission point and definition forms of a fission fragments; The account of dynamic processes in compound nuclear directly before of fission. The condition of the quasistatic al adiabatic process - dS/dt=0 - is applied in a point of transition from the uniform compound nuclei to several forms for definition of generalized coordinates and speeds. Calculation of dependence of post neutrons from nuclear mass of fission fragments for reactions is α+ 83 Bi 209 → 85 At 213 (E lab = 45 MeV); α+ 92 U 242 → 94 Pu 242 (E lab = 45 MeV); 8 O 18 + 79 Au 197 → 97 Fr 215 (E lab = 159 MeV). System of equations, which describes behaviour of system in a point of nuclear fission-transition from the uniform form to system of a two (and, probably more) fission fragments is given. The system of the equations allows in a fission point to define the generalized coordinates, and the generalized speeds for each of the generalized coordinates of collective deformation variables

  15. Nuclear reactors and technology in the next stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.

    2000-01-01

    Author deals with the perspectives of development of nuclear power. It is possible to create in a fairly short time reactors and fuel technology that would meet the main requirements for large-scale power production, i.e.: (a) to afford a 100-fold reduction in the specific consumption of uranium, by utilizing thousands of tonnes of Pu accumulated in the spent fuel from the reactors of the fl t stage; .to rule out nuclear disasters, by taking advantage of the intrinsic properties and behavior of reactor, coolant, fuel, etc., with the plants made simpler and cheaper; (b) to hit a balance between the radiotoxicity of waste and that of feed uranium, by providing neutron transmutation; (c) to create power reactors and fuel cycle technology that would not afford extraction of weapon-grade materials. To fulfil all these requirements, it is necessary to provide substantial neutron excess in a chain reaction for Pu breeding, to use fuel with an equilibrium composition, to bum actinides and LLFPs. All this can be done only in fast reactors. Fast reactors can also provide fuel for thermal reactors that might still be used for some applications, operating in a Th/U cycle, which is the best option for such facilities. Novel engineering solutions will be necessary: high-density heat-conductive fuel (UPuN), chemically inert high-boiling coolant (Pb), dry reprocessing. These issues have been studied well enough to allow embarking on the development of advanced fast reactors. Minatom institutions are finalizing a detailed design of a demonstration BREST-300 plant, complete with an on-site fuel cycle that will meet the requirements of large-scale nuclear power. Hopefully, construction of this plant at Beloyarsk site with its subsequent trial operation would open a door to the next stage in nuclear power development. (author)

  16. Siting and early-stage project management of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Li Guojin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, difficulties and challenges facing in siting of nuclear power plant after Fukushima nuclear accident is introduced. The key points for siting are analyzed. The site characteristics related to nuclear safety and the evaluated methods are discussed. From project management perspective, main procedures and key points for the early-stage of a nuclear power project are described. (authors)

  17. Engineering management at feasibility study stage of nuclear power plant under EPC mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    After the investment reform by the State Council in 2004, NDRC carries out approval system for enterprises to invest in nuclear power plants. Feasibility study stage is a critical stage on the mainline of nuclear power project approval, which intersects with the license application, and engineering design. The owners of nuclear power plants are required stringently in engineering management. From the owners' management point of view under EPC mode, this paper sorts the preliminary project process for nuclear power plants, focusing on the management in the feasibility study stage. License application and engineering design management in the feasibility study stage are also discussed. (author)

  18. Peculiarities of physical protection assurance of the nuclear materials at nuclear installation decommissioning stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    On December 15, 2000 Unit 3 of Chernobyl NPP, which is the last one in Ukraine having RBMK-type reactor, was permanently shutdown before the end of its lifetime. A number of projects related to establishing infrastructure for the plant decommissioning are being implemented in compliance with the Ukraine's commitments. Decommissioning stage includes activities on fuel unloading from the cores of Unit I and Unit 3, fuel cooling in the ponds followed by the fuel transportation to the spent fuel dry storage facility (currently under construction) for its safe long-term storage. Special facilities are being created for liquid and solid radioactive waste treatment. Besides, it is planned to implement a number of projects to convert Shelter Object in environmentally safe structure. Physical protection work being an essential part of the nuclear material management is organized in line with the recommendations of the IAEA, and the Laws of Ukraine 'On Nuclear Energy Utilization and Radiation Safety', 'On Physical Protection of Nuclear Installations and Materials', 'Regulations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations', other codes and standards. While organizing physical protection on ChNPP decommissioning stage we have to deal with some specific features, namely: Significant amount of fuel assemblies, which are continuously transferred between various storage and operation facilities; Big amount of odd nuclear material at Shelter Object; 'Theft of new fuel fragments from the central hall of the Shelter Object in 1995 with the intention of their further sale. The thieves were detained and sentenced. The stolen material was withdrawn, that prevented its possible proliferation and illicit trafficking. At present physical protection of ChNPP does not fully satisfy the needs of the decommissioning stage and Ukraine's commitments on non-admission of illicit trafficking. Work is carried out, aimed to improve nuclear material physical protection, whose main

  19. Evaluation of renal cell carcinoma histological subtype and fuhrman grade using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Reiko; Nozaki, Sayumi; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Tsunenori [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan); Nagashima, Yoji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Surgical Pathology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    We evaluated {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) to determine whether different histological subtypes and Fuhrman grades can be distinguished. We retrospectively reviewed the records and maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of 147 patients with 154 RCCs who underwent FDG-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) prior to tumour resection. The SUVmax was significantly lower in chromophobe RCC (chRCC) tumours than in clear cell RCC (ccRCC; p = 0.003) and papillary RCC (pRCC; p = 0.034) tumours. The mean tumour SUVmax was 4.58 ± 4.1 (range, 1.29-30.4) for ccRCC, 3.98 ± 1.9 (range, 0.49-6.72) for pRCC, and 1.93 ± 0.9 (range, 0.89-3.41) for chRCC. The SUVmax was not significantly different between the ccRCC and pRCC groups. In ccRCC and pRCC tumours, high-grade tumours had a significantly greater SUVmax (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05) than low-grade tumours by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Mann-Whitney U test. In ccRCC, multivariate regression analysis indicated that the SUVmax was a significant indicator of Fuhrman grade. No significant differences in uptake were observed between high- and low-grade chRCC tumours. The SUVmax obtained using FDG-PET/CT may be an important indicator for predicting tumour grade in ccRCC and pRCC. (orig.)

  20. Maintenance management of nuclear power reactors at the stage of research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Shigeru; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Kubo, Shigenobu; Hayashida, Kiichi; Tagawa, Akihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    A maintenance management required to nuclear power reactors at the R and D stage was discussed in this report. It is the most important to ensure safety of nuclear power plants by taking account of characteristics of nuclear power reactors at the R and D stage. In addition, it is needed to establish a system of maintenance management technologies suitable for reactor types. In this report, objectives of maintenance management of nuclear power reactors at the R and D stage were clarified. Next, requirements and consideration for maintenance management of nuclear power reactors at the R and D stage were discussed according to the objectives. 'Code for Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants' and 'Guide for Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants' published by the Japan Electric Association were refereed in the discussion. Then, a draft of codes for maintenance management of nuclear power plants at the R and D stage was newly proposed. Finally, an example that the draft codes were applied to components containing sodium, typical components of sodium-cooled fast reactor, was presented. (author)

  1. The problems of plant control on modern stage of development of the nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev S. S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the successful development of nuclear industry at the present stage of its development, the problems of control of nuclear power plants, their classes and the choices of modern science in the field of design of fast neutron reactors as one of the promising directions of development of atomic energy.

  2. Staged Introduction of Non-power and Power Nuclear Technologies to Newcomer Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Staged introduction of non-power and power nuclear technologies to new comer countries and related knowledge management are presented. Contribution and benefit of radiation technology to medicine and society are very important before nuclear power plants are introduced. Recently, not only new nuclear power technologies but also compact and high performance accelerators for medicine and industrial/social infrastructure maintenance have been developed and used. Such staged introduction with respect to technology, education and economy contributes to enhancement of PA (Public Acceptance). Organized education, knowledge management and network should be associated. (author

  3. CT prediction of the Fuhrman grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC): towards the development of computer-assisted diagnostic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhdanpaa, Hannu; Hwang, Darryl; Cen, Steven; Quinn, Brian; Nayyar, Megha; Zhang, Xuejun; Chen, Frank; Desai, Bhushan; Liang, Gangning; Gill, Inderbir; Duddalwar, Vinay

    2015-10-01

    There are distinct quantifiable features characterizing renal cell carcinomas on contrast-enhanced CT examinations, such as peak tumor enhancement, tumor heterogeneity, and percent contrast washout. While qualitative visual impressions often suffice for diagnosis, quantitative metrics if developed and validated can add to the information available from standard of care diagnostic imaging. The purpose of this study is to assess the use of quantitative enhancement metrics in predicting the Fuhrman grade of clear cell RCC. 65 multiphase CT examinations with clear cell RCCs were utilized, 44 tumors with Fuhrman grades 1 or 2 and 21 tumors with grades 3 or 4. After tumor segmentation, the following data were extracted: histogram analysis of voxel-based whole lesion attenuation in each phase, enhancement and washout using mean, median, skewness, kurtosis, standard deviation, and interquartile range. Statistically significant difference was observed in 4 measured parameters between grades 1-2 and grades 3-4: interquartile range of nephrographic attenuation values, standard deviation of absolute enhancement, as well as interquartile range and standard deviation of residual nephrographic enhancement. Interquartile range of nephrographic attenuation values was 292.86 HU for grades 1-2 and 241.19 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.02). Standard deviation of absolute enhancement was 41.26 HU for grades 1-2 and 34.66 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.03). Interquartile range was 297.12 HU for residual nephrographic enhancement for grades 1-2 and 235.57 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.02), and standard deviation of the same was 42.45 HU for grades 1-2 and 37.11 for grades 3-4 (p value 0.04). Our results indicate that absolute enhancement is more heterogeneous for lower grade tumors and that attenuation and residual enhancement in nephrographic phase is more heterogeneous for lower grade tumors. This represents an important step in devising a predictive non-invasive model to predict the

  4. Derived intervention levels in early stage of nuclear accident development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladar, M; Fojtik, M [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia); Stubna, M [Research Inst. of Nuclear Power Plants, Bohunuce (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the measures for protection of health and property of public in the case of nuclear accident are discussed. They are based on optimal application of so called intervention levels. The actual flow of decision depends on: (1) prognosis of mathematical modelling of possible course of nuclear accident, and (2) results of monitoring of radiation situation.The aim of this contribution was to analyze their mutual cooperation and to suggest such procedure of monitoring or radiation situation which could be used for suggestion of protective measures. In this contribution the zones of protection planning in the accident place surrounding for the urgent measures were specified : (1) regulation of free movement of persons; (2) sheltering; (3) iodine prophylaxis; (4) temporary evacuation; (5) long term or permanent emigration. At the specification of zones of planned protection it is also coming out that regulation of movement of persons, sheltering and iodine prophylaxis were ordered in advance based on the evaluation of the crashed establishment state. In such situation the decision on protective measures in the time interval 6 to 12 hours after the beginning of accidental release is forwarding to: withdrawing the accepted orders on measures and transition from sheltering to temporary evacuation. The criterion for temporary evacuation is: (1) probability of exceeding the effective dose 100 mSv for children up to 10 years of age and pregnant women and 500 mSv for other population within 48 hours after beginning of accidental release; (2) probability of averting the effective dose 50 mSv up to 7 days, 100 mSv up to 15 days and 150 mSv up to 30 days for all population groups. In next part the intervention level, interpretation of values of kerma dose rate in air and determination of the size of planned protection zones are discussed. (J.K.) 3 tabs.

  5. Environmental impact of a nuclear industry at an early stage of development: peculiar aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Baptista, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impact of a nuclear industry at an early stage of development is examined vis-a-vis the experience accumulated in studies on the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle in a developed country. Differences in the optics of the nuclear industry in a developed country and that of segments of the public opinion are briefly discussed. Some peculiar aspects of a nuclear industry being implanted in a developing nation, including adoption of new legislation and regulations, are presented, taking into account the unusual opportunity to attack potential problems in advance. The unique example of the pre-operational survey of a region surrounding a uranium mine in a developing nation is mentioned as an example of cooperation between the nuclear industry and the scientific community to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining operations. The potential environmental impact of other stages of the nuclear fuel cycle is also examined. Further cooperation between the nuclear industry and the scientific community of Latin American countries is suggested to minimize the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle in nations starting nuclear programs. (author)

  6. Treatment of effluents from the nuclear fuel cycle reconversion stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, Ana C.Q.; Morais, Carlos A.; Goncalves, Joao S.; Souza, Pedro de

    2007-01-01

    The conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) takes place in Resende (RJ) at the Nuclear Fuel Factory - FCN. The process generates liquid effluents with significant concentrations of uranium which might be treated before being discharged into the environment. This work is aimed at the recovery of uranium from two distinct liquid effluents; one with high carbonate content and the other with elevated fluoride concentration. It is also presented a study about carbonate removal from an effluent that consists of water - methanol solution generated during the filtration step of the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUT). The results showed that (1) the uranium from the carbonated solution can be recovered through the ion exchange technique using the strong base anionic resin IRA 910-U since carbonate has been removed as CO 2 after heating; (2) the most suitable technique to recover uranium from the fluoride solution is by precipitation as (NH 4 ) 2 UO 4 F 2 - ammonium fluorouranate peroxide (APOFU), (3) the solution free of carbonate can be added to the fluoride solution and the uranium from the final solution can be recovered by precipitation as ammonium fluorouranate peroxide as well; (4) the carbonate from the water-methanol solution can be recovered as calcium carbonate through the addition of calcium chloride or it can be removed through the addition of sulfuric acid. The product formed by adding sulfuric acid is ammonium sulfate and might be used as fertilizer. (author)

  7. Time stamp technique using a nuclear emulsion multi-stage shifter for gamma-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki; Rokujo, Hiroki; Hamada, Kaname; Komatsu, Masahiro; Morishima, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Niwa, Kimio; Sato, Osamu; Yoshioka, Teppei; Kodama, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion has a potential use as a gamma-ray telescope with high angular resolution. For this application it is necessary to know the time when each track was recorded in the emulsion. In previous experiments using nuclear emulsion, various efforts were used to associate time to nuclear emulsion tracks and to improve the time resolution. Using a high speed readout system for nuclear emulsion together with a clock-based multi-stage emulsion shifter, we invented a technique to give a time-stamp to emulsion tracks and greatly improve the time resolution. A test experiment with a 2-stage shifter was used to demonstrate the principle of multi-stage shifting, and we achieved a time resolution 1.5 s for 12.1 h (about 1 part in 29 000) with the time stamp reliability 97% and the time stamp efficiency 98%. This multi-stage shifter can achieve the time resolution required for a gamma-ray telescope and can also be applied to another cosmic ray observations and accelerator experiments using nuclear emulsion.

  8. Final stage of high energy hadron-nucleus nuclear collision reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugal'ski, Z.; Jedrzejec, H.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Mulas, E.

    1996-01-01

    The final or 'slow' stage of the hadron-nucleus collision reactions at high energy is considered on the basis of the collision mechanism prompted experimentally. The transmutation process of the damaged target nucleus into nucleons and stable nuclear fragments is discussed. Relations between intensities or multiplicities n p of the emitted fast protons and the mean intensities or multiplicities b > of the evaporated nucleons and nuclear fragments are presented. 14 refs

  9. The experience gained at various stages of the Atucha nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the experience gained in Argentina at the successive stages of planning, feasibility study, decision-making, awarding of contracts, construction and operation of the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. In particular, the operating experience accumulated so far is summarized together with the requirements for preparing operating tables for the plant. The role of the Atucha plant is also described in connection with the second plant under construction and the third in the planning stage [es

  10. Comparative analysis among X-ray mammographic findings, nuclear and histologic grading, and TNM staging of breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Sook; Sung, Ki Joon; Cho, Mee Yon; Hong, In Soo; Kim, Myung Soon; Oh, Ki Keun

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of breast carcinoma by comparison with X-ray mammographic findings, nuclear and histologic grade, and TNM staging. We retrospectively reviewed 114 cases (113 patients) of breast carcinoma, analysing X-ray mammographic findings of all cases with regard to mass, calcification, and spiculation. In 80 cases of scirrhous invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Black's nuclear and Bloom-Richardson's histologic grade were also evaluated. Mammographic findings and nuclear and histologic grade were compared with TNM staging which might suggest the prognosis of breast carcinoma. X-ray mammographic findings (mass, calcification and spiculation) did not significantly correlate with T staging, but the clinical staging of the spiculation was advanced. These X-ray findings did not significantly correlate with the nuclear grading and the histologic grading. Nuclear grade did not correlate with T and M staging, but correlated significantly with N staging and clinical stage(p < 0.05). Histologic grade did not significantly correlate with TNM staging. The clinical staging of spiculation was advanced and nuclear grade correlated significantly with N stage and clinical staging. X-ray mammographic findings did not directly correlate with nuclear and histologic grading, but combined studies of the evaluation of mammographic findings and nuclear and histologic grade were useful for prognosing breast carcinoma

  11. Realizing vision of Dr. Homi Bhabha - first stage of nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dr. Homi Bhabha had a vision to harness nuclear energy for peaceful uses of mankind. Considering typical nuclear resources in the country, Dr Bhabha conceptualized the three stage nuclear power programme and gave a road map for its implementation. The robustness of the vision is such that the programme has not undergone a change in last five decades. The first stage of the three-stage programme, based on natural uranium fuelled Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) has been precursor to the nuclear power programme in India. This paper describes the developments in the last five decades. The establishment of research laboratories and reactors, training school for the manpower needs, industrial infrastructure and establishment of regulatory framework are briefly described. Setting up of first nuclear power reactor in the country as turnkey project and experience on operation of these reactors in India are discussed. The learning phase consisting of setting up of first PHWR in technical collaboration with Canada and design of 220 MWe PHWRs for MAPS is described. The safety features consistent with development of nuclear power globally were incorporated in Narora design and this became a standardized 220 MWe reactor of which many PHWRs of 220 MWe were set up. The experiences with operation of these small size reactors leading to internationally best operational experience in the year 2002 are discussed. The efforts of plant life extension, in-core maintenance jobs and other renovation and modernization jobs are discussed. The increase in unit size of 540 MWe, of which two reactors have been already set up, is explained in detail. The economies of scale demanded increase in the unit size and design of 700 MWe PHWR has been established and the salient features of this design are also discussed in detail. Eight reactors of 700 MWe each would complete the first stage of about 10,000 MWe PHWR programme and plans for setting up of these reactors are discussed

  12. Birth of rats following nuclear exchange at the 2-cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sangho; Guo, Jitong; Malakooti, Nakisa; Morrison, John R; Trounson, Alan O; Du, Zhong Tao

    2003-11-01

    We report full-term development of nuclear transfer embryos following nuclear exchange at the 2-cell stage. Nuclei from 2-cell rat embryos were transferred into enucleated 2-cell embryos and developed to term after transfer to recipients (NT2). Pronuclear exchange in zygotes was used for comparison (NT1). Zygotes and 2-cell embryos were harvested from 4-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Nuclear transfer was performed by transferring the pronuclei or karyoplasts into the perivitelline space of recipient embryos followed by electrofusion to reconstruct embryos. Fused couplets were cultured for 4 or 24 h before being transferred into day 1 pseudopregnant recipients (Hooded Wistar) at the 1- or 2-cell stage. In vitro culture was also carried out to check the developmental competence of the embryos. In vitro development to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different between the two groups (NT1, 34.3%; NT2, 45.0%). Two of three recipients from NT1 and two of five recipients from NT2 became pregnant. Six pups (3 from NT1, 3 from NT2) were delivered from the four foster mothers. Three female pups survived; 2 from NT1 and 1 from NT2. At 2 months of age these pups appeared healthy, and were mated with Sprague-Dawley males. One rat derived from NT1 delivered 15 pups (5 males, 10 females) as did the rat from NT2 (7 males, 8 females). Our results show that by using karyoplasts from 2-cell stage embryos as nuclear donors and reconstructing them with enucleated 2-cell embryos, healthy rats can be produced.

  13. Uranium Determination in Samples from Decommissioning of Nuclear facilities Related to the First Stage of Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Correa, E.; Navarro, N.; Sancho, C.; Angeles, A.

    2000-01-01

    An adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. In addition, a large amount of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. The determination of those activity concentration levels become more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrices are involved. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out by laboratory techniques. In situ gamma spectrometry was also used to perform measurements on site. A comparison among the different techniques was also done by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. (Author)

  14. Design of Korean nuclear reliability data-base network using a two-stage Bayesian concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.W.; Jeong, K.S.; Chae, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    In an analysis of probabilistic risk, safety, and reliability of a nuclear power plant, the reliability data base (DB) must be established first. As the importance of the reliability data base increases, event reporting systems such as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Licensee Event Report and the International Atomic Energy Agency's Incident Reporting System have been developed. In Korea, however, the systematic reliability data base is not yet available. Therefore, foreign data bases have been directly quoted in reliability analyses of Korean plants. In order to develop a reliability data base for Korean plants, the problem is which methodology is to be used, and the application limits of the selected method must be solved and clarified. After starting the commercial operation of Korea Nuclear Unit-1 (KNU-1) in 1978, six nuclear power plants have begun operation. Of these, only KNU-3 is a Canada Deuterium Uranium pressurized heavy-water reactor, and the others are all pressurized water reactors. This paper describes the proposed reliability data-base network (KNRDS) for Korean nuclear power plants in the context of two-stage Bayesian (TSB) procedure of Kaplan. It describes the concept of TSB to obtain the Korean-specific plant reliability data base, which is updated with the incorporation of both the reported generic reliability data and the operation experiences of similar plants

  15. Cost calculations at early stages of nuclear research facilities in the nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, Klaus; Salmenhaara, Seppo; Backe, Steinar; Cato, Anna; Lindskog, Staffan; Callander, Clas; Efraimsson, Henrik; Andersson, Inga; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to some extent also Finland, had very large nuclear research and development programs for a few decades starting in the nineteen fifties. Today, only some of the facilities are in use. Some have been decommissioned and dismantled while others are at various stages of planning for shutdown. The perspective ranges from imminent to several decades. It eventually became realized that considerable planning for the future decommissioning is warranted and that an integral part of this planning is financial, including how financial funds should be acquired, used and allocated over time. This necessitates that accurate and reliable cost estimates be obtained at all stages. However, this is associated with fundamental difficulties and treacherous complexities, especially for the early ones. Eventually, Denmark and Norway decided not to build any nuclear power plants while Finland and Sweden did. This is reflected in the financing where the latter countries have established systems with special funds in which money is being collected now to cover the future costs for the decommissioning of the research facilities. Nonetheless, the needs for planning for the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities are very similar. However, they differ considerably from those of nuclear power reactors, especially with regard to cost calculations. It has become apparent in the course of work that summation types of cost estimation methodologies give rise to large systematic errors if applied at early stages, in which case comparison based assessments are less biased and may be more reliable. Therefore, in order to achieve the required quality of the cost calculations, it is necessary that data and experience from authentic cases be utilized in models for cost calculations. It also implies that this calculation process should include a well adopted learning process. Thus, a Nordic co-operation has been established for the exchange and

  16. A novel approach for fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with continuous motion of the microscope stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, A., E-mail: andrey@na.infn.it [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tioukov, V. [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear emulsions have been used in particle physics experiments for many decades because of their unique spatial resolution. The use of nuclear emulsions as precise tracking detectors in large experiments has recently been made possible due to advances in the production of emulsion films and to the development of very fast automatic scanning devices. The present scanning speed of the European Scanning System (ESS), which has been developed within the OPERA Collaboration, is about 20 cm{sup 2}/h. In addition to the scanning of OPERA films, the ESS is used for other applications with ever-growing demands for scanning speed, such as the muon radiography of volcanoes. In order to further increase the scanning speed of the ESS, we are testing a novel approach different from the standard stop-and-go motion of the microscope stage in the horizontal plane. Indeed we perform data acquisition with the stage moving at constant speed, using an objective lens with wide field of view. Unlike the implementation realized in Japan where the movement of objective lens and stage are synchronized to pile up images of the same view in a vertical stack, in this approach only the stage is moving horizontally. Thus images at different depths are not fully overlapped and special care is needed in the reconstruction. This approach can give a substantial increase in the scanning speed, especially for thin emulsion layers and wide field of view. In this paper we demonstrate that, after applying special corrections, the emulsion data quality can be as good as with the standard stop-and-go approach. This technique allows to double the scanning speed of the ESS, bringing it to 40 cm{sup 2}/h without any hardware modification.

  17. Russia: New stage in nuclear policy and in the struggle for winning public trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, Andrei; Kushnarev, Sergei

    2001-01-01

    nuclear unit was commissioned in Russia in 1993), has begun to show great interest to it again, especially after the nuclear specialists have 'passed from words to deeds' and launched intensive works in order to start the Rostov NPP, the construction of which had been suspended in 1990. The struggle for Rostov NPP commissioning, going on with considerable antagonism of various forces (including such a specific Russian public force, as the Cossacks), has become the beginning of a principally new stage in Russian nuclear specialists' relations with the public. The key principle of this new approach was to refuse from 'defending position'. A good example of Minatom's 'attack action' was shown by the proposal concerning Russia's going out to the world market of nuclear fuel reprocessing, supported by a portfolio of legislative initiatives, which include the draft law on environmental programs for rehabilitation of the country's radiation contaminated areas, financed from foreign trade operations with irradiated nuclear fuel. It should be noted, that the first attack of the 'greens' in connection with this Minatom's initiative - in form of collecting the signatures in support of all-Russia antinuclear referendum - has petered out in the Central Election Commission. Further steps of Russian nuclear leaders - active position in the open discussion of the structural reform in the energy sector and proposals on nuclear branch's consolidation - continue the course aimed at changing the role of Russia's nuclear development opponents to that of 'running after'. In these conditions Minatom, with active support of the Nuclear Society of Russia, has adopted a decision to reconsider its very organisation of PR activities. Its main features - adequate financing and appropriate material support, establishment of a 'brain centre' - a public council supported by a team of the best national and international experts, as well as creation of a structure of public information centres on regional

  18. Application of SAFRAN Tool for Knowledge Management at the Decommissioning Stage of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetnik, A.; Potapov, V.; Kapralov, E.; Murlis, D.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: As a result of the work performed by specialists of FSUE VO “Safety” under the scope of the CRAFT Project, the IAEA methodology and SAFRAN tool were used for safety assessment of radioactive waste removal from historical near-surface storage of the radon type. SAFRAN tool can be considered as an effective tool for record keeping, safety assessment and knowledge management at the stage of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Main advantages of SAFRAN: • it uses methodologies agreed upon at the international level, namely, by IAEA standards; • several experts can work more effectively when performing the same safety assessment. SAFRAN makes it easier to exchange experience through sharing projects and data bases; • it is helpful for systematic and structured safety assessment as per safety standards; • it manages information and data in the same software environment. (author

  19. Design and Optimization of Die Preforming Process for Long Last-stage Blade of Nuclear Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiaomao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long last-stage blade is a key component of the steam turbine of nuclear conventional island. The die preforming process for a new technology that provides billets for near-net-shape roll-forging process was designed, the effects of the forging temperature, friction coefficient, flash land’s height and die’s outer fillet radius on the die forging force and forging energy were studied by using the orthogonal experiment method, the primary and secondary order of the four factors were analysed by using range analysis method, and the optimal combination of the factors was obtained. By means of numerical simulation and physical experiment, the die preforming process that can provide qualified billets for the subsequent roll-forging process was verified, and the PZS1120f electric screw press can meet the requirements of the die preforming process.

  20. Objective malignancy grading of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Stereologic estimates of mean nuclear size are of prognostic value, independent of clinical stage of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Bæk-Hansen, T; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    1995-01-01

    a projection microscope and a simple test system in fields of vision systematically selected from the whole tumor area of one routine section, five quantitative histopathologic variables were estimated: the mean nuclear volume, the mean nuclear profile area, the density of nuclear profiles, the volume fraction...... of nuclei to tissue, and the number of mitotic profiles per 10(3) nuclear profiles. For each patient, information was recorded regarding sex, age at diagnosis, and clinical stage of disease.RESULTS: Single-factor analyses showed that a favorable prognosis was associated with early clinical stages (Stages I...... and II) and young age (P stage, age, and mean nuclear...

  1. Objective malignancy grading of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Stereologic estimates of mean nuclear size are of prognostic value, independent of clinical stage of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Bæk-Hansen, T; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    1995-01-01

    a projection microscope and a simple test system in fields of vision systematically selected from the whole tumor area of one routine section, five quantitative histopathologic variables were estimated: the mean nuclear volume, the mean nuclear profile area, the density of nuclear profiles, the volume fraction...... of nuclei to tissue, and the number of mitotic profiles per 10(3) nuclear profiles. For each patient, information was recorded regarding sex, age at diagnosis, and clinical stage of disease. RESULTS: Single-factor analyses showed that a favorable prognosis was associated with early clinical stages (Stages I...... and II) and young age (P stage, age, and mean nuclear...

  2. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labib, Satira; King, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort

  3. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  4. Coupling of the four design stages in the management of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinez R, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the main characteristics of the system to solve the four stages of the nuclear fuel management are presented; the above for boiling water reactors (BWR). The novelty of the system is that a complete solution is obtained in a coupled way; the involved stages are fuel lattice design, fuel assembly design, fuel reload design and control rod pattern design. To do this, in each stage of the process some heuristics techniques are applied, and each stage has its own objective function. The used heuristic techniques are neural network and a hybrid between scatter search and path re linking for fuel lattice design; for fuel assembly design a simple local search was applied and finally, for both fuel reload and control rod pattern designs, the tabu search technique was used. The system have two loops, one external loop and one internal loop, the first one starts with fuel lattice design and concludes with control rod pattern design; on the other hand, the internal loop executes an iterative process between both fuel reload design and control rod pattern designs, to start this loop a seed fuel reload is required, which is obtained applying Haling principle. The internal loop is finished when four iterations were achieved, while the external loop is finished when two iterations were achieved, this number of iterations was fixed due to the great quantity of required computational resources. An 18- months equilibrium cycle was considered to have a reference value to compare against the obtained results with our system, this cycle have two fuel fresh batches with the same average uranium enrichment, but different gadolinia content. The above cycle achieved a 10,896 Mwd/Tu of energy and was divided into 12 burnup steps. The obtained results show the advantage to solve the complete problem in a coupled way, even though a great quantity of computational resources are used. It is necessary to note that the energy value was not achieved in all cases, only in some

  5. Comparison of results of integrated nuclear medical kidney examinations in different stages of Diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, E.

    1979-01-01

    In 67 diabetics and 33 hypertonics the author carried out the following tests: 1. Serial renal function scintiscanning with 131 J-oJH; 2. Simultaneous assessment of global sup(99m)Tc-dtpa and 131 J-oJH clearance using a partly screened-off whole-body count 3. Unilateral assessment of 131 J-oJH clearance; 4. Assessment of sup(99m)Tc-dtpa and 131 J-oJH excretion. From the integral gamma-camera time-activity curves established by ROI technique as a part of serial functional scintiscanning, the nephrogram parameters secretion value, secretion maximum and elimination half-time were ascertained. The values thus obtained were compared with the global and unilateral 131 J-oJH clearance. Moreover the excretion of the radiopharmaceuticals in the urine was compared with whole-body clearance determined simultaneously. At normal renal function, the biological half-life for 131 J-oJH and sup(99m)Tc-dtpa was calculated and the distribute volumes were assessed from the elimination constant and from renal clearance. The results of the nuclear-medical renal-function parameters in varying stages of diabetic renal disease indicate that the elimination half-time is the only RIN criterion to permit a differentiation of collectives. (orig./MG) [de

  6. On exposure of workers in nuclear reactor facilities for test and in nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage in fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Law for Regulation on Nuclear Reactor requires the operators of nuclear reactors that the exposure dose of workers engaged in work for nuclear reactors should not exceed the limits specified in official notices that are issued based on the Law. The present article summarizes the contents of the Report on Radiation Management in 1988 submitted by the operators of nuclear reactor facilities for test and those of nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage based on the Law, and the Report on Management of Exposure Dose of Workers submitted by them based on administrative notices. The reports demonstrate that the exposure of workers was below the permissible exposure dose in 1988 in all nuclear reactor facilities. The article presents data on the distribution of exposure dose among workers in all facilities with a nuclear reactor for test, and data on personal exposure of employees and non-employees and overall exposure of all workers in the facilities of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (N.K.)

  7. SPINDLE: A 2-Stage Nuclear-Powered Cryobot for Ocean World Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W.; Hogan, B.; Siegel, V. L.; Howe, T.; Howe, S.; Harman, J.; Richmond, K.; Flesher, C.; Clark, E.; Lelievre, S.; Moor, J.; Rothhammer, B.

    2016-12-01

    SPINDLE (Sub-glacial Polar Ice Navigation, Descent, and Lake Exploration) is a 2-stage autonomous vehicle system consisting of a robotic ice-penetrating carrier vehicle (cryobot) and a marsupial, hovering autonomous underwater vehicle (HAUV). The cryobot will descend through an ice body into a sub-ice aqueous environment and deploy the HAUV to conduct long range reconnaissance, life search, and sample collection. The HAUV will return to, and auto-dock with, the cryobot at the conclusion of the mission for subsequent data uplink and sample return to the surface. The SPINDLE cryobot has been currently designed for a 1.5 kilometer penetration through a terrestrial ice sheet and the HAUV has been designed for persistent exploration and science presence in for deployments up to a kilometer radius from the cryobot. Importantly, the cryobot is bi-directional and vertically controllable both in an ice sheet as well as following breakthrough into a subglacial water cavity / ocean. The vehicle has been designed for long-duration persistent science in subglacial cavities and to allow for subsequent return-to-surface at a much later date or subsequent season. Engineering designs for the current SPINDLE cryobot will be presented in addition to current designs for autonomous rendezvous, docking, and storing of the HAUV system into the cryobot for subsequent recovery of the entire system to the surface. Taken to completion in a three-phase program, SPINDLE will deliver an integrated and field-tested system that will be directly transferable into a Flagship-class mission to either the hypothesized shallow lakes of Europa, the sub-surface ocean of Ganymede, or the geyser/plume sources on both Europa and Enceladus. We present the results of several parallel laboratory investigations into advanced power transmission systems (laser, high voltage) as well as onboard systems that enable the SPINDLE vehicle to access any subglacial lake on earth while using non-nuclear surrogate, surface

  8. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p

  9. On exposure management of workers in nuclear reactor facilities for test and in nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage in fiscal 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Law of Regulation on Nuclear Reactor requires the operators of nuclear reactors that the exposure dose of workers engaged in work for nuclear reactors should not exceed the limits specified in official notices that are issued based on the Law. The present article summarizes the contents of the Report on Radiation Management in 1993 submitted by the operators of nuclear reactor facilities for test and those of nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage based on the Law, and the Report on Management of Exposure Dose of Workers submitted by them based on administrative notices. The reports demonstrate that the the exposure of workers was below the permissible exposure dose in 1993 in all nuclear reactor facilities. The article presents data on the distribution of exposure dose among workers in all facilities with a nuclear reactor for test, and data on personal exposure of employees and non-employees and overall exposure of all workers in the facilities of JAERI and PNC. (J.P.N.)

  10. Higher Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology: A new stage in the formation of broad-profile nuclear professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, Fernando; Lauren Elias, Lidia; Rodriguez, Oscar

    2001-01-01

    Presently work was tried to show which has been the development happened in the formation nuclear specialists in Cuba it is presented and it analyzes its quality, using for it indicators as the academic efficiency and the academic index

  11. Nuclear and cellular expression data from the whole 16-cell stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and a cell type-specific expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palovaara, J.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    SuperSeries contain expression data from the nuclei of cell types involved in patterning events, with focus on root apical stem cell formation, at 16-cell stage, early globular stage and late globular stage in the early Arabidopsis embryo (atlas). Expression data comparing nuclear and cellular RNA

  12. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...

  13. Optimization of material flow in the nuclear fuel cycle using a cyclic multi-stage production-to-inventory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePorter, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is modelled as a cyclic, multi-stage production-to-inventory system. The objective is to meet a known deterministic demand for energy while minimizing acquisition, production, and inventory holding costs for all stages of the fuel cycle. The model allows for cyclic flow (feedback) of materials, material flow conversion factors at each stage, production lag times at each stage, and for escalating costs of uranium ore. It does not allow shortages to occur in inventories. The model is optimized by the application of the calculus of variations and specifically through recently developed theorems on the solution of functionals constrained by inequalities. The solution is a set of optimal cumulative production trajectories which define the stagewise production rates. Analysis of these production rates reveals the optimal nuclear fuel cycle costs and that inventories (stockpiles) occur in uranium fields, enriched uranium hexafluoride, and fabricated fuel assemblies. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to variation in three important parameters is performed

  14. Nuclear grade and DNA ploidy in stage IV breast cancer with only visceral metastases at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lena, M; Barletta, A; Marzullo, F; Rabinovich, M; Leone, B; Vallejo, C; Machiavelli, M; Romero, A; Perez, J; Lacava, J; Cuevas, M A; Rodriguez, R; Schittulli, F; Paradisco, A

    1996-01-01

    The presence of early metastases to distant sites in breast cancer patients is an infrequent event whose mechanisms are still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biologic and clinical role of DNA ploidy and cell nuclear grade of primary tumors in the metastatic process of a series of stage IV previously untreated breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases. DNA flow cytometry analysis on paraffin-embedded material and cell nuclear grading of primary tumors was performed on a series of 50 breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases at the time of initial diagnosis. Aneuploidy was found in 28/46 (61%) of evaluable cases and was independent of site of involvement, clinical response, time of progression and overall survival of patients. Of the 46 cases evaluable for nuclear grade, 5 (11%), 16 (35%) and 25 (54%) were classified as G1 (well-differentiated) G2 and G3, respectively. Nuclear grade also was unrelated to response to therapy and overall survival, whereas time to progression was significantly longer in G1-2 than G3 tumors with the logrank test (P < 0.03) and multivariate analysis. Our results seem to stress the difficulty to individualize different prognostic subsets from a series of breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases at initial diagnosis according to DNA flow cytometry and nuclear grade.

  15. [Using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and gene ontology to establish pathological staging model for esophageal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Wang, K; Chen, W; Jiang, H; Deng, P C; Li, Z J; Peng, J; Zhou, Z Y; Yang, H; Huang, G X; Zeng, J

    2016-07-01

    By combining the metabolomics and computational biology, to explore the relationship between metabolic phenotype and pathological stage in esophageal cancer patients, to find the mechanism of metabolic network disturbance and develop a new method for fast preoperative clinical staging. A prospective cohort study (from April 2013 to January 2016) was conducted. The preoperative patients from Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, who were diagnosed with esophageal cancer from May 2013 to April 2014 were included, and their serum samples were collected to detect (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics for the purpose of drawing the metabolic fingerprinting in different stages of patients with esophageal cancer. The data were processed with these methods-principal components analysis: partial least squares regression and support vector machine, for the exploration of the enzyme-gene network regulatory mechanism in abnormal esophageal cancer metabolic network regulation and to build the quantitative prediction model of esophageal cancer staging in the end. All data were processed on high-performance computing platforms Matalab. The comparison of data had used Wilcoxon test, variance analysis, χ(2) test and Fisher exact test. Twenty patients with different stages of esophageal cancer were included; and their serum metabolic fingerprinting could differentiate different tumor stages. There were no difference among the five teams in the age (F=1.086, P>0.05), the body mass index (F=1.035, P>0.05), the distance from the incisors to tumor (F=1.078, P>0.05). Among the patients with different TNM stages, there was a significant difference in plasma metabolome. Compared to ⅡB, ⅢA, Ⅳstage patients, increased levels of butanone, ethanol amine, homocysteine, hydroxy acids and estriol, together with decreased levels of glycoprotein, creatine, choline, isobutyricacid, alanine, leucine, valine, were observed inⅠB, ⅡA stage patients. Four metabolic markers

  16. Cluster emission at pre-equilibrium stage in Heavy Nuclear Reactions. A Model considering the Thermodynamics of Small Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Martinez, A.; Damiani, D.; Guzman Martinez, F.; Rodriguez Hoyos, O.; Rodriguez Manso, A.

    2015-01-01

    Cluster emission at pre-equilibrium stage, in heavy ion fusion reactions of 12 C and 16 O nuclei with 116 Sn, 208 Pb, 238 U are studied. the energy of the projectile nuclei was chosen at 0.25GeV, 0.5GeV and 1GeV. A cluster formation model is developed in order to calculate the cluster size. Thermodynamics of small systems was used in order to examine the cluster behavior inside the nuclear media. This model is based on considering two phases inside the compound nucleus, on one hand the nuclear media phase, and on the other hand the cluster itself. The cluster acts like an instability inside the compound nucleus, provoking an exchange of nucleons with the nuclear media through its surface. The processes were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. We obtained that the cluster emission probability shows great dependence on the cluster size. This project is aimed to implement cluster emission processes, during the pre-equilibrium stage, in the frame of CRISP code (Collaboration Rio-Sao Paulo). (Author)

  17. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the 'stone sack' to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods

  18. Performance testing of self-powered detector signal converters at Dukovany nuclear power plant - stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, O.; Hajek, P.; Zerola, L.; Karsulin, M.

    1990-11-01

    The converters were manufactured at the Institute of Nuclear Research, Rez. Dynamic functions of the converters were tested during the start-up of reactor unit 4, Dukovany nuclear power plant, and their stability during its normal operation. The results and evaluation of the measurements show a good performance of converters. They have a low offset, good stability and the values of current are in a good agreement with the values obtained using other methods. The values of insulation resistance are in a good agreement with the values obtained manually using the method of additional resistance. These converters are planned to be used in the upgraded in-service inspection system in WWER-440 nuclear power plants. (Z.S.) 9 tabs., 22 figs., 1 ref

  19. Preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards at Chalmers - Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Pazsit, Imre

    2004-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed at the Dept. of Reactor Physics at Chalmers Univ. of Technology in the second stage of the preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards and nuclear material management. The program is aimed at utilizing the experimental facilities as well as the experience in reactor physics, criticality safety, signal processing and unfolding, and experimental nuclear techniques, in tackling problems in non-destructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. During the present project, the following three main subjects were dealt with: first tests and pilot measurements were performed with one of the two newly acquired {sup 252}Cf detectors that were obtained from JNC Japan; the second exercise of the ESARDA benchmark. which consisted of the evaluation of the pulse train generated by Los Alamos Laboratory for multiplicity counting was performed and reported to the organisers of the benchmark; the modified Monte-Carlo code MCNP-PoliMi was installed, tested and work started for generating (although outside the ESARDA benchmark), pulse train data as obtained from various neutron sources with or without the presence of fissile material, as detected with an Active Well Coincidence Counter.

  20. Preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards at Chalmers - Stage 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yasunori; Pazsit, Imre

    2004-12-01

    This report gives an account of the work performed at the Dept. of Reactor Physics at Chalmers Univ. of Technology in the second stage of the preparations for the start-up of a research program in nuclear safeguards and nuclear material management. The program is aimed at utilizing the experimental facilities as well as the experience in reactor physics, criticality safety, signal processing and unfolding, and experimental nuclear techniques, in tackling problems in non-destructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. During the present project, the following three main subjects were dealt with: first tests and pilot measurements were performed with one of the two newly acquired 252 Cf detectors that were obtained from JNC Japan; the second exercise of the ESARDA benchmark. which consisted of the evaluation of the pulse train generated by Los Alamos Laboratory for multiplicity counting was performed and reported to the organisers of the benchmark; the modified Monte-Carlo code MCNP-PoliMi was installed, tested and work started for generating (although outside the ESARDA benchmark), pulse train data as obtained from various neutron sources with or without the presence of fissile material, as detected with an Active Well Coincidence Counter

  1. Estimates of nuclear volume in plaque and tumor-stage mycosis fungoides. A new prognostic indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1994-01-01

    It is well documented that mycosis fungoides (MF), a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, has a variable clinical course. Unbiased stereological estimates of three-dimensional volume-weighted mean nuclear size (nucl vV) of mycosis cells were obtained in a retrospective study of 18 patients with a total of ...

  2. Stages in planning and construction of the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracht, F.

    1975-01-01

    On October 23, 1972, RWE gave a letter of intent and on January 9, 1973 an order for the construction of a nuclear power plant on a turn-key basis to the consortium of BBC, BBR and Hochtief. The power plant in question was the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station with a pressurized-water reactor of a gross efficiency of 1,295 MWe. After considerable delay of the project, the first building permit was issued to the builder-owner on January 15, 1975, and the constructional work on the building site started immediately afterwards. As the planning and constructional work has so far been carried out according to schedule and the consortium intends to keep the effects of the belated license as small as possible, the start-off of the plant will probably be in summer 1979 if the constructional work is not interrupted. (orig./AK) [de

  3. Features of the International Cooperation in Nuclear Power at the Present Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Panteley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: in article the author raises the aspects of the international cooperation in nuclear power. The author wants to analyse the multiplefactor analysis of the international regulation in the field of peaceful use of atomic energy and to reveal competitive advantages of the Russian Federation in this area.Methods: the methodological base of the research was made by set of general scientific methods and methods of the economic analysis. In particular, such methods of the scientific analysis were used as system approach, method of the comparative analysis, synthesis and analysis. From economic methods was used the method of the analysis of the branch competitiveness.Results: the author, raises the aspects of the international cooperation in nuclear power, comes to the conclusion that the specifics of branch cause need of comprehensive and close international interaction for prevention of distribution of dual-use technologies, for ensuring global and regional ecological and energy security, for ensuring the rights to use peaceful atom for needs of national economies and for observance of rules of the free market competition in such a complex branch of the world economy.Conclusions and Relevance: nuclear power is a high-tech and innovative branch of the Russian economy. Today it is one of the most dynamically developing in the country, and also plays a significant role in the world energy. Among the competitive advantages of the national nuclear power industry is the development of new technologies, flexible price offers in foreign markets, etc. The development of the branch and the sustainability of Russia's competitive position in this area on foreign markets require the development of new proposals for different regional markets and the implementation of planned measures to support the level of competitiveness.Сonclusions can be used as recommendations for developing programs to increase the competitiveness of the Rosatom State Corporation

  4. Sociological researches in the region of Ignalina nuclear power plant: stages and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiuzhas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The article examines the sociological researches made by the scientific researchers of the Lithuanian Institute of Philosophy and Sociology during the period of 1989-1997. The investigation in this region was started on the eve of Lithuanian independence restoration. The scientists wanted to find out the integration problems and difficulties of Visaginas population to the transformational life of Lithuania. Another reason of the research set for the first time in Lithuania was the investigation of the attitudes of Visaginas inhabitants to the influence of Ignalina NPP upon people and environment, economic and social development. In 1993 the research was started in accordance with the State's program T he Atomic Energetic and Environment a nd last up to 1997. It included three stages. In the first place the examination of the experts a survey about the evaluation of living environment, ecological and social state was done. The second stage surveyed the work conditions and the social psychological atmosphere in the Ignalina NPP. The investigation of the living and activity conditions of the regional population was done in the third stage. (author)

  5. The role of nuclear medicine in the staging and management of human immune deficiency virus infection and associated diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria (South Africa); Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Klein, Hans; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O. [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host. Nuclear medicine techniques allow non-invasive visualisation of tissues in the body. By using this principle, pathophysiology in the body can be targeted and the treatment of diseases can be monitored. Being a functional imaging modality, it is able to detect diseases at the molecular level, and thus it has increased our understanding of the immunological changes in the infected host at different stages of the HIV infection. It also detects pathological changes much earlier than conventional imaging based on anatomical changes. This is important in the immunocompromised host as in some of the associated disorders a delay in diagnosis may have dire consequences. Nuclear medicine has played a huge role in the management of many HIV-associated disorders in the past and continues to help in the diagnosis, prognosis, staging, monitoring and assessing the response to treatment of many HIV-associated disorders. As our understanding of the molecular basis of disease increases nuclear medicine is poised to play an even greater role. In this review we highlight the functional basis of the clinicopathological correlation of HIV from a metabolic view and discuss how the use of

  6. The Role of Nuclear Medicine in the Staging and Management of Human Immune Deficiency Virus Infection and Associated Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankrah, Alfred O; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Klein, Hans C; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Sathekge, Mike

    2017-06-01

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host. Nuclear medicine techniques allow non-invasive visualisation of tissues in the body. By using this principle, pathophysiology in the body can be targeted and the treatment of diseases can be monitored. Being a functional imaging modality, it is able to detect diseases at the molecular level, and thus it has increased our understanding of the immunological changes in the infected host at different stages of the HIV infection. It also detects pathological changes much earlier than conventional imaging based on anatomical changes. This is important in the immunocompromised host as in some of the associated disorders a delay in diagnosis may have dire consequences. Nuclear medicine has played a huge role in the management of many HIV-associated disorders in the past and continues to help in the diagnosis, prognosis, staging, monitoring and assessing the response to treatment of many HIV-associated disorders. As our understanding of the molecular basis of disease increases nuclear medicine is poised to play an even greater role. In this review we highlight the functional basis of the clinicopathological correlation of HIV from a metabolic view and discuss how the use of

  7. The role of nuclear medicine in the staging and management of human immune deficiency virus infection and associated diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Klein, Hans; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2017-01-01

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host. Nuclear medicine techniques allow non-invasive visualisation of tissues in the body. By using this principle, pathophysiology in the body can be targeted and the treatment of diseases can be monitored. Being a functional imaging modality, it is able to detect diseases at the molecular level, and thus it has increased our understanding of the immunological changes in the infected host at different stages of the HIV infection. It also detects pathological changes much earlier than conventional imaging based on anatomical changes. This is important in the immunocompromised host as in some of the associated disorders a delay in diagnosis may have dire consequences. Nuclear medicine has played a huge role in the management of many HIV-associated disorders in the past and continues to help in the diagnosis, prognosis, staging, monitoring and assessing the response to treatment of many HIV-associated disorders. As our understanding of the molecular basis of disease increases nuclear medicine is poised to play an even greater role. In this review we highlight the functional basis of the clinicopathological correlation of HIV from a metabolic view and discuss how the use of

  8. The relationship between apoptosis and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the clinical stages in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, K; Chen, D; Tian, Y; Lu, X; Yang, X

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the apoptosis and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the clinical stages in gastric cancers was studied. By using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and PCNA immunohistochemical staining, the apoptosis and the expression of PCNA in tissue of gastric carcinoma were assayed in situ, the index of apoptosis (AI), index of PCNA (PI) and the rate of AI/PI were calculated. AI and PI in gastric cancer tissues were (6.5 +/- 3.7)% and (49.8 +/- 15.9)% respectively, and the rate of AI/PI was 0.13 +/- 0.05, which were obviously different from those of normal gastric mucosa in paragastric cancer (P stages of gastric carcinoma, the AI was decreased, PI was increased and the rate of AI/PI decreased in gastric carcinoma. There was significant difference in them between the gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric mucosa in pericarcinoma in TNM stage II to IV (P gastric carcinoma. The AI, PI and the rate of AI/PI would become the prognostic factors in advanced gastric carcinoma.

  9. Implementation of ALARA at the design stage of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, A.; Ridoux, P. [Electricite de France, Villeurbanne (France)

    1995-03-01

    In the 1970s, Electricite de France (EdF) had limited knowledge and experience of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Electricity generation by nuclear units was oriented towards gas-graphite reactors, even though EdF had a share in the PWR unit of CHOOZ A-1 (250 MWe, later upgraded to 320 MWe). Some facts about the origin of doses in that king of reactor were known to the research and development (R&D) support staff of EdF, which mainly comprises the French Atomic Commission (CEA), but only a few of EdF`s engineers were aware of these facts. One has to bear in mind that CHOOZ A-1 only went critical in April 1967 and was officially connected to the grid in May 1970 after some important problems had been solved. Meanwhile, the nuclear program was launched at full speed, beginning with the order for FESSENHEIM 1 in 1970, FESSENHEIM 2 and BUGEY 2 and 3 in 1971. TIHANGE 1, in which EdF had a share, went on-line in September 1975. Also, supposing that EdF had had such knowledge and experience, it is quite evident that it would have been very difficult to modify the lay-out inside the reactor building.

  10. Application of Lagrangian puff model in the early stage of a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qi; Liu Yuanzhong

    2000-01-01

    The effect of changes of intervention levels and meteorological conditions on the early emergency countermeasures is analysed for nuclear power plant emergencies. A Lagrangian puff model RIMPUFF is used to predict dose distributions under stable and unstable meteorological conditions. The release scenario for PWR6 is used as an example to determine emergency areas for different intervention levels. The prediction results show that the evacuation area radius is 5 km and the radii for sheltering and intake-of stable iodine are both 10 km. The difference between the emergency areas determined by the intervention levels given in HAF0703/NEPA9002 and IAEA safety series No. 109 is only in the sheltering area which is much smaller using the IAEA guidelines

  11. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince-Embury, S.; Rooney, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents

  12. Democracy, the media stage and opinions evaluation. The particular case of nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansel, Ph.; Pages, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The intention is pointed at the public opinion. The public debate, linked to the political system, is described in the frame where the opinions are expressed in interaction with the media. This debate has a fundamental role in the opinions structuration. Then it is shown how it is possible to introduce it in the way of measuring the opinions. Then, we arrive to the structures of public opinion. The analysis of facts registered during twenty years on nuclear energy allows to illustrate the interest of this global approach: considered from a controversy point of view, it is also a technical object and then it can be considered as a differentiation theme among others ones. (N.C.)

  13. Security of nuclear power in operation. Results from the first PWR 900 MWe stages of Electricity of France (EDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capel, R; Chaubaron, J F [Electricite de France, 93 - Saint-Denis. Service de la Production Thermique

    1980-06-01

    The security and reliability objectives of the PWR 900 MWe stages are acquiring particular importance in the present energetic and nuclear context. This article presents the general framework wherein the superintendence and maintenance of plant equipment are situated. E.D.F. applies to all of its activities, the assurance of quality principles. The General Rules of Operating constitute the basic document. The Operating Technical Specifications specify the conditions for the correct operating and safety of the installations. The Organization of Quality handbook sets the rules to be obeyed in the management of all operations. Examples from Fessenhein and Bugey illustrate the subject and elucidate the practical dimension of security. Lastly, the lessons of experience are recalled.

  14. Initial risk assessment for a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The risks posed by the surface launch of a nuclear thermal rocket are considered. • Radiation exposure at the public viewing distance is insignificant. • Production of fission products and actinides during launch is limited. • The production of activated argon around the rocket may be a significant concern. - Abstract: In order to consider the possibility of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) ground launch, it is necessary to evaluate the risks from such a launch. This includes analysis of the radiation dose rate around the rocket, determining the rate of activation of the materials near the launch, and considering the radionuclides present in the core after the launch. This paper evaluates the potential risk of the NTR ground launch for a range of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons (MT) using three NTR reactor cores (40, 80, and 120 cm in length) designed in a previous study, based on data produced by MCNP5 and MCNPX models. At the same power level, the 40 cm core length reactor results in the lowest radiation dose rate of the three reactors. Radiation dose rates decrease to background levels 3.5 km from the launch site. After a 1-year decay time, all of the activated materials produced by an NTR launch would be classified as Class A low-level waste. The activation of air produces significant amounts of argon-41 and nitrogen-16 within 100 m of the launch. The derived air concentration (DAC) ratio of the activation products decays to less than unity within 2 days, with only argon-41 remaining. After 10 min of full power operation, the 120 cm core for a 15 MT payload contains 2.5 × 10{sup 13}, 1.4 × 10{sup 12} and 1.5 × 10{sup 12} Bq of {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 90}Sr, respectively. The decay heat after shutdown increases with increasing reactor power with a maximum decay heat of 108 kW immediately after shutdown for the 15 MT payload.

  15. Non-Abellian field dynamics in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischke, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    It was argued that the gluon field of a large, ultrarelativistic nucleus can be considered as a classical field for small values of the longitudinal momentum fraction x and on transverse momentum scales Λ 2 QCD 2 perpendicular 2 , where μ 2 is the transverse area density of color charges. The authors estimated μ ∼ 0.4 GeV for collisions of Au-nuclei at RHIC energies. Based on this argument, the gluon field produced in a collision of two ultrarelativistic nuclei is computed perturbatively by solving the classical Yang-Mills equations order by order in the strong coupling constant g. It is shown that to first order in g, the spectrum of produced gluons is identical to that obtained in a perturbative quantum calculation of gluon Bremsstrahlung. It is also identical with that of a coherent quantum state generated by independent collisions between the (classical) color charges in the two nuclei. The perturbative solution is unstable under perturbations. The instabilities arise from the non-Abelian terms in the equations of motion for the gluon field, which enter only at higher order in the perturbative solution scheme. The decay rate of the perturbative solution is shown to be of order μ. Since the non-Abelian terms describe the self-interaction of the produced gluon field, and since such interactions lead to thermalization, the decay rate provides an estimate for the thermalization time scale of classical color fields in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. For Au-nuclei, this time scale is therefore of order 0.5 fm/c, in agreement with results for the kinetic thermalization time scale

  16. Non-Abellian field dynamics in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischke, D.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-22

    It was argued that the gluon field of a large, ultrarelativistic nucleus can be considered as a classical field for small values of the longitudinal momentum fraction x and on transverse momentum scales {Lambda}{sup 2}{sub QCD} << k{sup 2}{perpendicular} << {mu}{sup 2}, where {mu}{sup 2} is the transverse area density of color charges. The authors estimated {mu} {approx} 0.4 GeV for collisions of Au-nuclei at RHIC energies. Based on this argument, the gluon field produced in a collision of two ultrarelativistic nuclei is computed perturbatively by solving the classical Yang-Mills equations order by order in the strong coupling constant g. It is shown that to first order in g, the spectrum of produced gluons is identical to that obtained in a perturbative quantum calculation of gluon Bremsstrahlung. It is also identical with that of a coherent quantum state generated by independent collisions between the (classical) color charges in the two nuclei. The perturbative solution is unstable under perturbations. The instabilities arise from the non-Abelian terms in the equations of motion for the gluon field, which enter only at higher order in the perturbative solution scheme. The decay rate of the perturbative solution is shown to be of order {mu}. Since the non-Abelian terms describe the self-interaction of the produced gluon field, and since such interactions lead to thermalization, the decay rate provides an estimate for the thermalization time scale of classical color fields in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. For Au-nuclei, this time scale is therefore of order 0.5 fm/c, in agreement with results for the kinetic thermalization time scale.

  17. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Engine and Stage: How Small Is Big Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 specific impulse - a 100 percent increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the Lead Fuel option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During fiscal year (FY) 2014, a preliminary Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Department of Energy (DOE) and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included Ground Technology Demonstration (GTD) tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), followed by a Flight Technology Demonstration (FTD) mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 kilopound-force thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a common fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 kilopound-force criticality-limited engine produces approximately157 thermal megawatts and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 kilopound-force Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 thermal megawatts and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35-inch (approximately

  18. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project evaluation of multi-canister overpack venting and monitoring options during staging of K basins fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiborg, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    This engineering study recommends whether multi-canister overpacks containing spent nuclear fuel from the Hanford K Basins should be staged in vented or a sealed, but ventable, condition during staging at the Canister Storage Building prior to hot vacuum conditioning and interim storage. The integrally related issues of MCO monitoring, end point criteria, and assessing the practicality of avoiding venting and Hot Vacuum Conditioning for a portion of the spent fuel are also considered.

  19. Coupling of the four design stages in the management of nuclear fuel; Acoplamiento de las cuatro etapas de diseno en la administracion de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinez R, R. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the main characteristics of the system to solve the four stages of the nuclear fuel management are presented; the above for boiling water reactors (BWR). The novelty of the system is that a complete solution is obtained in a coupled way; the involved stages are fuel lattice design, fuel assembly design, fuel reload design and control rod pattern design. To do this, in each stage of the process some heuristics techniques are applied, and each stage has its own objective function. The used heuristic techniques are neural network and a hybrid between scatter search and path re linking for fuel lattice design; for fuel assembly design a simple local search was applied and finally, for both fuel reload and control rod pattern designs, the tabu search technique was used. The system have two loops, one external loop and one internal loop, the first one starts with fuel lattice design and concludes with control rod pattern design; on the other hand, the internal loop executes an iterative process between both fuel reload design and control rod pattern designs, to start this loop a seed fuel reload is required, which is obtained applying Haling principle. The internal loop is finished when four iterations were achieved, while the external loop is finished when two iterations were achieved, this number of iterations was fixed due to the great quantity of required computational resources. An 18- months equilibrium cycle was considered to have a reference value to compare against the obtained results with our system, this cycle have two fuel fresh batches with the same average uranium enrichment, but different gadolinia content. The above cycle achieved a 10,896 Mwd/Tu of energy and was divided into 12 burnup steps. The obtained results show the advantage to solve the complete problem in a coupled way, even though a great quantity of computational resources are used. It is necessary to note that the energy value was not achieved in all cases, only in some

  20. Inspection activities of the Mexican regulatory body during the construction stage of the first unit of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado Gonzalez, Julio Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    The paper addresses the regulatory framework established for the design, construction and operation of the NPP. The regulatory bases of the inspection program are mentioned.A summary of the inspection and reviewing activities carried out by the former Nuclear Safety Management Construction area during the construction stage, taking the year 1977 as the beginning of regular inspection activities for this construction stage, and up to the year 1987, when this one is considered as practically completed, and a stage of pre-operational tests has been started. Finally, the main inspection areas are described, and a summary is given of the classification of deficiencies detected during the inspections

  1. Uranium Determination in Samples from Decommissioning of Nuclear facilities Related to the First Stage of Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Determinacion de Uranio en Muestras Procedentes del Desmantelamiento de Instalaciones de la Primera Parte del Cielo del Combustible Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A; Correa, E; Navarro, N; Sancho, C [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Angeles, A

    2000-07-01

    An adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. In addition, a large amount of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. The determination of those activity concentration levels become more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrices are involved. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out by laboratory techniques. In situ gamma spectrometry was also used to perform measurements on site. A comparison among the different techniques was also done by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. (Author)

  2. Analysis of heat balance on innovative-simplified nuclear power plant using multi-stage steam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shoji; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu

    2006-01-01

    The total space and weight of the feedwater heaters in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be reduced by replacing low-pressure feedwater heaters with high-efficiency steam injectors (SIs). The SI works as a direct heat exchanger between feedwater from condensers and steam extracted from turbines. It can attain pressures higher than the supplied steam pressure. The maintenance cost is lower than that of the current feedwater heater because of its simplified system without movable parts. In this paper, we explain the observed mechanisms of the SI experimentally and the analysis of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We then describe mainly the analysis of the heat balance and plant efficiency of the innovative-simplified NPP, which adapted to the boiling water reactor (BWR) with the high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiencies of this innovative-simplified BWR with SI are compared with those of a 1 100 MWe-class BWR. The SI model is adopted in the heat balance simulator as a simplified model. The results show that the plant efficiencies of the innovate-simplified BWR with SI are almost equal to those of the original BWR. They show that the plant efficiency would be slightly higher if the low-pressure steam, which is extracted from the low-pressure turbine, is used because the first-stage of the SI uses very low pressure. (author)

  3. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS): A Key Space Asset for Human Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Burke, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been discussed as a key space asset that can bridge the gap between a sustained human presence on the Moon and the eventual human exploration of Mars. Recently, a human mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) has also been included as a "deep space precursor" to an orbital mission of Mars before a landing is attempted. In his "post-Apollo" Integrated Space Program Plan (1970 to 1990), Wernher von Braun, proposed a reusable Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS) to deliver cargo and crew to the Moon to establish a lunar base initially before sending human missions to Mars. The NTR was selected because it was a proven technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s)-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. During the Rover and NERVA programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and successfully ground tested. These tests demonstrated the (1) thrust levels; (2) high fuel temperatures; (3) sustained operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability needed for an affordable in-space transportation system. In NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the "Copernicus" crewed NTR Mars transfer vehicle used three 25 klbf "Pewee" engines-the smallest and highest performing engine tested in the Rover program. Smaller lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a NTPS with three approx. 16.7 klbf "SNRE-class" engines, an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-can be delivered to LEO using a 70 t to LEO upgraded SLS, and can support reusable cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. The NTPS can play an important role in returning humans to the Moon to stay by providing an affordable in-space transportation system that can allow initial lunar outposts to evolve into settlements capable of supporting commercial activities. Over the next decade collaborative efforts between NASA and private industry could open up new exploration and commercial

  4. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396

  5. A Two-Stage Layered Mixture Experiment Design for a Nuclear Waste Glass Application-Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Gan, Hao; Kot, Wing; Pegg, Ian L.

    2003-01-01

    Part 1 (Cooley and Piepel, 2003a) describes the first stage of a two-stage experimental design to support property-composition modeling for high-level waste (HLW) glass to be produced at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Each stage used a layered design having an outer layer, an inner layer, a center point, and some replicates. However, the design variables and constraints defining the layers of the experimental glass composition region (EGCR) were defined differently for the second stage than for the first. The first-stage initial design involved 15 components, all treated as mixture variables. The second-stage augmentation design involved 19 components, with 14 treated as mixture variables and 5 treated as non-mixture variables. For each second-stage layer, vertices were generated and optimal design software was used to select alternative subsets of vertices for the design and calculate design optimality measures. A model containing 29 partial quadratic mixture terms plus 5 linear terms for the non-mixture variables was the basis for the optimal design calculations. Predicted property values were plotted for the alternative subsets of second-stage vertices and the first-stage design points. Based on the optimality measures and the predicted property distributions, a ''best'' subset of vertices was selected for each layer of the second-stage to augment the first-stage design

  6. Addressing the impact of mercury estuarine contamination in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) - An early diagnosis in glass eel stage based on erythrocytic nuclear morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, D; Mieiro, C L; Coelho, J P; Guilherme, S; Marques, A; Santos, M A; Duarte, A C; Pereira, E; Pacheco, M

    2018-02-01

    The decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) population throughout Europe has been partially attributed to pollution. As glass eel estuarine migration may represent a considerable threat, the impact of mercury (Hg) contamination at this stage was evaluated through an in situ experiment (7days). Total Hg (tHg) bioaccumulation was evaluated concomitantly with erythrocytic nuclear morphology alterations: erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities assay (ENA), frequency of immature erythrocytes (IE) and the erythrocytic maturity index (EMI). The ENA results suggested a genotoxic pressure at the most contaminated sites, in line with the tHg increase. The EMI data, together with IE frequency, showed that fish exposed to high levels of Hg exhibited alterations of haematological dynamics, translated into an erythropoiesis increment. Despite the presence of these compensatory mechanisms, the present findings suggest a harmful impact of Hg on genome integrity at this early development stage, potentially affecting eels' condition and ultimately the population sustainability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. p53 nuclear accumulation and multiploidy are adverse prognostic factors in surgically resected stage II colorectal cancers independent of fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglioni, S; D'Agnano, I; Vasselli, S; Perrone Donnorso, R; D'Angelo, C; Brenna, A; Benevolo, M; Cosimelli, M; Zupi, G; Mottolese, M

    2001-09-01

    To identify the prognostically highest risk patients, DNA content and p53 nuclear or cytoplasmic accumulation, evaluated by monoclonal antibody DO7 and polyclonal antibody CM1, were determined in 94 surgically resected stage II (Dukes B2) colorectal cancers, treated or not with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Sixty-one (65%) of the tumors were aneuploid, 16 (17%) of which had a multiploid DNA content; 50 (53%) displayed DO7 nuclear p53 accumulation, and 44 (47%) showed cytoplasmic CM1 positivity. In multivariate analysis, only multiploidy and p53 nuclear positivity emerged as independent prognostic indicators of a poorer outcome. Positivity for p53 was associated with shorter survival in 5-fluorouracil-treated and untreated patients. Therefore, in patients with Dukes B2 colorectal cancer, a biologic profile based on the combined evaluation of DNA multiploidy and p53 status can provide valuable prognostic information, identifying patients to be enrolled in alternative, more aggressive therapeutic trials.

  8. Mitotic effects of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 225, 265, and 280 nm on eleven stages of the cell cycle of the grasshopper neuroblast in culture. I. Overall retardation from the stage irradiated to nuclear membrane breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Neuroblasts of Chortophaga viridifasciata (DeGeer) in culture were exposed to different doses of 225, 265, or 280 nm ultraviolet radiations at 11 different stages and substages of the mitotic cycle and individually selected cells were timed to breakdown of the nuclear membrane. Comparisons of the effectiveness of different wavelengths on the different stages were based on the dose that reduced the cell progression rate to 67 percent of normal (D 67 ) and the slope of the regression line, i.e., the control to treated time (C/T) ratio change/erg/mm 2 at the D 67 level. Cells of the prereplication period (metaphase + anaphase + early telophase) and the S phase (middle and late telophase + interphase + very early prophase) are equally sensitive to uv and contrast sharply with the much lower sensitivity of those in the postreplication period (early and middle prophase). This can best be interpreted if chromosomal DNA is the chromophore for uv-induced mitotic retardation. Cells in the prereplication period at exposure show no wavelength effect. In the S phase all stages except middle telophase and all stages combined are significantly more sensitive to 265 and 280 nm than to 225 nm. Of the postreplication stages, early prophase is retarded significantly more by 280 than by 225 or 265 nm. The C/T ratio/erg/mm 2 is greater after exposure to 265 nm at all prereplication and replication stages, but exhibits no consistent wavelength pattern during the postreplication period. Evidence based on the orientation of the neuroblast with respect to the uv-source suggests that the chromophore for mitotic retardation does not reside within the centrosome and related structures, but may be present, at least partly, in the nucleolus

  9. A Two-Stage Layered Mixture Experiment Design for a Nuclear Waste Glass Application-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Gan, Hao; Kot, Wing; Pegg, Ian L.

    2003-01-01

    A layered experimental design involving mixture variables was generated to support developing property-composition models for high-level waste (HLW) glasses. The design was generated in two stages, each having unique characteristics. Each stage used a layered design having an outer layer, an inner layer, a center point, and some replicates. The layers were defined by single- and multi-variable constraints. The first stage involved 15 glass components treated as mixture variables. For each layer, vertices were generated and optimal design software was used to select alternative subsets of vertices and calculate design optimality measures. Two partial quadratic mixture models, containing 25 terms for the outer layer and 30 terms for the inner layer, were the basis for the optimal design calculations. Distributions of predicted glass property values were plotted and evaluated for the alternative subsets of vertices. Based on the optimality measures and the predicted property distributions, a ''best'' subset of vertices was selected for each layer to form a layered design for the first stage. The design for the second stage was selected to augment the first-stage design. The discussion of the second-stage design begins in this Part 1 and is continued in Part 2 (Cooley and Piepel, 2003b)

  10. Comparative analysis of the nuclear lens opalescence by the Lens Opacities Classification System III with nuclear density values provided by Oculus Pentacam: a cross-section study using Pentacam Nucleus Staging software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernanda Pedreira; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Cariello, Angelino Júlio; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele; Hofling-Lima, Ana Luisa

    2011-01-01

    To compare the clinical classification of cataract using the Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) III with the mean values of lens density provided by the Pentacam Scheimpflug System in nuclear cataracts. One hundred and one eyes from 101 patients with age-related nuclear cataract were submitted to clinical examination for lens grading score using LOCS III. According to LOCS III, nuclear opalescence was divided in six groups. Patients were evaluated by the Pentacam Scheimpflug System for the mean lens density using the Pentacam lens densitometry program (PLDP), the Pentacam Nucleus Staging (PNS) mean value and the PNS cataract grading score. A positive correlation between the mean values of lens density and LOCS III classification, considering groups 1 to 5, could be noticed with PLDP and PNS mean value. The mean values between the groups were similar using the PLDP and the PNS mean value. However, when the PNS cataract grading score was evaluated, there was low correspondence with LOCS III classification. Pentacam Scheimpflug device offers an objective measure of the lens nuclear density on nuclear cataracts. PLDP and the PNS mean value were both useful to evaluate age-related nuclear cataract up to LOCS III group 5.

  11. Comparative analysis of the nuclear lens opalescence by the Lens Opacities Classification System III with nuclear density values provided by Oculus Pentacam: a cross-section study using Pentacam Nucleus Staging software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pedreira Magalhães

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the clinical classification of cataract using the Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS III with the mean values of lens density provided by the Pentacam Scheimpflug System in nuclear cataracts. METHODS: One hundred and one eyes from 101 patients with age-related nuclear cataract were submitted to clinical examination for lens grading score using LOCS III. According to LOCS III, nuclear opalescence was divided in six groups. Patients were evaluated by the Pentacam Scheimpflug System for the mean lens density using the Pentacam lens densitometry program (PLDP, the Pentacam Nucleus Staging (PNS mean value and the PNS cataract grading score. RESULTS: A positive correlation between the mean values of lens density and LOCS III classification, considering groups 1 to 5, could be noticed with PLDP and PNS mean value. The mean values between the groups were similar using the PLDP and the PNS mean value. However, when the PNS cataract grading score was evaluated, there was low correspondence with LOCS III classification. CONCLUSION: Pentacam Scheimpflug device offers an objective measure of the lens nuclear density on nuclear cataracts. PLDP and the PNS mean value were both useful to evaluate age-related nuclear cataract up to LOCS III group 5.

  12. Multi-stage-flash desalination plants of relative small performance with integrated pressurized water reactors as a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, G.; Peltzer, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Krupp-GKSS joint study MINIPLEX the requirements for seawater-desalination plants with a performance in the range of 10 000 to 80 000 m 3 distillate per day heated by a nuclear reactor are investigated. The reactor concept is similar to the Integrated Pressurized Water Reactor (IPWR) of the nuclear ship OTTO HAHN. The design study shows that IPWR systems have specific advantages up to 200 MWth compared to other reactor types at least being adapted for single- and dual-purpose desalination plants. The calculated costs of the desalinated water show that due to fuel cost advantages of reactors small and medium nuclear desalination plants are economically competetive with oil-fired plants since the steep rise of oil price in autumn 1973. (author)

  13. ''Safety rules of fatigue damage for nuclear facilities pressurized equipment at the sizing and the operation stage''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandemange, J.M.; Faidy, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the method applied in the nuclear industry in the domain of the fatigue risk safety. It recalls the fatigue curves origins and presents the technical requirements implemented during the design and the construction. It also presents the follow-up of transients in service and the periodical examinations. (A.L.B.)

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented

  15. Evaluation of the pollution and the transport of heavy metals in the Lerma river, through nuclear analytical techniques (Second stage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.

    2004-12-01

    In this stage of the investigation work, the water quality indexes, the heavy metals concentration in the dissolved phase and in the sediments of the four samplings were determined, it was determined too the texture of the one sediment and the analyses of the suspended matter of the water and the relative abundance relative of particles by scanning electron microscopy and the determination of the crystalline structures of the sediment by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  16. Cellular proliferation in the urorectal septation complex of the human embryo at Carnegie stages 13-18: a nuclear area-based morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot-Cegarra, Josep; Fàbregas, Pere Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma

    2005-10-01

    In order to analyse the patterns of cellular proliferation both in the mesenchyme of the urorectal septum (URS) and in the adjacent territories (posterior urogenital mesenchyme, anterior intestinal mesenchyme and cloacal folds mesenchyme), as well as their contribution to the process of cloacal division, a computer-assisted method was used to obtain the nuclear area of 3874 mesenchymal cells from camera lucida drawings of nuclear contours of selected sections of human embryos [Carnegie stages (CSs) 13-18]. Based on changes in the size of the nucleus during the cellular cycle, we considered proliferating cells in each territory to be those with a nuclear area over the 75th percentile. The URS showed increasing cell proliferation, with proliferation patterns that coincided closely with cloacal folds mesenchyme, and with less overall proliferation than urogenital and intestinal mesenchymes. Furthermore, at CS 18, we observed the beginning of the rupture in the cloacal membrane; however, no fusion has been demonstrated either between the URS and the cloacal membrane or between the cloacal folds. The results suggest that cloacal division depends on a morphogenetic complex where the URS adjacent territories could determine septal displacement at the time that their mesenchymes could be partially incorporated within the proliferating URS.

  17. On nuclear DD synthesis at the initial stage of nanosecond vacuum discharge with deuterium-loaded Pd anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilenkov, Yu K.; Gus'kov, S. Yu; Karpukhin, V. T.; Oginov, A. V.; Samoylov, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Earlier, there was demonstrated generation of DD neutrons in an interelectrode medium of a low-energy (˜ 1 J) nanosecond vacuum discharge with a hollow cathode and a deuterium-loaded Pd anode. There was revealed essential role of formation of a virtual cathode and a potential well corresponding thereto in the processes of collisional DD synthesis in the interelectrode space. In this work, we have obtained as a result of an experiment and discussed the neutron yield at the very initial stage of the discharge, when the beam of auto-electrons just starts to irradiate the non-ideal surface of the deuterium-loaded Pd anode.

  18. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  19. Report by the Parliamentary mission on nuclear safety, the sector's role and its future. Stage report: nuclear safety. National Assembly nr 3614, Senate nr 701

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birraux, Claude; Bataille, Christian; Sido, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Completed by several contributions, re-transcriptions of hearings and meetings, this voluminous report first presents the rigorous management of safety in the French nuclear industry. It comments how it takes natural and industrial risks into account, how working conditions are controlled and how protection against malevolent acts is performed. It presents the safety organisation as a very complete one, and shows how this management is constantly improved. In a second part, it discusses which aspects should be reinforced in priority: the taking of other natural risks into account, a deeper anticipation of possible situations. The authors outline the State's role, efforts to be made in terms of means, personnel implication, and research. They also address the case of the EPR and outlines some lack of transparency on safety matters

  20. Production of radioisotopes by cyclotron at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - an evaluation of the present stage of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, G.L. de; Britto, J.L.Q. de; Osso Junior, J.A.; Bastos, M.A.V.; Braghirolli, A.M.S.; Chamma, D.F.S.; Silva, A.G. da

    1984-01-01

    Since 1974 a variable energy isochronous cyclotron (CV-28) is operating at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro, with the main purpose of producing radioisotopes for medical diagnosis. To accomplish this, besides the conventional chemical laboratories and related facilities, hot chemistry laboratories with their specific equipment and remote handling devices had to be designed and constructed at this Institute, and are still being developed, due to a lack of engineering companies working in this field. Other equipment, intrinsically related to cyclotrons like high power density target holders, collimators etc. were also conceived and constructed. Among the produced raioisotopes, high purity gallium-67 and indium-111 have been periodically sent to hospitals and some efforts are still being made in order to improve and simplify the chemical processing as well as the operational procedures. Some work has also been devoted to the development and improvement of methods for the production of iodine-123, bromine-77 and thallium-201. (Author) [pt

  1. Technique treatment of early stage support construction system for Gaoling mountain tunnel engineering of Daya Bay nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Keli

    2010-01-01

    This article studies the technical treatment of primary support system used in Gaoling mountain tunnel construction process at Daya by nuclear power plant in combination with the new austrian tunneling construction method, this article first analyzes the design of primary support system, and the key point of the analyses lies in the primary support technical treatment schemes of Gaoling mountain tunnel with the examples of tunnel collapse and primary support design alteration for bias voltage section, then the construction technology of the primary support system is summarized, and the safety of wall rock is analyzed as well with the measurement data. In the end, suggestions are put forward on the design and construction of primary support system for tunnels on the basis of practical working experience. (author)

  2. Nuclear techniques to evaluate the water use of field crops irrigated in different stages of their cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libardi, P.L.; Moraes, S.O.; Saad, M.A.; Jong Van Lier, Q.; Vieira, O.; Luis Tuon, R.

    1995-01-01

    The search for soil - water management systems that rationalize the water use of field crops should always be emphasized. The present coordinated research programme of the joint division FAO/ AEA has the objective to contribute to a better understanding of this subject by improving the use efficiency of water resources in irrigated agriculture. This project is a contribution to this programme and consisted in the identification of specified development stages of bean ( phaseolus vulgaris, L ) and corn (Zea mays, L ) crops in which plants are less sensitive to water deficit. Experiments were carried out in a tropical soil of agricultural importance in a traditional irrigation field site of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Neutron probe tensiometers were used to determine the soil water balance in different treatments. 3 tabs, 16 refs, (Author)

  3. Bovine conceptus of Bos indicus produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis present morphological variations since the blastocyst stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, embryo development is characterized by the appearance of two distinct cell layers, the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The latter will undergo differentiation to form the embryonic disc consisting of the epiblast and hypoblast. The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally characterize the bovine embryo from different in vitro production techniques, with emphasis on trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells. Bovine embryos on day 7 (conception = D1 of pregnancy, derived via in vitro production techniques, were fixed for light and transmission electron microscopy processing. Results suggested that embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cells and parthenogenesis showed significant changes in macroscopic and microscopic structure. Size was reduced, and the inner cell mass had no defined shape. Furthermore, organelles responsible for the absorption processes, communication, growth, and cellular metabolism were fewer and had changes in shape, when compared to results in embryos produced by in vitrofertilization. We concluded that embryos produced by parthenogenesis and SCNT exhibit morphological differences when compared with IVF embryos, such as undeveloped blastocoel, poorly defined distribution of ICM, and morphological differences in organelles.

  4. In vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer affect imprinting of SNRPN gene in pre- and post-implantation stages of development in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Alan K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo in vitro manipulations during early development are thought to increase mortality by altering the epigenetic regulation of some imprinted genes. Using a bovine interspecies model with a single nucleotide polymorphism, we assessed the imprinting status of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN gene in bovine embryos produced by artificial insemination (AI, in vitro culture (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT and correlated allelic expression with the DNA methylation patterns of a differentially methylated region (DMR located on the SNRPN promoter. Results In the AI group, SNRPN maternal expression is silenced at day 17 and 40 of development and a third of the alleles analyzed are methylated in the DMR. In the IVF group, maternal transcripts were identified at day 17 but methylation levels were similar to the AI group. However, day-40 fetuses in the IVF group showed significantly less methylation when compared to the AI group and SNRPN expression was mostly paternal in all fetal tissues studied, except in placenta. Finally, the SCNT group presented severe loss of DMR methylation in both day-17 embryos and 40 fetuses and biallelic expression was observed in all stages and tissues analyzed. Conclusion Together these results suggest that artificial reproductive techniques, such as prolonged in vitro culture and SCNT, lead to abnormal reprogramming of imprinting of SNRPN gene by altering methylation levels at this locus.

  5. Stage 1 performance qualification of heat-ventilation air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the manufacturing of Tc-99m Generator at Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen Ng; Noriah Jamal; Rehir Dahalan; Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Noraisyah Yusof; Shaharum Ramli; Jusnan Hashim; Ariff Hamzah; Wan Firdaus Wan Ishak; Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Asmah Mohibat; Shafii Khamis; Zulkifli Mohamed Hashim; Zakaria Ibrahim; Shaaban Kasim

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing of Tc-99m generator is carried out in clean room Block 21 of Malaysian Nuclear Agency, which need to comply current Good Manufacturing Practice requirement. High-ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) is a new renovated system. It is a critical system for maintaining suitable temperature, relative humidity and pressure differential in the clean room. The objective of this paper is to present results on Stage 1 Performance Qualification (PQ) for HVAC. This PQ stage 1 was done from 7 February 2007 till 16 March 2007. Temperature, Relative Humidity and Pressure Differential for each compartment in the clean room was monitored twice daily. The Measurement of air-born particle count was done weekly. Settle plate for microbial test was also done weekly. The results were then analyzed and compared with the pre-determined specification. We found that temperature was within the specs, namely 24 +20 degree C. Relative humidity was less than 65%. Pressure differential shows variation, some compartments are below the specs namely 1-3 mm H 2 O. Air-born particle and microbial test also meet the requirement. The results show that all parameters meeting the specs excepts for the pressure differential for certain compartments are a bit low, but is sufficient to create proper air flow and not cause any risk of cross contamination. The existing HVAC system in the clean room is in compliance to the pre-determined specification. However, further improvement can be made by increasing the pressure differential between compartments. (Author)

  6. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  7. State of exposure control for workers engaging in radiation works and state of radioactive waste management in nuclear reactor facilities for test and research and nuclear reactor facilities at research and development stage, fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the summary of the reports submitted in fiscal year 1995 by the installers of the nuclear reactor facilities for test and research or at research and development stage, conforming to the related law. The individual dose equivalent of the workers engaging in radiation works in fiscal year 1995 was sufficiently lower than the prescribed limit in all reactor facilities. As for the released quantities of gaseous and liquid wastes, the radioactive substances in the air and water outside the monitor zones never exceeded the prescribed concentration limit in all reactor facilities. In the reactor facilities, for which the target values of release control have been determined, the values were less than the targets in all cases. The increase of stored radioactive solid waste decreased as the dismantling works of the reactor auxiliary system of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' were finished in fiscal year 1994. As the amount of stored radioactive solid waste approaches the installed capacity, the preservation capacity of the existing waste preservation building was increased. (K.I.)

  8. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  9. Estimation of Te-132 distribution in Fukushima Prefecture at the early stage of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant reactor failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Zheng, Jian

    2013-05-21

    Tellurium-132 ((132)Te, half-life: 3.2 d) has been assessed as the radionuclide with the third largest release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011; thus it would have made some dose contribution during the early stage of the reactor failures. The available data for (132)Te are, however, limited. In this study, available reported values of other isotopes of Te were compiled to estimate (132)Te concentration (in MBq m(-2)). It was found that (132)Te and (129m)Te (half-life: 33.6 d) concentrations were well correlated (R = 0.99, p < 0.001) by t test. Thus, (132)Te concentrations on March 11, 2011 were estimated from (129m)Te using the concentration conversion factor ((132)Te /(129m)Te) of 14.5. It was also found that since deposited (129m)Te was well retained in the soil, the data collected in March-May of 2011 were applicable to (132)Te estimation. It was possible to obtain the first (132)Te concentration contour map for the eastern part of Fukushima Prefecture, including data from within the 20-km exclusion zone around the FDNPP, using these newly available estimated (132)Te data sets.

  10. Small Molecule Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-kB Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Suppresses Renal Inflammation in Early Stage of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Manash P; Lahkar, Mangala; Ahmed, Sahabuddin; Chowdhury, Liakat; Kumar, Saurabh; Pant, Rajat; Choubey, Abhinav

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which ultimately gives rise to cardiovascular diseases. Prolonged hyperglycaemia and chronic renal inflammation are the two key players in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB)-mediated inflammatory cascade is a strong contributor to the renovascular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we studied the effects of piceatannol, a potent NF-kB inhibitor, on various oxidative stress markers and NF-kB dependent diabetic renoinflammatory cascades in rat induced by alloxan (ALX). Experimental diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal dose, 150 mg/kg body-weight (b.w.) of ALX. Diabetic rats were treated with Piceatannol (PCTNL) at a dose of 30 and 50 mg/kg b.w. After 14 days of oral treatment, PCTNL significantly restored blood sugar level, glomerular filtration rate, serum markers and plasma lipids. PCTNL administration also reversed the declined activity of cellular antioxidant machineries namely superoxide dismutase and glutathione and the elevated levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide. Moreover, piceatannol-treated groups showed marked inhibition of renal pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-kB p65/p50 binding to DNA. Renal histopathological investigations also supported its ameliorative effects against diabetic kidney damage. Importantly, effects were more prominent at a dose of 50 mg/kg, and in terms of body-weight gain, PCTNL failed to effect significantly. However, overall findings clearly demonstrated that PCTNL provides remarkable renoprotection in diabetes by abrogating oxidative stress and NF-kB activation - and might be helpful in early stage of diabetic nephropathy. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Nuclear medicine in diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the head and neck. I. Salivary and parathyroid gland disease and one identification and staging of head and neck tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahd, W.H.; Rose, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of both improved imaging systems and new radioactive agents has increased the effectiveness of nuclear medicine in diagnosing and treating diseases of the head and neck. In this first in a series of two articles, the role of nuclear medicine is discussed in the evaluation of diseases of the salivary and parathyroid glands, and in the identification and staging of head and neck tumors. Radionuclide studies of the salivary glands are useful in the identification of tumors and the evaluation of gland function. Such studies are a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of Sjoegren's syndrome and of acute and chronic inflammatory disease. Radionuclide imaging also has been helpful in the detection of adenomata and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands and often complements ultrasonography localization procedures. The advent of gallium-67 imaging has improved the staging of head and neck tumors

  12. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  13. Development of the stationary state and simulation of an accident severe stage type station blackout with the MELCOR code version 1.8.6 for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica R, C. A.; Godinez S, V.

    2011-11-01

    Considering the events happened since the 11 March of 2011, in Japan, where an earthquake of 9.1 grades Ritcher of intensity and a later tsunami impacted in an important way the operation of a nuclear power plant located in the Fukushima, Japan; damaging and disabling their cooling systems and injection of emergency water due to the total loss of electric power (commonly denominated Station Blackout), is eminent the analysis of this stage type that took to the nuclear power plant to conditions of damage to the core and explosions generation by hydrogen concentrations in the reactor building. In this work an analysis of a stage type station blackout is presented, using the model of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde starting of the stationary state. The analysis is carried out using the MELCOR code (Methods for Estimation of Leakages and Consequences of Releases) version 1.8.6 whose purpose is to model the accidents progression for light water reactors. The obtained results are qualitatively similar to the events observed in the Fukushima nuclear power plant even though limitations exist to achieve a precise simulation of the events happened in Japan, such as the information flow of the chronology of the operator actions, as well as of the characteristic design of the power plant, volumes in cavities and rooms, water/cooling inventories, interconnected systems and their own emergency procedures or guides for the administration of severe accidents among others. (Author)

  14. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  15. A multi-stage-flash desalination plant of relative small performance with an integrated pressurized water reactor as a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, M.; Petersen, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the Krupp-GKSS joint study MINIPLEX the requirements for seawater-desalination-plants with a performance in the range of 10,000 to 80,000 m 3 /d heated by a nuclear reactor are investigated. The reactor concept is similar to the integrated pressurized water reactor (IPWR) of the nuclear ship OTTO HAHN. The calculated costs of the desalinated water show, that due to the fuel cost advantages of reactors small and medium nuclear desalination plants are economically competetive with oil-fired plants since the steep rise of oil price in autumn 1973. (orig.) [de

  16. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  17. On regulation of environmental responsibility in the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. - Parallel regulation within the framework of Euratom and the Lisbon-treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhag, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    In Sweden, the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel is regulated in various laws and regulations. This means that there is an overlap between laws providing a sometimes vague and weak legal situation. Although attempts have been made to coordinate environmental and nuclear law these attempts have not succeeded. Recently, several Swedish reports have again described the fact that we have a parallel system of legal rules for the handling of spent nuclear fuel and the consequences of this. Foremost attention has been drawn to the fact that the licensing of a repository must be made both under the Nuclear Safety Act and the Environmental Code. The regulation referred to above is Swedish, and both the parallel regulation of nuclear safety-, radiation protection- and environmental- responsibility, and the relationship between such legislation, has its own Swedish history. However, Swedish legislation in all these areas is also under the influence of international regulations. This article describes the parallel regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection issues on a European level. It shows that the division and logic found in the relationship between the Swedish laws is only partially reflected at European level. First treated is the relationship between the EC-treaty and Euratom. The article then turns to examples of regulatory responsibility for waste management and communication of information relating to license applications (environmental impact assessments) for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel within the framework of Euratom and the EC-treaty. Finally, it discusses the implications of this type of parallel regulation for the Swedish licensing procedure

  18. On regulation of environmental responsibility in the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. - Parallel regulation within the framework of Euratom and the Lisbon-treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhag, Thomas (Dept. of Law, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)), e-mail: thomas.erhag@law.gu.se

    2010-09-15

    In Sweden, the responsibility for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel is regulated in various laws and regulations. This means that there is an overlap between laws providing a sometimes vague and weak legal situation. Although attempts have been made to coordinate environmental and nuclear law these attempts have not succeeded. Recently, several Swedish reports have again described the fact that we have a parallel system of legal rules for the handling of spent nuclear fuel and the consequences of this. Foremost attention has been drawn to the fact that the licensing of a repository must be made both under the Nuclear Safety Act and the Environmental Code. The regulation referred to above is Swedish, and both the parallel regulation of nuclear safety-, radiation protection- and environmental- responsibility, and the relationship between such legislation, has its own Swedish history. However, Swedish legislation in all these areas is also under the influence of international regulations. This article describes the parallel regulation of nuclear safety and radiation protection issues on a European level. It shows that the division and logic found in the relationship between the Swedish laws is only partially reflected at European level. First treated is the relationship between the EC-treaty and Euratom. The article then turns to examples of regulatory responsibility for waste management and communication of information relating to license applications (environmental impact assessments) for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel within the framework of Euratom and the EC-treaty. Finally, it discusses the implications of this type of parallel regulation for the Swedish licensing procedure

  19. Nuclear accumulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and acceleration of G1/S stage by Epstein-Barr-encoded oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yongguang; Song Xing; Deng Xiyun; Xie Daxin; Lee, Leo M.; Liu Yiping; Li Wei; Li Lili; Deng Lin; Wu Qiao; Gong Jianping; Cao Ya

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV-encoded proteins and has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly improved our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used the Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1-integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 which could be regulated by the Tet system. We found that LMP1 could regulate the nuclear accumulation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner quantitatively and qualitatively. We also demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation and EGFR in the nucleus could bind to the promoters of cyclinD1 and cyclinE, respectively. We further demonstrated that EGFR is involved in the acceleration of the G1/S phase transition by LMP1 through binding to cyclinD1 and cyclinE directly. These findings provided a novel view that the acceleration of LMP1 on the G1/S transition via the nuclear accumulation of EGFR was critical in the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  20. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  1. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  2. Differential modulation of expression of nuclear receptor mediated genes by tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) on early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiyuan, E-mail: zhiyuan_nju@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Yu, Yijun, E-mail: yjun.yu@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Tang, Song [School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Liu, Hongling, E-mail: hlliu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Su, Guanyong; Xie, Yuwei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China); Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hecker, Markus [School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Yu, Hongxia [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Effects of TBOEP on expression of genes of several nuclear hormone receptors and their relationship with adverse effect pathways in zebrafish. • TBOEP was neither an agonist nor antagonist of AR or AhR as determined by use of in vitro mammalian cell-based receptor transactivation assays. • Modulation of ER- and MR-dependent pathways allowed for development of feasible receptor-mediated, critical mechanisms of toxic action. - Abstract: As one substitute for phased-out brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is frequently detected in aquatic organisms. However, knowledge about endocrine disrupting mechanisms associated with nuclear receptors caused by TBOEP remained restricted to results from in vitro studies with mammalian cells. In the study, results of which are presented here, embryos/larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5 μM TBOEP to investigate expression of genes under control of several nuclear hormone receptors (estrogen receptors (ERs), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and pregnane × receptor (P × R)) pathways at 120 hpf. Exposure to 0.5 μM TBOEP significantly (p < 0.05, one-way analysis of variance) up-regulated expression of estrogen receptors (ERs, er1, er2a, and er2b) genes and ER-associated genes (vtg4, vtg5, pgr, ncor, and ncoa3), indicating TBOEP modulates the ER pathway. In contrast, expression of most genes (mr, 11βhsd, ube2i,and adrb2b) associated with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, in vitro mammalian cell-based (MDA-kb2 and H4IIE-luc) receptor transactivation assays, were also conducted to investigate possible agonistic or antagonistic effects on AR- and AhR-mediated pathways. In mammalian cells, none of these pathways were

  3. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  4. Co-expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic HMGB1 is inversely associated with infiltration of CD45RO+ T cells and prognosis in patients with stage IIIB colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Rui-Qing; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shi; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Ya; Li, Chun-Yan; Yu, Xing-Juan; Zhang, Xing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen; Zheng, Li-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The intratumoral infiltration of T cells, especially memory T cells, is associated with a favorable prognosis in early colorectal cancers. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. This study examined whether high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, is involved in the infiltration of T cells and disease progression in locally advanced colon cancer. Seventy-two cases of pathologically-confirmed specimens were obtained from patients with stage IIIB (T3N1M0) colon cancer who underwent radical resection between January 1999 and May 2002 at the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-Sen University. The density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within the tumor tissue and the expression of HMGB1 in the cancer cells were examined via immunohistochemical analysis. The phenotype of CD45RO+ cells was confirmed using a flow cytometric assay. The association between HMGB1 expression, the density of TILs, and the 5-year survival rate were analyzed. The density of CD45RO+ T cells within the tumor was independently prognostic, although a higher density of CD3+ T cells was also associated with a favorable prognosis. More importantly, the expression of HMGB1 was observed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm (co-expression pattern) in a subset of colon cancer tissues, whereas nuclear-only expression of HMGB1 (nuclear expression pattern) existed in most of the cancer tissues and normal mucosa. The co-expression pattern of HMGB1 in colon cancer cells was inversely associated with the infiltration of both CD3+ and CD45RO+ T cells and 5-year survival rates. This study revealed that the co-expression of HMGB1 is inversely associated with the infiltration of CD45RO+ T cells and prognosis in patients with stage IIIB colon cancer, indicating that the distribution patterns of HMGB1 might contribute to the progression of colon cancer via modulation of the local immune response

  5. Radioactive contamination in the Tokyo metropolitan area in the early stage of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident and its fluctuation over five years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Ishida

    Full Text Available Radioactive contamination in the Tokyo metropolitan area in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident was analyzed via surface soil sampled during a two-month period after the accident. 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were detected in these soil samples. The activity and inventory of radioactive material in the eastern part of Tokyo tended to be high. The 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio in soil was 0.978 ± 0.053. The 131I/137Cs ratio fluctuated widely, and was 19.7 ± 9.0 (weighted average 18.71 ± 0.13, n = 14 in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The radioactive plume with high 131I activity spread into the Tokyo metropolitan area and was higher than the weighted average of 6.07 ± 0.04 (n = 26 in other areas. The radiocesium activity and inventory surveyed in soil from a garden in Chiyoda Ward in the center of Tokyo, fell approximately 85% in the four months after the accident, and subsequently tended to rise slightly while fluctuating widely. It is possible that migration and redistribution of radiocesium occurred. The behavior of radiocesium in Tokyo was analyzed via monitoring of radiocesium in sludge incineration ash. The radiocesium activity in the incineration ash was high at wastewater treatment centers that had catchment areas in eastern Tokyo and low at those with catchment areas in western Tokyo. Similar to the case of the garden soil, even in incineration ash, the radiocesium activity dropped rapidly immediately after the accident. The radiocesium activity in the incineration ash fell steadily from the tenth month after the accident until December 2016, and its half-life was about 500 days. According to frequency analysis, in central Tokyo, the cycles of fluctuation of radiocesium activity in incineration ash and rainfall conformed, clearly showing that radiocesium deposited in urban areas was resuspended and transported by rainfall run-off.

  6. Nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolny, M.

    1980-01-01

    The development and uses of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia and other countries are briefly outlined. In the first stage, the Czechoslovak nuclear programme was oriented to the WWER 440 type reactor while the second stage of the nuclear power plant construction is oriented to the WWER 10O0 type reactor. It is envisaged that 12 WWER 440 type reactors and four to five WWER 1000 type reactors will be commissioned till 1990. (J.P.)

  7. Radioactive particles revealed by electron microscopy. Chemical and physical properties of radioactive particles in aerosol samples emitted during the early stage of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble radioactive materials emitted during an early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 were identified, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized as particulate matters. In this report, studies on radioactive particles collected from filter samples in Tsukuba on March 14–15, 2011 are summarized. Their compositions, chemical states, sizes, shapes, crystallinity, and hygroscopicity were analyzed using microscopic analyses such as electron microscopy and synchrotron with a micro-beam. The results indicate that they include Cs, Fe, and Zn as well as elements from fission products and are water insoluble, spherical-glassy particles with ca. 2 micrometer in size. Understanding of their detailed properties is significant to improve the numerical models during the accident and to understand their occurrences in soil as well as the accident itself. In addition to the water-insoluble radioactive materials, water-soluble radioactive materials, which were likely emitted in different events during the accident, should be investigated to have comprehensive understanding of the accident and its environmental effects. More samples from various environments such as soil will be needed, and more detailed chemical and physical analyses will help to understand their formation process, influences on human health, and long term decrements in ambient conditions. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the I. Stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrasnova, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper author deals with following aspects: 1. Introduction of company Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, plc; 2. Evaluation of the I. stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1; (author)

  9. Nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourievidis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Having first outlined the main problems China must resolve in the field of energy supply, this paper presents the nuclear option trends established by the government, recalls the different stages in the nuclear Chinese development programme, achievements and projects. The organization of nuclear research and industry, as also the fuel cycle situation and uranium resources are then described. Finally, the international nuclear cooperation policy carried out by the chinese government and more particularly the agreement settled with France are presented [fr

  10. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  11. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease in its earliest stage, often ... may be asked to wear a gown as well. Tell your doctor if there is any possibility ...

  12. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stage, often before symptoms occur or before abnormalities can be detected with other diagnostic tests. Nuclear medicine ... nuclear medicine exam, there are several things you can do to prepare. First, you may be asked ...

  13. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentru Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. The behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied. 2 refs., 8 tabs

  14. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C--1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied

  15. Nuclear fusion TORE SUPRA, a new stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, M.; Laurent, L.

    1995-01-01

    Since almost forty years, the scientists try and neutralize in a pacific aim thermonuclear fusion energy and therefore they use the magnetic confinement of hot plasmas.In France, since 1960 the achieved studies permitted in 1988 to bring into service the TORE SUPRA TOKAMAK, which used, for the first time a superconducting magnet to generate the confinement magnetic field. TORE SUPRA, which didn't still explore its maximal potentialities, will be one of the apparatuses which will be used as basis of the international project ITER development. 5 figs

  16. SNRIU nuclear installation modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goroshanskyi, Andrii

    2013-01-01

    Design stages of Nuclear Instalations (NI): NI design is performed in three stages: • Feasibility study: - Feasibility study is developed on the basis of the customer task for production facilities and linear facilities engineering and transport infrastructure that require detailed study of relevant decisions and identify options for and feasibility of construction. • Design: - The design is developed on the basis of design task, initial data and approved the previous stage under three-stage design. • Detailed documentation

  17. Renal cell carcinoma in India demonstrates early age of onset & a late stage of presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Agnihotri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Clinical spectrum of most of the diseases in developing countries is different from the west. Similarly whether renal cell carcinomas (RCC in a developing country like India is seen in the same spectrum in relation to the age at presentation as in the west is not described in the literature. This study was carried out to investigate the spectrum of RCC in India with regards to age of onset, stage at presentation and survival. Methods: Patients with renal tumour, treated between January 2000 to December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital in north India, were analyzed for age at presentation, clinical features and histopathological characteristics. Clinical diagnosis was made by contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT scans and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Renal masses diagnosed as angiomyolipoma, infective masses and hydatid cysts were excluded from the analysis. Impact of various age groups on gender, tumour size, TNM stage, Fuhrman grade, histopathological subtypes, lymph node, inferior vena cava (IVC involvement and survival was analyzed. Patients were grouped in five age groups i.e. ≤39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and more than 70 yr of age. Results: Of the total 617 patients with 617 renal tumours (2 patients had bilateral tumours but only the larger tumour was considered clinically suspected as RCC, 586 had epithelial cell tumour and the remaining 31 had non epithelial cell tumour. The mean tumour size was 8.08±3.5 cm (median 7, range 1-25 cm. Tumour of less than 4 cm size was present in only 10.4 per cent patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.15±13.34 (median 56, range 14-91 yr years. A total of 30.03 per cent of renal tumours presented in patients younger than 50 yr of age. Though there was no difference in stage, Fuhrman′s grade, IVC involvement and lymph nodal spread among various age groups, younger patients had higher proportion of non clear cell RCC and only 48.59 per cent of them presented

  18. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  19. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  20. Nuclear information access system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, C. H.; Yang, M. H.; Yoon, S. W.

    1998-01-01

    The energy supply in the countries, which have abundant energy resources, may not be affected by accepting the assertion of anti-nuclear and environment groups. Anti-nuclear movements in the countries which have little energy resources may cause serious problem in securing energy supply. Especially, it is distinct in Korea because she heavily depends on nuclear energy in electricity supply(nuclear share in total electricity supply is about 40%).The cause of social trouble surrounding nuclear energy is being involved with various circumstances. However, it is very important that we are not aware of the importance of information access and prepared for such a situation from the early stage of nuclear energy's development. In those matter, this paper analyzes the contents of nuclear information access system in France and Japan which have dynamic nuclear development program and presents the direction of the nuclear access regime through comparing Korean status and referring to progresses of the regime

  1. Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the first lecture of this volume, we will present the basic fundamental ideas regarding nuclear processes occurring in stars. We start from stellar observations, will then elaborate on some important quantum-mechanical phenomena governing nuclear reactions, continue with how nuclear reactions proceed in a hot stellar plasma and, finally, we will provide an overview of stellar burning stages. At the end, the current knowledge regarding the origin of the elements is briefly summarized. This lecture is directed towards the student of nuclear astrophysics. Our intention is to present seemingly unrelated phenomena of nuclear physics and astrophysics in a coherent framework.

  2. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  3. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  4. Trends in nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, N.W.

    1990-01-01

    The development of nuclear safety and licensing is briefly reviewed in four stages namely: The Formative Period (1946-1959), The Expansive Period (1960-1969), The Mature Period (1970-1979) and the Apprehensive Period (1980-1989). Particular safety issues in the respective periods are highlighted to indicate the changing emphasis of nuclear licensing over the past thirty years or so. Against this background, nuclear licensing. (author)

  5. Trends in nuclear licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, N W [Council for Nuclear Safety, Hennopsmeer, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    The development of nuclear safety and licensing is briefly reviewed in four stages namely: The Formative Period (1946-1959), The Expansive Period (1960-1969), The Mature Period (1970-1979) and the Apprehensive Period (1980-1989). Particular safety issues in the respective periods are highlighted to indicate the changing emphasis of nuclear licensing over the past thirty years or so. Against this background, nuclear licensing. (author)

  6. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  7. Summary Stage 2018 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed January 1, 2018 and forward. 2018 version applies to every site and/or histology combination, including lymphomas and leukemias. Historically, also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  8. Nuclear manpower planning and personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Taiwan Power Company has established a nuclear manpower program to identify human resources, selection and recruitment of entry level engineers and technicians of Nuclear Energy Group. The methodology to estimate the future nuclear manpower demand of Taipower has been clearly described in this article. Also, the manpower program is being used as the bases for nuclear training program development. For safe, reliable and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, Taipower has established a systematic training program for nuclear power stations and headquarter personnel. The training program has been implemented in three stages with different patterns of training program. The first stage of nuclear training before 1975 was completed successfully. The second stage of nuclear training currently conducted since 1975 enlarges domestic training capability. The third stage of nuclear training with a long term training program is now under a systematic and compositive development effort

  9. Carbonic Anhydrase IX is Not a Predictor of Outcomes in Non-Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma - A Digital Analysis of Tissue Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zerati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The knowledge about the molecular biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC is evolving, and Carbonic Anhydrase type IX (CA-IX has emerged as a potential prognostic marker in this challenging disease. However, most of the literature about CA-IX on ccRCC comes from series on metastatic cancer, with a lack of series on non-metastatic cancer. The objective is to evaluate the expression of CA-IX in a cohort of non-metastatic ccRCC, correlating with 1 overall survival, and 2 with established prognostic parameters (T stage, tumor size, Fuhrman nuclear grade, microvascular invasion and peri-renal fat invasion. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. We evaluated 95 patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, as to the expression of CA-IX. The analyzed parameters where: overall survival (OS, TNM stage, tumor size (TS, Fuhrman nuclear grade (FNG, microvascular invasion (MVI, peri-renal fat invasion (PFI. We utilized a custom built tissue microarray, and the immunoexpression was digitally quantified using the Photoshop® software. Results: Th e mean follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 1.9 to 19.5 years. The analysis of CA-IX expression against the selected prognostic parameters showed no correlation. The results are as follows: Overall survival (p = 0.790; T stage (p = 0.179; tumor size (p = 0.143; grouped Fuhrman nuclear grade (p = 0.598; microvascular invasion (p = 0.685, and peri-renal fat invasion (p = 0.104. Conclusion Carbonic anhydrase type IX expression does not correlate with overall survival and conventional prognostic parameters in non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  10. The staging area concept for item control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Accounting for special nuclear material contained in fabricated nuclear fuel rod items has been completely automated at the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division facility in Columbia, South Carolina. Experience with the automated system has shown substantial difficulty in maintaining current knowledge of the precise locations of rods pulled out of the ''normal'' processing cycle. This has been resolved by creation of two tightly controlled staging areas for handling and distribution of all ''deviant'' rods by two specially trained expeditors. Thus, coupling automated data collection with centralized expert handling and distribution has created a viable system for control of large numbers of fuel rods in a major fabrication plant

  11. Nuclear energy achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, Colette

    1992-01-01

    Within half a century nuclear energy achieved very successful results. Only for European Community, nuclear energy represents 30% in electricity generation. At this stage, one state that the nuclear energy winning cards are competitiveness and Gentleness to the environment. Those winning cards will still be master cards for the 21st century, provided nuclear energy handles rigorously: Safety in concept and operation of power plants; radioactive waste management, and communication

  12. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical Studies Research Brain Donation ...

  13. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  14. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  15. Stages and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  16. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  18. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  19. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the omentum. The cancer ... lymph nodes behind the peritoneum. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to the ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  6. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  7. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  8. Modulation Algorithms for Manipulating Nuclear Spin States

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Boyang; Zhang, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the impact of exact frequency modulation on transition time of steering nuclear spin states from theoretical point of view. 1-stage and 2-stage Frequency-Amplitude-Phase modulation (FAPM) algorithms are proposed in contrast with 1-stage and 3-stage Amplitude-Phase modulation (APM) algorithms. The sufficient conditions are further present for transiting nuclear spin states within the specified time by these four modulation algorithms. It is demonstrated that transition time performa...

  9. Mitotic effects of monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 225, 265, and 280 nm on eleven stages of the cell cycle of the grasshopper neuroblast in culture. II. Changes in progression rate and cell sequence between the stage irradiated and nuclear membrane breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Portions of embryos of the grasshopper, Chortophaga viridifasciata (DeGeer), were cultured in hanging drops under quartz cover slips. Immediately after exposure to 225, 265, or 280 nm radiation, microscope observations at 38 0 C were begun. The morphologically identified stage and the time after treatment of selected neuroblasts were recorded at short-time intervals until prometaphase was reached. Mitotic retardation induced by irradiation of prereplication stages (metaphase, anaphase, or early telophase) or S phase (middle or late telophase, interphase, or very early prophase) is greatest in postreplication stages (early, middle, and late prophase) and absent or minimal in stages morphologically identified as parts of S phase. Ultraviolet irradiation superimposes on the normal diversity of progression rates an additional variation factor, so that cells do not necessarily reach prometaphase in the order of their sequence at the time of treatment. This suggests the need for caution in ascribing particular radiosensitivities to substages of limited duration on the basis of the order in which they attain a subsequent stage

  10. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  11. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  12. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  13. Radiation exposure doses of employees in reactor facilities for test and research and under research and development stages, and in facilities for nuclear fuel refining, fabrication, reprocessing and usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    (1) Radiation exposure doses in reactor facilities. The owners of reactor facilities are obliged by law to control the radiation exposure doses of the employees below the permissible levels. The data based on the reports made in this connection are given in tables for the fiscal year 1978 (from April 1978 to March 1979). It was revealed that the radiation exposure doses of the employees were far below the permissible levels. The distributions of exposure doses in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and so on are presented for the whole year and the respective quarters. (2) Radiation exposure doses in facilities for nuclear fuel. The owners are similarly obliged to control radiation exposure. The data in this connection are given, and the doses were far below the permissible levels. The distributions in the private enterprises and so on are presented for the whole year. (J.P.N.)

  14. Interação entre células do cumulus e atividade da proteína quinase C em diferentes fases da maturação nuclear de oócitos bovinos Interaction between cumulus cells and the activity of protein kinase C at different stages of bovine oocyte nuclear maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Bertagnolli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a influência da proteína quinase C (PK-C no reinício e na progressão da meiose em oócitos bovinos, determinando se as células do cumulus são mediadoras da PK-C na regulação da maturação dos oócitos. Complexos cumulus-oócitos (CCO e oócitos desnudos (OD, distribuídos aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos (T com base na presença de um ativador da PK-C (PMA (T1 e T2, de um forbol éster incapaz de ativar a PK-C (4alfa-PDD-controle (T3 e T4 ou de apenas o meio básico (TCM-199-controle (T5 e T6, foram cultivados por 7, 9, 12, 18 e 22 horas. A percentagem de rompimento da vesícula germinativa no grupo cultivado com PMA foi maior do que nos dois grupos controle, com e sem células do cumulus. O cultivo de CCO e OD por 12 e 18 horas demonstrou que a PK-C influencia a progressão para os estádios de metáfase I (MI e metáfase II (MII de maneira dependente das células do cumulus. Nos períodos de 9 e 22 horas, não foi possível observar diferença entre os grupos quanto aos diferentes estádios de maturação. A ativação da PK-C acelera o reinício da meiose independentemente das células somáticas e acelera a progressão até os estádios de MI e MII na dependência das células do cumulus.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein kinase C (PK-C on the meiotic resumption and progression in bovine oocyte, and to determine if the cumulus cells mediate the PK-C action in the regulation of bovine oocyte nuclear maturation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC and denuded oocytes (DO, randomly allotted to 6 treatments (T based on the presence of an activator of PK-C (PMA (T1 and T2, or a phorbol ester unable to activate PK-C (4alphaPDD-control (T3 and T4 or a basic culture medium (T5 and T6, were cultivated for 7, 9, 12, 18 and 22 hours. The percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD was higher when the oocytes were cultured with PMA than in the control groups with and without cumulus cells. However, PK-C was

  15. Role of ion chromatograph in nuclear fuel fabrication process at Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji Rao, Y.; Prasada Rao, G.; Prahlad, B.; Saibaba, N.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper discusses the different applications of ion chromatography followed in nuclear fuel fabrication process at Nuclear Fuel Complex. Some more applications of IC for characterization of nuclear materials and which are at different stages of method development at Control Laboratory, Nuclear Fuel Complex are also highlighted

  16. Realistic design principles of nuclear power plants against earthquakes in the FRG - present stage of discussion of the new concept for a KTA-safety-standard concerning earthquake design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintergraeber, M.; Wittmann, R.

    1985-01-01

    A new concept for the seismic design of npp was drafted in Germany. This new concept is thought to be a substitute of the existing safety standard KTA 2201.1 'Basic principles of the design of npp against seismic events' (issued 6/75). The aim of this presentation is to give a survey of the present stage of the relevant discussions within the regulatory committees. (orig.)

  17. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  18. Nuclear Knowledge - Demand or Pride?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Valeca, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, the increasing energy demand and the decreasing 'classical' resources is a reality. In this context, sustainable development and economical growth is mandatory for each country. Nuclear energy becomes more and more attractive in order to solve those problems. During last years, nuclear knowledge management became an interesting topic in dedicated debates, due to the uniqueness of nuclear Industry. With five decades of operational experience in commercial power production, the nuclear power industry is mature and represents the first high technology enterprise of the twentieth century. There is a constant expectation that fission reactor technologies of today will 'soon' be superseded by more advanced designs, new concepts like Generation IV, fusion reactors, etc. Nuclear industry is highly regulated and politicized and strong anti-nuclear lobbies led to stagnation. The presentation underlines the key activity areas of the nuclear knowledge: - providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems; - facilitating knowledge creation and utilization; - implementing effective knowledge management systems; - preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; - enhancing nuclear education and training. Knowledge management in nuclear life cycle should cover all stages involved, namely: - design and engineering; - procurement; - manufacturing; - construction and commissioning; - operation and maintenance- refurbishment and decommissioning. In this context, Romania must change the Nuclear Educational System in order to face the requirements raised by Bologna Process and nuclear development. Possible solutions to attain this goal are illustrated in this presentation. (authors)

  19. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope . Stage II In stage II , cancer has spread: to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis . Also, ... spread to one lymph node in the groin . Cancer has also spread: to connective tissue just under the skin of the penis . Also, ...

  20. Evaluation of oxidative stress status and antioxidant capacity in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, Mustafa; Karaguzel, Ersagun; Okulu, Emrah; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Ener, Kemal; Ozayar, Asim; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the serum oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the control group. The prospective study consisted of 97 patients with RCC (Group 1) and 80 age and sex matched healthy volunteers (Group 2). Group 1 and 2 were compared concerning serum mean total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), arylesterase, total thiol, catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ceruloplasmin. Patients' mean age was 58.5 ±12.3 and 56.9 ±15.8 years, respectively, in Group 1 and 2. No statistically significant differences were detected between the groups in terms of oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant capacity measured in the serum of patients including, TOS, TAC, PON1, arylesterase, total thiol, CAT, MPO, and ceruloplasmin levels (p >0.05 for all parameters). The PON-1 value was significantly higher in patients with pT1 stage than pT3 stage (p = 0.007). The arylesterase value was significantly higher in patients with Fuhrman's nuclear grade 3 than grade 2 (p = 0.035). There was no correlation between these parameters level and Fuhrman's nuclear grade, stage, or histopathological tumor type. Our results demonstrated that evaluation of these parameters in the serum of patients with localized RCC may not be used as a marker to discriminate between patients with RCC and healthy people.

  1. Growth points in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Peter Edward

    1980-01-01

    Growth Points in Nuclear Physics, Volume 2 covers the progress in the fields of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. This book is composed of three chapters. The first chapter is devoted to nuclear forces and potentials, in particular the optical model potential that enables the elastic scattering of many particles by nuclei to be calculated in a very simple manner. This chapter also deals with the three-body forces and the spin dependence of the nuclear potential. The second chapter describes higher order processes involving two or more stages, specifically their intrinsic interest and th

  2. Coordination compounds in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisson, S.; Berning, D.; Wei Jia; Dangshe Ma

    1993-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals, drugs containing a radionuclide, are used routinely in nuclear medicine departments for the diagnosis of disease and are under investigation for use in the treatment of disease. Nuclear medicine takes advantage of both the nuclear properties of the radionuclide and the pharmacological properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Herein lies the real strength of nuclear medicine, the ability to monitor biochemical and physiological functions in vivo. This review discusses the coordination chemistry that forms the basis for nuclear medicine applications of the FDA-approved radiopharmaceuticals that are in clinical use, and of the most promising diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals that are in various stages of development. 232 refs

  3. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  4. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  5. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  6. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  7. The development of nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack-chung Sung

    1987-01-01

    Korea, as a recipient of nuclear technology transfer, has good experience of progressively building up its indigeneous capability of nuclear technology through three stages of technology transfer, namely: technology transfer under the turnkey approach, component approach, and integrated technology transfer with a local prime contractor. Here, each stage of experience of technology transfer, with Korea as a recipient, is presented. (author)

  8. Electrical phenomena in breaking the adhesive contact and in the destruction of solids. Development stages: From the gas discharge to cold nuclear fusion (on the 90th anniversary of the Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, B. V. Deryagin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrustalev, Yu.A.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the research performed mainly by B. V. Deryagin and his coworkers into the electrophysical phenomena that accompany the breaking of an adhesive bond and of solids themselves by a mechanical action (the charging of fresh surfaces and gas discharge processes, caused by an excess charge, the emission of electrons and of x-ray radiation, as well as cold nuclear fusion). The relationship between the emission of electrons and mechanochemical processes in solids is pointed out. 118 refs

  9. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  10. Status of nuclear data activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa [Nuclear Data Evaluation Lab., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusung, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    Although nuclear data activities in Korea are still in the early stage, considerable demands for more accurate and wide-range nuclear data from nuclear R and D fields activated a new nuclear data project titled as `Development of Nuclear Data System`. It was launched this year as one of nation-wide long-term nuclear R and D programs in Korea for the next decade. Its main goals are (1) to establish nuclear data system, (2) to build up the infra-structure for utilization of nuclear data and (3) to develop highly reliable nuclear data system. To achieve these goals, international cooperation and cultivation of human resource as well as construction of measurement facilities will be indispensable. This report briefly describes the demands of nuclear data from the nuclear R and D programs, current nuclear data activities and future plan with its strategy. (author)

  11. Status of nuclear data activities in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa

    1998-01-01

    Although nuclear data activities in Korea are still in the early stage, considerable demands for more accurate and wide-range nuclear data from nuclear R and D fields activated a new nuclear data project titled as 'Development of Nuclear Data System'. It was launched this year as one of nation-wide long-term nuclear R and D programs in Korea for the next decade. Its main goals are 1) to establish nuclear data system, 2) to build up the infra-structure for utilization of nuclear data and 3) to develop highly reliable nuclear data system. To achieve these goals, international cooperation and cultivation of human resource as well as construction of measurement facilities will be indispensable. This report briefly describes the demands of nuclear data from the nuclear R and D programs, current nuclear data activities and future plan with its strategy. (author)

  12. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  13. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  14. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  16. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  19. LDC nuclear power: Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poneman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Indonesia's five-year plan to develop a research reactor is still in the feasibility stage of a policy to minimize domestic oil consumption. The evolution of a nuclear program in Indonesia illustrates the importance of strong political leadership in developing countries which lack technical skills and political and economic stability and the need for strong international support. 39 references

  20. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  1. Stages of Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ultrasound monitor . The picture can be printed to be looked at later. MRI (magnetic resonance ... procedures may be used in the staging process: Bone scan : A procedure to check if there are ...

  2. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  3. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  4. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  5. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  6. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  7. First Stage Acceptance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    This photograph shows the intense smoke and fire created by the five F-1 engines from a test firing of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) in the S-1C test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  8. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  9. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  10. Formation of nuclear security culture in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Gavryliuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issues of nuclear security culture formation are considered in the article. Information on establishing and ac-tivity of Working Group for formation and development of nuclear security culture being held during 2010 – 2013 is given. An issue of regulation of activity on formation and development of nuclear security culture is il-lustrated. Analysis of the survey results regarding efficiency assessment of the work aimed to form and develop of nuclear security culture of nuclear facilities is carried out. The results show that the nuclear security culture of the most of nuclear facilities in Ukraine has been formed and is at the stage of development.

  11. Formation of nuclear security culture in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilyuk, V.Yi.; Gavrilyuk-Burakova, A.V.; Drapej, S.S.; Parkhomenko, V.V.; Proskuryin, D.V.; Romanova, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Issues of nuclear security culture formation are considered in the article. Information on establishing and activity of Working Group for formation and development of nuclear security culture being held during 2010 - 2013 is given. An issue of regulation of activity on formation and development of nuclear security culture is illustrated. Analysis of the survey results regarding efficiency assessment of the work aimed to form and develop of nuclear security culture of nuclear facilities is carried out. The results show that the nuclear security culture of the most of nuclear facilities in Ukraine has been formed and is at the stage of development

  12. Critical review of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, N.

    1996-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived radionuclides is considered as an alternative to the in-depth disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in particular, on the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. The majority of conclusions is the result of the common work of the Karlsruhe FZK and the Commissariat on nuclear energy of France (CEA)

  13. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  14. Implication of PHF2 Expression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is presumed to be associated with adipogenic differentiation. Histone modification is known to be important for adipogenesis, and the function of histone demethylase plant homeodomain finger 2 (PHF2 has been noted. In addition, PHF2 may act as a tumor suppressor via epigenetic regulation of p53 and is reported to be reduced in colon cancer and stomach cancer tissues. In this study, we examined PHF2 expression in CCRCC specimens by immunohistochemistry. Methods We studied 254 CCRCCs and 56 non-neoplastic renal tissues from patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy between 2000 and 2003 at the Seoul National University Hospital. Tissue microarray blocks were prepared, and immunohistochemical staining for PHF2 was performed. Results Among 254 CCRCC cases, 150 cases (59.1% showed high expression and 104 cases (40.1% showed low expression. High expression of PHF2 was significantly correlated with a low Fuhrman nuclear grade (p < .001, smaller tumor size (p < .001, low overall stage (p = .003, longer cancer-specific survival (p = .002, and progression-free survival (p < .001 of the patients. However, it was not an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis adjusted for Fuhrman nuclear grade and overall stage. Conclusions Our study showed that low expression of PHF2 is associated with aggressiveness and poor prognosis of CCRCC.

  15. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  16. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. All four Objectives publications follow the same structure. For each topic in the area, the objectives are described in accordance with the sequence in the Basic Principles publication. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The topics included in Nuclear General Objectives are Energy Systems Analysis and Development of Strategies for Nuclear Energy, Economics, Infrastructure, Management Systems, Human Resources and Knowledge Management. The diversity of the topics contained in Nuclear General Objectives necessitated incorporating some repetition in order to simplify access to the relevant information for the various interested audiences.

  17. No to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kim Beazley has again stated a Labor Government would not pursue nuclear power because the economics 'simply don't stack up'. 'We have significant gas, coal and renewable energy reserves and do not have a solution for the disposal of low-level nuclear waste, let alone waste from nuclear power stations.' The Opposition Leader said developing nuclear power now would have ramifications for Australia's security. 'Such a move could result in our regional neighbours fearing we will use it militarily.' Instead, Labor would focus on the practical measures that 'deliver economic and environmental stability while protecting our national security'. Mr Beazley's comments on nuclear power came in the same week as Prime Minister John Howard declined the request of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for uranium exports, although seemingly not ruling out a policy change at some stage. The Prime Ministers held talks in New Delhi over whether Australia would sell uranium to India without it signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. An agreement reached during a visit by US President George W. Bush gives India access to long-denied nuclear technology and guaranteed fuel in exchange for allowing international inspection of some civilian nuclear facilities. Copyright (2006) Crown Content Pty Ltd

  18. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...

  19. Vision of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A study about the perspectives of nuclear energy, in Japan, for the next 40 years is shown. The present tendencies are analyzed as well as the importance that the subject adquires for the economy and the industry. At the same time, the parameters of the governmental, private and foreign participation are established in the frame of the technological development. The aim fixed for the year 2030 can be divided into; 1: from 1986 to 2010-development of the technology of nuclear fuel cycle already stablished and in process of maturity. The LWR technology will reach a very advanced stage. The fast breeder reactors (FBRs) will become commercially available, and the nuclear fuel cycle will reach its maturity in Japan; 2: from 2011 to 2030-commercial use of the FBRS and further advance in the nuclear fuel cycle. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  1. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  2. Russia's nuclear elite on rampage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    1993-01-01

    In July 1992, the Russian Ministry of Nuclear Industry began pressing the Russian government to adopt a plan to build new nuclear power plants. In mid-January 1993 the government announced that it will build at least 30 new nuclear power plants, and that the second stage of the building program will include construction of three fast-breeder reactors. In this article, the author addresses the rationale behind this massive building program, despite the country's economic condition and public dread of another Chernobyl-type accident. The viewpoints of both the Russian Ministry of Nuclear Industry and opposing interests are discussed

  3. Stagings of Divine Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Based on a combination of performativity and historicity royal Danish ceremonilality is analysed with a special regard to coronation ceremonies as a manifestation of the idea of godgiven royal power. Point of departure is the coronation of Christian 4. in 1596 and the theme of stagings of power...

  4. "Stage 40" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill River Union High School, North Clarendon, VT.

    The policies, purposes, and guidelines of "Stage 40," an educational repertory company for students, are presented in this paper, which also explains how the company functions. The paper discusses the company's history, the relationship between the company and academics, and the responsibilities of a company member. Letters by the board…

  5. Stage theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)

  6. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  7. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  8. Market competition in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear industry provides a wide variety of specialized equipment and services to support the construction and operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). This includes the supply of NPPs themselves, the range of materials and services required in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the services and equipment needed for maintenance and upgrading. The markets to provide these have changed substantially as they have evolved from the government-led early stages of the nuclear industry to predominantly competitive, commercial markets today. (author)

  9. Nuclear weapons in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    2007-01-01

    The 21. century may have started with the 1998 Indian and Pakistani nuclear explosions. The Korean and Iranian crises weaken the non-proliferation system. The great nations have witnessed, all during the Cold War, crises that included the nuclear hypothesis. The multiplication of nuclear actors who do not have the same experience is making the system unstable. Will we again have to experience the Cold War stages, with a new Cuban crisis, this time explicitly nuclear?

  10. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunning, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Collaborative studies are in progress in the U.K. between the U.K.A.E.A., the Generating Boards and other outside bodies, to identify the development issues and practical aspects of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. The various types of U.K.A.E.A. experimental reactors (D.F.R., W.A.G.R , S.G.H.W.R.) in support of the nuclear power development programme, together with the currently operating commercial 26 Magnox reactors in 11 stations, totalling some 5 GW will be retired before the end of the century and attention is focussed on these. The actual timing of withdrawal from service will be dictated by development programme requirements in the case of experimental reactors and by commercial and technical considerations in the case of electricity production reactors. Decommissioning studies have so far been confined to technical appraisals including the sequence logic of achieving specific objectives and are based on the generally accepted three stage progression. Stage 1, which is essentially a defuelling and coolant removal operation, is an interim phase. Stage 2 is a storage situation, the duration of which will be influenced by environmental pressures or economic factors including the re-use of existing sites. Stage 3, which implies removal of all active and non-active waste material and returning the site to general use, must be the ultimate objective. The engineering features and the radioactive inventory of the system must be assessed in detail to avoid personnel or environmental hazards during Stage 2. These factors will also influence decisions on the degree of Stage 2 decommissioning and its duration, bearing in mind that for Stage 3 activation may govern the waste disposal route and the associated radiation man-rem exposure during dismantling. Ideally, planning for decommissioning should be considered at the design stage of the facility. An objective of present studies is to identify features which would assist decommissioning of future systems

  11. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Nuclear waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhanen, V.

    2000-01-01

    A prerequisite for future use of nuclear energy in electricity production is safe management of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power industry. A number of facilities have been constructed for different stages of nuclear waste management around the world, for example for conditioning of different kind of process wastes and for intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel. Difficulties have often been encountered particularly when trying to advance plans for final stage of waste management, which is permanent disposal in stable geological formations. The main problems have not been technical, but poor public acceptance and lack of necessary political decisions have delayed the progress in many countries. However, final disposal facilities are already in operation for low- and medium-level nuclear wastes. The most challenging task is the development of final disposal solutions for long-lived high-level wastes (spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste). The implementation of deep geological repositories for these wastes requires persistent programmes for technology development, siting and safety assessments, as well as for building public confidence in long-term safety of the planned repositories. Now, a few countries are proceeding towards siting of these facilities, and the first high-level waste repositories are expected to be commissioned in the years 2010 - 2020. (author)

  13. Nuclear fuel brokerage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schreiber, K.

    1985-01-01

    Making available nuclear fuels on the spot market, especially uranium in various compounds and processing stages, has become an important service rendered nuclear power plant operators. A secondary market has grown, both for natural uranium and for separative work, the conditions and transactions of which require a comprehensive overview of what is going on, especially also in connection with possibilities to terminate in a profitable manner existing contracts. This situation has favored the activity of brokers with excellent knowledge of the market, who are able to handle the complicated terms and conditions in an optimum way. (orig.) [de

  14. Framework of nuclear safety and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Since enormous energy is released by nuclear chain reaction mainly as a form of radiation, a great potential risk accompanies utilization of nuclear energy. Safety has been continuously a critical issue therefore from the very beginning of its development. Though the framework of nuclear safety that has been established at an early developmental stage of nuclear engineering is still valid, more comprehensive approaches are required having experienced several events such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and JCO. This article gives a brief view of the most basic principles how nuclear safety is achieved, which were introduced and sophisticated in nuclear engineering but applicable also to other engineering domains in general. (author)

  15. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This fact sheet answers specific questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant number sign 1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  16. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report answers questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant No.1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  17. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  18. Nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemm, K R

    1978-05-01

    The global outlook is that nuclear reactors are here to stay and South Africa has already entered the nuclear power stakes. This article discusses the rocketing oil prices, and the alternatives that can be used in power generation, the good safety record of the nuclear industry and the effect that South Africa's first nuclear power station should have on the environment.

  19. Nuclear resisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The booklet contains six papers by different authors, under the headings: dangers along the nuclear fuel cycle; the nuclear profiteers; the nuclear state is a police state; a non-disposable future (renewable energy sources, energy conservation); nuclear weapons - out of control; man made madness. (U.K.)

  20. Business of Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, Nuclear Technology Test Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Test Center established the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office to execute newly the works concerning nuclear safety analysis in addition to the works related to the proving tests of nuclear machinery and equipments. The regulations for the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office concerning its organization, business and others were specially decided, and it started the business formally in August, 1980. It is a most important subject to secure the safety of nuclear facilities in nuclear fuel cycle as the premise of developing atomic energy. In Japan, the strict regulation of safety is executed by the government at each stage of the installation, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear facilities, based on the responsibility for the security of installers themselves. The Nuclear Safety Analysis Office was established as the special organ to help the safety examination related to the installation of nuclear power stations and others by the government. It improves and puts in order the safety analysis codes required for the cross checking in the safety examination, and carries out safety analysis calculation. It is operated by the cooperation of the Science and Technology Agency and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. The purpose of establishment, the operation and the business of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, the plan of improving and putting in order of analysis codes, and the state of the similar organs in foreign countries are described. (Kako, I.)

  1. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)

  2. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  3. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  4. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  5. Summary Staging Manual 2000 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed 2001-2017. 2000 version applies to every anatomic site. It uses all information in the medical record. Also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  6. Evaluation of the pollution and the transport of heavy metals in the Lerma river, through nuclear analytical techniques (Second stage); Evaluacion de la contaminacion y el transporte de metales pesados en el rio Lerma, a traves de tecnicas analiticas nucleares (Segunda etapa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-12-15

    In this stage of the investigation work, the water quality indexes, the heavy metals concentration in the dissolved phase and in the sediments of the four samplings were determined, it was determined too the texture of the one sediment and the analyses of the suspended matter of the water and the relative abundance relative of particles by scanning electron microscopy and the determination of the crystalline structures of the sediment by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  7. Liquid-phase problems in steam turbine LP stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Feraud, P.

    1978-01-01

    Wet steam formation owing to incipient condensation in final steam turbine pressure stages results in a loss of efficiency and possible rotor blading erosion. The effects of erosion are now clearly understood and quite easily counteracted, but loss of thermodynamics, mechanical and aerodynamic efficiency is still a problem. Only the final LP stages of conventional power station plant operate with wet steam, whereas nuclear plant turbines use it to produce most of their total output [fr

  8. Nuclear Power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Duk-Sang

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Korea's nuclear power program has been promoted by step-by-step approach; the first stage was 1970's when it depended on the foreign contractors' technology and the second was 1980's when it accumulated lots of technology and experience by jointly implementing the project. Lastly in the third stage in 1990's, Korea successfully achieved the nuclear power technological self-reliance and developed its standard nuclear power plant, so-called Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR 1000). Following the development of OPR 1000, Korea has continued to upgrade the design, known as the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400) and APR+. Korea is one of the countries which continuously developed the nuclear power plant projects during the last 30 years while the other advanced countries ceased the project, and therefore, significant reduction of project cost and construction schedule were possible which benefits from the repetition of construction project. And now, its nuclear industry infrastructure possesses the strong competitiveness in this field.The electricity produced from the nuclear power is 150,958 MWh in 2008, which covers approximately 36% of the total electricity demand in Korea, while the installed capacity of nuclear power is 17,716 MW which is 24% of the total installed capacity. We are currently operating 20 units of nuclear power plants in Korea, and also are constructing 8 additional units (9,600 MW). Korea's nuclear power plants have displayed their excellent operating performance; the average plant capacity factor was 93.4% in 2008, which are about 15% higher than the world average of 77.8%. Moreover, the number of unplanned trips per unit was only 0.35 in 2008, which is the world top class performance. Also currently we are operating four CANDU nuclear units in Korea which are the same reactor type and capacity as the Cernavoda Units. They have been showing the excellent operating performance, of which capacity in 2008 is 92.8%. All the Korean

  9. Infrastructure needs and organizational aspect of nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Infrastructure development for nuclear power program: a) pre-requisites and requirements for a nuclear power program; b) long-term national policy for a nuclear power (long-term policy reason; national commitment); c) manpower development (role of academic institutions; practical manpower training); d) laws and regulations (regulatory framework; main national laws and regulations); e) nuclear research and development implementation (researches in the university; long term nuclear R and D program; research reactors); f) functions of government organizations (Atomic Energy Commission (PNRI); Department of Science and Technology; Department of Energy; Department of Education and Culture); g) industrial infrastructure; h) technology transfer (recipients's preparedness); i) safeguards obligations; j) public acceptance activities. III. Stages of nuclear power development (stage 1: planning; stage 2: detailed study and procurement; stage 3: construction; stage 4: operation) IV. Conclusion/Recommendation. (author)

  10. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  11. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  12. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    , and systems 'hosting' these multiple and complex mobilities are designed and how they are staging these in terms of their physical layout. By analysing specific cases of ‘mobilities design’ related to the four modes of moving; Walk, Bike, Train, and Car, the book uncover important and until now neglected...... is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments, the project...

  13. Stages of chaotic synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. Y.; Dykstra, R.; Hamilton, M. W.; Heckenberg, N. R.

    1998-09-01

    In an experimental investigation of the response of a chaotic system to a chaotic driving force, we have observed synchronization of chaos of the response system in the forms of generalized synchronization, phase synchronization, and lag synchronization to the driving signal. In this paper we compare the features of these forms of synchronized chaos and study their relations and physical origins. We found that different forms of chaotic synchronization could be interpreted as different stages of nonlinear interaction between the coupled chaotic systems. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  15. Chemistry in and from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.

    1989-01-01

    The time, of the realization of nuclear fusion reactor is not clear even now. However, it is generally believed that the nuclear fusion is only one candidate of the big power source for humanbeing. We may be not able to, but our children or grandchildren would be able to see the nuclear fusion reactors. The nuclear fusion development may be the last and biggest technology program for us, so it will take so long leading time. Now, we are in the first stage of this leading time, I think. As being found in the history of every technology, chemistry is essential to develop the fusion nuclear technology. To assure the safety of the nuclear fusion system, chemistry should play the main role. There have been already not a few advanced chemistry initiated by the connected technologies with the nuclear fusion researches. The nuclear fusion needs chemistry and the nuclear fusion leads some of the new phases of chemistry. (author)

  16. Nuclear data activities in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jonghwa; Lee, Young-Ouk

    2002-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear data project in Korea is reviewed in this paper. The results of the first stage from 1997 - 2000 are reviewed with associated application projects such as a test reactor HANARO, a light water reactor project SMART, a liquid metal reactor project KALIMER, an ADS project KOMAC, a waste project, medial application, and electron linac application. The strategy for setting up the second stage, during 2001 - 2004, are introduced. The user requirement, quality assurance, nuclear data processing, service, and measurement activity are reviewed. (author)

  17. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation ...... the diverse matters of concern into a coherent product or service concept, and 2) in the same process move these diverse holders of the matters of concern into a translated actor network which carry or support the concept.......Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  18. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  19. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Medium Range Missiles, Rocket Engine, Nuclear Submarine, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Inspection, Nuclear Weapons, Transfer Technology, Scud, Safety, Nuclear Power, Chernobyl Trial, ,CHemical Weapons...

  20. Climate change and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  1. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  2. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  3. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  4. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of space nuclear power and propulsion in the United States started in 1955 with the initiation of the ROVER project. The first step in the ROVER program was the KIWI project that included the development and testing of 8 non-flyable ultrahigh temperature nuclear test reactors during 1955-1964. The KIWI project was precursor to the PHOEBUS carbon-based fuel reactor project that resulted in ground testing of three high power reactors during 1965-1968 with the last reactor operated at 4,100 MW. During the same time period a parallel program was pursued to develop a nuclear thermal rocket based on cermet fuel technology. The third component of the ROVER program was the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) that was initiated in 1961 with the primary goal of designing the first generation of nuclear rocket engine based on the KIWI project experience. The fourth component of the ROVER program was the Reactor In-Flight Test (RIFT) project that was intended to design, fabricate, and flight test a NERVA powered upper stage engine for the Saturn-class lunch vehicle. During the ROVER program era, the Unites States ventured in a comprehensive space nuclear program that included design and testing of several compact reactors and space suitable power conversion systems, and the development of a few light weight heat rejection systems. Contrary to its sister ROVER program, the space nuclear power program resulted in the first ever deployment and in-space operation of the nuclear powered SNAP-10A in 1965. The USSR space nuclear program started in early 70's and resulted in deployment of two 6 kWe TOPAZ reactors into space and ground testing of the prototype of a relatively small nuclear rocket engine in 1984. The US ambition for the development and deployment of space nuclear powered systems was resurrected in mid 1980's and intermittently continued to date with the initiation of several research programs that included the SP-100, Space Exploration

  5. Review of the nuclear liability act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    There has always been concern that nuclear materials have the potential to cause injury and property damage. For this reason, nuclear operators have always been required by national regulatory authorities to exercise special precautions in the operation of their facilities. Federal legislation was drafted in Canada as the Nuclear Liability Act in 1970. The Act ensures that funds are available from all operators of nuclear facilities to provide financial compensation to third parties for injuries or damages suffered as a result of a nuclear incident; at the same time the Act provides protection to the operators by limiting their related liability. The Act also protects persons other than operators. The review of the Act has progressed in stages. The first stage was conducted by the staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board and catalogued previously identified difficulties with the Act. The second stage was a preliminary examination of the Act by an Interdepartmental Working Group. 2 figs

  6. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanka, J; Smith, S D; Soloy, E

    1999-01-01

    in nuclear morphology as a transformation of the nucleolus precursor body into a functional rRNA synthesising nucleolus with a characteristic ultrastructure. We examined nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine in vitro produced (control) embryos and in nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from a MII phase...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  7. Nuclear Technology Review 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    With 438 reactors operating at the end of 2014, nuclear energy had a global generating capacity of 376.2 GW(e). There was only one permanent shutdown. There were five new grid connections and three construction starts on new reactors. Near and long term growth prospects remained centred in Asia, particularly in China. Of the 70 reactors under construction, 46 were in Asia, as were 32 of the last 40 reactors that have been connected to the grid since 2004. Thirty countries currently use nuclear power and about the same number are considering, planning or actively working to include it as part of their energy mix. Of the 30 operating countries, 13 are either constructing new plants or actively completing previously suspended construction projects, and 12 are planning either to construct new plants or to complete suspended construction projects. Several countries that have decided to introduce nuclear power are at advanced stages of infrastructure preparation. The IAEA’s 2014 projections show a growth between 8% and 88% in nuclear power capacity by the year 2030. Growth of population and demand for electricity in the developing world, recognition of the role nuclear power plays in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the importance of security of energy supply and the volatility of fossil fuel prices point to nuclear energy playing an important role in the energy mix in the long run. Safety improvements have continued to be made at nuclear power plants (NPPs) throughout the world. These have included identifying and applying lessons learned from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, improving the effectiveness of defence in depth, strengthening emergency preparedness and response capabilities, enhancing capacity building, and protecting people and the environment from ionizing radiation

  8. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  10. ENSDF: The evaluated nuclear structure data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The structure, organization, and contents of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File, ENSDF, will be discussed. This file summarizes the state of experimental nuclear structure data for all nuclei as determined from consideration of measurements reported world wide. Special emphasis will be given to the data evaluation procedures and consistency checks utilized at the input stage and to the retrieval capabilities of the system at the output stage

  11. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... is elaborated as being an occasioning as well as a result of socio-technical choices and processes, and points to the role of socio-material as well as discursive practices, which frame and render particular spaces open to management and to the coordination of knowledge flows and ideas in early phases...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  13. Stage II Seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagerman, R.H.; Kotlove, D.J.; Regine, W.; Chung, C.T.; King, G.A.; Dalai, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1966 and 1985, 32 patients with stage II (21 A,11 B) testicular seminoma were treated with postorchiectomy irradiation to the retroperitoneal and ipsilateral iliac nodes; 28 received elective mediastinal-supraclavicular irradiation. The median follow-up was 8 1/2 years; 29 patients were followed up for over 3 years and 24 for over 5 years. Twenty-eight patients remain alive and well and four have die, two of a second primary cancer. Two patients developed recurrent seminoma in the mediastinum; these patients showed a variant lymphangiographic pattern. Both remain well after further irradiation or irradiation plus chemotherapy. A third patient developed nonseminomatous ''recurrence'' in the radiation field and is well after chemotherapy

  14. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  15. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  16. Nuclear alerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Anti-nuclear demonstrations against the deployment of new US missiles were held in Nato Europe. As no agreement has yet been reached at the US-Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces talks in Geneva, the deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe has started

  17. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  18. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on nuclear decommissioning was presented by Dr H. Lawton to a meeting of the British Nuclear Energy Society and Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1986. The decommissioning work currently being undertaken on the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR) is briefly described, along with projects in other countries, development work associated with the WAGR operation and costs. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  20. Timing and Stages of Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stages of puberty Timing and stages of puberty Adolescence and puberty can be so confusing! Here’s some info on what to expect and when: Puberty in girls usually starts between the ages of ...

  1. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD; ESKD Images Kidney anatomy References Fogarty DG, Taal MW. A stepped care approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  2. Staging and storage facility feasibility study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of adapting the design of the HWVP Canister Storage Building (CSB) to meet the needs of the WHC Spent Nuclear Fuel Project for Staging and Storage Facility (SSF), and to develop Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost and schedule estimates

  3. Fast reactors in nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazachkovskii, O

    1981-02-01

    The possible applications are discussed of fast reactor nuclear power plants. Basic differences are explained in fast and thermal reactors, mainly with a view to nuclear fuel utilization. Discussed in more detail are the problems of nuclear fuel reproduction and the nost important technical problems of fast reactors. Flow charts are shown of heat transfer for fast reactors BN-350 (loop design) and BN-600 (integral coolant circuit design). Main specifications are given for demonstration and power fast reactors in operation, under construction and in project-stage.

  4. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friske, A.; Thiele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA classification of decommissioning stages is outlined. The international development hitherto observed in decommissioning of nuclear reactors and nuclear power stations is presented. The dismantling, cutting and decontamination methods used in the decommissioning process are mentioned. The radioactive wastes from decommissioning are characterized, the state of the art of their treatment and disposal is given. The radiation burdens and the decommissioning cost in a decommissioning process are estimated. Finally, some evaluation of the trends in the decommissioning process of nuclear power plants is given. 54 refs. (author)

  5. COOLING STAGES OF CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Троценко, А. В.

    2011-01-01

    The formalized definition for cooling stage of low temperature system is done. Based on existing information about the known cryogenic unit cycles the possible types of cooling stages are single out. From analyses of these stages their classification by various characteristics is suggested. The results of thermodynamic optimization of final throttle stage of cooling, which are used as working fluids helium, hydrogen and nitrogen, are shown.

  6. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 1 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear power stations, graft polymerization, diffusion in uranium alloys, and conventional power plants.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the three stages of the operation of a power plant, either nuclear or conventionally fueled. This text then examines the major problems that face the successful development of commercial nuclear power plants. Other chapters consider

  7. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  10. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  11. Development of nuclear technology transfer - Korea as a recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Korea, as a recipient of nuclear technology transfer, has good experience of progressively building up its indigenous capability of nuclear technology through three stages of technology transfer, namely: technology transfer under the turn-key approach, component approach, and integrated technology transfer with a local prime contractor. Here, each stage of experience of technology transfer, with Korea as a recipient, is presented

  12. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  13. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  14. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  15. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  16. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  17. Nuclear electronic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of the nuclear electronic instrumentation included those activities corresponding to the design and production of nuclear instruments in a first stage, as well as the internal activities of design, repair and maintenance that have supported to other projects of the institution during many years. It is mentioned of the presence and constant collaboration of the ININ with the IAEA in different projects and programs. Also, it is mentioned on the establishment of the Radiation Detectors Laboratory, which for their characteristics and repair capacities of radiation detectors of cooled semiconductor, it is only in their specialty. It is emphasized the investigation and the development in the field of new radiation detectors and applications, as well as the important contribution in this field, in institutions like: Mexican Petroleum, National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards and Federal Commission of Electricity. Finally a position of the future of these activities is made, considering the speed of the advances of the electronic and nuclear technology. (Author)

  18. Nuclear power proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical and ethical aspects are blended inextricably. Nuclear hardware costs have everywhere soared far beyond inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in programme completion arising from problems of reactor and fuel cycle. Meanwhile, partly as a result of this cost escalation, there is widespread and growing doubt as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall - but particularly nuclear - energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels which might reassure both concerned publics and the energy industries themselves. This paper appraises some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power. (author)

  19. Nuclear emulsion and high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hancheng; Zhang Donghai

    2008-01-01

    The history of the development of nuclear emulsion and its applications in high-energy physics, from the discovery of pion to the discovery of tau neutrino, are briefly reviewed in this paper. A new stage of development of nuclear-emulsion technique is discussed

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  2. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Romanian nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeanu, S.N.; Comsa, Olivia

    1998-01-01

    Romanian decision to introduce nuclear power was based on the evaluation of electricity demand and supply as well as a domestic resources assessment. The option was the introduction of CANDU-PHWR through a license agreement with AECL Canada. The major factors in this choice have been the need of diversifying the energy resources, the improvement the national industry and the independence of foreign suppliers. Romanian Nuclear Power Program envisaged a large national participation in Cernavoda NPP completion, in the development of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and horizontal industry, in R and D and human resources. As consequence, important support was being given to development of industries involved in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design execution standards, QA procedures and current nuclear safety requirements at international level. Unit 1 of the first Romanian nuclear power plant, Cernavoda NPP with a final profile 5x700 Mw e, is now in operation and its production represents 10% of all national electricity production. There were also developed all stages of FRONT END of Nuclear Fuel Cycle as well as programs for spent fuel and waste management. Industrial facilities for uranian production, U 3 O 8 concentrate, UO 2 powder and CANDU fuel bundles, as well as heavy water plant, supply the required fuel and heavy water for Cernavoda NPP. The paper presents the Romanian activities in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and waste management fields. (authors)

  4. Nuclear nonproliferation strategy in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, F.W.

    1989-07-01

    The most immediate danger of a further spread of nuclear weapons in Asia is in South Asia, where both India and Pakistan have developed the means of producing nuclear explosive materials. In East Asia, North Korea appears to be in the early stages of a weapon-related nuclear program, and before the end of the century South Korea or Taiwan could revive their past efforts to move closer to a nuclear weapons capability. Over the longer run, Japan could conceivably decide to abandon its present strong opposition to the acquisition of nuclear Weapons. At present, the United States has largely separate approaches to the nuclear weapon proliferation problems in South Asia and in East Asia. This paper argues that these separate approaches should be strengthened and integrated into a broader regional nonproliferation strategy. This regional strategy would have three major strands: inducing India and Pakistan to agree not to produce nuclear weapons or test nuclear explosive devices for a specific period; bolstering the existing nonproliferation regime, principally by maintaining nonproliferation incentives and involving China more in the nonproliferation regime; and encouraging regional cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy

  5. Science on stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  6. Staged theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1976-01-01

    Two implosion heating circuits are being experimentally tested. The principal experiment in the program is the 4.5-m-long Staged Theta Pinch (STP). It uses two relatively low energy (50kJ and 100 kJ), high voltage (125 kV) capacitor banks to produce the theta pinch plasma inside the 20 cm i.d. quartz discharge tube. A lower voltage (50 kV), higher energy (750 kJ) capacitor bank is used to contain the plasma and provide a variable amount of adiabatic compression. Because the experiment produces a higher ratio of implosion heating to compressional heating than conventional theta pinches, it should be capable of producing high temperature plasmas with a much larger ratio of plasma radius to discharge tube radius than has been possible in the past. The Resonant Heating Experiment (RHX) in its initial configuration is the same as a 0.9-m-long section of the high voltage part of the STP experiment and all the plasma results here were obtained with the experiment in that configuration. Part of the implosion bank will be removed and a low inductance crowbar added to convert it to the resonant heating configuration. (U.K.)

  7. Construction of special structures for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, N.

    2003-01-01

    Construction is a very important stage in the course of realization of Nuclear Power Projects and as much care has be devoted to this stage as to the planning and engineering stages. While the setting up of nuclear power projects used to take over seven years in the past, the time period has now been considerably reduced to about five years with advancements in construction engineering, project management and design techniques, on the basis of new initiatives from the owner agency, Nuclear Power Corporation of India. In this article, the constructional aspects of the specialized structures for nuclear power generation are looked into. (author)

  8. Nuclear prospects in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    At the present time, then, we are on the threshold of the second phase of nuclear development, in the. course of which nuclear activities will play a more telling role in the economic cycle. We must therefore consider the development of nuclear energy during its first two decades in the light of the above conclusions and in the realization that for some time to come we shall find ourselves in a delicate transitional stage, during which various influences from the period behind us and the period ahead will make themselves felt. This train of events is not restricted to France, where in 1970 the CEA undertook a complete restructuring of its departments. It is also taking place in other countries, where the various atomic energy commissions are feeling the need to reorganize in order to fit themselves for essential changes. We must therefore be prepared to act in the most effective way possible during this nuclear industrial period. To this end we must establish structures and adopt ways of thinking that art in keeping with the objectives of the period, which will be accompanied by a large growth of investment in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Success will depend to a large extent on timely joint efforts in the public and private sectors. Taken together, these requirements imply that we must follow a long-term policy covering at least the next 20 years. As our remarks are to concern the peaceful applications of nuclear energy in France, leaving aside questions of fundamental research and military applications, we shall concentrate ori the fuel cycle and the production of nuclear power, enlarging the subject at each step to encompass the necessary and increasing international co-operation.

  9. Nuclear blackmail and nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book raises pointed questions about nuclear saber rattling. More than a dozen cases since the bombing of Hiroshima and Magasaki in which some sort of nuclear threat was used as a sparring technique in tense confrontations are cited. Each incident is described and analyzed. Two theories offered to explain America's use of nuclear threats, the balance of interest theory and the balance of power theory, are contrasted throughout the book. This book helps to fill the gap in the understanding of nuclear weapons and their uses, while pointing out that nuclear bravado could lead to an unintended unleashing of these weapons

  10. Nuclear innovation in Saskatchewan: innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes nuclear innovation in Saskatchewan. The first stage is the Canadian Institute for Science and Innovation Policy (CSIP) and how you have a successful discussion about a technically complex issue, understand what information people need in order to have an informed discussion, understand how to convey that information to those people in a constructive way.

  11. Statistical aspects of nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietjen, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel reprocessing cycle is used to illustrate problems encountered by a statistician when trying to reconcile total amounts of an element at different stages in the recovery cycle. Calculation of errors are discussed along with problems of biases, holdup, and simulation

  12. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  13. Larynx cancer in early stages: bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umana Herrera, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    A bibliographical analysis on the subject of early laryngeal cancer (neoplams staged as Tis, T1-T2 N0) was carried out through a bibliographic review of updated articles. The anatomy, epidemiology, generalities, clinical presentation and behavior of cancer were described. The biopsy, the clinical history, the physical examination and radiodiagnostic studies are used for a correct staging and according to the stage, to select the appropriate treatment. Treatment modalities and prescription dose for this type of cancer are compared and explained. The locoregional evaluation of glottic cancer is performed by Computed Axial Tomography (CAT), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Ultrasound (US) and Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET/CT). CAT and NMR have shown to be more accurate in the evaluation of glottic larynx cancer compared with clinical endoscopic examination alone. CAT, NMR, US and PET/CT were clearly more sensitive and specific in the assessment of the neck that only palpation. The preservation of the voice is an important parameter in choosing a therapeutic modality. Radiotherapy has proven to be the most used and known treatment. Radiation therapy with Cobalt 60 is commonly used in Costa Rica for the treatment of early larynx cancer [es

  14. Spent nuclear fuel in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, P.; Kalimanov, N.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria is characterized by two major stages. The first stage consisted of providing a scientific basis for the programme for development of the nuclear energy sector in the country and was completed with the construction of an experimental water-water reactor. At present, spent nuclear fuel from this reactor is placed in a water filled storage facility and will be transported back to Russia. The second stage consisted of the construction of the 6 NPP units at the Kozloduy site. The spent nuclear fuel from the six units is stored in at reactor pools and in an additional on-site storage facility which is nearly full. In order to engage the government of the country with the on-site storage problems, the new management of the National Electric Company elaborated a policy on nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management. The underlying policy is de facto the selection of the 'deferred decision' option for its spent fuel management. (author)

  15. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  16. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  17. Nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The following motion was put before the United Kingdom House of Commons on 3rd February 1992 and agreed; that this House, recognising the potential dangers of the rapidly changing world order, welcomes the recent proposals for substantial reductions in nuclear weaponry, the growing support for the non-proliferation treaty and progress in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions concerning the dismantling of Iraqi nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities; urges the Government to play their full part in helping the relevant authorities in the Commonwealth of Independent States to dismantle their nuclear devices, to safeguard their nuclear components and to discourage the proliferation of nuclear expertise; and believes it is of the first importance that Britain retains an effective and credible minimum nuclear deterrent as security in a world where there remain many sources of instability. The record of arguments for and against the motion in the debate is presented. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a general report presenting the section VII entitled Nuclear Power of the National Conference on Energy (CNE '94) held in Neptun, Romania, on 13-16 June 1994. The problems addressed were those relating to electric power produced by nuclear power plant, to heat secondary generation, to quality assurance, to safety, etc. A special attention was paid to the commissioning of the first Romanian nuclear power unit, the Cernavoda-1 reactor of CANDU type. The communications were grouped in four subsections. These were: 1. Quality assurance, nuclear safety, and environmental protection; 2. Nuclear power plant, commissioning, and operation; 3. Nuclear power plant inspection, maintenance, and repairs, heavy water technology; 4. Public opinion education. There were 22 reports, altogether

  19. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  20. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  1. Nuclear trade: An approach to the Argentine situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniotti, A.A.; Paez, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Under the Argentine nuclear trade regime, from the early stages of nuclear development an actual and strict monopoly governed the transfer of nuclear materials. That meant that the Federal State took the control as user, producer, purchaser or seller. This policy was inspired and clearly echoed by similar ones developed by other countries with important development in the nuclear field. This paper discusses the types of contract on nuclear commerce, the relation with costs incurred by the nuclear industry, ways in which the Federal State intervenes in nuclear commerce, and comparative policies in other fields or products in Argentina. (author)

  2. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  3. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  4. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Ross.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is treated under the headings: nuclear energy -what is it; fusion (principles; practice); fission (principles); reactor types and systems (fast (neutron) reactors as breeders; fast reactors; thermal reactors; graphite-moderated thermal reactors; the CANDU reactor; light water reactors - the BWR and the PWR); the nuclear fuel cycle (waste storage; fuel element manufacture; enrichment processes; uranium mining); safety and risk assessment; the nuclear power industry and the economy (regulating authorities; economics; advantages and disadvantages). (U.K.)

  5. Nuclear Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Joseph; Tarleton, Gael

    2004-01-01

    .... This event was an opportunity for policy makers, security analysts, nuclear scientists and engineers, regional experts, and military planners to share perspectives and identify those issues requiring...

  6. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and software, including myocardial perfusion imaging, offer increased accuracy in the detection, diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  8. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  9. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  10. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  11. Nuclear power : world and Australia - a long-term view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, G W.K.

    1989-01-01

    Developments in world and Australian activities relating to nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle are reviewed. Main issues addressed include environment, energy sources, uranium mining, enrichment, reactor design, fuel reprocessing and waste disposal. The benefits for Australia through its involvement in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle are also discussed.

  12. Nuclear Physics Group progress report January - December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1983-08-01

    The work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period July-December 1981 is described. Installation of the EN-tandem electrostatic accelerator proceeded to the voltage test stage. Highlights of the research programme included nuclear microprobe studies of bone and teeth, and depth profiling of sodium in hydrated obsidian

  13. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  14. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  15. Locally advanced breast cancer (stage III and stage IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, F.F.; Grabert, H.; Lima, G.R. de; Pontes, M.; Ferraro, O.; Santana, A.; Brook, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The results concerning to the treatment of 193 patients with locally advanced breast cancer-stage III and stage IV are analysed. All the patients were treated with radical radiotherapy plus total mastectomy about 6 weeks later; 53 pacients received also chemotherapy (CMF - 12 courses) and 52 were oophorectomized. (M.A.C) [pt

  16. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  17. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  18. Nuclear physics for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Wei Qingming; Ren Xianzhe

    2004-01-01

    The D-T fusion cross-section is calculated using quantum mechanics with the model of square nuclear potential well and Coulomb potential barrier. The agreement between ENDF data and the theoretically calculated results is well in the range of 0.2-280 keV. It shows that the application of Breit-Wigner formula is not suitable for the case of the light nuclei fusion reaction. When this model is applied to the nuclear reaction between the charged particles confined in a lattice, it explains the 'abnormal phenomena'. It implies a prospect of nuclear fusion energy without strong nuclear radiations

  19. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  20. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  1. Nuclear violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the past decade or so to the characteristics of terrorists and their apparent goals and objectives, capabilities, and evolving strategy and tactics with respect to nuclear terrorism. In contrast, little has been said about the procedural aspects of nuclear terrorism, and even less about the way in which such endeavors can fail. This latter omission is important because it bears directly on the ability to evaluate credibly the potential for nuclear terrorism. Here, the author addresses the requirements inherent in acquiring a nuclear explosive capability by three routes: separation of plutonium from irradiated light or heavy water reactor (LWR or HWR) fuel, processing, or use of separated fissile material, and theft of a nuclear weapon. In addition, he deals with other potential acts of nuclear terrorism: sabotage of power reactors, uranium enrichment facilities and spent nuclear fuel in transport, and dispersal of radioactive materials, in particular, plutonium. He specifically does not look at the design or production of a nuclear weapon. Finally, the discussion here assumes that the terrorist is subnational; that is, a nation is not involved. Also, the discussion of subnational participation does not address the possibility of collusion with insiders

  2. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  3. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  4. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  5. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  6. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  7. Nuclear facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: the case for using nuclear energy (Britain's energy needs; energy policy); safety; transport of spent fuel; radiation (natural radioactivity); environment (land use of nuclear power plants; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes). (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear power. Europe report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Last year, 2001, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In 8 of the 15 member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. In 7 of the 13 EU Candidate Countries nuclear energy was used for power production. A total of 216 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 171 802 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 181 212 MWe were in operation. One unit, i.e. Volgodonsk-1 in Russia went critical for the first time and started test operation after having been connected to the grid. Volgodonsk-1 adds about 1 000 MWe (gross) nd 953 MWe (net) to the electricity production capacity. The operator of the Muehlheim-Kaerlich NPP field an application to decommission and dismantle the plant; this plant was only 13 months in operation and has been shut down since 1988 for legal reasons. Last year, 10 plants were under construction in Romania (1), Russia (4), Slovakia (2), the Czech Republic (1) and the Ukraine (2), that is only in East European Countries. In eight countries of the European Union 143 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 128 758 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 122 601 MWe. Net electricity production in 2001 in the EU amounts to approx. 880.3 TWh gross, which means a share of 33,1 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. The reach 75.6% in France, 74.2% in Lithuania, 58.2% in Belgium, 53.2% in the Slovak Republic, and 47.4% in the Ukraine. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal, and Austria. On May 24th, 2002 the Finnish Parliament voted for the decision in principle to build a fifth nuclear power plant in the country. This launches the next stage in the nuclear power plant project. The electric output of the plant unit will be 1000-1600 MW

  9. Nuclear sales pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-06-14

    The controversy which followed the launch of the pathfinder prospectus for the flotation of the nuclear generating company, British Energy, which is the last stage in the privatisation of the United Kingdom`s energy sector, is discussed. Critics have highlighted three aspects of the flotation: the company`s generous first-year dividend policy which is perceived as bribery to potential shareholders; a ``fat cat`` directorial pay rise of 38%; and the cost to the taxpayer of a much subsidised privatisation. The arguments of the government`s advisers and their critics over the determination of the company`s value and prospects, and the issue of the division of nuclear liability costs between the company and the taxpayer, are examined. (U.K.).

  10. Nuclear sales pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The controversy which followed the launch of the pathfinder prospectus for the flotation of the nuclear generating company, British Energy, which is the last stage in the privatisation of the United Kingdom's energy sector, is discussed. Critics have highlighted three aspects of the flotation: the company's generous first-year dividend policy which is perceived as bribery to potential shareholders; a ''fat cat'' directorial pay rise of 38%; and the cost to the taxpayer of a much subsidised privatisation. The arguments of the government's advisers and their critics over the determination of the company's value and prospects, and the issue of the division of nuclear liability costs between the company and the taxpayer, are examined. (U.K.)

  11. A stage is a stage is a stage: a direct comparison of two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Theo L

    2003-09-01

    L. Kohlberg (1969) argued that his moral stages captured a developmental sequence specific to the moral domain. To explore that contention, the author compared stage assignments obtained with the Standard Issue Scoring System (A. Colby & L. Kohlberg, 1987a, 1987b) and those obtained with a generalized content-independent stage-scoring system called the Hierarchical Complexity Scoring System (T. L. Dawson, 2002a), on 637 moral judgment interviews (participants' ages ranged from 5 to 86 years). The correlation between stage scores produced with the 2 systems was .88. Although standard issue scoring and hierarchical complexity scoring often awarded different scores up to Kohlberg's Moral Stage 2/3, from his Moral Stage 3 onward, scores awarded with the two systems predominantly agreed. The author explores the implications for developmental research.

  12. Nuclear power and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of safety of nuclear power with special reference to Indian nuclear power programme are discussed. India must develop technology to protect herself from the adverse economic impact arising out of the restrictive regime which is being created through globalization of safety and environmental issues. Though the studies done and experience gained so far have shown that the PHWR system adopted by India has a number of superior safety features, research work is needed in the field of operation and maintenance of reactors and also in the field of reactor life extension through delaying of ageing effects. Public relations work must be pursued to convince the public at large of the safety of nuclear power programme. The new reactor designs in the second stage of evolution are based on either further improvement of existing well-proven designs or adoptions of more innovative ideas based on physical principles to ensure a higher level of safety. The development of Indian nuclear power programme is characterised by a balanced approach in the matter of assuring safety. Safety enforcement is not just looked upon as a pure administrative matter, but experts with independent minds are also involved in safety related matters. (M.G.B.)

  13. Civil nuclear: which hazards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document briefly indicates and describes the various hazards of exposure to radioactivity in relationship with the different stages of exploitation of nuclear energy: mining, exploitation, fuel reprocessing and waste management. It briefly presents and describes the scenarios associated with major risks in the exploitation phase: core fusion (description, possible origins, consequences in terms of possible releases), formation of hydrogen (chemical reaction, risk of explosion with releases, failure modes for the containment enclosure). It proposes a brief overview of consequences for mankind and for the environment due to irradiation and contamination. A brief assessment of major nuclear accidents is given, with an indication of their severity INES classification (Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima). It evokes incidents which occurred in France, and outlines the main challenges and stakes in terms of risk prevention, of plant control, of nuclear material and waste management, of public information, and of struggle against nuclear weapon proliferation. Actors and their roles are indicated: operator (EDF in France), control authority (ASN), actors in charge of waste management (ANDRA), research and information institutions (CEA, IRSN, CRIIRAD), international scientific bodies (UNSCEAR)

  14. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  15. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  16. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32 P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32 P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  17. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing threat by terrorists for a possible nuclear attack is particularly alarming in recent years. The likelihood of such an event is highly uncertain but cannot be ruled out. The consequence of such an event would be highly disastrous and the implications could be far-reaching both socially and politically. It is feared that significant amount of nuclear weapons materials may be kept under poor security. Therefore, there is a greater demand with utmost priority to curb nuclear terrorism by adapting proper security measures. One of the most important measures is to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear materials which are the source of building nuclear explosive devices. According to the IAEA illicit trafficking database (ITDB) report, a total number of 252 incidents were reported in 2006, of which 150 occurred in 2006 and the remaining 102 had taken place prior to that year, mainly in 2005

  18. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  20. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  1. Nuclear haematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masjhur, J S

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used {sup 32}P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used {sup 32}P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  2. Nuclear energy for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This document gathers 5 introductory papers to this conference about nuclear energy for the 21. century: the French energy policy during the last 30 years (situation of France with respect to the energy supply and demand, main trends of the French energy policy, future of the French nuclear policy); presentation of IAEA (technology transfer, nuclear safety, non-proliferation policy, structure and financial resources, council of governors, general conference, secretariat); nuclear power and sustainable development; promoting safety at nuclear facilities (promoting safety, basics of safety, safety at the design stage, risk management, regulatory control and efficiency of the regulation organization, role of IAEA); nuclear energy today (contribution to sustainable development, safety, best solution for the management of radioactive wastes, future of nuclear energy). (J.S.)

  3. Construction work management for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is positioned as the nucleus of petroleum substitution. In the Kansai Electric Power Co., efforts have been made constantly to operate its nuclear power plants in high stability and safety. At present, Kansai Electric Power Co. is constructing Units 3 and 4 in the Takahama Nuclear Power Station in Fukui Prefecture. Under the application of the management of construction works described here, both the nuclear power plants will start operation in 1985. The activities of Kansai Electric Power Co. in the area of this management are described: an outline of the construction works for nuclear power stations, the management of the construction works in nuclear power stations (the stages of design, manufacturing, installation and test operation, respectively), quality assurance activities for the construction works of nuclear power plants, important points in the construction work management (including the aspects of quality control). (J.P.N.)

  4. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  5. Decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear facilities present a number of problems at the end of their working lives. They require dismantling and removal but public and environmental protection remain a priority. The principles and strategies are outlined. Experience of decommissioning in France and the U.K. had touched every major stage of the fuel cycle by the early 1990's. Decommissioning projects attempt to restrict waste production and proliferation as waste treatment and disposal are costly. It is concluded that technical means exist to deal with present civil plant and costs are now predictable. Strategies for decommissioning and future financial provisions are important. (UK)

  6. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  7. Developments of nuclear power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konowalow, V.; Tytschkow, J.; Terentjew, W.

    1994-01-01

    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union the economy, and thus also the nuclear industry in Russia, which is supervised by the Ministry for Atomic Energy, is in a process of structural change. The process is to result in a diversification of the products manufactured for use in the power industry and the nuclear fuel cycle, and also in enhanced productivity. Science and research, which enjoy a high reputation worldwide, must be preserved and expanded. Nuclear technology in Russia is to be developed further in three stages. In the renewal phase up until 2000, older nuclear power stations will be phased out and a new generation of reactors will be developed, which will be built and connected to the power grid in the second stage, which will extend until 2010. In the third phase, after 2010, the installed capacity of the nuclear generating units equipped with new reactors is to rise to 30 or 40 million kW. (orig.) [de

  8. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  9. Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Elvira

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

  10. Genesis and servitudes of nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeir, Jean-Claude; Deleage, Jean-Paul; Hemery, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article is a chapter of a book published by the authors after the catastrophe of Chernobyl. They first propose a history of nuclear in four main stages: first, from the atom of physicists to the bomb (1932-1942), second, the bomb, and the American policy of atomic monopoly and its failure (1940-1956), third, the beginnings of the nuclear energy (1952-1969), and the recession (1974-?). Then, they discuss electro-nuclear energy as the last energetic component of the capital accumulation regime based on mass consumption and issued the great depression of the 1930's. In the next part, they identify some historical peculiarities of nuclear, notably with an emergence of discontinuities in the energetic process, the power to the science, the joining between the energy system and the war system, the nationalisation of energy, and the trend in capital valorisation and restructuring

  11. Regulatory aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caoui, A.

    1988-01-01

    The legislative systems used in different countries insist on requiring the license of the nuclear installations exploitation and on providing a nuclear safety report. For obtaining this license, the operators have to consider all situations of functioning (normal, incidental and accidental) to make workers and the public secure. The licensing procedures depend on the juridical and administrative systems of the country. Usually, protection of people against ionzing radiation is the responsibility of the ministry of health and the ministry of industry. In general, the regulations avoid to fix a definite technical standards by reason of technological development. An emergency plan is normally designed in the stage of the installation project planification. This plan contains the instructions and advices to give to populations in case of accident. The main lesson learnt from the nuclear accidents that happened is to enlarge the international cooperation in the nuclear safety field. 4 refs. (author)

  12. Geology behind nuclear fission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhana Raju, R.

    2005-01-01

    Geology appears to have played an important role of a precursor to Nuclear Fission Technology (NFT), in the latter's both birth from the nucleus of an atom of and most important application as nuclear power extracted from Uranium (U), present in its minerals. NFT critically depends upon the availability of its basic raw material, viz., nuclear fuel as U and/ or Th, extracted from U-Th minerals of specific rock types in the earth's crust. Research and Development of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) depends heavily on 'Geology'. In this paper, a brief review of the major branches of geology and their contributions during different stages of NFC, in the Indian scenario, is presented so as to demonstrate the important role played by 'Geology' behind the development of NFT, in general, and NFC, in particular. (author)

  13. Final Stage Development of Reactor Console Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Idris Taib; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha

    2013-01-01

    The Reactor Console Simulator PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor was developed since end of 2011 and now in the final stage of development. It is will be an interactive tool for operator training and teaching of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Behavior and characteristic for reactor console and reactor itself can be evaluated and understand. This Simulator will be used as complement for actual present reactor console. Implementation of human system interface (HSI) is using computer screens, keyboard and mouse. Multiple screens are used to match the physical of present reactor console. LabVIEW software are using for user interface and mathematical calculation. Polynomial equation based on control rods calibration data as well as operation parameters record was used to calculate and estimated reactor console parameters. The capabilities in user interface, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics can be expanded and explored to simulation as well as modeling for New Reactor Console, Research Reactor and Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  14. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ±0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  15. Prospects for Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Hallenstein, C.

    1988-05-01

    A review of recent overseas developments in the nuclear industry by The Northern Territory Department of Mines and Energy suggests that there are market prospects in all stages of the fuel cycle. Australia could secure those markets through aggressive marketing and competitive prices. This report gives a profile of the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear fuel cycle technologies, and describes the prospects of Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. It concludes that the nuclear fuel cycle industry has the potential to earn around $10 billion per year in export income. It recommend that the Federal Government: (1) re-examines its position on the Slayter recommendation (1984) that Australia should develop new uranium mines and further stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, and (2) gives it's in-principle agreement to the Northern Territory to seek expressions of interest from the nuclear industry for the establishment of an integrated nuclear fuel cycle industry in the Northern Territory

  16. The relations between de-alerting nuclear force and nuclear strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhimin

    2001-01-01

    De-alerting nuclear force is a hot-point issue in recent years. The relations between de-alerting and strategy (including nuclear force, target doctrine and use principle et al.), stability, advanced conventional force and NMD of the United States are analyzed, the impact of de-alerting on Chinese nuclear force were discussed and the proposal of de-alerting by stages is presented

  17. Kazakhstan innovation projects in nuclear technologies field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkol'nik, V.S.; Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present in the Republic of Kazakhstan in preparation and realization stage there are several innovation projects related with use of advanced nuclear technologies. Projects are as follows: 'Implementation of Kazakhstan thermonuclear reactor tokamak (KTM)'; 'Implementation at the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University the inter-disciplinary research complex on the heavy ions accelerator base'; 'Development of the Technological Park 'Nuclear Technologies Center in Kurchatov city'; 'Development the first in the Central-Asian region Center of Nuclear Medicine and Biophysics'. The initiator and principal operator of these projects is the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

  18. Advance of nuclear cardiology in clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hongcheng

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has make a little bit progress in the past year. Both nuclear cardiology and other cardiac imaging have its own advantage and disadvantage in the diagnostic of coronary artery disease. And the relationship of them is complementary but not instead of each other. Nuclear cardiology provides a one-stop shop for diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of coronary artery disease. Nuclear cardiology plays a very important role in the diagnostic of coronary artery disease in early stage in the special group of people. (authors)

  19. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  20. Nuclear Hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The global spread of nuclear reactors for the production of energy seems inevitable. Nuclear power plants will be supplied--if not by the United States, then by one of several other exporters. But other aspects of this development are less certain. One is the relationship between proliferation of nuclear energy plants and that of nuclear weapons. Another is the actual constraint that such vulnerable potential targets as nuclear power plants would have on would-be aggressors. In the last analysis, this would depend on the rationality of a nation's leadership. What can be said for the concept of nuclear power plants as potential hostages is that by installing a reactor on its territory, a country increases its vulnerability to grave, possibly unacceptable damage in the event of war. As a result, that nation's leaders might be inclined to raise the threshold of their sensitivity to provocation by neighbors and to restrain their own inclinations toward aggression. Admittedly this is a frail substitute for robust international agreements, but in the present order of things it is not a trivial consideration. Many incidents once regarded by the great powers as easi belli have more recently been either resolved by diplomacy or ignored altogether. The idea must not be pressed too far. The export of a nuclear power plant to a Third World country cannot be advocated simply as a means to constrain its own military adventurism. Aside from the promise of a vast increase in energy supply for developing nations, nuclear powered generating stations could actually improve relations among countries. The risk of widespread radioactive contamination by nuclear power plants hit by even conventional bombs could introduce a positive new element into the military calculations of powers outside the NATO-Warsaw Pact arena. As they balance military and diplomatic solutions to local conflicts, moderation rather than bellicosity might become the better part of valor

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  2. Nuclear inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the East-West confronting, the nuclear weapon issue has been focused in an international debate with obvious repercussions in Europe, because it is the European continent which indicated first the significance of nuclear deterrence. This debate refers first upon the past, as the German unification allowed capturing numerous documents of Warsaw treaty which revealed the intentions and the plans of Soviet Union during the cold war, and secondly concerns the future, since the role of nuclear weapons must be re-thought in a new context. This is the subject of this book, which refers also to the problem of the nuclear proliferation in the world and evolution of different countries in a political and regional context. The extension of the non-proliferation treaty for an undefined duration, in May 1995, is a incontestable victory because this treaty rules the renouncement to nuclear weapons of 185 countries. However, it does not solve most sensible problems like the Iraq case, for which a specific inspection regime has been instituted, or the case of Iran, which is suspected to acquire the bomb, although no clear evidence has been provided up to now. This is also the case of Israel, India and Pakistan which allege plainly their willingness of keeping open, from security reasons, their nuclear option. The content is displayed in five chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. The role of the nuclear weapons after the cold war; 3. The nuclear proliferation at crossroads; 4. Undefined extension of the NPT, a striking but fragile victory; 5. Conclusions. An appendix containing the text of the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty and a chronology are added

  3. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, S.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet appeared in a series on technical history. It tries to communicate some of the scientific, technical and social stresses, which have been connected with the application of nuclear energy since its discovery. The individual sections are concerned with the following subjects: the search for the 'smallest particles'; the atomic nucleus; nuclear fission; the 'Manhattan Project'; the time after this - from the euphoria of the 1950's via disillusionment and change of opinion to the state of nuclear energy at the start of the 1980's. The booklet contains many details and is generously illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  4. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  5. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, Armand.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons and conditions of utilizing nuclear power in developing countries are examined jointly with the present status and future uses already evaluated by some organizations. Some consequences are deduced in the human, financial scientific and technological fields, with provisional suggestions for preparing the nuclear industry development in these countries. As a conclusion trends are given to show how the industrialized countries having gained a long scientific and technological experience in nuclear energy can afford their assistance in this field, to developing countries [fr

  6. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, W.

    1977-01-01

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP) [de

  7. Rotterdam Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    In 1965 Rotterdam Nuclear received an order for the design, supply of materials, manufacture, testing, inspection and preparation for shipment of one 450MW Boiling Water Reactor pressure vessel. This was one of the first orders for a reactor pressure vessel, ever obtained by a European Manufacturer. The Company has since supplied 19 reactor pressure vessels for nuclear power stations, having a total weight of about 10,000,000kg. The nuclear power stations in which these are installed represent an electrical output of about 15,000MW and they are located in seven different countries (USA, Spain, Switzerland, Argentina, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands). (Auth.)

  8. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  9. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  11. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  12. Britain's nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Colin D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In the mid 1980s the Labour Party's position and clear intention was to phase out nuclear generated power in the UK. BNFL's reprocessing business was singled out for particular criticism. Many argued that this sounded the death knell for an industry with a legacy of negative public opinion and no commercial future. How against this background then was the Rt. Hon Tony Blair able, on 9 June 1999, to state that 'If we were to question the continued operation of Thorp, I think that would not be right. Thorp is an operation with orders now valued at some 12 billion pounds, it provides 6000 skilled jobs, it indirectly supports many more... I do not support the case of those who would like us to abandon Thorp?' Furthermore, in June 1999 the Royal Society stated that, 'it is vital to keep the nuclear option open' and in October of the same year the House of Commons Trade Industry Select Committee went further and advised, 'a formal presumption be made now for the purposes of long-term planning that new nuclear plant may be required in the course of the next two decades'. On 13 July 1999, the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, Rt. Hon Stephen Byers, announced a possible sale of up to 49% of BNFL by a Public Private Partnership. Dare we view this as the genesis of a nuclear renaissance for the United Kingdom? This clear change in political attitude towards the nuclear option has come about as a result of a concerted public and government relations effort over the past ten years. That said, many barriers remain if we are to meet the challenge of delivering new nuclear build in the UK. Public opinion may allow new build but only if the industry demonstrates a track record of safety and environmental stewardship. There will always be the 'not in my back yard' argument so we must be a good neighbour and, most importantly of all, a long-term solution must be found for the disposal of nuclear waste. If the stage is set for the nuclear renaissance, the industry

  13. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stages 14 and 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazsit, Imre; Wihlstrand, Gustav; Tambouratzis, Tatiana; Jonsson, Anders; Dahl, Berit (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This report constitutes Stages 14 and 15 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. Stage 14 was a full one-year project, whereas Stage 15 consisted of a half-year project. The program executed in Stages 14 and 15 consists of the following three parts: - Study of criticality, neutron kinetics and neutron noise in molten salt reactors (MSR) (Stages 14 and 15); - An overview and introduction to fuzzy logics (Stage 14), and an application to two-phase flow identification (Stage 15) - Preparations for and execution of an IAEA-ICTP workshop on Neutron fluctuations, reactor noise and their applications in nuclear reactors (Stage 14)

  14. Research and Development Program in Reactor Diagnostics and Monitoring with Neutron Noise Methods. Stages 14 and 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre; Wihlstrand, Gustav; Tambouratzis, Tatiana; Jonsson, Anders; Dahl, Berit

    2009-12-01

    This report constitutes Stages 14 and 15 of a long-term research and development program concerning the development of diagnostics and monitoring methods for nuclear reactors. Stage 14 was a full one-year project, whereas Stage 15 consisted of a half-year project. The program executed in Stages 14 and 15 consists of the following three parts: - Study of criticality, neutron kinetics and neutron noise in molten salt reactors (MSR) (Stages 14 and 15); - An overview and introduction to fuzzy logics (Stage 14), and an application to two-phase flow identification (Stage 15) - Preparations for and execution of an IAEA-ICTP workshop on Neutron fluctuations, reactor noise and their applications in nuclear reactors (Stage 14)

  15. Climate change and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-04-01

    The nuclear industry has increased its efforts to have nuclear power plants integrated into the post- Kyoto negotiating process of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) states: ''For many reasons, current and future nuclear energy projects are a superior method of generating emission credits that must be considered as the US expands the use of market- based mechanisms designed around emission credit creation and trading to achieve environmental goals ''. The NEI considers that nuclear energy should be allowed to enter all stages of the Kyoto ''flexibility Mechanisms'': emissions trading, joint implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism. The industry sees the operation of nuclear reactors as emission ''avoidance actions'' and believes that increasing the generation of nuclear power above the 1990 baseline year either through extension and renewal of operating licenses or new nuclear plant should be accepted under the flexibility mechanisms in the same way as wind, solar and hydro power. For the time being, there is no clear definition of the framework conditions for operating the flexibility mechanisms. However, eligible mechanisms must contribute to the ultimate objective of the Climate Convention of preventing ''dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system''. The information presented in the following sections of this report underlines that nuclear power is not a sustainable source of energy, for many reasons. In conclusion, an efficient greenhouse gas abatement strategy will be based on energy efficiency and not on the use of nuclear power. (author)

  16. Indicators for Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Considering the scale of nuclear power aspirations, the number of planned nuclear new builds and the prospects of a number of countries constructing their first nuclear power plants, there is a need to assess the broader context of nuclear energy programmes in areas of macro-and socioeconomic conditions, energy systems and nuclear power, and the environment. It is important to assess the degree to which introduction or expansion of nuclear power is beneficial under these specific circumstances. This publication provides a set of indicators for nuclear power development that can serve as a tool to help explore these issues. The indicators are meant to provide a first order assessment of the situation and identify the issues that present the benefits and challenges in a balanced and objective manner and thereby help guide more detailed evaluations in the next stage of planning and preparations. Methodology sheets are provided to help users in data collection, quantification and interpretation of the indicators. The application of the indicators set is flexible. Users can select a subset of indicators that are most relevant for the questions they wish to explore in a given study or decision making process

  17. Nuclear emergency preparedness: national organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Messaoudi, M.; Essadki, H.; Lferde, M.; Moutia, Z. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Rabat (Morocco)

    2006-07-01

    As in all other industries, the nuclear facilities can be the object of accidents whose consequences go beyond the limits of their site and consequently radioactive releases would be issued in the environment justifying the protection measures of population. Even if all the precautions were taken during the stages from the design to the operation, to reduce the risk of accident in nuclear installations, this risk can not be completely suppressed. For the radiological risk, as for the other major risks, the protection of the public always was taken in consideration by public power. The nuclear emergency plan gives the opportunity to have a quick appropriate reaction to a sudden event, which has (or might have) direct consequences for the population. The Moroccan public authorities had proceeded to reinforce at the national level, the control of nuclear safety and protection against radiation by the set up of a new nuclear safety authority. Evidently, the organization and the management of a nuclear and/or radiological emergency were at centre of this reform. Taking into account the subjective risk of radiological terrorism, the authorities should reinforce measurements guaranteeing radiological safety and security, and elaborate the appropriate emergency plans. The aim of this paper is to give a progress report on nuclear emergency plan aspects and to present a corresponding organization which could be applied by national authority. (authors)

  18. Nuclear emergency preparedness: national organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Messaoudi, M.; Essadki, H.; Lferde, M.; Moutia, Z.

    2006-01-01

    As in all other industries, the nuclear facilities can be the object of accidents whose consequences go beyond the limits of their site and consequently radioactive releases would be issued in the environment justifying the protection measures of population. Even if all the precautions were taken during the stages from the design to the operation, to reduce the risk of accident in nuclear installations, this risk can not be completely suppressed. For the radiological risk, as for the other major risks, the protection of the public always was taken in consideration by public power. The nuclear emergency plan gives the opportunity to have a quick appropriate reaction to a sudden event, which has (or might have) direct consequences for the population. The Moroccan public authorities had proceeded to reinforce at the national level, the control of nuclear safety and protection against radiation by the set up of a new nuclear safety authority. Evidently, the organization and the management of a nuclear and/or radiological emergency were at centre of this reform. Taking into account the subjective risk of radiological terrorism, the authorities should reinforce measurements guaranteeing radiological safety and security, and elaborate the appropriate emergency plans. The aim of this paper is to give a progress report on nuclear emergency plan aspects and to present a corresponding organization which could be applied by national authority. (authors)

  19. Stages of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy : A type of radionuclide scan that may ...

  20. Russian Federal nuclear center facilities for nuclear spectroscopy investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkaev, R.I.; Punin, V.T.; Abramovich, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Russian Federal Nuclear Center facilities for Spectroscopy investigation in the field of nuclear spectroscopy are described. Here are discussed basic properties of used radiation sources, facilities and technologies for target material production and manufacture of targets from rare, high-toxic or radioactive materials. Here are also reported basic features of complex detector systems and technologies for manufacture of scintillation detectors with special properties VNIIEF was founded as a weapons laboratory. The development of nuclear and thermonuclear bombs was followed by a wide complex of nuclear-physics investigations. Naturally, data on nuclear-physics properties of active and structure materials being part of nuclear weapons were of greatest interest.At the initial stage of work on the development of nuclear weapons the information on nuclear constants of materials including the most important neutron ones was rather scant. Data published in scientific literature had low exactness and were insecure. Results of measurements sometimes differed greatly by various groups of investigators. At the same time it was clear that, for example, a 1,5-times mistake in the fission cross-section could cause a several times mistake in the choice of uranium or plutonium mass, which is necessary for the bomb development. These circumstances determined importance of the nuclear-physics investigations. Demands on knowledge of process details occurring inside the nuclei conditioned by a problem of developing and improving of nuclear weapons and atomic power are rather limited. However, the further development of nuclear industry has proved a well-known point that this knowledge being accumulated forms a critical mass that leads to an explosive situation in the elaboration both of ideological and technological aspects of these problems. It is the tendency of inside development of nuclear science that has conditioned preparedness of knowledge about intranuclear processes for

  1. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  3. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic studies in nuclear analytical techniques include the examination of underlying assumptions and the development and extention of techniques involving the use of ion beams for elemental and mass analysis. 1 ref., 1 tab

  4. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  5. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics

  6. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  7. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  8. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  10. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  11. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  12. Nuclear shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, R.C.; Nienart, L.F.; Toelcke, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing melt-processable nuclear shielding compositions from chloro-fluoro substituted ethylene polymers, particularly PCTFE and E-CTFE, containing 1 to 75 percent by weight of a gadolinium compound. 13 claims, no drawings

  13. Nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The energy demand complexion of this country is always changing and promises to change in the future. The nuclear industry is responding to changing energy demands through standards writing activities. Since the oil embargo of 1973, there has been a change in the mix of fuels contributing to energy growth in this country; virtually all of the energy growth has come from coal and nuclear power. The predicted expansion of coal use by 1985, over 1977 level, is 37%, while the use of oil is expected to decline by 17%. Use of nuclear power is expected to increase 62% from the 1977 level. The feasibility of using nuclear energy to meet the needs of the USA for electric power is discussed

  14. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  15. Nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear fission process is pedagogically reviewed from a macroscopic-microscopic point of view. The Droplet model is considered. The fission dynamics is discussed utilizing path integrals and semiclassical methods. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, K.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The first volume of the Annual Report for 1989/90 gives an overview of the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, its development and a selection of highlights of the year's programme. This volume is complementary, presenting brief specialist reports, submitted by the users, describing the progress and results of each individual proposal. The contents reflect the extremely successful year due in good measure to the performance of the tandem accelerator which provided a record number of hours with ''beam on target''. Reports are grouped in four sections: research into nuclear structure with contributions ordered in increasing Z numbers of the nuclei studied; investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms; nuclear theory; accelerator operations and development plus experimental instrumentation and techniques. The appendix forms a concise summary of the work at the facility for the year. (author)

  17. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  20. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  4. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  5. Nuclear hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The role of hadron dynamics in the nucleus is illustrated to show the importance of nuclear medium effects in hadron interactions. The low lying hadron spectrum is considered to provide the natural collective variables for nuclear systems. Recent studies of nucleon-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions are reviewed, with emphasis on the type of experimental phenomena which signal the importance of the many-body dynamics. 28 references

  6. Seguro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.C.C. de.

    1978-04-01

    A description of the constitutive elements of insurance and its features in the field of law, and special legislation about the matter are given. The relationship between the liability of the nuclear power plant operator and the international conventions about civil liability on nuclear damage is discussed. Some considerations on damage reparing in the United States, Germany, France and Spain are presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  7. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, L.; Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  8. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  9. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1981-01-01

    Dr Arnott, scientific consultant to PANDORA, emphasises our lack of knowledge of the behaviour of highly active radioactive wastes, particularly effluents, and their characteristics. He proposes that they should be stored, preferably in a solidified state, until our knowledge allows their safe disposal. Political aspects and government policies are discussed and human fallibility is stressed. The nuclear establishment and nuclear power programme are severely criticised. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)

  11. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    Major centres of experimental nuclear physics are at Melbourne University, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., James Cook University and the University of Western Australia. Groups working in theoretical nuclear physics exist at Melbourne, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., Flinders and Adelaide Universities and the University of Western Australia. The activities of these groups are summarised

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  13. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  14. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  15. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  16. Nuclear cardiac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques

  17. Nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1967-01-01

    The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned.

  18. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  19. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkers, G.

    1988-01-01

    This file includes data on risks insured by the nuclear insurance pool in Belgium and on the Chernobyl accident covering injury, economic damage and compensation for the latter. Also included are the texts of the IAEA Conventions on Early Notification and on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident as well as that of a Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution signed in Geneva [fr

  20. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  1. Nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    All scientists and technologists are agreed that the coal based fuel cycle is somewhere between 50 to 300 times more dangerous than the uranium fuel cycle. Under these circumstances it is not difficult to show that on a more quantitative basis, the nuclear industry, in all countries, has an unblemished safety record when compared with other energy sources. Various hazards and benefits of nuclear power are analyzed in this paper comparing with other energy sources. (Liu)

  2. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  3. Starting of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotyza, V.

    1988-01-01

    The procedure is briefly characterized of jobs in nuclear power plant start-up and the differences are pointed out from those used in conventional power generation. Pressure tests are described oriented to tightness, tests of the secondary circuit and of the individual nodes and facilities. The possibility is shown of increased efficiency of such jobs on an example of the hydraulic tests of the second unit of the Dukovany nuclear power plant where the second and the third stages were combined in the so-colled integrated hydraulic test. (Z.M.). 5 figs

  4. Multistep processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The theories of nuclear reactions are reviewed with particular attention to the recent work on multistep processes. The evidence for compound nucleus and direct interaction reactions is described together with the results of comparisons between theories and experimental data. These theories have now proved inadequate, and there is evidence for multistep processes that take place after the initial direct stage but long before the attainment of the statistical equilibrium characteristic of compound nucleus processes. The theories of these reactions are described and it is shown how they can account for the experimental data and thus give a comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactions. (author)

  5. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  7. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  8. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This set of questions is based on an inquiry from the years 1987 to 1989. About 250 people af all age groups - primarily, however, young people between 16 and 25 years of age - were asked to state the questions they considered particularly important on the subject of nuclear energy. The survey was carried out without handicaps according to the brain-storming principle. Although the results cannot claim to be representative, they certainly reflect the areas of interest of many citizens and also their expectations, hopes and fears in connection with nuclear energy. The greater part of the questions were aimed at three topic areas: The security of nuclear power-stations, the effects of radioactivity on people and the problem of waste disposal. The book centres around these sets of questions. The introduction gives a general survey of the significance of nuclear energy as a whole. After this follow questions to do with the function of nuclear power stations, for the problems of security and waste disposal - which are dealt with in the following chapters - are easier to explain and to understand if a few physical and technical basics are understood. In the final section of the book there are questions on the so-called rejection debate and on the possibility of replacing nuclear energy with other energy forms. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Makoto; Hamasaki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshide, Akihiko; Katayama, Kimio; Nozawa, H.; Karigome, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent days, energy security is becoming a major global concern and it has been recognized that a major reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions is required to combat climate change. Considerable expansion and new introduction of nuclear power generation are currently being planned and considered for the further in various parts of the world. Nuclear technologies of the latest 10 years in Japan were reviewed with their characteristics, advancement and future perspective. Steady efforts have been made to construct new nuclear power stations with computer-aided engineering system and modular and prefabricated structures, extend the interval of periodic inspections under the new inspection system that should improve both safety and reliability, implement advanced measures against aging and develop the next-generation light water reactors including a medium small reactor. Export of nuclear power plants has been promoted with international business alliance or cooperation. Activities to close nuclear fuel cycle to ensure sustainable nuclear energy utilization have been promoted. Decommissioning technologies for Tokai power station have been developed and accumulated know-how will be utilized in light water reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Nuclear watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Parish, T.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979 the accident at Three Mile Island brought nuclear power to the forefront of national attention. Over the last five years there have been no new orders for nuclear plants, construction costs and lead times have increased drastically, and numerous plants have been cancelled. In the coming years many new plants will come on line, and the first round of nuclear plant retirements will begin. Thus, the new set of issues faced by utilities are whether to complete plants currently under construction, how to recover the cost of abandoned plants, how to handle the potential rate shock of bringing costly plants into rate base, and how to accomplish decommissioning and retirement of nuclear plants. This paper presents and analyzes these issues. First, the history of the nuclear electric generation industry is reviewed. Next a case study illustrating the cost momentum built into nuclear power plant construction is presented. The issues involved in plant cancellation are discussed. Finally, a case study involving rate phase-in strategies is analyzed. 1 reference, 7 figures

  11. Research and exploration on nuclear safety culture construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lifang; Zhao Hongtao; Wang Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    This thesis mainly researched the definition, characteristics, development stage and setup procedure concerning nuclear safety culture, based on practice and experiences in Technical Physics Institute of Heilongjian. Academy of Science. The author discussed the importance of nuclear safety culture construction for an enterprise of nuclear technology utilization, and emphasized all the enterprise and individual who engaged in nuclear and radiation safety should acquire good nuclear safety culture quality, and ensure the application and development of the nuclear safety cult.ure construction in the enterprises of nu- clear technological utilization. (authors)

  12. Safety and Performance Achievement of Indian Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Randhir

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Programme in India is based on three stage. The first stage is based on setting up of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) using indigenously available natural uranium producing electricity and plutonium. This will be followed by the second stage by plutonium fuelled Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) producing electricity and additional quantity of plutonium and also uranium 233 from thorium. The third stage of reactors will be based on thorium uranium 233 cycle.

  13. Opening stages of the marathon at the Maltings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    In this report on the opening stages of the public inquiry into plans to build a new nuclear power station at Sizewell in Suffolk based on the pressurised water reactor system, the opening address of Lord Silsoe QC and the evidence of J. Baker, R. Mathews and J. Wright, all appearing for the CEGB, are summarized. Arguments examined included, economy, siting, safety, diversification of fuel supplies, and the question of using renewable energy sources for alternative power generation. (U.K.)

  14. Evaluating the Stage Learning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for evaluating the Genevan stage learning hypothesis is illustrated by analyzing Inhelder, Sinclair, and Bovet's guided learning experiments (in "Learning and the Development of Cognition." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974). (Author/MP)

  15. The Staging of the Turk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2013-01-01

    An analytical and contextualized presentation of the figure of the Turk on the Danish stage in the 18. century with a specific focus on the interaction between the actual commercial and military circumstances on the one hand and the performative representations on the other hand. How far did the ...... the staged image reflect the actual circumstances and how far was it an internal self-reflection?...

  16. Two stages of economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests that the development process of a less-developed country can be divided into two stages, which demonstrate significantly different properties in areas such as structural endowments, production modes, income distribution, and the forces that drive economic growth. The two stages of economic development have been indicated in the growth theory of macroeconomics and in the various "turning point" theories in development economics, including Lewis's dual economy theory, Kuznet...

  17. Decommission of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateyama, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-powered ship 'MUTSU' was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  18. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  19. MCM - 2 and Ki - 67 as proliferation markers in renal cell carcinoma: A quantitative and semi - quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Muhammad Zain; Nagi, Abdul Hanan; Naseem, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Fuhrman nuclear grade is the most important histological parameter to predict prognosis in a patient of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, it suffers from inter-observer and intra-observer variation giving rise to need of a parameter that not only correlates with nuclear grade but is also objective and reproducible. Proliferation is the measure of aggressiveness of a tumour and it is strongly correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grade, clinical survival and recurrence in RCC. Ki-67 is conventionally used to assess proliferation. Mini-chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM-2) is a lesser known marker of proliferation and identifies a greater proliferation faction. This study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of MCM-2 by comparing it with Fuhrman nuclear grade and Ki-67. n=50 cases of various ages, stages, histological subtypes and grades of RCC were selected for this study. Immunohistochemical staining using Ki-67(MIB-1, Mouse monoclonal antibody, Dako) and MCM-2 (Mouse monoclonal antibody, Thermo) was performed on the paraffin embedded blocks in the department of Morbid anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Labeling indices (LI) were determined by two pathologists independently using quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. Kruskall-Wallis test was used to determine a correlation of proliferation markers with grade, and Pearson's correlate was used to determine correlation between the two proliferation markers. Labeling index of MCM-2 (median=24.29%) was found to be much higher than Ki-67(median=13.05%). Both markers were significantly related with grade (p=0.00; Kruskall-Wallis test). LI of MCM-2 was found to correlate significantly with LI of Ki-67(r=0.0934;p=0.01 with Pearson's correlate). Results of semi-quantitative analysis correlated well with quantitative analysis. Both Ki-67 and MCM-2 are markers of proliferation which are closely linked to grade. Therefore, they

  20. Experience in transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany was initiated in 1955. In spite of this late start, the country now has a broad potential in all branches of peaceful nuclear technology. Turkey nuclear power plants are erected by German industry, and the country has the basic technology at its disposal for all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. In the areas of uranium enrichment and reprocessing, multilateral joint ventures with European countries have been formed. The country also has an active development program for advanced reactors. In general areas of technology transfer and development aid, in the nuclear field, there are interrelated activities of both government and industry. The government has concluded bilateral agreements with a number of countires e.g. Argentina, Brazil, India, Iran and Pakistan, covering the general field of nuclear science; in the framework of these agreements, which are being carried out mainly by the nuclear research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe, active cooperation in research, development, education, and training are being pursued. The nonproliferation of nuclear weapons is a major objective of the Federal government which strongly affects its policies for international nuclear trade. The paper describes the nuclear technology potential available in the Federal Republic of Germany and reviews experience gathered in cooperation with developing countries. Future policies for nuclear technology transfer are discussed with special reference to the role of national R and D laboratories

  1. Nuclear safety based on nuclear knowledge - A Romanian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Popescu, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The recognized 'father' of the nuclear field, the scientist A. Einstein inherited us with a CONTRADICTION. On one hand he was the supporter of researches in the nuclear field, but on the other hand, when he saw the first devastating results of the atomic explosions he suddenly became a fervent opponent. In such conditions, the nuclear field made its first step in the conscience of humanity. Unfortunately it was a left first step. For this reason and also because of the nuclear incidents passed over the history of the field and due to yet unclear strategies regarding the final disposal of radioactive waste, a part of public opinion 'embraced' the concept 'NIMBY - Not In My Back Yard'. At present and for the future we have to fight against this concept in order to transform it in 'PIMY - Please In My Yard'. As a consequence, alongside numerous activities well-known by the specialists in the field, regulated and authorized by the regulatory body in the nuclear field, associated programmes for the CONTINUOUS qualification and education of human resources are needed. The Concept of Nuclear Security covers all the activities resulted from the nuclear fuel cycle. Taking into consideration the international experience in this field in our country's case, these activities were estimated for periods of approximately 70 years, as following: 10 years: the characterization and selection of the site, the design, construction and the commission of a nuclear power plant; 40 years: the operation, maintenance and modernization of a nuclear power plant; 20 years: the preservation for the decommissioning and the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. In all these stages until present Romania based a lot on the indigene component regarding the activities of research and development, design, construction - assembling, exploitation and maintenance (both for NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2, where this component was approximately of 50%). In such conditions, it was needed the

  2. Development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Young Hwan; Jung, Jin Gone; Hwang, Won; Park, Zoo Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Il Gone

    1987-04-01

    The objectives of the project are mainly to develope both design and manufacturing technologies for 600 MWe-CANDU-PHWR-type high burnup nuclear fuel, and secondly to build up the foundation of PWR high burnup nuclear fuel technology on the basis of KAERI technology localized upon the standard 600 MWe-CANDU- PHWR nuclear fuel. So, as in the first stage, the goal of the program in the last one year was set up mainly to establish the concept of the nuclear fuel pellet design and manufacturing. The economic incentives for high burnup nuclear fuel technology development are improvement of fuel utilization, backend costs plant operation, etc. Forming the most important incentives of fuel cycle costs reduction and improvement of power operation, etc., the development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology and also the research on the incore fuel management and safety and technologies are necessary in this country

  3. Nuclear Safety Charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The AREVA 'Values Charter' reaffirmed the priority that must be given to the requirement for a very high level of safety, which applies in particular to the nuclear field. The purpose of this Nuclear Safety Charter is to set forth the group's commitments in the field of nuclear safety and radiation protection so as to ensure that this requirement is met throughout the life cycle of the facilities. It should enable each of us, in carrying out our duties, to commit to this requirement personally, for the company, and for all stakeholders. These commitments are anchored in organizational and action principles and in complete transparency. They build on a safety culture shared by all personnel and maintained by periodic refresher training. They are implemented through Safety, Health, and Environmental management systems. The purpose of these commitments, beyond strict compliance with the laws and regulations in force in countries in which we operate as a group, is to foster a continuous improvement initiative aimed at continually enhancing our overall performance as a group. Content: 1 - Organization: responsibility of the group's executive management and subsidiaries, prime responsibility of the operator, a system of clearly defined responsibilities that draws on skilled support and on independent control of operating personnel, the general inspectorate: a shared expertise and an independent control of the operating organization, an organization that can be adapted for emergency management. 2 - Action principles: nuclear safety applies to every stage in the plant life cycle, lessons learned are analyzed and capitalized through the continuous improvement initiative, analyzing risks in advance is the basis of Areva's safety culture, employees are empowered to improve nuclear Safety, the group is committed to a voluntary radiation protection initiative And a sustained effort in reducing waste and effluent from facility Operations, employees and subcontractors are treated

  4. Prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  5. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  6. Development of 52 inches last stage blade for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuhide; Hisa, Shoichi; Nagao, Shinichiro; Ogata, Hisao

    1986-01-01

    The last stage blades of steam turbines are the important component controlling the power output and performance of plants. In order to realize a unit of large capacity and high efficiency, the proper exhaust area and the last stage blades having good performance are indispensable. Toshiba Corp. has completed the development of the 52 inch last stage blades for 1500 and 1800 rpm steam turbines. The 52 inch last stage blades are the longest in the world, which have the annular exhaust area nearly 1.5 times as much as that of 41 inch blades used for 1100 MW, 1500 rpm turbines in nuclear power stations. By adopting these 52 inch blades, the large capacity nuclear power plants up to 1800 MW can be economically constructed, the rate of heat consumption of 1350 MW plants is improved by 3 ∼ 4 % as compared with 41 inch blades, and in the plants up to 1100 MW, LP turbines can be reduced from three sets to two. The features of 52 inch blades, the flow pattern and blade form design, the structural strength analysis and the erosion withstanding property, and the verification by the rotation test of the actual blades, the performance test using a test turbine, the vibration analysis of the actually loaded blades and the analysis of wet steam behavior are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  9. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public

  10. Nuclear recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speth, G.

    1978-01-01

    The private sector's growing doubts about nuclear power plants, as reflected in the decline in new orders and the number of rescinded orders, will result in an estimated total of under 300 nuclear power plants by the year 2000 rather than the 1200 to 1500 that were projected several years ago. The decline is a result of construction and equipment costs and a lower operating efficiency than anticipated. The growth of electricity demand also declined after 1974 and, although it is increasing again, there are concerns about future growth rates. Besides its noncompetitive position relative to coal, nuclear plant construction suffers from restrictive policies based on the uncertainties of safety, security, waste disposal, and proliferation. Unless these problems can be resolved, many consider nuclear power to be an impractical option as an energy source. The Council on Environmental Quality supports policies that will permit further nuclear or coal development only after a clear demonstration of technical and institutional capacity to handle these problems. A commitment to solar technology is urged

  11. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  12. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied. The NEP stage design provides both inherent reliability and high payload mass capability. The NEP stage and payload integration was found to be compatible with the space shuttle.

  13. Basic infrastructure for a nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include development of nuclear policies and regulations, feasibility studies, public consultations, technology evaluation, requests for proposals and evaluations, contracts and financing, supply, construction, commissioning, operation and finally decommissioning. This publication addresses the 'basic' infrastructure needs, which are adequate until the issue of the construction license. It is obvious that a fully developed nuclear infrastructure will be required for the further implementation stages of a nuclear power reactor. The officials and experts in each country will undertake the transition from a basic infrastructure to a fully developed infrastructure that covers the stages of construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. The publication is directed to provide guidance for assessing the basic infrastructure necessary for: - A host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, and - A supplier country to consider when assessing whether the recipient country is in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of a nuclear power project. The target users are decision makers, advisers and senior managers in the governmental organizations, utilities, industrial organizations and regulatory bodies in the countries adopting nuclear power programmes or exporting supplies for these programmes. The governmental organizations that may find this publication useful include: Ministries of Economy, Energy, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Mining, Internal Affairs, Academic Institutions, Nuclear Energy Agencies and Environmental Agencies. This publication was produced within the IAEA programme directed to increase the capability of Member States to plan and implement nuclear power programmes and to establish and enhance national nuclear infrastructure. This publication should be used in conjunction with the IAEA Safety Standards Series and other

  14. The Prospective of Nuclear Power in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available From scratch to current stage, China’s nuclear power technology has experienced rapid development, and now China has begun to export nuclear power technology. As a kind of highly efficient and clean energy source, nuclear energy is also a priority option to solve energy crisis, replace traditional fossil fuels and reduce air pollution. By analyzing the short-term and long-term development trend of nuclear power in China, the paper has reached the following conclusions: (1 Under the current situation of excess supply, due to high investment cost of first-kind reactors, the decline of utilization hours and the additional cost of ancillary service obligations, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE of the third generation nuclear power will significantly increase, and the internal rate of return (IRR will significantly fall. In the short term, market competitiveness of nuclear power will be a major problem, which affects investment enthusiasm. (2 With technology learning of third generation technology, the LCOE of nuclear power will be competitive with that of coal power in 2030. (3 The CO2 emissions reduction potential of nuclear power is greater than coal power with CCS and the avoided CO2 costs of nuclear power is much lower. Therefore, nuclear power is an important option for China’s long-term low-carbon energy system transition. The paper proposes to subsidize the technical learning costs of new technology through clean technology fund at the early commercialization stage. When designing power market rules, the technical characteristics of nuclear power should be fully considered to ensure efficient operation of nuclear power.

  15. Colorectal cancer stages transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyao Huo

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression differences in different stages of CRC. Gene expression data on 433 CRC patient samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Gene expression differences were evaluated across CRC stages using linear regression. Genes with p≤0.001 in expression differences were evaluated further in principal component analysis and genes with p≤0.0001 were evaluated further in gene set enrichment analysis. A total of 377 patients with gene expression data in 20,532 genes were included in the final analysis. The numbers of patients in stage I through IV were 59, 147, 116 and 55, respectively. NEK4 gene, which encodes for NIMA related kinase 4, was differentially expressed across the four stages of CRC. The stage I patients had the highest expression of NEK4 genes, while the stage IV patients had the lowest expressions (p = 9*10-6. Ten other genes (RNF34, HIST3H2BB, NUDT6, LRCh4, GLB1L, HIST2H4A, TMEM79, AMIGO2, C20orf135 and SPSB3 had p value of 0.0001 in the differential expression analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that the patients from the 4 clinical stages do not appear to have distinct gene expression pattern. Network-based and pathway-based gene set enrichment analyses showed that these 11 genes map to multiple pathways such as meiotic synapsis and packaging of telomere ends, etc. Ten of these 11 genes were linked to Gene Ontology terms such as nucleosome, DNA packaging complex and protein-DNA interactions. The protein complex-based gene set analysis showed that four genes were involved in H2AX complex II. This study identified a small number of genes that might be associated with clinical stages of CRC. Our analysis was not able to find a molecular basis for the current clinical staging for CRC based on the gene expression patterns.

  16. Risk management in nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Claudio J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The risk management will be defined by different aspects: danger or loss possibility, or responsibility for damage. The risk management is one stage of project management. The risk management is a continuous process of planning, identification, quantification, answer and risk control to maximize the success potential of activity. The reduction of risk is part of priority establishment. This work will indicate how introduce this important instrument in the management of nuclear projects. (author)

  17. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  18. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  19. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  20. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  1. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  2. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  3. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  4. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  5. Nuclear power infrastructure and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include feasibility studies; technology evaluation; request for proposals and proposal evaluation; project and contracts development and financing; supply, construction, and commissioning; and finally operation. The IAEA is developing guidance directed to provide criteria for assessing the minimum infrastructure necessary for: a) a host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, or b) a supplier country to consider when assessing that the recipient country would be in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of nuclear power. There are Member States that may be denied the benefits of nuclear energy if the infrastructure requirements are too large or onerous for the national economy. However if co-operation could be achieved, the infrastructure burden could be shared and economic benefits gained by several countries acting jointly. The IAEA is developing guidance on the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure among countries adopting or extending nuclear power programme

  6. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  7. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  8. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author)

  9. Ten years of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-08-15

    Ten years have elapsed since the world's first nuclear power station began to supply electricity in Russia, and this in turn marked the end of a twelve year stage following the first controlled nuclear chain reaction at Chicago. These periods mark major stages in the development of atomic energy from the realm of abstract ideas to that of everyday industrial application. They followed a period of fundamental research and laboratory work, culminating in Enrico Fermi's demonstration of a system whereby the forces of the atom could be brought under control. Then it was necessary to find ways and means of using the chain reaction for practical purposes and on an industrial scale. And after this had been shown in 1954 to be technically possible, it had still to be developed into an economic process. The nuclear power station has proved itself from the technical and engineering standpoint. The third phase of development has been to bring it to the stage of being economically competitive with alternative sources of energy, and it would appear that we are now reaching that goal - though more slowly than had been envisaged ten years ago

  10. Nuclear politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Tony.

    1986-01-01

    Written by an arts graduate journalist this is intended for a non-technical general readership. It chronicles the history of the nuclear power industry in Britain from its beginnings, which were inextricably tied to the development of the atomic bomb, to the Sellafield investigation and Sizewell public inquiry. In particular the government decisions which have influenced the present structure and state of the industry are criticised. With important decisions about to be made the author questions the accountability of the nuclear industry and the government's ability to understand the complex technical aspects of the industry. (U.K.)

  11. Nuclear dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, J.

    Declaring nuclear preparedness 'immoral' helps to recreate the pacifism of 50 years ago. War itself is a dilemma, not the weapons with which it is waged. We must ask of the anti-war proposals: whom do they benefit. On the whole people concerned are ordinary citizens who are fearful of nuclear incineration. But marching with them is a spectrum of forces with other motivations and purposes. In a real life situation of international tension or crises, numbers of weapons in combination with their particular charateristics could mean the difference between peace and outbreak of war.

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotter, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The recent, terrifying threat of a major calamity at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island power plant near Harrisburg reverberated across practically the whole of the civilised world. An almost incredible sequence of human and mechanical failures at this installation had stopped just short of disaster and had brought the unthinkable perilously close to happening. The accident had sprayed radioactive waste into the air and had led to the large scale evacuation of people from the endangered area, disrupted hundreds of thousands of lives and caused a crippling setback to the nuclear industry. In this article the author discusses the impact the Harrisburg incident has had on the nuclear industry

  13. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, T.M.; Shaffer, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The birth of nuclear cardiology has generally been attributed to a 1927 experiment during which a radium salt was injected in one arm vein and the circulation time calculated by recording the arrival of the radioactivity in the opposite arm. This simple experiment lead to the radiocardiogram in the late 1940s that was used to measure left ventricular function and, later, cardiac output. This chapter provides a brief overview of nuclear cardiology. Methodology is presented when it is important for the understanding of test results. The use of these studies in the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular disease is emphasized

  14. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  15. The nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of knowledge and technical aspects regarding nuclear energy. It presents the phenomenon of radioactivity and its measurement and thresholds, describes the fuel cycle, presents the different principles and types of nuclear reactors, and more precisely the pressurized water reactors and their various models (900, 1300, 1400 and 1600 MW). It presents other reactors: boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature reactors, fourth generation reactors. It addresses the issues of wastes and releases, presents the OSPAR convention, the issues of management and safety. It presents the national safety bodies (ASN, IRSN, HCTISM) and international bodies

  16. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear medicine as a complex diagnostical method is used mainly to detect functional organic disorders, to locate disorders and for radioimmunologic assays (RIA) in vitro. In surgery, its indication range comprises the thyroid (in vivo and in vitro), liver and bile ducts, skeletal and joint diseases, disorders of the cerebro-spinal liquor system and the urologic disorders. In the early detection of tumors, the search for metastases and tumor after-care, scintiscanning and the tumor marcher method (CEA) can be of great practical advantage, but the value of myocardial sciritiscanning in cardiac respectively coronary disorders is restricted. The paper is also concerned with the radiation doses in nuclear medicine. (orig.) [de

  17. Situation of nuclear power generation in Sweden: swaying nuclear energy policy and conversion from nuclear phase-out policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, fossil fuels cannot be produced domestically, and most of them depend on foreign imports. For this reason, together with hydropower generation using abundant water resources, nuclear power generation was introduced and used since the early stage. Nuclear power generation in 2015 reached 35% of total generated power energy. As of 2016, Sweden was steadily constructing the world's second final disposal site of high-level radioactive waste. On the other hand, this country is known as the one that decided nuclear phase-out policy earliest in the world. However, the country's nuclear policy is swaying together with changes in political party power due to election results. In 1980, they decided the policy of abolishing all nuclear power generation by 2010. Thereafter, the nuclear phase-out policy was frozen and maximum 10 units of nuclear plants were accepted. The goal of the latest policy is to allow new construction up to 10 units as replacement, and to use 100% of renewable energy in 2040. However, the year of 2040 is not a deadline for the abolishment of nuclear power generation. In Sweden's public opinion on nuclear power generation, the early abolition was dominant at about 50% during 1986∼1995, but this opinion decreased to about 10% in the 2000s. There is an increasing number of opinions saying that the existing nuclear plants should be continuously operated for a while, and phased out step by step in the future. (A.O.)

  18. Nuclear desalination and electricity production for islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is an established and commercially proven technology that is now available and has the potential of further improvement. The technology of a small-sized reactor for desalination and electricity production will be an economically viable option and will also be suitable for islands with geographic, climatic, ecological and hydrological specifics. The operating experiences and achieved safety should benefit the early stage of a national nuclear power programme in developing countries. (author)

  19. Importance of tests in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1985-10-01

    In nuclear facilities, safety related systems and equipments are subject, along their whole service-life, to numerous tests. This paper analyses the role of tests in the successive stages of design, construction, exploitation of a nuclear facility. It examines several aspects of test quality control: definition of needs, test planning, intrinsic quality of each test, control of interfaces (test are both the end and the starting point of many actions concerned by quality) and the application [fr

  20. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, E.

    1982-01-01

    This book originated in the training courses for teachers of grammar- and secondary schools in Dillingen (Bavaria). The aim of these courses is to become informed about the latest state in one field of physics. The lectures are well-known experts in the respective fields. In the latest study (1980) of the National Academy of Sciences the experts came to the conclusion that without further development nuclear power plants the utilization of too much coal would become necessary and involve irreversible environmental damage (see chapter 6). There are two important obstacles impeding the further extension of nuclear energy. The first problem to be solved is the processing and storage of radioactive waste. This is a more technical task and can be treated in a satisfactory way. The second obstacle is less easy to take as the population has to be convinced that a nuclear power plant can be operated with almost unbelievable safety (see chapter 5) and be shut down safely in the case of incidents. The most promising possibility of controlled nuclear fusion as energy source is still many decades- if feasible at all- away from being performed (see chapter. 7). In the Soviet Union 25% of the electric energy production shall be proceed from nuclear power plants by the year 1990. (orig./GL) [de