WorldWideScience

Sample records for stage direct coupled

  1. DIRECT COUPLED PROGRESSIVE STAGE PULSE COUNTER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, W.M.

    1962-08-14

    A progressive electrical pulse counter circuit was designed for the counting of a chain of input pulses of random width and/or frequency. The circuit employs an odd and even pulse input line alternately connected to a series of directly connected bistable counting stages. Each bistable stage has two d-c operative states which stage, when in its rnrtial state, prevents the next succeeding stage from changing its condition when the latter stage is pulsed. Since only altennate stages are pulsed for each incoming pulse, only one stage will change its state for each input pulse thereby providing prog essive stage by stage counting. (AEC)

  2. Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Jerome B.; Boothe, Richard W.; Konrad, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox.

  3. Bidirectional communication using delay coupled chaotic directly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Chaotic synchronization of two directly modulated semiconductor lasers with negative delayed optoelectronic feedback is investigated and this scheme is found to be useful for efficient bidirectional communication between the lasers. A symmetric bidirec- tional coupling is identified as a suitable method for ...

  4. Processes of Change in Self-Directed Couple Relationship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keithia L.; Halford, W. Kim

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the learning processes involved in professionally supported self-directed couple relationship education (CRE). Fifty-nine couples completed Couple CARE, a systematic, self-directed CRE program designed in flexible delivery mode to be completed at home. Couples watched a DVD introducing key relationship ideas and skills…

  5. Direct coupling of haptic signals between hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Lucile; Hayward, Vincent; Wexler, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Although motor actions can profoundly affect the perceptual interpretation of sensory inputs, it is not known whether the combination of sensory and movement signals occurs only for sensory surfaces undergoing movement or whether it is a more general phenomenon. In the haptic modality, the independent movement of multiple sensory surfaces poses a challenge to the nervous system when combining the tactile and kinesthetic signals into a coherent percept. When exploring a stationary object, the tactile and kinesthetic signals come from the same hand. Here we probe the internal structure of haptic combination by directing the two signal streams to separate hands: one hand moves but receives no tactile stimulation, while the other hand feels the consequences of the first hand’s movement but remains still. We find that both discrete and continuous tactile and kinesthetic signals are combined as if they came from the same hand. This combination proceeds by direct coupling or transfer of the kinesthetic signal from the moving to the feeling hand, rather than assuming the displacement of a mediating object. The combination of signals is due to perception rather than inference, because a small temporal offset between the signals significantly degrades performance. These results suggest that the brain simplifies the complex coordinate transformation task of remapping sensory inputs to take into account the movements of multiple body parts in haptic perception, and they show that the effects of action are not limited to moving sensors. PMID:25548179

  6. Directly coupled YBCO dc SQUID magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, P.R.E.; Shen, Y.Q.; Holst, T.; Larsen, B.H.; Sager, M.P.; Bindslev Hansen, J.

    1999-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- x magnetometers have been made on 10mmx10mm MgO substrates by directly coupling the magnetometer pick-up loop to a dc SQUID with narrow strip lines. The dc SQUIDs were made with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x step-edge Josephson junctions. The layout of the magnetometer pick-up loop was chosen as a compromise between maximizing the loop effective area and minimizing the loop inductance. The SQUID was designed to have L S ∼100 pH in order to obtain β L =2I 0 L S /Φ 0 approx.= 1 with the single-junction critical current I 0 ∼10 μA. We have made magnetometers with white noise levels down to 55 fT Hz -1/2 and a 1/f knee at 1 Hz (ac biased). Noise measurements were made on a field-cooled magnetometer. The noise measured at 1 Hz when cooled in 'zero field' was 175 fT Hz -1/2 . When cooled in magnetic fields of B = 50 μT and B = 100 μT we measured the noise at 1 Hz to be 430 fT Hz -1 2 and 1.3 pT Hz -1/2 , respectively. (author)

  7. Bidirectional communication using delay coupled chaotic directly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isochronal synchronization; bidirectional communication; directly modulated semiconductor lasers; delayed optoelectronic feedback. ... Sophisticated Test and Instrumentation Centre; Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, India; International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and ...

  8. Bidirectional communication using delay coupled chaotic directly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bidirectional communication. 2. Laser model. The dynamics of semiconductor lasers with direct current modulation and negative- delayed optoelectronic feedback can be represented by rate equations for the photon ..... [39] Y Liu, P Davis, Y Takiguchi, T Aida, A Saito and J M Liu, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 269 (2003).

  9. Direct lifts of coupled cell networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, A. P. S.; Moreira, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    In networks of dynamical systems, there are spaces defined in terms of equalities of cell coordinates which are flow-invariant under any dynamical system that has a form consistent with the given underlying network structure—the network synchrony subspaces. Given a network and one of its synchrony subspaces, any system with a form consistent with the network, restricted to the synchrony subspace, defines a new system which is consistent with a smaller network, called the quotient network of the original network by the synchrony subspace. Moreover, any system associated with the quotient can be interpreted as the restriction to the synchrony subspace of a system associated with the original network. We call the larger network a lift of the smaller network, and a lift can be interpreted as a result of the cellular splitting of the smaller network. In this paper, we address the question of the uniqueness in this lifting process in terms of the networks’ topologies. A lift G of a given network Q is said to be direct when there are no intermediate lifts of Q between them. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a lift of a general network to be direct. Our results characterize direct lifts using the subnetworks of all splitting cells of Q and of all split cells of G. We show that G is a direct lift of Q if and only if either the split subnetwork is a direct lift or consists of two copies of the splitting subnetwork. These results are then applied to the class of regular uniform networks and to the special classes of ring networks and acyclic networks. We also illustrate that one of the applications of our results is to the lifting bifurcation problem.

  10. Broadband directional coupling in aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmaier, Matthias; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2013-03-25

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)-on-insulator has emerged as a promising platform for the realization of linear and non-linear integrated photonic circuits. In order to efficiently route optical signals on-chip, precise control over the interaction and polarization of evanescently coupled waveguide modes is required. Here we employ nanophotonic AlN waveguides to realize directional couplers with a broad coupling bandwidth and low insertion loss. We achieve uniform splitting of incoming modes, confirmed by high extinction-ratio exceeding 33dB in integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometers. Optimized three-waveguide couplers furthermore allow for extending the coupling bandwidth over traditional side-coupled devices by almost an order of magnitude, with variable splitting ratio. Our work illustrates the potential of AlN circuits for coupled waveguide optics, DWDM applications and integrated polarization diversity schemes.

  11. Novel Three Stage Double Directional Focusing Neutron Monochromator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ono, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Harjo, S.; Sawano, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, - (2001), s. 486-488 ISSN 0031-9015. [Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Advanced Science Research (ASR-2000). Tokai, 31.10.2000-02.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038; GA AV ČR IAA1048003 Keywords : three-stage neutron monochromator * Si-single crystal * double directional focusing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.628, year: 2001

  12. Direct determinations of the πNN coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.; ); Loiseau, B.

    1998-01-01

    A novel extrapolation method has been used to deduce directly the charged πNN coupling constant from backward np differential scattering cross sections. The extracted value, g c 2 = 14.52(026)is higher than the indirectly deduced values obtained in nucleon-nucleon energy-dependent partial-wave analyses. Our preliminary direct value from a reanalysis of the GMO sum-rule points to an intermediate value of g c 2 about 13.97(30). (author)

  13. Performance of a directly-coupled PV water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokeddem, Abdelmalek; Midoun, Abdelhamid; Kadri, D.; Hiadsi, Said; Raja, Iftikhar A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Directly coupled PV water pumping system installed and performance studied. → Configured for two static heads, operate without electronic control and auxiliary power. → The system attains steady state soon after any abrupt change. → Cost effective and useful for low head communicating wells system. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study carried out to investigate the performance of a simple, directly coupled dc photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping system. The system comprises of a 1.5 kWp PV array, dc motor and a centrifugal pump. The experiment was conducted over a period of 4 months and the system performance was monitored under different climatic conditions and varying solar irradiance with two static head configurations. Although the motor-pump efficiency did not exceed 30%, which is typical for directly-coupled photovoltaic pumping systems, such a system is clearly suitable for low head irrigation in the remote areas, not connected to the national grid and where access to water comes as first priority issue than access to technology. The system operates without battery and complex electronic control, therefore not only the initial cost is low but also maintenance, repairing and replacement cost can be saved. The study showed that directly coupled system attains steady state soon after any abrupt change.

  14. Photonic crystal fiber design for broadband directional coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Bang, Ole; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2004-01-01

    A novel design for a broadband directional coupler based on a photonic crystal fiber is investigated numerically. It is shown that suitable index-depressing doping of the core regions in an index-guiding twin-core photonic crystal fiber can stabilize the coupling coefficient between the cores over...

  15. Direct couplings of mimetic dark matter and their cosmological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liuyuan; Mou, Yicen; Zheng, Yunlong; Li, Mingzhe

    2018-01-01

    The original mimetic model was proposed to take the role of dark matter. In this paper we consider possible direct interactions of mimetic dark matter with other matter in the universe, especially standard model particles such as baryons and photons. By imposing shift symmetry, the mimetic dark matter field can only have derivative couplings. We discuss the possibilities of generating baryon number asymmetry and cosmic birefringence in the universe based on the derivative couplings of mimetic dark matter to baryons and photons. Supported by NSFC (11422543, 11653002)

  16. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  17. Directional interacting whispering-gallery modes in coupled dielectric microdisks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Wan; Lee, Soo-Young; Kim, Chil-Min; Park, Young-Jai

    2006-01-01

    We study the optical interaction in a coupled dielectric microdisks by investigating the splitting of resonance positions of interacting whispering-gallery modes (WGM's) and their pattern change, depending on the distance between the microdisks. It is shown that the interaction between the WGM's with odd parity about the y axis becomes appreciable at a distance less than a wavelength and causes directional emissions of the resulting interacting WGM's. The directionality of the interacting WGM's can be understood in terms of an effective boundary deformation in ray dynamical analysis. We also discuss the oscillation of the splitting when the distance is greater than a wavelength

  18. Response and Uniformity Studies of Directly Coupled Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    A finely-segmented scintillator-based calorimeter which capitalizes on the marriage of proven detection techniques with novel solid-state photo-detector devices such as Multi-pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) is an interesting calorimetric system from the point of view of future detector design. A calorimeter system consisting of millions of channels will require a high degree of integration. The first steps towards this integration have already been facilitated by the small size and magnetic field immunity of the MPPCs. The photo-conversion occurs right at the tile, thus obviating the need for routing of long clear fibers. Similar considerations apply to the presence of wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers inside the tiles which couple it to the photo-detectors. Significant simplification in construction and assembly ensue if the MPPCs can be coupled directly to the scintillator tiles. Equally importantly, the total absence of fibers would offer greater flexibility in the choice of the transverse segmentation while enhancing the electro-mechanical integrability of the design. The NIU high-energy physics group has been studying the fiberless or direct-coupling option for some time now. Encouraging results on response and response uniformity have been obtained using radioactive sources. This MOU seeks to set up a framework to extend these tests using beams at the MTBF. The results will be relevant to high granularity scintillator/crystal electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The tests involve a set of small directly-coupled tile counters fabricated at NIU which will be placed in the beam to study their response and response uniformity as a function of the incident position of the particles passing through them.

  19. Response and Uniformity Studies of Directly Coupled Tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-04-02

    A finely-segmented scintillator-based calorimeter which capitalizes on the marriage of proven detection techniques with novel solid-state photo-detector devices such as Multi-pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) is an interesting calorimetric system from the point of view of future detector design. A calorimeter system consisting of millions of channels will require a high degree of integration. The first steps towards this integration have already been facilitated by the small size and magnetic field immunity of the MPPCs. The photo-conversion occurs right at the tile, thus obviating the need for routing of long clear fibers. Similar considerations apply to the presence of wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers inside the tiles which couple it to the photo-detectors. Significant simplification in construction and assembly ensue if the MPPCs can be coupled directly to the scintillator tiles. Equally importantly, the total absence of fibers would offer greater flexibility in the choice of the transverse segmentation while enhancing the electro-mechanical integrability of the design. The NIU high-energy physics group has been studying the fiberless or direct-coupling option for some time now. Encouraging results on response and response uniformity have been obtained using radioactive sources. This MOU seeks to set up a framework to extend these tests using beams at the MTBF. The results will be relevant to high granularity scintillator/crystal electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. The tests involve a set of small directly-coupled tile counters fabricated at NIU which will be placed in the beam to study their response and response uniformity as a function of the incident position of the particles passing through them.

  20. Direct Measurement of the Higgs Boson Fermionic Couplings at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The couplings between the Higgs and fermionic fields can be accessed directly through processes in which the Higgs boson decays into fermions, or is produced in association with a top-quark pair. Several analyses based on the full dataset collected by CMS at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. In particular, the final results of searches for a Higgs boson decaying into a b-quark or a tau-lepton pair are presented, together with a preliminary combination of these results.

  1. [Future directions of neurology - breakthrough to the next stage ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shoji

    2010-11-01

    The 51st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Neurology was held in Tokyo (Tokyo International Forum) from Thursday, May 20 to Saturday, May 22, 2010 with as many as 5,471 attendants. Our Society has been celebrating its 50th anniversary during the period from 2009 through 2010. At the 51st Annual Meeting in 2010, we looked toward the future, as we celebrate our 50th anniversary together with distinguished guests closely related to our Society. The theme for the 51st Annual Meeting was set as "Future of Neurology-Breakthrough to the next stage-." As represented in the theme, I hope that the Annual Meeting provided an excellent opportunity for all of us to look ahead to the future of Neurology and our Society in the next half-century. We have achieved tremendous advances in better understanding neurological diseases and developing more efficacious treatment over the last half century. Great strides have been made in all areas, of which diagnostic imaging, molecular genetics, immunology and physiology are just a few examples, and understanding of diseases has similarly taken a great leap forward. In Japan, the aging of society coupled with the declining birthrate has placed ever-increasing expectations on neurologists to provide better care for dementia, cerebrovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Given this situation our Society is required to provide outstanding education in both the pre- and post-graduate context, and, furthermore, to ensure that excellent training programs are available for young neurologists preparing for Board certification. Looking towards the future of neurology, we should continue to anticipate new, ground-breaking achievements for better understanding neurological diseases and establishing more effective treatment through our ongoing endeavors.

  2. The detection of transient directional couplings based on phase synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, T; Fell, J; Lehnertz, K, E-mail: twagner@uni-bonn.d [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We extend recent approaches based on the concept of phase synchronization to enable the time-resolved investigation of directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from short and transient noisy time series. For our approach, we consider an observed ensemble of a sufficiently large number of time series as multiple realizations of a process. We derive an index that quantifies the direction of transient interactions and assess its statistical significance using surrogate techniques. Analysing time series from noisy and chaotic systems, we demonstrate numerically the applicability and limitations of our approach. Our findings from an exemplary application to event-related brain activities underline the importance of our method for improving knowledge about the mechanisms underlying memory formation in humans.

  3. The detection of transient directional couplings based on phase synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, T; Fell, J; Lehnertz, K

    2010-01-01

    We extend recent approaches based on the concept of phase synchronization to enable the time-resolved investigation of directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from short and transient noisy time series. For our approach, we consider an observed ensemble of a sufficiently large number of time series as multiple realizations of a process. We derive an index that quantifies the direction of transient interactions and assess its statistical significance using surrogate techniques. Analysing time series from noisy and chaotic systems, we demonstrate numerically the applicability and limitations of our approach. Our findings from an exemplary application to event-related brain activities underline the importance of our method for improving knowledge about the mechanisms underlying memory formation in humans.

  4. The detection of transient directional couplings based on phase synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Fell, J.; Lehnertz, K.

    2010-05-01

    We extend recent approaches based on the concept of phase synchronization to enable the time-resolved investigation of directional relationships between coupled dynamical systems from short and transient noisy time series. For our approach, we consider an observed ensemble of a sufficiently large number of time series as multiple realizations of a process. We derive an index that quantifies the direction of transient interactions and assess its statistical significance using surrogate techniques. Analysing time series from noisy and chaotic systems, we demonstrate numerically the applicability and limitations of our approach. Our findings from an exemplary application to event-related brain activities underline the importance of our method for improving knowledge about the mechanisms underlying memory formation in humans.

  5. Renewable water: Direct contact membrane distillation coupled with solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, Francisco; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Childress, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of direct contact membrane distillation driven by solar ponds. • The DCMD/SGSP system treats ∼6 times the water flow treated by an AGMD/SGSP system. • Half of the energy extracted from the SGSP was used to transport water across the membrane. • Reducing heat losses through the DCMD/SGSP system would yield higher water fluxes. - Abstract: Desalination powered by renewable energy sources is an attractive solution to address the worldwide water-shortage problem without contributing significant to greenhouse gas emissions. A promising system for renewable energy desalination is the utilization of low-temperature direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) driven by a thermal solar energy system, such as a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP). This investigation presents the first experimental study of fresh water production in a coupled DCMD/SGSP system. The objectives of this work are to determine the experimental fresh water production rates and the energetic requirements of the different components of the system. From the laboratory results, it was found that the coupled DCMD/SGSP system treats approximately six times the water flow treated by a similar system that consisted of an air–gap membrane distillation unit driven by an SGSP. In terms of the energetic requirements, approximately 70% of the heat extracted from the SGSP was utilized to drive thermal desalination and the rest was lost in different locations of the system. In the membrane module, only half of the useful heat was actually used to transport water across the membrane and the remainder was lost by conduction in the membrane. It was also found that by reducing heat losses throughout the system would yield higher water fluxes, pointing out the need to improve the efficiency throughout the DCMD/SGSP coupled system. Therefore, further investigation of membrane properties, insulation of the system, or optimal design of the solar pond must be addressed in

  6. "The best is always yet to come": Relationship stages and processes among young LGBT couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Greene, George J; Rivera, Zenaida; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Limited research has examined relationship development among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples in emerging adulthood. A better understanding of LGBT couples can inform the development of relationship education programs that reflect their unique needs. The following questions guided this study: (a) What are the stages and processes during young LGBT couples' relationship development? and (b) How do these compare with existing literature on heterosexual adults? A secondary goal was to explore similarities and differences between couples assigned male (MAAB) and female at birth (FAAB). Thirty-six couples completed interviews on their relationship history. Qualitative analyses showed that relationship stages and processes were similar to past research on heterosexuals, but participants' subjective experiences reflected their LGBT identities and emerging adulthood, which exerted additional stress on the relationship. These factors also affected milestones indicative of commitment among heterosexual adults (e.g., introducing partner to family). Mixed methods analyses indicated that MAAB couples described negotiating relationship agreements and safe sex in more depth than FAAB couples. Relationship development models warrant modifications to consider the impact of sexual and gender identity and emerging adulthood when applied to young LGBT couples. These factors should be addressed in interventions to promote relationship health among young LGBT couples. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sexual satisfaction in couples in the male and female climacteric stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Molina, Alide; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Delgado, Jaime Barrientos

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to describe the sexual life satisfaction of couples in the climacteric stage and determine whether there are differences between the perception of satisfaction and the sex life of each partner. We studied 142 couples obtained by stratified sampling of family health centers, Concepción, Chile. 66% of women and 84% of men reported being very or somewhat satisfied with their sex lives. Slight concordance was found between the responses of the partners in relation to satisfaction with their sexual life. Moreover, a slight degree of agreement was found between the sexual life satisfaction reported by women and their partners' perceptions of the women's sexual life satisfaction. Additionally, a slight degree of agreement was reported between the sexual life satisfaction reported by men and their partners' perceptions of the men's sexual life satisfaction. This study provides new information about Chilean couples in the climacteric stage in relation to self-reported sexual satisfaction and perceived satisfaction in couples.

  8. Coupled motions direct electrons along human microsomal P450 Chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Pudney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein domain motion is often implicated in biological electron transfer, but the general significance of motion is not clear. Motion has been implicated in the transfer of electrons from human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR to all microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs. Our hypothesis is that tight coupling of motion with enzyme chemistry can signal "ready and waiting" states for electron transfer from CPR to downstream CYPs and support vectorial electron transfer across complex redox chains. We developed a novel approach to study the time-dependence of dynamical change during catalysis that reports on the changing conformational states of CPR. FRET was linked to stopped-flow studies of electron transfer in CPR that contains donor-acceptor fluorophores on the enzyme surface. Open and closed states of CPR were correlated with key steps in the catalytic cycle which demonstrated how redox chemistry and NADPH binding drive successive opening and closing of the enzyme. Specifically, we provide evidence that reduction of the flavin moieties in CPR induces CPR opening, whereas ligand binding induces CPR closing. A dynamic reaction cycle was created in which CPR optimizes internal electron transfer between flavin cofactors by adopting closed states and signals "ready and waiting" conformations to partner CYP enzymes by adopting more open states. This complex, temporal control of enzyme motion is used to catalyze directional electron transfer from NADPH→FAD→FMN→heme, thereby facilitating all microsomal P450-catalysed reactions. Motions critical to the broader biological functions of CPR are tightly coupled to enzyme chemistry in the human NADPH-CPR-CYP redox chain. That redox chemistry alone is sufficient to drive functionally necessary, large-scale conformational change is remarkable. Rather than relying on stochastic conformational sampling, our study highlights a need for tight coupling of motion to enzyme chemistry to give vectorial electron

  9. Direct Method in Determining the Direction of Action in the Coupling Map Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wang-Chuang; Luo, Di

    2012-02-01

    Recently, Hung and Hu provided a genuine way to carry binary data on a coupling map ring (CMR) for the chaotic communication (Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 244102 (2008)). They use the temporal transfer entropy (TTE) to determine the direction of action, which tells bit 1 or 0, between two neighboring chaotic maps of the CMR. A direct method based on the correlation between the changes of two chaotic data is not only capable to resolve the carried bits but more effecient than the scheme of TTE.

  10. Assessing Readiness for Couple Therapy: The Stages of Relationship Change Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Client readiness for change is garnering increased interest both conceptually and methodologically. This article describes the reliability, validity, and utility of a measure of readiness for couple relationship change, Schneider's (2003) Stages of Relationship Change Questionnaire (SRCQ). Based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change, the…

  11. Semi-direct sums of Lie algebras and continuous integrable couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu; Xu Xixiang; Zhang Yufeng

    2006-01-01

    A relation between semi-direct sums of Lie algebras and integrable couplings of continuous soliton equations is presented, and correspondingly, a feasible way to construct integrable couplings is furnished. A direct application to the AKNS spectral problem leads to a novel hierarchy of integrable couplings of the AKNS hierarchy of soliton equations. It is also indicated that the study of integrable couplings using semi-direct sums of Lie algebras is an important step towards complete classification of integrable systems

  12. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  13. Shape Optimization of the Assisted Bi-directional Glenn surgery for stage-1 single ventricle palliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Shang, Jessica; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Wong, Kwai; Marsden, Alison

    2016-11-01

    Babies born with a single functional ventricle typically undergo three open-heart surgeries starting as neonates. The first of these stages (BT shunt or Norwood) has the highest mortality rates of the three, approaching 30%. Proceeding directly to a stage-2 Glenn surgery has historically demonstrated inadequate pulmonary flow (PF) & high mortality. Recently, the Assisted Bi-directional Glenn (ABG) was proposed as a promising means to achieve a stable physiology by assisting the PF via an 'ejector pump' from the systemic circulation. We present preliminary parametrization and optimization results for the ABG geometry, with the goal of increasing PF. To limit excessive pressure increases in the Superior Vena Cava (SVC), the SVC pressure is included as a constraint. We use 3-D finite element flow simulations coupled with a single ventricle lumped parameter network to evaluate PF & the pressure constraint. We employ a derivative free optimization method- the Surrogate Management Framework, in conjunction with the OpenDIEL framework to simulate multiple simultaneous evaluations. Results show that nozzle diameter is the most important design parameter affecting ABG performance. The application of these results to patient specific situations will be discussed. This work was supported by an NSF CAREER award (OCI1150184) and by the XSEDE National Computing Resource.

  14. Transitions in Physiologic Coupling: Sleep Stage and Age Dependence of Cardio-respiratory Phase Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have focused on various features of cardiac and respiratory dynamics with the aim to better understand key aspects of the underlying neural control of these systems. We investigate how sleep influences cardio-respiratory coupling, and how the degree of this coupling changes with transitions across sleep stages in healthy young and elderly subjects. We analyze full night polysomnographic recordings of 189 healthy subjects (age range: 20 to 90 years). To probe cardio-respiratory coupling, we apply a novel phase synchronization analysis method to quantify the adjustment of rhythms between heartbeat and breathing signals. We investigate how cardio-respiratory synchronization changes with sleep-stage transitions and under healthy aging. We find a statistically significant difference in the degree of cardio-respiratory synchronization during different sleep stages for both young and elderly subjects and a significant decline of synchronization with age. This is a first evidence of how sleep regulation and aging influence a key nonlinear mechanism of physiologic coupling as quantified by the degree of phase synchronization between the cardiac and respiratory systems, which is of importance to develop adequate modeling approaches.

  15. A Quantified Description of the Coupling between the Reaching Direction and Elbow Axis Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Stanišić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body continues to be an inspiration for the work of a myriad of different fields, both scientific and mathematic. In particular, robotics draws upon the motions and relationships of different human systems in order to reproduce similar mobility while performing different tasks. The human shoulder–arm–elbow complex has been one of the most difficult to exactly replicate. This paper examines the relationship between the motion of the shoulder while positioning the center of the wrist during voluntary arm movements and the resulting orientation of the arm, in particular the direction of the axis passing through the elbow joint. Experimental data is presented that was used to quantify this coupling between the reaching direction of the arm and the elbow axis direction. The results from this paper are two surface-fit equations that can be used to determine the elbow axis direction when given the location of the wrist center. These results are useful when considering the design and control of shoulder–arm–elbow complex models.

  16. Heterogeneous Directional Mobility in the Early Stages of Polymer Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacevic, N; Fried, L E; Gee, R H

    2008-11-01

    Recently we demonstrated via large large-scale molecular dynamics simulations a 'coexistence period' in polymer melt ordering before crystallization, where nucleation and growth mechanisms coexist with a phase phase-separation mechanism. Here we present an extension of this work, where we analyze the directional displacements as a measure of the mobility of monomers as they order during crystallization over more than 100 ns of simulation time. It is found that the polymer melt, after quenching, rapidly separates into many ordered hexagonal domains separated by amorphous regions, where surprisingly, the magnitude of the monomer's displacement in the ordered state, parallel to the domain axial direction, is similar to its magnitude in the melt. T. The monomer he displacements in the domain's lateral direction are found to decrease during the time of the simulation. The ordered hexagonal domains do not align into uniform lamellar structures during the timescales of our simulations.

  17. Staging a performance: learners' perceptions about direct observation during residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDonna, Kori A; Hatala, Rose; Lingard, Lorelei; Voyer, Stephane; Watling, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    Evidence strongly supports that direct observation is a valid and reliable assessment tool; support for its impact on learning is less compelling, and we know that some learners are ambivalent about being observed. However, learners' perceptions about the impact of direct observation on their learning and professional development remain underexplored. To promote learning, we need to understand what makes direct observation valuable for learners. Informed by constructivist grounded theory, we interviewed 22 learners about their observation experiences. Data collection and analysis occurred iteratively; themes were identified using constant comparative analysis. Direct observation was widely endorsed as an important educational strategy, albeit one that created significant anxiety. Opaque expectations exacerbated participants' discomfort, and participants described that being observed felt like being assessed. Consequently, participants exchanged their 'usual' practice for a 'textbook' approach; alterations to performance generated uncertainty about their role, and raised questions about whether observers saw an authentic portrayal of their knowledge and skill. An 'observer effect' may partly explain learners' ambivalence about direct observation; being observed seemed to magnify learners' role ambiguity, intensify their tensions around professional development and raise questions about the credibility of feedback. In turn, an observer effect may impact learners' receptivity to feedback and may explain, in part, learners' perceptions that useful feedback is scant. For direct observation to be valuable, educators must be explicit about expectations, and they must be aware that how learners perform in the presence of an observer may not reflect what they do as independent practitioners. To nurture learners' professional development, educators must create a culture of observation-based coaching that is divorced from assessment and is tailored to developing learners

  18. On the fate of coupled flat directions during inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Juan C. Bueno; Enqvist, Kari

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the stochastic dynamics of the long wavelength modes of a generic light scalar field that during inflation is coupled to another scalar field. The coupling plays an important role for the fluctuation of the field amplitude and may block its initial growth. We find that such a blocking is avoided, albeit only temporarily, if the light scalar has an initial non-vanishing expectation value (φ) larger than a certain critical value, for which we provide an estimate. We also show that the field fluctuations will eventually reach an equilibrium amplitude provided inflation is sufficiently long-lasting. We present a novel, general expression for the variance (φ 2 ) that takes into account the coupling of the massless field and describes the growth during the epoch of quasi-free fluctuations as well as the late-time approach to the equilibrium

  19. Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.

  20. The study on a gas-coupled two-stage stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Zhu, X. S.; Pan, C. Z.; Guo, J.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A two-stage gas-coupled Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) driven by a linear dual-opposed compressor has been designed, manufactured and tested. Both of the stages adopted coaxial structure for compactness. The effect of a cold double-inlet at the second stage on the cooling performance was investigated. The test results show that the cold double-inlet will help to achieve a lower cooling temperature, but it is not conducive to achieving a higher cooling capacity. At present, without the cold double-inlet, the second stage has achieved a no-load temperature of 11.28 K and a cooling capacity of 620 mW/20 K with an input electric power of 450 W. With the cold double-inlet, the no-load temperature is lowered to 9.4 K, but the cooling capacity is reduced to 400 mW/20 K. The structure of the developed cryocooler and the influences of charge pressure, operating frequency and hot end temperature will also be introduced in this paper.

  1. Stages of Learning during a Self-Directed Stress Management Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Karl L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to document the stages of learning reflected through student journaling during a self-directed experience in stress management, and the relationship of those stages to a historical model. Methods: College students participating in a full-semester course in stress management theory were required to select a…

  2. Making direct use of canopy profiles in vegetation - atmosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, James; Polcher, Jan; Peylin, Philippe; Ottlé, Catherine; Chen, Yiying; van Gorsel, Eva; Haverd, Vanessa; McGrath, Matthew; Naudts, Kim; Otto, Juliane; Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2015-04-01

    Most coupled land-surface regional models use the 'big-leaf' approach for simulating the sensible and latent heat fluxes of different vegetation types. However, there has been a progression in the types of questions being asked of these models, such as the consequences of land-use change or the behaviour of BVOCs and aerosol. In addition, recent years has seen growth in the availability of in-canopy datasets across a broaded range of species, with which to calibrate these simulations. Hence, there is now an argument for transferring some of the techniques and processes previously used in local, site-based land surface models to the land surface components of models which operate on a regional or even global scale. We describe here the development and evaluation of a vertical canopy energy budget model (Ryder, J et al., 2014) that can be coupled to an atmospheric model such as LMDz. Significantly, the model preserves the implicit coupling of the land-surface to atmosphere interface, which means that run-time efficiences are preserved. This is acheived by means of an interface based on the approach of Polcher et al. (1998) and Best et al. (2004), but newly developed for a canopy column. The model makes use of techniques from site-based models, such as the calculation of vertical turbulence statistics using a second-order closure model (Massman & Weil, 1999), and the distribution of long-wave and short-wave radiation over the profile, the latter using an innovate multilayer albedo scheme (McGrath et al., in prep.). Complete profiles of atmospheric temperature and specific humidity are now calculated, in order to simulate sensible and latent heat fluxes, as well as the leaf temperature at each level in the model. The model is shown to perform stably, and reproduces well flux measurements at an initial test site, across a time period of several days, or over the course of a year. Further applications of the model might be to simulate mixed canopies, the light

  3. State-coupled direct heat program, western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Phillip M.

    1977-09-01

    DGE's objective in this project is to facilitate discovery, assessment and development of low temperature geothermal resources in the US. One strategy for reaching this objective is the initiation with selected states of cooperative programs. The objectives of these state cooperative programs are: (1) to extend the inventory of geothermal resources in the state to include the low temperature reservoirs most suitable for direct heat applications; and (2) to stimulate reservoir confirmation studies at sites with an apparent but unquantified potential for direct heat application development.

  4. Inferring the Directionality of Coupling with Conditional Mutual Information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejmelka, Martin; Paluš, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2008), Art.no.-026214 ISSN 1539-3755 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 517133 - BRACCIA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : directionality * chaotic oscillators * time series analysis * information theory * phase dynamics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.508, year: 2008

  5. Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: relations to couples' interactive reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Inna; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth

    2012-08-01

    Romantic relationships can have a profound effect on adults' health and well-being whereas the inability to maintain intimate bonds has been associated with physical and emotional distress. Studies in monogamous mammalian species underscore the central role of oxytocin (OT) in pair-bonding and human imaging studies implicate OT-rich brain areas in early romantic love. To assess the role of OT in romantic attachment, we examined plasma OT in 163 young adults: 120 new lovers (60 couples) three months after the initiation of their romantic relationship and 43 non-attached singles. Twenty-five of the 36 couples who stayed together were seen again six months later. Couples were observed in dyadic interactions and were each interviewed regarding relationship-related thoughts and behaviors. OT was significantly higher in new lovers compared to singles, F(1,152)=109.33, pcouples' interactive reciprocity, including social focus, positive affect, affectionate touch, and synchronized dyadic states, and with anxieties and worries regarding the partner and the relationship, findings which parallel those described for parent-infant bonding. OT levels at the first assessment differentiated couples who stayed together six months later from those who separated during this period. Regression analysis showed that OT predicted interactive reciprocity independent of sex, relationship duration, and the partner's OT. Findings suggest that OT may play an important role at the first stages of romantic attachment and lend support to evolutionary models suggesting that parental and romantic attachment share underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct Photonic-Plasmonic Coupling and Routing in Single Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rouxue; Pausauskie, Peter; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Piedong

    2009-10-20

    Metallic nanoscale structures are capable of supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), propagating collective electron oscillations with tight spatial confinement at the metal surface. SPPs represent one of the most promising structures to beat the diffraction limit imposed by conventional dielectric optics. Ag nano wires have drawn increasing research attention due to 2D sub-100 nm mode confinement and lower losses as compared with fabricated metal structures. However, rational and versatile integration of Ag nanowires with other active and passive optical components, as well as Ag nanowire based optical routing networks, has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that SPPs can be excited simply by contacting a silver nanowire with a SnO2 nanoribbon that serves both as an unpolarized light source and a dielectric waveguide. The efficient coupling makes it possible to measure the propagation-distance-dependent waveguide spectra and frequency-dependent propagation length on a single Ag nanowire. Furthermore, we have demonstrated prototypical photonic-plasmonic routing devices, which are essential for incorporating low-loss Ag nanowire waveguides as practical components into high-capacity photonic circuits.

  7. Investigating the performance of directional boundary layer model through staged modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Won-Chan; Yang, Seung-Hune; Jang, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seong-Bo; Kim, Young-Chang; Suh, Chun-Suk; Choi, Seong-Woon; Kim, Young-Hee

    2011-04-01

    BLM since the feasibility of the BLM has been investigated in many papers[4][5][6]. Instead of fitting the parameters to the wafer critical dimensions (CD) directly, we tried to use the aerial image (AI) from the rigorous simulator with the electromagnetic field (EMF) solver. Usually that kind of method is known as the staged modeling method. To see the advantages of this method we conducted several experiments and observed the results comparing the method of fitting to the wafer CD directly. Through the tests we could observe some remarkable results and confirmed that the staged modeling had better performance in many ways.

  8. Directional coupling in channel plasmon-polariton waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr; Volkov, Valentyn S.; Han, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    We investigate directional couplers (DCs) formed by channel plasmon-polariton (CPP) waveguides (CPPWs). DCs comprising 5-µm-offset S-bends and 40-µm-long parallel CPPWs with different separations (0.08, 0.25, 0.5 and 2 µm) between V-groove channels are fabricated by using a focused ion-beam (FIB)...... gradually deteriorates with the increase of separation between V-grooves and practically vanishes for the separation of 2 µm. The DC-CPPW characteristics observed are found in good agreement with finite-element method (implemented in COMSOL) simulations....

  9. Thermal tides and Martian dust storms: Direct evidence for coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovy, C.B.; Zurek, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of surface pressure oscillations at the Viking 1 and Viking 2 lander sites on Mars indicate that the thermally driven global atmospheric tides were closely coupled to the dust content of the Martian atmosphere, especially during northern fall and winter, when two successive global dust storms occurred. The onset of each of these global storms was marked by substantial, nearly simultaneous increases in the dust opacity and in the range of the daily surface pressure variation observed at both lander sites. Although both the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal surface pressure components were amplified at Lander 1 during the onset of a global dust storm, the semidiurnal component was greatly enhanced in relation to the diurnal tide. Semidiurnal wind components were prominent at both lander sites during the height of the global dust storm. We have attempted to interpret these observations using simplified dynamical models. In particular, the semidiurnal wind component can be successfully related to the observed surface pressure variation using a simplified model of a semidiurnally forced Ekman boundary layer. On the other hand, a classical atmospheric tidal model shows that the preferential enhancement of the semidiurnal surface pressure oscillation at Lander 1 can be produced by a tidal heating distribution which places most of the heating (per unit mass) above 10-km altitude. Furthermore, when a dust storm expands to global scale, it does so rather quickly, and the total atmospheric heating at the peak of the dust storm can represent more than 50% of the available insolation. The Viking observations suggest that a number of mechanisms are important for the generation and decay of these episodic Martian global dust storms

  10. Interfacing capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by direct injection nebulization for selenium speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, Lars; Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.

    2001-01-01

    A demountable direct injection high efficiency nebulizer operating at low sample uptake rates was developed and used for coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). When the nebulizer was used for continuous sample introduction, detection...

  11. Coupling of the four design stages in the management of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinez R, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the main characteristics of the system to solve the four stages of the nuclear fuel management are presented; the above for boiling water reactors (BWR). The novelty of the system is that a complete solution is obtained in a coupled way; the involved stages are fuel lattice design, fuel assembly design, fuel reload design and control rod pattern design. To do this, in each stage of the process some heuristics techniques are applied, and each stage has its own objective function. The used heuristic techniques are neural network and a hybrid between scatter search and path re linking for fuel lattice design; for fuel assembly design a simple local search was applied and finally, for both fuel reload and control rod pattern designs, the tabu search technique was used. The system have two loops, one external loop and one internal loop, the first one starts with fuel lattice design and concludes with control rod pattern design; on the other hand, the internal loop executes an iterative process between both fuel reload design and control rod pattern designs, to start this loop a seed fuel reload is required, which is obtained applying Haling principle. The internal loop is finished when four iterations were achieved, while the external loop is finished when two iterations were achieved, this number of iterations was fixed due to the great quantity of required computational resources. An 18- months equilibrium cycle was considered to have a reference value to compare against the obtained results with our system, this cycle have two fuel fresh batches with the same average uranium enrichment, but different gadolinia content. The above cycle achieved a 10,896 Mwd/Tu of energy and was divided into 12 burnup steps. The obtained results show the advantage to solve the complete problem in a coupled way, even though a great quantity of computational resources are used. It is necessary to note that the energy value was not achieved in all cases, only in some

  12. Direct Formation of Silane Coupling Agents on Glass for Improved Composite Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyles, David

    2003-01-01

    ...; and 3) reaction of aminoalkenes with the reduced surface via a hydrosilylation reaction which formed the coupling agent directly on the surface of the glass fiber for glass surfaces incorporated into epoxy systems...

  13. Pd(II/HPMoV-Catalyzed Direct Oxidative Coupling Reaction of Benzenes with Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Ishii

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct aerobic coupling reaction of arenes with olefins was successfully achieved by the use of Pd(OAc2/molybdovanadophosphoric acid (HPMoV as a key catalyst under 1 atm of dioxygen. This catalytic system could be extended to the coupling reaction of various substituted benzenes with olefins such as acrylates, aclrolein, and ethylene through the direct aromatic C-H bond activation.

  14. Geometric detection of coupling directions by means of inter-system recurrence networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldhoff, Jan H. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt University, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Donner, Reik V., E-mail: reik.donner@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Donges, Jonathan F. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt University, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Marwan, Norbert [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Department of Physics, Humboldt University, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB243UE (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    We introduce a geometric method for identifying the coupling direction between two dynamical systems based on a bivariate extension of recurrence network analysis. Global characteristics of the resulting inter-system recurrence networks provide a correct discrimination for weakly coupled Rössler oscillators not yet displaying generalised synchronisation. Investigating two real-world palaeoclimate time series representing the variability of the Asian monsoon over the last 10,000 years, we observe indications for a considerable influence of the Indian summer monsoon on climate in Eastern China rather than vice versa. The proposed approach can be directly extended to studying K>2 coupled subsystems.

  15. Stress and social support in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples: direct effects and buffering models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James M; Barnow, Zoe B

    2013-08-01

    The beneficial effect of social support on the well-being of individuals and romantic relationships has been extensively studied in married heterosexual relationships. The direct effects model suggests that social support is directly associated with well-being, while the social buffering model describes how social support can protect individual well-being from the negative impact of stress. In the present study, we seek to test the extent to which these processes apply to gay and lesbian couples. We use a sample of 111 gay, lesbian, and married heterosexual couples to test the predictions of the social buffering models across relationship types. Irrespective of sexual orientation, the results suggest that social support from family and friends is directly related to well-being, while support provided by one's romantic partner buffered individual well-being from the negative impact of stress. The direct and buffering effects of partner support on romantic relationship quality were likewise consistent across couple types. While the amount of social support received from family members had a beneficial effect on the relationship quality of heterosexual couples, family support was unrelated to relationship quality in same-sex couples. Furthermore, the relation between friend support and relationship quality differed across couple types. We discuss the results in the context of the unique challenges faced by same-sex couples. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  16. Foot segmental motion and coupling in stage II and III tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Maarten; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Wuite, Sander; Roels, Charlotte; Staes, Filip; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Classification systems developed in the field of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction omit to include dynamic measurements. Since this may negatively affect the selection of the most appropriate treatment modality, studies on foot kinematics are highly recommended. Previous research characterised the foot kinematics in patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction. However, none of the studies analysed foot segmental motion synchrony during stance phase, nor compared the kinematic behaviour of the foot in presence of different posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stages. Therefore, we aimed at comparing foot segmental motion and coupling in patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction grade 2 and 3 to those of asymptomatic subjects. Foot segmental motion of 11 patients suffering from posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stage 2, 4 patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stage 3 and 15 asymptomatic subjects was objectively quantified with the Rizzoli foot model using an instrumented walkway and a 3D passive motion capture system. Dependent variables were the range of motion occurring at the different inter-segment angles during subphases of stance and swing phase as well as the cross-correlation coefficient between a number of segments. Significant differences in range of motion were predominantly found during the forefoot push off phase and swing phase. In general, both patient cohorts demonstrated a reduced range of motion compared to the control group. This hypomobility occurred predominantly in the rearfoot and midfoot (pfoot which should be considered in the decision making process since it may help explaining the success and failure of certain conservative and surgical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. “The Best is Always Yet to Come”: Relationship Stages and Processes Among Young LGBT Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Greene, George J.; Rivera, Zenaida A.; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has examined relationship development among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples in emerging adulthood. A better understanding of LGBT couples can inform the development of relationship education programs that reflect their unique needs. The following questions guided this study: 1) what are the stages and processes during young LGBT couples’ relationship development? and 2) how do these compare to existing literature on heterosexual adults? A secondary goal was to explore similarities and differences between couples assigned male (MAAB) and female at birth (FAAB). Thirty-six couples completed interviews on their relationship history. Qualitative analyses showed that relationship stages and processes were similar to past research on heterosexuals, but participants’ subjective experiences reflected their LGBT identities and emerging adulthood, which exerted additional stress on the relationship. These factors also affected milestones indicative of commitment among heterosexual adults (e.g., introducing partner to family). Mixed-methods analyses indicated that MAAB couples described negotiating relationship agreements and safe sex in more depth than FAAB couples. Relationship development models warrant modifications to consider the impact of sexual and gender identity and emerging adulthood when applied to young LGBT couples. These factors should be addressed in interventions to promote relationship health among young LGBT couples. PMID:26053345

  18. Obtaining high-resolution stage forecasts by coupling large-scale hydrologic models with sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, K. J.; Kerkez, B.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how "big" quantities of distributed sensor data can be coupled with a large-scale hydrologic model, in particular the National Water Model (NWM), to obtain hyper-resolution forecasts. The recent launch of the NWM provides a great example of how growing computational capacity is enabling a new generation of massive hydrologic models. While the NWM spans an unprecedented spatial extent, there remain many questions about how to improve forecast at the street-level, the resolution at which many stakeholders make critical decisions. Further, the NWM runs on supercomputers, so water managers who may have access to their own high-resolution measurements may not readily be able to assimilate them into the model. To that end, we ask the question: how can the advances of the large-scale NWM be coupled with new local observations to enable hyper-resolution hydrologic forecasts? A methodology is proposed whereby the flow forecasts of the NWM are directly mapped to high-resolution stream levels using Dynamical System Identification. We apply the methodology across a sensor network of 182 gages in Iowa. Of these sites, approximately one third have shown to perform well in high-resolution flood forecasting when coupled with the outputs of the NWM. The quality of these forecasts is characterized using Principal Component Analysis and Random Forests to identify where the NWM may benefit from new sources of local observations. We also discuss how this approach can help municipalities identify where they should place low-cost sensors to most benefit from flood forecasts of the NWM.

  19. Daily support in couples coping with early stage breast cancer: maintaining intimacy during adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Amber J; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Graber, Elana C; Cohen, Lawrence H; Dasch, Kimberly B; Siegel, Scott D

    2011-11-01

    Recent work has identified intimacy as a potentially important determinant of psychological adjustment in couples coping with cancer. Little work has examined specific social support processes within the context of the everyday life of couples' cancer experience. Specifically, we examined the links between breast cancer patient reports of receiving support from one's spouse/partner (support receipt) and spouse reports of providing support to the patient (support provision) with daily intimacy outcomes. We hypothesized that both patient and spouse would benefit from support receipt and support provision. Forty-five women with early stage breast cancer and their spouses independently completed an Internet-based electronic diary assessing support receipt, support provision, and relationship intimacy for seven consecutive evenings shortly after surgery. Study outcomes consisted of daily relationship intimacy reported by each partner. As hypothesized, when controlling for patient report of support receipt, spouse report of support provision was uniquely associated with a significant additional increase in feelings of relationship intimacy for patients. Moreover, the independent effects of support receipt and support provision were also found to be beneficial for nonpatient spouses' daily feelings of intimacy. Findings highlight the use of dyadic diary methods and corresponding modeling to uncover the unique benefits of support provision that may sometimes occur outside the awareness of the recipient. Results are discussed in terms of conceptualizing the cancer experience in a shared interpersonal context, whereby patients and their spouses can both benefit from support as they adjust to cancer together. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Modification of Irrational Ideas and Test Anxiety through Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Gerard E.; Tosi, Donald J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students (N=48). The Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH) treatment group was significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects. (Author/JAC)

  1. Pre-capacity building in loosely-coupled collaborations: Setting the stage for future initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Hyde

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the benefits and limitations of ‘loosely-coupled’ research collaborations between university faculty and 12 grassroots community-based organisations (CBOs. The authors assert that community-based research projects that develop the knowledge base within CBOs, and can be described as ‘pre-capacity building’ work, can be an important stepping stone to the subsequent development of more formal and strategic capacity-building partnership ventures. However, such projects must be approached carefully with a clear understanding of the ‘threshold dimensions’ that must be met before proceeding with any collaboration. Written as a cautionary tale, the authors identify some of the problems that arise when the threshold stage is poorly executed, and more generally speak to the dangers of initiating even loosely-coupled collaborations in the absence of an explicit and well-established campus commitment to and support for community engagement and partnerships. Keywords: Community capacity-building, community-university partnerships, community research, collaboration

  2. Performance Characterization of an xy-Stage Applied to Micrometric Laser Direct Writing Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jaramillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the characterization of the stability and performance of a motorized stage used in laser direct writing lithography. The system was built from commercial components and commanded by G-code. Measurements use a pseudo-periodic-pattern (PPP observed by a camera and image processing is based on Fourier transform and phase measurement methods. The results report that the built system has a stability against vibrations determined by peak-valley deviations of 65 nm and 26 nm in the x and y directions, respectively, with a standard deviation of 10 nm in both directions. When the xy-stage is in movement, it works with a resolution of 0.36 μm, which is an acceptable value for most of research and development (R and D microtechnology developments in which the typical feature size used is in the micrometer range.

  3. Performance Characterization of an xy-Stage Applied to Micrometric Laser Direct Writing Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juan; Zarzycki, Artur; Galeano, July; Sandoz, Patrick

    2017-01-31

    This article concerns the characterization of the stability and performance of a motorized stage used in laser direct writing lithography. The system was built from commercial components and commanded by G-code. Measurements use a pseudo-periodic-pattern (PPP) observed by a camera and image processing is based on Fourier transform and phase measurement methods. The results report that the built system has a stability against vibrations determined by peak-valley deviations of 65 nm and 26 nm in the x and y directions, respectively, with a standard deviation of 10 nm in both directions. When the xy-stage is in movement, it works with a resolution of 0.36 μm, which is an acceptable value for most of research and development (R and D) microtechnology developments in which the typical feature size used is in the micrometer range.

  4. Experimental study of directionally solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under multi-field coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuping, E-mail: zhuyuping@126.com [Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Tao; Teng, Yao [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu, Bingfei [Airport College, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Xue, Lijun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Directionally solidified, polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga is studied in this paper. The polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga samples were cut at different angles to solidification direction. The magnetic field induced strain under constant stress and the temperature-induced strain under constant magnetic field during the loading–unloading cycle were measured. The experimental results show that the mechanical behavior during the loading–unloading cycle of the material is nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the experimental results, the effects of multi-field coupling factors, such as stress, magnetic field, temperature and cutting angle on the mechanical behaviors were analyzed. Some useful conclusions were obtained, which will provide guidance for practical applications. - Highlights: • The magnetic-induced strains in different directions are tested. • The temperature-induced strains in different directions are tested. • The effects of coupling factors on directional solidification samples are studied.

  5. Experimental study of directionally solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under multi-field coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Chen, Tao; Teng, Yao; Liu, Bingfei; Xue, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Directionally solidified, polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga is studied in this paper. The polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga samples were cut at different angles to solidification direction. The magnetic field induced strain under constant stress and the temperature-induced strain under constant magnetic field during the loading–unloading cycle were measured. The experimental results show that the mechanical behavior during the loading–unloading cycle of the material is nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the experimental results, the effects of multi-field coupling factors, such as stress, magnetic field, temperature and cutting angle on the mechanical behaviors were analyzed. Some useful conclusions were obtained, which will provide guidance for practical applications. - Highlights: • The magnetic-induced strains in different directions are tested. • The temperature-induced strains in different directions are tested. • The effects of coupling factors on directional solidification samples are studied.

  6. Initialization method for triple-layer exchanged coupled direct overwrite MO disk (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, T. K.; Genova, D. J.; Palumbo, A. C.

    1993-05-01

    Increasing efforts are directed at the development of direct overwrite (DOW) capability for achieving higher data transfer rate in MO media. DOW by light intensity modulation on a triple-layer medium has shown great promise. The three layers consist of memory, reference, and intermediate layers that are weakly coupled to each other. This scheme uses an auxiliary magnet to initialize the reference layer in one direction in addition to the bias magnet. DOW is between high and low power levels. High power aligns the magnetization of the coupled layers in one direction, and low power aligns the magnetization in the opposite direction. These high (Ph) and low (Pl) powers are generally widely separated. Since the focused writing beam has a Gaussian profile, when the center of the spot does the high power writing, the ``skirt'' is actually doing the low power writing. As a result, if the background is initialized in the direction of the high power written mark, a chain-like domain pattern is observed. This leads to high writing noise. We found that such writing noise can be eliminated by initializing the background in the direction of the low power written marks. We will discuss the spin structure in exchanged coupled triple-layer films and the DOW characteristics of the disk with the two different initialization methods.

  7. Minimizing coupling loss by selection of twist pitch lengths in multi-stage cable-in-conduit conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, G.; Devred, A.; Nijhuis, A.

    2014-01-01

    The numerical code JackPot-ACDC (van Lanen et al 2010 Cryogenics 50 139-48, van Lanen et al 2011 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21 1926-9, van Lanen et al 2012 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25 025012) allows fast parametric studies of the electro-magnetic performance of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs). In this paper the code is applied to the analysis of the relation between twist pitch length sequence and coupling loss in multi-stage ITER-type CICCs. The code shows that in the analysed conductors the coupling loss is at its minimum when the twist pitches of the successive cabling stages have a length ratio close to one. It is also predicted that by careful selection of the stage-to-stage twist pitch ratio, CICCs cabled according to long twist schemes in the initial stages can achieve lower coupling loss than conductors with shorter pitches. The result is validated by AC loss measurements performed on prototype conductors for the ITER Central Solenoid featuring different twist pitch sequences.

  8. Wideband Direction of Arrival Estimation in the Presence of Unknown Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a subarray based algorithm for direction of arrival (DOA estimation of wideband uniform linear array (ULA, under the presence of frequency-dependent mutual coupling effects. Based on the Toeplitz structure of mutual coupling matrices, the whole array is divided into the middle subarray and the auxiliary subarray. Then two-sided correlation transformation is applied to the correlation matrix of the middle subarray instead of the whole array. In this way, the mutual coupling effects can be eliminated. Finally, the multiple signal classification (MUSIC method is utilized to derive the DOAs. For the condition when the blind angles exist, we refine DOA estimation by using a simple approach based on the frequency-dependent mutual coupling matrixes (MCMs. The proposed method can achieve high estimation accuracy without any calibration sources. It has a low computational complexity because iterative processing is not required. Simulation results validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  9. MgB2 magnetometer with directly coupled pick-up loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, Dick; Brinkman, Alexander; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which

  10. Preparation of fluorinated biaryls through direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Xin

    2013-07-01

    The direct palladium-catalyzed coupling of polyfluoroarenes with aryltrifluoroborates gave the desired products of fluorinated biaryls in good to excellent yields. A diverse set of important functional groups including methoxy, aldehyde, ester, nitro and halide can be well tolerated in the protocol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct coupling of supported liquid membranes to capillary electrophoresis for analysis of complex samples: A tutorial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 787, JUL (2013), s. 10-23 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supported liquid membranes * direct coupling Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  12. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  13. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  14. Application of directly coupled HPLC MMR to separation and characterization of lipoproteins from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daykin, C. A.; Corcoran, O.; Hansen, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    with plasma proteins such as albumin occurred, and this clearly limits quantitation of that species by HPLC peak integration. We also show, for the first time, the application of directly coupled HPLC H-1 NMR spectroscopy to confirm the identification of the three major lipoproteins, The full chromatographic...... by the HPLC separation and that their gross supramolecular organization was intact....

  15. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-10-24

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg.

  16. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-12-15

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m 2  at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental comparison of two PV direct-coupled solar water heating systems with the traditional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Jie; Wang, Yanqiu; Yuan, Weiqi; Sun, Wei; He, Wei; Guo, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A design approach of PV-coupled solar water heating system (SWHS) is presented. • Two different designs of PV modules are proposed and investigated. • A comparative test rig of PV-coupled SWHS and traditional SWHS is set up. • A flow rate increasing with solar irradiation is recommended. - Abstract: Simple and reliable, PV direct-coupled DC pumps are promising in solar water heating systems (SWHS). However, there is limited experimental data on the performance comparison of PV-coupled SWHS with traditional SWHS. Hence in this study, a comparative test rig is set up to measure and analyze the performance of the PV-coupled SWHS and the traditional system under the same conditions. The experimental results show that on sunny days the PV-coupled SWHS has similar daily thermal efficiency as the traditional SWHS, and slightly higher efficiency after improving the design of the PV module. Under low irradiation, the PV-coupled SWHS gains much more heat than the traditional SWHS, which indicates the potential of the PV-coupled SWHS having much higher efficiency than the traditional SWHS on cloudy days. In order to improve the performance of the PV-coupled SWHS, two different designs of PV module are proposed, and their influence on the pump startup characteristics, the flow rate profile, and the thermal efficiency of the system is investigated. It is found that the modified design of the PV module can reduce the requirement of PV cells and increase the efficiency of the system

  18. Blood Stage Plasmodium falciparum Exhibits Biological Responses to Direct Current Electric Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Coronado

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to insecticides by the vector of malaria and the increasingly faster appearance of resistance to antimalarial drugs by the parasite can dangerously hamper efforts to control and eradicate the disease. Alternative ways to treat this disease are urgently needed. Here we evaluate the in vitro effect of direct current (DC capacitive coupling electrical stimulation on the biology and viability of Plasmodium falciparum. We designed a system that exposes infected erythrocytes to different capacitively coupled electric fields in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum. The effect on growth of the parasite, replication of DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential and level of reactive oxygen species after exposure to electric fields demonstrate that the parasite is biologically able to respond to stimuli from DC electric fields involving calcium signaling pathways.

  19. On-chip spin-controlled orbital angular momentum directional coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Lei, Ting; Si, Guangyuan; Du, Luping; Lin, Jiao; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2018-01-01

    Optical vortex beams have many potential applications in the particle trapping, quantum encoding, optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) communications and interconnects. However, the on-chip compact OAM detection is still a big challenge. Based on a holographic configuration and a spin-dependent structure design, we propose and demonstrate an on-chip spin-controlled OAM-mode directional coupler, which can couple the OAM signal to different directions due to its topological charge. While the directional coupling function can be switched on/off by altering the spin of incident beam. Both simulation and experimental measurements verify the validity of the proposed approach. This work would benefit the on-chip OAM devices for optical communications and high dimensional quantum coding/decoding in the future.

  20. Very high coupling of TM polarised light in photonic crystal directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Thorhauge, Morten; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2003-01-01

    The experimental and simulated spectra for TE and TM polarised light for the transmission through photonic crystal directional couplers are presented. The 3D FDTD simulations successfully explain all the major features of the experimental spectra as well as the actual transmission level. Especially...... noteworthy is the transmission level, experimentally found to be above -3 dB in the wavelength range 1520-1690 nm, for TM polarised light in the coupled channel. It is noted that even though band calculations show that the propagation of the TM polarisation takes place below the TM valence band, very high...... and spectrally smooth coupling is observed for the TM polarisation in this wavelength range....

  1. Role of Defects in Self-Organized Criticality: A Directed Coupled Map Lattice Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tadic, Bosiljka; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    1996-01-01

    We study a directed coupled map lattice model in two dimensions, with two degrees of freedom associated with each lattice site. The two freedoms are coupled at a fraction $c$ of lattice bonds acting as quenched random defects. In the case of conservative dynamics, at any concentration of defects the system reaches a self-organized critical state with universal critical exponents close to the mean-field values. The probability distributions follow the general scaling form $P(X,L)= L^{-\\alpha}{...

  2. Long-Term Outcome After Conservative Treatment and Direct Bypass Surgery of Moyamoya Disease at Late Suzuki Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Peicong; Zhang, Qian; Ye, Xun; Liu, Xingju; Deng, Xiaofeng; Li, Hao; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the long-term outcomes after conservative and direct surgical treatment for patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) at late Suzuki stage. We retrospectively reviewed 82 patients (164 hemispheres) with MMD at late Suzuki stage at Beijing Tiantan Hospital. Clinical features, radiologic findings, and outcomes were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 36.4 ± 11.7 years. The distribution of the initial Suzuki stage of MMD was as follows: stage 4, n = 113; stage 5, n = 45; stage 6, n = 6, posterior cerebral artery involvement was observed in 41 hemispheres (25.0%). The incidence of postoperative stroke (Suzuki stage, compared with conservative treatment, it did not reduce the risk of recurrent stroke. Further study is needed to determine whether direct bypass surgery is effective in patients with MMD at late Suzuki stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Semiconductor optical amplifier direct modulation with double-stage birefringent fiber loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Thomas; Rizou, Zoe V.; Zoiros, Kyriakos E.; Morel, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The feasibility of cascading two birefringent fiber loops (BFLs) for directly modulating a conventional semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) at a faster data rate than that being possible by its limited electrical bandwidth is demonstrated for the first time. The experimental results reveal the improvements in the quality characteristics of the encoded signal compared to those achieved with a single-stage BFL. The observed trends are complemented by numerical simulations, which allow to investigate the impact of the double-stage BFL detuning and specify how this critical parameter must be selected for enhanced performance. Provided that it is properly tailored, the proposed optical notch filtering scheme efficiently compensates for the pattern-dependent SOA response and enables this element to be employed as intensity modulator with improved performance at enhanced data speeds.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Direct Hospital Care Costs between Aseptic and Two-Stage Septic Knee Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, Richard; Merk, Sebastian; Assmann, Grit; Lahm, Andreas; Napp, Matthias; Merk, Harry; Flessa, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Background The most common intermediate and long-term complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) include aseptic and septic failure of prosthetic joints. These complications cause suffering, and their management is expensive. In the future the number of revision TKA will increase, which involves a greater financial burden. Little concrete data about direct costs for aseptic and two-stage septic knee revisions with an in depth-analysis of septic explantation and implantation is available. Questions/Purposes A retrospective consecutive analysis of the major partial costs involved in revision TKA for aseptic and septic failure was undertaken to compare 1) demographic and clinical characteristics, and 2) variable direct costs (from a hospital department’s perspective) between patients who underwent single-stage aseptic and two-stage septic revision of TKA in a hospital providing maximum care. We separately analyze the explantation and implantation procedures in septic revision cases and identify the major cost drivers of knee revision operations. Methods A total of 106 consecutive patients (71 aseptic and 35 septic) was included. All direct costs of diagnosis, surgery, and treatment from the hospital department’s perspective were calculated as real purchase prices. Personnel involvement was calculated in units of minutes. Results Aseptic versus septic revisions differed significantly in terms of length of hospital stay (15.2 vs. 39.9 days), number of reported secondary diagnoses (6.3 vs. 9.8) and incision-suture time (108.3 min vs. 193.2 min). The management of septic revision TKA was significantly more expensive than that of aseptic failure ($12,223.79 vs. $6,749.43) (p financial loss for the operating department. PMID:28107366

  5. Directional synthetic aperture flow imaging using a dual stage beamformer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ye; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    A new method for directional synthetic aperture flow imaging using a dual stage beamformer approach is presented. The velocity estimation is angle independent and the amount of calculations is reduced compared to full synthetic aperture, but still maintains all the advantages at the same time.......3% and bias of 6.4% at 65 were achieved in the simulations, and 4.3% and 4.2% for the experimental measurements. A color flow map image was made in 48 emissions corresponding to a frame rate of 83 frames/s....

  6. Shear Alfven wave excitation by direct antenna coupling and fast wave resonant mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Antenna coupling to the shear Alfven wave by both direct excitation and fast wave resonant mode conversion is modelled analytically for a plasma with a one dimensional linear density gradient. We demonstrate the existence of a shear Alfven mode excited directly by the antenna. For localised antennas, this mode propagates as a guided beam along the steady magnetic field lines intersecting the antenna. Shear Alfven wave excitation by resonant mode conversion of a fast wave near the Alfven resonance layer is also demonstrated and we prove that energy is conserved in this process. We compare the efficiency of these two mechanisms of shear Alfven wave excitation and present a simple analytical formula giving the ratio of the coupled powers. Finally, we discuss the interpretation of some experimental results. 45 refs., 7 figs

  7. Organocatalysis in cross-coupling: DMEDA-catalyzed direct C-H arylation of unactivated benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cao, Hao; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Heng; Chung, Kin Ho; He, Chuan; Wang, Haibo; Kwong, Fuk Yee; Lei, Aiwen

    2010-12-01

    A striking breakthrough to the frame of traditional cross-couplings/C-H functionalizations using an organocatalyst remains unprecedented. We uncovered a conceptually different approach toward the biaryl syntheses by using DMEDA as the catalyst to promote the direct C-H arylation of unactivated benzene in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide. The arylation of unactivated benzene with aryl iodides, or aryl bromides and even chlorides under the assistance of an iodo-group, could simply take place at 80 °C. The new methodology presumably involves an aryl radical anion as an intermediate. This finding offers an option toward establishing a new horizon for direct C-H/cross-coupling reactions.

  8. Direct Coupling of Thermo- and Photocatalysis for Conversion of CO2 -H2 O into Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Kong, Guoguo; Meng, Yaping; Tian, Jinshu; Zhang, Lijie; Wan, Shaolong; Lin, Jingdong; Wang, Yong

    2017-12-08

    Photocatalytic CO 2 reduction into renewable hydrocarbon solar fuels is considered as a promising strategy to simultaneously address global energy and environmental issues. This study focused on the direct coupling of photocatalytic water splitting and thermocatalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 in the conversion of CO 2 -H 2 O into fuels. Specifically, it was found that direct coupling of thermo- and photocatalysis over Au-Ru/TiO 2 leads to activity 15 times higher (T=358 K; ca. 99 % CH 4 selectivity) in the conversion of CO 2 -H 2 O into fuels than that of photocatalytic water splitting. This is ascribed to the promoting effect of thermocatalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 by hydrogen atoms generated in situ by photocatalytic water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Measurement of six degree bi-directional motion error of linear stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutani Ryoshu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed the measurement system of the six degree of motion errors which is based on distance measurement by the laser interferometer. The system has six parallel laser beams and six ball lenses as the retroreflectors on the linear stage, which reflect the corresponding laser beams. In the proposed system, the error of axial direction is measured with the ordinary distance measurement method by laser interferometer. The vertical errors to the axial direction and the roll errors around the optical axis are measured by tilted beams using the wedge prism. The pitch and yaw errors in the vertical plane to the optical axis are measured by the difference between distance of two ball lenses. The former system can measure the displacement and the error angle in one-direction. The propose system are expanded and bi-directional displacement and error angle can be measured. In this paper, it is shown how to expand the measurement system. As a result, the maximum displacement errors in x, y and z directions are 242nm, 179nm and 90nm. The maximum rotational errors around x, y, z axes are 1.75 arcsec, 2.35 arcsec and 1.67 arcsec.

  10. A Comparison of Direct and Two-Stage Transportation of Patients to Hospital in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosiek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid international expansion of telemedicine reflects the growth of technological innovations. This technological advancement is transforming the way in which patients can receive health care. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Poland, at the Department of Cardiology of the Regional Hospital of Louis Rydygier in Torun. The researchers analyzed the delay in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The study was conducted as a survey and examined 67 consecutively admitted patients treated invasively in a two-stage transport system. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Two-stage transportation does not meet the timeframe guidelines for the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Intervals for the analyzed group of patients were statistically significant (p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Direct transportation of the patient to a reference center with interventional cardiology laboratory has a significant impact on reducing in-hospital delay in case of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Perspectives: This article presents the results of two-stage transportation of the patient with acute coronary syndrome. This measure could help clinicians who seek to assess time needed for intervention. It also shows how time from the beginning of pain in chest is important and may contribute to patient disability, death or well-being.

  11. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  12. Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Multi-Stage Autoignition Relevant to Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline

    2017-11-01

    Due to the unrivaled energy density of liquid hydrocarbon fuels combustion will continue to provide over 80% of the world's energy for at least the next fifty years. Hence, combustion needs to be understood and controlled to optimize combustion systems for efficiency to prevent further climate change, to reduce emissions and to ensure U.S. energy security. In this talk I will discuss recent progress in direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion focused on providing fundamental insights into key `turbulence-chemistry' interactions that underpin the development of next generation fuel efficient, fuel flexible engines for transportation and power generation. Petascale direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multi-stage mixed-mode turbulent combustion in canonical configurations have elucidated key physics that govern autoignition and flame stabilization in engines and provide benchmark data for combustion model development under the conditions of advanced engines which operate near combustion limits to maximize efficiency and minimize emissions. Mixed-mode combustion refers to premixed or partially-premixed flames propagating into stratified autoignitive mixtures. Multi-stage ignition refers to hydrocarbon fuels with negative temperature coefficient behavior that undergo sequential low- and high-temperature autoignition. Key issues that will be discussed include: 1) the role of mixing in shear driven turbulence on the dynamics of multi-stage autoignition and cool flame propagation in diesel environments, 2) the role of thermal and composition stratification on the evolution of the balance of mixed combustion modes - flame propagation versus spontaneous ignition - which determines the overall combustion rate in autoignition processes, and 3) the role of cool flames on lifted flame stabilization. Finally prospects for DNS of turbulent combustion at the exascale will be discussed in the context of anticipated heterogeneous machine architectures. sponsored by DOE

  13. Immediate two-stage tissue expander vs single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction: two case reports of identical twins with BRCA 2 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Porčnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the best aesthetic result after immediate implant-based breast reconstruction, all the advantages and disadvantages of two-stage tissue expander and single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction should be considered. Decision about the type of implant-based reconstruction is based on the consultations outcomes after multidisciplinary team meeting of breast and reconstructive specialist, but patients own wishes should be prioritised.

  14. Sparse networks of directly coupled, polymorphic, and functional side chains in allosteric proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan Ghoraie, Laleh; Burkowski, Forbes; Zhu, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of coupled side-chain fluctuations alone in the allosteric behavior of proteins. Moreover, examination of X-ray crystallography data has recently revealed new information about the prevalence of alternate side-chain conformations (conformational polymorphism), and attempts have been made to uncover the hidden alternate conformations from X-ray data. Hence, new computational approaches are required that consider the polymorphic nature of the side chains, and incorporate the effects of this phenomenon in the study of information transmission and functional interactions of residues in a molecule. These studies can provide a more accurate understanding of the allosteric behavior. In this article, we first present a novel approach to generate an ensemble of conformations and an efficient computational method to extract direct couplings of side chains in allosteric proteins, and provide sparse network representations of the couplings. We take the side-chain conformational polymorphism into account, and show that by studying the intrinsic dynamics of an inactive structure, we are able to construct a network of functionally crucial residues. Second, we show that the proposed method is capable of providing a magnified view of the coupled and conformationally polymorphic residues. This model reveals couplings between the alternate conformations of a coupled residue pair. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first computational method for extracting networks of side chains' alternate conformations. Such networks help in providing a detailed image of side-chain dynamics in functionally important and conformationally polymorphic sites, such as binding and/or allosteric sites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Dept. of Aero Materials Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding.

  16. Direct Coupling of SiPMs to Scintillator Tiles for Imaging Calorimetry and Triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank; Joram, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers allows the direct readout of blue emitting plastic scintillator tiles without the use of a wavelength shifting fiber. Such directly read out tiles, without light guides, are attractive for the use in highly granular calorimeters that use large numbers of individual cells and in other applications where very compact designs are needed. However, the total signal amplitude and the uniformity of the response can be problematic in such cases. We have developed a scanning setup to investigate the response of scintillator tiles with SiPM readout in detail. It was used to develop optimized scintillator tile geometries for highly granular hadronic calorimetry at future colliders and to investigate the feasibility of a SiPM readout for the trigger of the ATLAS ALFA luminosity detectors. We report on results obtained with specialized scintillator tile geometries, discuss first results obtained with directly coupled SiPM readout of the ATLAS ALFA trigger ...

  17. The vector resonance triplet with the direct coupling to the third quark generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, Mikulas [University of Zilina, Physics Department, Zilina (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Juran, Josef [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    The effective Lagrangian with scalar and vector resonances that might result from new strong physics beyond the SM is formulated and studied. In particular, the scalar resonance representing the recently discovered 125-GeV boson is complemented with the SU(2){sub L+R} triplet of hypothetical vector resonances. Motivated by experimental and theoretical considerations, the vector resonance is allowed to couple directly to the third quark generation only. The coupling is chiral-dependent and the interaction of the right top quark can differ from that of the right bottom quark. To estimate the applicability range of the effective Lagrangian the unitarity of the gauge boson scattering amplitudes is analyzed. The experimental fits and limits on the free parameters of the vector resonance triplet are investigated. (orig.)

  18. Cancer-specific Relationship Awareness, Relationship Communication, and Intimacy Among Couples Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Siegel, Scott; Kashy, Deborah; Heckman, Carolyn J.

    2013-01-01

    If couples can maintain normalcy and quality in their relationship during the cancer experience, they may experience greater relational intimacy. Cancer-specific relationship awareness, which is an attitude defined as partners focusing on the relationship and thinking about how they might maintain normalcy and cope with cancer as a couple or “team”, is one factor that may help couples achieve this goal. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between cancer-specific relationship awareness, cancer-specific communication (i.e., talking about cancer’s impact on the relationship, disclosure, and responsiveness to partner disclosure), and relationship intimacy and evaluate whether relationship communication mediated the association between relationship awareness and intimacy. Two hundred fifty four women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and their partners completed measures of cancer-specific relationship awareness, relationship talk, self-and perceived partner disclosure, perceived partner responsiveness, and relationship intimacy. Results indicated that patients and spouses who were higher in cancer-specific relationship awareness engaged in more relationship talk, reported higher levels of self-disclosure, and perceived that their partner disclosed more. Their partners reported that they were more responsive to disclosures. Relationship talk and perceived partner responsiveness mediated the association between cancer–specific relationship awareness and intimacy. Helping couples consider ways they can maintain normalcy and quality during the cancer experience and framing coping with cancer as a “team” effort may facilitate better communication and ultimately enhance relationship intimacy. PMID:25242854

  19. Cancer-specific Relationship Awareness, Relationship Communication, and Intimacy Among Couples Coping with Early Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Siegel, Scott; Kashy, Deborah; Heckman, Carolyn J

    2014-05-01

    If couples can maintain normalcy and quality in their relationship during the cancer experience, they may experience greater relational intimacy. Cancer-specific relationship awareness, which is an attitude defined as partners focusing on the relationship and thinking about how they might maintain normalcy and cope with cancer as a couple or "team", is one factor that may help couples achieve this goal. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between cancer-specific relationship awareness, cancer-specific communication (i.e., talking about cancer's impact on the relationship, disclosure, and responsiveness to partner disclosure), and relationship intimacy and evaluate whether relationship communication mediated the association between relationship awareness and intimacy. Two hundred fifty four women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and their partners completed measures of cancer-specific relationship awareness, relationship talk, self-and perceived partner disclosure, perceived partner responsiveness, and relationship intimacy. Results indicated that patients and spouses who were higher in cancer-specific relationship awareness engaged in more relationship talk, reported higher levels of self-disclosure, and perceived that their partner disclosed more. Their partners reported that they were more responsive to disclosures. Relationship talk and perceived partner responsiveness mediated the association between cancer-specific relationship awareness and intimacy. Helping couples consider ways they can maintain normalcy and quality during the cancer experience and framing coping with cancer as a "team" effort may facilitate better communication and ultimately enhance relationship intimacy.

  20. Direct measurement of uranium in seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Xu, Yihong

    2018-01-01

    A simple method for direct measurement of uranium (238U) in seawater using triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. The method provides a good analytical performance with respect to detection limit, accuracy, precision and sample throughput. During...... samples taken from large volume of seawater stored in immovable containers for relatively long period (i.e., several months), the uranium concentration and salinity data showed slightly increasing trends with the increase of water depth in the container. Therefore, cautions need to be paid in sampling...

  1. Directional coupling in long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr; Han, Zhanghua; Volkov, Valentyn S.

    2013-01-01

    Directional couplers (DCs) based on long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides (LR-DLSPPWs) operating at telecom wavelengths are studied both numerically and experimentally. The investigated LR-DLSPPWs are formed by ~1.2-μm-high and 1-μm-wide polymer ridges fabricated atop......-to-center separation of 2 μm are characterized using scanning near-field microscopy. The experimentally obtained values of the propagation length (~400 μm), S-bend loss (~4 dB) and coupling length (~100 μm) are found in good agreement with the numerical simulations, indicating a significant potential of LR...

  2. Application of directly coupled HPLC MMR to separation and characterization of lipoproteins from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daykin, C. A.; Corcoran, O.; Hansen, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Disorders in lipoprotein metabolism are critical in the etiology of several disease states such as coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis, Thus, there is considerable interest in the development of novel methods for the analysis of lipoprotein complexes. We report here a simple chromatographic...... with plasma proteins such as albumin occurred, and this clearly limits quantitation of that species by HPLC peak integration. We also show, for the first time, the application of directly coupled HPLC H-1 NMR spectroscopy to confirm the identification of the three major lipoproteins, The full chromatographic...

  3. Photovoltaic pumping system - Comparative study analysis between direct and indirect coupling mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrag, Abdelghani; Titraoui, Abdessalem; Bahri, Hamza; Messalti, Sabir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, P&O algorithm is used in order to improve the performance of photovoltaic water pumping system in both dynamic and static response. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been studied successfully using a DC motor-pump powered using controller by thirty six PV modules via DC-DC boost converter derived by a P&O MPPT algorithm. Comparative study results between the direct and indirect modes coupling confirm that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve simultaneously: accuracy, rapidity, ripple and overshoot.

  4. Nonlinear estimation of coupling and directionality between signals: application to uterine EMG propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, A; Hassan, M; Boudaoud, S; Marque, C; Karlsson, B

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the direction and quantity of information flowing in a complex system is a fundamental task in signal processing. Several measures have been proposed to detect the quantity of synchronization and the directionality between time series and in physiological data. In this paper we use two methods that are widely used in synchronization and directionality analysis: Nonlinear correlation coefficient (h(2)) and the general synchronization (H). The performances of both methods were tested on four dimensional coupled synthetic nonlinear Rössler models. They were then applied to a single real labor contraction uterine EMG burst with the aim of using them to detect synchronization and to plot the map of direction of information flow between the whole signal channels. The results on synthetic signal show a slight superiority of H over h(2). The results obtained on a single contraction are encouraging for the future use of these tools for resolving the open question of the directionality of uterine contractions and may provide a way of finding their source loci.

  5. Direct Determination of Atomic Structure and Magnetic Coupling of Magnetite Twin Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlin; Li, Hongping; Seki, Takehito; Yin, Deqiang; Sanchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2018-03-27

    Clarifying how the atomic structure of interfaces/boundaries in materials affects the magnetic coupling nature across them is of significant academic value and will facilitate the development of state-of-the-art magnetic devices. Here, by combining atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomistic spin-polarized first-principles calculations, and differential phase contrast imaging, we conduct a systematic investigation of the atomic and electronic structures of individual Fe 3 O 4 twin boundaries (TBs) and determine their concomitant magnetic couplings. We demonstrate that the magnetic coupling across the Fe 3 O 4 TBs can be either antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic, which directly depends on the TB atomic core structures and resultant electronic structures within a few atomic layers. Revealing the one-to-one correspondence between local atomic structures and magnetic properties of individual grain boundaries will shed light on in-depth understanding of many interesting magnetic behaviors of widely used polycrystalline magnetic materials, which will surely promote the development of advanced magnetic materials and devices.

  6. Experimental study of directionally solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloy under multi-field coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuping; Chen, Tao; Teng, Yao; Liu, Bingfei; Xue, Lijun

    2016-11-01

    Directionally solidified, polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga is studied in this paper. The polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga samples were cut at different angles to solidification direction. The magnetic field induced strain under constant stress and the temperature-induced strain under constant magnetic field during the loading-unloading cycle were measured. The experimental results show that the mechanical behavior during the loading-unloading cycle of the material is nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the experimental results, the effects of multi-field coupling factors, such as stress, magnetic field, temperature and cutting angle on the mechanical behaviors were analyzed. Some useful conclusions were obtained, which will provide guidance for practical applications.

  7. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  8. Transfer Entropy Estimation and Directional Coupling Change Detection in Biomedical Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Joon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of change in magnitude of directional coupling between two non-linear time series is a common subject of interest in the biomedical domain, including studies involving the respiratory chemoreflex system. Although transfer entropy is a useful tool in this avenue, no study to date has investigated how different transfer entropy estimation methods perform in typical biomedical applications featuring small sample size and presence of outliers. Methods With respect to detection of increased coupling strength, we compared three transfer entropy estimation techniques using both simulated time series and respiratory recordings from lambs. The following estimation methods were analyzed: fixed-binning with ranking, kernel density estimation (KDE, and the Darbellay-Vajda (D-V adaptive partitioning algorithm extended to three dimensions. In the simulated experiment, sample size was varied from 50 to 200, while coupling strength was increased. In order to introduce outliers, the heavy-tailed Laplace distribution was utilized. In the lamb experiment, the objective was to detect increased respiratory-related chemosensitivity to O2 and CO2 induced by a drug, domperidone. Specifically, the separate influence of end-tidal PO2 and PCO2 on minute ventilation (V˙E before and after administration of domperidone was analyzed. Results In the simulation, KDE detected increased coupling strength at the lowest SNR among the three methods. In the lamb experiment, D-V partitioning resulted in the statistically strongest increase in transfer entropy post-domperidone for PO2→V˙E. In addition, D-V partitioning was the only method that could detect an increase in transfer entropy for PCO2→V˙E, in agreement with experimental findings. Conclusions Transfer entropy is capable of detecting directional coupling changes in non-linear biomedical time series analysis featuring a small number of observations and presence of outliers. The results

  9. The association between attachment style and uni- and bi-directional pursuer-distancer patterns in couples: A clinical sample of couples in counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Lorin Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and pursuer-distancer patterns in couples. Both uni- and bi-directional pursuer-distancer patterns were studied. Participants were 67 individuals (including 32 couples) in therapy. Each partner, independent of the other, completed an anonymous questionnaire containing the Multi-item Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998) and a four-item measure of pursuer-distancer pattern designed for this stud...

  10. Direct Current Coupled Recordings of Cortical Spreading Depression Using Silicone Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Nasretdinov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological assessment of infraslow (<0.1 Hz brain activities such as cortical spreading depression (SD, which occurs in a number of pathologies including migraine, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI and brain ischemia requires direct current (DC coupled recordings of local field potentials (LFPs. Here, we describe how DC-coupled recordings can be performed using high-density iridium electrode arrays (silicone probes. We found that the DC voltage offset of the silicone probe is large and often exceeds the amplifier input range. Introduction of an offset compensation chain at the signal ground efficiently minimized the DC offsets. Silicone probe DC-coupled recordings across layers of the rat visual and barrel cortices revealed that epipial application of KCl, dura incision or pinprick TBI induced SD which preferentially propagated through the supragranular layers and further spread to the granular and infragranular layers attaining maximal amplitudes of ~−30 mV in the infragranular layers. SD at the superficial cortical layers was nearly two-fold longer than at the deep cortical layers. Continuous epipial KCl evoked multiple recurrent SDs which always started in the supragranular layers but often failed to propagate through the deeper cortical layers. Intracortical KCl injection into the infragranular layers evoked SD which also started in the supragranular layers and spread to the granular and infragranular layers, further indicating that the supragranular layers are particularly prone to SD. Thus, DC-coupled recordings with silicone probes after offset compensation can be successfully used to explore the spatial—temporal dynamics of SD and other slow brain activities.

  11. Bi-directional ultrasonic wave coupling to FBGs in continuously bonded optical fiber sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Junghyun; Hackney, Drew; Bradford, Philip; Peters, Kara

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are typically spot-bonded onto the surface of a structure to detect ultrasonic waves in laboratory demonstrations. However, to protect the rest of the optical fiber from any environmental damage during real applications, bonding the entire length of fiber, called continuous bonding, is commonly done. In this paper, we investigate the impact of continuously bonding FBGs on the measured Lamb wave signal. In theory, the ultrasonic wave signal can bi-directionally transfer between the optical fiber and the plate at any adhered location, which could potentially produce output signal distortion for the continuous bonding case. Therefore, an experiment is performed to investigate the plate-to-fiber and fiber-to-plate signal transfer, from which the signal coupling coefficient of each case is theoretically estimated based on the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two coupling coefficients are comparable, with the plate-to-fiber case approximately 19% larger than the fiber-to-plate case. Finally, the signal waveform and arrival time of the output FBG responses are compared between the continuous and spot bonding cases. The results indicate that the resulting Lamb wave signal output is only that directly detected at the FBG location; however, a slight difference in signal waveform is observed between the two bonding configurations. This paper demonstrates the practicality of using continuously bonded FBGs for ultrasonic wave detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  12. Reduction of Cogging Torque in Dual Rotor Permanent Magnet Generator for Direct Coupled Wind Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivachandran Paulsamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wind energy systems employing permanent magnet generator, there is an imperative need to reduce the cogging torque for smooth and reliable cut in operation. In a permanent magnet generator, cogging torque is produced due to interaction of the rotor magnets with slots and teeth of the stator. This paper is a result of an ongoing research work that deals with various methods to reduce cogging torque in dual rotor radial flux permanent magnet generator (DRFPMG for direct coupled stand alone wind energy systems (SAWES. Three methods were applied to reduce the cogging torque in DRFPMG. The methods were changing slot opening width, changing magnet pole arc width and shifting of slot openings. A combination of these three methods was applied to reduce the cogging torque to a level suitable for direct coupled SAWES. Both determination and reduction of cogging torque were carried out by finite element analysis (FEA using MagNet Software. The cogging torque of DRFPMG has been reduced without major change in induced emf. A prototype of 1 kW, 120 rpm DRFPMG was fabricated and tested to validate the simulation results. The test results have good agreement with the simulation predictions.

  13. Boosting the Direct CP Measurement of the Higgs-Top Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; Gonçalves, Dorival

    2016-03-04

    Characterizing the 125 GeV Higgs boson is a critical component of the physics program at the LHC Run II. In this Letter, we consider tt[over ¯]H associated production in the dileptonic mode. We demonstrate that the difference in azimuthal angle between the leptons from top decays can directly reveal the CP structure of the top-Higgs coupling with the sensitivity of the measurement substantially enhanced in the boosted Higgs regime. We first show how to access this channel via H→bb[over ¯] jet-substructure tagging, then demonstrate the ability of the new variable to measure CP. Our analysis includes all signal and background samples simulated via the MC@NLO algorithm including hadronization and underlying-event effects. Using a boosted Higgs substructure with dileptonic tops, we find that the top-Higgs coupling strength and the CP structure can be directly probed with achievable luminosity at the 13 TeV LHC.

  14. Reduction of cogging torque in dual rotor permanent magnet generator for direct coupled wind energy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsamy, Sivachandran

    2014-01-01

    In wind energy systems employing permanent magnet generator, there is an imperative need to reduce the cogging torque for smooth and reliable cut in operation. In a permanent magnet generator, cogging torque is produced due to interaction of the rotor magnets with slots and teeth of the stator. This paper is a result of an ongoing research work that deals with various methods to reduce cogging torque in dual rotor radial flux permanent magnet generator (DRFPMG) for direct coupled stand alone wind energy systems (SAWES). Three methods were applied to reduce the cogging torque in DRFPMG. The methods were changing slot opening width, changing magnet pole arc width and shifting of slot openings. A combination of these three methods was applied to reduce the cogging torque to a level suitable for direct coupled SAWES. Both determination and reduction of cogging torque were carried out by finite element analysis (FEA) using MagNet Software. The cogging torque of DRFPMG has been reduced without major change in induced emf. A prototype of 1 kW, 120 rpm DRFPMG was fabricated and tested to validate the simulation results. The test results have good agreement with the simulation predictions.

  15. Management of End-Stage Ankle Arthritis: Cost-Utility Analysis Using Direct and Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Simon, Matthew S; Hamid, Kamran S; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2015-07-15

    Total ankle replacement and ankle fusion are costly but clinically effective treatments for ankle arthritis. Prior cost-effectiveness analyses for the management of ankle arthritis have been limited by a lack of consideration of indirect costs and nonoperative management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of operative and nonoperative treatments for ankle arthritis with inclusion of direct and indirect costs in the analysis. Markov model analysis was conducted from a health-systems perspective with use of direct costs and from a societal perspective with use of direct and indirect costs. Costs were derived from the 2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars; effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Model transition probabilities were derived from the available literature. The principal outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In the direct-cost analysis for the base case, total ankle replacement was associated with an ICER of $14,500/QALY compared with nonoperative management. When indirect costs were included, total ankle replacement was both more effective and resulted in $5900 and $800 in lifetime cost savings compared with the lifetime costs following nonoperative management and ankle fusion, respectively. At a $100,000/QALY threshold, surgical management of ankle arthritis was preferred for patients younger than ninety-six years and total ankle replacement was increasingly more cost-effective in younger patients. Total ankle replacement, ankle fusion, and nonoperative management were the preferred strategy in 83%, 12%, and 5% of the analyses, respectively; however, our model was sensitive to patient age, the direct costs of total ankle replacement, the failure rate of total ankle replacement, and the probability of arthritis after ankle fusion. Compared with nonoperative treatment for the management of end-stage ankle arthritis, total ankle

  16. Changing coupling pattern of The ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells in early postnatal mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Zeng, Q; Shi, X; He, S

    2013-10-10

    In the adult rabbit and mouse retina, about 30% of the ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) are coupled via gap junctions. In early postnatal rabbit retinas, a greater proportion of morphological ON-OFF DSGCs shows coupling with a larger number of nearby somas. It is not clear whether the coupled ON-OFF DSGCs belong to the same subtype, or how coupling patterns change during development. In this study, we showed that in adult mouse retinas, all coupled ON-OFF DSGCs exhibited preferred directions (PDs) to superior, and this pattern emerged at postnatal day 15 (P15). At P13, the ON-OFF DSGCs with PDs to posterior were also coupled. Every ON-OFF DSGC in every subtype injected at P12 exhibited coupling. Therefore, a rapid decoupling process takes place in DSGCs around eye opening. Light deprivation delayed but did not halt the decoupling process. By using a transgenic mouse line in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is selectively expressed in DSGCs with PDs to posterior and by performing in situ hybridization of cadherin-6, a marker for the DSGCs with PDs to superior and inferior, we showed that heterologous coupling existed between DSGCs with PDs to anterior and posterior till P12, but this heterologous coupling never spread to DSGCs positive for cadherin-6. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct drive implosion experiments on SGIII prototype laser facility: Assessing energy coupling efficiency and implosion symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-dong, Pu; Tian-Xuan, Huang; Huang, Li; Xia-Yu, Zhan; Xiao-Shi, Peng; Tang-Qi, Zi-Feng, Song; Jia-Bin, Chen; Tian-Ming, Song; Ming, Chen; Rui-Zhen, Yu; Xiao-An, He; Chao-Guang, Li; Lu, Zhang; Jia-Hua, Zheng; Long-Fei, Jing; Bo-Lun, Chen; Ming, Su; Wei, Jiang; Bo, Yu; Ji, Yan; Ping, Li; Hai-Le, Lei; Shao-En, Jiang; Yong-Kun, Ding

    2012-07-01

    Direct drive implosion experiments were conducted on SGIII prototype laser facility. From the time resolved x-ray images, the bright ring and the central bright spot are observed. The radial velocity of the convergent bright ring indicates the shell velocity, and the times when the central bright spot is first seen and becomes most intensive indicate the times of shock convergence and later stagnation, respectively. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were carried out by changing laser energy deposition factors. When the simulated results are brought close to the measured ones, it is found that the energy coupling efficiency is around 70%. The implosion symmetry is indicated by the core x-ray emission pattern which is pancake when viewing from the equator, and splits into several bright spots when viewing close to the pole. A simple model is developed to understand this asymmetry. It is speculated that the observed implosion asymmetry can be attributed to the laser arrangement which is originally designed for indirect drive experiments. Further improvements of energy coupling efficiency and implosion symmetry in future experiments can be achieved by optimizing target design and laser arrangement.

  18. Goal-directed multimodal locomotion through coupling between mechanical and attractor selection dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman, S G; Yu, X; Kim, Y; Iida, F

    2015-03-26

    One of the most significant challenges in bio-inspired robotics is how to realize and take advantage of multimodal locomotion, which may help robots perform a variety of tasks adaptively in different environments. In order to address the challenge properly, it is important to notice that locomotion dynamics are the result of interactions between a particular internal control structure, the mechanical dynamics and the environment. From this perspective, this paper presents an approach to enable a robot to take advantage of its multiple locomotion modes by coupling the mechanical dynamics of the robot with an internal control structure known as an attractor selection model. The robot used is a curved-beam hopping robot; this robot, despite its simple actuation method, possesses rich and complex mechanical dynamics that are dependent on its interactions with the environment. Through dynamical coupling, we will show how this robot performs goal-directed locomotion by gracefully shifting between different locomotion modes regulated by sensory input, the robot's mechanical dynamics and an internally generated perturbation. The efficacy of the approach is validated and discussed based on the simulation and on real-world experiments.

  19. A comparison of psychological functioning in couples undergoing frozen-thawed embryo replacement in various stages of treatment using the Mean Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, W A; Menezes, M Q; Martin, C W; Thong, K J

    2004-09-01

    The objectives were to identify the stage(s) of frozen embryo replacement cycle where the couples are most vulnerable to psychological dysfunction. Assessment was performed by using the Mean Affect Adjective Check-List (MAACL). Thirty couples completed the MAACL questionnaire at the following stages: (a) pretreatment (visit 1), (b) before embryo transfer (visit 2), and (c) before pregnancy test (visit 3). Each partner had to complete a separate questionnaire set. For both partners, the depression score for visit 3 was significantly higher and the sensation seeking and positive affect scores were significantly lower than the corresponding scores for earlier visits. Anxiety scores were similar for all visits. For men, the hostility scores were significantly higher between visits 1 and 2 while in women the same was reported between visits 3 and 2. Psychological counselling should be targeted at couples especially after embryo transfer. MAACL is a useful method for measuring psychological dysfunction in these couples.

  20. Direct solar energy conversion and storage through coupling between photoelectrochemical and ferroelectric effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wei Lo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and storing solar energy has become more and more important. Current solid-state photovoltaic cells and conventional photoelectrochemical cells are not capable of directly storing the converted energy, which has to be facilitated by connecting to external storing devices. We demonstrate a device architecture that can convert and store solar energy in the electrical form within an intrinsically single structure. Mobile charge is internally stored, based on the coupling between photoelectrochemical and ferroelectric effects. The tested device architecture can be photo-charged under 1000 W/m2 of white light to an open-circuit voltage of 0.47V with a capacity of 37.62 mC/cm2. After removal of the light source, the mobile charge stored lasts more than 8 hours, and the open-circuit output voltage lasts more than 24 hours.

  1. Ginzburg-Landau approximation for self-sustained oscillators weakly coupled on complex directed graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio; Miele, Filippo; Carletti, Timoteo

    2018-03-01

    A normal form approximation for the evolution of a reaction-diffusion system hosted on a directed graph is derived, in the vicinity of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Weak diffusive couplings are assumed to hold between adjacent nodes. Under this working assumption, a Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE) is obtained, whose coefficients depend on the parameters of the model and the topological characteristics of the underlying network. The CGLE enables one to probe the stability of the synchronous oscillating solution, as displayed by the reaction-diffusion system above Hopf bifurcation. More specifically, conditions can be worked out for the onset of the symmetry breaking instability that eventually destroys the uniform oscillatory state. Numerical tests performed for the Brusselator model confirm the validity of the proposed theoretical scheme. Patterns recorded for the CGLE resemble closely those recovered upon integration of the original Brussellator dynamics.

  2. Effect of water electrolysis temperature of hydrogen production system using direct coupling photovoltaic and water electrolyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuhiko Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose control methods of a photovoltaic (PV-water electrolyzer (ELY system that generates hydrogen by controlling the number of ELY cells. The advantage of this direct coupling between PV and ELY is that the power loss of DC/DC converter is avoided. In this study, a total of 15 ELY cells are used. In the previous researches, the electrolyzer temperature was constantly controlled with a thermostat. Actually, the electrolyzer temperature is decided by the balance of the electrolysis loss and the heat loss to the outside. Here, the method to control the number of ELY cells was investigated. Maximum Power Point Tracking efficiency of more than 96% was achieved without ELY temperature control. Furthermore we construct a numerical model taking into account of ELY temperature. Using this model, we performed a numerical simulation of 1-year. Experimental data and the simulation results shows the validity of the proposed control method.

  3. A Josephson four-bit full adder using direct coupled functional gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheron, G.; Migny, P.; Sie, O.

    1984-09-01

    A Josephson 4-bit full adder circuit using functional direct coupled gates has been designed and studied through computer simulations. The circuit consists of only 27 gates taken from a complete logic family composed of OR, AND, EXOR and MAJORITY gates. The proposed adder scheme needs 180 Josephson junctions and 150 thin film resistors. The computed critical path delay was found 180 ps/4bits for carry propagation, with a power dissipation estimated to be less than 100 μW on the basis of a Nb/Pb-In technology with 4 μm minimum linewidth and with a Josephson current density of 1000 A/cm 2 . The worst case total add time for the 4 bits has been found less than 300 ps

  4. Improvement of directionality and sound-localization by internal ear coupling in barn owls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hermann; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kettler, Lutz

    Mark Konishi was one of the first to quantify sound-localization capabilities in barn owls. He showed that frequencies between 3 and 10 kHz underlie precise sound localization in these birds, and that they derive spatial information from processing interaural time and interaural level differences....... However, despite intensive research during the last 40 years it is still unclear whether and how internal ear coupling contributes to sound localization in the barn owl. Here we investigated ear directionality in anesthetized birds with the help of laser vibrometry. Care was taken that anesthesia...... time difference in the low-frequency range, barn owls hesitate to approach prey or turn their heads when only low-frequency auditory information is present in a stimulus they receive. Thus, the barn-owl's sound localization system seems to be adapted to work best in frequency ranges where interaural...

  5. Warthog: A MOOSE-Based Application for the Direct Code Coupling of BISON and PROTEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, Alexander J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Warthog leverages a tool known as DataTransferKit to seamlessly enable the transfer for solution data between disparate frameworks and mesh formats. To end, we demonstrate tests for the direct software coupling of BISON and PROTEUS using Warthog, and discuss current impediments and solutions to the construction of physically realistic input models for this coupled BISON-PROTEUS system.

  6. Neuronal Oscillations with Non-sinusoidal Morphology Produce Spurious Phase-to-Amplitude Coupling and Directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; ter Huurne, Niels; Oostenveld, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (>40 Hz) occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC). However, the CFC patterns might be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer) in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM), we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8–12 Hz) phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20–45 Hz) amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh) values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD). Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs. Furthermore, we

  7. Neuronal oscillations with non-sinusoidal morphology produce spurious phase-to-amplitude coupling and directionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lozano-Soldevilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (> 40 Hz occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC. However, the CFC patterns be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 mg or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM, we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8 – 12 Hz phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20 – 45 Hz amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD. Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs

  8. Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate immunity by directly coupling to the FLS2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Ding, Pingtao; Lian, Kehui; Wang, Jinlong; Ma, Miaomiao; Li, Lin; Li, Lei; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, She; Zhang, Yuelin; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-04-04

    The Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate defenses through the central cytoplasmic kinase BIK1. The heterotrimeric G proteins composed of the non-canonical Gα protein XLG2, the Gβ protein AGB1, and the Gγ proteins AGG1 and AGG2 are required for FLS2-mediated immune responses through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that in the pre-activation state, XLG2 directly interacts with FLS2 and BIK1, and it functions together with AGB1 and AGG1/2 to attenuate proteasome-mediated degradation of BIK1, allowing optimum immune activation. Following the activation by flg22, XLG2 dissociates from AGB1 and is phosphorylated by BIK1 in the N terminus. The phosphorylated XLG2 enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) likely by modulating the NADPH oxidase RbohD. The study demonstrates that the G proteins are directly coupled to the FLS2 receptor complex and regulate immune signaling through both pre-activation and post-activation mechanisms.

  9. Direct molecular evolution of detergent-stable G protein-coupled receptors using polymer encapsulated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Plückthun, Andreas

    2013-02-08

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of pharmaceutical protein targets, yet drug development is encumbered by a lack of information about their molecular structure and conformational dynamics. Most mechanistic and structural studies as well as in vitro drug screening with purified receptors require detergent solubilization of the GPCR, but typically, these proteins exhibit only low stability in detergent micelles. We have developed the first directed evolution method that allows the direct selection of GPCRs stable in a chosen detergent from libraries containing over 100 million individual variants. The crucial concept was to encapsulate single Escherichia coli cells of a library, each expressing a different GPCR variant, to form detergent-resistant, semipermeable nano-containers. Unlike naked cells, these containers are not dissolved by detergents, allowing us to solubilize the GPCR proteins in situ while maintaining an association with the protein's genetic information, a prerequisite for directed evolution. The pore size was controlled to permit GPCR ligands to permeate but the solubilized receptor to remain within the nanocapsules. Fluorescently labeled ligands were used to bind to those GPCR variants inside the nano-containers that remained active in the detergent tested. With the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, detergent-stable mutants derived from two different family A GPCRs could be identified, some with the highest stability reported in short-chain detergents. In principle, this method (named cellular high-throughput encapsulation, solubilization and screening) is not limited to engineering stabilized GPCRs but could be used to stabilize other proteins for biochemical and structural studies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Relationship Education for Low Income Couples and Individuals: New Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The current study implemented and evaluated an adapted version of the Within Our Reach program called FRAME. Participants were 173 low-income couples in committed relationships and caring for at least one child together. Participating couples were randomly assigned to one of the four study conditions (couples group, female group, male group, or…

  11. Direct lymphography and lower mesentericography - possibilities and limits in determining the localization, stage and operability of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viyachki, I.; Todorova, L.

    1976-01-01

    The indications for direct lymphography and lower mesentericography in determining the localization, stage and operability of rectal cancer are discussed in detail. Direct lymphography was attempted in 23 and lower selective mesentericography in 12 patients with rectal cancer. Essential is only the positive result, although it indicates an advanced malignant process. Lower mesentericography, especially the selective one, furnishes valuable information on the localization and stage of rectal cancer, and hence on its operability. Major importance is attached to the combined use of the two methods. They may thus complement one another in the diagnosis of the early stages of rectal cancer and may be helpful in the search of early recurrences after radical treatment. (author)

  12. A New Cost-Effective Multi-Drive Solution based on a Two-Stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    The matrix converter is a single stage AC/AC converter, which is able to provide sinusoidal PWM output voltages and input currents, inherent bi-directional power flow with no need of bulky DC-capacitors and large line inductors. However, the increased number of active switches (18) and the need...... for a reduction of power devices. In this paper, a new DPEC topology suited for multi-drive application is proposed, having an input port for a three-phase power supply and several output ports to connect three-phase loads, which are independently controlled. The cost of the rectification stage is therefore...... shared by many loads, making this topology more cost effective. The functionality of the proposed two-stage multi-drive direct power electronic conversion topology is validated by experiments on a realistic laboratory prototype....

  13. A New Cost-Effective Multi-Drive Solution based on a Two-Stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    The matrix converter is a single stage AC/AC converter, which is able to provide sinusoidal PWM output voltages and input currents, inherent bi-directional power flow with no need of bulky DC-capacitors and large line inductors. However, the increased number of active switches (18) and the need o...... shared by many loads, making this topology more cost effective. The functionality of the proposed two-stage multi-drive direct power electronic conversion topology is validated by experiments on a realistic laboratory prototype.......The matrix converter is a single stage AC/AC converter, which is able to provide sinusoidal PWM output voltages and input currents, inherent bi-directional power flow with no need of bulky DC-capacitors and large line inductors. However, the increased number of active switches (18) and the need...... of a protection circuit involving twelve diodes with full voltage/current ratings used only during faulty situations, makes this topology not so attractive. Lately, two stage Direct Power Electronic Conversion (DPEC) topologies have been proposed, providing similar functionality as a matrix converter but allowing...

  14. Coupling of In Vitro Bioassays with Planar Chromatography in Effect-Directed Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stefan C; Egetenmeyer, Nicole; Schulz, Wolfgang

    Modern analytical test methods increasingly detect anthropogenic organic substances and their transformation products in water samples and in the environment. The presence of these compounds might pose a risk to the aquatic environment. To determine a possible (eco)toxicological risk, aquatic samples are tested using various bioassays, including sub-organismic assays such as the luminescent bacteria inhibition test, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, and the umu-test. The effect-directed analysis (EDA) combines physicochemical separation methods with biological (in vitro) tests. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has proved to be particularly well suited for the separation of organic compounds and the subsequent analysis of effects by the application of the biotests directly on the surface of the HPTLC plate. The advantage of using HPTLC in comparison to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for EDA is that the solvent which is used as a mobile phase during chromatography is completely evaporated after the separation and therefore can no longer influence the applied bioassays.A prioritization during the complex identification process can be achieved when observed effects are associated with the separated zones in HPTLC. This increases the probability of identifying the substance responsible for an adverse effect from the multitude of organic trace substances in environmental samples. Furthermore, by comparing the pattern of biological effects of a separated sample, it is possible to track and assess changes in biological activity over time, over space, or in the course of a process, even without identifying the substance. HPTLC has already been coupled with various bioassays.Because HPTLC is a very flexible system, various detection techniques can be used and combined. In addition to the UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence measurements, TLC can also be coupled with a mass spectrometer (MS) for compound identification. In addition

  15. Preliminary design note for a direct coupled 200,000 amp neutrino horn power supply with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1995-03-01

    The availability of high current, (several thousand amperes) silicon controlled rectifiers and high current, low loss capacitors make it practical to design a direct coupled energy discharge power supply for the neutrino horns in the proposed NuMI facility at Fermilab. The neutrino horns require a continuous pulse train of 200,000 A and 1 msec duration at a pulse period of 1.5 seconds. This high current pulse train yields a system load current of about 9,000 A rms. Using a high power coupling transformer between the energy stored in a capacitor bank and the horns is very expensive because the transformer secondary winding would have to be rated for 9,000 A rms at about 1,400 Vpk. The transformer would also add leakage inductance to the discharge circuit, take up a substantial amount of floor space and make stored energy recovery from the horns less effective or maybe even impractical. The transformer would need a reset winding to remove the high remnant magnet field in the transformer steel which is caused by the unipolar discharge pulses. A coupling transformer is practical for high voltage loads, but the horns operate at a relatively low voltage of about 1,400 V, which makes direct coupling very attractive. This note describes a preliminary design for a direct coupled system. From the design notes the authors can conclude that direct coupling is economical, practical, relatively simple, can use energy recovery and does not require materials or equipment that is hard to obtain. The charging power supply could be two standard (Fermilab) 240 kW beamline power supplies connected in series and grounded at the midpoint. The capacitor bank, switches, transmission line and controls can be most economically assembled in house. They may conclude that it is desirable to build a direct coupled neutrino horn power supply system and to connect both horns in series

  16. Research on a novel two-stage direct current hybrid circuit breaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yifei; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe; Yang, Fei; Niu, Chunping; Li, Mei; Hu, Yang

    2014-08-01

    The DC hybrid circuit breaker based on high-speed switch (HSS) and parallel connected capacitor has been widely applied in the fault current breaking of DC system. However, when the current is commutated from HSS to the capacitor according to single-stage operation, the capacitor has to absorb a large amount of energy stored in the system inductance within very short time. Meanwhile, a high over-voltage rate of rise is especially prone to be produced between the contacts of HSS, which will lead to a failed breaking. As a result, a novel DC hybrid circuit breaker based on the two-stage operation is proposed and analyzed in this paper. By controlling the thyristors in the commutation branches, the fault current is fast commutated into the capacitor, which can not only realize the arcless open of HSS, but also decrease the over-voltage rate of rise significantly in comparison to the traditional single-stage operation. The simulation model of fault current breaking under different conditions in 10 kV medium voltage DC system is constructed. The simulated over-voltages of single-stage and two-stage operations in the case of fault current breaking are compared and analyzed. Finally, the fault current breaking test in the two-stage operation is investigated experimentally, which validates the feasibility and effectiveness of the simulation model well.

  17. Robust Adaptive Synchronization of Ring Configured Uncertain Chaotic FitzHugh–Nagumo Neurons under Direction-Dependent Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper exploits the dynamical modeling, behavior analysis, and synchronization of a network of four different FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN neurons with unknown parameters linked in a ring configuration under direction-dependent coupling. The main purpose is to investigate a robust adaptive control law for the synchronization of uncertain and perturbed neurons, communicating in a medium of bidirectional coupling. The neurons are assumed to be different and interconnected in a ring structure. The strength of the gap junctions is taken to be different for each link in the network, owing to the inter-neuronal coupling medium properties. Robust adaptive control mechanism based on Lyapunov stability analysis is employed and theoretical criteria are derived to realize the synchronization of the network of four FHN neurons in a ring form with unknown parameters under direction-dependent coupling and disturbances. The proposed scheme for synchronization of dissimilar neurons, under external electrical stimuli, coupled in a ring communication topology, having all parameters unknown, and subject to directional coupling medium and perturbations, is addressed for the first time as per our knowledge. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy, simulation results are provided.

  18. Robust Adaptive Synchronization of Ring Configured Uncertain Chaotic FitzHugh–Nagumo Neurons under Direction-Dependent Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2018-01-01

    This paper exploits the dynamical modeling, behavior analysis, and synchronization of a network of four different FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN) neurons with unknown parameters linked in a ring configuration under direction-dependent coupling. The main purpose is to investigate a robust adaptive control law for the synchronization of uncertain and perturbed neurons, communicating in a medium of bidirectional coupling. The neurons are assumed to be different and interconnected in a ring structure. The strength of the gap junctions is taken to be different for each link in the network, owing to the inter-neuronal coupling medium properties. Robust adaptive control mechanism based on Lyapunov stability analysis is employed and theoretical criteria are derived to realize the synchronization of the network of four FHN neurons in a ring form with unknown parameters under direction-dependent coupling and disturbances. The proposed scheme for synchronization of dissimilar neurons, under external electrical stimuli, coupled in a ring communication topology, having all parameters unknown, and subject to directional coupling medium and perturbations, is addressed for the first time as per our knowledge. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy, simulation results are provided. PMID:29535622

  19. Tre1, a G protein-coupled receptor, directs transepithelial migration of Drosophila germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat S Kunwar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most organisms, germ cells are formed distant from the somatic part of the gonad and thus have to migrate along and through a variety of tissues to reach the gonad. Transepithelial migration through the posterior midgut (PMG is the first active step during Drosophila germ cell migration. Here we report the identification of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, Tre1, that is essential for this migration step. Maternal tre1 RNA is localized to germ cells, and tre1 is required cell autonomously in germ cells. In tre1 mutant embryos, most germ cells do not exit the PMG. The few germ cells that do leave the midgut early migrate normally to the gonad, suggesting that this gene is specifically required for transepithelial migration and that mutant germ cells are still able to recognize other guidance cues. Additionally, inhibiting small Rho GTPases in germ cells affects transepithelial migration, suggesting that Tre1 signals through Rho1. We propose that Tre1 acts in a manner similar to chemokine receptors required during transepithelial migration of leukocytes, implying an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of transepithelial migration. Recently, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was shown to direct migration in vertebrate germ cells. Thus, germ cells may more generally use GPCR signaling to navigate the embryo toward their target.

  20. MgB{sub 2} magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portesi, C [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Turin (Italy); Mijatovic, D [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Veldhuis, D [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Brinkman, A [Low Temperature Division and Mesa Research Institute, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Monticone, E [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Turin (Italy); Gonnelli, R S [INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    In this work, we show the results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of an MgB{sub 2} magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which incorporates two nanobridges as weak links in a superconducting loop. The nanobridges were realized by focused ion beam milling; they were 240 nm wide and had a critical current density of 10{sup 7} A cm{sup -2}. The magnetometer was characterized at different temperatures and also measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The device shows Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K and the calculated effective area at low temperatures was 0.24 mm{sup 2}. The transport properties of the magnetometer allow determining fundamental materials properties of the MgB{sub 2} thin films, such as the penetration depth.

  1. Direct-push hydrostratigraphic profiling: Coupling electrical logging and slug tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellwood, S.M.; Healey, J.M.; Birk, S.; Butler, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can significantly affect the transport of contaminants in ground water. Conventional field methods, however, rarely provide a description of these variations at the level of detail necessary for reliable transport predictions and effective remediation designs. A direct-push (DP) method, hydrostratigraphic profiling, has been developed to characterize the spatial variability of both electrical conductivity (EC) and hydraulic conductivity in unconsolidated formations in a cost-effective manner. This method couples a dual-rod approach for performing slug tests in DP equipment with high-resolution EC logging. The method was evaluated at an extensively studied site in the Kansas River floodplain. A series of profiles was performed on a surface grid, resulting in a detailed depiction of the three-dimensional distribution of EC and K. Good agreement was found between K estimates obtained from this approach and those obtained using other methods. The results of the field evaluation indicate that DP hydrostratigraphic profiling is a promising method for obtaining detailed information about spatial variations in subsurface properties without the need for permanent wells.

  2. A gateway to new physics: direct measurement of the top Yukawa coupling to the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00405244; Wermes, Norbert

    The top quark has the largest Yukawa coupling in the Standard Model, is the main contribution to the Higgs mass $m_H$ corrections and defines the evolution of the Higgs effective potential with the energy, together with $m_H$. It can be directly measured through the associated production process $pp \\to t\\bar{t}H$. Two searches for this process are described in this thesis, using data collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The fully hadronic analysis is performed with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $20.3\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8\\,\\text{TeV}$ and uses a boosted decision tree algorithm to discriminate between signal and background: the dominant multijet background is estimated using a data-driven method. An upper limit of $6.4$ ($5.4$) times the Standard Model cross section is observed (expected) at 95% confidence level and a best-fit value of $1.6 \\pm 2.6$ for the signal strength $\\mu_{t\\bar{t}H}=\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}H}^\\text{obs}/\\sigma...

  3. Effect of coupling asymmetry on mean-field solutions of the direct and inverse Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakellariou, Jason; Roudi, Yasser; Mezard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We study how the degree of symmetry in the couplings influences the performance of three mean field methods used for solving the direct and inverse problems for generalized Sherrington-Kirkpatrick models. In this context, the direct problem is predicting the potentially time-varying magnetizations...... than the other two approximations, TAP outperforms MF when the coupling matrix is nearly symmetric, while MF works better when it is strongly asymmetric. For the inverse problem, MF performs better than both TAP and nMF, although an ad hoc adjustment of TAP can make it comparable to MF. For high...

  4. Batch pervaporative fermentation with coupled membrane and its influence on energy consumption in permeate recovery and distillation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Juan A.; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    In the ethanol production process from sugarcane molasses, the distillation process is a high-energy demand stage. The distillation energy efficiency is strongly associated with the alcoholic fermentation performance in the process. The final ethanol concentration in the alcoholic wines has a direct impact on consumption of thermal energy in ethanol separation. In this paper, ethanol production with a H-SBMF (Hybrid-Simple Batch Membrane Fermenter) using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) pervaporation membrane was modelled and simulated, in order to determine its influence on energy consumption in distillation. Steam in distillation and electrical energy needs in permeate recovery were mainly influenced by membrane adaptation. The H-SBMF achieved a higher ethanol production in the range of 10–13% compared to the conventional batch fermenter, and an increase in productivity of 150%. The distillation system consisted of two sets of columns: the ethanol recovery column and the rectification column. The permeate recovery system (i.e. vacuum and compression) was regarded in order to evaluate the electrical energy requirement, and the thermal energy demand was evaluated. A decrease in steam consumption was evidenced by the adaptation of the membrane to the fermenter. Higher energy efficiencies were achieved in distillation with larger membrane areas, achieving almost 17% steam reduction. - Highlights: • Higher and faster ethanol productions were achieved by fermenter hybridization. • Multi-stage permeate compression and inter-stage heat recovery were assumed. • Energy demand was studied based on an integrated fermentation and distillation scheme. • High-energy efficiency was attained in the distillation to produce hydrated alcohol.

  5. A Two-Source Model for Estimating Evaporative Fraction (TMEF Coupling Priestley-Taylor Formula and Two-Stage Trapezoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed land surface temperature and fractional vegetation coverage (LST/FVC space has been widely used in modeling and partitioning land surface evaporative fraction (EF which is important in managing water resources. However, most of such models are based on conventional trapezoid and simply determine the wet edge as air temperature (Ta or the lowest LST value in an image. We develop a new Two-source Model for estimating EF (TMEF based on a two-stage trapezoid coupling with an extension of the Priestly-Taylor formula. Latent heat flux on the wet edge is calculated with the Priestly-Taylor formula, whereas that on the dry edge is set to 0. The wet and dry edges are then determined by solving radiation budget and energy balance equations. The model was evaluated by comparing with other two models that based on conventional trapezoid (i.e., the Two-source Trapezoid Model for Evapotranspiration (TTME and a One-source Trapezoid model for EF (OTEF in how well they simulate and partition EF using MODIS products and field observations from HiWATER-MUSOEXE in 2012. Results show that the TMEF outperforms the other two models, where EF mean absolute relative deviations are 9.57% (TMEF, 15.03% (TTME, and 30.49% (OTEF.

  6. Development of a compact, fiber-coupled, six degree-of-freedom measurement system for precision linear stage metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiangzhi; Gillmer, Steven R.; Woody, Shane C.; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    A compact, fiber-coupled, six degree-of-freedom measurement system which enables fast, accurate calibration, and error mapping of precision linear stages is presented. The novel design has the advantages of simplicity, compactness, and relatively low cost. This proposed sensor can simultaneously measure displacement, two straightness errors, and changes in pitch, yaw, and roll using a single optical beam traveling between the measurement system and a small target. The optical configuration of the system and the working principle for all degrees-of-freedom are presented along with the influence and compensation of crosstalk motions in roll and straightness measurements. Several comparison experiments are conducted to investigate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system in each degree-of-freedom independently. Comparison experiments to a commercial interferometer demonstrate error standard deviations of 0.33 μm in straightness, 0.14 μrad in pitch, 0.44 μradin yaw, and 45.8 μrad in roll.

  7. Direct detection of early-stage cancers using circulating tumor DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phallen, Jillian; Sausen, Mark; Adleff, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Early detection and intervention are likely to be the most effective means for reducing morbidity and mortality of human cancer. However, development of methods for noninvasive detection of early-stage tumors has remained a challenge. We have developed an approach called targeted error correction...

  8. Study of ablation and implosion stages in wire arrays using coupled ultraviolet and X-ray probing diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A. A.; Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Wiewior, P. P.; Chalyy, O. [University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Papp, D. [University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Nkft., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2015-11-15

    Star and cylindrical wire arrays were studied using laser probing and X-ray radiography at the 1-MA Zebra pulse power generator at the University of Nevada, Reno. The Leopard laser provided backlighting, producing a laser plasma from a Si target which emitted an X-ray probing pulse at the wavelength of 6.65 Å. A spherically bent quartz crystal imaged the backlit wires onto X-ray film. Laser probing diagnostics at the wavelength of 266 nm included a 3-channel polarimeter for Faraday rotation diagnostic and two-frame laser interferometry with two shearing interferometers to study the evolution of the plasma electron density at the ablation and implosion stages. Dynamics of the plasma density profile in Al wire arrays at the ablation stage were directly studied with interferometry, and expansion of wire cores was measured with X-ray radiography. The magnetic field in the imploding plasma was measured with the Faraday rotation diagnostic, and current was reconstructed.

  9. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  10. Determination of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in wastewater by direct injection followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles, A.; Emke, E.; de Voogt, P.

    2016-01-01

    A simple, fast and reliable analytical method for the determination of phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors in wastewater was developed and validated. The method was based on direct injection followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole as mass

  11. Skyrmion states in multilayer exchange coupled ferromagnetic nanostructures with distinct anisotropy directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraerman, A.A.; Ermolaeva, O.L.; Skorohodov, E.V.; Gusev, N.S.; Mironov, V.L.; Vdovichev, S.N.; Demidov, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of magnetic skyrmion states in patterned ferromagnetic nanostructures consisting of perpendicular magnetized Co/Pt multilayer film exchange coupled with Co nanodisks in vortex state. The magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations show that depending on the magnitude of Co/Pt perpendicular anisotropy in these systems two different modes of skyrmion formation are realized. - Highlights: • The magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations of magnetic states in multilayer exchange coupled ferromagnetic nanostructures. • The effects of exchange interaction in Co/Pt multilayer film coupled with Co nanodisks have been studied. • The magnetic scyrmion states at room temperature have been observed

  12. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the cooling capacity distributions at the stages in the thermally-coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler without external precooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Dang, Haizheng

    2017-03-01

    The two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) has advantages in simultaneously providing the cooling powers at two different temperatures, and the capacity in distributing these cooling capacities between the stages is significant to its practical applications. In this paper, a theoretical model of the thermally-coupled two-stage SPTC without external precooling is established based on the electric circuit analogy with considering real gas effects, and the simulations of both the cooling performances and PV power distribution between stages are conducted. The results indicate that the PV power is inversely proportional to the acoustic impedance of each stage, and the cooling capacity distribution is determined by the cold finger cooling efficiency and the PV power into each stage together. The design methods of the cold fingers to achieve both the desired PV power and the cooling capacity distribution between the stages are summarized. The two-stage SPTC is developed and tested based on the above theoretical investigations, and the experimental results show that it can simultaneously achieve 0.69 W at 30 K and 3.1 W at 85 K with an electric input power of 330 W and a reject temperature of 300 K. The consistency between the simulated and the experimental results is observed and the theoretical investigations are experimentally verified.

  13. Improvement of the directional stability of passenger car trailer couplings with actively controlled steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desens, Jens

    The stabilization of pendulum oscillations of passenger car trailer couplings, using active steering, was examined. A linear model of the couplings was presented. Each axle was provided with a controller. The controllers were optimized, with regard to necessary sensors, in order to minimize costs. The rear and the front axles were provided with a control unit in order to compute the potential prevailing in the active steering of several axles. It was shown that the passenger car rear axle was the most suitable for coupling stabilization. The experiment was simulated, using a complex coupling model. The developed controller allowed the passenger car trailer to be driven at a speed higher than 150 km per hour.

  14. Circuit-quantum electrodynamics with direct magnetic coupling to single-atom spin qubits in isotopically enriched 28Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Tosi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified 28Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.

  15. Theoretical research relating to excitation spectrum of furan. Application of integral direct coupled cluster linear response (direct CCLR) method; Furan no reiki supekutoru ni kansuru ronriteki kenkyu. Integral-direct Coupled Cluster Linear Response (direct CCLR) ho no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemitsu, Yasuhiro. [Nagasaki Industrial Technology Center, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    heoretical researches relating to excitation spectrum of furan have been carried out for many years, and they reveal the problems that should be solved in order to predict highly reliable excitation energy. In general, it is difficult to uniformly obtain highly reliable calculation results for all excitation states since different excitation states show different electronic correlative effects. Means for obtaining the electron states in ground state and excited state and calculating the energy difference thereof is the mainstream of the theoretical calculation of the excitation energy. CASSCF/CASPT 2 developed by Roos et al. is a typical method excellent in quantitative description. Recently, the comparison between direct CCLR and CASSCF/CASPT 2 as examples for calculating the excitation spectrum of furan was carried out by using the same ground function. For Rydberg excitation, CC3, CAS, CASPT 2 show good agreement with each other. (NEDO)

  16. Scalar-tensor gravity with scalar-matter direct coupling and its cosmological probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jik-Su; Kim, Chol-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Making use of the SNIa data set, Nesseris and Perivolaropoulos [Phys. Rev. D 73, 103511 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.103511] have found the gravitation constant to evolve in accordance with scalar-tensor gravity. On the other hand, Majerotto et al. [arXiv:astro-ph/0410543] and Guo et al. [Phys. Rev. D 76, 023508 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.023508] have found a definite signature of dark energy-dark matter coupling in Einstein tensor gravity background. However, the results of the above works are quite contradictory, so we cannot be sure which of these results should be accepted because both models use different background gravitation. We construct a more inclusive model with scalar-background space-time and scalar-matter couplings. Making use of SNIa(Union) and baryon acoustic oscillation data sets, we made likelihood analyses; the results show that the background gravitation has the tensor characteristics within a confidence level of 68% and the scalar-matter coupling has a rather large positive value δ =±1.01 . As Guo et al. showed, however, inclusion of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data set in the likelihood analysis significantly reduces the allowed region of the coupling compared to the case without CMB data. Therefore, the value of scalar-matter coupling in this paper could have been estimated too large and the inclusion of CMB data in the next work is expected to yield a more realistic result.

  17. Direct observation of magnon-phonon coupling in yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Haoran; Shi, Zhong; Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Xi; Sullivan, Sean; Zhou, Jianshi; Xia, Ke; Shi, Jing; Dai, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    The magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with a ferrimagnetic transition temperature of ˜560 K has been widely used in microwave and spintronic devices. Anomalous features in spin Seeback effect (SSE) voltages have been observed in Pt/YIG and attributed to magnon-phonon coupling. Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering to map out low-energy spin waves and acoustic phonons of YIG at 100 K as a function of increasing magnetic field. By comparing the zero and 9.1 T data, we find that instead of splitting and opening up gaps at the spin wave and acoustic phonon dispersion intersecting points, magnon-phonon coupling in YIG enhances the hybridized scattering intensity. These results are different from expectations of conventional spin-lattice coupling, calling for different paradigms to understand the scattering process of magnon-phonon interactions and the resulting magnon polarons.

  18. Palladium-catalysed direct cross-coupling of secondary alkyllithium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vila, Carlos; Giannerini, Massimo; Hornillos, Valentin; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed cross-coupling of secondary C(sp(3)) organometallic reagents has been a long-standing challenge in organic synthesis, due to the problems associated with undesired isomerisation or the formation of reduction products. Based on our recently developed catalytic C-C bond formation

  19. Fast, greener and scalable direct coupling of organolithium compounds with no additional solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinxterhuis, Erik B.; Giannerini, Massimo; Hornillos, Valentin; Feringa, Ben L.

    Although the use of catalytic rather than stoichiometric amounts of metal mediator in cross-coupling reactions between organic halides and organometallic counterparts improves significantly the atom economy and waste production, the use of solvents and stoichiometric generation of main-group

  20. Iodine-Catalyzed Direct Olefination of 2-Oxindoles and Alkenes via Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling (CDC) in Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Yan; Wu, Hong-Ru; Wei, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Li

    2015-08-07

    A direct intermolecular olefination of sp(3) C-H bond between 2-oxindoles and simple alkenes via a Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling (CDC) strategy has been developed. In the absence of additional base, moderate to excellent yields have been obtained by using a catalytic amount of iodine with atmospheric oxygen as the reoxidant. Based on the observation of a radical capture experiment, the transformation is proposed to proceed via a radical process.

  1. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  2. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  3. Degree and Direction of Sexual Desire Discrepancy are Linked to Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction in Couples Transitioning to Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Natalie O; Bailey, Kristen; Muise, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Many new parents are concerned that they have different levels of interest in sex than their partner. Understanding the role of desire discrepancies in their sexual and relationship satisfaction could help promote adjustment. In community couples, larger desire discrepancies have been inconsistently linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. However, these studies rarely accounted for both the degree and direction (e.g., which partner has higher desire) of the discrepancy. We surveyed 255 mixed-sex new parent couples to assess their sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. Using polynomial regression with response surface analysis (RSA), we found that desire discrepancies between partners (i.e., when partners were more mismatched as opposed to matched on their levels of sexual desire) were associated with lower sexual (but not relationship) satisfaction for both partners. However, the direction of desire discrepancy mattered: Parents felt less satisfied when mothers were the higher-desire partner compared to when fathers were the higher-desire partner. In addition, when partners' level of sexual desire was in agreement, they were more sexually and relationally satisfied if both partners reported higher compared to lower desire. Results demonstrate the important role of both the magnitude and direction of desire discrepancies in new parent couples.

  4. Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified chicory extract against free-living stages of Cooperia oncophora: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    concentrations ranging from 5 to 0.12 mg dry matter (DM)/mL. Two Jersey calves (4 months old) mono-infected with C. oncophora were used for collection of nematode eggs. Isolated eggs were used in an egg hatch assay (EHA) with 6 concentrations of the chicory extract (tested in duplicates, final DMSO concentration......Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified extract from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) were assessed on eggs and first-stage larvae (L1) of C. oncophora. Chicory leaves (cv. Spadona) were collected from an organic dairy farm in Denmark. Dried leaf tissue was extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus...

  5. ANTISPASMODIC MEDICATION WITH DIRECTIVE EFFECT IN CHILDREN WITH ABDOMINAL PAIN AT THE STAGE OF DIAGNOSTIC SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kozlova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Additional examination is needed for the purpose of detection of its etiology in some patients with abdominal pain, and it takes several days to prove a diagnosis. In most cases this pain is a result of muscle spasm in gastrointestinal tract. The administration of antispasmodic medication with directive effect, particularly, of hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan, is well-grounded. Hyoscine butylbromide is M-cholinergic antagonist, it does not penetrates blood-brain barrier, does not induce common for cholinergic antagonists vascular reactions and decrease of blood pressure. This drug is used in pediatric practice for a long time, it can be used in patients 6 years old anв older, and it has good safety profile. Key words: abdominal pain, hyoscine butylbromide.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:168-170

  6. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muilwijk Danya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson’s disease (PD affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity. Methods We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to quantify changes in eye-hand coordination in early-stage PD patients (H&Y  Results In the pro-tapping task, saccade initiation towards extrinsic goals was not impaired. However, in the dual planning and anti-tapping task initiation of saccades towards intrinsic goals was faster in PD patients. Hand movements were differently affected: initiation of the hand movement was only delayed in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. Overall, hand movements in PD patients were slower executed compared to controls. Interpretation Whereas initiation of saccades in an extrinsic goal-directed task (pro-tapping task is not affected, early stage PD patients have difficulty in suppressing reflexive saccades towards extrinsic goals in tasks where the endpoint is an intrinsic goal (e.g. dual planning and anti-tapping task. This is specific for eye movements, as hand movements have delayed responses in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. This suggests that reported impairment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in early-stage PD patients affects only inhibition of eye movements. We conclude that timing and kinematics of eye and hand movements in visuomotor tasks are affected in PD patients. This result may have clinical significance by providing a behavioral marker for the early diagnosis of PD.

  7. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity. Methods We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to quantify changes in eye-hand coordination in early-stage PD patients (H&Y age-matched controls. Timing and kinematics of eye and hand were quantified in four eye-hand coordination tasks (pro-tapping, dual planning, anti-tapping and spatial memory task). Results In the pro-tapping task, saccade initiation towards extrinsic goals was not impaired. However, in the dual planning and anti-tapping task initiation of saccades towards intrinsic goals was faster in PD patients. Hand movements were differently affected: initiation of the hand movement was only delayed in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. Overall, hand movements in PD patients were slower executed compared to controls. Interpretation Whereas initiation of saccades in an extrinsic goal-directed task (pro-tapping task) is not affected, early stage PD patients have difficulty in suppressing reflexive saccades towards extrinsic goals in tasks where the endpoint is an intrinsic goal (e.g. dual planning and anti-tapping task). This is specific for eye movements, as hand movements have delayed responses in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. This suggests that reported impairment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in early-stage PD patients affects only inhibition of eye movements. We conclude that timing and kinematics of eye and hand movements in visuomotor tasks are affected in PD patients. This result may have clinical significance by providing a behavioral marker for the early diagnosis of PD. PMID:23298720

  8. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilwijk, Danya; Verheij, Simone; Pel, Johan Jm; Boon, Agnita Jw; van der Steen, Johannes

    2013-01-09

    Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson's disease (PD) affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity. We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to quantify changes in eye-hand coordination in early-stage PD patients (H&Y age-matched controls. Timing and kinematics of eye and hand were quantified in four eye-hand coordination tasks (pro-tapping, dual planning, anti-tapping and spatial memory task). In the pro-tapping task, saccade initiation towards extrinsic goals was not impaired. However, in the dual planning and anti-tapping task initiation of saccades towards intrinsic goals was faster in PD patients. Hand movements were differently affected: initiation of the hand movement was only delayed in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. Overall, hand movements in PD patients were slower executed compared to controls. Whereas initiation of saccades in an extrinsic goal-directed task (pro-tapping task) is not affected, early stage PD patients have difficulty in suppressing reflexive saccades towards extrinsic goals in tasks where the endpoint is an intrinsic goal (e.g. dual planning and anti-tapping task). This is specific for eye movements, as hand movements have delayed responses in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. This suggests that reported impairment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in early-stage PD patients affects only inhibition of eye movements. We conclude that timing and kinematics of eye and hand movements in visuomotor tasks are affected in PD patients. This result may have clinical significance by providing a behavioral marker for the early diagnosis of PD.

  9. Evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Coupled Fluid-Solid Modeling for a Direct Transfer Preswirl System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javiya, Umesh; Chew, John; Hills, Nick; Dullenkopf, Klaus; Scanlon, Timothy

    2013-05-01

    The prediction of the preswirl cooling air delivery and disk metal temperature are important for the cooling system performance and the rotor disk thermal stresses and life assessment. In this paper, standalone 3D steady and unsteady computation fluid dynamics (CFD), and coupled FE-CFD calculations are presented for prediction of these temperatures. CFD results are compared with previous measurements from a direct transfer preswirl test rig. The predicted cooling air temperatures agree well with the measurement, but the nozzle discharge coefficients are under predicted. Results from the coupled FE-CFD analyses are compared directly with thermocouple temperature measurements and with heat transfer coefficients on the rotor disk previously obtained from a rotor disk heat conduction solution. Considering the modeling limitations, the coupled approach predicted the solid metal temperatures well. Heat transfer coefficients on the rotor disk from CFD show some effect of the temperature variations on the heat transfer coefficients. Reasonable agreement is obtained with values deduced from the previous heat conduction solution.

  10. Toward 100 GHz direct modulation rate of antenna coupled nanoLED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortuna, Seth A.; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2016-01-01

    We show that > 100 GHz direct modulation rate while maintaining a quantum efficiency higher than 25% is possible by using an optical antenna to enhance the spontaneous emission rate of an electrically injected III-V nanoLED.......We show that > 100 GHz direct modulation rate while maintaining a quantum efficiency higher than 25% is possible by using an optical antenna to enhance the spontaneous emission rate of an electrically injected III-V nanoLED....

  11. Theoretical and experimental validation of evacuated tubes directly coupled with solar still

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, H. N.; Thakkar, H.

    2016-11-01

    Experimental study of evacuated tubes coupled solar still in the climatic conditions of Mehsana, a region of North Gujarat, India during summer and winter climate conditions has been made. Experimental setup was made by authors. Fourteen double-walled hard borosilicate glass tubes have been used. Evacuated tubes were inclined at angle of 45° from horizontal. Outer tubes of evacuated tubes were transparent, inner tubes were coated with a selective coating of Al-Ni/Al compound for better solar radiation absorption and minimum emittance. It has been shown that evacuated tube attachments to the solar still increased the water temperature inside the solar still for increment in the generation of distillate output. Evacuated tubes coupled solar still is not only produce distilled water during sunshine hours, but also off-sunshine hours due to heat storage effect. For the validation of the experimental results, a theoretical model is proposed based on the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer equations for solar still glass cover, water in basin and basin bottom. Two main statistical parameters—root mean square error and mean bias error—were calculated to compare the results of experiments and theoretical analysis. Closed matching of the experimental and theoretical results has been found.

  12. The Soul Mates Model: A Seven-Stage Model for Couple's Long-Term Relationship Development and Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Lama, Luisa Batthyany; De La Lama, Luis; Wittgenstein, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the integrative soul mates relationship development model, which provides the helping professionals with a conceptual map for couples' relationship development from dating, to intimacy, to soul mating, and long-term flourishing. This model is informed by a holistic, a developmental, and a positive psychology conceptualization…

  13. Sonorizing Melodramatic Stage Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Early nineteenth-century French melodrama was spoken theatre, often involving passages of mime or spectacle, and rather extensively accompanied by orchestral music. This article argues that the history of melodrama is best examined if melodrama texts are taken to include not only the printed plays...... but also the music that were part of the historical performances – and if these composite texts, furthermore, are approached methodologically from the perspective of performance. To that end, an experimental workshop format is sought developed which might function as a means of questioning and examining......’ (Richard Schechner), in which attention is, ideally, turned towards observing how the historical text acts on us as we try to perform it, and, at the same time, towards the ways in which we, as we perform and observe ourselves performing, go about construing the past. A passage from the melodrama Sept...

  14. Sonorizing Melodramatic Stage Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Jens

    2012-01-01

    but also the music that were part of the historical performances – and if these composite texts, furthermore, are approached methodologically from the perspective of performance. To that end, an experimental workshop format is sought developed which might function as a means of questioning and examining...

  15. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37m3/day to 0.4m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350m2 to 550m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16m3 to 28.8m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50°C to 80°C have been investigated in October and December.

  16. Direct coupling of polymer-based microchip electrophoresis to online MALDI-MS using a rotating ball inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyimi, Harrison K; Guy, Jason; Narcisse, Damien A; Soper, Steven A; Murray, Kermit K

    2005-12-01

    We report on the coupling of a polymer-based microfluidic chip to a MALDI-TOF MS using a rotating ball interface. The microfluidic chips were fabricated by micromilling a mold insert into a brass plate, which was then used for replicating polymer microparts via hot embossing. Assembly of the chip was accomplished by thermally annealing a cover slip to the embossed substrate to enclose the channels. The linear separation channel was 50 microm wide, 100 microm deep, and possessed an 8 cm effective length separation channel with a double-T injector (V(inj) = 10 nL). The exit of the separation channel was machined to allow direct contact deposition of effluent onto a specially constructed rotating ball inlet to the mass spectrometer. Matrix addition was accomplished in-line on the surface of the ball. The coupling utilized the ball as the cathode transfer electrode to transport sample into the vacuum for desorption with a 355 nm Nd:YAG laser and analyzed on a TOF mass spectrometer. The ball was cleaned online after every rotation. The ability to couple poly(methylmethacrylate) microchip electrophoresis devices for the separation of peptides and peptide fragments produced from a protein digest with subsequent online MALDI MS detection was demonstrated.

  17. Evaluating a direct swabbing method for screening pesticides on fruit and vegetable surfaces using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) coupled to an Exactive benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth; Musselman, Brian

    2012-07-01

    Rapid screening of pesticides present on the surfaces of fruits and vegetables has been facilitated by using a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART(®)) open air surface desorption ionization source coupled to an Exactive(®) high-resolution accurate mass benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer. The use of cotton and polyester cleaning swabs to collect and retain pesticides for subsequent open air desorption ionization is demonstrated by sampling the surface of various produce to which solutions of pesticides have been applied at levels 10 and 100 times below the tolerance levels established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Samples analyzed include cherry tomatoes, oranges, peaches and carrots each chosen for their surface characteristics which include: smooth, pitted, fuzzy, and rough respectively. Results from the direct analysis of fungicides on store-bought oranges are also described. In all cases, the swabs were introduced directly into the heated ionizing gas of the DART source resulting in production of protonated pesticide molecules within seconds of sampling. Operation of the orbitrap mass spectrometer at 25,000 full-width half maximum resolution was sufficient to generate high-quality accurate mass data. Stable external mass calibration eliminated the need for addition of standards typically required for mass calibration, thus allowing multiple analyses to be completed without instrument recalibration.

  18. Development of a direct hydride generation nebulizer for the determination of selenium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrion, Nereida; Murillo, Miguel; Montiel, Edie; Diaz, Dorfe

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a new direct hydride generation nebulizer system for determination of hydride forming elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. This system was designed and optimized to obtain the highest sensitivity. Several experimental designs were used for these purposes. To optimize the individual parameters of the system, and to study the interaction between these parameters for both direct hydride generation nebulizers, a central composite orthogonal design with eight factors was set up. Significant behavioral differences were observed in the two direct hydride generation nebulizers studied. Finally, a 70 μm gas orifice nebulizer exhibits a better detection limit than the 120 μm nebulizer. Generally, for determination of selenium, this new direct hydride generation nebulizer system exhibits a linear dynamic range and detection limit (3σb) of 3 orders of magnitude and 0.2 μg l -1 for selenium, respectively. This new hydride generator is much simpler system that conventional hydride generation systems, which does not need to be changed to work in normal mode with the inductively coupled plasma, since this system may be used for hydride forming elements and those that do not form them. It produces a rapid response with low memory effect. It reduces the interference level of Ni, Co and Cu to 600, 500 and 5 mg l -1 , respectively. The accuracy of the system was verified by the determination of selenium in several standard reference materials of ambient, food and clinical sample matrices. No statistically significant differences (95 confidence level) were obtained between our method and the reference values

  19. Direct observation of surface mode excitation and slow light coupling in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V.S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2007-01-01

    A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is used to systematically study the properties of guided modes in linear and slow-light regimes of silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) with different terminations of the photonic lattice. High quality SNOM images...... are obtained for light at telecom wavelengths propagating in the PhCW, demonstrating directly, for the first time to our knowledge, drastic widening of the PhCW guided mode in the slow-light regime and excitation of surface waves at the PhCW interface along with their feeding into the guided mode...

  20. Osseointegration Implant Post Coupling With External Prosthetic Limb – Continuation of Previous Case Reports “Stage III”

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Hillock, MD; Danny Tatum, BCP; Edward Dolegowski, PT

    2014-01-01

    An ongoing update of the progress case report for the first patient treated with the Longitude™ osseointegration prosthesis implanted in an amputated residual femur is presented. The patient was given an intensive physical therapy program of strengthening and conditioning in anticipation of coupling to the external prosthesis. A custom prosthesis was fabricated based on the Plie’ 2.0 microprocessor knee system. The patient was then successfully trained on use and care of the prosthesis for am...

  1. Mathematical modeling of a multi-stage naphtha reforming process using novel thermally coupled recuperative reactors to enhance aromatic production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranshahi, Davood; Bahmanpour, Ali Mohammad; Pourazadi, Ehsan; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, P.O. Box 71345, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, a novel thermally coupled reactor containing the naphtha reforming process in the endothermic side and the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline in the exothermic side has been investigated. Considering the higher thermal efficiency as well as the smaller size of the reactor, utilizing the recuperative coupled reactor is given priority. In this novel configuration, the first and the second reactor of the conventional naphtha reforming process have been substituted by the recuperative coupled reactors which contain the naphtha reforming reactions in the shell side, and the hydrogenation reaction in the tube side. The achieved results of this simulation have been compared with the results of the conventional fixed-bed naphtha reforming reactors. Acceptable enhancement can be noticed in the performance of the reactors. The production rate of the high octane aromatics and the consumption rate of the paraffins have improved 17% and 72%, respectively. The conversion of the nitrobenzene is acceptable and the effect of the number of the tubes also has been taken into account. However, the performance of the new configuration needs to be tested experimentally over a range of parameters under practical operating conditions. (author)

  2. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: brian.plimley@gmail.com [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  3. The red queen coupled with directional selection favours the evolution of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, E E; Otto, S P

    2012-04-01

    Why sexual reproduction has evolved to be such a widespread mode of reproduction remains a major question in evolutionary biology. Although previous studies have shown that increased sex and recombination can evolve in the presence of host-parasite interactions (the 'Red Queen hypothesis' for sex), many of these studies have assumed that multiple loci mediate infection vs. resistance. Data suggest, however, that a major locus is typically involved in antigen presentation and recognition. Here, we explore a model where only one locus mediates host-parasite interactions, but a second locus is subject to directional selection. Even though the effects of these genes on fitness are independent, we show that increased rates of sex and recombination are favoured at a modifier gene that alters the rate of genetic mixing. This result occurs because of selective interference in finite populations (the 'Hill-Robertson effect'), which also favours sex. These results suggest that the Red Queen hypothesis may help to explain the evolution of sex by contributing a form of persistent selection, which interferes with directional selection at other loci and thereby favours sex and recombination. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. The role of early stages of cortical visual processing in size and distance judgment: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago L; Costa, Marcelo F; Magalhães, Adsson; Rêgo, Gabriel G; Nagy, Balázs V; Boggio, Paulo S; Ventura, Dora F

    2015-02-19

    Recent research suggests that V1 plays an active role in the judgment of size and distance. Nevertheless, no research has been performed using direct brain stimulation to address this issue. We used transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to directly modulate the early stages of cortical visual processing while measuring size and distance perception with a psychophysical scaling method of magnitude estimation in a repeated-measures design. The subjects randomly received anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS in separate sessions starting with size or distance judgment tasks. Power functions were fit to the size judgment data, whereas logarithmic functions were fit to distance judgment data. Slopes and R(2) were compared with separate repeated-measures analyses of variance with two factors: task (size vs. distance) and tDCS (anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham). Anodal tDCS significantly decreased slopes, apparently interfering with size perception. No effects were found for distance perception. Consistent with previous studies, the results of the size task appeared to reflect a prothetic continuum, whereas the results of the distance task seemed to reflect a metathetic continuum. The differential effects of tDCS on these tasks may support the hypothesis that different physiological mechanisms underlie judgments on these two continua. The results further suggest the complex involvement of the early visual cortex in size judgment tasks that go beyond the simple representation of low-level stimulus properties. This supports predictive coding models and experimental findings that suggest that higher-order visual areas may inhibit incoming information from the early visual cortex through feedback connections when complex tasks are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Test Results From a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a closed cycle system incorporating a turboaltemator, recuperator, and gas cooler connected by gas ducts to an external gas heater. For this series of tests, the BPCU was modified by replacing the gas heater with the Direct Drive Gas heater or DOG. The DOG uses electric resistance heaters to simulate a fast spectrum nuclear reactor similar to those proposed for space power applications. The combined system thermal transient behavior was the focus of these tests. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points. At each point it was subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed or DOG electrical input. This paper outlines the changes made to the test unit and describes the testing that took place along with the test results.

  6. Test Results from a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Component level testing of power conversion units proposed for use in fission surface power systems has typically been done using relatively simple electric heaters for thermal input. These heaters do not adequately represent the geometry or response of proposed reactors. As testing of fission surface power systems transitions from the component level to the system level it becomes necessary to more accurately replicate these reactors using reactor simulators. The Direct Drive Gas-Brayton Power Conversion Unit test activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center integrates a reactor simulator with an existing Brayton test rig. The response of the reactor simulator to a change in Brayton shaft speed is shown as well as the response of the Brayton to an insertion of reactivity, corresponding to a drum reconfiguration. The lessons learned from these tests can be used to improve the design of future reactor simulators which can be used in system level fission surface power tests.

  7. Induction of visual dream reports after transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCs) during Stage 2 sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Antonia J; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Conduit, Russell

    2012-08-01

    REM sleep is a unique brain state characterized by frontal deactivation alongside activation of the posterior association and limbic cortices. Human brain lesion studies have found that the loss of dreaming is characterized by damage to the frontal and posterior parieto-temporo-occipital association cortex. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the function of these brain regions might encapsulate the neural processes of dreaming. The aim of the following two experiments was to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCs), applied simultaneously to the frontal and right posterior parietal cortex during Stage 2 sleep, on dreaming. In Experiment 1, 17 healthy participants received tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) and low-intensity tDCs as well as no tDCs (blank control) during Stage 2 sleep in a counterbalanced order across the night. Dream reports were collected upon awakening after each of the three conditions. In Experiment 2, 10 participants received tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal), no tDCs (blank control) and two additional control conditions (reversed polarity and other-cephalic tDCs). In both experiments a significantly greater number of imagery reports were found on awakening after tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal), compared to the blank control conditions. However, in Experiment 2 the frequency of imagery reports from the tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) was not significantly different from the other two tDC conditions, suggesting a non-specific effect of tDCs. Overall, it was concluded that tDCs (cathodal-frontal, anodal-parietal) increased the frequency of dream reports with visual imagery, possibly via a general arousing effect and/or recreating specific cortical neural activity involved in dreaming. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Innovative three-dimensional neutronics analyses directly coupled with cad models of geometrically complex fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, M.; Wilson, P.; El-Guebaly, L.; Henderson, D.; Sviatoslavsky, G.; Bohm, T.; Kiedrowski, B.; Ibrahim, A.; Smith, B.; Slaybaugh, R.; Tautges, T.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion systems are, in general, geometrically complex requiring detailed three-dimensional (3-D) nuclear analysis. This analysis is required to address tritium self-sufficiency, nuclear heating, radiation damage, shielding, and radiation streaming issues. To facilitate such calculations, we developed an innovative computational tool that is based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and permits the direct use of CAD-based solid models in the ray-tracing. This allows performing the neutronics calculations in a model that preserves the geometrical details without any simplification, eliminates possible human error in modeling the geometry for MCNP, and allows faster design iterations. In addition to improving the work flow for simulating complex 3- D geometries, it allows a richer representation of the geometry compared to the standard 2nd order polynomial representation. This newly developed tool has been successfully tested for a detailed 40 degree sector benchmark of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The calculations included determining the poloidal variation of the neutron wall loading, flux and nuclear heating in the divertor components, nuclear heating in toroidal field coils, and radiation streaming in the mid-plane port. The tool has been applied to perform 3-D nuclear analysis for several fusion designs including the ARIES Compact Stellarator (ARIES-CS), the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) inertial fusion power plant, and ITER first wall/shield (FWS) modules. The ARIES-CS stellarator has a first wall shape and a plasma profile that varies toroidally within each field period compared to the uniform toroidal shape in tokamaks. Such variation cannot be modeled analytically in the standard MCNP code. The impact of the complex helical geometry and the non-uniform blanket and divertor on the overall tritium breeding ratio and total nuclear heating was determined. In addition, we calculated the neutron wall loading variation in

  9. The impact of disease stage on direct medical costs of HIV management: a review of the international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Adrian; Johnston, Karissa; Annemans, Lieven; Tramarin, Andrea; Montaner, Julio

    2010-01-01

    The global prevalence of HIV infection continues to grow, as a result of increasing incidence in some countries and improved survival where highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is available. Growing healthcare expenditure and shifts in the types of medical resources used have created a greater need for accurate information on the costs of treatment. The objectives of this review were to compare published estimates of direct medical costs for treating HIV and to determine the impact of disease stage on such costs, based on CD4 cell count and plasma viral load. A literature review was conducted to identify studies meeting prespecified criteria for information content, including an original estimate of the direct medical costs of treating an HIV-infected individual, stratified based on markers of disease progression. Three unpublished cost-of-care studies were also included, which were applied in the economic analyses published in this supplement. A two-step procedure was used to convert costs into a common price year (2004) using country-specific health expenditure inflators and, to account for differences in currency, using health-specific purchasing power parities to express all cost estimates in US dollars. In all nine studies meeting the eligibility criteria, infected individuals were followed longitudinally and a 'bottom-up' approach was used to estimate costs. The same patterns were observed in all studies: the lowest CD4 categories had the highest cost; there was a sharp decrease in costs as CD4 cell counts rose towards 100 cells/mm³; and there was a more gradual decline in costs as CD4 cell counts rose above 100 cells/mm³. In the single study reporting cost according to viral load, it was shown that higher plasma viral load level (> 100,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL) was associated with higher costs of care. The results demonstrate that the cost of treating HIV disease increases with disease progression, particularly at CD4 cell counts below 100 cells

  10. Calibration strategy for semi-quantitative direct gas analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Carter, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    A process is described by which an ICP-MS equipped with an Octopole Reaction System (ORS) is calibrated using liquid phase standards to facilitate direct analysis of gas phase samples. The instrument response to liquid phase standards is analyzed to produce empirical factors relating ion generation and transmission efficiencies to standard operating parameters. Empirical factors generated for liquid phase samples are then used to produce semi-quantitative analysis of both mixed liquid/gas samples and pure gas samples. The method developed is similar to the semi-quantitative analysis algorithms in the commercial software, which have here been expanded to include gas phase elements such as Xe and Kr. Equations for prediction of relative ionization efficiencies and isotopic transmission are developed for several combinations of plasma operating conditions, which allows adjustment of limited parameters between liquid and gas injection modes. In particular, the plasma temperature and electron density are calculated from comparison of experimental results to the predictions of the Saha equation. Comparisons between operating configurations are made to determine the robustness of the analysis to plasma conditions and instrument operating parameters. Using the methods described in this research, the elemental concentrations in a liquid standard containing 45 analytes and treated as an unknown sample were quantified accurately to ± 50% for most elements using 133 Cs as a single internal reference. The method is used to predict liquid phase mercury within 12% of the actual concentration and gas phase mercury within 28% of the actual concentration. The results verify that the calibration method facilitates accurate semi-quantitative, gas phase analysis of metal species with sufficient sensitivity to quantify metal concentrations lower than 1 ppb for many metallic analytes.

  11. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m3 to 6.3 μg/m3. Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection.

  12. Topology optimization analysis based on the direct coupling of the boundary element method and the level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitório, Paulo Cezar; Leonel, Edson Denner

    2017-12-01

    The structural design must ensure suitable working conditions by attending for safe and economic criteria. However, the optimal solution is not easily available, because these conditions depend on the bodies' dimensions, materials strength and structural system configuration. In this regard, topology optimization aims for achieving the optimal structural geometry, i.e. the shape that leads to the minimum requirement of material, respecting constraints related to the stress state at each material point. The present study applies an evolutionary approach for determining the optimal geometry of 2D structures using the coupling of the boundary element method (BEM) and the level set method (LSM). The proposed algorithm consists of mechanical modelling, topology optimization approach and structural reconstruction. The mechanical model is composed of singular and hyper-singular BEM algebraic equations. The topology optimization is performed through the LSM. Internal and external geometries are evolved by the LS function evaluated at its zero level. The reconstruction process concerns the remeshing. Because the structural boundary moves at each iteration, the body's geometry change and, consequently, a new mesh has to be defined. The proposed algorithm, which is based on the direct coupling of such approaches, introduces internal cavities automatically during the optimization process, according to the intensity of Von Mises stress. The developed optimization model was applied in two benchmarks available in the literature. Good agreement was observed among the results, which demonstrates its efficiency and accuracy.

  13. Direct Structural Identification of Gas Induced Gate-Opening Coupled with Commensurate Adsorption in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Wang, Hao; Plonka, Anna M; Emge, Thomas J; Parise, John B; Li, Jing

    2016-08-08

    Gate-opening is a unique and interesting phenomenon commonly observed in flexible porous frameworks, where the pore characteristics and/or crystal structures change in response to external stimuli such as adding or removing guest molecules. For gate-opening that is induced by gas adsorption, the pore-opening pressure often varies for different adsorbate molecules and, thus, can be applied to selectively separate a gas mixture. The detailed understanding of this phenomenon is of fundamental importance to the design of industrially applicable gas-selective sorbents, which remains under investigated due to the lack of direct structural evidence for such systems. We report a mechanistic study of gas-induced gate-opening process of a microporous metal-organic framework, [Mn(ina)2 ] (ina=isonicotinate) associated with commensurate adsorption, by a combination of several analytical techniques including single crystal X-ray diffraction, in situ powder X-ray diffraction coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC), and gas adsorption-desorption methods. Our study reveals that the pronounced and reversible gate opening/closing phenomena observed in [Mn(ina)2 ] are coupled with a structural transition that involves rotation of the organic linker molecules as a result of interaction of the framework with adsorbed gas molecules including carbon dioxide and propane. The onset pressure to open the gate correlates with the extent of such interaction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Light yield of an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Soma, A.K.; Yamashita, M.

    2016-01-01

    A light yield of 20.4 ± 0.8 photoelectrons/keV was achieved with an undoped CsI crystal coupled directly to a photomultiplier tube at 77 Kelvin. This is by far the largest yield in the world achieved with CsI crystals. An energy threshold that is several times lower than the current dark matter experiments utilizing CsI(Tl) crystals may be achievable using this technique. Together with novel CsI crystal purification methods, the technique may be used to improve the sensitivities of dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. Also measured were the scintillation light decay constants of the undoped CsI crystal at both room temperature and 77 Kelvin. The results are consistent with those in the literature.

  15. Bi-stage time evolution of nano-morphology on inductively coupled plasma etched fused silica surface caused by surface morphological transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lijuan; Bai, Yang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhengkun; Qiu, Keqiang; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yang, Ke; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate the surface nano-roughness during the inductively coupled plasma etching of fused silica, and discover a novel bi-stage time evolution of surface nano-morphology. At the beginning, the rms roughness, correlation length and nano-mound dimensions increase linearly and rapidly with etching time. At the second stage, the roughening process slows down dramatically. The switch of evolution stage synchronizes with the morphological change from dual-scale roughness comprising long wavelength underlying surface and superimposed nano-mounds to one scale of nano-mounds. A theoretical model based on surface morphological change is proposed. The key idea is that at the beginning, etched surface is dual-scale, and both larger deposition rate of etch inhibitors and better plasma etching resistance at the surface peaks than surface valleys contribute to the roughness development. After surface morphology transforming into one-scale, the difference of plasma resistance between surface peaks and valleys vanishes, thus the roughening process slows down.

  16. Direct Coupling of Electron Beam Irradiation and Polymer Extrusion for a Continuous Polymer Modification in Molten State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, M.

    2006-01-01

    The new approach of an e-beam initiating of chemical reactions in polymers in molten state results in some innovative results. High temperature, intensive macromolecular mobility and the absence of any crystallinity are some reasons for achieving unexpected structures, processing behaviour and properties changes in such treated thermoplastics and rubbers. Examples are a much more effective crosslinking of polyethylene and special rubbers, long chain branching of polypropylene or a partial crosslinking of polysulfone. Additionally, most of these modification effects are also achievable by a direct coupling of electron beam irradiation and conventional polymer extrusion processing for a continuous polymer modification in molten state. For realizing this unique processing technique a special MOBILE RADIATION FACILITY (MOBRAD1/T) was designed, constructed and manufactured in the IPF Dresden at which a lab-scale single screw extruder was adapted direct to an electron beam accelerator to realize a prompt irradiation of extruded polymer melt profiles before there solidification. Surprisingly, as a result of these short-time-melt reactions some effective and new polymer modification effects were found and will be presented

  17. Investigating the use of multi-point coupling for single-sensor bearing estimation in one direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, Americo G.; Phoenix, Austin A.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2018-04-01

    Bearing estimation of radially propagating symmetric waves in solid structures typically requires a minimum of two sensors. As a test specimen, this research investigates the use of multi-point coupling to provide directional inference using a single-sensor. By this provision, the number of sensors required for localization can be reduced. A finite-element model of a beam is constructed with a symmetrically placed bipod that has asymmetric joint-stiffness properties. Impulse loading is applied at different points along the beam, and measurements are taken from the apex of the bipod. A technique is developed to determine the direction-of-arrival of the propagating wave. The accuracy when using the bipod with the developed technique is compared against results gathered without the bipod and measuring from an asymmetric location along the beam. The results show 92% accuracy when the bipod is used, compared to 75% when measuring without the bipod from an asymmetric location. A geometry investigation finds the best accuracy results when one leg of the bipod has a low stiffness and a large diameter relative to the other leg.

  18. Rapid Determination of Clenbuterol in Pork by Direct Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Diru; Wu, Susu; Xu, Jianqiao; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-02-01

    Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for rapid analysis of clenbuterol in pork for the first time. In this work, a low-cost homemade 44 µm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber was employed to extract clenbuterol in pork. After extraction, derivatization was performed by suspending the fiber in the headspace of the 2 mL sample vial saturated with a vapor of 100 µL hexamethyldisilazane. Lastly, the fiber was directly introduced to GC-MS for analysis. All parameters that influenced absorption (extraction time), derivatization (derivatization reagent, time and temperature) and desorption (desorption time) were optimized. Under optimized conditions, the method offered a wide linear range (10-1000 ng g(-1)) and a low detection limit (3.6 ng g(-1)). Finally, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of pork from the market, and recoveries of the method for spiked pork were 97.4-105.7%. Compared with the traditional solvent extraction method, the proposed method was much cheaper and fast. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Coupling of the four design stages in the management of nuclear fuel; Acoplamiento de las cuatro etapas de diseno en la administracion de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinez R, R. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the main characteristics of the system to solve the four stages of the nuclear fuel management are presented; the above for boiling water reactors (BWR). The novelty of the system is that a complete solution is obtained in a coupled way; the involved stages are fuel lattice design, fuel assembly design, fuel reload design and control rod pattern design. To do this, in each stage of the process some heuristics techniques are applied, and each stage has its own objective function. The used heuristic techniques are neural network and a hybrid between scatter search and path re linking for fuel lattice design; for fuel assembly design a simple local search was applied and finally, for both fuel reload and control rod pattern designs, the tabu search technique was used. The system have two loops, one external loop and one internal loop, the first one starts with fuel lattice design and concludes with control rod pattern design; on the other hand, the internal loop executes an iterative process between both fuel reload design and control rod pattern designs, to start this loop a seed fuel reload is required, which is obtained applying Haling principle. The internal loop is finished when four iterations were achieved, while the external loop is finished when two iterations were achieved, this number of iterations was fixed due to the great quantity of required computational resources. An 18- months equilibrium cycle was considered to have a reference value to compare against the obtained results with our system, this cycle have two fuel fresh batches with the same average uranium enrichment, but different gadolinia content. The above cycle achieved a 10,896 Mwd/Tu of energy and was divided into 12 burnup steps. The obtained results show the advantage to solve the complete problem in a coupled way, even though a great quantity of computational resources are used. It is necessary to note that the energy value was not achieved in all cases, only in some

  20. Sanger DNA-sequencing reactions performed in a solid-phase nanoreactor directly coupled to capillary gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, S A; Williams, D C; Xu, Y; Lassiter, S J; Zhang, Y; Ford, S M; Bruch, R C

    1998-10-01

    A miniaturized, solid-phase nanoreactor was developed to prepare Sanger DNA-sequencing ladders which was directly interfaced to a capillary gel electrophoresis system. A biotinylated fragment of the rat brain actin gene (1 kbp) was amplified by PCR and attached to the interior wall of an (aminoalkyl)silane-derivatized fused-silica capillary tube via a biotin/streptavidin/biotin linkage. Coverage of the capillary wall with the biotinylated DNA averaged 77 +/- 10%. Stability of the anchored template under pressure (33 nL/s) and electroosmotic flows (11.3 nL/s) were favorable, requiring rinsing for > 150 h to reduce the surface coverage by only 50%. In addition, the immobilized template was stable toward temperatures required for preparing sequencing ladders, even under cycling conditions. Standard Sanger dideoxynucleotide termination performed in a large-volume (approximately 8 microL) solid-phase reactor using the thermally stable polymerase enzymes Taq and Vent and the polymerases T7 and Bst with off-line slab gel electrophoresis and autoradiographic detection indicated that acceptable fragment generation was achieved only in the case of the thermally stable polymerases. Banding was not apparent for T7 and Bst since all reagents were inserted into the column in a single plug at the beginning of the reaction. A small volume reactor (volume approximately 62 nL) was then used to perform DNA polymerase reactions and was coupled directly to a capillary gel column for separation. The capillary reactor was placed inside a thermocycler to control the temperature during chain extension and was directly connected to the gel column via zero dead volume fused-silica connectors. The complementary DNA fragments generated (C-track only) in the reactor were denatured using heat and directly injected onto the gel-filled capillary for size separation with detection accomplished using near-IR laser-induced fluorescence. Extension and single-base separation resolution of the C

  1. Two-stage continuous process of methyl ester from high free fatty acid mixed crude palm oil using static mixer coupled with high-intensity of ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somnuk, Krit; Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixed crude palm oil was used in the two-step continuous process. • Two-step continuous process was performed using static mixer coupled with ultrasound. • The maximum obtained yield was 92.5 vol.% after the purification process. • The residence time less than 20 s was achieved in ultrasonic reactors. - Abstract: The two-stage continuous process of methyl ester from high free fatty acid (FFA) mixed crude palm oil (MCPO) was performed by using static mixer coupled with high-intensity of ultrasound. The 2 × 1000 W ultrasonic homogenizers were operated at 18 kHz frequency in the 2 × 100 mL continuous reactors. For the first-step, acid-catalyzed esterification was employed with 18 vol.% of methanol, 2.7 vol.% of sulfuric acid, 60 °C of temperature, and 20 L h −1 of MCPO flow rate, for reducing the acid value from 28 mg KOH g −1 to less than 2 mg KOH g −1 . For the second-step, base-catalyzed transesterification was carried out under 18 vol.% of methanol, 8 g KOH L −1 of oil, and 20 L h −1 of esterified oil flow rate at 30 °C. The high yields of esterified oil and crude biodiesel were attained within the residence time of less than 20 s in the ultrasonic reactors. The yields of each stage process were: 103.3 vol.% of esterified oil, 105.4 vol.% of crude biodiesel, and 92.5 vol.% of biodiesel when compared with 100 vol.% MCPO. The quality of the biodiesel meets the specification of biodiesel standard in Thailand

  2. Couples Counseling Directive Technique: A (Mis)communication Model to Promote Insight, Catharsis, Disclosure, and Problem Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    A psychoeducational model for improving couple communication is proposed. An important goal in couples counseling is to assist couples in resolving communication conflicts. The proposed communication model helps to establish a therapeutic environment that encourages insight, therapeutic alliance formation, catharsis, self-disclosure, symptom…

  3. Enhanced reactivities toward amines by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand: Direct coupling of two amines to form an imine without oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng

    2012-07-23

    Dehydrogenative homocoupling of primary alcohols to form esters and coupling of amines to form imines was accomplished using a class of novel pincer ruthenium complexes. The reactivities of the ruthenium pincer complexes for the direct coupling of amines to form imines were enhanced by introducing an imine arm to the pincer ligand. Selective oxidation of benzylamines to imines was achieved using aniline derivatives as the substrate and solvent. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Fragment-Based Direct-Local-Ring-Coupled-Cluster Doubles Treatment Embedded in the Periodic Hartree-Fock Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Oliver; Schütz, Martin; Maschio, Lorenzo; Usvyat, Denis

    2016-10-11

    We present a periodic/finite-cluster interface for fragment-based direct local ring-coupled-cluster doubles (d-LrCCD) calculations embedded in the periodic mean field. The fragment is defined by a set of Wannier functions (WFs), obtained from a periodic Hartree-Fock calculation. The pair-specific virtual space is spanned by projected atomic orbitals (PAOs) truncated to pair domains. The computational procedure is initiated by a periodic local Møller-Plesset (LMP2) calculation. A subset of the WF pairs is then subsequently subjected to a finite-cluster d-LrCCD treatment using the local coupled cluster program of Molpro; this subset is specified by an interorbital cutoff distance. The orbital, pair, and domain lists, as well as other essential quantities needed for d-LrCCD such as the Fock and overlap matrices, and the electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) in the basis of WFs and PAOs are evaluated in the periodic framework and passed to Molpro via an interface. These periodic quantities provide the correct periodic mean-field embedding for the fragment d-LrCCD. Moreover, no expensive orbital transformations involving orbital coefficients related to large supporting clusters are necessary. ERIs appearing in the d-LrCCD diagrams are factorized via density fitting, which enables an efficient processing of the corresponding terms via three-index intermediates. The corresponding 3-index and the metric 2-index ERIs involving auxiliary functions are also computed and transformed to the WF-PAO basis (the 3-index ERI) on the periodic side. Although the direct ring-CCD method itself is not generally more accurate than MP2, it is more stable in the case of small band gap systems, as it sums up the ring diagrams to infinite order. Furthermore, this interface is a first step toward a high-level fragment-based quantum chemical treatment such as local CCSD(T) within a periodic embedding that is treated at a lower level. As two test examples we study the physisorption of H 2 and

  5. Direct coupling of a genome-scale microbial in silico model and a groundwater reactive transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Garg, Srinath; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2011-01-01

    The activity of microorganisms often plays an important role in dynamic natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of subsurface contaminants, such as chlorinated solvents, metals, and radionuclides. To evaluate and/or design bioremediated systems, quantitative reactive transport models are needed. State-of-the-art reactive transport models often ignore the microbial effects or simulate the microbial effects with static growth yield and constant reaction rate parameters over simulated conditions, while in reality microorganisms can dynamically modify their functionality (such as utilization of alternative respiratory pathways) in response to spatial and temporal variations in environmental conditions. Constraint-based genome-scale microbial in silico models, using genomic data and multiple-pathway reaction networks, have been shown to be able to simulate transient metabolism of some well studied microorganisms and identify growth rate, substrate uptake rates, and byproduct rates under different growth conditions. These rates can be identified and used to replace specific microbially-mediated reaction rates in a reactive transport model using local geochemical conditions as constraints. We previously demonstrated the potential utility of integrating a constraint based microbial metabolism model with a reactive transport simulator as applied to bioremediation of uranium in groundwater. However, that work relied on an indirect coupling approach that was effective for initial demonstration but may not be extensible to more complex problems that are of significant interest (e.g., communities of microbial species, multiple constraining variables). Here, we extend that work by presenting and demonstrating a method of directly integrating a reactive transport model (FORTRAN code) with constraint-based in silico models solved with IBM ILOG CPLEX linear optimizer base system (C library). The models were integrated with BABEL, a language interoperability tool. The

  6. Direct coupling of a genome-scale microbial in silico model and a groundwater reactive transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Garg, Srinath; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2011-03-01

    The activity of microorganisms often plays an important role in dynamic natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of subsurface contaminants, such as chlorinated solvents, metals, and radionuclides. To evaluate and/or design bioremediated systems, quantitative reactive transport models are needed. State-of-the-art reactive transport models often ignore the microbial effects or simulate the microbial effects with static growth yield and constant reaction rate parameters over simulated conditions, while in reality microorganisms can dynamically modify their functionality (such as utilization of alternative respiratory pathways) in response to spatial and temporal variations in environmental conditions. Constraint-based genome-scale microbial in silico models, using genomic data and multiple-pathway reaction networks, have been shown to be able to simulate transient metabolism of some well studied microorganisms and identify growth rate, substrate uptake rates, and byproduct rates under different growth conditions. These rates can be identified and used to replace specific microbially-mediated reaction rates in a reactive transport model using local geochemical conditions as constraints. We previously demonstrated the potential utility of integrating a constraint-based microbial metabolism model with a reactive transport simulator as applied to bioremediation of uranium in groundwater. However, that work relied on an indirect coupling approach that was effective for initial demonstration but may not be extensible to more complex problems that are of significant interest (e.g., communities of microbial species and multiple constraining variables). Here, we extend that work by presenting and demonstrating a method of directly integrating a reactive transport model (FORTRAN code) with constraint-based in silico models solved with IBM ILOG CPLEX linear optimizer base system (C library). The models were integrated with BABEL, a language interoperability tool. The

  7. Control of a Two-Stage Direct Power Converter with a Single Voltage Sensor Mounted in the Intermediary Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Wheeler, P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a converter requires not only a powerful processors but also accurate voltage and current sensors and fast and precise analogue-digital converters, which increase the cost per kW of the assembly, especially in the low power range. A matrix converter requires less transducers than a back...... converters but in two stages (AC/DC/AC) without using energy storage in the intermediary circuit. They also offer the possibility to reduce the number of switches compared to the standard single-stage matrix converter. This paper presents a new method to control a two-stage DPC providing sine-wave in sine...

  8. Direct coupling of electromembrane extraction to mass spectrometry - Advancing the probe functionality toward measurements of zwitterionic drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Torstein Kige; Fuchs, David; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob

    2017-08-29

    A triple-flow electromembrane extraction (EME) probe was developed and coupled directly to electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Metabolic reaction mixtures (pH 7.4) containing drug substances and related metabolites were continuously drawn (20 μL/min) into the EME probe in one flow channel, and mixed inside the probe with 7.5 μL min -1 of 1 M formic acid as make-up flow from a second flow channel. Following this acidification, the drug substances and their related metabolites were continuously extracted by EME at 400 V, across a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprising 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (and for some experiments containing 30% triphenyl phosphate (TPP)), and into 20 μL min -1 of formic acid as acceptor phase, which was introduced through a third flow channel. The acceptor phase was pumped directly to the MS system, and the ion intensity of extracted analytes was followed continuously as function of time. The triple-flow EME probe was used for co-extraction of positively charged parent drugs and their zwitterionic drug metabolites (hydroxyzine and its carboxylic acid metabolite cetirizine; and vortioxetine and its carboxylic acid metabolite Lu AA34443). While the zwitterionic metabolites could not be extracted at pH 7.4, it was shown that by acidifying the sample solution the zwitterionic metabolites could be extracted effectively. Various extraction parameters like make-up flow, extraction voltage and SLM composition were optimized for simultaneous extraction of parent drugs and metabolites. It was found that TPP added to the SLM improved extraction efficiencies of certain drug metabolites. Finally the optimized and characterized triple-flow EME probe was used for online studying the in-vitro metabolism of hydroxyzine and vortioxetine by rat liver microsomes. Due to the automated pre-extraction acidification of the rat liver microsomal solutions, it was possible to continuously monitor formation of the zwitterionic drug

  9. Direct determination of mercury in cosmetic samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after dissolution with formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ying; Shi, Zeming; Zong, Qinxia; Wu, Peng; Su, Jing [Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nuclear Technology in Geology, College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Liu, Rui, E-mail: liur.ray@gmail.com [Mineral Resources Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simple, sensitive, and accurate method is established for mercury determination in cosmetics. •The sample preparation procedure is highly simplified. •Isotope dilution efficiently eliminates matrix effect. •First report of using formic acid based method in combination with PVG-ID-ICP MS for mercury quantitation in cosmetics. -- Abstract: A new method was proposed for the accurate determination of mercury in cosmetic samples based on isotopic dilution (ID)-photochemical vapor generation (PVG)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) measurement. Cosmetic samples were directly dissolved in formic acid solution and subsequently subjected to PVG for the reduction of mercury into vapor species following by ICP MS detection. Therefore, the risks of analyte contamination and loss were avoided. Highly enriched {sup 201}Hg isotopic spike is added to cosmetics and the isotope ratios of {sup 201}Hg/{sup 202}Hg were measured for the quantitation of mercury. With ID calibration, the influences originating from sample matrixes for the determination of mercury in cosmetic samples have been efficiently eliminated. The effects of several experimental parameters, such as the concentration of the formic acid, and the flow rates of carrier gas and sample were investigated. The method provided good reproducibility and the detection limits were found to be 0.6 pg mL{sup −1}. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of mercury in six cosmetic samples and a spike test was performed to verify the accuracy of the method.

  10. Direct determination of mercury in cosmetic samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after dissolution with formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ying; Shi, Zeming; Zong, Qinxia; Wu, Peng; Su, Jing; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simple, sensitive, and accurate method is established for mercury determination in cosmetics. •The sample preparation procedure is highly simplified. •Isotope dilution efficiently eliminates matrix effect. •First report of using formic acid based method in combination with PVG-ID-ICP MS for mercury quantitation in cosmetics. -- Abstract: A new method was proposed for the accurate determination of mercury in cosmetic samples based on isotopic dilution (ID)-photochemical vapor generation (PVG)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) measurement. Cosmetic samples were directly dissolved in formic acid solution and subsequently subjected to PVG for the reduction of mercury into vapor species following by ICP MS detection. Therefore, the risks of analyte contamination and loss were avoided. Highly enriched 201 Hg isotopic spike is added to cosmetics and the isotope ratios of 201 Hg/ 202 Hg were measured for the quantitation of mercury. With ID calibration, the influences originating from sample matrixes for the determination of mercury in cosmetic samples have been efficiently eliminated. The effects of several experimental parameters, such as the concentration of the formic acid, and the flow rates of carrier gas and sample were investigated. The method provided good reproducibility and the detection limits were found to be 0.6 pg mL −1 . Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of mercury in six cosmetic samples and a spike test was performed to verify the accuracy of the method

  11. Direct in situ measurement of coupled magnetostructural evolution in a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy and its theoretical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Glavic, Artur; Samolyuk, German; Aczel, Adam A.; Lauter, Valeria; Ambaye, Haile; Gai, Zheng; Ma, Jie; Stoica, Alexandru D.; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Wimmer, Sebastian; Shapiro, Steve M.; Wang, Xun-Li

    2015-10-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) have shown great potential as active components in next generation smart devices due to their exceptionally large magnetic-field-induced strains and fast response times. During application of magnetic fields in FSMAs, as is common in several magnetoelastic smart materials, there occurs simultaneous rotation of magnetic moments and reorientation of twin variants, resolving which, although critical for design of new materials and devices, has been difficult to achieve quantitatively with current characterization methods. At the same time, theoretical modeling of these phenomena also faced limitations due to uncertainties in values of physical properties such as magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MCA), especially for off-stoichiometric FSMA compositions. Here, in situ polarized neutron diffraction is used to measure directly the extents of both magnetic moments rotation and crystallographic twin-reorientation in an FSMA single crystal during the application of magnetic fields. Additionally, high-resolution neutron scattering measurements and first-principles calculations based on fully relativistic density functional theory are used to determine accurately the MCA for the compositionally disordered alloy of N i2M n1.14G a0.86 . The results from these state-of-the-art experiments and calculations are self-consistently described within a phenomenological framework, which provides quantitative insights into the energetics of magnetostructural coupling in FSMAs. Based on the current model, the energy for magnetoelastic twin boundaries propagation for the studied alloy is estimated to be ˜150 kJ /m3 .

  12. Ag-protein plasmonic architectures for surface plasmon-coupled emission enhancements and Fabry-Perot mode-coupled directional fluorescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Patnaik, Sai Gourang; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Reddy, Narendra; Manohar, Chelli Sai; Vedarajan, Raman; Mastumi, Noriyoshi; Belliraj, Siva Kumar; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2017-10-01

    We report the use of silver decorated plant proteins as spacer material for augmented surface plasmon-coupled emission (120-fold enhancement) and plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering. We extracted several proteins from different plant sources [Triticum aestivum (TA), Aegle marmelos (AM), Ricinus communis (RC), Jatropha curcas (JC) and Simarouba glauca (SG)] followed by evaluation of their optical properties and simulations to rationalize observed surface plasmon resonance. Since the properties exhibited by protein thin films is currently gaining research interest, we have also carried out simulation studies with Ag-protein biocomposites as spacer materials in metal-dielectric-metal planar microcavity architecture for guided emission of Fabry-Perot mode-coupled fluorescence.

  13. Coupling sequential injection on-line preconcentration using a PTFE beads packed column to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for trace metals by using a PTFE bead-packed microcolumn coupled to ICP-MS is described, and used for simultaneous analyses of cadmium and lead. In dilute nitric acid (0.5%, v/v), neutral complexes between the analytes and chela......An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for trace metals by using a PTFE bead-packed microcolumn coupled to ICP-MS is described, and used for simultaneous analyses of cadmium and lead. In dilute nitric acid (0.5%, v/v), neutral complexes between the analytes...... and chelating reagent, diethyldithiophosphate (DDPA), are formed and adsorbed onto the surface of the PTFE beads. The adsorbed complexes are afterwards eluted with 20% nitric acid and the leading part of the eluate (40 mul) is stored in a sample loop (SL), the contents of which are subsequently transported, via...

  14. Geminal 2J(29Si-O-29Si) Couplings in Oligosiloxanes and Their Relation to Direct 1J(29Si-13C) Couplings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurfürst, Milan; Blechta, Vratislav; Schraml, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 8 (2011), s. 492-501 ISSN 0749-1581 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/08/P412; GA AV ČR IAA400720706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : 29Si NMR * 13C NMR * 29Si couplings Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.437, year: 2011

  15. Control of a Two-Stage Direct Power Converter with a Single Voltage Sensor Mounted in the Intermediary Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Wheeler, P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Controlling a converter requires not only a powerful processors but also accurate voltage and current sensors and fast and precise analogue-digital converters, which increase the cost per kW of the assembly, especially in the low power range. A matrix converter requires less transducers than a back......-wave out operation while using a single voltage sensor mounted in the intermediary link between the rectification and the inversion stages and the information of the sign of the input line-to-line voltages, which is needed anyway for the safe-commutation of the rectification stage....

  16. Direct Contact - Sorptive Tape Extraction coupled with Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to reveal volatile topographical dynamics of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) upon herbivory by Spodoptera littoralis Boisd

    OpenAIRE

    Boggia, Lorenzo; Sgorbini, Barbara; Bertea, Cinzia M; Cagliero, Cecilia; Bicchi, Carlo; Maffei, Massimo E; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of plant volatile (PV) emission, and the relationship between damaged area and biosynthesis of bioactive molecules in plant-insect interactions, remain open questions. Direct Contact-Sorptive Tape Extraction (DC-STE) is a sorption sampling technique employing non adhesive polydimethylsiloxane tapes, which are placed in direct contact with a biologically-active surface. DC-STE coupled to Gas Chromatography ? Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a non-destructive, high concentra...

  17. Direct Observation of Early-Stage High-Dose Radiotherapy-Induced Vascular Injury via Basement Membrane-Targeting Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kin Man; Hyder, Sayed Nabeel; Wagner, Kyle; Shi, Caihong; Kim, Young Seok; Caster, Joseph M; Tian, Xi; Min, Yuanzeng; Wang, Andrew Z

    2015-12-22

    Collagen IV-targeting peptide-conjugated basement membrane-targeting nanoparticles are successfully engineered to identify early-stage blood vessel injury induced by high-dose radiotherapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Direct surface analysis coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals heterogeneous composition of the cuticle of Hibiscus trionum petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorio, Chiara; Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J; Skelton, Paul C; Kalberer, Markus

    2015-10-06

    Plant cuticle, which is the outermost layer covering the aerial parts of all plants including petals and leaves, can present a wide range of patterns that, combined with cell shape, can generate unique physical, mechanical, or optical properties. For example, arrays of regularly spaced nanoridges have been found on the dark (anthocyanin-rich) portion at the base of the petals of Hibiscus trionum. Those ridges act as a diffraction grating, producing an iridescent effect. Because the surface of the distal white region of the petals is smooth and noniridescent, a selective chemical characterization of the surface of the petals on different portions (i.e., ridged vs smooth) is needed to understand whether distinct cuticular patterns correlate with distinct chemical compositions of the cuticle. In the present study, a rapid screening method has been developed for the direct surface analysis of Hibiscus trionum petals using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The optimized method was used to characterize a wide range of plant metabolites and cuticle monomers on the upper (adaxial) surface of the petals on both the white/smooth and anthocyanic/ridged regions, and on the lower (abaxial) surface, which is entirely smooth. The main components detected on the surface of the petals are low-molecular-weight organic acids, sugars, and flavonoids. The ridged portion on the upper surface of the petal is enriched in long-chain fatty acids, which are constituents of the wax fraction of the cuticle. These compounds were not detected on the white/smooth region of the upper petal surface or on the smooth lower surface.

  19. Transverse electron polarization in the neutron decay - Direct search for scalar and tensor couplings in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, Kazimierz

    2012-09-01

    The Standard Model (SM) predictions of T-violation for weak decays of systems built up of u and d quarks are by 7 to 10 orders of magnitude lower than the experimental accuracies attainable at present. It is a general presumption that time reversal phenomena are caused by a tiny admixture of exotic interaction terms. Therefore, weak decays provide a favorable testing ground in a search for such feeble forces. Physics with very slow, polarized neutrons has a great potential in this respect. An experiment seeking for small deviations from the SM in two observables, N and R, that are for the first time addressed experimentally in free neutron decay and that are exclusively sensitive to real and imaginary parts of the same linear combination of the scalar and tensor interaction coupling constants has been completed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The analysis of the experimental data has been completed recently leading to, among others, the best direct constraint for the imaginary part of the R-parity violating MSSM contribution. The success of the applied technique results in a new project devoted to the simultaneous measurement of seven correlation coefficients: H, L, N, R, S, U and V. Five of them (H, L, S, U and V) have never before been measured in weak decays. Such a systematic exploration of the transverse electron polarization will generate from the neutron decay alone a complete set of constraints for the real and imaginary parts of the weak scalar and tensor interactions on the level of 5 × 10-4 or better.

  20. Direct analysis of formate in human plasma, serum and whole blood by in-line coupling of microdialysis to capillary electrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáň, P. (Pavel); Boček, P. (Petr)

    2013-01-01

    A microdialytic device was in-line coupled to capillary electrophoresis for direct injection of blood samples. Its performance was demonstrated on rapid analysis of formic acid in various blood samples including serum samples of a patient diagnosed with acute methanol poisoning.

  1. A novel, fast and efficient single-sensor automatic sleep-stage classification based on complementary cross-frequency coupling estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Salis, Christos; Linden, David

    2018-04-01

    Limitations of the manual scoring of polysomnograms, which include data from electroencephalogram (EEG), electro-oculogram (EOG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG) channels have long been recognized. Manual staging is resource intensive and time consuming, and thus considerable effort must be spent to ensure inter-rater reliability. As a result, there is a great interest in techniques based on signal processing and machine learning for a completely Automatic Sleep Stage Classification (ASSC). In this paper, we present a single-EEG-sensor ASSC technique based on the dynamic reconfiguration of different aspects of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) estimated between predefined frequency pairs over 5 s epoch lengths. The proposed analytic scheme is demonstrated using the PhysioNet Sleep European Data Format (EDF) Database with repeat recordings from 20 healthy young adults. We validate our methodology in a second sleep dataset. We achieved very high classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 96.2 ± 2.2%, 94.2 ± 2.3%, and 94.4 ± 2.2% across 20 folds, respectively, and also a high mean F1 score (92%, range 90-94%) when a multi-class Naive Bayes classifier was applied. High classification performance has been achieved also in the second sleep dataset. Our method outperformed the accuracy of previous studies not only on different datasets but also on the same database. Single-sensor ASSC makes the entire methodology appropriate for longitudinal monitoring using wearable EEG in real-world and laboratory-oriented environments. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. FI/SI on-line solvent extraction/back extraction preconcentration coupled to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of copper and lead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for determination of trace levels of copper and lead via solvent extraction/back extraction coupled to ICP-MS is described. In citrate buffer of pH 3, neutral complexes between the analytes and the chelating reagent, ammonium...... acid containing Pd(II) ions as stripping agent, thereby facilitating a rapid metal exchange reaction with the APDC ligand and transfer of the analytes back into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated in a second dual-conical gravitational phase separator, and 30 mul is entrapped in a sample...

  3. Modulation method for a multiple drive system based on a two-stage direct power conversion topology with reduced input current ripple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    A new two-stage multi-drive direct power conversion (DPC) topology suited for multi-drive application is proposed, having an input port for a three-phase power supply and several output ports to connect three-phase loads, which are independently controlled and allow for sine wave in-sine wave out...... operation. This is a cost effective topology compared to a standard matrix converter because the multiple three-phase loads share the cost of the controlled rectification stage. A new method to reduce the high frequency ripple from the input current is also proposed based on interleaving the switching...... patterns of the inversion stages, which have to form two groups, allowing for size reduction of the input current filter. This is validated by experiments on a realistic laboratory prototype, while its limitations are determined by simulations....

  4. Direct observation of the growth of voids in multifilamentary superconducting materials via hot stage scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.L.F.; Holthuis, J.T.; Pickus, M.R.; Lindberg, R.W.

    1978-11-01

    The need for large high field magnetic devices has focused attention on multifilamentary superconductors based on A15 compounds such as Nb 3 Sn. The commercial bronze process for fabricating multifilamentary superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires was developed. A major problem is strain sensitivity when long reaction times are employed. An improved hot stage for the scanning electron microscope was constructed to study the formation of the A15 phase by solid state diffusion. The nucleation and growth of voids near the interface of the A15 phase (Nb 3 Sn) and matrix were observed, monitored, and recorded on video tape. Successive layers of material heated in the hot stage were subsequently removed and the new surfaces were re-examined, using SEM-EDX and optical microscopy, to confirm the fact that the observed porosity was indeed a bulk rather than a surface phenomenon. These voids are considered to be a primary cause for degrading the mechanical, thermal and superconducting properties

  5. Direct impact of the sustained decline in the photosystem II efficiency upon plant productivity at different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yonglan; Ungerer, Petra; Zhang, Huayong; Ruban, Alexander V

    2017-05-01

    The impact of chronic photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) on the productivity of plants remains unknown. The present study investigated the influences of persistent decline in the PSII yield on morphology and productivity of Arabidopsis plants that were exposed to lincomycin at two different developmental stages (seedling and rosette stage). The results indicated that, although retarded, the lincomycin treated plants were able to accomplish the entire growth period with only 50% of the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm) of the control plants. The decline in quantum yield limited the electron transport rate (ETR). The impact of lincomycin on NPQ was not significant in seedlings, but was pronounced in mature plants. The treated plants produced an above ground biomass of 50% compared to control plants. Moreover, a linear relationship was found between the above ground biomass and total rosette leaf area, and the slope was decreased due to photoinhibition. The starch accumulation was highly inhibited by lincomycin treatment. Lincomycin induced a significant decrease in seed yield with plants treated from the rosette state showing higher yield than those treated from the seedling stage. Our data suggest that the sustained decline of PSII efficiency decreases plant productivity by constraining the ETR, leaf development and starch production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-analysis determination of tropane alkaloids in cereals and solanaceaes seeds by liquid chromatography coupled to single stage Exactive-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2017-10-06

    Tropane alkaloids are a wide group of substances that comprises more than 200 compounds occurring especially in the Solanaceae family. The main aim of this study is the development of a method for the analysis of the principal tropane alkaloids as atropine, scopolamine, anisodamine, tropane, tropine, littorine, homatropine, apoatropine, aposcopolamine, scopoline, tropinone, physoperuvine, pseudotropine and cuscohygrine in cereals and related matrices. For that, a simple solid-liquid extraction was optimized and a liquid chromatographic method coupled to a single stage Exactive-Orbitrap was developed. The method was validated obtaining recoveries in the range of 60-109% (except for some compounds in soy), precision values (expressed as relative standard deviation) lower than 20% and detection and quantification limits equal to or lower than 2 and 3μg/kg respectively. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of different types of samples as buckwheat, linseed, soy and millet, obtaining positives for anisodamine, scopolamine, atropine, littorine and tropinone in a millet flour sample above the quantification limits, whereas atropine and scopolamine were detected in a buckwheat sample, below the quantification limit. Contaminated samples with Solanaceaes seeds (Datura Stramonium and Brugmansia Arborea) were also analysed, detecting concentrations up to 693μg/kg (scopolamine) for contaminated samples with Brugmansia seeds and 1847μg/kg (atropine) when samples were contaminated with Stramonium seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Improves Gait Ability in a Patient in Chronic Stage of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Satow, Takeshi; Kawase, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Atsushi; Kajitani, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Tanabe, Nobuhiko; Otoi, Reiko; Komuro, Taro; Kobayashi, Akira; Nagata, Hirokazu; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Walking ability is important in stroke patients to maintain daily life. Nevertheless, its improvement is limited with conventional physical therapy in chronic stage. We report the case of a chronic stroke patient showing a remarkable improvement in gait function after a new neurorehabilitation protocol using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Case Presentation: A 62-year-old male with left putaminal hemorrhage suffered f...

  8. Phase-field simulation of peritectic solidification closely coupled with directional solidification experiments in an Al-36 wt% Ni alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siquieri, R; Doernberg, E; Emmerich, H; Schmid-Fetzer, R

    2009-11-18

    In this work we present experimental and theoretical investigations of the directional solidification of Al-36 wt% Ni alloy. A phase-field approach (Folch and Plapp 2005 Phys. Rev. E 72 011602) is coupled with the CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method to be able to simulate directional solidification of Al-Ni alloy including the peritectic phase Al(3)Ni. The model approach is calibrated by systematic comparison to microstructures grown under controlled conditions in directional solidification experiments. To illustrate the efficiency of the model it is employed to investigate the effect of temperature gradient on the microstructure evolution of Al-36 wt% Ni during solidification.

  9. A pilot, multisite, randomized controlled trial of a self-directed coping skills training intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: accrual, retention, and data collection issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sylvie D; McElduff, Patrick; Girgis, Afaf; Levesque, Janelle V; Regan, Tim W; Turner, Jane; Candler, Hayley; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy T F; Kayser, Karen; Chong, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To examine the acceptability of the methods used to evaluate Coping-Together, one of the first self-directed coping skill intervention for couples facing cancer, and to collect preliminary efficacy data. Forty-two couples, randomized to a minimal ethical care (MEC) condition or to Coping-Together, completed a survey at baseline and 2 months after, a cost diary, and a process evaluation phone interview. One hundred seventy patients were referred to the study. However, 57 couples did not meet all eligibility criteria, and 51 refused study participation. On average, two to three couples were randomized per month, and on average it took 26 days to enrol a couple in the study. Two couples withdrew from MEC, none from Coping-Together. Only 44 % of the cost diaries were completed, and 55 % of patients and 60 % of partners found the surveys too long, and this despite the follow-up survey being five pages shorter than the baseline one. Trends in favor of Coping-Together were noted for both patients and their partners. This study identified the challenges of conducting dyadic research, and a number of suggestions were put forward for future studies, including to question whether distress screening was necessary and what kind of control group might be more appropriate in future studies.

  10. Neurovascular coupling protects neurons against hypoxic injury via inhibition of potassium currents by generation of nitric oxide in direct neuron and endothelium cocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Wei; Kou, Zeng-Wei; Mo, Jia-Lin; Deng, Xu-Xu; Sun, Feng-Yan

    2016-10-15

    This study examined the effect of neuron-endothelial coupling on the survival of neurons after ischemia and the possible mechanism underlying that effect. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed on cortical neurons cultured alone or directly cocultured with brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Propidium iodide (PI) and NeuN staining were performed to examine neuronal death following oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). We found that the neuronal transient outward potassium currents (I A ) decreased in the coculture system, whereas the outward delayed-rectifier potassium currents (I K ) did not. Sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, enhanced BMEC-induced I A inhibition and nitro-l-arginine methylester, a NOS inhibitor, partially prevented this inhibition. Moreover, the neurons directly cocultured with BMEC showed more resistance to OGD-induced injury compared with the neurons cultured alone, and that neuroprotective effect was abolished by treatment with NS5806, an activator of the I A . These results indicate that vascular endothelial cells assist neurons to prevent hypoxic injury via inhibiting neuronal I A by production of NO in the direct neuron-BMEC coculture system. These results further provide direct evidence of functional coupling between neurons and vascular endothelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that vascular endothelial cells play beneficial roles in the pathophysiological processes of neurons after hypoxic injury, suggesting that the improvement of neurovascular coupling or functional remodeling may become an important therapeutic target for preventing brain injury. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spin valve heterostructures built using the shadowing effect: Setting NiFe and Co magnetization directions for non-collinear couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohling, A. C.; Bueno, T. E. P.; Nascimento, V. P.; Larica, C.; Krambrock, K.; Menzel, D.; Litterst, F. J.; Passamani, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    An experimental method was developed to set the magnetization direction in ferromagnetic layers of Si(100)/Cu/NiFe/Cu/Co/IrMn/Cu morphologically modified spin valves. Large uniaxial anisotropies emerged in the NiFe and Co layers due to modifications of their morphologies induced by the shadowing effect that arises from oblique depositions. Therefore, we set the uniaxial anisotropy axes in pre-set directions by controlling the sputtered beam direction relative to the sample reference. We were able to tune the angle between the magnetization directions of the NiFe and Co layers in a continuous interval from 0° to 90° due to the interplay between the Co and NiFe uniaxial anisotropies and the unidirectional anisotropy at the Co/IrMn interface. This type of non-collinear coupling cannot be found in conventional spin valve devices with passive spacers through which the coupling is governed by bilinear and biquadratic couplings. The methodology of preparation proposed here allows an extra control over the magnetism of the spin valves, which can be promising for technological applications.

  12. Effect of capacitive feedback on the characteristics of direct current superconducting quantum interference device coupled to a multiturn input coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minotani, T.; Enpuku, K.; Kuroki, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Distortion of voltage versus flux (V endash Φ) relation of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) coupled to a multiturn input coil is studied. First, resonant behavior of the coupled SQUID due to the so-called input coil resonance is clarified. It is shown that large rf noise flux is produced by the input coil resonance. This rf flux is added to the SQUID, and results in large rf voltage across the SQUID. In the case where parasitic capacitance exists between the input coil and the ground of the SQUID, this rf voltage produces the rf flux again, i.e., a feedback loop for the rf flux is formed. Taking into account this capacitive feedback, we study the V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. Numerical simulation shows that the V endash Φ relation is distorted considerably by the feedback mechanism. The simulation result explains well the experimental V endash Φ relation of the coupled SQUID. The combination of the input coil resonance with the capacitive feedback is the most likely mechanism for the distorted V endash Φ curve of the coupled SQUID. The condition for occurrence of the distorted V endash Φ curve due to the capacitive feedback is also obtained, and methods to prevent degradation are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Muilwijk (Bas); S. Verheij (Simone); J.J.M. Pel (Johan); A.J.W. Boon (Andrea); J. van der Steen (Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to

  14. Experimental investigation of a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zheng, Hongfei; Ma, Xinglong; Kutlu, Cagri; Su, Yuehong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar desalination system heated directly by curved Fresnel lens concentrator. • Desalination system is based on the humidification-dehumidification process. • Four-stage multi-effect desalination system is proposed. • Condensation latent heat and residual heat in the brine are recycled and reutilized. • The maximum yield and GOR of the unit can reach 3.4 kg/h and 2.1, respectively. - Abstract: This study demonstrates a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator. In this novel system, the solar radiation is sent directly into desalination unit. That is to say, the solar receiver and the evaporator of the system are a whole in which the black fillers in seawater directly absorb the concentrated solar lights to heat the seawater film to produce the evaporation. The configuration and working processes of the proposed design are described in detail. In order to analyze its performance, a small solar desalination prototype unit incorporated with a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator was designed and built in our laboratory. Using three-stage isothermal tandem heating mode, the variation of the fresh water yield rate and the absorber temperature with time were measured experimentally and were compared with theoretical calculations. The experimental results show that the maximum yield of the unit is about 3.4 kg/h, the maximum gained output ratio (GOR) is about 2.1, when the average intensity of solar radiation is about 867 W/m 2 . This study indicates that the proposed system has the characteristics of compact structure and GOR high. It still can be improved when the design and operation are optimized further.

  15. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muilwijk, Bas; Verheij, Simone; Pel, Johan; Boon, Andrea; Steen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson's disease (PD) affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity.Methods: We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to qu...

  16. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muilwijk, Danya; Verheij, Simone; Pel, Johan JM; Boon, Agnita JW; van der Steen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity. Methods We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to quanti...

  17. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  18. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Fishman, Randy S; Kézsmáki, István

    2016-01-01

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO 3 , its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a first-principles approach, we uncover all possible ME couplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO 3 . First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of the ME couplings. We find that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamic ME effects in BiFeO 3 . A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic ME couplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hidden ME couplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting optical ME effects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes. (paper)

  19. A care pathway analysis of tuberculosis patients in benin: Highlights on direct costs and critical stages for an evidence-based decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Laokri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Free tuberculosis control fail to protect patients from substantial medical and non-medical expenditure, thus a greater degree of disaggregation of patient cost is needed to fully capture their context and inform policymaking. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of six health districts of Southern Benin. From August 2008 to February 2009, we recruited all smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated under the national strategy in the selected districts. Direct out-of-pocket costs associated with tuberculosis, time delays, and care-seeking pattern were collected from symptom onset to end of treatment. RESULTS: Population description and outcome data were reported for 245 patients of whom 153 completed their care pathway. For them, the median overall direct cost was USD 183 per patient. Payments to traditional healers, self-medication drugs, travel, and food expenditures contributed largely to this cost burden. Patient, provider, and treatment delays were also reported. Pre-diagnosis and intensive treatment stages were the most critical stages, with median expenditure of USD 43 per patient and accounting for 38% and 29% of the overall direct cost, respectively. However, financial barriers differed depending on whether the patient lived in urban or rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: This study delivers new evidence about bottlenecks encountered during the TB care pathway. Financial barriers to accessing the free-of-charge tuberculosis control strategy in Benin remain substantial for low-income households. Irregular time delays and hidden costs, often generated by multiple visits to various care providers, impair appropriate patient pathways. Particular attention should be paid to pre-diagnosis and intensive treatment. Cost assessment and combined targeted interventions embodied by a patient-centered approach on the specific critical stages would likely deliver better program outcomes.

  20. Development of seismic isolation system in vertical direction. Coupled response analysis of reactor building and common deck isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki

    1997-04-01

    Study was made on the effect of dynamic interaction between reactor building and common deck isolation structure. Dynamic response analyses were made with a coupled and a decoupled model of the reactor building and the isolation structure. The effect of the dynamic interaction was evaluated by comparing these analysis results. The results of the study can be summarized as below; (1) Dynamic coupling effect between reactor building and the common deck isolation structure is not significant. This can be attributed to the fact that the isolation frequency is sufficiently lower than the fundamental frequency of the soil-structure system. (2) The decoupled analysis model was found to give response results with practically sufficient accuracy and slight conservatism. (3) The effect of the response of common deck isolation structure on the response of the reactor building is also negligible. (author)

  1. Device for the acquisition and visualization in real time of the velocity and direction of wind in a radiological post stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledo P, L.M.; Guibert G, R.; Dominguez L, O.; Alonso A, D.; Ramos V, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    The work shows the development, construction and post stage of a device dedicated to the acquisition and transmission in real time of the information on the behavior of the meteorological variables: velocity and wind direction. It is introduced for the first time in an observation position the automatic monitoring, in real time, using the tools that it offers the digitalisation of the information and the computation. The obtained data are registered in a PC, its are visualized appropriately and can be objects of later analysis. It was developed the application program Autoclima for such purpose. (Author)

  2. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Naiwen; Liu, Xiangwei; Cai, Yanhui; Zhang, Sijia; Jian, Bo; Zhou, Yuchao; Xu, Xiaoru; Ren, Shuai; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2017-01-01

    High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO). A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg), and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points) of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months, although this difference disappeared by 6 months. DLMS implants showed a higher bone-implant contact percentage (33.2%±11.2%) at 3 months compared with MAO group (18.9%±7.3%) while similar results were showed at 6 months between DLMS group (42.8%±10.1%) and MAO group (38.3%±10.8%). The three-dimensional environment of implant surfaces with highly porous and fully interconnected channel and pore architectures can improve cell spreading and accelerate the progress of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

  3. Experimentally achieving borehole antenna radar directivity in the time domain in the presence of strong mutual coupling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available published borehole radar antennas have achieved directivity by post processing data received in the frequency domain, or by constructing an aperture antenna, where borehole dimensions allowed this. In this paper, a time-domain technique is investigated...

  4. Compensation of Cross-Coupling Stiffness and Increase of Direct Damping in Multirecess Journal Bearings using Active Hybrid Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Watanabe, F.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid film forces are generated in hydrostatic journal bearings by two types of lubrication mechanisms: the hydrostatic lubrication in the bearing recesses and hydrodynamic lubrication in the bearing lands, when operating in rotation. The combination of both lubrication mechanisms leads to hybrid...... journal bearings (HJB). When part of hydrostatic pressure is also dynamically modified by means of hydraulic control systems, one refers to the active lubrication. The main contribution of the present theoretical work is to show that it is possible to reduce cross-coupling stiffness and increase...

  5. SOX9 governs differentiation stage-specific gene expression in growth plate chondrocytes via direct concomitant transactivation and repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Y L Leung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage and endochondral bone development require SOX9 activity to regulate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation, and transition to a non-mitotic hypertrophic state. The restricted and reciprocal expression of the collagen X gene, Col10a1, in hypertrophic chondrocytes and Sox9 in immature chondrocytes epitomise the precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression as chondrocytes progress through phases of differentiation, but how this is achieved is not clear. Here, we have identified a regulatory element upstream of Col10a1 that enhances its expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vivo. In immature chondrocytes, where Col10a1 is not expressed, SOX9 interacts with a conserved sequence within this element that is analogous to that within the intronic enhancer of the collagen II gene Col2a1, the known transactivation target of SOX9. By analysing a series of Col10a1 reporter genes in transgenic mice, we show that the SOX9 binding consensus in this element is required to repress expression of the transgene in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. Forced ectopic Sox9 expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes in vitro and in mice resulted in down-regulation of Col10a1. Mutation of a binding consensus motif for GLI transcription factors, which are the effectors of Indian hedgehog signaling, close to the SOX9 site in the Col10a1 regulatory element, also derepressed transgene expression in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes. GLI2 and GLI3 bound to the Col10a1 regulatory element but not to the enhancer of Col2a1. In addition to Col10a1, paired SOX9-GLI binding motifs are present in the conserved non-coding regions of several genes that are preferentially expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes and the occurrence of pairing is unlikely to be by chance. We propose a regulatory paradigm whereby direct concomitant positive and negative transcriptional control by SOX9 ensures differentiation phase-specific gene expression in chondrocytes. Discrimination between

  6. Coupled transfers; Transferts couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, X.; Lauriat, G.; Jimenez-Rondan, J. [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (LETEM), 77 (France); Bouali, H.; Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, IUSTI UMR 6595, 13 Marseille (France); Stoian, M.; Rebay, M.; Lachi, M.; Padet, J. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Thermomecanique, UTAP, 51 - Reims (France); Mladin, E.C. [Universitaire Polytechnique Bucarest, Faculte de Genie Mecanique, Bucarest (Romania); Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Dept. de Physique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C.; Papini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI, 13 - Marseille (France); Lorrette, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Boechat, C.; Pailler, R. [Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux, UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Ben Salah, M.; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. d' Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetiques (Tunisia); Grine, A.; Desmons, J.Y.; Harmand, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Radenac, E.; Gressier, J.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France); Giovannini, A. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about coupled transfers gathers 30 articles dealing with: numerical study of coupled heat transfers inside an alveolar wall; natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a plugged and ventilated chimney; finite-volume modeling of the convection-conduction coupling in non-stationary regime; numerical study of the natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a partitioned cavity; modeling of the thermal conductivity of textile reinforced composites: finite element homogenization on a full periodical pattern; application of the control volume method based on non-structured finite elements to the problems of axisymmetrical radiant heat transfers in any geometries; modeling of convective transfers in transient regime on a flat plate; a conservative method for the non-stationary coupling of aero-thermal engineering codes; measurement of coupled heat transfers (forced convection/radiant transfer) inside an horizontal duct; numerical simulation of the combustion of a water-oil emulsion droplet; numerical simulation study of heat and mass transfers inside a reactor for nano-powders synthesis; reduction of a combustion and heat transfer model of a direct injection diesel engine; modeling of heat transfers inside a knocking operated spark ignition engine; heat loss inside an internal combustion engine, thermodynamical and flamelet model, composition effects of CH{sub 4}H{sub 2} mixtures; experimental study and modeling of the evolution of a flame on a solid fuel; heat transfer for laminar subsonic jet of oxygen plasma impacting an obstacle; hydrogen transport through a A-Si:H layer submitted to an hydrogen plasma: temperature effects; thermal modeling of the CO{sub 2} laser welding of a magnesium alloy; radiant heat transfer inside a 3-D environment: application of the finite volume method in association with the CK model; optimization of the infrared baking of two types of powder paints; optimization of the emission power of an infrared

  7. Phase Transition of a Dynamical System with a Bi-Directional, Instantaneous Coupling to a Virtual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintautas, Vadas; Hubler, Alfred

    2006-03-01

    As worldwide computer resources increase in power and decrease in cost, real-time simulations of physical systems are becoming increasingly prevalent, from laboratory models to stock market projections and entire ``virtual worlds'' in computer games. Often, these systems are meticulously designed to match real-world systems as closely as possible. We study the limiting behavior of a virtual horizontally driven pendulum coupled to its real-world counterpart, where the interaction occurs on a time scale that is much shorter than the time scale of the dynamical system. We find that if the physical parameters of the virtual system match those of the real system within a certain tolerance, there is a qualitative change in the behavior of the two-pendulum system as the strength of the coupling is increased. Applications include a new method to measure the physical parameters of a real system and the use of resonance spectroscopy to refine a computer model. As virtual systems better approximate real ones, even very weak interactions may produce unexpected and dramatic behavior. The research is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. NSF PHY 01-40179, NSF DMS 03-25939 ITR, and NSF DGE 03-38215.

  8. Numerical and analytical modeling of the end-loaded split (ELS) test specimens made of multi-directional coupled composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborski, Sylwester; Valvo, Paolo S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with the numerical and analytical modelling of the end-loaded split test for multi-directional laminates affected by the typical elastic couplings. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional finite element models was performed with the Abaqus software exploiting the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The results show possible asymmetries in the widthwise deflections of the specimen, as well as in the strain energy release rate (SERR) distributions along the delamination front. Analytical modelling based on a beam-theory approach was also conducted in simpler cases, where only bending-extension coupling is present, but no out-of-plane effects. The analytical results matched the numerical ones, thus demonstrating that the analytical models are feasible for test design and experimental data reduction.

  9. Development of a simple extraction cell with bi-directional continuous flow coupled on-line to ICP-MS for assessment of elemental associations in solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Tiptanasup, Kasipa; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-01-01

    A continuous-flow system comprising a novel, custom-built extraction module and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection is proposed for assessing metal mobilities and geochemical associations in soil compartments as based on using the three step BCR (now...... the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission) sequential extraction scheme. Employing a peristaltic pump as liquid driver, alternate directional flows of the extractants are used to overcome compression of the solid particles within the extraction unit to ensure a steady partitioning flow rate...... and thus to maintain constant operationally defined extraction conditions. The proposed flow set-up is proven to allow for trouble-free handling of soil samples up to 1 g and flow rates ≤ 10 mL min–1. The miniaturized extraction system was coupled to ICP-MS through a flow injection interface in order...

  10. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Kézsmáki, István; Fishman, Randy S.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a first-principles approach, we uncover all possible ME couplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of the ME couplings. We find that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamic ME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic ME couplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hidden ME couplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting optical ME effects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes. This manuscript has been written by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan.

  11. A Class Coupling Analyzer for Java Programs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    corrective change, then we can minimize coupling during design because we know that in doing so we are also increasing maintainability [4] [11]. Internal structure attributes characterize software products used or produced in the early stages of software development. Moreover, these attributes can be measured directly.

  12. A Preliminary Direct Measurement of the Parity-Violating Coupling of the Z{sup 0} to Strange Quarks, A{sub s}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, David

    1999-07-09

    We present an updated direct measurement of the parity-violating coupling of the Z{sup 0} to strange quarks, A{sub s}, derived from the full SLD data sample of approximately 550,000 hadronic decays of Z{sup 0} bosons produced with a polarized electron beam and recorded by the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1993 and 1998. Z{sup 0} {r_arrow} s{bar s} events are tagged by the presence in each event hemisphere of a high-momentum K{sup {+-}}, K{sub s} or {Lambda}{sup 0}/{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0} identified using the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector and/or a mass tag. The CCD vertex detector is used to suppress the background from heavy-flavor events. The strangeness of the tagged particle is used to sign the event thrust axis in the direction of the initial s quark. The coupling A{sub s} is obtained directly from a measurement of the left-right-forward-backward production asymmetry in polar angle of the tagged s quark. The background from u{bar u} and d{bar d} events is measured from the data, as is the analyzing power of the method for s{bar s} events. We measure: A{sub s} = 0.85 {+-} 0.06(stat.) {+-} 0.07(syst.)(preliminary).

  13. The path to clean energy: direct coupling of nuclear and renewable technologies for thermal and electrical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Nuclear Fuel Performance and Design; Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Process and Decision Systems; Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can significantly reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both clean energy generation sources and hydrocarbon resources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean nuclear and renewable energy generation sources. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing energy (thermal or electrical) where it is needed, when it is needed. For the purposes of this work, the hybrid system would integrate two or more energy resources to generate two or more products, one of which must be an energy commodity, such as electricity or transportation fuel. This definition requires coupling of subsystems ‘‘behind’’ the electrical transmission bus, where energy flows are dynamically apportioned as necessary to meet demand and the system has a single connection to the grid that provides dispatchable electricity as required while capital intensive generation assets operate at full capacity. Development of integrated energy systems for an “energy park” must carefully consider the intended location and the associated regional resources, traditional industrial processes, energy delivery infrastructure, and markets to identify viable region-specific system configurations. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of regional hybrid energy system design, development and application of dynamic analysis tools to assess technical and economic performance, and

  14. An ocean–ice coupled response during the last glacial: a view from a marine isotopic stage 3 record south of the Faeroe Shetland Gateway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zumaque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid climatic variability characterising the Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS 3 (~60–30 cal ka BP provides key issues to understand the atmosphere–ocean–cryosphere dynamics. Here we investigate the response of sea-surface paleoenvironments to the MIS3 climatic variability through the study of a high resolution oceanic sedimentological archive (core MD99-2281, 60°21' N; 09°27' W; 1197 m water depth, retrieved during the MD114-IMAGES (International Marine Global Change Study cruise from the southern part of the Faeroe Bank. This sector was under the proximal influence of European ice sheets (Fennoscandian Ice Sheet to the East, British Irish Ice Sheet to the South during the last glacial and thus probably responded to the MIS3 pulsed climatic changes.

    We conducted a multi-proxy analysis of core MD99-2281, including magnetic properties, x-ray fluorescence measurements, characterisation of the coarse (>150 μm lithic fraction (grain concentration and the analysis of selected biogenic proxies (assemblages and stable isotope ratio of calcareous planktonic foraminifera, dinoflagellate cyst – e.g. dinocyst – assemblages. Results presented here are focussed on the dinocyst response, this proxy providing the reconstruction of past sea-surface hydrological conditions, qualitatively as well as quantitatively (e.g. transfer function sensu lato. Our study documents a very coherent and sensitive oceanic response to the MIS3 rapid climatic variability: strong fluctuations, matching those of stadial/interstadial climatic oscillations as depicted by Greenland ice cores, are recorded in the MD99-2281 archive. Proxies of terrigeneous and detritical material suggest increases in continental advection during Greenland Stadials (including Heinrich events, the latter corresponding also to southward migrations of polar waters. At the opposite, milder sea-surface conditions seem to develop during Greenland Interstadials. After 30 ka

  15. Localization of Fatty Acyl and Double Bond Positions in Phosphatidylcholines Using a Dual Stage CID Fragmentation Coupled with Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Perez, J.; Roddy, T.P.; Nibbering, N.M.M.; Shah, V.; McLaren, D.G.; Previs, S.; Attygalle, A.B.; Herath, K.; Chen, Z.; Wang, S.P.; Mitnaul, L.; Hubbard, B.K.; Vreeken, R.J.; Johns, D.G.; Hankemeier, Th.

    2011-01-01

    A high content molecular fragmentation for the analysis of phosphatidylcholines (PC) was achieved utilizing a two-stage [trap (first generation fragmentation) and transfer (second generation fragmentation)] collision-induced dissociation (CID) in combination with travelling-wave ion mobility

  16. Directly connected series coupled HTPEM fuel cell stacks to a Li-ion battery DC bus for a fuel cell electrical vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Remón, Ian Natanael

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper examines the use of pure hydrogen fuelled high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stacks in an electrical car, charging a Li-ion battery pack. The car is equipped with two branches of two series coupled 1 kW fuel cell stacks which...... are connected directly parallel to the battery pack during operation. This enables efficient charging of the batteries for increased driving range. With no power electronics used, the fuel cell stacks follow the battery pack voltage, and charge the batteries passively. This saves the electrical and economical...... losses related to these components and their added system complexity. The new car battery pack consists of 23 Li-ion battery cells and the charging and discharging are monitored by a battery management system (BMS) which ensures safe operating conditions for the batteries. The direct connection...

  17. Combination of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Improves Gait Ability in a Patient in Chronic Stage of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satow, Takeshi; Kawase, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Atsushi; Kajitani, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Tanabe, Nobuhiko; Otoi, Reiko; Komuro, Taro; Kobayashi, Akira; Nagata, Hirokazu; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Walking ability is important in stroke patients to maintain daily life. Nevertheless, its improvement is limited with conventional physical therapy in chronic stage. We report the case of a chronic stroke patient showing a remarkable improvement in gait function after a new neurorehabilitation protocol using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). A 62-year-old male with left putaminal hemorrhage suffered from severe right hemiparesis. He could move by himself with a wheelchair 1 year after the ictus. Anodal tDCS at the vertex (2 mA, 20 min) with NMES at the anterior tibialis muscle had been applied for 3 weeks. The Timed Up and Go test and 10-meter walk test improved after the intervention, which had been maintained for at least 1 month. This single case suggests the possibility that tDCS with NMES could be a new rehabilitation approach to improve the gait ability in chronic stroke patients.

  18. Paroxetine Is a Direct Inhibitor of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Increases Myocardial Contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thal, David M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Homan, Kristoff T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chen, Jun [Univ. of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wu, Emily K. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hinkle, Patricia M. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Huang, Z. Maggie [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chuprun, J. Kurt [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Song, Jianliang [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Gao, Erhe [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Cheung, Joseph Y. [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sklar, Larry A. [Univ. of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koch, Walter J. [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Tesmer, John J.G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-08-10

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a well-established therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure. In this paper we identify the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine as a selective inhibitor of GRK2 activity both in vitro and in living cells. In the crystal structure of the GRK2·paroxetine–Gβγ complex, paroxetine binds in the active site of GRK2 and stabilizes the kinase domain in a novel conformation in which a unique regulatory loop forms part of the ligand binding site. Isolated cardiomyocytes show increased isoproterenol-induced shortening and contraction amplitude in the presence of paroxetine, and pretreatment of mice with paroxetine before isoproterenol significantly increases left ventricular inotropic reserve in vivo with no significant effect on heart rate. Neither is observed in the presence of the SSRI fluoxetine. Our structural and functional results validate a widely available drug as a selective chemical probe for GRK2 and represent a starting point for the rational design of more potent and specific GRK2 inhibitors.

  19. Hydrothermal–galvanic couple synthesis of directionally oriented BaTiO3 thin films on TiN-coated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Di-You; Chan, Pei-Hsuan; Wu, Chu-Tsun; Lu, Fu-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    BaTiO 3 films were synthesized on TiN-coated Si substrate below 100 °C by a hydrothermal–galvanic couple technique in barium contained alkaline solutions. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction results show that the BaTiO 3 thin films were directionally oriented grown on the TiN/Si substrates, i.e., (111) BaTiO 3 over (111) TiN. The surface morphologies revealed that BaTiO 3 nucleated and grew over the TiN surface with a single layer. From kinetic analyses, the growth rates of BaTiO 3 films prepared by the hydrothermal–galvanic couple technique were faster than a hydrothermal method. The galvanic effects were confirmed by investigating the induced currents and energies. The galvanic currents were generated and controlled by both the dissolution of TiN and the formation of BaTiO 3 . The output electric energies increased rapidly with the reaction time and leveled off at the full coverage of BaTiO 3 . - Highlights: • Cubic BaTiO 3 films are synthesized by a hydrothermal–galvanic couple method (HT–GC). • Growth rates of BaTiO 3 films made by HT–GC are faster than a hydrothermal method. • BaTiO 3 films are directionally oriented grown on the TiN/Si substrates. • Galvanic currents are controlled by dissolution of TiN and formation of BaTiO 3

  20. Investigation of Multi-decadal Trends in Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects over North America using a Coupled Meteorology-Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Wong, D.; Wei, C.; Xing, J.; Gan, M.; Yu, S.; Binkowski, F.

    2012-12-01

    While aerosol radiative effects have been recognized as some of the largest sources of uncertainty among the forcers of climate change, there has been little effort devoted to verification of the spatial and temporal variability of the magnitude and directionality of aerosol radiative forcing. A comprehensive investigation of the processes regulating aerosol distributions, their optical properties, and their radiative effects and verification of their simulated effects for past conditions relative to measurements is needed in order to build confidence in the estimates of the projected impacts arising from changes in both anthropogenic forcing and climate change. This study aims at addressing this issue through a systematic investigation of changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past two decades in the United States, their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading in the North American troposphere, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. A newly developed 2-way coupled meteorology and air pollution model composed of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is being run for 20 years (1990 - 2010) on a 12 km resolution grid that covers most of North America including the entire conterminous US. During this period US emissions of SO2 and NOx have been reduced by about 66% and 50%, respectively, mainly due to Title IV of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) that aimed to reduce emissions that contribute to acid deposition. A methodology is developed to consistently estimate emission inventories for the 20-year period accounting for air quality regulations as well as population trends, economic conditions, and technology changes in motor vehicles and electric power generation. The coupled WRF-CMAQ model includes detailed treatment of direct effects of aerosols on photolysis rates as well as on shortwave radiation and the direct effects of tropospheric ozone on the long

  1. Direct coupling of electromembrane extraction to mass spectrometry – Advancing the probe functionality toward measurements of zwitterionic drug metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kige Rye, Torstein; Fuchs, David; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    -nitrophenyl octyl ether (and for some experiments containing 30% triphenyl phosphate (TPP)), and into 20 μL min-1 of formic acid as acceptor phase, which was introduced through a third flow channel. The acceptor phase was pumped directly to the MS system, and the ion intensity of extracted analytes...... of parent drugs and metabolites. It was found that TPP added to the SLM improved extraction efficiencies of certain drug metabolites. Finally the optimized and characterized triple-flow EME probe was used for online studying the in-vitro metabolism of hydroxyzine and vortioxetine by rat liver microsomes....... Due to the automated pre-extraction acidification of the rat liver microsomal solutions, it was possible to continuously monitor formation of the zwitterionic drug metabolites. As the triple-flow EME probe allowed modification of the pH of the sample without changing the pH in the bulk sample...

  2. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  3. Application of direct solid sample analysis for the determination of chlorine in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos de Gois, Jefferson; Pereira, Éderson R. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente do CNPq (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: daniel.borges@ufsc.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente do CNPq (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    This work describes a methodology developed to carry out Cl determination in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis. The solid samples were directly weighed into graphite ‘cups’ and inserted into the graphite furnace. The RF power and the carrier gas flow rate were optimized at 1300 W and 0.7 L min{sup −1}, respectively. Calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions with pre-dried modifiers (Pd + Nd or Pd + Ca) or using solid certified reference materials with the same pre-dried modifiers or without the use of modifiers. The limit of quantification was determined as 5 μg g{sup −1} under optimized conditions and the Cl concentration was determined in five certified reference materials with certified concentrations for Cl, in addition to three certified reference materials, for which certified values for Cl were unavailable; in the latter case, the results were compared with those obtained using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. Good agreement at a 95% statistical confidence level was achieved between determined and certified or reference values. - Highlights: • Direct determination of chlorine in solid biological materials is described for the first time using ICP-MS. • Calibration against aqueous standards is feasible. • The method is accurate and sensitive, regardless of the composition of the solid sample.

  4. Direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds into the spray chamber of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: Sensitivity enhancement for selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Miroslav; Goessler, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The effect of signal enhancement of elements with ionization potentials in the range from 9 to 11 eV by carbon-containing compounds is a well-known phenomenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). It has traditionally been exploited through the addition of organic solvents to the sample matrix or to the mobile phase to improve sensitivity. In the present work, aqueous solutions of volatile carbon compounds (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) were directly introduced into the thermostatted spray chamber rather than being added to the sample matrix. It is presumed that no aerosol is produced from these solutions and only vapors of organic compounds are swept into the plasma together with the sample aerosol. When a 0.40 mol l -1 aqueous solution of acetone was introduced directly into the spray chamber, the signals for arsenic and selenium were enhanced by a factor of 4.2. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated through the achievement of lower instrumental detection limits for selenium at m/z 82 (0.1 ng ml -1 ) compared to the system without direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds (0.5 ng ml -1 ). The method was successfully applied in the determination of traces of selenium in natural water, urine and bovine liver reference material

  5. A theoretical study of a direct contact membrane distillation system coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond for terminal lakes reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Francisco; Tyler, Scott W; Childress, Amy E

    2010-08-01

    Terminal lakes are water bodies that are located in closed watersheds with the only output of water occurring through evaporation or infiltration. The majority of these lakes, which are commonly located in the desert and influenced by human activities, are increasing in salinity. Treatment options are limited, due to energy costs, and many of these lakes provide an excellent opportunity to test solar-powered desalination systems. This paper theoretically investigates utilization of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP) for sustainable freshwater production at terminal lakes. A model for heat and mass transport in the DCMD module and a thermal model for an SGSP were developed and coupled to evaluate the feasibility of freshwater production. The construction of an SGSP outside and inside of a terminal lake was studied. As results showed that freshwater flows are on the same order of magnitude as evaporation, these systems will only be successful if the SGSP is constructed inside the terminal lake so that there is little or no net increase in surface area. For the study site of this investigation, water production on the order of 2.7 x 10(-3) m(3) d(-1) per m(2) of SGSP is possible. The major advantages of this system are that renewable thermal energy is used so that little electrical energy is required, the coupled system requires low maintenance, and the terminal lake provides a source of salts to create the stratification in the SGSP. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Negishi Cross-Coupling Is Compatible with a Reactive B-Cl Bond: Development of a Versatile Late-Stage Functionalization of 1,2-Azaborines and Its Application to the Synthesis of New BN Isosteres of Naphthalene and Indenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alec N; Li, Bo; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2015-07-22

    The compatibility of the Negishi cross-coupling reaction with the versatile B-Cl functionality has been demonstrated in the context of late-stage functionalization of 1,2-azaborines. Alkyl-, aryl-, and alkenylzinc reagents have been utilized for the functionalization of the triply orthogonal precursor 3-bromo-1-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-2-chloro-1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine (2) to furnish new 2,3-substituted monocyclic 1,2-azaborines. This methodology has enabled the synthesis of previously elusive BN-naphthalene and BN-indenyl structures from a common intermediate.

  7. Directional Carrier Transfer in Strongly Coupled Binary Nanocrystal Superlattice Films Formed by Assembly and in Situ Ligand Exchange at a Liquid–Air Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yaoting; Li, Siming; Gogotsi, Natalie; Zhao, Tianshuo; Fleury, Blaise; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Baxter, Jason B.

    2017-02-16

    Two species of monodisperse nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into a variety of complex 2D and 3D periodic structures, or binary NC superlattice (BNSL) films, based on the relative number and size of the NCs. BNSL films offer great promise for both fundamental scientific studies and optoelectronic applications; however, the utility of as-assembled structures has been limited by the insulating ligands that originate from the synthesis of NCs. Here we report the application of an in situ ligand exchange strategy at a liquid–air interface to replace the long synthesis ligands with short ligands while preserving the long-range order of BNSL films. This approach is demonstrated for BNSL structures consisting of PbSe NCs of different size combinations and ligands of interest for photovoltaic devices, infrared detectors, and light-emitting diodes. To confirm enhanced coupling introduced by ligand exchange, we show ultrafast (~1 ps) directional carrier transfer across the type-I heterojunction formed by NCs of different sizes within ligand-exchanged BNSL films. In conclusion, this approach shows the potential promise of functional BNSL films, where the local and long-range energy landscape and electronic coupling can be adjusted by tuning NC composition, size, and interparticle spacing.

  8. Two-stage implantation of the skin- and bone-integrated pylon seeded with autologous fibroblasts induced into osteoblast differentiation for direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A; Galibin, Oleg V; Yudintceva, Nataliya M; Blinova, Miralda I; Pinaev, George P; Ivanova, Anna A; Savchenko, Olga N; Suslov, Dmitriy N; Potokin, Igor L; Pitkin, Emil; Raykhtsaum, Grigory; Pitkin, Mark R

    2014-09-01

    Angio- and osteogenesis following the two-stage (TS) implantation of the skin- and bone-integrated pylon seeded with autologous fibroblasts was evaluated. Two consecutive animal substudies were undertaken: intramedullary subcutaneous implantation (15 rabbits) and a TS transcutaneous implantation (12 rabbits). We observed enhanced osseointegrative properties of the intramedullary porous component seeded with fibroblasts induced into osteoblast differentiation, as compared to the untreated porous titanium pylon. The three-phase scintigraphy and subsequent histological analysis showed that the level of osteogenesis was 1.5-fold higher than in the control group, and significantly so (p < 0.05). The biocompatibility was further proved by the absence of inflammatory response or encapsulation and sequestration on the histology assay. Treatment of the transcutaneous component with autologous fibroblasts was associated with nearly a 2-fold decrease in the period required for the ingrowth of dermal and subdermal soft tissues into the implant surface, as compared to the untreated porous titanium component. Direct dermal attachment to the transcutaneous implant prevented superficial and deep periprosthetic infections in rabbits in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on behavioral and spatial memory during the early stage of traumatic brain injury in the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chae, Seoung Wan; Park, Chae Ri; Kim, Dae Yul

    2016-03-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique to modulate the neural membrane potential. Its effects in the early stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have rarely been investigated. This study assessed the effects of anodal tDCS on behavioral and spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Thirty six rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (n=12), five-day tDCS over peri-lesional cortex at one (1W, n=12), or two (2W, n=12) weeks post-injury. The Barnes maze (BM) and Rotarod (RR) tests were evaluated in a blind manner on day 1, week 3 and week 5 post-injury. After three weeks, both the 1W and 2W groups showed significant improvements in the BM ratio (Pearly phase after TBI when it is delivered two weeks post-injury. Earlier stimulation (one week post-injury) improves spatial memory only. However, the beneficial effects did not persist after cessation of the anodal stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Improves Gait Ability in a Patient in Chronic Stage of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Satow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Walking ability is important in stroke patients to maintain daily life. Nevertheless, its improvement is limited with conventional physical therapy in chronic stage. We report the case of a chronic stroke patient showing a remarkable improvement in gait function after a new neurorehabilitation protocol using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES. Case Presentation: A 62-year-old male with left putaminal hemorrhage suffered from severe right hemiparesis. He could move by himself with a wheelchair 1 year after the ictus. Anodal tDCS at the vertex (2 mA, 20 min with NMES at the anterior tibialis muscle had been applied for 3 weeks. The Timed Up and Go test and 10-meter walk test improved after the intervention, which had been maintained for at least 1 month. Conclusion: This single case suggests the possibility that tDCS with NMES could be a new rehabilitation approach to improve the gait ability in chronic stroke patients.

  11. Quantitative real-time monitoring of multi-elements in airborne particulates by direct introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Sato, Hikaru; Hiyoshi, Katsuhiro; Furuta, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    A new calibration system for real-time determination of trace elements in airborne particulates was developed. Airborne particulates were directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the concentrations of 15 trace elements were determined by means of an external calibration method. External standard solutions were nebulized by an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) coupled with a desolvation system, and the resulting aerosol was introduced into the plasma. The efficiency of sample introduction via the USN was calculated by two methods: (1) the introduction of a Cr standard solution via the USN was compared with introduction of a Cr(CO) 6 standard gas via a standard gas generator and (2) the aerosol generated by the USN was trapped on filters and then analyzed. The Cr introduction efficiencies obtained by the two methods were the same, and the introduction efficiencies of the other elements were equal to the introduction efficiency of Cr. Our results indicated that our calibration method for introduction efficiency worked well for the 15 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb). The real-time data and the filter-collection data agreed well for elements with low-melting oxides (V, Co, As, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Pb). In contrast, the real-time data were smaller than the filter-collection data for elements with high-melting oxides (Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Ba). This result implies that the oxides of these 8 elements were not completely fused, vaporized, atomized, and ionized in the initial radiation zone of the inductively coupled plasma. However, quantitative real-time monitoring can be realized after correction for the element recoveries which can be calculated from the ratio of real-time data/filter-collection data. - Highlights: ► APs were directly introduced into ICP-MS and real-time analysis was performed. ► The real-time data were calibrated by a multi-element standard solution from USN. ► During real

  12. Metabolomics study of cultivated bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae at different growth stages using UHPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhao; Liu, YiFei; Gou, Yan; Zhou, QinMei; He, ChengJun; Guo, Li; Zhou, Juan; Xiong, Liang

    2018-01-15

    Bulbus fritillariae cirrhosae (known as Chuān bèi mǔ in China, BFC) contain fritillaria steroidal alkaloids as the bioactive ingredients and are widely used as traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cough and phlegm. Due to limited wild resources, the cultivated species are becoming predominantly used in Chinese traditional medicine markets. To assess the impact of different growth stages on the alkaloids of cultivated BFC and establish a reference for quality control and guidance for appropriate harvesting practices. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) metabolomic strategy was applied to determine potential chemical markers for the discrimination and quality control of cultivated BFC in different growth stages. The molecular feature extraction and multivariate statistical analysis were applied to alkaloid extraction and full metabolomic profiling of cultivated BFC for classification and marker compound characterisation. This approach allowed the establishment of a fast and efficient comparative multivariate analysis of the metabolite composition of 42 samples covering growth of cultivated BFC ranging in age from one to seven years old. Four alkaloid compounds were identified in cultivated BFC based on accurate mass, retention time, and MS/MS fragments. These compounds may be used as potential chemical markers for the classification and discrimination of cultivated BFC samples indifferent growth stages. The proposed analytical method in combination with multivariate statistical analysis comprised a useful and powerful strategy to explore the chemical ingredients and transforming mechanisms of cultivated BFC and for quality evaluation and control. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Simultaneous determination of volatile trace elements in nickel-base alloys using a direct insertion probe and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, C. W.; Clarke, P. A.; Mowthorpe, D. J.

    The direct determination of volatile trace elements in Ni-base alloys has been studied using direct insertion-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. A graphite probe which accommodated mg quantities of alloy chips was raised, semi-automatically, into the ICP and the volatile elements Cd, Mg, Pb and Zn were rapidly vaporised from the involatile host matrix and underwent excitation. Emission response for the elements as a function of applied rf power and observation zone was examined. It was established that aqueous multielement standard solutions (non-matrix matched) could be used for calibration and the viability of the approach was tested using certified reference materials and previously analysed Ni-base samples. Limits of detection, based on a 5 mg sample were 0.004-0.08 μg g -1 and precision at the μg g -1 level was in the range 6-14 % RSD. The method was not applicable to the determination of As and Se.

  14. A Proposal Of Simulation Model Of A Wind-Steering System For Sailing Yachts, Based On Single-Stage Servo-Pendulum Coupled With Main Rudder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible application of fast design prototyping methods for wind-steering systems used in offshore sailing yachts. The development of such methods would help to speed up the construction work and reduce the scope of necessary experimental research, prior to implementation of the system. In the present work, based on an analysis of existing designs of windvane systems, a preliminary selection of the system configuration has been undertaken, in terms of a compromise between efficiency, performance, and design complexity. Construction design of a single-stage, servo – pendulum system, has been developed by using the Autodesk Inventor design package. Next, based on the design data, a simulation model of the system, has been produced by using Matlab - Simulink software and SimMechanics library. The model was further verified in terms of kinematics mapping with the use of Matlab visualization tools.

  15. Directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapor produced by prairie cordgrass pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 using a two stage reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic cracking is one of the most promising processes for thermochemical conversion of biomass to advanced biofuels in recent years. However, current effectiveness of catalysts and conversion efficiency still remain challenges. An investigation of directly catalytic upgrading bio-oil vapors produced in prairie cordgrass (PCG pyrolysis over Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5 in a two stage packed-bed reactor was carried out. The Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst was synthesized using an impregnation method. Fresh and used catalysts were characterized by BET and XRD. The effects of catalysts on pyrolysis products yields and quality were examined. Both catalysts improved bio-oil product distribution compared to non-catalytic treatment. When PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with absence of catalyst, the produced bio-oils contained higher alcohols (10.97% and furans (10.14%. In contrast, the bio-oils contained the second highest hydrocarbons (34.97%)and the highest phenols (46.97% when PCG pyrolysis vapor was treated with Ni/HZSM-5. Bio-oils containing less ketones and aldehydes were produced by both Ni/HZSM-5 and HZSM-5, but no ketones were found in Ni/HZSM-5 treatment compared to HZSM-5 (2.94%. The pyrolysis gas compositions were also affected by the presenting of HZSM-5 or Ni/HZSM-5 during the catalytic upgrading process. However, higher heating values and elemental compositions (C, H and N of bio-chars produced in all treatments had no significant difference.

  16. A high-resolution paleosecular variation record from Black Sea sediments indicating fast directional changes associated with low field intensities during marine isotope stage (MIS) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Jiabo, Liu; Frank, Ute; Arz, Helge W.

    2018-02-01

    A total of nine sediment cores recovered from the Archangelsky Ridge in the SE Black Sea were systematically subjected to intense paleo- and mineral magnetic analyses. Besides 16 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages available for another core from this area, dating was accomplished by correlation of short-term warming events during the last glacial monitored by high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning as maxima in both Ca/Ti and K/Ti ratios in Black Sea sediments to the so-called 'Dansgaard-Oeschger events' recognized from Greenland ice cores. Thus, several hiatuses could be identified in the various cores during the last glacial/interglacial cycle. Finally, core sections documenting marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 at high resolution back to 69 ka were selected for detailed analyses. At 64.5 ka, according to obtained results from Black Sea sediments, the second deepest minimum in relative paleointensity during the past 69 ka occurred, with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion at 41 ka being associated with the lowest field intensities. The field minimum during MIS 4 is associated with large declination swings beginning about 3 ka before the minimum. While a swing to 50°E is associated with steep inclinations (50-60°) according to the coring site at 42°N, the subsequent declination swing to 30°W is associated with shallow inclinations of down to 40°. Nevertheless, these large deviations from the direction of a geocentric axial dipole field (I = 61 °, D = 0 °) still can not yet be termed as 'excursional', since latitudes of corresponding virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) only reach down to 51.5°N (120°E) and 61.5°N (75°W), respectively. However, these VGP positions at opposite sides of the globe are linked with VGP drift rates of up to 0.2° per year in between. These extreme secular variations might be the mid-latitude expression of a geomagnetic excursion with partly reversed inclinations found at several sites much further North in Arctic

  17. Fully Automatic In-Syringe Magnetic Stirring-Assisted Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Hyphenated to High-Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System-Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer with Direct Injection of the Organic Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Raquel; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Fikarová, Kateřina; Sklenářová, Hana; Maestre, Salvador E.; Miró, Manuel; Todolí Torró, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    A proof of concept study involving the online coupling of automatic dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) with direct introduction and analysis of the organic extract is herein reported for the first time. The flow-based analyzer features a lab-in-syringe (LIS) setup with an integrated stirring system, a Meinhard nebulizer in combination with a heated single-pass spray chamber, and a rotary injection valve, used ...

  18. Restricted accessed nanoparticles for direct magnetic solid phase extraction of trace metal ions from human fluids followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-06-21

    Herein, restricted accessed magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by self-assembly of a non-ionic surfactant (Tween-20) onto the 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). A series of analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR, and it was found that the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR nanoparticles have a porous structure with a BET surface area of around 99.4 m(2) g(-1), an average pore size of about 6.14 nm and a pore volume of 0.47 cm(3) g(-1). Besides, the prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR showed good size exclusion properties toward proteins, providing application potential for the direct analysis of biological samples. Based on this, a novel method of restricted accessed magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the direct determination of trace metal ions in human fluids. The parameters affecting the extraction of the target metals by MSPE were studied and the optimized conditions were established. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption capacity of Cr(III), Cd(II), La(III), Nd(III) and Pb(II) on the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR was 62.9, 56.6, 33.7, 36.9 and 43.3 mg g(-1), respectively. With an enrichment factor of 30, the limits of detection for Cr(III), Cd(II), La(III), Nd(III) and Pb(II) were as low as 11.9, 0.8, 0.7, 1.6 and 4.1 ng L(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 7.6, 8.7, 8.4, 8.1 and 5.0 (C(Cr, Pb) = 0.05 μg L(-1), C(Cd, La) = 0.005 μg L(-1), C(Nd) = 0.01 μg L(-1), n = 7), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the direct analysis of free metal ions in human urine and serum samples, and has the advantages of good anti-interference ability, high sensitivity and exhibits great application potential in the direct analysis of trace metals in biological fluids.

  19. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direct injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    Dilute nitric acid blanks and solutions containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U (including two laboratory waste samples) were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two different sample introduction techniques were employed: flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) and continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of the laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., 95 Mo 16 O + ), but in light of the time savings and waste reduction to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U and chemically

  20. Direct formation of nano-pillar arrays by phase separation of polymer blend for the enhanced out-coupling of organic light emitting diodes with low pixel blurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cholho; Han, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-03-21

    We have demonstrated a simple and efficient method to fabricate OLEDs with enhanced out-coupling efficiencies and with low pixel blurring by inserting nano-pillar arrays prepared through the lateral phase separation of two immiscible polymers in a blend film. By selecting a proper solvent for the polymer and controlling the composition of the polymer blend, the nano-pillar arrays were formed directly after spin-coating of the polymer blend and selective removal of one phase, needing no complicated processes such as nano-imprint lithography. Pattern size and distribution were easily controlled by changing the composition and thickness of the polymer blend film. Phosphorescent OLEDs using the internal light extraction layer containing the nano-pillar arrays showed a 30% enhancement of the power efficiency, no spectral variation with the viewing angle, and only a small increment in pixel blurring. With these advantages, this newly developed method can be adopted for the commercial fabrication process of OLEDs for lighting and display applications.

  1. Development of a rapid multi-element method of analysis of antitussive syrups by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and direct sample introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariadis, G A; Kapsimali, D C

    2006-06-16

    A new rapid method was developed and optimized for routine multi-element determination of traces of metals in antitussive syrups using direct introduction of diluted syrup into the nebulization system of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Using a Scott-type double-pass spray chamber combined with a cross-flow nebulizer, the optimum ICP conditions, like RF incident power, argon gas flow rate and nebulizer sample uptake flow rate were found. A critical objective of the study was to evaluate the matrix effect on the intensity and consequently on the sensitivity of the developed method. Thus, the maximum syrup concentration which could be introduced into the argon plasma, was estimated. The sensitivity variation was calculated as compared to the corresponding sensitivity obtained from aqueous solutions for each analyte. The performance characteristics of the proposed method were evaluated for quantitative and semi-quantitative determination and finally, the method was applied to the analysis of various commercial antitussives.

  2. Molecular analogue of the perovskite repeating unit and evidence for direct MnIII-CeIV-MnIII exchange coupling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuijs, Annaliese E; Li, Xiang-Guo; Wang, Yun-Peng; Abboud, Khalil A; Zhang, X-G; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Christou, George

    2017-09-11

    The perovskite manganites AMnO 3 and their doped analogues A 1-x B x MnO 3 (A and B = main group and lanthanide metals) are a fascinating family of magnetic oxides exhibiting a rich variety of properties. They are thus under intense investigation along multiple fronts, one of which is how their structural and physical properties are modified at the nanoscale. Here we show that the molecular compound [Ce 3 Mn 8 O 8 (O 2 CPh) 18 (HO 2 CPh) 2 ] (Ce III 2 Ce IV Mn III 8 ; hereafter Ce 3 Mn 8 ) bears a striking structural resemblance to the repeating unit seen in the perovskite manganites. Further, magnetic studies have established that Ce 3 Mn 8 exhibits both the combination of pairwise Mn III 2 ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, and the resultant spin vector alignments that are found within the 3-D C-type antiferromagnetic perovskites. First-principles theoretical calculations reveal not only the expected nearest-neighbor Mn III 2 exchange couplings via superexchange pathways through bridging ligands but also an unusual, direct Mn III -Ce IV -Mn III metal-to-metal channel involving the Ce IV f orbitals.Perovskite manganites exhibit intriguing but poorly understood properties, including multiferroicity. Here, the authors synthesize a Ce 3 Mn 8 cluster that structurally resembles a perovskite repeat unit, and use this molecular analogue to elucidate mechanisms driving bulk perovskite properties.

  3. Pathogenesis of Ovarian Serous Carcinoma as the Basis for Immunologic Directed Diagnosis and Treatment. Project 2 - Identification of Autologous Antigens in Early Stage Serous Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurman, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Our goal is to develop an early detection screening test for serous carcinoma. Specific aim 1: Obtain cDNAs of autologous tumor antigens recognized by sera of patients with early stage serous carcinoma, but not controls...

  4. Phytochemical and morphological characterization of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones over five developmental stages using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection, and light microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalier, Adam R; Litt, Amy; Ma, Chunhui; Pitra, Nicholi J; Coles, Mark C; Kennelly, Edward J; Matthews, Paul D

    2011-05-11

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) inflorescences, commonly known as "hop cones", are prized for their terpenophenolic contents, used in beer production and, more recently, in biomedical applications. In this study we investigated morphological and phytochemical characteristics of hop cones over five developmental stages, using liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (UHPLC-PDA) methods to quantitate 21 polyphenolics and seven terpenophenolics. Additionally, we used light microscopy to correlate phytochemical quantities with changes in the morphology of the cones. Significant increases in terpenophenolics, concomitant with glandular trichome development and associated gross morphological changes, were mapped over development to fluctuations in contents of polyphenolic constituents and their metabolic precursor compounds. The methods reported here can be used for targeted metabolic profiling of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenophenolics in hops, and are applicable to quantitation in other crops.

  5. Nickel-Catalyzed Diaryl Ketone Synthesis by N-C Cleavage: Direct Negishi Cross-Coupling of Primary Amides by Site-Selective N,N-Di-Boc Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shicheng; Szostak, Michal

    2016-11-18

    A general Negishi acylation of primary amides enabled by a combination of site-selective N,N-di-Boc activation and nickel catalysis is reported for the first time. The reaction is promoted by a bench-stable, inexpensive Ni catalyst. The reaction shows excellent functional group compatibility, affording functionalized diaryl ketones by selective N-C cleavage. Most notably, this protocol represents the first amide cross-coupling by direct metal insertion of simple and readily available primary amides. The overall strategy by N,N-di-Boc activation/metal insertion is suitable for a broad range of coupling protocols via acylmetals. Mechanistic experiments suggest high reactivity of N,N-di-Boc activated 1° amides in direct amide C-N cross-couplings.

  6. Preparation of 5-acyl- and 5-aryl-substituted 1-(benzyloxy)pyrazoles via directed ortho-lithiation/transmetalation and palladium catalyzed cross- coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Begtrup, M.; Vedsø, P.

    1998-01-01

    Palladium(0) catalyzed cross-coupling of 1-(benzyloxy)pyrazol-5-ylzinc halides 3a,b, prepared by transmetalation of 1-(benzyloxy)-5-lithiopyrazole (2), with acyl chlorides produced 5 acyl-1-(benzyloxy)pyrazoles 4a-d in high yields. Similar coupling of the pyrazol-5-ylzinc halide with amino-, hydr...

  7. Alternative pathway for the development of Vα14+ NKT cells directly from CD4-CD8- thymocytes that bypasses the CD4+CD8+ stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtsoodol, Nyambayar; Shigeura, Tomokuni; Aihara, Minako; Ozawa, Ritsuko; Kojo, Satoshi; Harada, Michishige; Endo, Takaho A; Watanabe, Takashi; Ohara, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masaru

    2017-03-01

    Although invariant V α 14 + natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are thought to be generated from CD4 + CD8 + double-positive (DP) thymocytes, the developmental origin of CD4 - CD8 - double-negative (DN) NKT cells still remains unresolved. Here we provide definitive genetic evidence obtained, through studies of mice with DP-stage-specific ablation of expression of the gene encoding the recombinase component RAG-2 (Rag2) and by a fate-mapping approach, that supports the proposal of the existence of an alternative developmental pathway through which a fraction of DN NKT cells with strong T-helper-type-1 (T H 1)-biased and cytotoxic characteristics develop from late DN-stage thymocytes, bypassing the DP stage. These findings provide new insight into understanding of the development of NKT cells and propose a role for timing of expression of the invariant T cell antigen receptor in determining the functional properties of NKT cells.

  8. On-line coupling of Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent with Sequential Injection Chromatography system for direct extraction and determination of betaxolol in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrámková, Ivana; Chocholouš, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2015-10-01

    A novel approach for automation of Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS), a solid phase extraction technique, is presented, enabling precise and repeatable liquid handling due to the employment of sequential injection technique. The developed system was used for human urine sample clean-up and pre-concentration of betaxolol before its separation and determination. A commercial MEPS C-18 cartridge was integrated into an SIChrom™ system. The chromatographic separation was performed on a monolithic High Resolution C18 (50×4.6 mm) column which was coupled on-line in the system with Micro-Extraction using an additional selection valve. A mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous solution of 0.5% triethylamine with acetic acid, pH adjusted to 4.5 in ratio 30:70 was used as a mobile phase for elution of betaxolol from MEPS directly onto the monolithic column where the separation took place. Betaxolol was quantified by a fluorescence detector at wavelengths λ(ex)=220 nm and λ(em)=305 nm. The linear calibration range of 5-400 ng mL(-1), with limit of detection 1.5 ng mL(-1) and limit of quantification 5 ng mL(-1) and correlation r=0.9998 for both the standard and urine matrix calibration were achieved. The system recovery was 105±5%; 100±4%; 108±1% for three concentration levels of betaxolol in 10 times diluted urine - 5, 20 and 200 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Yin, Xuefeng

    2012-07-01

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L- 1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L- 1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min- 1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h- 1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L- 1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three Chinese

  10. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Xu, Zigang; Yin, Xuefeng

    2012-01-01

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1–0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L −1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L −1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min −1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h −1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L −1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three

  11. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Heyong [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Liu, Jinhua [College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Xu, Zigang [Institute of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Yin, Xuefeng, E-mail: yinxf@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China)

    2012-07-15

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 {mu}L), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L{sup -1} glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L{sup -1} glucose was downscaled to 0.8 {mu}L. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 {mu}L, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 {mu}L was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 {mu}L min{sup -1} for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection ({mu}FI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h{sup -1} with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion

  12. Cardiovascular regulation during sleep quantified by symbolic coupling traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrbier, A.; Riedl, M.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2010-12-01

    Sleep is a complex regulated process with short periods of wakefulness and different sleep stages. These sleep stages modulate autonomous functions such as blood pressure and heart rate. The method of symbolic coupling traces (SCT) is used to analyze and quantify time-delayed coupling of these measurements during different sleep stages. The symbolic coupling traces, defined as the symmetric and diametric traces of the bivariate word distribution matrix, allow the quantification of time-delayed coupling. In this paper, the method is applied to heart rate and systolic blood pressure time series during different sleep stages for healthy controls as well as for normotensive and hypertensive patients with sleep apneas. Using the SCT, significant different cardiovascular mechanisms not only between the deep sleep and the other sleep stages but also between healthy subjects and patients can be revealed. The SCT method is applied to model systems, compared with established methods, such as cross correlation, mutual information, and cross recurrence analysis and demonstrates its advantages especially for nonstationary physiological data. As a result, SCT proves to be more specific in detecting delays of directional interactions than standard coupling analysis methods and yields additional information which cannot be measured by standard parameters of heart rate and blood pressure variability. The proposed method may help to indicate the pathological changes in cardiovascular regulation and also the effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on the cardiovascular system.

  13. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Baocheng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively, two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members, designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp

  14. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  15. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  16. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  17. Direct determination of rate constants for coupling between aromatic radical anions and alkyl and benzyl radicals by laser-flash photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.; Christensen, P.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter

    2003-01-01

    generated by a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between the aromatic compound A and the alkyl or benzyl triphenylborate anion RB(Ph)(3)(-). For the first time the rate constants of the coupling reaction between methyl and benzyl radicals with aromatic radical anions have been obtained. For all...... the measured coupling rate constants an average value of k(1) = 1.9 x 10(9) M-1 s(-1) was found with a relatively small variation in the coupling rates (0.8-2.9 x 10(9) M-1 s(-1)). The results demonstrate that the coupling rate k(1) is insensitive to changes in the steric and electronic properties......Coupling rates between the radicals methyl, n-, sec-, tert-butyl and benzyl (R-.) and the aromatic radical anions of 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene, 9,10-dicyanoanthracene and fluorenone (A(-.)) have been obtained using a new laser-flash photolysis method. The radicals R-. and the radical anions A(-.) were...

  18. Applications of alternating direction methods to the solution of the time-dependent heat conduction equation with source and in transients stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebrin, A.N.

    1981-10-01

    Various types and also some variants of alternating direction methods, (A.D.M.), were applied to the solution of the time-dependent heat conduction equation, with source, in region with axial symetry. The results shown that some of the variants perform consistently better than the Classical Cranck-Nicolson method. Having in mind a combination of accuracy, ability to support larg time steps and computational efficiency, the 'alternating direction explicit', (A.D.E.) method appears as the best choice, being the 'alternating direction checkerboard', (A.D.C), method the second best. Additional operations like the exponential transformation or the truncation pos-correction don't seem to be worth, excect for some special cases. (Author) [pt

  19. Inverse models of plate coupling and mantle rheology: Towards a direct link between large-scale mantle flow and mega thrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Ratnaswamy, V.; Stadler, G.; Rudi, J.; Liu, X.; Ghattas, O.

    2017-12-01

    We are developing high-resolution inverse models for plate motions and mantle flow to recover the degree of mechanical coupling between plates and the non-linear and plastic parameters governing viscous flow within the lithosphere and mantle. We have developed adjoint versions of the Stokes equations with fully non-linear viscosity with a cost function that measures the fit with plate motions and with regional constrains on effective upper mantle viscosity (from post-glacial rebound and post seismic relaxation). In our earlier work, we demonstrate that when the temperature field is known, the strength of plate boundaries, the yield stress and strain rate exponent in the upper mantle are recoverable. As the plate boundary coupling drops below a threshold, the uncertainty of the inferred parameters increases due to insensitivity of plate motion to plate coupling. Comparing the trade-offs between inferred rheological parameters found from a Gaussian approximation of the parameter distribution and from MCMC sampling, we found that the Gaussian approximation—which is significantly cheaper to compute—is often a good approximation. We have extended our earlier method such that we can recover normal and shear stresses within the zones determining the interface between subducting and over-riding plates determined through seismic constraints (using the Slab1.0 model). We find that those subduction zones with low seismic coupling correspond with low inferred values of mechanical coupling. By fitting plate motion data in the optimization scheme, we find that Tonga and the Marianas have the lowest values of mechanical coupling while Chile and Sumatra the highest, among the subduction zones we have studies. Moreover, because of the nature of the high-resolution adjoint models, the subduction zones with the lowest coupling have back-arc extension. Globally we find that the non-linear stress-strain exponent, n, is about 3.0 +/- 0.25 (in the upper mantle and lithosphere) and a

  20. Enhanced direct-modulated bandwidth of 37 GHz by a multi-section laser with a coupled-cavity-injection-grating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, L.; Kaiser, W.; Reithmaier, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Using a new multi-section laser concept based on a coupled-cavity-injection-grating design, the material related intrinsic 3 dB modulation bandwidth can be enhanced up to 37 GHz for a 1.5 mm long device.......Using a new multi-section laser concept based on a coupled-cavity-injection-grating design, the material related intrinsic 3 dB modulation bandwidth can be enhanced up to 37 GHz for a 1.5 mm long device....

  1. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shum, Sam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization.

  2. A New Generalized Two-Stage Direct Power Conversion Topology to Independently Supply Multiple AC Loads from Multiple Power Grids with Adjustable Power Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    ) and continuously adjust these power fractions will become a desired feature. This paper presents a generalized Direct Power Converter topology, which is able to connect to multiple AC supplies proving complete decoupling and no circulating power between the input ports and to independently control multiple AC...

  3. Capacitively coupled and direct-current resistivity surveys of selected reaches of Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals in Nebraska, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial characteristics of leakage from canals is critical to effectively managing and utilizing water resources for irrigation and hydroelectric purposes. Canal leakage in some parts of Nebraska is the primary source of water for groundwater recharge and helps maintain the base flow of streams. Because surface-water supplies depend on the streamflow of the Platte River and the available water stored in upstream reservoirs, water managers seek to minimize conveyance losses, which can include canal leakage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District and Nebraska Public Power District, used capacitively coupled (CC) and direct-current (DC) resistivity techniques for continuous resistivity profiling to map near-surface lithologies near and underlying the Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals. Approximately 84 kilometers (km) of CC-resistivity data were collected along the five canals. The CC-resistivity data were compared with results from continuous sediment cores and electrical conductivity logs. Generally, the highest resistivities were recorded at the upstream reaches of the Cozad, Thirty-Mile, and Orchard-Alfalfa canals where flood-plain deposits of silt and clay mantle coarser channel deposits of sand and gravel. The finer grained deposits gradually thicken with increasing distance away from the Platte River. Consequently, for many surveyed reaches the thickness of fine-grained deposits exceeded the 8-meter depth of investigation. A detailed geophysical investigation along a 5-km reach of the Outlet Canal southwest of North Platte, Nebraska, used CC and DC resistivity to examine the condition of a compacted-core bank structure and characterized other potential controls on areas of focused seepage. CC-resistivity data, collected along the 5-km study reach, were compared with continuous sediment cores and DC-resistivity data collected near a selected seep near Outlet

  4. Sensitivity enhancement in direct coupling of supported liquid membrane extractions to capillary electrophoresis by means of transient isotachophoresis and large electrokinetic injections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1389, APR (2015), s. 1-7 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * in- line coupling * supported liquid membrane extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2015

  5. Electrokinetic injection across supported liquid membranes: New sample pretreatment technique for online coupling to capillary electrophoresis. Direct analysis of perchlorate in biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Kiplagat, I.K.; Boček, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 17 (2012), s. 2695-2702 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : supported liquid membranes * on-line coupling * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.261, year: 2012

  6. Sensitivity enhancement in direct coupling of supported liquid membrane extractions to capillary electrophoresis by means of transient isotachophoresis and large electrokinetic injections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1389, APR (2015), s. 1-7 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * in-line coupling * supported liquid membrane extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2015

  7. Optimisation du couple revêtement anti-adhérent / matériau de creuset pour la cristallisation du silicium photovoltaïque - Application au moulage direct des wafers de Si

    OpenAIRE

    Huguet, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Considering the use of graphite as a crucible material instead of sintered silica for the directional crystallisation process of multicrystalline solar grade silicon, one of the main goals of this PhD program was to develop a dedicated releasing coating to be used with the identified mould material. A first task of this work consisted in a precise definition of the operating conditions for the releasing coating / crucible material couple and consequently modifying the process in order to be a...

  8. Malaria resistance genes are associated with the levels of IgG subclasses directed against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afridi Sarwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms have been associated with malaria resistance in humans, whereas cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies are thought to play a critical role in immune protection against asexual blood stages of the parasite. Furthermore, HBB, IL4, TNF, and FCGR2A have been associated with both malaria resistance and IgG levels. This suggests that some malaria resistance genes influence the levels of IgG subclass antibodies. Methods In this study, the effect of HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms on the levels of IgG responses against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage extract was investigated in 220 individuals living in Burkina Faso. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among IgG subclasses was determined. A family-based approach was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with anti-P. falciparum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels. Results After applying a multiple test correction, several polymorphisms were associated with IgG subclass or IgG levels. There was an association of i haemoglobin C with IgG levels; ii the FcγRIIa H/R131 with IgG2 and IgG3 levels; iii TNF-863 with IgG3 levels; iv TNF-857 with IgG levels; and, v TNF1304 with IgG3, IgG4, and IgG levels. Conclusion Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that some polymorphisms affect malaria resistance through their effect on the acquired immune response, and pave the way towards further comprehension of genetic control of an individual’s humoral response against malaria.

  9. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  10. A direct inhibitory action of prostaglandins upon ACTH secretion at the late stages of the secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mary L; Guild, Simon B

    2002-01-01

    The mouse AtT-20/D16-16 anterior pituitary tumour cell line was used as a model system for the study of the effects of prostaglandins upon the late stages of the adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) secretory pathway. Calcium (1 nM – 100 μM), guanosine-5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-γ-S) (1 – 100 μM) and mastoparan (1 and 10 μM) all stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized AtT-20 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. GTP-γ-S and mastoparan stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized cells in the absence of calcium. Co-incubation with prostaglandins E1 and E2 (PGE1, PGE2) (10 μM) but not prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10 μM) significantly inhibited calcium-, GTP-γ-S and mastoparan-evoked secretion by 30 – 50%. The effects of PGE1 and PGE2 upon GTP-γ-S (100 μM)-, calcium (10 μM)- and mastoparan (10 μM)-evoked secretion were concentration-dependent. PGE1 significantly inhibited GTP-γ-S- and calcium-evoked secretion at concentrations of PGE1 above 1 μM but mastoparan-evoked secretion only at the highest concentration of PGE1 investigated (10 μM). PGE2 was much more potent than PGE1 and significantly inhibited GTP-γ-S- and calcium-evoked secretion at 10 nM and above and mastoparan-evoked secretion above 1 μM. The inhibitory effects of PGE1 and PGE2 upon calcium-, GTP-γ-S- and mastoparan-stimulated ACTH secretion from permeabilized cells were pertussis toxin (PTX) sensitive. In intact cells PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2α (1 nM – 10 μM) acting singly had little or no effect upon ACTH secretion. However, only PGE2 (1 nM – 10 μM) significantly inhibited corticotrophin-releasing factor-41 (CRF-41) (100 nM)-evoked secretion in a concentration dependent manner. The present study finds that prostaglandins of the E series exert an inhibitory action, via a pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding (G)-protein, in the late stages of the ACTH secretory pathway distal to the G-exocytosis (Ge)/calcium point of

  11. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdian, David C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  12. Emergence of a Stage-Dependent Human Liver Disease Signature with Directed Differentiation of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin-Deficient iPS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Wilson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide an inexhaustible source of cells for modeling disease and testing drugs. Here we develop a bioinformatic approach to detect differences between the genomic programs of iPSCs derived from diseased versus normal human cohorts as they emerge during in vitro directed differentiation. Using iPSCs generated from a cohort carrying mutations (PiZZ in the gene responsible for alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT deficiency, we find that the global transcriptomes of PiZZ iPSCs diverge from normal controls upon differentiation to hepatic cells. Expression of 135 genes distinguishes PiZZ iPSC-hepatic cells, providing potential clues to liver disease pathogenesis. The disease-specific cells display intracellular accumulation of mutant AAT protein, resulting in increased autophagic flux. Furthermore, we detect beneficial responses to the drug carbamazepine, which further augments autophagic flux, but adverse responses to known hepatotoxic drugs. Our findings support the utility of iPSCs as tools for drug development or prediction of toxicity.

  13. Transient magnetization dynamics of spin-torque oscillator and magnetic dot coupled by magnetic dipolar interaction: Reading of magnetization direction using magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Taro; Suto, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2018-01-01

    We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin-torque oscillator (STO) and a magnetic dot coupled by a magnetic dipolar field using micromagnetic simulation with the aim of developing a read method in magnetic recording that uses magnetic resonance. We propose an STO with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and an in-plane-magnetized fixed layer as a suitable STO for this resonance read method. When the oscillation frequency of the STO is near the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency of the magnetic dot, the oscillation amplitude of the STO decreases because FMR excited in the magnetic dot causes additional dissipation. To estimate the read rate of the resonance read method, we study the transient magnetization dynamics to the coupled oscillation state from an initial state where the STO is in a free-running state and the magnetic dot is in a stationary stable state. The STO shows transient dynamics within a time scale of 1 ns, which means that the STO can perform resonance reading with a response time within this time scale. This response time is shorter when the separation length between the STO and the magnetic dot is shorter, which indicates that the response speed can become faster by increasing the strength of the interaction between the STO and the magnetic dot. Successive reads are demonstrated by moving the STO over an array of magnetic dots.

  14. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  15. Teaching Word Recognition to Young Children Who Are at Risk Using Microsoft[R] Powerpoint[TM] Coupled with Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.; Watts, Emily H.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on use of Microsoft[R] PowerPoint[TM] paired with direct instruction (DI) to teach word recognition to young children at risk. DI has been a widely used teaching method for over 40 years, and is often used to teach emergent literacy skills. Recent DI research with preschoolers at risk has suggested the potential for using…

  16. Direct determination of cadmium in foods by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten coil trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mao, Xuefei; Liu, Jixin; Wang, Min; Qian, Yongzhong; Gao, Chengling; Qi, Yuehan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a solid sampling device consisting of a tungsten coil trap, porous carbon vaporizer and on-line ashing furnace of a Ni-Cr coil was interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A modified double gas circuit system was employed that was composed of carrier and supplemental gas lines controlled by separate gas mass flow controllers. For Cd determination in food samples using the assembled solid sampling ICP-MS, the optimal ashing and vaporization conditions, flow rate of the argon-hydrogen (Ar/H2) (v:v = 24:1) carrier gas and supplemental gas, and minimum sampling mass were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of quantification was 0.5 pg and the relative standard deviation was within a 10.0% error range (n = 10). Furthermore, the mean spiked recoveries for various food samples were 99.4%-105.9% (n = 6). The Cd concentrations measured by the proposed method were all within the certified values of the reference materials or were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of the microwave digestion ICP-MS method, demonstrating the good accuracy and precision of the solid sampling ICP-MS method for Cd determination in food samples.

  17. Amperometric carbohydrate antigen 19-9 immunosensor based on three dimensional ordered macroporous magnetic Au film coupling direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi [College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Chen, Xiaojun, E-mail: chenxj_njut@126.com [College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Yin [Zhangjiagang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhangjiagang 215600 (China); Ge, Lingna; Guo, Buhua [College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Yao, Cheng, E-mail: yaochengnjut@163.com [College of Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Three dimensional ordered macroporous magnetic electrode was newly used in electrochemical immunosensor. • The large surface area of macroporous magnetic electrode could improve the immobilized amount of antibody. • Au nanoparticles functionalized SBA-15 was used to immobilize enzyme labeled Ab₂ and enzyme. • Macroporous magnetic electrode and Au nanoparticles composite facilitated the direct electron transfer of enzyme. • The immunoassay avoided adding electron transfer mediator, simplifying the procedure. Abstract: A sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) antigen based on the immobilization of primary antibody (Ab₁) on three dimensional ordered macroporous magnetic (3DOMM) electrode, and the direct electrochemistry of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) that was used as both the label of secondary antibody (Ab₂) and the blocking reagent. The 3DOMM electrode was fabricated by introducing core–shell Au–SiO₂@Fe₃O₄ nanospheres onto the surface of three dimensional ordered macroporous (3DOM) Au electrode via the application of an external magnet. Au nanoparticles functionalized SBA-15 (Au@SBA-15) was conjugated to the HRP labeled secondary antibody (HRP-Ab₂) through the Au–SH or Au–NH₃⁺ interaction, and HRP was also used as the block reagent. The formation of antigen–antibody complex made the combination of Au@SBA-15 and 3DOMM exhibit remarkable synergistic effects for accelerating direct electron transfer (DET) between HRP and the electrode. Under the optimal conditions, the DET current signal increased proportionally to CA 19-9 concentration in the range of 0.05 to 15.65 U mL⁻¹ with a detection limit of 0.01 U mL⁻¹. Moreover, the immunosensor showed high selectivity, good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and regeneration. Importantly, the developed method was used to assay clinical serum specimens, achieving a good relation with those obtained from

  18. Primal Domain Decomposition Method with Direct and Iterative Solver for Circuit-Field-Torque Coupled Parallel Finite Element Method to Electric Machine Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marcsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and design of electromechanical devices involve the solution of large sparse linear systems, and require therefore high performance algorithms. In this paper, the primal Domain Decomposition Method (DDM with parallel forward-backward and with parallel Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG solvers are introduced in two-dimensional parallel time-stepping finite element formulation to analyze rotating machine considering the electromagnetic field, external circuit and rotor movement. The proposed parallel direct and the iterative solver with two preconditioners are analyzed concerning its computational efficiency and number of iterations of the solver with different preconditioners. Simulation results of a rotating machine is also presented.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: budgets of Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dritselis, Chris D, E-mail: dritseli@mie.uth.gr [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece)

    2016-02-15

    The budgets of the Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy are evaluated through direct numerical simulations for the turbulent particle-laden flow in a vertical channel with momentum exchange between the two phases. The influence of the dispersed particles on the budgets is examined through a comparison of the particle-free and the particle-laden cases at the same Reynolds number of Re{sub b} = 5600 based on the bulk fluid velocity and the distance between the channel walls. Results are obtained for particle ensembles with four response times in simulations with and without streamwise gravity and inter-particle collisions at average mass (volume) fractions of 0.2 (2.7 × 10{sup −5}) and 0.5 (6.8 × 10{sup −5}). The particle feedback force on the flow of the carrier phase is modeled by a point-force approximation (PSIC-method). It is shown that all the terms in the budgets of the Reynolds stress components are decreased in the presence of particles. The level of reduction depends on the particle response time and it is higher under the effects of gravity and inter-particle collisions. A considerable reduction in all the terms of the streamwise enstrophy budget is also observed. In particular, all production mechanisms, and mainly vortex stretching, are inhibited in the particulate flows and thus the production of streamwise vorticity is significantly damped. A further insight into the direct particle effects on the fluid turbulence is provided by analyzing in detail the fluid–fluid, fluid–particle and particle–particle correlations, and the spectra of the fluid–particle energy exchange rate. The present results indicate that the turbulence production, dissipation and pressure–strain term are generally large quantities, but their summation is relatively small and comparable to the fluid–particle direct energy exchange rate. Consequently, the particle contribution can potentially increase or decrease the fluctuating fluid velocities and eventually

  20. Analyses of power output of piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices directly connected to a load resistor using a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meiling; Worthington, Emma; Njuguna, James

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element model (CPC-FEM) to analyze the power output of a vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting device (EHD) when it is connected to a load resistor. Special focus is given to the effect of the load resistor value on the vibrational amplitude of the piezoelectric EHD, and thus on the current, voltage, and power generated by the device, which are normally assumed to be independent of the load resistor value to reduce the complexity of modeling and simulation. The presented CPC-FEM uses a cantilever with a sandwich structure and a seismic mass attached to the tip to study the following characteristics of the EHD as a result of changing the load resistor value: 1) the electric outputs: the current through and voltage across the load resistor; 2) the power dissipated by the load resistor; 3) the displacement amplitude of the tip of the cantilever; and 4) the shift in the resonant frequency of the device. It is found that these characteristics of the EHD have a significant dependence on the load resistor value, rather than being independent of it as is assumed in most literature. The CPC-FEM is capable of predicting the generated output power of the EHD with different load resistor values while simultaneously calculating the effect of the load resistor value on the displacement amplitude of the tip of the cantilever. This makes the CPC-FEM invaluable for validating the performance of a designed EHD before it is fabricated and tested, thereby reducing the recurring costs associated with repeat fabrication and trials. In addition, the proposed CPC-FEM can also be used for producing an optimized design for maximum power output.

  1. Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Wang, S. X.; Ran, L. M.; Pleim, J. E.; Cooter, E.; Bash, J. O.; Benson, V.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric aerosol chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock production. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. This study provides the first online estimate of NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China, using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system which couples a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, or CMAQ) and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, or EPIC). This method improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emissions from this sector. We combined the cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rates and methods for different crops were collected at provincial or agricultural region levels. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics were input into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emissions were calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emissions in this study were approximately 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July. Compared with previous researches, this study considers an increased number of influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emissions with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  2. Instantaneous-to-daily GPP upscaling schemes based on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model: correcting the overestimation of GPP by directly using daily average meteorological inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumin; Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Black, T Andrew; Zhou, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Daily canopy photosynthesis is usually temporally upscaled from instantaneous (i.e., seconds) photosynthesis rate. The nonlinear response of photosynthesis to meteorological variables makes the temporal scaling a significant challenge. In this study, two temporal upscaling schemes of daily photosynthesis, the integrated daily model (IDM) and the segmented daily model (SDM), are presented by considering the diurnal variations of meteorological variables based on a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model. The two models, as well as a simple average daily model (SADM) with daily average meteorological inputs, were validated using the tower-derived gross primary production (GPP) to assess their abilities in simulating daily photosynthesis. The results showed IDM closely followed the seasonal trend of the tower-derived GPP with an average RMSE of 1.63 g C m(-2) day(-1), and an average Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E) of 0.87. SDM performed similarly to IDM in GPP simulation but decreased the computation time by >66%. SADM overestimated daily GPP by about 15% during the growing season compared to IDM. Both IDM and SDM greatly decreased the overestimation by SADM, and improved the simulation of daily GPP by reducing the RMSE by 34 and 30%, respectively. The results indicated that IDM and SDM are useful temporal upscaling approaches, and both are superior to SADM in daily GPP simulation because they take into account the diurnally varying responses of photosynthesis to meteorological variables. SDM is computationally more efficient, and therefore more suitable for long-term and large-scale GPP simulations.

  3. Determination of phthalate esters in vegetable oils using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and fast gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Franchina, Flavio A; Zoccali, Mariosimone; Sciarrone, Danilo; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-08-05

    Phthalates are a group of synthetic compounds mainly used as plasticizers, which have been classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and potential human-cancer causing agents. They can be found in high amounts in foods, deriving mainly from plastic packaging. The analytical determination of these compounds is very challenging since they are ubiquitous. Therefore, minimization of sample manipulation is highly desirable. The present work exploited the application of a solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of phthalates in vegetable oil. A preliminary comparison between a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a Carbopack Z/PDMS fiber was carried out both in the headspace and direct immersion extraction modes. Before immersing the fiber, a rapid liquid-liquid extraction was performed using acetonitrile to remove the bulk of triglycerides. PDMS in the direct immersion mode showed the best performance. The method was fully validated obtaining a good linearity with a coefficient of correlation of over 0.9960 for all compounds, repeatability and accuracy values generally better than 10%, and very good limit of quantification values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of bi-directional reflectance distribution function on the estimation of vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI): A case study of the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire in northwestern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.; Matsuyama, H.; Tsuzuki, H.; Sweda, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dependence of the satellite data on sun/sensor geometry must be considered in the case of monitoring vegetation from satellites. Vegetation structure causes uneven scattering of sunlight, which is expressed by bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of BRDF of monitoring vegetation using the reflectance of visible and near-infrared bands. We investigated the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire (main species: spruce) in the northwestern Canada. BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) was measured in the seven sites of some succession stages, along with the measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and biomass. The main results obtained in this study are summarized as follows. (1) In each site, the difference of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) value around 0.1-0.2 was caused by BRDF when the sensor angle was changed from -15deg to 15 deg, being equivalent to the standard image of IKONOS. Also, LAI estimated by NDVI varied from 22% to 65% of the average. (2) The robustness of other vegetation indices to BRDF was compared. The reflectance of the near-infrared band normalized by the sum of other bands (nNIR), and Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI) were investigated along with NDVI. It is clarified that nNIR was most robust in the site where vegetation existed. GEMI was most robust in the sites of scarce vegetation, while NDVI was strongly affected by BRDF in such sites

  5. Numerical Simulation of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Crystal Growth Using a Macro–Micro Coupled Method during the Directional Solidification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Lian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the crystal growth of multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si during the directional solidification process was studied using the cellular automaton method. The boundary heat transfer coefficient was adjusted to get a suitable temperature field and a high-quality mc-Si ingot. Under the conditions of top adiabatic and bottom constant heat flux, the shape of the crystal-melt interface changes from concave to convex with the decrease of the heat transfer coefficient on the side boundaries. In addition, the nuclei form at the bottom boundary while columnar crystals develop into silicon melt with amzigzag-faceted interface. The higher-energy silicon grains were merged into lower energy ones. In the end, the number of silicon grains decreases with the increase of crystal length.

  6. Characterization of the adenosine receptor in cultured embryonic chick atrial myocytes: Coupling to modulation of contractility and adenylate cyclase activity and identification by direct radioligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Adenosine receptors in a spontaneously contracting atrial myocyte culture from 14-day chick embryos were characterized by radioligand binding studies and by examining the involvement of G-protein in coupling these receptors to a high-affinity state and to the adenylate cyclase and the myocyte contractility. Binding of the antagonist radioligand [3H]-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-diproylxanthine ([3H]CPX) was rapid, reversible and saturable and was to a homogeneous population of sites with a Kd value of 2.1 +/- 0.2 nM and an apparent maximum binding of 26.2 +/- 3 fmol/mg of protein (n = 10, +/- S.E.). Guanyl-5-yl-(beta, gamma-imido)diphosphate had no effect on either the Kd or the maximum binding and CPX reversed the N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and contractility, indicating that [3H] CPX is an antagonist radioligand. Competition curves for [3H] CPX binding by a series of reference adenosine agonists were consistent with labeling of an A1 adenosine receptor and were better fit by a two-site model than by a one-site model. ADP-ribosylation of the G-protein by the endogenous NAD+ in the presence of pertussis toxin shifted the competition curves from bi to monophasic with Ki values similar to those of the KL observed in the absence of prior pertussis intoxication. The adenosine agonists were capable of inhibiting both the adenylate cyclase activity and myocyte contractility in either the absence or the presence of isoproterenol. The A1 adenosine receptor-selective antagonist CPX reversed these agonist effects. The order of ability of the reference adenosine receptor agonists in causing these inhibitory effects was similar to the order of potency of the same agonists in inhibiting the specific [3H]CPX binding (N6-R-phenyl-2-propyladenosine greater than N6-S-phenyl-2-propyladenosine or N-ethyladenosine-5'-uronic acid)

  7. Multi-year downscaling application of two-way coupled WRF v3.4 and CMAQ v5.0.2 over east Asia for regional climate and air quality modeling: model evaluation and aerosol direct effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chaopeng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Tang, Youhua; Tong, Daniel; He, Kebin

    2017-06-01

    modeling system with direct aerosol feedbacks predicted aerosol optical depth relatively well and significantly reduced the overprediction in downward shortwave radiation at the surface (SWDOWN) over polluted regions in China. The performance of cloud variables was not as good as other meteorological variables, and underpredictions of cloud fraction resulted in overpredictions of SWDOWN and underpredictions of shortwave and longwave cloud forcing. The importance of climate-chemistry interactions was demonstrated via the impacts of aerosol direct effects on climate and air quality. The aerosol effects on climate and air quality in east Asia (e.g., SWDOWN and T2 decreased by 21.8 W m-2 and 0.45 °C, respectively, and most pollutant concentrations increased by 4.8-9.5 % in January over China's major cities) were more significant than in other regions because of higher aerosol loadings that resulted from severe regional pollution, which indicates the need for applying online-coupled models over east Asia for regional climate and air quality modeling and to study the important climate-chemistry interactions. This work established a baseline for WRF-CMAQ simulations for a future period under the RCP4.5 climate scenario, which will be presented in a future paper.

  8. Efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals-based antiviral therapies for hepatitis C virus patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Qu, Yundong; Guo, Ying; Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals (DAA)-based antiviral therapies for HCV patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CENTRAL on the Cochrane Library without time and language limitations. The search strategy used was "(End stage renal disease OR chronic kidney failure OR severe renal impairment OR chronic kidney disease OR dialysis) AND (sofosbuvir OR simeprevir OR grazoprevir OR elbasvir OR ombitasvir OR paritaprevir OR ritonavir OR dasabuvir OR daclatasvir OR asuparevir OR direct-acting antiviral OR DAA)". Sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12), adverse events (AEs) and/or serious adverse events (SAEs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled. Eleven studies, comprising a total of 264 patients were included for our meta-analysis. The pooled SVR12 rate were 93.2% (95% CI 89.9%-95.9%, I 2 =0.0%), 89.4% (95% CI 82.0%-95.0%, I 2 =0.0%) and 94.7% (95% CI 91.0%-97.5%, I 2 =0.0%) in total population, patients with sofosbuvir-based therapies and patients with non-sofosbuvir-based therapies respectively. For HCV genotype 1 patients, the pooled SVR12 rate was 93.1% (95% CI 88.3%-96.7%, I 2 =20.0%). The pooled incidence of SAEs was 12.1% (95% CI 6.2%-19.7%, I 2 =55.0%). The pooled discontinuation rate because of AEs or SAEs in our meta-analysis was 2.2% (95% CI 0.8%-4.4%, I 2 =0.0%). DAA-based antiviral therapies are effective and well-tolerated for HCV patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  10. Assess the key physics that underpins high-hydro coupling-efficiency in NDCX-II experiments and high-gain heavy ion direct drive target designs using proven hydro codes like HYDRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J. J.; Hay, M. J.; Logan, B. G.; Ng, S. F.; Perkins, L. J.; Veitzer, S.; Yu, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    The simulations provided in this milestone have solidified the theoretical underpinning of direct drive targets and also the ability to design experiments on NDCX II that will enhance our understanding of ion-beam hydrodynamic coupling, and thus be relevant to IFE. For the case of the IFE targets, we have studied hydro and implosion efficiency using HYDRA in ID, a starting point towards the goal of polar direct drive in geometry compatible with liquid wall chambers. Recent analysis of direct drive fusion energy targets using heavy ion beams has found high coupling efficiency of ion beam energy into implosion energy. However, to obtain optimal coupling, the ion energy must increase during the pulse in order to penetrate the outflowing ablated material, and deposit the energy close enough to the fuel so that the fuel achieves sufficient implosion velocity. We have computationally explored ID (radial) time dependent models of ion driven direct drive capsule implosions using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) code HYDRA, to help validate the theoretical analysis done so far, particularly exploring the effects of varying the ion energy and ion current over the course of the pulse. On NDCX II, experiments have been proposed to explore issues of ion penetration of the outflowing plasma over the course of the ion pulse. One possibility is to create a first pulse of ions that heats a planar target, and produces an outflow of material. A second pulse, {approx}10 ns after the first, of higher ion energy (and hence larger projected range) will interact with this outflow before reaching and further heating the target. We have investigated whether the change in range can be tailored to match the evolution of the ablation front. We have carried out simulations using the one-dimensional hydrodynamic code DISH and HYDRA to set parameters for this class of experiments. DISH was upgraded with an ion deposition algorithm, and we have carried out ID (planar) simulations. HYDRA was

  11. Fast quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer) by using solid-phase methylation coupled to direct analysis in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; He, Yangfang; Li, Lele; Liu, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    A fast quantitative method for ginsenosides is essential to minimize analysis time; direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) has the potential to be used for this purpose. However, in order to produce ginsenosides, a derivatization such as methylation is required because the strong polarity of ginsenosides makes it difficult to desorp and ionize them in DART-MS. The main objectives of this study were to achieve fast detection and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides by using DART-MS; solid-phase methylation of ginsenosides has been accomplished in a reaction column; methylated products of ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, Re, Rf and Rg1 were analyzed by applying DART-MS where samples could be detected after methylation without the need for further purification. For quantitative analysis, deuterated methylated ginsenosides were prepared by using the solid-phase methylation method and used as internal standards to improve repeatability in DART-MS. Methylated ginsenosides produced protonated molecules [M + H](+) and fragment ions in DART-MS. Two pairs of ginsenoside isomers, Rd/Re (C48 H82 O18 , MW 946) and Rf/Rg1(C42 H72 O14 , MW 800), could be discriminated based on their characteristic fragments in tandem mass spectrometry. By using deuterated methylated ginsenosides as internal standards, fast quantitative analysis of ginsenosides Rb1, Re and Rg1 in Asian ginseng was achieved by DART-MS. DART-MS is a feasible technique for fast quantitative analysis of ginsenosides by assisted methylation and the deuterated internal standard technique. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Direct detection of carbapenemase-associated proteins of Acinetobacter baumannii using nanodiamonds coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai-Chih; Chung, Chin-Yi; Yeh, Chen-Hsing; Hsu, Kuo-Hsiu; Chin, Ya-Ching; Huang, Sin-Siang; Liu, Bo-Rong; Chen, Hsi-An; Hu, Anren; Soo, Po-Chi; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2018-04-01

    reached 100% as compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. Our approach could directly detect the carbapenemase-associated proteins of A. baumannii within 90 min and does not require addition of carbapenemase substrate which is required in the MHT or other mass spectrometric methods. For future applications, our method could be efficiently used in the detection of other carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Catalytic mechanisms of direct pyrrole synthesis via dehydrogenative coupling mediated by PNP-Ir or PNN-Ru pincer complexes: Crucial role of proton-transfer shuttles in the PNP-Ir system

    KAUST Repository

    Qu, Shuanglin

    2014-04-02

    Kempe et al. and Milstein et al. have recently advanced the dehydrogenative coupling methodology to synthesize pyrroles from secondary alcohols (e.g., 3) and β-amino alcohols (e.g., 4), using PNP-Ir (1) and PNN-Ru (2) pincer complexes, respectively. We herein present a DFT study to characterize the catalytic mechanism of these reactions. After precatalyst activation to give active 1A/2A, the transformation proceeds via four stages: 1A/2A-catalyzed alcohol (3) dehydrogenation to give ketone (11), base-facilitated C-N coupling of 11 and 4 to form an imine-alcohol intermediate (18), base-promoted cyclization of 18, and catalyst regeneration via H2 release from 1R/2R. For alcohol dehydrogenations, the bifunctional double hydrogen-transfer pathway is more favorable than that via β-hydride elimination. Generally, proton-transfer (H-transfer) shuttles facilitate various H-transfer processes in both systems. Notwithstanding, H-transfer shuttles play a much more crucial role in the PNP-Ir system than in the PNN-Ru system. Without H-transfer shuttles, the key barriers up to 45.9 kcal/mol in PNP-Ir system are too high to be accessible, while the corresponding barriers (<32.0 kcal/mol) in PNN-Ru system are not unreachable. Another significant difference between the two systems is that the addition of alcohol to 1A giving an alkoxo complex is endergonic by 8.1 kcal/mol, whereas the addition to 2A is exergonic by 8.9 kcal/mol. The thermodynamic difference could be the main reason for PNP-Ir system requiring lower catalyst loading than the PNN-Ru system. We discuss how the differences are resulted in terms of electronic and geometric structures of the catalysts and how to use the features in catalyst development. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. The use of cation exchange matrix separation coupled with ICP-MS to directly determine platinum group element (PGE) and other trace element emissions from passenger cars equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Warren R.L.; Cozzi, Giulio [Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, Venice (Italy); De Boni, Antonella; Gabrieli, Jacopo [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Science, Venice (Italy); Asti, Massimo; Merlone Borla, Edoardo; Parussa, Flavio [Centro Ricerche Fiat, Orbassano (Italy); Moretto, Ezio [FIAT Powertrain Technologies S.p.A, Turin (Italy); Cescon, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Science, Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, UMR CNRS 5183, B.P. 96, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled with cation exchange matrix separation has been optimised for the direct determination of platinum group element (PGE) and trace element emissions from a diesel engine car. After matrix separation method detection limits of 1.6 ng g{sup -1} for Pd, 0.4 ng g{sup -1} for Rh and 4.3 ng g{sup -1} for Pt were achieved, the method was validated against the certified reference material BCR 723, urban road dust. The test vehicle was fitted with new and aged catalytic converters with and without diesel particulate filters (DPF). Samples were collected after three consecutive New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) of the particulate and ''soluble'' phases using a home-made sampler optimised for trace element analysis. Emission factors for the PGEs ranged from 0.021 ng km{sup -1} for Rh to 70.5 ng km{sup -1} for Pt; when a DPF was fitted, the emission factors for the PGEs actually used in the catalysts dropped by up to 97% (for Pt). Trace element emission factors were found to drop by a maximum of 92% for Ni to a minimum of 18% for Y when a DPF was fitted; a new DPF was also found to cause a reduction of up to 86% in the emission of particulate matter. (orig.)

  15. Fully Automatic In-Syringe Magnetic Stirring-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Hyphenated to High-Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System-Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer with Direct Injection of the Organic Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Raquel; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Fikarová, Kateřina; Sklenářová, Hana; Maestre, Salvador; Miró, Manuel; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2017-03-21

    A proof of concept study involving the online coupling of automatic dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) with direct introduction and analysis of the organic extract is herein reported for the first time. The flow-based analyzer features a lab-in-syringe (LIS) setup with an integrated stirring system, a Meinhard nebulizer in combination with a heated single-pass spray chamber, and a rotary injection valve, used as an online interface between the microextraction system and the detection instrument. Air-segmented flow was used for delivery of a fraction of the nonwater miscible extraction phase, 12 μL of xylene, to the nebulizer. All sample preparative steps including magnetic stirring assisted DLLME were carried out inside the syringe void volume as a size-adaptable yet sealed mixing and extraction chamber. Determination of trace level concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, and silver as model analytes has been demonstrated by microextraction as diethyldithiophosphate (DDTP) complexes. The automatic LIS-DLLME method features quantitative metal extraction, even in troublesome sample matrixes, such as seawater, salt, and fruit juices, with relative recoveries within the range of 94-103%, 93-100%, and 92-99%, respectively. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences at the 0.05 significance level were found between concentration values experimentally obtained and the certified values of two serum standard reference materials.

  16. Elemental profiling and geographical differentiation of Ethiopian coffee samples through inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and direct mercury analyzer (DMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Girum; Hwang, In Min; Kim, Jae Sung; Hong, Joon Ho; Hong, Young Sin; Choi, Ji Yeon; Nho, Eun Yeong; Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Kim, Kyong Su

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed to establish the elemental profiling and provenance of coffee samples collected from eleven major coffee producing regions of Ethiopia. A total of 129 samples were analyzed for forty-five elements using inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-optical emission spectroscopy (OES), ICP-mass spectrometry (MS) and direct mercury analyzer (DMA). Among the macro elements, K showed the highest levels whereas Fe was found to have the lowest concentration values. In all the samples, Ca, K, Mg, P and S contents were statistically significant (pCu>Sr>Zn>Rb>Ni>B. Contents of the trace elements were lower than the permissible standard values. Inter-regions differentiation by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that micro and trace elements are the best chemical descriptors of the analyzed coffee samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combustion of coked sand in a two-stage fluidized bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronella, C.J.; Seader, J.D. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    An advanced multiple-stage fluidized bed reactor system has been devised for the energy-efficient extraction and conversion, from tar sand, of bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The reactor consists of four fluidized beds arranged as stages in series with respect to flow of sand. In the first stage, tar sands are heated, causing the bitumen to pyrolyse into coke, which is deposited on the sand, and gas, which is mostly condensed into oil. The coke is partially combusted with air or enriched oxygen in the second stage, which is thermally coupled to the first stage by multiple vertical heat pipes. Combustion is completed adiabatically in the third stage and heat recovery from the sand is carried out in the fourth stage. By conducting the coke combustion in two stages in this manner, the overall reactor residence time to produce clean sand is greatly reduced from that for a single combustion stage. Laboratory experimental studies have confirmed the ability to operate and control the two thermally coupled stages. The two-phase bubbling bed model of Grace, amended to account for bubble growth in the axial direction, has been adopted to model the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the fluidized beds. The model for the first and second combustion stages is complete. Predictions for exit reactor conditions at various operating conditions are in reasonable agreement with experimental observations. The operating parameters have been found to exert a much greater influence on the predictions of the model than do the values of the physical parameters, indicating a desirable degree of reactor stability. Extension of the model to the pyrolysis and heat recovery stages will permit the optimization of the reactor configuration and operating conditions. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Acoustical coupling of lizard eardrums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Manley, Geoffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Lizard ears are clear examples of two-input pressure-difference receivers, with up to 40-dB differences in eardrum vibration amplitude in response to ipsi- and contralateral stimulus directions. The directionality is created by acoustical coupling of the eardrums and interaction of the direct...

  19. Direct coupled amplifiers using field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1964-03-01

    The concept of the uni-polar field effect transistor (P.E.T.) was known before the invention of the bi-polar transistor but it is only recently that they have been made commercially. Being produced as yet only in small quantities, their price imposes a restriction on use to circuits where their peculiar properties can be exploited to the full. One such application is described here where the combination of low voltage drift and relatively low input leakage current are necessarily used together. One of the instruments used to control nuclear reactors has a logarithmic response to the mean output current from a polarised ionisation chamber. The logarithmic signal is then differentiated electrically, the result being displayed on a meter calibrated to show the reactor divergence or doubling time. If displayed in doubling time the scale is calibrated reciprocally. Because of the wide range obtained in the logarithmic section and the limited supply voltage, an output of 1 volt per decade change in ionisation current is used. Differentiating this gives a current of 1.5 x 10 -8 A for p.s.D. (20 sec. doubling time) in the differentiating amplifier. To overcome some of the problems of noise due to statistical variations in input current, the circuit design necessitates a resistive path to ground at the amplifier input of 20 M.ohms. A schematic diagram is shown. 1. It is evident that a zero drift of 1% can be caused by a leakage current of 1.5 x 10 -10 A or an offset voltage of 3 mV at the amplifier input. Although the presently used electrometer valve is satisfactory from the point of view of grid current, there have been sudden changes in grid to grid voltage (the valve is a double triode) of up to 10 m.V. It has been found that a pair of F.E.T's. can be used to replace the electrometer valve so long as care is taken in correct balance of the two devices. An investigation has been made into the characteristics of some fourteen devices to see whether those with very different characteristics can still be used or whether selection is necessary or desirable. The results recorded here suggest that either course can be followed or more attractively a combination of the two. It is evident that the characteristics of the P.E.T. are amenable to simple calculation to a far greater extent than is the case with the duo-junction transistor

  20. Novel and rapid method for determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in edible fungus using direct gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled on-line with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Jingxi; Wang, Juan; Piao, Xiangfan; Yang, Cui; Wu, Xue; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-09-01

    In this work a new analytical method for a rapid and simultaneous determination of 28 organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) residues in edible fungus using gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE), coupled with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GP-MSE-GC-MS) has been developed and optimized. GP-MSE, a novel gas flow liquid-phase microextraction technique, has been then fruitfully used as innovative and one-step extraction procedure, allowing a direct injection into the gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) system without any further cleaning step. Once optimized, the GP-MSE-GC-MS analysis procedure showed reproducibility values, resolutions, linear responses, detection and quantification limits that allowed to consider this method suitable for the analysis of the 28 OPPs in real samples. Furthermore, OPP recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 85.26% to 100.21%, and from 1.6% to 6.9%, respectively. This procedure was then used for the analysis of real samples and the obtained results were compared with those of ultrasonic extraction-solid phase extraction. Among the 28 OPPs, 14 of them were found in Lentinus edodes and Enoki mushrooms fungus samples, with a total concentrations of 112.7 and 210.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. This work demonstrated then that GP-MSE-GC-MS provided a highly efficient, solvent-saving, accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis method for a rapid determination of OPPs in edible fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Observation of the Strong Electronic Coupling in Near-Infrared-Absorbing Tetraferrocene aza-Dipyrromethene and aza-BODIPY with Direct Ferrocene-α- and Ferrocene-β-Pyrrole Bonds: Toward Molecular Machinery with Four-Bit Information Storage Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsikha, Yuriy V; Holstrom, Cole D; Chanawanno, Kullapa; Osinski, Allen J; Ziegler, Christopher J; Nemykin, Victor N

    2017-01-17

    The 1,3,7,9-tetraferrocenylazadipyrromethene (3) and the corresponding 1,3,5,7-tetraferrocene aza-BODIPY (4) were prepared via three and four synthetic steps, respectively, starting from ferrocenecarbaldehyde using the chalcone-type synthetic methodology. The novel tetra-iron compounds have ferrocene groups directly attached to both the α- and the β-pyrrolic positions, and the shortest Fe-Fe distance determined by X-ray crystallography for 3 was found to be ∼6.98 Å. These new compounds were characterized by UV-vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods, while metal-metal couplings in these systems were probed by electro- and spectroelectrochemistry, chemical oxidations, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Electrochemical data are suggestive of the well-separated stepwise oxidations of all four ferrocene groups in 3 and 4, while spectroelectrochemical and chemical oxidation experiments allowed for characterization of the mixed-valence forms in the target compounds. Intervalence charge-transfer band analyses indicate that the mixed-valence [3] + and [4] + complexes belong to the weakly coupled class II systems in the Robin-Day classification. This interpretation was further supported by Mössbauer spectroscopy in which two individual doublets for Fe(II) and Fe(III) centers were observed in room-temperature experiments for the mixed-valence [3] n+ and [4] n+ species (n = 1-3). The electronic structure, redox properties, and UV-vis spectra of new systems were correlated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations (TDDFT), which are suggestive of a ferrocene-centered highest occupied molecular orbital and chromophore-centered lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in 3 and 4 as well as predominant spin localization at the ferrocene fragment attached to the α-pyrrolic positions in [3] + and [4] + .

  2. A novel voice coil motor-driven compliant micropositioning stage based on flexure mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jiangkun; Tian, Yanling; Li, Zheng; Wang, Fujun; Cai, Kunhai

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a 2-degrees of freedom flexure-based micropositioning stage with a flexible decoupling mechanism. The stage is composed of an upper planar stage and four vertical support links to improve the out-of-plane stiffness. The moving platform is driven by two voice coil motors, and thus it has the capability of large working stroke. The upper stage is connected with the base through six double parallel four-bar linkages mechanisms, which are orthogonally arranged to implement the motion decoupling in the x and y directions. The vertical support links with serially connected hook joints are utilized to guarantee good planar motion with heavy-loads. The static stiffness and the dynamic resonant frequencies are obtained based on the theoretical analyses. Finite element analysis is used to investigate the characteristics of the developed stage. Experiments are carried out to validate the established models and the performance of the developed stage. It is noted that the developed stage has the capability of translational motion stroke of 1.8 mm and 1.78 mm in working axes. The maximum coupling errors in the x and y directions are 0.65% and 0.82%, respectively, and the motion resolution is less than 200 nm. The experimental results show that the developed stage has good capability for trajectory tracking.

  3. Fast and robust direct immersion solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method employing a matrix compatible fiber for determination of triazole fungicides in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica A Souza; Lopez-Avila, Viorica; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-10-25

    A fast and robust method was developed for the determination of ten triazole fungicides in fruit samples using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (DI-SPME-GC-ToFMS). In this work, a newly developed concept of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbent, which allows for direct immersion extraction in complex food matrices, has been applied in the analysis of 10 triazole fungicides in grapes and strawberries pulps. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including extraction temperature, sample pH, and ionic strength, agitation speed, extraction and desorption times. Under optimized conditions, the method was linear for over 4 orders of magnitude in concentration, with linear regression coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.99 for all test compounds in both matrices. Method reproducibility, as determined by analysis of spiked grapes and strawberries, was better than ±20%. The limits of quantitation objective (LOQs) ranged from 0.25 to 5 ng g(-1) for both matrices, well below the maximum residues levels allowed for those compounds in both matrices. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of commercial samples of grapes and strawberries. Finally, the new SPME method was compared to a modified version of t QuEChERS AOAC method: the limits of quantitation reached by SPME were at least one order of magnitude lower than those achieved by the QuEChERS method, whereas precision and accuracy were comparable for both methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    of structural couplings between psychic and social systems (Luhmann 2002: 275, Tække 2011). In this way media are seen as a necessary third, making it possible for two different kinds of systems to process, using complexity from one another - leaving out the idea of direct transmission. In actor-network theory...... Danish to English, but to describe: “displacement, drift, invention, mediation, the creation of a link that did not exist before and that to some degree modifies two elements or agents” (Latour 1994, 32). The paper works with two aims. The first aim is to discuss what kinds of structural couplings...... to compare the semantics of their concepts. The paper first provides an analysis and discussion of language as the mechanism of structural coupling between the levels of psychic and social systems. Then the article provides an analysis and discussion of translation as a transformation process between actors...

  5. Rapid screening of 35 new psychoactive substances by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Seongshin; Almirall, Jose R

    2015-10-01

    The recent propagation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has led to the development of new techniques for the rapid characterization of controlled substances in this category. A commercial bench-top ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a (63) Ni ionization source and a direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) were used for the rapid characterization of 35 NPS. The advantages of these techniques are fast response, ease of operation, and minimal sample preparation. The characteristic reduced mobilities of each substance are reported as are the mass spectra of the 35 compounds. The acquired product ion scan mass spectra were also compared to a library database constructed by QTOF with a electrospray ionization (ESI) source and showed a consistent relative abundance for each peak over time. A total of four seized drug samples provided by the local forensic laboratory were analyzed in order to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The results of this study suggest that both IMS and DART-QTOF are promising alternatives for the rapid screening and characterization of these new psychoactive substances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve...... the processing of low-frequency directional signals, while higher frequency signals appear to be progressively uncoupled. In both lizards and crocodilians, the increased directionality of the coupled ears leads to an effectively larger head and larger physiological range of ITDs. This increased physiological...

  7. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detailed information about the cancer stage. TNM Staging System The most common system for staging cancer in the form of solid tumor is the TNM system. Most providers and cancer centers use it to stage ...

  8. Quick connect coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Curtis; Webbon, Bruce

    1995-02-01

    A cooling apparatus includes a container filled with a quantity of coolant fluid initially cooled to a solid phase, a cooling loop disposed between a heat load and the container, a pump for circulating a quantity of the same type of coolant fluid in a liquid phase through the cooling loop, and a pair of couplings for communicating the liquid phase coolant fluid into the container in a direct interface with the solid phase coolant fluid.

  9. Optimization of collision/reaction gases for determination of 90Sr in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry after direct introduction of air via a gas-exchange device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Ohara, Ryota; Matsunaga, Kirara

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear power plant accidents release radioactive strontium 90 (90Sr) into the environment. Monitoring of 90Sr, although important, is difficult and time consuming because it emits only beta radiation. We have developed a new analytical system that enables real-time analysis of 90Sr in atmospheric particulate matter with an analytical run time of only 10 min. Briefly, after passage of an air sample through an impactor, a small fraction of the sample is introduced into a gas-exchange device, where the air is replaced by Ar. Then the sample is directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) system equipped with a collision/reaction cell to eliminate isobaric interferences on 90Sr from 90Zr+, 89Y1H+, and 90Y+. Experiments with various reaction gas conditions revealed that these interferences could be minimized under the following optimized conditions: 1.0 mL min- 1 O2, 10.0 mL min- 1 H2, and 1.0 mL min- 1 NH3. The estimated background equivalent concentration and estimated detection limit of the system were 9.7 × 10- 4 and 3.6 × 10- 4 ng m- 3, respectively, which are equivalent to 4.9 × 10- 6 and 1.8 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3. Recoveries of Sr in PM2.5 measured by real-time analysis compared to those obtained by simultaneously collection on filter was 53 ± 23%, and using this recovery, the detection limit as PM2.5 was estimated to be 3.4 ± 1.5 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3. That is, this system enabled detection of 90Sr at concentrations < 5 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3 even considering the insufficient fusion/vaporization/ionization efficiency of Sr in PM2.5.

  10. Rapid screening of abused drugs by direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) combined with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ru; Wu, Zhongping; Lv, Xiaobao; Rao, Yulan; Li, Haiyang; Li, Jinghua; Wang, Rong; Ni, Chunfang; Zhang, Yurong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing in cases involving drugs of abuse leads to heavy burden for law enforcement agencies, exacerbating demand for rapid screening technique. In this study, atmospheric pressure ionization technologies including direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DART-TOF-MS)as well asdopant-assisted positive photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DAPP-IMS) without radioactivity were utilized together as the powerful analytical tool for the rapid screening and identification of 53 abused drugs.The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.05-2μg/mL when using DART-TOF-MS and 0.02-2μg when using DAPP-IMS which could satisfy the actual requirement in forensic science laboratory. The advantages of this method included fast response, high-throughput potential, high specificity, and minimal sample preparation. A screening library of reduced mobility (K 0 ), accurate mass of informative precursor ion ([M+H] + ) and fragment ions was established respectively by employing a bench-top DAPP-IMS and TOF-MS in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) mode. Then the standardized screening procedure was developed with criteria for the confirmation of positive result. A total of 50 seized drug samples provided by local forensic laboratory we reanalyzed to testify the utility of the method. This study suggests that a method combing DART-TOF-MS and DAPP-IMS is promising for the rapid screening and identification of abused drugs with minimal sample preparation and absence of chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partial synchronization occurs in a population of chemical oscillators coupled through the concentration of chemical in the surrounding solutions [19]. Two nonlinear chaotic systems coupled indirectly through a common dynamic environment synchronize to in-phase or anti-phase state [20]. The early stages of Alzheimer's ...

  12. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, Tim; Peskin, Michael E.; Jung, Sunghoon; Tian, Junping

    2017-08-01

    Future e + e - colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e + e - data, based on the Effective Field Theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. We apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e + e - colliders.

  13. Improved formalism for precision Higgs coupling fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Jung, Sunghoon; Karl, Robert; List, Jenny; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Peskin, Michael E.; Tian, Junping

    2018-03-01

    Future e+e- colliders give the promise of model-independent determinations of the couplings of the Higgs boson. In this paper, we present an improved formalism for extracting Higgs boson couplings from e+e- data, based on the effective field theory description of corrections to the Standard Model. We apply this formalism to give projections of Higgs coupling accuracies for stages of the International Linear Collider and for other proposed e+e- colliders.

  14. Alignment Stage for a Cryogenic Dilatometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Matthew; Moore, Donald

    2005-01-01

    A three-degree-of-freedom alignment stage has been designed and built for use in a cryogenic dilatometer that is used to measure thermal strains. The alignment stage enables precise adjustments of the positions and orientations of optical components to be used in the measurements and, once adjustments have been completed, keeps the components precisely aligned during cryogenic-dilatometer operations that can last as long as several days. The alignment stage includes a case, a circular tilt/tip platform, and a variety of flexural couplings between the case and the platform, all machined from a single block of the low-thermal-expansion iron/nickel alloy Invar, in order to minimize effects of temperature gradients and to obtain couplings that are free of stiction and friction. There are three sets of flexural couplings clocked at equal angles of 120 degrees around the platform, constituting a three-point kinematic support system.

  15. Dark coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.

    2009-01-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed

  16. Matrix digestion of soil and sediment samples for extraction of lead, cadmium and antimony and their direct determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Fisher, A.S.; Henon, D.N.; Hill, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    An environmentally friendly and simple method has been developed for complete digestion of lead, cadmium and antimony from soil samples using a magnesium nitrate assisted dry ashing procedure. Statistical data for a series of experiments with standard reference materials are presented, and precision values are found to be comparable for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. From a single digest solution all analytes are quantified without involving any preconcentration routes. Inter-method comparison of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) shows that the probability of the results being different is less than 99 %. (author)

  17. A two-stage fixed-bed reactor for direct hydrotreatment of volatiles from the hydropyrolysis of biomass: effect of catalyst temperature, pressure and catalyst ageing time on product characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindoria, R.V.; Megaritis, A.; Herod, A.A.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1998-12-01

    This investigation involved the hydropyrolysis of biomass (eucalyptus globulus) and the immediate catalytic hydrocracking of pyrolytic oils in the second stage of the reactor. The effects of temperature, pressure and the catalyst ageing time on the final product tar have been studied using the catalyst Zeolite H-ZSM5. The catalytically hydrocracked tar/oil products were characterised and compared with the hydropyrolysis product from the first stage of the reactor to determine the effect of catalytic hydrocracking. The carbon deposition on the catalyst has been examined using thermogravimetric analysis. The tar yields after catalytic hydrocracking decreased with increasing pressure and temperature of the cracking stage. The tar yields at 10 bar pressure were greater than those at 40 bar pressure. The fresh zeolite catalyst trapped more than 40% of the product from the hydropyrolysis stage and TGA evidence indicated that this was not as carbon deposition but as volatiles trapped in the zeolite matrix. Reuse of the catalyst resulted in little more uptake of volatiles; however, extended use of the catalyst did not result in increased yields of liquid products but in increased production of light volatiles or gas. The H-ZSM5 catalyst appeared to act as a more active cracking catalyst rather than to promote hydrogenation or deoxygenation of the liquids produced in the hydropyrolysis stage. Characterisation of the liquids by SEC and UV fluorescence indicated that structural changes were relatively minor despite the significant changes in yields of liquids with process conditions. Available reaction routes do not appear to allow specific deoxygenation pathways to predominate without disintegration of parent molecules to lighter volatiles, under the conditions used here. 41 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  19. Warthog: Coupling Status Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Shane W. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reardon, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    stand-alone BISON run. Future work involves improving the user interface (UI), likely through integration with the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Workbench. Furthermore, automating the input creation would ease the user experience. The next priority is to continue coupling the work with other codes in the SHARP package. Efforts on other projects include work to couple the Nek5000 thermo-hydraulics code to MOOSE, but this is in the preliminary stages.

  20. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  1. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  2. Design, analysis and testing of a novel decoupled 2-DOF flexure-based micropositioning stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shang; Chen, Weihai; Liu, Jingmeng; Chen, Wenjie

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis and testing of a novel decoupled 2-DOF flexure-based micropositioning stage driven by piezoelectric-actuators (PZTs). In order to enlarge the travel range, a Scott-Russell mechanism and leverage mechanism are arranged in series, constituting a two-grade displacement amplifier to conquer the small displacement of the PZT. The design micropositioning stage is composed of symmetrically distributed flexure modules and each flexure module comprises compound parallelogram flexure beams serving as input decoupling, which allows the output decoupling by employing the tridimensional double compound parallelogram flexure mechanism. Based on the analytical model of both the amplifier and the XY stage established in static and dynamic analysis, the dimensions and performance of the stage has been conducted, which are verified by finite element analysis with ANSYS Workbench and prototype experiment with the fabricated prototype of the designed stage. It can be seen that the workspace of the developed stage is 148.11~μ \\text{m}× 149.73~μ m with the maximum output coupling errors of 0.693% and 0.637% in the y and x directions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed micropositioning stage possesses good performance in trajectory tracking and can achieve a wide range of precise positioning.

  3. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  4. A Kumada Coupling Catalyst, [Ni{(Ph2P)2N(CH2)3Si(OCH3)3-P,P }Cl2], Bearing a Ligand for Direct Immobilization Onto Siliceous Mesoporous Molecular Sieves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stamatopoulos, I.; Giannitsios, D.; Psycharis, V.; Raptopoulou, C. P.; Balcar, Hynek; Zukal, Arnošt; Svoboda, J.; Kyritsis, P.; Vohlídal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 18 (2015), s. 3038-3044 ISSN 1434-1948 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1143 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : homogenous catalysis * heterogeneous catalysis * cross coupling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2015

  5. Influence of growth stage at harvest on fermentative characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of stage of growth at harvest on fermentative characteristics of Panicum maximum silage. The treatments were three different growth stages (early vegetative, boot and full bloom stage) that were ensiled directly or wilted prior to ensiling. Directly ensiled and wilted ...

  6. Coupled Geomechanical Simulations of UCG Cavity Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J P; Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y

    2009-07-13

    This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project to develop predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (both natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). In this paper we will focus upon the development of coupled geomechanical capabilities for simulating the evolution of the UCG cavity using discrete element methodologies. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has unique advantages for facilitating the prediction of the mechanical response of fractured rock masses, such as cleated coal seams. In contrast with continuum approaches, the interfaces within the coal can be explicitly included and combinations of both elastic and plastic anisotropic response are simulated directly. Additionally, the DEM facilitates estimation of changes in hydraulic properties by providing estimates of changes in cleat aperture. Simulation of cavity evolution involves a range of coupled processes and the mechanical response of the host coal and adjoining rockmass plays a role in every stage of UCG operations. For example, cavity collapse during the burn has significant effect upon the rate of the burn itself. In the vicinity of the cavity, collapse and fracturing may result in enhanced hydraulic conductivity of the rock matrix in the coal and caprock above the burn chamber. Even far from the cavity, stresses due to subsidence may be sufficient to induce new fractures linking previously isolated aquifers. These mechanical processes are key in understanding the risk of unacceptable subsidence and the potential for groundwater contamination. These mechanical processes are inherently non-linear, involving significant inelastic response, especially in the region closest to the cavity. In addition, the response of the rock mass involves both continuum and discrete mechanical behavior. We have recently coupled the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) and NUFT (Non

  7. Inductively coupled helium plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar; Chan, Shi-Kit; Van Hoven, Raymond L.

    1989-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma torch including a base member, a plasma tube and a threaded insert member within the plasma tube for directing the plasma gas in a tangential flow pattern. The design of the torch eliminates the need for a separate coolant gas tube. The torch can be readily assembled and disassembled with a high degree of alignment accuracy.

  8. [Impact of anemia correction on the production of the circulating morphogenetic protein α-Klotho in patients with Stages 3B-4 chronic kidney disease: A new direction of cardionephroprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Yu S; Mukhin, N A; Kozlovskaya, L V; Milovanova, S Yu; Markina, M M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of anemia correction with erythropoiesis stimulants on the serum level of the circulating morphogenetic protein α-Klotho in patients with Stages 3B--4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). 64 patients aged 42±8 years with Stages 3B--4 nondiabetic CKD were examined and divided into 2 groups: 1) 32 patients with anemia (the target hemoglobin levels could be achieved and kept with erythropoietin and iron saccharate in 20 patients (Group A) and those could not be done in 12 patients (Group 1B). A control group (Group 2) consisted of 32 non-anemic patients matched for gender, age, and degree of a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction. Along with iron exchange indicators, the time course of changes in serum Klotho levels were examined in all the 64 patients during screening and one year after the end of the study. For correction of anemia, 32 patients with this condition (Groups 1A and 1B) took short-acting epoetin (hypodermic recormon 2,000 IU thrice per week + iron (intravenous venofer 5 ml of 100 mg once per week)) under control of hemoglobin levels and serum transferrin iron and ferritin saturation. After achieving the target hemoglobin level of 110-120 g/l, for its keeping, all the patients received, instead of short-acting epoetin, long-acting hypodermic darbepoetin-α 1.5 µg once every 2 months and intravenous iron saccharate 100 mg once every 2 weeks. Among the 32 anemic patients in Group 1, 20 (63%) (Group 1 A) could achieve the target hemoglobin level (110--120 g/l) and maintain it within this range, by performing therapy with epoitin-β + iron saccharate; anemia (the hemoglobin level of anemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure), but also a pathogenetic factor of CKD progression. Anemia correction with erythropoiesis stimulants has been shown to enhance the renal and extrarenal production of α-Klotho.

  9. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  10. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementias . Learn more: Daily Care and Behaviors Severe Alzheimer's disease (late-stage) Get support Late-stage care decisions can be some of the hardest families face. Connect with other caregivers who have been through the process on our ...

  11. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  12. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to evaporative light scattering detection for direct determination of underivatized amino acids: application to tea samples using carboxyled single-walled carbon nanotubes for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouri, Mohamed; Salghi, Rachid; Zougagh, Mohammed; Ríos, Angel

    2013-09-01

    An improved and efficient method for the determination of underivatized amino acids based on the use of CE coupled to evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD), involving carbon nanotubes, was successfully developed. Carboxyled single-walled carbon nanotubes were used for the first time to perform the clean-up of the analyzed samples, which were afterwards analyzed by CE-ELSD. White tea samples were used to demonstrate the usefulness of the CE-ELSD coupled methodology. A suitable interface, based on a triple tube design sprayer, was developed and successfully used for coupling both instruments. Parameters affecting the separation and determination, including the elimination of interferences, were studied and properly optimized. Under the optimized conditions good resolution was achieved for the separation of seven amino acids. The precision of the method, expressed as RSD, was found within the 3.5-5.3% range. The LOD obtained for the proposed method were in the 1.2-2.1 pg range and the LOQ, were in the 2.0-11.5 pg range, with injection pressure of 5 KPa for 20 s (15.3 nL). This method is simple, rapid, and selective compared with other conventional techniques. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  14. Modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, V.; Pietsch, G.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge was performed by solving numerically the coupled continuity, the Poisson and Townsend ionization equations and taking into account the ionization, attachment and detachment processes. The potential distribution at the dielectric surface and at the boundaries which surround the integration region have been calculated with the charge-image method in a 3D approach. In order to eliminate numerical diffusion effects, the solution of the continuity equation was corrected using a flux correction transport routine. At the positive voltage the development of the discharge channel is determined mainly by the shape of the electrode tip. At the negative voltage the following phases of the discharge may be distinguished: the initial phase, the cathode directed streamer phase resulting in the cathode layer formation, and the propagating phase. The physical processes governing each discharge phase are described in detail. (J.U.)

  15. Coupled cellular automata for frozen soil processes

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Nagare; P. Bhattacharya; J. Khanna; R. A. Schincariol

    2015-01-01

    Heat and water movement in variably saturated freezing soils is a strongly coupled phenomenon. The coupling is a result of the effects of sub-zero temperature on soil water potential, heat carried by water moving under pressure gradients, and dependency of soil thermal and hydraulic properties on soil water content. This study presents a one-dimensional cellular automata (direct solving) model to simulate coupled heat and water transport with phase change in variably satura...

  16. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  17. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  3. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  4. Device for the acquisition and visualization in real time of the velocity and direction of wind in a radiological post stage; Dispositivo para la adquisicion y visualizacion en tiempo real de la velocidad y direccion del viento en una posta radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledo P, L.M.; Guibert G, R. [CEADEN, Calle 30 No. 502 e/5 y 7 Ave. Miramar, Ciudad La Habana (Cuba); Dominguez L, O.; Alonso A, D.; Ramos V, E.O. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, 11300 La Habana, A.P. 6195 C.P. 10600 (Cuba)]. e-mail: ledo@ceaden.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The work shows the development, construction and post stage of a device dedicated to the acquisition and transmission in real time of the information on the behavior of the meteorological variables: velocity and wind direction. It is introduced for the first time in an observation position the automatic monitoring, in real time, using the tools that it offers the digitalisation of the information and the computation. The obtained data are registered in a PC, its are visualized appropriately and can be objects of later analysis. It was developed the application program Autoclima for such purpose. (Author)

  5. Evaluation of Air Coupled Ultrasound for Composite Aerospace Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, H.; Georgeson, G.; Bossi, R.

    2009-03-01

    Non-contact air coupled ultrasound suffers from the high acoustic impedance mismatch characteristics of air to solid interfaces. Advances in transducer technology, particularly MEMS, have improved the acoustic impedance match at the transmission stage and the signal to noise at the reception stage. Comparisons of through transmission (TTU) scanning of laminate and honeycomb test samples using conventional piezoelectric air coupled transducers, new MEMS air coupled transducers, and standard water coupled inspections have been performed to assess the capability. An additional issue for air coupled UT inspection is the need for a lean implementation for both manufacturing and in-service operations. Concepts and applications utilizing magnetic coupling of transducers have been developed that allows air coupled inspection operations in compact low cost configurations.

  6. Multi-path interferometric Josephson directional amplifier for qubit readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Bronn, Nicholas T.; Jinka, Oblesh; Olivadese, Salvatore; Brink, Markus; Chow, Jerry M.

    2018-04-01

    We realize and characterize a quantum-limited, directional Josephson amplifier suitable for qubit readout. The device consists of two nondegenerate, three-wave-mixing amplifiers that are coupled together in an interferometric scheme, embedded in a printed circuit board. Nonreciprocity is generated by applying a phase gradient between the same-frequency pumps feeding the device, which plays the role of the magnetic field in a Faraday medium. Directional amplification and reflection-gain elimination are induced via wave interference between multiple paths in the system. We measure and discuss the main figures of merit of the device and show that the experimental results are in good agreement with theory. An improved version of this directional amplifier is expected to eliminate the need for bulky, off-chip isolation stages that generally separate quantum systems and preamplifiers in high-fidelity, quantum-nondemolition measurement setups.

  7. Path coupling and aggregate path coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2018-01-01

    This book describes and characterizes an extension to the classical path coupling method applied to statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, the aggregate path coupling method is used to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The book shows how the parameter regions for rapid mixing for several classes of statistical mechanical models are derived using the aggregate path coupling method.

  8. Transfer pathways of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in rice and radish plants directly contaminated at different growth stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H. E-mail: yhchoi1@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, K.M.; Yu, D.; Park, H.G.; Choi, Y.G.; Lee, C.M

    2002-03-01

    In order to study radionuclide transfer pathways related to direct contamination of plants, the above-ground parts of rice and radish plants were sprayed with a solution containing {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in a greenhouse at 5 or 6 different times. Showing little difference among radionuclides, the interception factor increased as plants grew to maturity. Its highest observed value was 0.94 in rice and 0.83 in radish. Weathering losses of the intercepted activity by harvest were 32-89% in rice and 32-85% in radish depending on application time and radionuclide. Half lives for weathering loss were estimated to be longer on the whole for earlier applications. The translocation factor varied with application time by factors of 6-110 for hulled rice seeds and 2-23 for radish roots depending on the radionuclide. It varied with radionuclides by factors of 6-800 depending on application time and plant species. It was highest in the plants sprayed during active seed growth for rice and during early plant growth for radish. In general, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 57}Co had the highest translocation factors followed by {sup 54}Mn, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 103}Ru. Based on the experimental results, radionuclide concentrations in the edible parts of mature plants were predicted for unit deposition.

  9. Multiple stage railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage

  10. WYD method for an eigen solution of coupled problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Harapin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Designing efficient and stable algorithm for finding the eigenvalues andeigenvectors is very important from the static as well as the dynamic aspectin coupled problems. Modal analysis requires first few significant eigenvectorsand eigenvalues while direct integration requires the highest value toascertain the length of the time step that satisfies the stability condition.The paper first presents the modification of the well known WYDmethod for a solution of single field problems: an efficient and numericallystable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and the correspondingeigenvectors. The modification is based on the special choice of thestarting vector. The starting vector is the static solution of displacements forthe applied load, defined as the product of the mass matrix and the unitdisplacement vector. The starting vector is very close to the theoreticalsolution, which is important in cases of small subspaces.Additionally, the paper briefly presents the adopted formulation for solvingthe fluid-structure coupled systems problems which is based on a separatesolution for each field. Individual fields (fluid and structure are solvedindependently, taking in consideration the interaction information transferbetween them at every stage of the iterative solution process. The assessmentof eigenvalues and eigenvectors for multiple fields is also presented. This eigenproblem is more complicated than the one for the ordinary structural analysis,as the formulation produces non-symmetrical matrices.Finally, a numerical example for the eigen solution coupled fluidstructureproblem is presented to show the efficiency and the accuracy ofthe developed algorithm.

  11. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  12. Activation of BNGR-A24 by direct interaction with tachykinin-related peptides from the silkworm Bombyx mori leads to the Gq- and Gs-coupled signaling cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobai; Zang, Jiashu; Li, Xiangmei; Shao, Jiajie; Yang, Huipeng; Yang, Jingwen; Huang, Haishan; Chen, Linjie; Shi, Liangen; Zhu, Chenggang; Zhang, Guozheng; Zhou, Naiming

    2014-10-28

    Tachykinins constitute one of the largest peptide families in the animal kingdom and exert their diverse actions via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this study, the Bombyx tachykinin-related peptides (TKRPs) were identified as specific endogenous ligands for the Bombyx neuropeptide GPCR A24 (BNGR-A24) and thus designated BNGR-A24 as BmTKRPR. Using both mammalian cell line HEK293 and insect cell line Sf21, further characterization demonstrated that BmTKRPR was activated, thus resulting in intracellular accumulation of cAMP, Ca(2+) mobilization, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a Gs and Gq inhibitor-sensitive manner. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and dsRNA-mediated knockdown experiments suggested a possible role for BmTKRPR in the regulation of feeding and growth. Our findings enhance the understanding of the Bombyx TKRP system in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes.

  13. The APS (automatic injector in solid phase) coupled with GC/MS; L'injecteur A.P.S.: un nouveau concept d'injection directe automatique en phase solide pour CG/SM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsy, Ph.; Faugeron, I. [I.D. Analytical Service, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1999-07-01

    The introduction of VOC mixtures contained in solid samples in mass spectrometers requires a long and tedious preparation of the sample. The automatic injector in solid phase (APS) coupled with GC/MS has been designed to avoid these extractions while keeping the integrality of the sample. A considerable time is then saved for obtaining the result. With the APS injector, it is possible to introduce the samples differently: injection of compounds in solution after evaporation of the solvent; desorption of VOCs contained in fibers; desorption of VOCs contained in solids (soils, raw materials...). A lot of applications have been developed in petroleum industry, chemistry, environment. Some examples are given: (1)research of pollutants in soils (2)analysis of rocks coming from petroleum drilling. (O.M.)

  14. Direction of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirman, R.

    1975-01-01

    The meaning of the phrase ''the direction of time'' and the physical problems involved are considered. These problems are discussed, and plausibility arguments are given to show that all clocks run in the same direction (almost always), that the most probable development of the universe during the early stages of the expansion would result in the introduction of some internal organization, and that the expansion of the universe and the increase in entropy define time directions that have the same sense. The question of what properties of the laws governing the universe lead to these results is studied

  15. Interrelations among SMED Stages: A Causal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Díaz-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has received a lot of foreign investment that has brought in a wide range of novel production philosophies, such as Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED. Despite its popularity and reported effectiveness, Mexican companies often quit SMED implementation as they consider it challenging. This usually happens when organizations are not familiarized enough with each one of the SMED stages or do not know how they are interrelated. In this article the interrelations among the different SMED implementation stages by means of a structural equations model are analyzed. Data for constructing the model were gathered from a survey administered to 250 employees from the Mexican maquiladora industry. The survey assessed the importance of 14 activities belonging to the four SMED stages. The descriptive analyses of these stages were conducted and integrated into a structural equations model as latent variables, to find their level of dependency. The model was constructed using WarpPLS 5 software, and direct, indirect, and total effects among variables are analyzed and validated. Results from the model revealed that Stage 1 of SMED implementation, known as the Identification Stage, has both direct and indirect effects on all the other SMED stages, being the most important stage.

  16. Neural Cross-Frequency Coupling Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Stankovski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although neural interactions are usually characterized only by their coupling strength and directionality, there is often a need to go beyond this by establishing the functional mechanisms of the interaction. We introduce the use of dynamical Bayesian inference for estimation of the coupling functions of neural oscillations in the presence of noise. By grouping the partial functional contributions, the coupling is decomposed into its functional components and its most important characteristics—strength and form—are quantified. The method is applied to characterize the δ-to-α phase-to-phase neural coupling functions from electroencephalographic (EEG data of the human resting state, and the differences that arise when the eyes are either open (EO or closed (EC are evaluated. The δ-to-α phase-to-phase coupling functions were reconstructed, quantified, compared, and followed as they evolved in time. Using phase-shuffled surrogates to test for significance, we show how the strength of the direct coupling, and the similarity and variability of the coupling functions, characterize the EO and EC states for different regions of the brain. We confirm an earlier observation that the direct coupling is stronger during EC, and we show for the first time that the coupling function is significantly less variable. Given the current understanding of the effects of e.g., aging and dementia on δ-waves, as well as the effect of cognitive and emotional tasks on α-waves, one may expect that new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying certain diseases will be obtained from studies of coupling functions. In principle, any pair of coupled oscillations could be studied in the same way as those shown here.

  17. Staging of cutaneous melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mohr (P.); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); A. Hauschild (Axel); A. Buzaid (A.)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of cutaneous melanoma is a continuously evolving system. The identification of increasingly more accurate prognostic factors has led to major changes in melanoma staging over the years, and the current system described in this review

  18. Cooling apparatus and couplings therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Curtis; Webbon, Bruce

    1993-11-01

    A cooling apparatus includes a container filled with a quantity of coolant fluid initially cooled to a solid phase, a cooling loop disposed between a heat load and the container. A pump for circulating a quantity of the same type of coolant fluid in a liquid phase through the cooling loop, a pair of couplings for communicating the liquid phase coolant fluid into the container in a direct interface with the solid phase coolant fluid.

  19. Direct production of D-arabinose from D-xylose by a coupling reaction using D-xylose isomerase, D-tagatose 3-epimerase and D-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ishrat; Mizanur, Rahman Md; Takeshita, Kei; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae 40bXX, a mutant strain that constitutively produces D-arabinose isomerase (D-AI), was isolated through a series of repeated subcultures from the parent strain on a mineral salt medium supplemented with L-Xylose as the sole carbon source. D-AI could be efficiently immobilized on chitopearl beads. The optimum temperature for the activity of the immobilized enzyme was 40 degrees C and the enzyme was stable up to 50 degrees C. The D-Al was active at pH 10.0 and was stable in the range of pH 6.0-11.0. The enzyme required manganese ions for maximum activity. Three immobilized enzymes, D-xylose isomerase (D-XI), D-tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE and D-AI were used for the preparation of D-arabinose from D-xylose in a coupling reaction. After completion of the reaction, degradation of D-xylulose was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reaction mixture containing D-Xylose, D-ribulose and the product was then separated by ion exchange column chromatography. After crystallization, the product was checked by HPLC, IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and optical rotation measurements. Finally, 2.0 g of D-arabinose could be obtained from 5 g of the substrate.

  20. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  1. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Staging for vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shalini; Maheshwari, Amita; Srivastava, Astha

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer comprising about 3% of all gynecologic cancers. Primary vaginal cancer should be carefully assigned as spread from cervix, vulva, and other metastatic tumors to vagina can occur. Although vaginal cancer traditionally occurs in older postmenopausal women, the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers is increasing in younger women. Squamous cell carcinoma is still the most common histopathologic type followed by adenocarcinoma. With decreasing use of diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy, non-diethylstilbestrol-associated cancers are described. The Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) staging of vaginal cancer (2009) follows the same rules as cervical cancer; it is clinically staged and allows the use of routine investigative modalities for staging. Although FIGO encourages the use of advanced imaging modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), to guide therapy, the imaging findings may not be used to change or reassign the stage. TNM staging is the pathologic staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and information available from examination of the resected specimen, including pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes, may be used for staging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design Evaluation of Wind Turbine Spline Couplings Using an Analytical Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Wallen, R.; Errichello, R.; Halse, C.; Lambert, S.

    2015-02-01

    Articulated splines are commonly used in the planetary stage of wind turbine gearboxes for transmitting the driving torque and improving load sharing. Direct measurement of spline loads and performance is extremely challenging because of limited accessibility. This paper presents an analytical model for the analysis of articulated spline coupling designs. For a given torque and shaft misalignment, this analytical model quickly yields insights into relationships between the spline design parameters and resulting loads; bending, contact, and shear stresses; and safety factors considering various heat treatment methods. Comparisons of this analytical model against previously published computational approaches are also presented.

  4. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  5. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  7. Directed homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata.......We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata....

  8. Does coupling of uterine contractions reflect uterine dysfunction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients who developed coupled contractions had a longer duration of labour, a higher uterine activity integral and an increased incidence of caesarean section for failure to progress. Because coupling of uterine contractions may be indicative of dysfunctional uterine activity, and hence a prolonged first stage of labour, ...

  9. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  10. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of surgery : Local excision or simple polypectomy . Resection and anastomosis . This is done when the tumor is too ... stage I colon cancer usually includes the following: Resection and anastomosis . Use our clinical trial search to find NCI- ...

  11. Stages of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Moms Need Blog News & Media News Videos Mission stories Ambassadors Spotlights Tools & Resources Frequently asked media questions ... can be born. This stage can last as short as 20 minutes or as long as several ...

  12. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  13. Stages of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat esophageal cancer. A plastic ...

  14. Stages of Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat anal cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  15. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds , ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat penile cancer. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy ...

  16. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous...

  17. OSOAA: A Vector Radiative Transfer Model of Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean System for a Rough Sea Surface Application to the Estimates of the Directional Variations of the Water Leaving Reflectance to Better Process Multi-angular Satellite Sensors Data Over the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Malik; LaFrance, Bruno; Fougnie, Bertrand; Chowdhary, Jacek; Harmel, Tristan; Waquet, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present a radiative transfer model, so-called OSOAA, that is able to predict the radiance and degree of polarization within the coupled atmosphere-ocean system in the presence of a rough sea surface. The OSOAA model solves the radiative transfer equation using the successive orders of scattering method. Comparisons with another operational radiative transfer model showed a satisfactory agreement within 0.8%. The OSOAA model has been designed with a graphical user interface to make it user friendly for the community. The radiance and degree of polarization are provided at any level, from the top of atmosphere to the ocean bottom. An application of the OSOAA model is carried out to quantify the directional variations of the water leaving reflectance and degree of polarization for phytoplankton and mineral-like dominated waters. The difference between the water leaving reflectance at a given geometry and that obtained for the nadir direction could reach 40%, thus questioning the Lambertian assumption of the sea surface that is used by inverse satellite algorithms dedicated to multi-angular sensors. It is shown as well that the directional features of the water leaving reflectance are weakly dependent on wind speed. The quantification of the directional variations of the water leaving reflectance obtained in this study should help to correctly exploit the satellite data that will be acquired by the current or forthcoming multi-angular satellite sensors.

  18. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  19. Coupled DM Heating in SCDEW Cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Bonometto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly-Coupled Dark Energy plus Warm dark matter (SCDEW cosmologies admit the stationary presence of ∼1% of coupled-DM and DE, since inflationary reheating. Coupled-DM fluctuations therefore grow up to non-linearity even in the early radiative expansion. Such early non-linear stages are modelized here through the evolution of a top-hat density enhancement, reaching an early virial balance when the coupled-DM density contrast is just 25–26, and the DM density enhancement is ∼10 % of the total density. During the time needed to settle in virial equilibrium, the virial balance conditions, however, continue to modify, so that “virialized” lumps undergo a complete evaporation. Here, we outline that DM particles processed by overdensities preserve a fraction of their virial momentum. Although fully non-relativistic, the resulting velocities (moderately affect the fluctuation dynamics over greater scales, entering the horizon later on.

  20. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  1. Soluble Factors on Stage to Direct Mesenchymal Stem Cells Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sobacchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that are identified by in vitro plastic adherence, colony-forming capacity, expression of a panel of surface molecules, and ability to differentiate at least toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. They also produce trophic factors with immunomodulatory, proangiogenic, and antiapoptotic functions influencing the behavior of neighboring cells. On the other hand, a reciprocal regulation takes place; in fact, MSCs can be isolated from several tissues, and depending on the original microenvironment and the range of stimuli received from there, they can display differences in their essential characteristics. Here, we focus mainly on the bone tissue and how soluble factors, such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones, present in this microenvironment can orchestrate bone marrow-derived MSCs fate. We also briefly describe the alteration of MSCs behavior in pathological settings such as hematological cancer, bone metastasis, and bone marrow failure syndromes. Overall, the possibility to modulate MSCs plasticity makes them an attractive tool for diverse applications of tissue regeneration in cell therapy. Therefore, the comprehensive understanding of the microenvironment characteristics and components better suited to obtain a specific MSCs response can be extremely useful for clinical use.

  2. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  3. Photonic crystal coupled cavities with increased beaming and free space coupling efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddadi, S.; Yacomotti, A. M.; Sagnes, I.; Beaudoin, G.; Le Gratiet, L.; Levenson, J. A.; Raineri, F.

    2013-01-01

    We implement the band-folding approach in coupled photonic crystal L3 (three missing holes) nanocavities and demonstrate a dramatic beaming improvement compatible with high-Q operation. Directional laser effect is achieved. In addition, resonant free-space coupling to the symmetric and anti-symmetric hybrid modes of the photonic molecule is shown. We measure the coupling to each mode as a function of the spatial position of the laser spot, which can be used as a technique to probe the symmetry of coupled cavity modes.

  4. Direct analysis of 18 flavonol glycosides, aglycones and terpene trilactones in Ginkgo biloba tablets by matrix solid phase dispersion coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Guang; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Lei; Qin, Yong; Wang, Qi; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba have been comprehensively studied. However, little attention has been devoted to the simultaneous extraction and analysis of flavonols and terpene trilactones, especially for direct quantification of flavonol glycosides. This work described a rapid strategy for one-step extraction and quantification of the components. A matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) method was designed for the extraction of ginkgo ingredients and compared with the heat-reflux and ultrasonic extraction methods. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem-triple-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (QQQ-MS) method was developed for detection of the 18 components, including 10 original flavonol glycosides, 3 aglycones, and 5 lactones. Subsequently, the proposed strategy was used for the analysis of 12 G. biloba tablets. Results showed that MSPD produced comparable extraction efficiency but consumed less time and required lower solvent volumes compared with conventional methods. Without hydrolysis, the concentration detected was much closer to the original in the sample. The total flavonol glycoside contents in ginkgo tablets ranged from 3.59 to 125.21μgmg(-1), and the terpene trilactone varied from 3.45 to 57.8μgmg(-1) among different manufacturers. In conclusion, the proposed MSPD and UHPLC-QQQ-MS is rapid and sensitive in providing comprehensive profile of chemical constituents especially the genuine flavonol glycosides for improved quality control of ginkgo products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Online-LASIL: Laser Ablation of Solid Samples in Liquid with online-coupled ICP-OES detection for direct determination of the stoichiometry of complex metal oxide thin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Maximilian; Frank, Johannes; Taibl, Stefanie; Fleig, Jürgen; Limbeck, Andreas

    2018-02-13

    Advanced materials such as complex metal oxides are used in a wide range of applications and have further promising perspectives in the form of thin films. The exact chemical composition essentially influences the electronic properties of these materials which makes correct assessment of their composition necessary. However, due to high chemical resistance and in the case of thin films low absolute analyte amounts, this procedure is in most cases not straightforward and extremely time-demanding. Commonly applied techniques either lack in ease of use (i.e., solution-based analysis with preceding sample dissolution), or adequately accurate quantification (i.e., solid sampling techniques). An analysis approach which combines the beneficial aspects of solution-based analysis as well as direct solid sampling is Laser Ablation of a Sample in Liquid (LASIL). In this work, it is shown that the analysis of major as well as minor sample constituents is possible using a novel online-LASIL setup, allowing sample analysis without manual sample handling after placing it in an ablation chamber. Strontium titanate (STO) thin layers with different compositions were analyzed in the course of this study. Precision of the newly developed online-LASIL method is comparable to conventional wet chemical approaches. With only about 15-20 min required for the analysis per sample, time demand is significantly reduced compared to often necessary fusion procedures lasting multiple hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Universal Stabilization of a Parametrically Coupled Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Chakram, S.; Leung, N.; Earnest, N.; Naik, R. K.; Huang, Ziwen; Groszkowski, Peter; Kapit, Eliot; Koch, Jens; Schuster, David I.

    2017-10-01

    We autonomously stabilize arbitrary states of a qubit through parametric modulation of the coupling between a fixed frequency qubit and resonator. The coupling modulation is achieved with a tunable coupling design, in which the qubit and the resonator are connected in parallel to a superconducting quantum interference device. This allows for quasistatic tuning of the qubit-cavity coupling strength from 12 MHz to more than 300 MHz. Additionally, the coupling can be dynamically modulated, allowing for single-photon exchange in 6 ns. Qubit coherence times exceeding 20 μ s are maintained over the majority of the range of tuning, limited primarily by the Purcell effect. The parametric stabilization technique realized using the tunable coupler involves engineering the qubit bath through a combination of photon nonconserving sideband interactions realized by flux modulation, and direct qubit Rabi driving. We demonstrate that the qubit can be stabilized to arbitrary states on the Bloch sphere with a worst-case fidelity exceeding 80%.

  7. Staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Eun; Choi, Jin-Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei (Korea); Yonsei University Health System, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Park, Young Nyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yonsei (Korea); Lee, Yoon-Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yonsei (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    Preoperative staging of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is important in determining the best treatment plan. Several classification systems have been suggested to determine the operability and extent of surgery. Longitudinal tumor extent is especially important in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma because operative methods differ depending on the tumor extent. The Bismuth-Corlette classification system provides useful information when planning for surgery. However, this classification system is not adequate for selecting surgical candidates. Anatomic variation of the bile duct and gross morphology of the tumor must be considered simultaneously. Lateral spread of the tumor can be evaluated based on the TNM staging provided by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). However, there is a potential for ambiguity in the distinction of T1 and T2 cancer from one another. In addition, T stage does not necessarily mean invasiveness. Blumgart T staging is helpful for the assessment of resectability with the consideration of nodal status and distant metastasis as suggested by the AJCC cancer staging system. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the primary tools used in the assessment of longitudinal and lateral spread of a tumor when determining respectability. Diagnostic laparoscopy and positron emission tomography (PET) may play additional roles in this regard. (orig.)

  8. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  9. Confirming therapeutic target of protopine using immobilized β2 -adrenoceptor coupled with site-directed molecular docking and the target-drug interaction by frontal analysis and injection amount-dependent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangxin; Wang, Pei; Li, Chan; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2017-07-01

    Drug-protein interaction analysis is pregnant in designing new leads during drug discovery. We prepared the stationary phase containing immobilized β 2 -adrenoceptor (β 2 -AR) by linkage of the receptor on macroporous silica gel surface through N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole method. The stationary phase was applied in identifying antiasthmatic target of protopine guided by the prediction of site-directed molecular docking. Subsequent application of immobilized β 2 -AR in exploring the binding of protopine to the receptor was realized by frontal analysis and injection amount-dependent method. The association constants of protopine to β 2 -AR by the 2 methods were (1.00 ± 0.06) × 10 5 M -1 and (1.52 ± 0.14) × 10 4 M -1 . The numbers of binding sites were (1.23 ± 0.07) × 10 -7 M and (9.09 ± 0.06) × 10 -7 M, respectively. These results indicated that β 2 -AR is the specific target for therapeutic action of protopine in vivo. The target-drug binding occurred on Ser 169 in crystal structure of the receptor. Compared with frontal analysis, injection amount-dependent method is advantageous to drug saving, improvement of sampling efficiency, and performing speed. It has grave potential in high-throughput drug-receptor interaction analysis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Trilateral market coupling. Algorithm appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    Market Coupling is both a mechanism for matching orders on the exchange and an implicit cross-border capacity allocation mechanism. Market Coupling improves the economic surplus of the coupled markets: the highest purchase orders and the lowest sale orders of the coupled power exchanges are matched, regardless of the area where they have been submitted; matching results depend however on the Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) between the coupled hubs. Market prices and schedules of the day-ahead power exchanges of the several connected markets are simultaneously determined with the use of the Available Transfer Capacity defined by the relevant Transmission System Operators. The transmission capacity is thereby implicitly auctioned and the implicit cost of the transmission capacity from one market to the other is the price difference between the two markets. In particular, if the transmission capacity between two markets is not fully used, there is no price difference between the markets and the implicit cost of the transmission capacity is null. Market coupling relies on the principle that the market with the lowest price exports electricity to the market with the highest price. Two situations may appear: either the Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) is large enough and the prices of both markets are equalized (price convergence), or the ATC is too small and the prices cannot be equalized. The Market Coupling algorithm takes as an input: 1 - The Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) between each area for each flow direction and each Settlement Period of the following day (i.e. for each hour of following day); 2 - The (Block Free) Net Export Curves (NEC) of each market for each hour of the following day, i.e., the difference between the total quantity of Divisible Hourly Bids and the total quantity of Divisible Hourly Offers for each price level. The NEC reflects a market's import or export volume sensitivity to price. 3 - The Block Orders submitted by the participants in

  11. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...... to rise the following questions: What happens to the status of the author, when he suddenly (re-)appears on stage? How is this appearance to be understood in both a contemporary and historical context: Is it the musical virtuous appearing again, are we witnessing musical works turning...

  12. Broadband terahertz fiber directional coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber by micro......We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber...

  13. Fast determination of pesticides and other contaminants of emerging concern in treated wastewater using direct injection coupled to highly sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Mañas, Marina Celia; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Sánchez-Pérez, José Antonio; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana

    2017-07-21

    It is well known that wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents usually contain micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals (or their transformation products, TPs) or pesticides, which is a major issue when evaluating their possible reuse (e.g. for irrigation in agriculture). In search for an improved accuracy and simplicity, methods based on the direct injection of the sample (DI) represent a recent trend taking advantage of the increasing sensitivity of new mass spectrometry (MS) instruments. Thus, the present study shows the development and validation of a DI-based method by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-linear ion trap analyser (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS/MS). The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of 115 organic microcontaminants (including pharmaceuticals, TPs and pesticides) at the ngL -1 /μgL -1 level in wastewater effluents from urban WWTPs. Sample pre-treatment was reduced to acetonitrile addition and filtration of the mixture previous to LC-MS analysis. Total analysis time was <15min. A subsequent validation protocol was carried out in treated WW (TWW), following indications of SANTE and Eurachem Guidelines. Linearity and matrix effect were evaluated in the range of 10-1000ngL -1 . 70% of the analytes showed a moderate matrix effect (≤25%). Trueness (expressed as recovery) and precision (calculated as relative standard deviation, RSD) were evaluated at four concentration levels (20, 50, 500 and 1000ngL -1 ) in TWW samples. The LODs ranged from 1 to 357ngL -1 and the LOQs from 10 to 500ngL -1 . 92% of the compounds showed limits of quantification ≤100ngL -1 . In most cases, mean recoveries were in the range 70-120%, and RSD values were ≤20%. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of 10 TWW samples, demonstrating the occurrence of 67 target compounds at concentration levels from 26705ngL -1 (4-aminoantipyrine) to 10ngL -1 (tebuconazole and bezafibrate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  15. MOS Current Mode Logic with Capacitive Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti Gupta; Neeta Pandey; Maneesha Gupta

    2012-01-01

    A new MOS current mode logic (MCML) style exhibiting capacitive coupling to enhance the switching speed of the digital circuits is proposed. The mechanism of capacitive coupling and its effect on the delay are analytically modeled. SPICE simulations to validate the accuracy of the analytical model have been carried out with TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology parameters. Several logic gates such as five-stage ring oscillator, NAND, XOR2, XOR3, multiplexer, and demultiplexer based on the proposed log...

  16. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    of direct democracy mechanisms in specific contexts. These country case studies allow for in depth discussion of particular issues, including signature collection and voter participation, campaign financing, media coverage, national variations in the usage of direct democracy procedures and national lessons...

  17. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  18. Conformally Coupled Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Faraoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A massive scalar field in a curved spacetime can propagate along the light cone, a causal pathology, which can, in principle, be eliminated only if the scalar couples conformally to the Ricci curvature of spacetime. This property mandates conformal coupling for the field driving inflation in the early universe. During slow-roll inflation, this coupling can cause super-acceleration and, as a signature, a blue spectrum of primordial gravitational waves.

  19. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Andrew; Doss, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) is based in part on traditional behavioral couple therapy but expands both the conceptualization of couple distress and of intervention. The efficacy of IBCT has been supported in three clinical trials, including one with five year follow-up. Additionally, the effectiveness of IBCT in the real world has been supported through a system-wide dissemination effort in the United States Department of Veteran’s Affairs. The reach of IBCT has also been ext...

  20. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  1. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000500.htm End-stage kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of long-term ( ...

  2. Stage theta pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Downing, J.N.; Gribble, R.F.; Jacobson, A.R.; Platts, D.A.; Thomas, K.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Staged Theta Pinch program is designed to study the technological and physics problems associated with producing fat plasmas and separating the implosion heating from the adiabatic compression. Several methods of implosion heating are discussed. Circuit diagrams and theoretical magnetic field behavior are described for the STP and resonant heating experiments. (MOW)

  3. "Stage 40" Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill River Union High School, North Clarendon, VT.

    The policies, purposes, and guidelines of "Stage 40," an educational repertory company for students, are presented in this paper, which also explains how the company functions. The paper discusses the company's history, the relationship between the company and academics, and the responsibilities of a company member. Letters by the board…

  4. World Stage Design

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    12-19. III Torontos rahvusvaheline lavakujunduse, kostüümi ning valgus- ja helikujunduse näitus, mis toimub samaaegselt OISTATi (International Organization of Scenographers, Theatre Architects and Technicians) maailmakongressiga ja USITT (United States Institute for Theatre Technology) üritustega (konverents, Stage Expo). Eestit esindab lavakujunduse kategoorias Lilja Blumenfeld-Luhse

  5. Linac project - actual stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin Filho, N.

    1990-01-01

    The actual development stage of Pelletron accelerator to study heavy ion reactions, nuclear structures and applied nuclear physics is presented. The construction of acceleration systems able to provide beams of several mass and energies up to 20 MeV/A, is discussed, describing acceleration structures and implemented systems. (M.C.K.)

  6. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  7. Magneto-electro-elastic polariton coupling in a periodic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piliposyan, D G; Ghazaryan, K B; Piliposian, G T

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of electro-magneto-acoustic waves in a magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) periodic structure has been investigated with a three phase coupling between mechanical, electric and magnetic fields in each constituent layer. Due to this coupling electromagnetic waves couple with lattice vibrations resulting in both dielectric and magnetic phonon–polaritons which couple via the magneto-electric effect. Propagation properties of acoustic longitudinal and transverse vibrations in this superlattice have been investigated. For longitudinal acoustic vibrations perpendicular to the poling direction, the coupling of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic polaritons results in a propagating mode. For transverse lattice vibrations with the coupled MEE wave propagating parallel to the poling direction, there is a coupled piezoelectric–piezomagnetic phonon polariton gap. The MEE superlattice produces either negative permittivity or negative permeability functions but not double negativity to result in negative refraction crystal. (paper)

  8. The use of enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles for studying the spectra of unusual substrates of mushroom tyrosinase by direct surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation and high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-09-30

    Tyrosinase-coupled magnetic particles (EMPs) were used to demonstrate that resorcinol-containing tyrosinase inhibitors are oxidised by tyrosinase only in the presence of the enzyme's classic substrate. This shows the potential for the application of EMPs as a non-organic matrix for monitoring enzymatic conversion of a novel substrate family directly on-the-spot, principally due to minimal enzyme requirement per analysis. Tyrosinase was covalently coupled to core-shell-type silica-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) that were applied as non-organic SALDI matrix suitable for studying low-mass compounds using a classic matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Because of the dual function of the EMPs - enzyme host and non-organic matrix - we describe this ionisation method as Enzyme-coupled Nanoparticles-Assisted LDI-MS (ENALDI-MS). Supplementary studies of the enzymatic conversion of glabridin and 3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (DHPA) were conducted by high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS). The initial experiment involving EMPs as non-organic matrix (ENALDI-MS) showed enzymatic conversion of glabridin, a strong tyrosinase inhibitor, only in the presence of L-Tyr, the classic tyrosinase substrate. These findings were evaluated by ESI-QqTOF-MS proving that glabridin and DHPA are converted into the corresponding quinones by tyrosinase only in the presence of the auxiliary monophenol or o-diphenol substrates (L-Tyr and catechin, respectively) capable of regenerating the active site of tyrosinase. EMPs were shown to be useful as a non-organic matrix to monitor enzymatic conversion of the novel tyrosinase substrate family directly on-the-spot with a minimal enzyme consumption (6.5 pmol/spot). Results obtained by ENALDI-MS were fully confirmed by ESI-QqTOF-MS demonstrating that resorcinol-containing tyrosinase inhibitors may be oxidised

  9. Advance Directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma ... about advance directives. Two well-known ones are: Aging With Dignity Aging with Dignity is a national ...

  10. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    . Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction......In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  11. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  12. Modelling methods in stress analysis of pipe coupling clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Kakodkar, A.

    1987-01-01

    Pipe coupling using clamps are becoming more and more popular components in nuclear power plants and are used in place of conventional flanges because of their compactness, easy maintenance and more reliability. They are used in large numbers in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) such as at the joint between feeder pipe and end-fitting, in F/M housing etc. Integrity of these clamps have direct effect on overall safety of the nuclear power plants. This necessitates proper design, fabrication, installation and maintenance of these components. Proper design of these clamps is a challenge to the designer. This is because of changing boundary conditions at the interface with the hub during various stages of loading. A detail stress analysis of clamps considering changing boundary conditions under various loadings can be done using finite element technique. In the following sections, two finite element modelling methods to simulate clamps along with hubs are described. Both these methods assumed absence of friction between the clamp and hubs during bolting, whereas absence of relative movement between them was assumed during other stages of loadings. (orig.)

  13. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  14. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...... the diverse matters of concern into a coherent product or service concept, and 2) in the same process move these diverse holders of the matters of concern into a translated actor network which carry or support the concept....

  15. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  16. Synchrobetatron resonant coupling mechanism in a storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Jimbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear synchrobetatron resonant coupling of Mg ion beam was observed experimentally in the horizontal laser beam cooling experiment in small laser equipped storage ring. Synchrotron and horizontal betatron motions were intentionally coupled in a rf cavity. Using the Hamiltonian which is composed of coasting, synchrotron and betatron motions, physical mechanism of the coupling is analyzed to explain the observed horizontal betatron tune jump near the synchrobetatron resonant coupling point. There energy exchange between the synchrotron oscillation and the horizontal betatron oscillation was mediated by coasting particles and the freedom of the horizontal direction is connected with the freedom of the longitudinal direction.

  17. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  18. Soliton switching in directional couplers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, T.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of pulse switching is investigated analytically and numerically for a family of initial conditions with a solitonlike pulse in one channel and no signal on the other channel of the coupler. This investigation is performed directly in the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations that

  19. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  20. The staging area concept for item control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Accounting for special nuclear material contained in fabricated nuclear fuel rod items has been completely automated at the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Division facility in Columbia, South Carolina. Experience with the automated system has shown substantial difficulty in maintaining current knowledge of the precise locations of rods pulled out of the ''normal'' processing cycle. This has been resolved by creation of two tightly controlled staging areas for handling and distribution of all ''deviant'' rods by two specially trained expeditors. Thus, coupling automated data collection with centralized expert handling and distribution has created a viable system for control of large numbers of fuel rods in a major fabrication plant

  1. Global Impact | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through its direct support of clinical research, Frederick National Labactivities are not limited to national programs. The labis actively involved in more than 400 domestic and international studies related to cancer; influenza, HIV, Ebo

  2. A method for scientific code coupling in a distributed environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caremoli, C.; Beaucourt, D.; Chen, O.; Nicolas, G.; Peniguel, C.; Rascle, P.; Richard, N.; Thai Van, D.; Yessayan, A.

    1994-12-01

    This guide book deals with coupling of big scientific codes. First, the context is introduced: big scientific codes devoted to a specific discipline coming to maturity, and more and more needs in terms of multi discipline studies. Then we describe different kinds of code coupling and an example of code coupling: 3D thermal-hydraulic code THYC and 3D neutronics code COCCINELLE. With this example we identify problems to be solved to realize a coupling. We present the different numerical methods usable for the resolution of coupling terms. This leads to define two kinds of coupling: with the leak coupling, we can use explicit methods, and with the strong coupling we need to use implicit methods. On both cases, we analyze the link with the way of parallelizing code. For translation of data from one code to another, we define the notion of Standard Coupling Interface based on a general structure for data. This general structure constitutes an intermediary between the codes, thus allowing a relative independence of the codes from a specific coupling. The proposed method for the implementation of a coupling leads to a simultaneous run of the different codes, while they exchange data. Two kinds of data communication with message exchange are proposed: direct communication between codes with the use of PVM product (Parallel Virtual Machine) and indirect communication with a coupling tool. This second way, with a general code coupling tool, is based on a coupling method, and we strongly recommended to use it. This method is based on the two following principles: re-usability, that means few modifications on existing codes, and definition of a code usable for coupling, that leads to separate the design of a code usable for coupling from the realization of a specific coupling. This coupling tool available from beginning of 1994 is described in general terms. (authors). figs., tabs

  3. Nuclear structure of weakly bound radioactive nuclei through elastic and and inelastic scattering on proton. Impacts of the couplings induced by these exotic nuclei on direct reactions; Structure de noyaux radioactifs faiblement lies par diffusions elastiques et inelastiques sur proton. Effets des couplages induits par ces noyaux exotiques sur les reactions directes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapoux, V

    2005-09-15

    Information on the structure, spectroscopy and target interaction potentials of exotic nuclei can be inferred by interpreting measured data from direct reactions on proton such as elastic or inelastic scattering of proton (p,p') or one-nucleon transfer reaction (p,d). A series of experimental results has been obtained at the GANIL facilities on the setting composed of the MUST telescope array used for the detection of light charged-particles and of CATS beam detectors. This setting aims at measuring reactions on light proton or deuteron targets through reverse kinematics. Particularly, results on C{sup 10}, C{sup 11} and on direct reactions with the He{sup 8} beam of Spiral are presented. The first chapter is dedicated to the description of the most important theories concerning the nucleus. The experimental tools used to probe the nucleus are reported in the second chapter. The third and fourth chapters present the framework that has allowed us to analyse results from (p,p') and (p,d) reactions on weakly bound exotic nuclei. The last chapter is dedicated to the description of future experimental programs. (A.C.)

  4. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    . The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than......Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas...... in 180 times in comparison with a direct fiber-waveguide coupling. Pros and cons of each configuration are discussed. Fabrication and characterisation results are reported....

  5. Strong Josephson Coupling in Planar Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Takane, Yositake; Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lee, Hu-Jong

    A recent breakthrough of processing graphene, employing encapsulation by hexagonal boron nitride layers (BGB structure), allows realizing the ballistic carrier transport in graphene. Thereafter, ballistic Josephson coupling has been studied by closely edge-contacted BGB structure with two superconducting electrodes. Here, we report on the strong Josephson coupling with planar graphene junction in truly short and ballistic regime. Our device showed high transmission probability and the junction critical current (IC) oscillating for sweeping the gate voltage along with the normal conductance oscillation (Fabry-Perot oscillations), providing a direct evidence for the ballistic nature of the junction pair current. We also observed the convex-upward shape of decreasing critical currents with increasing temperature, canonical properties of the short Josephson coupling. By fitting these curves into theoretical models, we demonstrate the strong Josephson coupling in our devices, which is also supported by the exceptionally large value of ICRN ( 2 Δ / e RNis the normal resistance).

  6. Graphene under direct compression: Stress effects and interlayer coupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    del Corro, Elena; Peňa-Álvarez, Miriam; Mračko, Michal; Kolman, Radek; Kalbáč, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Frank, Otakar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 12 (2016), s. 2336-2341 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA MŠk LL1301 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 696656 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * high pressure * isotopic labeling * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291521-3951

  7. Directed motion emerging from two coupled random processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjörnsson, T.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Metzler, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the translocation of a stiff polymer consisting of M monomers through a nanopore in a membrane, in the presence of binding particles (chaperones) that bind onto the polymer, and partially prevent backsliding of the polymer through the pore. The process is characterized by the rates......: k for the polymer to make a diffusive jump through the pore, q for unbinding of a chaperone, and the rate qκ for binding (with a binding strength κ); except for the case of no binding κ ≤ 0 the presence of the chaperones gives rise to an effective force that drives the translocation process. In more...... detail, we develop a dynamical description of the process in terms of a (2+1)-variable master equation for the probability of having m monomers on the target side of the membrane with n bound chaperones at time t. Emphasis is put on the calculation of the mean first passage time as a function of total...

  8. Performance of infra-red spectrometers directly coupled to computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, E.; Herzog, K.

    1981-01-01

    The author considers the connection of spectroscopic instruments to computers and in particular discusses the increased performance caused by the application of computers to acquisition, storage and treatment of numerical data in infra-red spectroscopy. Controlled data acquisition is treated in detail and applications in qualitative analysis and multi-component quantitative analysis are considered. According to the author, the critical treatment of molecular spectroscopic measurements has been made possible by the arrival of the computer. (C.F.)

  9. A Concept for Directly Coupled Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma jets with high momentum flux density are required for a variety of applications in propulsion research. Methods of producing these plasma jets are being investigated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental goal in the immediate future is to develop plasma accelerators which are capable of producing plasma jets with momentum flux density represented by velocities up to 200 km/s and ion density up to 10(exp 24) per cu m, with sufficient precision and reproducibility in their properties, and with sufficiently high efficiency. The jets must be sufficiently focused to allow them to be transported over several meters. A plasma accelerator concept is presented that might be able to meet these requirements. It is a self-switching, shaped coaxial pulsed plasma thruster, with focusing of the plasma flow by shaping muzzle current distribution as in plasma focus devices, and by mechanical tapering of the gun walls. Some 2-D MHD modeling in support of the conceptual design will be presented.

  10. Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye

    2010-01-01

    We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

  11. Coupling Between Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between two waveguide-fed planar slot arrays has been investigated using full-wave analysis. The analysis employs the method-of-moments solution to the pertinent coupled integral equations for the aperture electric field of all slots. In order to compute coupling between two arrays, the input port of the first array is excited with a TE(sub 10) mode wave while the second one is match-terminated. After solving the moment method matrix equations, the aperture fields of all slots are obtained and thereby the TE(sub 10) mode wave received at the input port of the second array is determined. Coupling between two arrays is the ratio of the wave amplitude arriving in the second array port to the incident wave amplitude at the first array port. The coupling mechanism has been studied as a function of spacing between arrays in different directions, e.g. the electric field plane, the magnetic field plane, and the diagonal plane. Computed coupling values are presented for different array geometries. This work is novel since it provides a good understanding of coupling between waveguide-fed slot arrays as a function of spacing and orientation for different aperture distributions and array architectures. This serves as a useful tool for antenna design engineers and system engineers.

  12. Biologically inspired coupled antenna beampattern design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye, E-mail: makcak2@ese.wustl.ed, E-mail: nehorai@ese.wustl.ed [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We propose to design a small-size transmission-coupled antenna array, and corresponding radiation pattern, having high performance inspired by the female Ormia ochracea's coupled ears. For reproduction purposes, the female Ormia is able to locate male crickets' call accurately despite the small distance between its ears compared with the incoming wavelength. This phenomenon has been explained by the mechanical coupling between the Ormia's ears, which has been modeled by a pair of differential equations. In this paper, we first solve these differential equations governing the Ormia ochracea's ear response, and convert the response to the pre-specified radio frequencies. We then apply the converted response of the biological coupling in the array factor of a uniform linear array composed of finite-length dipole antennas, and also include the undesired electromagnetic coupling due to the proximity of the elements. Moreover, we propose an algorithm to optimally choose the biologically inspired coupling for maximum array performance. In our numerical examples, we compute the radiation intensity of the designed system for binomial and uniform ordinary end-fire arrays, and demonstrate the improvement in the half-power beamwidth, sidelobe suppression and directivity of the radiation pattern due to the biologically inspired coupling.

  13. Donor Conception Disclosure: Directive or Non-Directive Counselling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, Inez; Ravelingien, An; Pennings, Guido

    2016-09-01

    It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy (non-directive approach) and beneficence (directive approach). To overrule one principle in favour of another, six conditions should be fulfilled. We analyse the arguments in favour of the beneficence principle, and consequently, a directive approach. This analysis shows that two conditions are not met; the principle of autonomy should not be overridden. Therefore, at this moment, a directive counselling approach on donor conception disclosure cannot be ethically justified.

  14. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  15. Fiber-optic coupled pressure transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, C.R.; Wingate, F.P.; Ballard, E.O.

    1979-01-01

    A fiber-optic coupled pressure transducer was developed for measurement of pressure transients produced by fast electrical discharges in laser cavities. A detailed description of the design and performance will be given. Shock tube performance and measurements in direct electrical discharge regions will be presented

  16. Rapid communication: Transverse spin with coupled plasmons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In contrast to some of the earlier studies, calculations are performed retaining the full lossy character of the metal. In the limit of vanishing losses, we present analytical results for the extraordinary spin for both the coupled modes. The results can have direct implications for enhancing the elusive transverse spin exploiting the ...

  17. A real nonlinear integrable couplings of continuous soliton hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun

    2011-01-01

    Some integrable coupling systems of existing papers are linear integrable couplings. In the Letter, beginning with Lax pairs from special non-semisimple matrix Lie algebras, we establish a scheme for constructing real nonlinear integrable couplings of continuous soliton hierarchy. A direct application to the AKNS spectral problem leads to a novel nonlinear integrable couplings, then we consider the Hamiltonian structures of nonlinear integrable couplings of AKNS hierarchy with the component-trace identity. - Highlights: → We establish a scheme to construct real nonlinear integrable couplings. → We obtain a novel nonlinear integrable couplings of AKNS hierarchy. → Hamiltonian structure of nonlinear integrable couplings AKNS hierarchy is presented.

  18. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  19. Coupling in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1994-12-01

    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-β quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note

  20. Coupling in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1994-12-01

    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

  1. Paternal involvement and children's developmental stages in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.

    2012-01-01

    How does fathering change across children's developmental stages and how do these changes vary by educational levels and women's employment? To investigate this, I use the '2003 Spanish Time Use Survey' (N = 2,941) for a sample of heterosexual couples with children of different ages. I differentiate

  2. Design, Construction and Measured Performance of a Single-Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same through a flow control ...

  3. Triple gauge boson couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Gounaris, George J; Zeppenfeld, Dieter; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Arhrib, A; Bella, G; Berends, F A; Bilenky, S M; Blondel, A; Busenitz, J K; Choudhury, D; Clarke, P; Conboy, J E; Diehl, M; Fassouliotis, D; Frère, J M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Gibbs, M; Grünewald, M W; Hansen, J B; Hartmann, C; Jin, B N; Jousset, J; Kalinowski, Jan; Kocian, M L; Lahanas, Athanasios B; Layssac, J; Lieb, E H; Markou, C; Matteuzzi, C; Mättig, P; Moreno, J M; Moultaka, G; Nippe, A; Orloff, J; Papadopoulos, C G; Paschalis, J; Petridou, C; Phillips, H; Podlyski, F; Pohl, M; Renard, F M; Rossignol, J M; Rylko, R; Sekulin, R L; Van Sighem, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Skillman, A; Spanos, V C; Tonazzo, A; Tytgat, M H G; Tzamarias, S; Verzegnassi, Claudio; Vlachos, N D; Zevgolatakos, E

    1996-01-01

    We present the results obtained by the "Triple Gauge Couplings" working group during the LEP2 Workshop (1994-1995). The report concentrates on the measurement of WW\\gamma and WWZ couplings in e^-e^+\\to W^-W^+ or, more generally, four-fermion production at LEP2. In addition the detection of new interactions in the bosonic sector via other production channels is discussed.

  4. Pion coupling to nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of the pion-nucleus coupling constants is discussed. Methods of their determination are reviewed. These include: forward dispersion relations, extrapolation of differential cross sections to the poles in the angular variable, analysis of data on electromagnetic form factors with the use of the PCAC and CVC hypotheses, pion photoproduction at threshold and low-energy theorems. Our present knowledge of the pion coupling to the He, Li, Be, C, N and O nuclei is summarized. (author)

  5. Fault Feature Analysis of a Cracked Gear Coupled Rotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the misalignment of gear root circle and base circle and accurate transition curve, an improved mesh stiffness model for healthy gear is proposed, and it is validated by comparison with the finite element method. On the basis of the improved method, a mesh stiffness model for a cracked gear pair is built. Then a finite element model of a cracked gear coupled rotor system in a one-stage reduction gear box is established. The effects of crack depth, width, initial position, and crack propagation direction on gear mesh stiffness, fault features in time domain and frequency domain, and statistical indicators are investigated. Moreover, fault features are also validated by experiment. The results show that the improved mesh stiffness model is more accurate than the traditional mesh stiffness model. When the tooth root crack appears, distinct impulses are found in time domain vibration responses, and sidebands appear in frequency domain. Amplitudes of all the statistical indicators ascend gradually with the growth of crack depth and width, decrease with the increasing crack initial position angle, and firstly increase and then decrease with the growth of propagation direction angle.

  6. Runx expression is mitogenic and mutually linked to Wnt activity in blastula-stage sea urchin embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Robertson

    Full Text Available The Runt homology domain (Runx defines a metazoan family of sequence-specific transcriptional regulatory proteins that are critical for animal development and causally associated with a variety of mammalian cancers. The sea urchin Runx gene SpRunt-1 is expressed throughout the blastula stage embryo, and is required globally during embryogenesis for cell survival and differentiation.Depletion of SpRunt-1 by morpholino antisense-mediated knockdown causes a blastula stage deficit in cell proliferation, as shown by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation and direct cell counts. Reverse transcription coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR studies show that the cell proliferation deficit is presaged by a deficit in the expression of several zygotic wnt genes, including wnt8, a key regulator of endomesoderm development. In addition, SpRunt-1-depleted blastulae underexpress cyclinD, an effector of mitogenic Wnt signaling. Blastula stage cell proliferation is also impeded by knockdown of either wnt8 or cyclinD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP indicates that Runx target sites within 5' sequences flanking cyclinD, wnt6 and wnt8 are directly bound by SpRunt-1 protein at late blastula stage. Furthermore, experiments using a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter transgene show that the blastula-stage operation of a cis-regulatory module previously shown to be required for wnt8 expression (Minokawa et al., Dev. Biol. 288: 545-558, 2005 is dependent on its direct sequence-specific interaction with SpRunt-1. Finally, inhibitor studies and immunoblot analysis show that SpRunt-1 protein levels are negatively regulated by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3.These results suggest that Runx expression and Wnt signaling are mutually linked in a feedback circuit that controls cell proliferation during development.

  7. Influence of growth stage on fermentative characteristics of Panicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4324129

    ensiling for analysis of ... days 21 and 120 the full bloom stage had a higher acetic acid concentration when the material was directly ..... de-amination of forage proteins and reduce NH3-N production (Woolford, 1984; Jonsson, 1991; Meeske.

  8. Shakespeare Page to Stage: An Active Approach to "Othello."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Presents an account of how one English teacher taught William Shakespeare's "Othello" through dramatics in a challenging way. Considers how teachers of drama might discuss props, stage directions, and the proper handling of Desdemona's handkerchief. Explains how teachers should try to take the plays from "page to stage." (HB)

  9. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  10. Direct ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alice V

    2015-01-01

    First described by Engvall and Perlmann, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and sensitive method for detection and quantitation of an antigen using an enzyme-labeled antibody. Besides routine laboratory usage, ELISA has been utilized in medical field and food industry as diagnostic and quality control tools. Traditionally performed in 96-well or 384-well polystyrene plates, the technology has expanded to other platforms with increase in automation. Depending on the antigen epitope and availability of specific antibody, there are variations in ELISA setup. The four basic formats are direct, indirect, sandwich, and competitive ELISAs. Direct ELISA is the simplest format requiring an antigen and an enzyme-conjugated antibody specific to the antigen. This chapter describes the individual steps for detection of a plate-bound antigen using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antibody and luminol-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) substrate. The methodological approach to optimize the assay by chessboard titration is also provided.

  11. Reheating stage after inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Notari, Alessio; Riotto, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    We point out that inflaton decay products acquire plasma masses during the reheating phase following inflation. The plasma masses may render inflaton decay kinematically forbidden, causing the temperature to remain frozen for a period at a plateau value. We show that the final reheating temperature may be uniquely determined by the inflaton mass, and may not depend on its coupling. Our findings have important implications for the thermal production of dangerous relics during reheating (e.g., gravitinos), for extracting bounds on particle physics models of inflation from cosmic microwave background anisotropy data, for the production of massive dark matter candidates during reheating, and for models of baryogenesis or leptogenesis where massive particles are produced during reheating

  12. Architecture and Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Architecture and Art as Fuel New development zones for shopping and entertainment and space for festivals inside the city CAN be coupled with art and architecture and become ‘open minded' public domains based on cultural exchange and mutual learning. This type of space could be labelled...... as "experiencescape" - a space between tourism, culture, learning and economy. Strategies related to these challenges involve new architectural concepts and art as ‘engines' for a change. New expressive architecture and old industrial buildings are often combined into hybrid narratives, linking the past...... with the future. But this is not enough. The agenda is to develop architectural spaces, where social interaction and learning are enhanced by art and fun. How can we develop new architectural designs in our inner cities and waterfronts where eventscapes, learning labs and temporal use are merged with everyday...

  13. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimension transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 refs., 8 figs

  14. Two stage-type railgun accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Mutsuo; Azuma, Kingo.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a two stage-type railgun accelerator capable of spiking a flying body (ice pellet) formed by solidifying a gaseous hydrogen isotope as a fuel to a thermonuclear reactor at a higher speed into a central portion of plasmas. Namely, the two stage-type railgun accelerator accelerates the flying body spiked from a initial stage accelerator to a portion between rails by Lorentz force generated when electric current is supplied to the two rails by way of a plasma armature. In this case, two sets of solenoids are disposed for compressing the plasma armature in the longitudinal direction of the rails. The first and the second sets of solenoid coils are previously supplied with electric current. After passing of the flying body, the armature formed into plasmas by a gas laser disposed at the back of the flying body is compressed in the longitudinal direction of the rails by a magnetic force of the first and the second sets of solenoid coils to increase the plasma density. A current density is also increased simultaneously. Then, the first solenoid coil current is turned OFF to accelerate the flying body in two stages by the compressed plasma armature. (I.S.)

  15. Coupled uncertainty provided by a multifractal random walker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohi Lai, Z. [Department of Physics, Firoozkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vasheghani Farahani, S. [Department of Physics, Tafresh University, P.O. Box 39518-79611, Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movahed, S.M.S. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera, 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Jafari, G.R., E-mail: g_jafari@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-09

    The aim here is to study the concept of pairing multifractality between time series possessing non-Gaussian distributions. The increasing number of rare events creates “criticality”. We show how the pairing between two series is affected by rare events, which we call “coupled criticality”. A method is proposed for studying the coupled criticality born out of the interaction between two series, using the bivariate multifractal random walk (BiMRW). This method allows studying dependence of the coupled criticality on the criticality of each individual system. This approach is applied to data sets of gold and oil markets, and inflation and unemployment. - Highlights: • The coupled criticality between two systems is modeled by the bivariate multifractal random walk. • This coupled criticality is generally directed. • This coupled criticality is inversely proportional to the criticality of either of the systems. • The coupled criticality can emerge when at least one of the systems posses a Gaussian distribution.

  16. Analytical model of internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Leo van Hemmen, J

    2010-01-01

    differences in the tympanic membrane vibrations. Both cues show strong directionality. The work presented herein sets out the derivation of a three dimensional analytical model of internally coupled ears that allows for calculation of a complete vibration profile of the membranes. The analytical model...... additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example......, data demonstrating an asymmetrical spatial pattern of membrane vibration. As the analytical calculations show, the internally coupled ears increase the directional response, appearing in large directional internal amplitude differences (iAD) and in large internal time differences (iTD). Numerical...

  17. Two-stage nonrecursive filter/decimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, J.R.; Richard, B.D.

    1980-08-01

    A two-stage digital filter/decimator has been designed and implemented to reduce the sampling rate associated with the long-term computer storage of certain digital waveforms. This report describes the design selection and implementation process and serves as documentation for the system actually installed. A filter design with finite-impulse response (nonrecursive) was chosen for implementation via direct convolution. A newly-developed system-test statistic validates the system under different computer-operating environments

  18. Effects of shear coupling on shear properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Under pure shear loading, an off-axis element of orthotropic material such as pure wood undergoes both shear and normal deformations. The ratio of the shear strain to a normal strain is defined as the shear coupling coefficient associated with the direction of the normal strain. The effects of shear coupling on shear properties of wood as predicted by the orthotropic...

  19. Projected coupled cluster theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M; Zhao, Jinmo; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2017-08-14

    Coupled cluster theory is the method of choice for weakly correlated systems. But in the strongly correlated regime, it faces a symmetry dilemma, where it either completely fails to describe the system or has to artificially break certain symmetries. On the other hand, projected Hartree-Fock theory captures the essential physics of many kinds of strong correlations via symmetry breaking and restoration. In this work, we combine and try to retain the merits of these two methods by applying symmetry projection to broken symmetry coupled cluster wave functions. The non-orthogonal nature of states resulting from the application of symmetry projection operators furnishes particle-hole excitations to all orders, thus creating an obstacle for the exact evaluation of overlaps. Here we provide a solution via a disentanglement framework theory that can be approximated rigorously and systematically. Results of projected coupled cluster theory are presented for molecules and the Hubbard model, showing that spin projection significantly improves unrestricted coupled cluster theory while restoring good quantum numbers. The energy of projected coupled cluster theory reduces to the unprojected one in the thermodynamic limit, albeit at a much slower rate than projected Hartree-Fock.

  20. Cognitive coupling during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Caitlin; Graesser, Art; Risko, Evan F; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2017-06-01

    We hypothesize that cognitively engaged readers dynamically adjust their reading times with respect to text complexity (i.e., reading times should increase for difficult sections and decrease for easier ones) and failure to do so should impair comprehension. This hypothesis is consistent with theories of text comprehension but has surprisingly been untested. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 4 datasets in which participants (N = 484) read expository texts using a self-paced reading paradigm. Participants self-reported mind wandering in response to pseudorandom thought-probes during reading and completed comprehension assessments after reading. We computed two measures of cognitive coupling by regressing each participant's paragraph-level reading times on two measures of text complexity: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Word Concreteness scores. The two coupling measures yielded convergent findings: coupling was a negative predictor of mind wandering and a positive predictor of both text- and inference-level comprehension. Goodness-of-fit, measured with Akaike information criterion, also improved after adding coupling to the reading-time only models. Furthermore, cognitive coupling mediated the relationship between mind wandering and comprehension, supporting the hypothesis that mind wandering engenders a decoupling of attention from external stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).