WorldWideScience

Sample records for stage applications volume

  1. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  2. Mediastinal staging for lung cancer: the influence of biopsy volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Elof; Pape, Christian; Jørgensen, Ole Dan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mediastinal staging is of paramount importance prior to surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to identify patients with N2-disease. Mediastinoscopy remains the gold standard, and sampling from at least three lymph node stations is generally recommended. It is unknown whether...

  3. Cervical Vertebral Body’s Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Kyung Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5–18 years of age. We performed Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P<0.05. The simple regression model with the greatest R-square indicated the fourth-cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level.

  4. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies from 102 Japanese patients (54 women and 48 men, 5-18 years of age). We performed Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis and simple regression analysis. All volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae exhibited statistically significant correlations (P cervical-vertebra volume as an independent variable with a variance inflation factor less than ten. The explanation power was 81.76%. Volumetric parameters of cervical vertebrae using cone beam computed tomography are useful in regression models. The derived regression model has the potential for clinical application as it enables a simple and quantitative analysis to evaluate skeletal maturation level.

  5. The rationale and technique of staged-volume arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Bruce E.; Kline, Robert W.; Stafford, Scott L.; Foote, Robert L.; Schomberg, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective management strategy for properly selected arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients. However, the risk of postradiosurgical radiation-related injury generally limits this procedure to patients with AVMs of an average diameter of 3 cm or less. Radiosurgery of large AVMs in a planned staged fashion was undertaken to limit the radiation exposure to the surrounding normal brain. Methods and Materials: Between April 1997 and December 1999, 10 patients with a median AVM volume of 17.4 cm 3 (range, 7.4-53.3 cm 3 ) underwent staged-volume radiosurgery (23 procedures). At the first radiosurgical procedure, the total volume of the AVM is estimated and a dose plan calculated that covers 10 cm 3 -15 cm 3 , or one-half the nidus volume if the AVM is critically located (brainstem, thalamus, or basal ganglia). At 6-month intervals thereafter, radiosurgery was repeated to different portions of the AVM with the previous dose plan(s) being re-created utilizing intracranial landmarks to minimize radiation overlap. Radiosurgical procedures were continued until the entire malformation has been irradiated. Results: The radiation dosimetry of staged-volume AVM radiosurgery was compared to hypothetical single-session procedures for the 10 patients. Staged-volume radiosurgery decreased the 12-Gy volume by an average of 11.1% (range, 4.9-21%) (p < 0.001). The non-AVM 12-Gy volume was reduced by an average of 27.2% (range, 12.5-51.3%) (p < 0.001). Discussion: Staged-volume radiosurgery of large AVMs results in less radiation exposure to the adjacent brain. Further follow-up is needed to determine whether this technique provides a high rate of AVM obliteration while maintaining an acceptable rate of radiation-related complications

  6. Obstacles using amorphous materials for volume applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Albert [Festo AG and Co. KG, 73734, Esslingen (Germany); Reininger, Thomas, E-mail: drn@de.festo.com [Festo AG and Co. KG, 73734, Esslingen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    This contribution is especially focussed on the attempt to use amorphous or nanocrystalline metals in position sensor applications and to describe the difficulties and obstacles encountered in coherence with the development of appropriate industrial high volume series products in conjunction with the related quality requirements. The main motivation to do these investigations was to beat the generally known sensors especially silicon based Hall-sensors as well as AMR- and GMR-sensors - well known from mobile phones and electronic storage devices like hard discs and others - in terms of cost-effectiveness and functionality.

  7. Metastatic volume: an old oncologic concept and a new prognostic factor for stage IV melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasiti, V; Curzio, M; Roberti, V; Lieto, P; Devirgiliis, V; Gobbi, S; Naspi, A; Coppola, R; Lopez, T; di Meo, N; Gatti, A; Trevisan, G; Londei, P; Calvieri, S

    2013-01-01

    The last melanoma staging system of the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer takes into account, for stage IV disease, the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the site of distant metastases. Our aim was to compare the significance of metastatic volume, as evaluated at the time of stage IV melanoma diagnosis, with other clinical predictors of prognosis. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study. To establish which variables were statistically correlated both with death and survival time, contingency tables were evaluated. The overall survival curves were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Metastatic volume and number of affected organs were statistically related to death. In detail, patients with a metastatic volume >15 cm(3) had a worse prognosis than those with a volume lower than this value (survival probability at 60 months: 6.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier method confirmed that survival time was significantly related to the site(s) of metastases, to elevated LDH serum levels and to melanoma stage according to the latest system. Our results suggest that metastatic volume may be considered as a useful prognostic factor for survival among melanoma patients.

  8. Clinical applications of sequencing take center stage

    OpenAIRE

    Glusman, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    A report on the Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting, Marco Island, Florida, USA, February 20-23, 2013. This year's Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting reflected the current state of 'next generation' sequencing (NGS) technologies: significantly reduced competition and innovation, and a strong focus on standardization and application. Announcements of technological breakthroughs - a hallmark of previous AGBT meetings - were markedly absent, but existin...

  9. Cervical Vertebral Body's Volume as a New Parameter for Predicting the Skeletal Maturation Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Jinmi; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the correlation between the volumetric parameters derived from the images of the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae by using cone beam computed tomography with skeletal maturation stages and to propose a new formula for predicting skeletal maturation by using regression analysis. We obtained the estimation of skeletal maturation levels from hand-wrist radiographs and volume parameters derived from the second, third, and fourth cervical vertebrae bodies ...

  10. Metabolic tumour volumes measured at staging in lymphoma: methodological evaluation on phantom experiments and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meignan, Michel; Sasanelli, Myriam; Itti, Emmanuel; Casasnovas, Rene Olivier; Luminari, Stefano; Fioroni, Federica; Coriani, Chiara; Masset, Helene; Gobbi, Paolo G.; Merli, Francesco; Versari, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging on CT is an independent prognostic factor in malignant lymphomas. However, its prognostic value is limited in diffuse disease. Total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) determined on 18 F-FDG PET/CT could give a better evaluation of the total tumour burden and may help patient stratification. Different methods of TMTV measurement established in phantoms simulating lymphoma tumours were investigated and validated in 40 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Data were processed by two nuclear medicine physicians in Reggio Emilia and Creteil. Nineteen phantoms filled with 18 F-saline were scanned; these comprised spherical or irregular volumes from 0.5 to 650 cm 3 with tumour-to-background ratios from 1.65 to 40. Volumes were measured with different SUVmax thresholds. In patients, TMTV was measured on PET at staging by two methods: volumes of individual lesions were measured using a fixed 41 % SUVmax threshold (TMTV 41 ) and a variable visually adjusted SUVmax threshold (TMTV var ). In phantoms, the 41 % threshold gave the best concordance between measured and actual volumes. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect. In patients, the agreement between the reviewers for TMTV 41 measurement was substantial (ρ c = 0.986, CI 0.97 - 0.99) and the difference between the means was not significant (212 ± 218 cm 3 for Creteil vs. 206 ± 219 cm 3 for Reggio Emilia, P = 0.65). By contrast the agreement was poor for TMTV var . There was a significant direct correlation between TMTV 41 and normalized LDH (r = 0.652, CI 0.42 - 0.8, P 41 , but high TMTV 41 could be found in patients with stage 1/2 or nonbulky tumour. Measurement of baseline TMTV in lymphoma using a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold is reproducible and correlates with the other parameters for tumour mass evaluation. It should be evaluated in prospective studies. (orig.)

  11. Two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion in severe hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Wael; Attia, Nayera I; Hassanein, Sahar M A

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion (TSSV-ET) in decreasing the post-exchange rebound increase in serum bilirubin level, with subsequent reduction of the need for repeated exchange transfusions. The study included 104 neonates with hyperbilirubinemia needing exchange transfusion. They were randomly enrolled into two equal groups, each group comprised 52 neonates. TSSV-ET was performed for the 52 neonates and the traditional single-stage double-volume exchange transfusion (SSDV-ET) was performed to 52 neonates. TSSV-ET significantly lowered rebound serum bilirubin level (12.7 ± 1.1 mg/dL), compared to SSDV-ET (17.3 ± 1.7 mg/dL), p < 0.001. Need for repeated exchange transfusions was significantly lower in TSSV-ET group (13.5%), compared to 32.7% in SSDV-ET group, p < 0.05. No significant difference was found between the two groups as regards the morbidity (11.5% and 9.6%, respectively) and the mortality (1.9% for both groups). Two-stage single-volume exchange transfusion proved to be more effective in reducing rebound serum bilirubin level post-exchange and in decreasing the need for repeated exchange transfusions.

  12. DataStager: scalable data staging services for petascale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Matthew D.; Eisenhauer, Greg S.; Klasky, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Known challenges for petascale machines are that (1) the costs of I/O for high performance applications can be substantial, especially for output tasks like checkpointing, and (2) noise from I/O actions can inject undesirable delays into the runtimes of such codes on individual compute nodes. This paper introduces the flexible 'DataStager' framework for data staging and alternative services within that jointly address (1) and (2). Data staging services moving output data from compute nodes to staging or I/O nodes prior to storage are used to reduce I/O overheads on applications total processing times, and explicit management of data staging offers reduced perturbation when extracting output data from a petascale machine's compute partition. Experimental evaluations of DataStager on the Cray XT machine at Oak Ridge National Laboratory establish both the necessity of intelligent data staging and the high performance of our approach, using the GTC fusion modeling code and benchmarks running on 1000+ processors.

  13. Target volume delineation variation in radiotherapy for early stage rectal cancer in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijkamp, Jasper; Haas-Kock, Danielle F.M. de; Beukema, Jannet C.; Neelis, Karen J.; Woutersen, Dankert; Ceha, Heleen; Rozema, Tom; Slot, Annerie; Vos-Westerman, Hanneke; Intven, Martijn; Spruit, Patty H.; Linden, Yvette van der; Geijsen, Debby; Verschueren, Karijn; Herk, Marcel B. van; Marijnen, Corrie A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure and improve the quality of target volume delineation by means of national consensus on target volume definition in early-stage rectal cancer. Methods and materials: The CTV’s for eight patients were delineated by 11 radiation oncologists in 10 institutes according to local guidelines (phase 1). After observer variation analysis a workshop was organized to establish delineation guidelines and a digital atlas, with which the same observers re-delineated the dataset (phase 2). Variation in volume, most caudal and cranial slice and local surface distance variation were analyzed. Results: The average delineated CTV volume decreased from 620 to 460 cc (p < 0.001) in phase 2. Variation in the caudal CTV border was reduced significantly from 1.8 to 1.2 cm SD (p = 0.01), while it remained 0.7 cm SD for the cranial border. The local surface distance variation (cm SD) reduced from 1.02 to 0.74 for anterior, 0.63 to 0.54 for lateral, 0.33 to 0.25 for posterior and 1.22 to 0.46 for the sphincter region, respectively. Conclusions: The large variation in target volume delineation could significantly be reduced by use of consensus guidelines and a digital delineation atlas. Despite the significant reduction there is still a need for further improvement.

  14. Metabolic tumour volumes measured at staging in lymphoma: methodological evaluation on phantom experiments and patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meignan, Michel [Hopital Henri Mondor and Paris-Est University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Paris-Est University, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, EAC CNRS 7054, Hopital Henri Mondor AP-HP, Creteil (France); Sasanelli, Myriam; Itti, Emmanuel [Hopital Henri Mondor and Paris-Est University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Creteil (France); Casasnovas, Rene Olivier [CHU Le Bocage, Department of Hematology, Dijon (France); Luminari, Stefano [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Diagnostic, Clinic and Public Health Medicine, Modena (Italy); Fioroni, Federica [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Medical Physics, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Coriani, Chiara [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Radiology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Masset, Helene [Henri Mondor Hospital, Department of Radiophysics, Creteil (France); Gobbi, Paolo G. [University of Pavia, Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Merli, Francesco [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Hematology, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Versari, Annibale [Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    The presence of a bulky tumour at staging on CT is an independent prognostic factor in malignant lymphomas. However, its prognostic value is limited in diffuse disease. Total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) determined on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT could give a better evaluation of the total tumour burden and may help patient stratification. Different methods of TMTV measurement established in phantoms simulating lymphoma tumours were investigated and validated in 40 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Data were processed by two nuclear medicine physicians in Reggio Emilia and Creteil. Nineteen phantoms filled with {sup 18}F-saline were scanned; these comprised spherical or irregular volumes from 0.5 to 650 cm{sup 3} with tumour-to-background ratios from 1.65 to 40. Volumes were measured with different SUVmax thresholds. In patients, TMTV was measured on PET at staging by two methods: volumes of individual lesions were measured using a fixed 41 % SUVmax threshold (TMTV{sub 41}) and a variable visually adjusted SUVmax threshold (TMTV{sub var}). In phantoms, the 41 % threshold gave the best concordance between measured and actual volumes. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect. In patients, the agreement between the reviewers for TMTV{sub 41} measurement was substantial (ρ {sub c} = 0.986, CI 0.97 - 0.99) and the difference between the means was not significant (212 ± 218 cm{sup 3} for Creteil vs. 206 ± 219 cm{sup 3} for Reggio Emilia, P = 0.65). By contrast the agreement was poor for TMTV{sub var}. There was a significant direct correlation between TMTV{sub 41} and normalized LDH (r = 0.652, CI 0.42 - 0.8, P <0.001). Higher disease stages and bulky tumour were associated with higher TMTV{sub 41}, but high TMTV{sub 41} could be found in patients with stage 1/2 or nonbulky tumour. Measurement of baseline TMTV in lymphoma using a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold is reproducible and correlates with the other parameters for tumour mass evaluation

  15. [State of the art in fluid and volume therapy : A user-friendly staged concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, M; Hulde, N; Kammerer, T; Meidert, A S; Hofmann-Kiefer, K

    2017-03-01

    Adequate fluid therapy is highly important for the perioperative outcome of our patients. Both, hypovolemia and hypervolemia can lead to an increase in perioperative complications and can impair the outcome. Therefore, perioperative infusion therapy should be target-oriented. The main target is to maintain the patient's preoperative normovolemia by using a sophisticated, rational infusion strategy.Perioperative fluid losses should be discriminated from volume losses (surgical blood loss or interstitial volume losses containing protein). Fluid losses as urine or perspiratio insensibilis (0.5-1.0 ml/kg/h) should be replaced by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 1:1. Volume therapy step 1: Blood loss up to a maximum value of 20% of the patient's blood volume should be replaced by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 4(-5):1. Volume therapy step 2: Higher blood losses should be treated by using iso-oncotic, preferential balanced colloids in a ratio of 1:1. For this purpose hydroxyethyl starch can also be used perioperatively if there is no respective contraindication, such as sepsis, burn injuries, critically ill patients, renal impairment or renal replacement therapy, and severe coagulopathy. Volume therapy step 3: If there is an indication for red cell concentrates or coagulation factors, a differentiated application of blood and blood products should be performed.

  16. Application of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Index in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Dalili

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of skeletal age and determination of growth status had important and special roie in orthodontic treatment planning (such as functional orthopedic treatment and orthognatic surgery and also in stability of it. There were several biologic indicators for the detection of the peak in mandibular growth. Due to the limitations of biological indicators application, idea of new indicators was seemed importantly. Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method is one of them. At first the detection of the peak in mandibular growth was based on the analysis of the second through sixth cervical vertebrae in six developmental stages. But a few improvements of the original CVM analysis were still needed. In this method, the peak in mandibular growth was determined based on the analysis of the second through fourth cervical vertebrae in five developmental stages. This method is easy, applicable and more valid than hand-wrist analysis method.

  17. Graphical User Interfaces for Volume Rendering Applications in Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, Lisa; Lindmark, Hanna

    2002-01-01

    Volume rendering applications are used in medical imaging in order to facilitate the analysis of three-dimensional image data. This study focuses on how to improve the usability of graphical user interfaces of these systems, by gathering user requirements. This is achieved by evaluations of existing systems, together with interviews and observations at clinics in Sweden that use volume rendering to some extent. The usability of the applications of today is not sufficient, according to the use...

  18. [Age of onset of puberty in Chilean boys according to testicular volume and Tanner stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Ximena; García, Roberto; Riquelme, Joel; Codner, Ethel

    2015-03-01

    A secular trend towards a younger age of puberty onset has been reported in Chilean girls. To evaluate the age of onset of puberty and prevalence of early puberty in Chilean boys. A pediatric endocrinologist examined 319 children attending schools in central Santiago. Pubertal development was assessed by testicular volume (TV) and genital inspection (GI) using Tanner graduation. Precocious and early puberty development was diagnosed if TV ≥ 4 ml or GI > stage 2 occurred in boys younger than 9 years and at 9-10 years of age, respectively. Pubertal onset occurred at 10.2 ± 1.5 years according to TV and at 11.1 ± 1.6 years according to GI (p puberty was observed in 23.8% of children according to TV and 9.5% according to GI. However, no child of less than 11 years old had a TV ≥ 4 ml, genital changes and pubic hair simultaneously. Late pubertal stages occurred at the same age according to both criteria used. Body mass index z score was not associated with the age of pubertal onset. Testicular enlargement occurs one year earlier than changes in genitalia according to inspection. Testicular growth, but not late stages of puberty, are occurring one year earlier than previously reported in Chile 10 years ago.

  19. 8th conference on Finite Volumes for Complex Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Omnes, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    This first volume of the proceedings of the 8th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Lille, June 2017) covers various topics including convergence and stability analysis, as well as investigations of these methods from the point of view of compatibility with physical principles. It collects together the focused invited papers comparing advanced numerical methods for Stokes and Navier–Stokes equations on a benchmark, as well as reviewed contributions from internationally leading researchers in the field of analysis of finite volume and related methods, offering a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation, and recent decades have brought significant advances in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including m...

  20. Volume 2. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Volume II, Probabilistic Analysis of HTGR Application Studies - Supporting Data, gives the detail data, both deterministic and probabilistic, employed in the calculation presented in Volume I. The HTGR plants and the fossil plants considered in the study are listed. GCRA provided the technical experts from which the data were obtained by MAC personnel. The names of the technical experts (interviewee) and the analysts (interviewer) are given for the probabilistic data

  1. Rectangular maximum-volume submatrices and their applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr; Oseledets, I.V.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the volume of a general rectangular matrix, which is equivalent to an absolute value of the determinant for square matrices. We generalize results of square maximum-volume submatrices to the rectangular case, show a connection of the rectangular volume with an optimal experimental design and provide estimates for a growth of coefficients and an approximation error in spectral and Chebyshev norms. Three promising applications of such submatrices are presented: recommender systems, finding maximal elements in low-rank matrices and preconditioning of overdetermined linear systems. The code is available online.

  2. Rectangular maximum-volume submatrices and their applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mikhalev, Aleksandr

    2017-10-18

    We introduce a definition of the volume of a general rectangular matrix, which is equivalent to an absolute value of the determinant for square matrices. We generalize results of square maximum-volume submatrices to the rectangular case, show a connection of the rectangular volume with an optimal experimental design and provide estimates for a growth of coefficients and an approximation error in spectral and Chebyshev norms. Three promising applications of such submatrices are presented: recommender systems, finding maximal elements in low-rank matrices and preconditioning of overdetermined linear systems. The code is available online.

  3. 6th international symposium on finite volumes for complex applications

    CERN Document Server

    Halama, Jan; Herbin, Raphaèle; Hubert, Florence; Fort, Jaroslav; FVCA 6; Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VI : Problems and perspectives

    2011-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used for various applications in fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis or nuclear physics. A closer look reveals many interesting phenomena and mathematical or numerical difficulties, such as true error analysis and adaptivity, modelling of multi-phase phenomena or fitting problems, stiff terms in convection/diffusion equations and sources. To overcome existing problems and to find solution methods for future applications requires many efforts and always new developments. The goal of The International Symposium on Finite Volumes for Complex Applica

  4. State of the art in fluid and volume therapy : A user-friendly staged concept. English version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, M; Hulde, N; Kammerer, T; Meidert, A S; Hofmann-Kiefer, K

    2017-04-10

    Adequate intraoperative infusion therapy is essential for the perioperative outcome of a patient. Both hypo- and hypervolemia can lead to an increased rate of perioperative complications and to a worse outcome. Perioperative infusion therapy should therefore be needs-based. The primary objective is the maintenance of preoperative normovolemia using a rational infusion strategy. Perioperative fluid losses should be differentiated from volume losses due to surgical bleeding or protein losses into the interstitial space. Fluid loss via urine excretion or insensible perspiration (0.5-1.0 ml/kg/h) should be replaced with balanced, isooncotic, crystalloid infusion solutions in a ratio of 1:1. Volume therapy stage 1: intraoperative volume losses up to a blood loss corresponding to 20% of the patient's total blood volume are compensated for by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 4-5:1. Stage 2: blood losses exceeding this level are to be treated with isooncotic colloids (preferably balanced) in a 1:1 ratio. In this regard taking into consideration the contraindications, e. g., sepsis, burns, critical illness (usually patients in the intensive care unit), impaired renal function or renal replacement therapy, intracranial hemorrhage, or severe coagulopathy, artificial colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) can be used perioperatively for volume replacement. Stage 3: if an allogeneic blood transfusion is indicated, blood and blood products are applied in a differentiated manner.

  5. FDG-PET/CT Imaging for Staging and Target Volume Delineation in Preoperative Conformal Radiotherapy of Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Maria Chiara; Turri, Lucia; Sacchetti, Gianmauro; Loi, Gianfranco; Cannillo, Barbara; La Mattina, Pierdaniele; Brambilla, Marco; Inglese, Eugenio; Krengli, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential impact of using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) on staging and target volume delineation for patients affected by rectal cancer and candidates for preoperative conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients diagnosed with rectal cancer T3-4 N0-1 M0-1 and candidates for preoperative radiotherapy underwent PET/CT simulation after injection of 5.18 MBq/kg of FDG. Clinical stage was reassessed on the basis of FDG-PET/CT findings. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and the clinical target volume (CTV) were delineated first on CT and then on PET/CT images. The PET/CT-GTV and PET/CT-CTV were analyzed and compared with CT-GTV and CT-CTV, respectively. Results: In 4 of 25 cases (24%), PET/CT affected tumor staging or the treatment purpose. In 3 of 25 cases (12%) staged N0 M0, PET/CT showed FDG uptake in regional lymph nodes and in a case also in the liver. In a patient with a single liver metastasis PET/CT detected multiple lesions, changing the treatment intent from curative to palliative. The PET/CT-GTV and PET/CT-CTV were significantly greater than the CT-GTV (p = 0.00013) and CT-CTV (p = 0.00002), respectively. The mean difference between PET/CT-GTV and CT-GTV was 25.4% and between PET/CT-CTV and CT-CTV was 4.1%. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT for preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer may lead to a change in staging and target volume delineation. Stage variation was observed in 12% of cases and a change of treatment intent in 4%. The GTV and CTV changed significantly, with a mean increase in size of 25% and 4%, respectively

  6. The application of volume-outcome contouring in data warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Berndt, Donald J; Luther, Stephen L; Fisher, John W

    2004-01-01

    Despite a compelling body of published research on the nature of provider volume and clinical outcomes, healthcare executives and policymakers have not managed to develop and implement systems that are useful in directing patients to higher volume providers via selective referral or avoidance. A specialized data warehouse application, utilizing hospital discharge data linked to physician biographical information, allows detailed analysis of physician and hospital volume and the resulting pattern (contour) of related outcomes such as mortality, complications, and medical errors. The approach utilizes a historical repository of hospital discharge data in which the outcomes of interest, important patient characteristics and risk factors used in severity-adjusting of the outcomes are derived from the coding structure of the data.

  7. An experimental result of estimating an application volume by machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuhito; Koshino, Makoto; Kimura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the usability of smartphones by automating a user's operations. We developed an intelligent system using machine learning techniques that periodically detects a user's context on a smartphone. We selected the Android operating system because it has the largest market share and highest flexibility of its development environment. In this paper, we describe an application that automatically adjusts application volume. Adjusting the volume can be easily forgotten because users need to push the volume buttons to alter the volume depending on the given situation. Therefore, we developed an application that automatically adjusts the volume based on learned user settings. Application volume can be set differently from ringtone volume on Android devices, and these volume settings are associated with each specific application including games. Our application records a user's location, the volume setting, the foreground application name and other such attributes as learning data, thereby estimating whether the volume should be adjusted using machine learning techniques via Weka.

  8. Sensors Applications, Volume 4, Sensors for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Trah, Hans-Peter; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Yokomori, Iwao

    2003-07-01

    An international team of experts from the leading companies in this field gives a detailed picture of existing as well as future applications. They discuss in detail current technologies, design and construction concepts, market considerations and commercial developments. Topics covered include vehicle safety, fuel consumption, air conditioning, emergency control, traffic control systems, and electronic guidance using radar and video. Meeting the growing need for comprehensive information on the capabilities, potentials and limitations of modern sensor systems, Sensors Applications is a book series covering the use of sophisticated technologies and materials for the creation of advanced sensors and their implementation in the key areas process monitoring, building control, health care, automobiles, aerospace, environmental technology and household appliances.

  9. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of “cold volume” depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research

  10. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume III. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Volume III suppliees supporting information to assist Congress in making a decision on the optimum utilization of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Included are applicable fuel cycle policies; properties of reference fuels; description and evaluation of alternative operational (flue cycle) modes; description and evaluation of safeguards systems and techniques; description and evaluation of spiking technology; waste and waste solidification evaluation; and Department of Energy programs relating to nonproliferation

  11. Risk-stratifying capacity of PET/CT metabolic tumor volume in stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkle, Joshua H.; Jo, Stephanie Y.; Yuan, Cindy; Pu, Yonglin [University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ferguson, Mark K. [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Hai-Yan [First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Chenpeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, RenJi Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Xuee [Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, BenQ Medical Center, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2017-08-15

    Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in tumor burden, and its treatment is variable. Whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub WB}) has been shown to be an independent prognostic index for overall survival (OS). However, the potential of MTV{sub WB} to risk-stratify stage IIIA NSCLC has previously been unknown. If we can identify subgroups within the stage exhibiting significant OS differences using MTV{sub WB}, MTV{sub WB} may lead to adjustments in patients' risk profile evaluations and may, therefore, influence clinical decision making regarding treatment. We estimated the risk-stratifying capacity of MTV{sub WB} in stage IIIA by comparing OS of stratified stage IIIA with stage IIB and IIIB NSCLC. We performed a retrospective review of 330 patients with clinical stage IIB, IIIA, and IIIB NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. The patients' clinical TNM stage, initial MTV{sub WB}, and long-term survival data were collected. Patients with TNM stage IIIA disease were stratified by MTV{sub WB}. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cutoff value for stage IIIA patients was calculated using sequential log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier OS analysis with log-rank tests were performed. The optimal MTV{sub WB} cut-point was 29.2 mL for the risk-stratification of stage IIIA. We identified statistically significant differences in OS between stage IIB and IIIA patients (p < 0.01), between IIIA and IIIB patients (p < 0.01), and between the stage IIIA patients with low MTV{sub WB} (below 29.2 mL) and the stage IIIA patients with high MTV{sub WB} (above 29.2 mL) (p < 0.01). There was no OS difference between the low MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA and the cohort of stage IIB patients (p = 0.485), or between the high MTV{sub WB} stage IIIA patients and the cohort of stage IIIB patients (p = 0.459). Similar risk-stratification capacity of MTV{sub WB} was observed in a large range of cutoff values from 15 to 55 mL in

  12. Prognostic value of baseline metabolic tumor volume in early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma in the standard arm of H10 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottereau, Anne Ségolène; Versari, Annibale; Loft, Annika

    2018-01-01

    and compared to baseline characteristics, staging classifications and iPET2. A total of 258 patients were eligible, 101 favorable and 157 unfavorable. The median follow-up was 55 months, with 27 PFS and 12 OS events. TMTV was prognosticator of PFS (p...We tested baseline PET/CT as a measure of total tumor burden in order to better identify high risk patients in early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Stage I-II HL patients enrolled in the standard arm (combined modality treatment) of the H10 trial (NCT00433433) with available baseline PET...... and interim PET (iPET2) after two cycles of doxorubicine, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine were included. Total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) was measured on baseline PET. IPET2 findings were reported negative (DS1-3) or positive (DS4-5) with the Deauville scale. The prognostic value of TMTV was evaluated...

  13. Relative blood volume monitoring during hemodialysis in end stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ferrario, Manuela; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna; Moissl, Ulrich; Tetta, Ciro; Ronco, Claudio; Signorini, Maria G; Cerutti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    A crucial point in the haemodialysis (HD) treatment is the reliable assessment of hydration status. An inadequate removed volume may lead to chronic fluid overload which can lead to hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Therefore, the estimation of the hydration state and the management of a well-tolerated water removal is an important challenge. This exploratory study aims at identifying new parameters obtained from continuous Blood Volume Monitoring (BVM) allowing a qualitative evaluation of hydration status for verifying the adequacy of HD setting parameters (e.g UFR, target dry weight). The percentage of blood volume reduction (BVR%) during HD was compared against a gold standard method for hydration status assessment. The slope of the first 30 minute of blood volume reduction (BVR) was proposed as a useful parameter to identify overhydrated patients.

  14. Core compressor exit stage study. Volume 3: Data and performance report for screening test configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisler, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Rear stage blading designs that have lower losses in their endwall boundary layer regions were developed. Test data and performance results for rotor B, stator B, and stator C - blading designs that offer promise of reducing endwall losses relative to the baseline are given. A low speed research compressor was the principal investigative tool. The tests were conducted using four identical stages of blading so that the test data would be obtained in a true multistage environment.

  15. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  16. Improvement of Soybean (Glycine max L. Yield with Urea Foliar Application at Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Tohidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of nitrogen foliar application at different growth stages of soybean on the yield and yield components this experiment was performed in Shush, north of Khuzestan, Iran, during growing season of 2014. The experiment was in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental treatments consisted of four levels of nitrogen fertilizer foliar applications as control (no nitrogen foliar application, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha pure nitrogen from urea source (46% pure nitrogen assigned to the main plots and spraying times in three levels, at vegetative stage, flowering stage and podding stage to the subplots. Results showed that the effects of nitrogen foliar application on traits measured in this experiment like leaf area index, number of pod per plant, number of seeds per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, biologic yield, harvest index, protein percent and protein yield and also interaction of different levels of nitrogen foliar application and different growth stages, were significant. Oil percent and yield were only significant under the effect of nitrogen foliar application treatments at different growth stages while the interaction of different levels of nitrogen foliar application and different growth stages, were not significant. In this experiment nitrogen foliar application increased seed yield. The highest seed yield amounted to 2466 kg/ha when 50kg/ha of foliar nitrogen applied at vegetative growth stage and lowest seed yield amounted to 1295 kg/ha in the control treatment at the stage of podding. In general, results demonstrated that 50 kg/ha treatment could be considered as the best management option of nitrogen foliar application for soybean at vegetative growth stage.

  17. FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krengli, Marco; Inglese, Eugenio; Milia, Maria E; Turri, Lucia; Mones, Eleonora; Bassi, Maria C; Cannillo, Barbara; Deantonio, Letizia; Sacchetti, Gianmauro; Brambilla, Marco

    2010-01-01

    FDG-PET/CT imaging has an emerging role in staging and treatment planning of various tumor locations and a number of literature studies show that also the carcinoma of the anal canal may benefit from this diagnostic approach. We analyzed the potential impact of FDG-PET/CT in stage definition and target volume delineation of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal and candidates for curative radiotherapy. Twenty seven patients with biopsy proven anal carcinoma were enrolled. Pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 20 cases, cloacogenic carcinoma in 3, adenocarcinoma in 2, and basal cell carcinoma in 2. Simulation was performed by PET/CT imaging with patient in treatment position. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) and Clinical Target Volume (CTV) were drawn on CT and on PET/CT fused images. PET-GTV and PET-CTV were respectively compared to CT-GTV and CT-CTV by Wilcoxon rank test for paired data. PET/CT fused images led to change the stage in 5/27 cases (18.5%): 3 cases from N0 to N2 and 2 from M0 to M1 leading to change the treatment intent from curative to palliative in a case. Based on PET/CT imaging, GTV and CTV contours changed in 15/27 (55.6%) and in 10/27 cases (37.0%) respectively. PET-GTV and PET-CTV resulted significantly smaller than CT-GTV (p = 1.2 × 10 -4 ) and CT-CTV (p = 2.9 × 10 -4 ). PET/CT-GTV and PET/CT-CTV, that were used for clinical purposes, were significantly greater than CT-GTV (p = 6 × 10 -5 ) and CT-CTV (p = 6 × 10 -5 ). FDG-PET/CT has a potential relevant impact in staging and target volume delineation of the carcinoma of the anal canal. Clinical stage variation occurred in 18.5% of cases with change of treatment intent in 3.7%. The GTV and the CTV changed in shape and in size based on PET/CT imaging

  18. High-volume ovarian cancer care: survival impact and disparities in access for advanced-stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Robert E; Chang, Jenny; Ziogas, Argyrios; Randall, Leslie M; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2014-02-01

    To characterize the impact of hospital and physician ovarian cancer case volume on survival for advanced-stage disease and investigate socio-demographic variables associated with access to high-volume providers. Consecutive patients with stage IIIC/IV epithelial ovarian cancer (1/1/96-12/31/06) were identified from the California Cancer Registry. Disease-specific survival analysis was performed using Cox-proportional hazards model. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate for differences in access to high-volume hospitals (HVH) (≥20 cases/year), high-volume physicians (HVP) (≥10 cases/year), and cross-tabulations of high- or low-volume hospital (LVH) and physician (LVP) according to socio-demographic variables. A total of 11,865 patients were identified. The median ovarian cancer-specific survival for all patients was 28.2 months, and on multivariate analysis the HVH/HVP provider combination (HR = 1.00) was associated with superior ovarian cancer-specific survival compared to LVH/LVP (HR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.16-1.49). Overall, 2119 patients (17.9%) were cared for at HVHs, and 1791 patients (15.1%) were treated by HVPs. Only 4.3% of patients received care from HVH/HVP, while 53.1% of patients were treated by LVH/LVP. Both race and socio-demographic characteristics were independently associated with an increased likelihood of being cared for by the LVH/LVP combination and included: Hispanic race (OR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.22-2.42), Asian/Pacific Islander race (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.07-2.32), Medicaid insurance (OR = 2.51, 95%CI = 1.46-4.30), and low socioeconomic status (OR = 2.84, 95%CI = 1.90-4.23). Among patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer, the provider combination of HVH/HVP is an independent predictor of improved disease-specific survival. Access to high-volume ovarian cancer providers is limited, and barriers are more pronounced for patients with low socioeconomic status, Medicaid insurance, and racial minorities. Copyright © 2013

  19. Estimates of nuclear volume in plaque and tumor-stage mycosis fungoides. A new prognostic indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, B; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Thestrup-Pedersen, K

    1994-01-01

    It is well documented that mycosis fungoides (MF), a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, has a variable clinical course. Unbiased stereological estimates of three-dimensional volume-weighted mean nuclear size (nucl vV) of mycosis cells were obtained in a retrospective study of 18 patients with a total of ...

  20. Initial experience of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) and ultrasound elastography in predicting breast cancer subtypes and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Tao, Lin; Zhou, Xian-Li; Wei, Hong; Sun, Jia-Wei

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of distinct histopathological subtypes with different clinical outcomes. In this article, we identified the automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) and shear wave velocity (SWV) characteristics of different pathological types of breast carcinoma. A retrospective review of both ABVS and SWV imaging of 118 consecutive breast masses was performed. The imaging features of both techniques were assessed with reference to histopathological results. Echo heterogeneity with a smooth and lobulated margin was a significant feature more frequently found in mucinous carcinoma groups (100%, P breast carcinoma stages. The central and tumor margin areas of ductal carcinomas were much harder than in tubular carcinoma and micro-carcinoma, respectively (P breast carcinoma types and stages, ABVS and SWV imaging has the potential to give clues about breast carcinoma differentiation in a non-invasive manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of fluid loading on left ventricular volume and stroke volume variability in patients with end-stage renal disease: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hirotsugu; Hirasaki, Yuji; Iida, Takafumi; Kanao-Kanda, Megumi; Toyama, Yuki; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate fluid loading-induced changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and stroke volume variability (SVV) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and the Vigileo-FloTrac system. Patients and methods After obtaining ethics committee approval and informed consent, 28 patients undergoing peripheral vascular procedures were studied. Fourteen patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD) were assigned to the HD group and 14 patients without ESRD were assigned to the control group. Institutional standardized general anesthesia was provided in both groups. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. Simultaneously, a full-volume three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography dataset was acquired to measure LVEDV, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Measurements were obtained before and after loading 500 mL hydroxyethyl starch over 30 minutes in both groups. Results In the control group, intravenous colloid infusion was associated with a significant decrease in SVV (13.8%±2.6% to 6.5%±2.6%, P<0.001) and a significant increase in LVEDV (83.6±23.4 mL to 96.1±28.8 mL, P<0.001). While SVV significantly decreased after infusion in the HD group (16.2%±6.0% to 6.2%±2.8%, P<0.001), there was no significant change in LVEDV. Conclusion Our preliminary data suggest that fluid responsiveness can be assessed not by LVEDV but also by SVV due to underlying cardiovascular pathophysiology in patients with ESRD. PMID:26527879

  2. Space Transportation System Cargo projects: inertial stage/spacecraft integration plan. Volume 1: Management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Management System for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) - spacecraft processing from KSC arrival through launch is described. The roles and responsibilities of the agencies and test team organizations involved in IUS-S/C processing at KSC for non-Department of Defense missions are described. Working relationships are defined with respect to documentation preparation, coordination and approval, schedule development and maintenance, test conduct and control, configuration management, quality control and safety. The policy regarding the use of spacecraft contractor test procedures, IUS contractor detailed operating procedures and KSC operations and maintenance instructions is defined. Review and approval requirements for each documentation system are described.

  3. Development of a two-stage light gas gun to accelerate hydrogen pellets to high speeds for plasma fueling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Fehling, D.T.; Sparks, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a two-stage light gas gun to accelerate hydrogen isotope pellets to high speeds is under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. High velocities (>2 km/s) are desirable for plasma fueling applications, since the faster pellets can penetrate more deeply into large, hot plasmas and deposit atoms of fuel directly in a larger fraction of the plasma volume. In the initial configuration of the two-stage device, a 2.2-l volume (/ 3 for frozen hydrogen isotopes). However, the use of sabots to encase and protect the cryogenic pellets from the high peak pressures will probably be required to realize speeds of ∼3 km/s or greater. The experimental plan includes acceleration of hydrogen isotopes as soon as the gun geometry and operating parameters are optimized; theoretical models are being used to aid in this process. The hardware is being designed to accommodate repetitive operation, which is the objective of this research and is required for future applications. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Volume 1. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Technical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.; Perry, L.

    1980-01-01

    The HTGR Program encompasses a number of decisions facing both industry and government which are being evaluated under the HTGR application studies being conducted by the GCRA. This report is in support of these application studies, specifically by developing comparative probabilistic energy costs of the alternative HTGR plant types under study at this time and of competitive PWR and coal-fired plants. Management decision analytic methodology was used as the basis for the development of the comparative probabilistic data. This study covers the probabilistic comparison of various HTGR plant types at a commercial development stage with comparative PWR and coal-fired plants. Subsequent studies are needed to address the sequencing of HTGR plants from the lead plant to the commercial plants and to integrate the R and D program into the plant construction sequence. The probabilistic results cover the comparison of the 15-year levelized energy costs for commercial plants, all with 1995 startup dates. For comparison with the HTGR plants, PWR and fossil-fired plants have been included in the probabilistic analysis, both as steam electric plants and as combined steam electric and process heat plants

  5. Turbine design and application volumes 1, 2, and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Arthur J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA has an interest in turbines related primarily to aeronautics and space applications. Airbreathing turbine engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion, as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. Propellant-driven turbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for spacecraft. Closed-cycle turbine engines using inert gases, organic fluids, and metal fluids have been studied for providing long-duration electric power for spacecraft. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars, trucks, buses, trains, etc.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power. In view of the turbine-system interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center, a course entitled 'Turbine Design and Application' was presented during 1968-69 as part of the In-house Graduate Study Program. The course was somewhat revised and again presented in 1972-73. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts, fundamental turbine concepts, velocity diagrams, losses, blade aerodynamic design, blade cooling, mechanical design, operation, and performance. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Such a publication can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course, a means for self-study, or a reference for selected topics. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. Two commonly used consistent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. These are the SI units and the U.S. customary units. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U.S. customary units and defining as unity those not required for the SI units. Three volumes are compiled into one.

  6. Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research

    2007-07-01

    In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Effect of Radiotherapy Volume and Dose on Secondary Cancer Risk in Stage I Testicular Seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwahlen, Daniel R.; Martin, Jarad M.; Millar, Jeremy L.; Schneider, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate and compare the secondary cancer risk (SCR) due to para-aortic (PA), dogleg field (DLF), or extensive field (EF) radiotherapy (RT) at different dose levels for Stage I testicular seminoma. Methods and Materials: The organ equivalent dose concept with a linear, plateau, and linear-exponential dose-response model was applied to the dose distributions to estimate the SCR. The dose distributions were calculated in a voxel-based anthropomorphic phantom. Three different three-dimensional plans were computed: PA, DLF, and EF. The plans were calculated with 6-MV photons and two opposed fields, using 20 Gy in 10 fractions. Results: The estimated cumulative SCR for a 75-year-old patient treated with PA-RT at age 35 was 23.3% (linear model), 20.9% (plateau model), and 20.8% (linear-exponential model) compared with 19.8% for the general population. Dependent on the model, PA-RT compared with DLF-RT reduced the SCR by 48-63% or 64-69% when normalized to EF-RT. For PA-RT, the linear dose-response model predicted a decrease of 45% in the SCR, using 20 Gy instead of 30 Gy; the linear-exponential dose-response model predicted no change in SCR. Conclusion: Our model suggested that the SCR after PA-RT for Stage I testicular seminoma is reduced by approximately one-half to two-thirds compared with DLF-RT, independent of the dose-response model. The SCR is expected to be equal or lower with 20 Gy than with 30 Gy. In the absence of mature patient data, the organ equivalent dose concept offers the best potential method of estimating the SCR when discussing treatment options with patients

  8. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 635. Anisotropic Nanoparticles - Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyon, L

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at Symposium C, "Anisotropic Nanoparticles Synthesis, Characterization and Applications," at the 2000 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts...

  9. Cannula Tip With Integrated Volume Sensor for Rotary Blood Pump Control: Early-Stage Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysyk, Joshua; Newswanger, Ray; Popjes, Eric; Pae, Walter; Jhun, Choon-Sik; Izer, Jenelle; Weiss, William; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2018-05-10

    The lack of direct measurement of left ventricular unloading is a significant impediment to the development of an automatic speed control system for continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs). We have developed an inlet cannula tip for cf-LVADs with integrated electrodes for volume sensing based on conductance. Four platinum-iridium ring electrodes were installed into grooves on a cannula body constructed from polyetheretherketone (PEEK). A sinusoidal current excitation waveform (250 μA pk-pk, 50 kHz) was applied across one pair of electrodes, and the conductance-dependent voltage was sensed across the second pair of electrodes. The conductance catheter was tested in an acute ovine model (n = 3) in conjunction with the HeartMate II rotary blood pump to provide circulatory support and unload the ventricle. Echocardiography was used to measure ventricular size during pump support for verification for the conductance measurements. The conductance measurements correlated linearly with the echocardiography dimension measurements more than the full range of pump support from minimum support to suction. This cannula tip will enable the development of automatic control systems to optimize pump support based on a real-time measurement of ventricular size.

  10. ESTRO consensus guideline on target volume delineation for elective radiation therapy of early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offersen, Birgitte V.; Boersma, Liesbeth J.; Kirkove, Carine; Hol, Sandra; Aznar, Marianne C.; Biete Sola, Albert; Kirova, Youlia M.; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Remouchamps, Vincent; Verhoeven, Karolien; Weltens, Caroline; Arenas, Meritxell; Gabrys, Dorota; Kopek, Neil; Krause, Mechthild; Lundstedt, Dan; Marinko, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) is a weak link in radiation therapy (RT), and large inter-observer variation is seen in breast cancer patients. Several guidelines have been proposed, but most result in larger CTVs than based on conventional simulator-based RT. The aim was to develop a delineation guideline obtained by consensus between a broad European group of radiation oncologists. Material and methods: During ESTRO teaching courses on breast cancer, teachers sought consensus on delineation of CTV through dialogue based on cases. One teacher delineated CTV on CT scans of 2 patients, followed by discussion and adaptation of the delineation. The consensus established between teachers was sent to other teams working in the same field, both locally and on a national level, for their input. This was followed by developing a broad consensus based on discussions. Results: Borders of the CTV encompassing a 5 mm margin around the large veins, running through the regional lymph node levels were agreed, and for the breast/thoracic wall other vessels were pointed out to guide delineation, with comments on margins for patients with advanced breast cancer. Conclusion: The ESTRO consensus on CTV for elective RT of breast cancer, endorsed by a broad base of the radiation oncology community, is presented to improve consistency

  11. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chunhui, E-mail: chan@coh.org; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery.

  12. Pingston hydroelectric project - stage 2 project report : volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office has reviewed an application by Canadian Hydro Developers (B.C.) Inc., to develop the Pingston Hydroelectric Project, a run-of-river facility, located 60 km south of Revelstoke, British Columbia. The review includes an evaluation of any social and environmental impacts, including the effects on migratory birds, small mammals, amphibians, fish, wildlife, water quality, noise and visual aspects, that would be associated with the project. One consideration in selecting the project site was its ease of access along existing roadways and close proximity to power lines, another, the absence of any potential effects on fish and fish habitat. The project is also expected to have a negligible effect on water quality- related matters such as sediment transport, nutrient trapping in the headpond, and movement of large organic debris through the system. The project will not impact on archaeological resources, offers a renewable supply of energy and represents an overall positive effect on air quality for British Columbia. BC Hydro has committed to providing electrical interconnection to the main grid. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs., 9 appendices

  13. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-08-10

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate the ignition delay of n-dodecane and n-heptane in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), which is archived in the engine combustion network (ECN) library (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ecn). A detailed chemical kinetic model for gasoline surrogates from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was utilized for the simulation of n-heptane and isooctane. Additional simulations were performed using an optimized gasoline surrogate mechanism from RWTH Aachen University. Validations of the simulated data were also performed with experimental results from an IQT at KAUST. For simulation of n-dodecane in the CVCC, two n-dodecane kinetic models from the literature were utilized. The primary aim of this study is to test the ability of TSL to replicate ignition timings in the IQT and the CVCC. The agreement between the model and the experiment is acceptable except for isooctane in the IQT and n-heptane and n-dodecane in the CVCC. The ability of the simulations to replicate observable trends in ignition delay times with regard to changes in ambient temperature and pressure allows the model to provide insights into the reactions contributing towards ignition. Thus, the TSL model was further employed to investigate the physical and chemical processes responsible for controlling the overall ignition under various conditions. The effects of exothermicity, ambient pressure, and ambient oxygen concentration on first stage ignition were also studied. Increasing ambient pressure and oxygen concentration was found to shorten the overall ignition delay time, but does not affect the timing of the first stage ignition. Additionally, the temperature at the end of the first stage ignition was found to increase at higher ambient pressure

  14. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2011-01-01

    images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  15. Improvement of wheat yield grown under drought stress by boron foliar application at different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.F. Abdel-Motagally

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of boron foliar application and water stress on yield of wheat plant grown in calcareous soil during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. The highest mean values obtained against boron application time were potential contributor to total grains mass by improving the plant height (99.42 and 98.32 cm, spike length (11.86 and 11.72 cm, number of spikelets m−2 (332.65 and 324.35, grain yield plant−1 (21.56 and 20.26 g, 1000-grain weight (35.2 and 37.4 g and grain yield (1.87 and 1.85 ton fed.−1, which were recorded at normal irrigation level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat with boron spraying at booting stage (B1 in the first and second seasons, respectively. Furthermore, boron application significantly enhanced all studied growth traits under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat compared to B-untreated plants. Boron spraying at booting stage enhances also plant pigments contents recording its highest mean values under normal water level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat. The reduction in stress markers (proline and H2O2 and the enhancement of plant pigments content under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat by B spraying suggests an alleviating effect of boron foliar application to water stress in the test plant. This alleviating effect was more pronounced when B applied at booting stage. Therefore, booting stage was found to be the best time for boron application to get higher grains production and consequently, better economic returns of wheat. Keywords: Wheat, Growth stages, Boron application time, Water stress, Crop yield, Plant pigments, Proline, H2O2

  16. IMAGE information monitoring and applied graphics software environment. Volume 4. Applications description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.W.; Ng, K.B.; Upham, G.L.

    1986-09-01

    The EPRI Information Monitoring and Applied Graphics Environment (IMAGE) system is designed for 'fast proto-typing' of advanced concepts for computer-aided plant operations tools. It is a flexible software system which can be used for rapidly creating, dynamically driving and evaluating advanced operator aid displays. The software is written to be both host computer and graphic device independent. This four volume report includes an Executive Overview of the IMAGE package (Volume 1), followed by Software Description (Volume II), User's Guide (Volume III), and Description of Example Applications (Volume IV)

  17. Closing the loop: modelling of heart failure progression from health to end-stage using a meta-analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, David R; Brown, Alistair G; Varma, Susheel; Sheridan, Paul J; Lawford, Patricia; Hose, David R; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Shi, Yubing

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guidelines for the classification of heart failure (HF) are descriptive but lack precise and objective measures which would assist in categorising such patients. Our aim was two fold, firstly to demonstrate quantitatively the progression of HF through each stage using a meta-analysis of existing left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume (PV) loop data and secondly use the LV PV loop data to create stage specific HF models. A literature search yielded 31 papers with PV data, representing over 200 patients in different stages of HF. The raw pressure and volume data were extracted from the papers using a digitising software package and the means were calculated. The data demonstrated that, as HF progressed, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF%) decreased while LV volumes increased. A 2-element lumped parameter model was employed to model the mean loops and the error was calculated between the loops, demonstrating close fit between the loops. The only parameter that was consistently and statistically different across all the stages was the elastance (Emax). For the first time, the authors have created a visual and quantitative representation of the AHA/ACC stages of LVSD-HF, from normal to end-stage. The study demonstrates that robust, load-independent and reproducible parameters, such as elastance, can be used to categorise and model HF, complementing the existing classification. The modelled PV loops establish previously unknown physiological parameters for each AHA/ACC stage of LVSD-HF, such as LV elastance and highlight that it this parameter alone, in lumped parameter models, that determines the severity of HF. Such information will enable cardiovascular modellers with an interest in HF, to create more accurate models of the heart as it fails.

  18. Closing the loop: modelling of heart failure progression from health to end-stage using a meta-analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Warriner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The American Heart Association (AHA/American College of Cardiology (ACC guidelines for the classification of heart failure (HF are descriptive but lack precise and objective measures which would assist in categorising such patients. Our aim was two fold, firstly to demonstrate quantitatively the progression of HF through each stage using a meta-analysis of existing left ventricular (LV pressure-volume (PV loop data and secondly use the LV PV loop data to create stage specific HF models. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature search yielded 31 papers with PV data, representing over 200 patients in different stages of HF. The raw pressure and volume data were extracted from the papers using a digitising software package and the means were calculated. The data demonstrated that, as HF progressed, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF% decreased while LV volumes increased. A 2-element lumped parameter model was employed to model the mean loops and the error was calculated between the loops, demonstrating close fit between the loops. The only parameter that was consistently and statistically different across all the stages was the elastance (Emax. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, the authors have created a visual and quantitative representation of the AHA/ACC stages of LVSD-HF, from normal to end-stage. The study demonstrates that robust, load-independent and reproducible parameters, such as elastance, can be used to categorise and model HF, complementing the existing classification. The modelled PV loops establish previously unknown physiological parameters for each AHA/ACC stage of LVSD-HF, such as LV elastance and highlight that it this parameter alone, in lumped parameter models, that determines the severity of HF. Such information will enable cardiovascular modellers with an interest in HF, to create more accurate models of the heart as it fails.

  19. Effective Packet Number for 5G IM WeChat Application at Early Stage Traffic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate network traffic classification at early stage is very important for 5G network applications. During the last few years, researchers endeavored hard to propose effective machine learning model for classification of Internet traffic applications at early stage with few packets. Nevertheless, this essential problem still needs to be studied profoundly to find out effective packet number as well as effective machine learning (ML model. In this paper, we tried to solve the above-mentioned problem. For this purpose, five Internet traffic datasets are utilized. Initially, we extract packet size of 20 packets and then mutual information analysis is carried out to find out the mutual information of each packet on n flow type. Thereafter, we execute 10 well-known machine learning algorithms using crossover classification method. Two statistical analysis tests, Friedman and Wilcoxon pairwise tests, are applied for the experimental results. Moreover, we also apply the statistical tests for classifiers to find out effective ML classifier. Our experimental results show that 13–19 packets are the effective packet numbers for 5G IM WeChat application at early stage network traffic classification. We also find out effective ML classifier, where Random Forest ML classifier is effective classifier at early stage Internet traffic classification.

  20. Development and validation of a clinically applicable score to classify cachexia stages in advanced cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Wang, Bangyan; Liu, Huiquan; Yang, Kaixiang; Thapa, Sudip; Zhang, Haowen; Li, Lu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is highly prevalent in advanced cancer patients and leads to progressive functional impairments. The classification of cachexia stages is essential for diagnosing and treating cachexia. However, there is a lack of simple tools with good discrimination for classifying cachexia stages. Therefore, our study aimed to develop a clinically applicable cachexia staging score (CSS) and validate its discrimination of clinical outcomes for different cachexia stages. Methods Advanced cancer patients were enrolled in our study. A CSS comprising the following five components was developed: weight loss, a simple questionnaire of sarcopenia (SARC‐F), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, appetite loss, and abnormal biochemistry. According to the CSS, patients were classified into non‐cachexia, pre‐cachexia, cachexia, and refractory cachexia stages, and clinical outcomes were compared among the four groups. Results Of the 297 participating patients, data from 259 patients were ultimately included. Based on the CSS, patients were classified into non‐cachexia (n = 69), pre‐cachexia (n = 68), cachexia (n = 103), and refractory cachexia (n = 19) stages. Patients with more severe cachexia stages had lower skeletal muscle indexes (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004 in male and female patients, respectively), higher prevalence of sarcopenia (P = 0.017 and P = 0.027 in male and female patients, respectively), more severe symptom burden (P cachexia stages. This score is extremely useful for the clinical treatment and prognosis of cachexia and for designing clinical trials. PMID:29372594

  1. Boron application improves yield of rice cultivars under high temperature stress during vegetative and reproductive stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Mohammad; Nayak, Amaresh Kumar; Tripathi, Rahul; Katara, Jawahar Lal; Bihari, Priyanka; Lal, Banwari; Gautam, Priyanka

    2018-04-12

    It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil. The treatments comprised of four boron application treatments viz. control (B0), soil application of 1 kg B ha -1 (B1), soil application of 2 kg B ha -1 (B2), and foliar spray of 0.2% B (Bfs); three rice cultivars viz. Annapurna (HT stress tolerant), Naveen, and Shatabdi (both HT stress susceptible); and three temperature regimes viz. ambient (AT), HT at vegetative stage (HTV), and HT at reproductive stage (HTR). The results revealed that high temperature stress during vegetative or flowering stage reduced grain yield of rice cultivars mainly because of low pollen viability and spikelet fertility. The effects of high temperature on the spikelet fertility and grain filling varied among cultivars and the growth stages of plant when exposed to the high temperature stress. Under high temperature stress, the tolerant cultivar displays higher cell membrane stability, less accumulation of osmolytes, more antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher pollen viability and spikelet fertility than the susceptible cultivars. In the present work, soil application of boron was effective in reducing the negative effects of high temperature both at vegetative and reproductive stages. Application of B results into higher grain yield under both ambient and high temperature condition over control for all the three cultivars; however, more increase was observed for the susceptible cultivar over the tolerant one. The results

  2. Boron application improves yield of rice cultivars under high temperature stress during vegetative and reproductive stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Mohammad; Nayak, Amaresh Kumar; Tripathi, Rahul; Katara, Jawahar Lal; Bihari, Priyanka; Lal, Banwari; Gautam, Priyanka

    2018-04-01

    It is reported that high temperatures (HT) would cause a marked decrease in world rice production. In tropical regions, high temperatures are a constraint to rice production and the most damaging effect is on spikelet sterility. Boron (B) plays a very important role in the cell wall formation, sugar translocation, and reproduction of the rice crop and could play an important role in alleviating high temperature stress. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of B application on high temperature tolerance of rice cultivars in B-deficient soil. The treatments comprised of four boron application treatments viz. control (B0), soil application of 1 kg B ha-1 (B1), soil application of 2 kg B ha-1 (B2), and foliar spray of 0.2% B (Bfs); three rice cultivars viz. Annapurna (HT stress tolerant), Naveen, and Shatabdi (both HT stress susceptible); and three temperature regimes viz. ambient (AT), HT at vegetative stage (HTV), and HT at reproductive stage (HTR). The results revealed that high temperature stress during vegetative or flowering stage reduced grain yield of rice cultivars mainly because of low pollen viability and spikelet fertility. The effects of high temperature on the spikelet fertility and grain filling varied among cultivars and the growth stages of plant when exposed to the high temperature stress. Under high temperature stress, the tolerant cultivar displays higher cell membrane stability, less accumulation of osmolytes, more antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher pollen viability and spikelet fertility than the susceptible cultivars. In the present work, soil application of boron was effective in reducing the negative effects of high temperature both at vegetative and reproductive stages. Application of B results into higher grain yield under both ambient and high temperature condition over control for all the three cultivars; however, more increase was observed for the susceptible cultivar over the tolerant one. The results suggest

  3. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  4. A Prospective Randomized Study of the Radiotherapy Volume for Limited-stage Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao HU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Controversies exists with regard to target volumes as far as thoracic radiotherapy (TRT is concerned in the multimodality treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the local control rate, toxicity profiles, and overall survival (OS between patients received different target volumes irradiation after induction chemotherapy. Methods LSCLC patients received 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP induction chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to receive TRT to either the post- or pre-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T as study arm and control arm, CTV-N included the positive nodal drainage area for both arms. One to 2 weeks after induction chemotherapy, 45 Gy/30 Fx/19 d TRT was administered concurrently with the third cycle of EP regimen. After that, additional 3 cycles of EP consolidation were administered. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI was administered to patients with a complete response. Results Thirty-seven and 40 patients were randomly assigned to study arm and control arm. The local recurrence rates were 32.4% and 28.2% respectively (P=0.80; the isolated nodal failure (INF rate were 3.0% and 2.6% respectively (P=0.91; all INF sites were in the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa. Medastinal N3 disease was the risk factor for INF (P=0.02, OR=14.13, 95%CI: 1.47-136.13. During radiotherapy, grade I, II weight loss was observed in 29.4%, 5.9% and 56.4%, 7.7% patients respectively (P=0.04. Grade 0-I and II-III late pulmonary injury was developed in 97.1%, 2.9% and 86.4%, 15.4% patients respectively (P=0.07. Median survival time was 22.1 months and 26.9 months respectively. The 1 to 3-year OS were 77.9%, 44.4%, 37.3% and 75.8%, 56.3%, 41.7% respectively (P=0.79. Conclusion The preliminary results of this study indicate that irradiant the post-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T and positive nodal drainage area did not decrease local control and overall

  5. Impact of FDG-PET/CT on Radiotherapy Volume Delineation in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Correlation of Imaging Stage With Pathologic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Sergio L.; Menard, Sonia; Devic, Slobodan; Sirois, Christian; Souhami, Luis; Lisbona, Robert; Freeman, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) is more accurate than CT in determining the extent of non-small-cell lung cancer. We performed a study to evaluate the impact of FDG-PET/CT on the radiotherapy volume delineation compared with CT without using any mathematical algorithm and to correlate the findings with the pathologic examination findings. Methods and Materials: A total of 32 patients with proven non-small-cell lung cancer, pathologic specimens from the mediastinum and lung primary, and pretreatment chest CT and FDG-PET/CT scans were studied. For each patient, two data sets of theoretical gross tumor volumes were contoured. One set was determined using the chest CT only, and the second, done separately, was based on the co-registered FDG-PET/CT data. The disease stage of each patient was determined using the TNM staging system for three data sets: the CT scan only, FDG-PET/CT scan, and pathologic findings. Results: Pathologic examination altered the CT-determined stage in 22 (69%) of 32 patients and the PET-determined stage in 16 (50%) of 32 patients. The most significant alterations were related to the N stage. PET altered the TNM stage in 15 (44%) of 32 patients compared with CT alone, but only 7 of these 15 alterations were confirmed by the pathologic findings. With respect to contouring the tumor volume for radiotherapy, PET altered the contour in 18 (56%) of 32 cases compared with CT alone. Conclusion: The contour of the tumor volume of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with co-registered FDG-PET/CT resulted in >50% alterations compared with CT targeting, findings similar to those of other publications. However, the significance of this change is unknown. Furthermore, pathologic examination showed that PET is not always accurate and histologic examination should be obtained to confirm the findings of PET whenever possible

  6. System-level Reliability Assessment of Power Stage in Fuel Cell Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    reliability. In a case study of a 5 kW fuel cell power stage, the parameter variations of the lifetime model prove that the exponential factor of the junction temperature fluctuation is the most sensitive parameter. Besides, if a 5-out-of-6 redundancy is used, it is concluded both the B10 and the B1 system......High efficient and less pollutant fuel cell stacks are emerging and strong candidates of the power solution used for mobile base stations. In the application of the backup power, the availability and reliability hold the highest priority. This paper considers the reliability metrics from...... the component-level to the system-level for the power stage used in a fuel cell application. It starts with an estimation of the annual accumulated damage for the key power electronic components according to the real mission profile of the fuel cell system. Then, considering the parameter variations in both...

  7. Nature of strain aging stages in bake hardening steel for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Alexander A.; Lee, Hu-Chul; Kuzmin, Nikolay L.

    2008-01-01

    Strain aging behavior of industrially produced ultra low carbon bake hardening (BH) steel for automotive application was investigated. The aging process was studied by the dynamic Young's modulus and amplitude-independent dislocation internal friction measurements with acoustic methods. Analysis of the revealed strain aging stages was carried out and has resulted in the conclusion that formation of interstitial atoms atmospheres on the dislocations is accompanied and substantially affected by the dissolution of their grain boundary segregations

  8. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D.; Cheze-Le-Rest, C.; Pradier, O.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ( 18 F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  9. Optical fiber sensors: Systems and applications. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian; Dakin, John

    State-of-the-art fiber-optic (FO) sensors and their applications are described in chapters contributed by leading experts. Consideration is given to interferometers, FO gyros, intensity- and wavelength-based sensors and optical actuators, Si in FO sensors, point-sensor multiplexing principles, and distributed FO sensor systems. Also examined are chemical, biochemical, and medical sensors; physical and chemical sensors for process control; FO-sensor applications in the marine and aerospace industries; FO-sensor monitoring systems for security and safety, structural integrity, NDE, and the electric-power industry; and the market situation for FO-sensor technology. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  10. Application of two-stage biofilter system for the removal of odorous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee; Lee, Gwang-Yeon; Cha, Jin-Myeong

    2006-01-01

    Biofiltration is a biological process which is considered to be one of the more successful examples of biotechnological applications to environmental engineering, and is most commonly used in the removal of odoriferous compounds. In this study, we have attempted to assess the efficiency with which both single and complex odoriferous compounds could be removed, using one- or two-stage biofiltration systems. The tested single odor gases, limonene, alpha-pinene, and iso-butyl alcohol, were separately evaluated in the biofilters. Both limonene and alpha-pinene were removed by 90% or more EC (elimination capacity), 364 g/m3/h and 321 g/m3/h, respectively, at an input concentration of 50 ppm and a retention time of 30 s. The iso-butyl alcohol was maintained with an effective removal yield of more than 90% (EC 375 g/m3/h) at an input concentration of 100 ppm. The complex gas removal scheme was applied with a 200 ppm inlet concentration of ethanol, 70 ppm of acetaldehyde, and 70 ppm of toluene with residence time of 45 s in a one- or two-stage biofiltration system. The removal yield of toluene was determined to be lower than that of the other gases in the one-stage biofilter. Otherwise, the complex gases were sufficiently eliminated by the two-stage biofiltration system.

  11. Formation of hydrogen negative ions by surface and volume processes with application to negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the last few decades interest in negative-hydrogen ion sources has been directed mainly toward synchrotron and other particle accelerator applications, with emphasis on high current densities delivered for short pulses. But within the last several years there has been an awareness in the magnetic fusion program of the future need for negative ions as a means for generating high energy neutral beams, beams with energies above a few hundred keV. Negative ions seem to be the only effective intermediary for efficiently producing such beams. Although methods for generating negative ion beams have relied upon synchrotron concepts, the requirements for fusion are very different: here one is interested in more moderate current densities, up to 100 m A cm -2 , but with continuous operation. Proposed source modules would accelerate of the order of 10 A of beam current and deliver several megawatts of beam power. Both H - and D - beams are being considered for application in different reactor systems. The conceptualization of negative ion sources is now in a very volatile stage. But of the great variety of proposals that have been offered to date, three general areas appear ready for development. These are: first, the double charge exchange method for converting a positive ion beam into a negative ion beam; second, electron-volume processes wherein low energy electrons interacting with molecular species lead to negative ion products via dissociative attachment or recombination; and third, generation of negative ions in surface interactions, principally via desorption and backscattering. Both our qualitative and our quantitative understanding of these processes diminishes as one proceeds from the first through the third. The physics of these three methods is considered in detail

  12. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education Yearbook. Volume 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Readers of the online journal "Update: Applications of Research in Music Education" who prefer a printed copy of articles most relevant to their work will find them in the new 2005-2006 "Update Yearbook." Now available to everyone interested in the latest music education trends, the Yearbook contains in print the entire online issues for…

  13. Multiagent Systems and Applications Volume 1Practice and Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the book is on completed implementations of agent-based software systems. Here, agent technology is considered broadly, starting from development of agent platforms, all the way through systems actually implemented. The covered topics also include lessons learned during implementation of agent platforms and the reflection on the process of development and application of agent-based systems.   The book includes 10 chapters where interested reader can find discussion of important issues encountered during development of well-known agent platforms such as JADE and Jadex as well as some interesting experiences in developing a new platform that combines software agent and Web Services. Furthermore, the book shows readers several valuable examples of applications based on multi-agent systems including simulations, agents in autonomous negotiations and agents in public administration modelling. We believe that the book will prove useful to the researchers, professors and the practitioners in all discip...

  14. The Effects Foliar Application of Methanol at Different Growth Stages on Kernel Related Traits in Chickpea var. ILC 482

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Naeimi,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of foliar application of methanol on certain kernel related traits at different growth stages of pea var. ILC482 at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2011. The study was conducted in split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments were three levels methanol foliar application at different growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and foliar application at both two stages which considered as main factor, six levels of foliar application of methanol concentrations: (0 [control], 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30% as sub factor. Results showed that the interactions of methanol applications growth stages and its concentrations on grain number per plant, 100 kernel weight, grain yield, grain filing rate and harvest index were significantly different. Foliar application of methanol at reproductive stage decrease kernel related traits, but this application at both growth stages had positive effect on grain production and kernel related traits. This positive effect on number and 100 kernel weight were significant. The highest grain yield (2460 kg/ha was obtained by 20% concentration of methanol at both growth stages that increased grain yield above 13.5% compared to the control condition.

  15. ESB application for effective synchronization of large volume measurements data

    CERN Document Server

    Wyszkowski, Przemysław Michał

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at CERN aims at measurement of total cross section, elastic scattering and diffractive processes of colliding protons in the Large Hadron Collider. In order for the research to be possible, it is necessary to process huge amounts of data coming from variety of sources: TOTEM detectors, CMS detectors, measurement devices around the Large Hadron Collider tunnel and many other external systems. Preparing final results involves also calculating plenty of intermediate figures, which also need to be stored. In order for the work of the scientist to be effective and convenient it is crucial to provide central point for the data storage, where all raw and intermediate figures will be stored. This thesis aims at presenting the usage of Enterprise Service Bus concept in building software infrastructure for transferring large volume of measurements data. Topics discussed here include technologies and mechanisms realizing the concept of integration bus, model of data transferring system based on ...

  16. Clinical application of tumor volume in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma to predict outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Current staging systems have limited ability to adjust optimal therapy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to delineate the correlation between tumor volume, treatment outcome and chemotherapy cycles in advanced NPC. A retrospective review of 110 patients with stage III-IV NPC was performed. All patients were treated first with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, then concurrent chemoradiation, and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as being the definitive therapy. Gross tumor volume of primary tumor plus retropharyngeal nodes (GTVprn) was calculated to be an index of treatment outcome. GTVprn had a close relationship with survival and recurrence in advanced NPC. Large GTVprn (≧13 ml) was associated with a significantly poorer local control, lower distant metastasis-free rate, and poorer survival. In patients with GTVprn ≧ 13 ml, overall survival was better after ≧4 cycles of chemotherapy than after less than 4 cycles. The incorporation of GTVprn can provide more information to adjust treatment strategy

  17. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references

  18. MBE growth of VCSELs for high volume applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Roland; Riedl, Michael C.

    2011-05-01

    Mass market applications like laser computer mouse or optical data transmission based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) chips need a high over all yield including epitaxy, processing, dicing, mounting and testing. One yield limitation for VCSEL structures is the emission wavelength variation of the substrate surface area leading to the fraction on laser chips which are below or above the specification limits. For most 850 nm VCSEL products a resonator wavelength variation of ±2 nm is common. This represents an average resonator thickness variation of much less than 1% which is quite challenging to be fulfilled on the entire processed wafer surface area. A high over all yield is demonstrated on MBE grown VCSEL structures.

  19. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  20. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  1. Interpolation Filter Design for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik; Llimos Muntal, Pere

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a design of a digital interpolation filter for a 3rd order multi-bit ΣΔ modulator with over-sampling ratio OSR = 64. The interpolation filter and the ΣΔ modulator are part of the back-end of an audio signal processing system in a hearing-aid application. The aim in this paper...... is to compare this design to designs presented in other state-of-the-art works ranging from hi-fi audio to hearing-aids. By performing comparison, trends and tradeoffs in interpolation filter design are indentified and hearing-aid specifications are derived. The possibilities for hardware reduction...... in the interpolation filter are investigated. Proposed design simplifications presented here result in the least hardware demanding combination of oversampling ratio, number of stages and number of filter taps among a number of filters reported for audio applications....

  2. The application of the consecutive-Woehler-curve-concept in computation of the life values for multi-stage creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, G.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that at multi-stage creep load there cannot be calculated any reliable life values by means of linear damage accumulation hypotheses. A practicable non-linear statement was proposed by Pantelakis. Besides the one-stage creep life curve, results from two-stage tests are required for determining the damage exponent. With this exponent, which is a function of temperature and stress in the load stage applied first, the life values can be calculated only for two-stage sequences whose stress stages have to be identical to those of the two-stage tests. For the application of the consecutive Woehler curve concept described in the following there is required the knowledge of the one-stage creep life curve and of the creep function for increasing and decreasing stress sequences derived from two-stage tests. Then, the life values can be calculated for the most different multi-stage loads. The stress stages should lie within the stress range used in the two-stage tests. (orig.) [de

  3. Conventional 3D staging PET/CT in CT simulation for lung cancer: impact of rigid and deformable target volume alignments for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, G G; Van Sörnsen De Koste, J R; Carson, K J; O'Sullivan, J M; Hounsell, A R; Senan, S

    2011-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans can improve target definition in radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). As staging PET/CT scans are increasingly available, we evaluated different methods for co-registration of staging PET/CT data to radiotherapy simulation (RTP) scans. 10 patients underwent staging PET/CT followed by RTP PET/CT. On both scans, gross tumour volumes (GTVs) were delineated using CT (GTV(CT)) and PET display settings. Four PET-based contours (manual delineation, two threshold methods and a source-to-background ratio method) were delineated. The CT component of the staging scan was co-registered using both rigid and deformable techniques to the CT component of RTP PET/CT. Subsequently rigid registration and deformation warps were used to transfer PET and CT contours from the staging scan to the RTP scan. Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to assess the registration accuracy of staging-based GTVs following both registration methods with the GTVs delineated on the RTP PET/CT scan. When the GTV(CT) delineated on the staging scan after both rigid registration and deformation was compared with the GTV(CT)on the RTP scan, a significant improvement in overlap (registration) using deformation was observed (mean DSC 0.66 for rigid registration and 0.82 for deformable registration, p = 0.008). A similar comparison for PET contours revealed no significant improvement in overlap with the use of deformable registration. No consistent improvements in similarity measures were observed when deformable registration was used for transferring PET-based contours from a staging PET/CT. This suggests that currently the use of rigid registration remains the most appropriate method for RTP in NSCLC.

  4. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  5. A low-volume cavity ring-down spectrometer for sample-limited applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, C.; Farinas, A. D.; Ware, J.; Wistisen, D. W.; Rella, C.; Wahl, E.; Crosson, E.; Blunier, T.

    2014-08-01

    In atmospheric and environmental sciences, optical spectrometers are used for the measurements of greenhouse gas mole fractions and the isotopic composition of water vapor or greenhouse gases. The large sample cell volumes (tens of milliliters to several liters) in commercially available spectrometers constrain the usefulness of such instruments for applications that are limited in sample size and/or need to track fast variations in the sample stream. In an effort to make spectrometers more suitable for sample-limited applications, we developed a low-volume analyzer capable of measuring mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide based on a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer. The instrument has a small sample cell (9.6 ml) and can selectively be operated at a sample cell pressure of 140, 45, or 20 Torr (effective internal volume of 1.8, 0.57, and 0.25 ml). We present the new sample cell design and the flow path configuration, which are optimized for small sample sizes. To quantify the spectrometer's usefulness for sample-limited applications, we determine the renewal rate of sample molecules within the low-volume spectrometer. Furthermore, we show that the performance of the low-volume spectrometer matches the performance of the standard commercial analyzers by investigating linearity, precision, and instrumental drift.

  6. The impact of MRI sequence on tumour staging and gross tumour volume delineation in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prezzi, Davide; Mandegaran, Ramin; Gourtsoyianni, Sofia; Owczarczyk, Katarzyna; Gaya, Andrew; Glynne-Jones, Robert; Goh, Vicky

    2018-01-01

    To compare maximum tumour diameter (MTD) and gross tumour volume (GTV) measurements between T 2 -weighted (T 2 -w) and diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) and assess sequence impact on tumour (T) staging. Second, to evaluate interobserver agreement and reader delineation confidence. The staging MRI scans of 45 SCCA patients (25 females) were assessed retrospectively by two independent radiologists (0 and 5 years' experience of anal cancer MRI). MTD and GTV were delineated on both T 2 -w and high-b-value DWI images and compared between sequences; T staging was derived from MTD. Interobserver agreement was assessed and delineation confidence scored (1 to 5) by each observer. GTV and MTD were significantly and systematically lower on DWI versus T 2 -w sequences by 14.80%/9.98% (MTD) and 29.70%/12.25% (GTV) for each reader, respectively, causing T staging discordances in approximately a quarter of cases. Bland-Altman limits of agreement were narrower and intraclass correlation coefficients higher for DWI. Delineation confidence was greater on DWI: 40/42 cases were scored confidently (4 or 5) by each reader, respectively, versus 31/36 cases based on T 2 -w images. Sequence selection affects SCCA measurements and T stage. DWI yields higher interobserver agreement and greater tumour delineation confidence. (orig.)

  7. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  8. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Part II: applications and fundamentals. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boumans, P.W.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second part of the two-volume treatise by this well-known and respected author. This volume reviews applications of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), summarizes fundamental studies, and compares ICP-AES methods with other methods of analysis. The first six chapters are devoted to specific fields of application, including the following: metals and other industrial materials, geology, the environment, agriculture and food, biology and clinical analysis, and organic materials. The chapter on the analysis of organic materials also covers the special instrumental considerations required when organic solvents are introduced into an inductively coupled plasma. A chapter on the direct analysis of solids completes the first part of this volume. Each of the applications chapters begins with a summary of the types of samples that are encountered in that field, and the kinds of problems that an elemental analysis can help to solve. This is followed by a tutorial approach covering applicability, advantages, and limitations of the methods. The coverage is thorough, including sample handling, storage, and preparation, acid, and fusion dissolution, avoiding contamination, methods of preconcentration, the types of interferences that can be expected and ways to reduce them, and the types of ICP plasmas that are used. The second half of the volume covers fundamental studies of ICP-AES: basic processes of aerosol generation, plasma modeling and computer simulation, spectroscopic diagnostics, excitation mechanisms, and discharge characteristics. This section introduces the experimental and modeling methods that have been used to obtain fundamental information about ICPs

  9. Validity and reliability of an application review process using dedicated reviewers in one stage of a multi-stage admissions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Jacqueline M; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-11-01

    With increased emphasis placed on non-academic skills in the workplace, a need exists to identify an admissions process that evaluates these skills. This study assessed the validity and reliability of an application review process involving three dedicated application reviewers in a multi-stage admissions model. A multi-stage admissions model was utilized during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle. After advancing through the academic review, each application was independently reviewed by two dedicated application reviewers utilizing a six-construct rubric (written communication, extracurricular and community service activities, leadership experience, pharmacy career appreciation, research experience, and resiliency). Rubric scores were extrapolated to a three-tier ranking to select candidates for on-site interviews. Kappa statistics were used to assess interrater reliability. A three-facet Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) determined reviewer severity, candidate suitability, and rubric construct difficulty. The kappa statistic for candidates' tier rank score (n = 388 candidates) was 0.692 with a perfect agreement frequency of 84.3%. There was substantial interrater reliability between reviewers for the tier ranking (kappa: 0.654-0.710). Highest construct agreement occurred in written communication (kappa: 0.924-0.984). A three-facet MFRM analysis explained 36.9% of variance in the ratings, with 0.06% reflecting application reviewer scoring patterns (i.e., severity or leniency), 22.8% reflecting candidate suitability, and 14.1% reflecting construct difficulty. Utilization of dedicated application reviewers and a defined tiered rubric provided a valid and reliable method to effectively evaluate candidates during the application review process. These analyses provide insight into opportunities for improving the application review process among schools and colleges of pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Composite materials. Volume 3 - Engineering applications of composites. Volume 4 - Metallic matrix composites. Volume 8 - Structural design and analysis, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noton, B. R. (Editor); Kreider, K. G.; Chamis, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    This volume discusses a vaety of applications of both low- and high-cost composite materials in a number of selected engineering fields. The text stresses the use of fiber-reinforced composites, along with interesting material systems used in the electrical and nuclear industries. As to technology transfer, a similarity is noted between many of the reasons responsible for the utilization of composites and those problems requiring urgent solution, such as mechanized fabrication processes and design for production. Features topics include road transportation, rail transportation, civil aircraft, space vehicles, builing industry, chemical plants, and appliances and equipment. The laminate orientation code devised by Air Force materials laboratory is included. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  11. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu; Kuti, Olawole Abiola; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate

  12. The impact of time between staging PET/CT and definitive chemo-radiation on target volumes and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Plumridge, Nikki; Herschtal, Alan; Bressel, Mathias; Ball, David; Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the impact of treatment delays on radiation therapy (RT) target volumes and overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent two baseline FDG PET/CT scans. Material and methods: Patients underwent a staging (PET1) and RT planning (PET2) FDG PET/CT scan. At PET1 all patients were eligible for radical chemo-RT. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared for patients remaining eligible for radical RT and those treated palliatively because PET2 showed progression. RT target volumes were contoured using PET1 and PET2. Normal tissue doses were compared for patients remaining eligible for radical RT. Results: Eighty-two patients underwent PET2 scans between October 2004 and February 2007. Of these, 21 had a prior PET1 scan, median 23 days apart (range 8–176 days). Six patients (29%) were unsuitable for radical RT after PET2; five received palliative treatment and one received no treatment. Patients treated palliatively had significantly worse OS and PFS than patients treated radically p < 0.001. Mean RT tumour volume increased from 105cc to 198cc (p < 0.005) between scans. Conclusions: Disease progression while awaiting initiation of curative RT in NSCLC is associated with larger treatment volumes and worse survival

  13. Stereotactic body radiotherapy and treatment at a high volume facility is associated with improved survival in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Matthew; Malik, Renuka; Mahmood, Usama; Husain, Zain; Sher, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the comparative effectiveness of no treatment (NoTx), conventional fractionated radiotherapy (ConvRT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. This population based cohort also allowed us to examine what facility level characteristics contributed to improved outcomes. Methods: We included patients in the National Cancer Database from 2003 to 2006 with T1-T2N0M0 inoperable lung cancer (n = 13,036). Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: The median follow up was 68 months (interquartile range: 35–83 months) in surviving patients. Among the cohort, 52% received NoTx, 41% received ConvRT and 6% received SBRT. The 3-year OS was 28% for NoTx, 36% for ConvRT radiotherapy, and 48% for the SBRT cohort (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for SBRT and ConvRT were 0.67 and 0.77, respectively, as compared to NoTx (1.0 ref) (p < 0.0001). Patients treated at a high volume facility vs. low volume facility had a hazard ratio of 0.94 vs. 1.0 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with early stage inoperable lung cancer treated with SBRT and at a high volume facility had a survival benefit compared to patients treated with ConvRT or NoTx or to those treated at a low volume facility

  14. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  15. A CURRENT MIRROR BASED TWO STAGE CMOS CASCODE OP-AMP FOR HIGH FREQUENCY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMKRISHNA KUNDU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power, high slew rate, high gain, ultra wide band two stage CMOS cascode operational amplifier for radio frequency application. Current mirror based cascoding technique and pole zero cancelation technique is used to ameliorate the gain and enhance the unity gain bandwidth respectively, which is the novelty of the circuit. In cascading technique a common source transistor drive a common gate transistor. The cascoding is used to enhance the output resistance and hence improve the overall gain of the operational amplifier with less complexity and less power dissipation. To bias the common gate transistor, a current mirror is used in this paper. The proposed circuit is designed and simulated using Cadence analog and digital system design tools of 45 nanometer CMOS technology. The simulated results of the circuit show DC gain of 63.62 dB, unity gain bandwidth of 2.70 GHz, slew rate of 1816 V/µs, phase margin of 59.53º, power supply of the proposed operational amplifier is 1.4 V (rail-to-rail ±700 mV, and power consumption is 0.71 mW. This circuit specification has encountered the requirements of radio frequency application.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi alkaline 2-DE: Optimization and application to comparative proteome analysis of flagellate life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Jaime M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellate protozoan, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a chronic illness that causes irreversible damage to heart and digestive tract in humans. Previous 2-DE analyses of T. cruzi proteome have not focused on basic proteins, possibly because of inherent difficulties for optimizing 2-DE in the alkaline pH range. However, T. cruzi wide pH range 2-DE gels have shown few visible spots in the alkaline region, indicating that the parasite either did not have an appreciable amount of alkaline proteins or that these proteins were underrepresented in the 2-DE gels. Results Different IEF conditions using 6–11 pH gradient strips were tested for separation of T. cruzi alkaline proteins. The optimized methodology described here was performed using anodic "paper bridge" sample loading supplemented by increased concentration of DTT and Triton X-100 on Multiphor II (GE Healthcare equipment and an electrode pad embedded in DTT- containing solution near the cathode in order to avoid depletion of reducing agent during IEF. Landmark proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting allowing the production of an epimastigote 2-DE map. Most identified proteins corresponded to metabolic enzymes, especially those related to amino acid metabolism. The optimized 2-DE protocol was applied in combination with the "two-in-one gel" method to verify the relative expression of the identified proteins between samples from epimastigote and trypomastigote life stages. Conclusion High resolution 2-DE gels of T. cruzi life forms were achieved using the optimized methodology and a partial epimastigote alkaline 2-DE map was built. Among 700 protein spots detected, 422 were alkaline with a pI above 7.0. The "two-in-one gel" method simplified the comparative analysis between T. cruzi life stages since it minimized variations in spot migration and silver-stained spot volumes. The comparative data were in agreement with

  17. Continuous modelling study of numerical volumes - Applications to the visualization of anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goret, C.

    1990-12-01

    Several technics of imaging (IRM, image scanners, tomoscintigraphy, echography) give numerical informations presented by means of a stack of parallel cross-sectional images. Since many years, 3-D mathematical tools have been developed and allow the 3 D images synthesis of surfaces. In first part, we give the technics of numerical volume exploitation and their medical applications to diagnosis and therapy. The second part is about a continuous modelling of the volume with a tensor product of cubic splines. We study the characteristics of this representation and its clinical validation. Finally, we treat of the problem of surface visualization of objects contained in the volume. The results show the interest of this model and allow to propose specifications for 3-D workstation realization [fr

  18. Association between partial-volume corrected SUVmax and Oncotype DX recurrence score in early-stage, ER-positive/HER2-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Ha, Seunggyun; An, Hyun Joon; Lee, Jae Sung; Han, Wonshik; Im, Seock-Ah; Ryu, Han Suk; Kim, Won Hwa; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Oncotype DX, a 21-gene expression assay, provides a recurrence score (RS) which predicts prognosis and the benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) invasive breast cancer. However, Oncotype DX tests are expensive and not readily available in all institutions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether metabolic parameters on (18)F-FDG PET/CT are associated with the Oncotype DX RS and whether (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used to predict the Oncotype DX RS. The study group comprised 38 women with stage I/II, ER-positive/HER2-negative invasive breast cancer who underwent pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT and Oncotype DX testing. On PET/CT, maximum (SUVmax) and average standardized uptake values, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis were measured. Partial volume-corrected SUVmax (PVC-SUVmax) determined using the recovery coefficient method was also evaluated. Oncotype DX RS (0 - 100) was categorized as low (negative breast cancer.

  19. Role of computation fluid dynamics in aeronautical engineering (4). Development and applications of implicit TVD finete volume code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, Eiji; Jounouchi, Tadamasa

    1986-12-01

    Potential analysis in aeronautic design has reached the stage of practical use although it involves problems concerning accuracy and restrictions on its application. On the other hand, numerical analysis using Euler and Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations is based on a highly accurate theory, so is preferable, but has not reached the stage of practical use because it involves problems that shapes that can be analyzed are restricted on account of factors relating to computation lattice generation and because it involves difficulty relating to computation time. The essential factor in numerical analysis is stoutness (numeric stability). From this viewpoint, an Euler/N-S method was developed; the theory begins with TVD finite volume code, and incorporates various types of improvement to raise accuracy and shorten computation time; hence, it satisfies design requirements. The use of this method helps get solution under a wide range of flow condition without any fine adjustments, such as artificial viscosity. (6 figs, 1 tab, 10 refs)

  20. Predictive and prognostic value of tumor volume and its changes during radical radiotherapy of stage III non-small cell lung cancer. A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaesmann, Lukas; Niyazi, Maximilian; Fleischmann, Daniel; Blanck, Oliver; Baumann, Rene; Baues, Christian; Klook, Lisa; Rosenbrock, Johannes; Trommer-Nestler, Maike; Dobiasch, Sophie; Eze, Chukwuka; Gauer, Tobias; Goy, Yvonne; Giordano, Frank A.; Sautter, Lisa; Hausmann, Jan; Henkenberens, Christoph; Kaul, David; Thieme, Alexander H.; Krug, David; Schmitt, Daniela; Maeurer, Matthias; Panje, Cedric M.; Suess, Christoph; Ziegler, Sonia; Ebert, Nadja; Medenwald, Daniel; Ostheimer, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control. Furthermore, gross tumour volume (GTV) changes during definitive radiotherapy would allow for adaptive replanning which offers normal tissue sparing and dose escalation. A literature review was conducted to describe the predictive value of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy especially focussing on overall survival. The literature search was conducted in a two-step review process using PubMed registered /Medline registered with the key words ''stage III non-small cell lung cancer'' and ''radiotherapy'' and ''tumour volume'' and ''prognostic factors''. After final consideration 17, 14 and 9 studies with a total of 2516, 784 and 639 patients on predictive impact of GTV, GTV changes and its impact on overall survival, respectively, for definitive radiotherapy for stage III NSCLC were included in this review. Initial GTV is an important prognostic factor for overall survival in several studies, but the time of evaluation and the value of histology need to be further investigated. GTV changes during RT differ widely, optimal timing for re-evaluation of GTV and their predictive value for prognosis needs to be clarified. The prognostic value of GTV changes is unclear due to varying study qualities, re-evaluation time and conflicting results. The main findings were that the clinical impact of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy is still unclear due to heterogeneous study designs with varying quality

  1. A flexible and accurate digital volume correlation method applicable to high-resolution volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) is a powerful technique for quantifying interior deformation within solid opaque materials and biological tissues. In the last two decades, great efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the DVC algorithm. However, there is still a lack of a flexible, robust and accurate version that can be efficiently implemented in personal computers with limited RAM. This paper proposes an advanced DVC method that can realize accurate full-field internal deformation measurement applicable to high-resolution volume images with up to billions of voxels. Specifically, a novel layer-wise reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy combined with dynamic data management is presented to guide the DVC computation from slice to slice. The displacements at specified calculation points in each layer are computed using the advanced 3D inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm with the complete initial guess of the deformation vector accurately predicted from the computed calculation points. Since only limited slices of interest in the reference and deformed volume images rather than the whole volume images are required, the DVC calculation can thus be efficiently implemented on personal computers. The flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the presented DVC approach are demonstrated by analyzing computer-simulated and experimentally obtained high-resolution volume images.

  2. Establishment and Practical Application of Flood Warning Stage in Taiwan's River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hsueh; Chia Yeh, Keh-

    2017-04-01

    result is decided by this rate. The flood early warning time is divided into two levels, the first level is 2 hours, evacuation time for the public, the second level is 5 hours for the implementation of unit preparation time. Finally, The flood warning stages are practical application in 20 water level stations have been incorporated into the flood early warning system of the Danshuei river basin in Taiwan.

  3. Development and applications of a two-dimensional tip-tilting stage system with nanoradian-level positioning resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Deming, E-mail: shu@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lee, Wah-Keat; Liu, Wenjun [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [MST Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6132 (United States); Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Kim, Kwang-Je [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

  4. Predictive and prognostic value of tumor volume and its changes during radical radiotherapy of stage III non-small cell lung cancer. A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaesmann, Lukas [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); Niyazi, Maximilian; Fleischmann, Daniel [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Munich, Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Blanck, Oliver; Baumann, Rene [University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kiel (Germany); Baues, Christian; Klook, Lisa; Rosenbrock, Johannes; Trommer-Nestler, Maike [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiotherapy, Cologne (Germany); Dobiasch, Sophie [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Eze, Chukwuka [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Gauer, Tobias; Goy, Yvonne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Giordano, Frank A.; Sautter, Lisa [University Medical Center Mannheim, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany); Hausmann, Jan [University Medical Center Duesseldorf, Department of Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Henkenberens, Christoph [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiation and Special Oncology, Hannover (Germany); Kaul, David; Thieme, Alexander H. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Krug, David; Schmitt, Daniela [University Hospital Heidelberg and National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO) and Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Maeurer, Matthias [University Medical Center Jena, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jena (Germany); Panje, Cedric M. [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Suess, Christoph [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Regensburg (Germany); Ziegler, Sonia [University Medical Center Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Ebert, Nadja [University Medical Center Dresden, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dresden (Germany); OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Medenwald, Daniel [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Ostheimer, Christian [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Halle (Saale) (Germany); Collaboration: Young DEGRO Trial Group

    2018-02-15

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control. Furthermore, gross tumour volume (GTV) changes during definitive radiotherapy would allow for adaptive replanning which offers normal tissue sparing and dose escalation. A literature review was conducted to describe the predictive value of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy especially focussing on overall survival. The literature search was conducted in a two-step review process using PubMed registered /Medline registered with the key words ''stage III non-small cell lung cancer'' and ''radiotherapy'' and ''tumour volume'' and ''prognostic factors''. After final consideration 17, 14 and 9 studies with a total of 2516, 784 and 639 patients on predictive impact of GTV, GTV changes and its impact on overall survival, respectively, for definitive radiotherapy for stage III NSCLC were included in this review. Initial GTV is an important prognostic factor for overall survival in several studies, but the time of evaluation and the value of histology need to be further investigated. GTV changes during RT differ widely, optimal timing for re-evaluation of GTV and their predictive value for prognosis needs to be clarified. The prognostic value of GTV changes is unclear due to varying study qualities, re-evaluation time and conflicting results. The main findings were that the clinical impact of GTV changes during definitive radiotherapy is still unclear due to heterogeneous study designs with varying quality

  5. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  6. The genealogical decomposition of a matrix population model with applications to the aggregation of stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, François; Akçay, Erol; Legendre, Stéphane; McCandlish, David M

    2017-06-01

    Matrix projection models are a central tool in many areas of population biology. In most applications, one starts from the projection matrix to quantify the asymptotic growth rate of the population (the dominant eigenvalue), the stable stage distribution, and the reproductive values (the dominant right and left eigenvectors, respectively). Any primitive projection matrix also has an associated ergodic Markov chain that contains information about the genealogy of the population. In this paper, we show that these facts can be used to specify any matrix population model as a triple consisting of the ergodic Markov matrix, the dominant eigenvalue and one of the corresponding eigenvectors. This decomposition of the projection matrix separates properties associated with lineages from those associated with individuals. It also clarifies the relationships between many quantities commonly used to describe such models, including the relationship between eigenvalue sensitivities and elasticities. We illustrate the utility of such a decomposition by introducing a new method for aggregating classes in a matrix population model to produce a simpler model with a smaller number of classes. Unlike the standard method, our method has the advantage of preserving reproductive values and elasticities. It also has conceptually satisfying properties such as commuting with changes of units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu, E-mail: lcastro@instec.cu, E-mail: agamezgmf@gmail.com, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de, E-mail: abol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S., E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com, E-mail: alexandrossilva@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  8. Application of dual volume reconstruction technique in embolization of intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-hai ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of dual volume reconstruction technique in Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Three-dimensional imaging data of 20 patients received GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms from Jun. 2012 to Apr. 2013 were analyzed for dual volume reconstruction. The value of application of dual volume reconstruction was evaluated by the detection rate of coils bolus, degree of aneurysm occlusion, the length of aneurysm sac and aneurysm neck before and after embolization, and the characteristics and clinical value of the reconstructed images. Results  A total of 20 coil boluses were detected by dual volume reconstruction images, and the detection rate was 100%. Among all of 20 patients, no visualization of contrast medium in the aneurysm was found in 13 patients, while contrast agent was found in the aneurysm sac in 3 patients and in the aneurysm neck in 4 patients. The length of aneurysm neck and sac was somewhat changed before and after embolization with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05. The dual volume reconstruction could reveal coil bolus, vessels, cranium and fusion images, and the aneurysms could be shown by different imaging modes according to the clinical requirement. Conclusion Dual volume reconstruction technique can display the location of coil bolus, degree of occlusion and aneurysm size, and evaluate the embolization effect by multifarious imaging modes, providing a great deal of information for the evaluation of GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.13

  9. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 18. Microprocessor Applications in Airborne Flight Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    flowcharting . 3. ProEram Codin in HLL. This stage consists of transcribing the previously designed program into R an t at can be translated into the machine...specified conditios 7. Documentation. Program documentation is necessary for user information, for maintenance, and for future applications. Flowcharts ...particular CP U. Asynchronous. Operating without reference to an overall timing source. BASIC. Beginners ’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; a widely

  10. Two cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for low-volume stage II seminoma: results of a retrospective, single-center case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Stöhr, Brigitte; Horninger, Wolfgang; Steiner, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    To report on the oncological outcome and toxicity of patients treated with 2 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for low-volume metastatic stage II seminoma. We retrospectively identified a case series of 15 patients with seminoma stage IIA (26.7%) and IIB (73.3%) who underwent chemotherapy consisting of 2 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (PEB) (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, bleomycin 30 mg on days 1, 8 and 15) according to patient preference (refusing a 3rd cycle of PEB) or institutional practice in the last decades. Complete staging before chemotherapy was available in all patients. Patient age, the side and diameter of the primary tumor, the size of the lymph nodes before and after chemotherapy, acute and late toxicity of chemotherapy, the incidence of second malignancies, the relapse-free rate and cancer-specific mortality were recorded. Chemotherapy was well tolerated and no episode of febrile neutropenia occurred. Thrombocytopenia grade 4 was not seen in any patient, while leukopenia grade 4 was observed in 4 (26.6%) patients. The mean (range) lymph node size decreased significantly from 2.54 cm (1.1-4.0) before chemotherapy to 0.75 cm (0.4-2.2) after chemotherapy (p < 0.001). After a median (range) follow-up of 60 (13-185) months, no patient had relapsed, no patient had died as a result of seminoma and second malignancy was seen in only 1 (6.6%) patient. These excellent long-term results from a retrospective case series of 2 cycles of PEB in stage IIA/IIB seminoma patients represent a hint for further research with a view to reducing treatment burden. However, these incidental findings should be studied in prospective trials prior to drawing any conclusions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Best-practices guidelines for L2PSA development and applications. Volume 1 - General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Pichereau, F.; Durin, T.; Rahni, N.; Loeffler, H.; Roesch, O.; Lajtha, G.; Santamaria, C.S.; Dienstbier, J.; Rydl, A.; Holmberg, J.E.; Lindholm, I.; Maennistoe, I.; Pauli, E.M.; Dirksen, G.; Grindon, L.; Peers, K.; Bassi, C.; Hulqvist, G.; Parozzi, F.; Polidoro, F.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Brinkman, H.; Seidel, A.; Schubert, B.; Wohlstein, R.; Guentay, S.; Oury, L.; Ngatchou, C.; Siltanen, S.; Niemela, I.; Routamo, T.; Vincon, L.; Helstroem, P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this coordinated action was to develop best practice guidelines for the performance and application of Level 2 PSA with a view to achieve harmonisation at EU level and to allow a meaningful and practical uncertainty evaluation in a Level 2 PSA. Specific relationships with communities in charge of nuclear reactor safety (utilities, safety authorities, vendors, and research or services companies) have been established in order to define the current needs in terms of guidelines for Level 2 PSA development and application. An international workshop was organised in Hamburg, with the support of VATTENFALL, in November 2008. The Level 2 PSA experts from ASAMPSA2 project partners have proposed some guidelines for the development and application of L2PSA based on their experience, open literature, and on information available from international cooperation (EC Severe Accident network of Excellence - SARNET, IAEA standards, OECD-NEA publications and workshop). There are a large number of technical issues addressed in the guideline which are not all covered with the same level of detail in the first version of the guideline. This version was submitted for external review in November 2010 by severe accident and PSA experts (especially from SARNET and OECD-NEA members). The feedback of the external review will be dis cussed during an international open works hop planned for March 2011 and all outcomes will be taken into consideration in the final version of this guideline (June 2011). The guideline includes 3 volumes: - Volume 1 - General considerations on L2PSA. - Volume 2 - Technical recommendations for Gen II and III reactors. - Volume 3 - Specific considerations for future reactors (Gen IV). The recommendations formulated in the guideline should not be considered as 'mandatory' but should help Level 2 PSA developers to achieve high quality studies with limited time and resources. It may also help Level 2 PSA reviewers by positioning one specific study in

  12. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  13. Opposed piston linear compressor driven two-stage Stirling Cryocooler for cooling of IR sensors in space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojwani, Virendra; Inamdar, Asif; Lele, Mandar; Tendolkar, Mandar; Atrey, Milind; Bapat, Shridhar; Narayankhedkar, Kisan

    2017-04-01

    A two-stage Stirling Cryocooler has been developed and tested for cooling IR sensors in space application. The concept uses an opposed piston linear compressor to drive the two-stage Stirling expander. The configuration used a moving coil linear motor for the compressor as well as for the expander unit. Electrical phase difference of 80 degrees was maintained between the voltage waveforms supplied to the compressor motor and expander motor. The piston and displacer surface were coated with Rulon an anti-friction material to ensure oil less operation of the unit. The present article discusses analysis results, features of the cryocooler and experimental tests conducted on the developed unit. The two-stages of Cryo-cylinder and the expander units were manufactured from a single piece to ensure precise alignment between the two-stages. Flexure bearings were used to suspend the piston and displacer about its mean position. The objective of the work was to develop a two-stage Stirling cryocooler with 2 W at 120 K and 0.5 W at 60 K cooling capacity for the two-stages and input power of less than 120 W. The Cryocooler achieved a minimum temperature of 40.7 K at stage 2.

  14. Sustainable Use of Pesticide Applications in Citrus: A Support Tool for Volume Rate Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Garcerá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational application of pesticides by properly adjusting the amount of product to the actual needs and specific conditions for application is a key factor for sustainable plant protection. However, current plant protection product (PPP labels registered for citrus in EU are usually expressed as concentration (%; rate/hl and/or as the maximum dose of product per unit of ground surface, without taking into account those conditions. In this work, the fundamentals of a support tool, called CitrusVol, developed to recommend mix volume rates in PPP applications in citrus orchards using airblast sprayers, are presented. This tool takes into consideration crop characteristics (geometry, leaf area density, pests, and product and application efficiency, and it is based on scientific data obtained previously regarding the minimum deposit required to achieve maximum efficacy, efficiency of airblast sprayers in citrus orchards, and characterization of the crop. The use of this tool in several commercial orchards allowed a reduction of the volume rate and the PPPs used in comparison with the commonly used by farmers of between 11% and 74%, with an average of 31%, without affecting the efficacy. CitrusVol is freely available on a website and in an app for smartphones.

  15. Blade row dynamic digital compression program. Volume 2: J85 circumferential distortion redistribution model, effect of Stator characteristics, and stage characteristics sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, W. A.; Steenken, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of dynamic digital blade row compressor model studies of a J85-13 engine are reported. The initial portion of the study was concerned with the calculation of the circumferential redistribution effects in the blade-free volumes forward and aft of the compression component. Although blade-free redistribution effects were estimated, no significant improvement over the parallel-compressor type solution in the prediction of total-pressure inlet distortion stability limit was obtained for the J85-13 engine. Further analysis was directed to identifying the rotor dynamic response to spatial circumferential distortions. Inclusion of the rotor dynamic response led to a considerable gain in the ability of the model to match the test data. The impact of variable stator loss on the prediction of the stability limit was evaluated. An assessment of measurement error on the derivation of the stage characteristics and predicted stability limit of the compressor was also performed.

  16. Hot-Fire Test of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Space Launch Mission Injector Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Greg; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task is to hot-fire test an existing Space Launch Mission (SLM) injector that is applicable for all expander cycle engines being considered for the exploration upper stage. The work leverages investment made in FY 2013 that was used to additively manufacture three injectors (fig. 1) all by different vendors..

  17. Application of FTLOADDS to Simulate Flow, Salinity, and Surface-Water Stage in the Southern Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John D.; Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; James, Dawn E.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan requires numerical modeling to achieve a sufficient understanding of coastal freshwater flows, nutrient sources, and the evaluation of management alternatives to restore the ecosystem of southern Florida. Numerical models include a regional water-management model to represent restoration changes to the hydrology of southern Florida and a hydrodynamic model to represent the southern and western offshore waters. The coastal interface between these two systems, however, has complex surface-water/ground-water and freshwater/saltwater interactions and requires a specialized modeling effort. The Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) code was developed to represent connected surface- and ground-water systems with variable-density flow. The first use of FTLOADDS is the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) application to the southeastern part of the Everglades/Florida Bay coastal region. The need to (1) expand the domain of the numerical modeling into most of Everglades National Park and the western coastal area, and (2) better represent the effect of water-delivery control structures, led to the application of the FTLOADDS code to the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) domain. This application allows the model to address a broader range of hydrologic issues and incorporate new code modifications. The surface-water hydrology is of primary interest to water managers, and is the main focus of this study. The coupling to ground water, however, was necessary to accurately represent leakage exchange between the surface water and ground water, which transfers substantial volumes of water and salt. Initial calibration and analysis of the TIME application produced simulated results that compare well statistically with field-measured values. A comparison of TIME simulation results to previous SICS results shows improved capabilities, particularly in the

  18. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  19. Life-Stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model Applications to Screen Environmental Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses methods used to extrapolate from in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) toxicity data for an endocrine pathway to in vivo for early life stages in humans, and the use of a life stage PBPK model to address rapidly changing physiological parameters. A...

  20. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.; Rasmussen, B.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system

  1. Management of a stage-structured insect pest: an application of approximate optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Sean C; Bonsall, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    Ecological decision problems frequently require the optimization of a sequence of actions over time where actions may have both immediate and downstream effects. Dynamic programming can solve such problems only if the dimensionality is sufficiently low. Approximate dynamic programming (ADP) provides a suite of methods applicable to problems of arbitrary complexity at the expense of guaranteed optimality. The most easily generalized method is the look-ahead policy: a brute-force algorithm that identifies reasonable actions by constructing and solving a series of temporally truncated approximations of the full problem over a defined planning horizon. We develop and apply this approach to a pest management problem inspired by the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. The model aims to minimize the cumulative costs of management actions and medfly-induced losses over a single 16-week season. The medfly population is stage-structured and grows continuously while management decisions are made at discrete, weekly intervals. For each week, the model chooses between inaction, insecticide application, or one of six sterile insect release ratios. Look-ahead policy performance is evaluated over a range of planning horizons, two levels of crop susceptibility to medfly and three levels of pesticide persistence. In all cases, the actions proposed by the look-ahead policy are contrasted to those of a myopic policy that minimizes costs over only the current week. We find that look-ahead policies always out-performed a myopic policy and decision quality is sensitive to the temporal distribution of costs relative to the planning horizon: it is beneficial to extend the planning horizon when it excludes pertinent costs. However, longer planning horizons may reduce decision quality when major costs are resolved imminently. ADP methods such as the look-ahead-policy-based approach developed here render questions intractable to dynamic programming amenable to inference but should be

  2. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 4: Appendix BIR Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report consists of the waste stream profile for the WIPP transuranic waste baseline inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The following assumptions/modifications were made by the WTWBIR team in developing the LL waste stream profiles: since only current volumes were provided by LL, the final form volumes were assumed to be the same as the current volumes; the WTWBIR team had to assign identification numbers (IDs) to those LL waste streams not given an identifier by the site, the assigned identification numbers are consistent with the site reported numbers; LL Final Waste Form Groups were modified to be consistent with the nomenclature used in the WTWBID, these changes included word and spelling changes, the assigned Final Waste Form Groups are consistent with the information provided by LL; the volumes for the year 1993 were changed from an annual rate of generation (m 3 /year) to a cumulative value (m 3 )

  3. Dose-Volume Histogram Predictors of Chronic Gastrointestinal Complications After Radical Hysterectomy and Postoperative Concurrent Nedaplatin-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Mabuchi, Seiji; Konishi, Koji; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Maruoka, Shintaroh; Kimura, Tadashi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors for the development of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) complications in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative concurrent nedaplatin-based chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This study analyzed 97 patients who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy. The organs at risk that were contoured were the small bowel loops, large bowel loop, and peritoneal cavity. DVH parameters subjected to analysis included the volumes of these organs receiving more than 15, 30, 40, and 45 Gy (V15-V45) and their mean dose. Associations between DVH parameters or clinical factors and the incidence of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications were evaluated. Results: Of the clinical factors, smoking and low body mass index (BMI) (<22) were significantly associated with grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications. Also, patients with chronic GI complications had significantly greater V15-V45 volumes and higher mean dose of the small bowel loops compared with those without GI complications. In contrast, no parameters for the large bowel loop or peritoneal cavity were significantly associated with GI complications. Results of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis led to the conclusion that V15-V45 of the small bowel loops has high accuracy for prediction of GI complications. Among these parameters, V40 gave the highest area under the ROC curve. Finally, multivariate analysis was performed with V40 of the small bowel loops and 2 other clinical parameters that were judged to be potential risk factors for chronic GI complications: BMI and smoking. Of these 3 parameters, V40 of the small bowel loops and smoking emerged as independent predictors of chronic GI complications. Conclusions: DVH parameters of the small bowel loops may serve as predictors of grade 2 or higher chronic GI complications after postoperative

  4. Metabolic tumor volume measured by F 18 FDG PET/CT can further stratify the prognosis of patients with stage IV Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Kim, Ja Hae; Chong, Ar I; Kwon, Seong Young; Min, Jung Joon; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National Univ. Hwasun Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    This study aimed to further stratify prognostic factors in patients with stage IV non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by measuring their metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The subjects of this retrospective study were 57 patients with stage IV NSCLC. MTV, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were measured on F 18 FDG PET/CT in both the primary lung lesion as well as metastatic lesions in torso. Optimal cutoff values of PET parameters were mea measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve anal analysis. Kaplan Meier survival (PET). The univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards models were used to select the significant prognostic factors. Univariate analysis showed that both MTV and TLG of primary lung lesion (MTV lung and TLG lung) were significant factors for prediction of PFS ( <0.001 =0.038, respectively). Patients showing lower values of MTV lung and TLG lung than the cutoff values had significantly longer mean PFS than those with higher values. hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of MTV lung and TLG lung measured by univariate analysis were 6.4 (2.5 16.3) and 2.4 (1.0 5.5), respectively. multivariate analysis revealed that MTV lung was the only significant factor for prediction of prognosis. Hazard ratio was 13,5 (1.6 111.1, =0,016). patients with stage IV NSCLC could be further stratified into subgroups of significantly better and worse prognosis by MTV of primary lung lesion.

  5. Metabolic tumor volume measured by F 18 FDG PET/CT can further stratify the prognosis of patients with stage IV Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Kim, Ja Hae; Chong, Ar I; Kwon, Seong Young; Min, Jung Joon; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to further stratify prognostic factors in patients with stage IV non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by measuring their metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The subjects of this retrospective study were 57 patients with stage IV NSCLC. MTV, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were measured on F 18 FDG PET/CT in both the primary lung lesion as well as metastatic lesions in torso. Optimal cutoff values of PET parameters were mea measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve anal analysis. Kaplan Meier survival (PET). The univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards models were used to select the significant prognostic factors. Univariate analysis showed that both MTV and TLG of primary lung lesion (MTV lung and TLG lung) were significant factors for prediction of PFS ( <0.001 =0.038, respectively). Patients showing lower values of MTV lung and TLG lung than the cutoff values had significantly longer mean PFS than those with higher values. hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of MTV lung and TLG lung measured by univariate analysis were 6.4 (2.5 16.3) and 2.4 (1.0 5.5), respectively. multivariate analysis revealed that MTV lung was the only significant factor for prediction of prognosis. Hazard ratio was 13,5 (1.6 111.1, =0,016). patients with stage IV NSCLC could be further stratified into subgroups of significantly better and worse prognosis by MTV of primary lung lesion

  6. A Review of Application Building Information Modeling (BIM) During Pre-Construction Stage: Retrospective and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edra Nisa Lau, Santi; Zakaria, Rozana; Aminudin, Eeydzah; Saar, Chai Chang; Yusof, Aswadi; Fatihi Hafifi Che Wahid, Che Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Pre-construction is one of the biggest areas of risk and uncertainty in construction project as it deals with subsurface ground conditions information. The amount of detail data needed in pre-construction especially for existing data modelling and site analysis should be sufficient enough to ensure that significant risks could not reasonably be anticipated. Current practicing method in interpreting data during this stage tasks reveal limitation. Construction industry faced many obstacles due to the depends on the traditional practice; paper-based document which missing and redundant data always happened. In recent years, there has been a shift in construction where people move to BIM application because of its potential to reduce the problem faced by infrastructure world. BIM has become a successful technology and widely popular in the construction world especially in developed countries because of its potential. Nowadays, people are moving one step ahead in BIM which is adoption of BIM during pre-construction stage. Thus, this paper review studies centered on BIM-integrated modelling during preconstruction stage. But there is lack of practical researches have been made during this stage. Although a large number of studies on BIM have been conducted in the past decade, a lack of consensus remains among researchers and practitioners regarding the applications of BIM during pre-construction stage, the availability of subsequent data integration tool for geotechnical activity. A comprehensive literature review was conducted for data collection and analysis. After in-depth review of journal articles widely cover the application of BIM, this study summarizes an overview and critical reflection of geotechnical data integration using BIM during pre-construction stage. The results are useful for the identification of research clusters and topics in the BIM community.

  7. Significance of the pseudo capsule on MRI of renal neoplasms and its potential application for local staging: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine S.R.; El Ghali, Sofiane; Buy, Xavier; Lindner, Veronique; Lang, Herve; Saussine, Christian; Jacqmin, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of MRI in showing a pseudocapsule for local staging of renal tumors, and its potential application to select patients for partial surgery. Materials And Methods. Eighty tumors (73 renal cell carcinomas [RCCs] and seven oncocytomas)were preoperatively evaluated by MRI. MRI findings were assessed with a special focus on perinephric fat and pseudocapsule. Correlations were performed with pathologic staging after surgery. Results. At pathology, a pseudocapsule was recognized in 79 cases. Twenty- three RCC were staged pT3a (21 clear cell; two papillary). MR images exhibited a pseudocapsule in 90% of cases as a hypointense rim surrounding the tumor on T2-weighted images. MRI findings concerning isolated analysis of the pseudocapsule for differentiating stage T1/T2 from T3a were densitivity: 86%, 50%; specificity: 95%, 92%; positive predictive value: 95%, 33%; negative predictive value: 88%, 92%; and accuracy: 93%, 89%, for clear cell and papillary types, respectively. For stage T3a, with both abnormalities of the pseudocapsule and perirenal fat, Results were, for overall RCC sensitivity: 84%; specificity: 95%; positive predictive value: 91%; negative predictive value: 91%; and accuracy: 91%. Conclusion. The identification of the pseudocapsule offers an additional value for local staging by MRI. The presence of an intact pseudocapsule is a sign of lack of perinephric fat invasion. It is more likely to predict that the tumor can be removed by partial surgery. (author)

  8. Potential Dermal Exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: Analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Laura M.; Querejeta, Giselle A.; Flores, Andrea P.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure for the mix/load, application and re-entry stages, associated with procymidone and deltamethrin usage, was carried out for tomatoes grown in greenhouses of small production units in Argentina. Eight experiments were done with four different operators, under typical field conditions with a lever operated backpack sprayer. The methodology applied was based on the Whole Body Dosimetry technique, evaluating a set of different data for the mix and load, application and re-entry operations. These results indicated that the Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was (38 ± 17) mL h -1 with the highest proportion on torso, head and arms. When the three stages were compared, re-entry was found to contribute least towards the total Potential Dermal Exposure; meanwhile in all cases, except one, the mix/load operation was the stage with highest exposure. The Margin of Safety for each different operation was also calculated and the proportion of pesticide drift from the greenhouse to the environment is presented. These results emphasize the importance of improving the personal protection measures in the mix and load stage, an operation that is not usually associated with high-risk in small production units.

  9. Potential Dermal Exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: Analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Laura M.; Querejeta, Giselle A.; Flores, Andrea P.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure for the mix/load, application and re-entry stages, associated with procymidone and deltamethrin usage, was carried out for tomatoes grown in greenhouses of small production units in Argentina. Eight experiments were done with four different operators, under typical field conditions with a lever operated backpack sprayer. The methodology applied was based on the Whole Body Dosimetry technique, evaluating a set of different data for the mix and load, application and re-entry operations. These results indicated that the Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was (38 {+-} 17) mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head and arms. When the three stages were compared, re-entry was found to contribute least towards the total Potential Dermal Exposure; meanwhile in all cases, except one, the mix/load operation was the stage with highest exposure. The Margin of Safety for each different operation was also calculated and the proportion of pesticide drift from the greenhouse to the environment is presented. These results emphasize the importance of improving the personal protection measures in the mix and load stage, an operation that is not usually associated with high-risk in small production units.

  10. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The papers in this volume deal almost entirely with the Naesliden project in Sweden. Stress measurements were made on the rock mass before and during mining and complex computer codes using the finite element method developed to calculate the strains and their changes as mining developed. Major problems involved the effects of joints and the mechanical properties of the hydraulic backfill and in corporating these items in the calculations. Most papers were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  11. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...... - order, oversampling ratio (OSR) and number of bits in the quantizer - including their impact on interpolation filter design as well. The system is kept in digital domain up to the input of the Class D power stage including the digital pulse width modulation (DPWM) block. Notes on the impact of the DPWM...

  12. Staging workers' use of hearing protection devices: application of the transtheoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Delbert M; Lusk, Sally L

    2006-04-01

    The threat of noise-induced hearing loss is a serious concern for many workers. This study explores use of the transtheoretical model as a framework for defining stages of workers' acceptance of hearing protection devices. A secondary analysis was performed using a cross-section of data from a randomized, controlled clinical trial of an intervention to increase use of hearing protection. Use of hearing protection devices was well distributed across the theorized stages of change. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance revealed significant differences between stages for the variables studied. Discrete stages of hearing protection device use can be identified, laying the foundation for further work investigating use of the transtheoretical model for promoting hearing protection device use. The model can provide a framework for tailoring interventions and evaluating their effects. With further development of the transtheoretical model, nurses may be able to easily identify workers' readiness to use hearing protection devices and tailor training toward that goal.

  13. Packing and deploying Soft Origami to and from cylindrical volumes with application to automotive airbags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Jared T; Nelson, Todd G; Zimmerman, Trent K; Fernelius, Janette D; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L

    2016-09-01

    Packing soft-sheet materials of approximately zero bending stiffness using Soft Origami (origami patterns applied to soft-sheet materials) into cylindrical volumes and their deployment via mechanisms or internal pressure (inflation) is of interest in fields including automobile airbags, deployable heart stents, inflatable space habitats, and dirigible and parachute packing. This paper explores twofold patterns, the 'flasher' and the 'inverted-cone fold', for packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes. Two initial packing methods and mechanisms are examined for each of the flasher and inverted-cone fold patterns. An application to driver's side automobile airbags is performed, and deployment tests are completed to compare the influence of packing method and origami pattern on deployment performance. Following deployment tests, two additional packing methods for the inverted-cone fold pattern are explored and applied to automobile airbags. It is shown that modifying the packing method (using different methods to impose the same base pattern on the soft-sheet material) can lead to different deployment performance. In total, two origami patterns and six packing methods are examined, and the benefits of using Soft Origami patterns and packing methods are discussed. Soft Origami is presented as a viable method for efficiently packing soft-sheet materials into cylindrical volumes.

  14. Applicability of the stages of change and Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire with natives of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C T

    2007-01-01

    There is an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Malaysia. Besides prevalence studies, not much is known about either overweight or obese individuals. The objective of this study was to determine the stages of change in losing weight and the self-efficacy in eating control of three indigenous groups of overweight and obese adults in Sarawak, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one rural region in Sarawak using a purposive sample. A structured questionnaire, which included two scales: (1) Weight: Stages of change (SOC) to assess readiness to change; and (2) Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) (both adopted from the transtheoretical model of change); and a set of pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic data, the presence of health problems and self-assessment of weight appropriateness, was used to interview respondents. The stage distribution for weight loss of these adults respondents (n = 271) showed that 60.5% (n = 164) were in the pre-contemplation stage, 20.7% (n = 56) were in the contemplation stage, 8.5% (n = 23) were in the preparation stage, and 8.9% (n = 24) were in the action stage, while only 1.5% (n = 4) were in the maintenance stage. Except for education, the stage differences were generally stable across age, sex, race, household income, presence or absence of health problem, self-perceived weight and presence of overweight or obesity. Respondents were least able to control their eating under social pressure and food availability, according to their WEL score. A large proportion of the overweight or obese adults was not intending to lose weight. The factor structure of the two WEL original subscales enabled partial differentiation between respondents who were able or unable to resist eating in situations where there were availability of food and experienced physical discomfort. The study results indicate the importance of assessing individuals' SOC score in order to implement stage-matched intervention

  15. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  16. Development, Verification and Validation of Parallel, Scalable Volume of Fluid CFD Program for Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff; Yang, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    There are many instances involving liquid/gas interfaces and their dynamics in the design of liquid engine powered rockets such as the Space Launch System (SLS). Some examples of these applications are: Propellant tank draining and slosh, subcritical condition injector analysis for gas generators, preburners and thrust chambers, water deluge mitigation for launch induced environments and even solid rocket motor liquid slag dynamics. Commercially available CFD programs simulating gas/liquid interfaces using the Volume of Fluid approach are currently limited in their parallel scalability. In 2010 for instance, an internal NASA/MSFC review of three commercial tools revealed that parallel scalability was seriously compromised at 8 cpus and no additional speedup was possible after 32 cpus. Other non-interface CFD applications at the time were demonstrating useful parallel scalability up to 4,096 processors or more. Based on this review, NASA/MSFC initiated an effort to implement a Volume of Fluid implementation within the unstructured mesh, pressure-based algorithm CFD program, Loci-STREAM. After verification was achieved by comparing results to the commercial CFD program CFD-Ace+, and validation by direct comparison with data, Loci-STREAM-VoF is now the production CFD tool for propellant slosh force and slosh damping rate simulations at NASA/MSFC. On these applications, good parallel scalability has been demonstrated for problems sizes of tens of millions of cells and thousands of cpu cores. Ongoing efforts are focused on the application of Loci-STREAM-VoF to predict the transient flow patterns of water on the SLS Mobile Launch Platform in order to support the phasing of water for launch environment mitigation so that vehicle determinantal effects are not realized.

  17. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The identification of potential applications for robotics and remote control systems in Canadian mining. 2 Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary overview of potential applications for robotics and remote control in the Canadian mining industry. The first of two volumes, summarizes the industry awareness and interest in using these technologies. Also included is a look at factors playing a major role in the development of the mining robotics industry, such as safety, productivity, labour and the economic climate. The role of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada (EMR)/CANMET is also discussed. Finally, recommendations are made as to how Canada, through EMR, can ensure Canada's participation in the development of robotics in the mining industry. Volume two is comprised of the contact records. These are abbreviated notes of conversations which took place between the interviewers and their contacts in a number of Canadian and US mines and associated government and private agencies. (The interviews represent the opinions of the respondents, not necessarily that of their companies). The survey indicated that the industry is essentially negative to the idea of robotics in mining, but they were able to suggest many potential areas of application, especially at the short term level.

  19. Application of preference selection index method for decision making over the design stage of production system life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Attri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of production system shows the progress of production system from the inception to the termination of the system. During each stage, mainly in the design stage, certain strategic decisions have to be taken. These decisions are more complex as the decision makers have to assess a wide range of alternatives based on a set of conflicting criteria. As the decision making process is found to be unstructured, characterized by domain dependent knowledge, there is a need to apply an efficient multi-criteria decision making (MCDM tool to help the decision makers in making correct decisions. This paper explores the application of a novel MCDM method i.e. Preference selection index (PSI method to solve various decision-making problems that are generally encountered in the design stage of production system life cycle. To prove the potentiality, applicability and accuracy of PSI method in solving decision making problem during the design stage of production system life cycle, five examples are cited from the literature and are compared with the results obtained by the past researchers.

  20. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  1. Application handbook for a Standardized Control Module (SCM) for DC-DC converters, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Mahmoud, M. F.; Yu, Y.

    1980-04-01

    The standardized control module (SCM) was developed for application in the buck, boost and buck/boost DC-DC converters. The SCM used multiple feedback loops to provide improved input line and output load regulation, stable feedback control system, good dynamic transient response and adaptive compensation of the control loop for changes in open loop gain and output filter time constraints. The necessary modeling and analysis tools to aid the design engineer in the application of the SCM to DC-DC Converters were developed. The SCM functional block diagram and the different analysis techniques were examined. The average time domain analysis technique was chosen as the basic analytical tool. The power stage transfer functions were developed for the buck, boost and buck/boost converters. The analog signal and digital signal processor transfer functions were developed for the three DC-DC Converter types using the constant on time, constant off time and constant frequency control laws.

  2. Application of molecular methods for monitoring transmission stages of malaria parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, Hamza A; Schneider, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Recent technical advances in malaria research have allowed specific detection of mRNA of genes that are expressed exclusively in sexual stages (gametocytes) of malaria parasites. The specificity and sensitivity of these techniques were validated on cultured laboratory clones of both human malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) and rodent parasites (P. chabaudi). More recently, quantitative molecular techniques have been developed to quantify these sexual stages and used to monitor gametocyte dynamics and their transmission to mosquitoes. Molecular techniques showed that the infectious reservoir for malaria is larger than expected from previous microscopic studies; individual parasite genotypes within an infection can simultaneously produce infectious gametocytes; gametocyte production can be sustained for several months, and is modulated by environmental factors. The above techniques have empowered approaches for in-depth analysis of the biology of the transmission stages of the parasite and epidemiology of malaria transmission

  3. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  4. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design.

  5. Prediction of pressure between packers of staged fracturing pipe strings in high-pressure deep wells and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing to the deteriorated load conditions of working string and packers caused by annular pressure drop between packers during the staged stimulation of high-pressure deep well, one 2D temperature field transient prediction model for borehole under injecting conditions which considers such influences as friction heat, convection heat exchange was set up, based on energy conservation principle and borehole heat transfer theory. By means of analyzing the influences of borehole temperature and pressure changes on the annular volume between packers, and in combination with borehole temperature transient prediction model, annular fluid PVT equations of state, radial deformation model of tubing and formation transient seepage equation, a typical high-pressure deep well inter-packer annular pressure prediction model was established. Taking a high-pressure gas well in Tarim Oilfield for example, the inter-packer annular pressure prediction was conducted, on which, the mechanical analysis on packers and working strings was carried out. The analysis results show that although the pipe string is safe in the viewpoint of conventional design methods, it is still susceptible to failure after the annular pressure drop between packers was taken into consideration. Such factor should be fully considered in the design of staged stimulation pipe strings, and this prediction model provides new thoughts for the optimal design of high-pressure deep well staged stimulation pipe strings.

  6. In-Swath Spray Deposition Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Low Volume Aerial Application - Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP flat-fan nozzles with selectable tips were evaluated for droplet spectra and coverage using water sensitive papers placed in the spray swath. This study used low application volumes (1, 2, and 3 GPA) at a certain spray application height as measured precisely by laser mounted in the aircraft. No...

  7. Design considerations for a digital audio Class D output stage with emphasis on hearing aid application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter

    that the switching frequency of the Class D power amplifier – the main power consumer in the back end - is minimized. • In the multistage interpolation filter the first stage is implemented as a half-band IIR filter consisting of two parallel all-pass cells. A novel approach that does not require any rigorous...

  8. How Applicable Are "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" for Use with Turkish Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapci, Emine Gul; Kucuker, Sevgi; Uslu, Runa I.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of eligible children cannot access early intervention services in Turkey, often because they are not assessed. The authors adapted the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" (ASQ) for Turkish children ages 3 to 72 months. Study participants consisted of 375 children who were classified as at risk for developmental delays, 564…

  9. Multi-stage Optimization of Matchings in Trees with Application to Kidney Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Mankowski, Michal; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for multi-stage optimization of matchings in trees relative to different weight functions that assign positive weights to the edges of the trees. This method can be useful in transplantology where nodes of the tree

  10. Testing of Selective Laser Melting Turbomachinery Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Marty; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task is to design, fabricate, and spin test to failure a Ti6-4 hydrogen turbopump impeller that was built using the selective laser melting (SLM) fabrication process (fig. 1). The impeller is sized around upper stage engine requirements. In addition to the spin burst test, material testing will be performed on coupons that are built with the impeller.

  11. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Liu

    Full Text Available Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS, support vector machine (SVM and back propagation neural network (BPNN, were applied to develop theoretical models for predicting the firmness and TSS of intact strawberry fruit. Compared with PLS and SVM, BPNN considerably improved the performance of multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and total soluble solids content with the correlation coefficient (r of 0.94 and 0.83, SEP of 0.375 and 0.573, and bias of 0.035 and 0.056, respectively. Subsequently, the ability of multispectral imaging technology to classify fruit based on ripeness stage was tested using SVM and principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN models. The higher classification accuracy of 100% was achieved using SVM model. Moreover, the results of all these models demonstrated that the VIS parts of the spectra were the main contributor to the determination of firmness, TSS content estimation and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. These results suggest that multispectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for rapid estimation of quality attributes and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

  12. Mechanical and mathematical models of multi-stage horizontal fracturing strings and their application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanghua Lian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.

  13. Prospects of application of artificial neural networks for forecasting of cargo transportation volume in transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yakupov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research – to identify the prospects for the use of neural network approach in relation to the tasks of economic forecasting of logistics performance, in particular of volume freight traffic in the transport system promiscuous regional freight traffic, as well as to substantiate the effectiveness of the use of artificial neural networks (ANN, as compared with the efficiency of traditional extrapolative methods of forecasting. The authors consider the possibility of forecasting to use ANN for these economic indicators not as an alternative to the traditional methods of statistical forecasting, but as one of the available simple means for solving complex problems.Materials and methods. When predicting the ANN, three methods of learning were used: 1 the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm-network training stops when the generalization ceases to improve, which is shown by the increase in the mean square error of the output value; 2 Bayes regularization method - network training is stopped in accordance with the minimization of adaptive weights; 3 the method of scaled conjugate gradients, which is used to find the local extremum of a function on the basis of information about its values and gradient. The Neural Network Toolbox package is used for forecasting. The neural network model consists of a hidden layer of neurons with a sigmoidal activation function and an output neuron with a linear activation function, the input values of the dynamic time series, and the predicted value is removed from the output. For a more objective assessment of the prospects of the ANN application, the results of the forecast are presented in comparison with the results obtained in predicting the method of exponential smoothing.Results. When predicting the volumes of freight transportation by rail, satisfactory indicators of the verification of forecasting by both the method of exponential smoothing and ANN had been obtained, although the neural network

  14. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 4. Mission application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Results of initial efforts to investigate application of selenide thermoelectric RTG's to specific missions as well as an indication of development requirements to enable satisfaction of emerging RTG performance criteria are presented. Potential mission applications in DoD such as SURVSATCOM, Advance Defense Support Program, Laser Communication Satellite, Satellite Data System, Global Positioning Satellite, Deep Space Surveillance Satellite, and Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible illustrate power requirements in the range of 500 to 1000 W. In contrast, the NASA applications require lower power ranging from 50 W for outer planetary atmospheric probes to about 200 W for spacecraft flights to Jupiter and other outer planets. The launch dates for most of these prospective missions is circa 1980, a requirement roughly compatible with selenide thermoelectric and heat source technology development. A discussion of safety criteria is included to give emphasis to the requirements for heat source design. In addition, the observation is made that the potential accident environments of all launch vehicles are similar so that a reasonable composite set of design specifications may be derived to satisfy almost all applications. Details of the LCHPG application potential is afforded by three designs: an 80 W RTG using improved selenide thermoelectric material, a 55 to 65 W LCHPG using current and improved selenide materials, and the final 500 W LCHPG as reported in Volume 2. The final results of the LCHPG design study have shown that in general, all missions can expect an LCHPG design which yields 10 percent efficiency at 3 W/lb with the current standard selenide thermoelectric materials, with growth potential to 14 percent at greater than 4 W/lb in the mid 1980's time frame

  15. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  16. Application of the Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory: 25 Years in Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S

    2018-04-01

    The Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (MEPSI) is an 80-item, comprehensive measure of psychosocial development based on Erikson's theory with published reliability and validity data. Although designed as a comprehensive measure, some researchers have used individual subscales for specific developmental stages as a measure; however, these subscale reliability scores have not been generally shared. This article reviewed the literature to evaluate the use of the MEPSI: the major research questions, samples/populations studied, and individual subscale and total reliability and validity data. In total, 16 research articles (1990-2011) and 28 Dissertations/Theses (1991-2016) from nursing, social work, psychology, criminal justice, and religious studies met criteria. Results support the MEPSI's global reliability (aggregate scores ranged .89-.99) and validity in terms of consistent patterns of changes observed in the predicted direction. Reliability and validity data for individual subscales were more variable. Limitations of the tool and recommendations for possible revision and future research are addressed.

  17. Introducing the Jacobian-volume-histogram of deforming organs: application to parotid shrinkage evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Calandrino, Riccardo; Liberini, Simone; Faggiano, Elena; Rizzo, Giovanna; Dell'Oca, Italo; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of elastic registration between images taken during radiotherapy is a measure of inter-fraction local deformation. The histogram of the Jacobian values (Jac) within an organ was introduced (JVH-Jacobian-volume-histogram) and first applied in quantifying parotid shrinkage. MVCTs of 32 patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy for head-neck cancers were collected. Parotid deformation was evaluated through elastic registration between MVCTs taken at the first and last fractions. Jac was calculated for each voxel of all parotids, and integral JVHs were calculated for each parotid; the correlation between the JVH and the planning dose-volume histogram (DVH) was investigated. On average, 82% (±17%) of the voxels shrinks (Jac 50% (Jac < 0.5). The best correlation between the DVH and the JVH was found between V10 and V15, and Jac < 0.4-0.6 (p < 0.01). The best constraint predicting a higher number of largely compressing voxels (Jac0.5<7.5%, median value) was V15 ≥ 75% (OR: 7.6, p = 0.002). Jac and the JVH are promising tools for scoring/modelling toxicity and for evaluating organ/contour variations with potential applications in adaptive radiotherapy.

  18. Multi-stage Optimization of Matchings in Trees with Application to Kidney Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Mankowski, Michal

    2017-07-22

    In this paper, we propose a method for multi-stage optimization of matchings in trees relative to different weight functions that assign positive weights to the edges of the trees. This method can be useful in transplantology where nodes of the tree correspond to pairs (donor, recipient) and two nodes (pairs) are connected by an edge if these pairs can exchange kidneys. Weight functions can characterize the number of exchanges, the importance of exchanges, or their compatibility.

  19. Multi-stage mixing in subduction zone: Application to Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaille, V.; Doucelance, R.; Weis, D.; Schiano, P.

    2003-04-01

    Basalts sampling subduction zone volcanism (IAB) often show binary mixing relationship in classical Sr-Nd, Pb-Pb, Sr-Pb isotopic diagrams, generally interpreted as reflecting the involvement of two components in their source. However, several authors have highlighted the presence of minimum three components in such a geodynamical context: mantle wedge, subducted and altered oceanic crust and subducted sediments. The overlying continental crust can also contribute by contamination and assimilation in magma chambers and/or during magma ascent. Here we present a multi-stage model to obtain a two end-member mixing from three components (mantle wedge, altered oceanic crust and sediments). The first stage of the model considers the metasomatism of the mantle wedge by fluids and/or melts released by subducted materials (altered oceanic crust and associated sediments), considering mobility and partition coefficient of trace elements in hydrated fluids and silicate melts. This results in the generation of two distinct end-members, reducing the number of components (mantle wedge, oceanic crust, sediments) from three to two. The second stage of the model concerns the binary mixing of the two end-members thus defined: mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and mantle wedge metasomatized by sediment-derived fluids. This model has been applied on a new isotopic data set (Sr, Nd and Pb, analyzed by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS) of Merapi volcano (Java island, Indonesia). Previous studies have suggested three distinct components in the source of indonesian lavas: mantle wedge, subducted sediments and altered oceanic crust. Moreover, it has been shown that crustal contamination does not significantly affect isotopic ratios of lavas. The multi-stage model proposed here is able to reproduce the binary mixing observed in lavas of Merapi, and a set of numerical values of bulk partition coefficient is given that accounts for the genesis of lavas.

  20. Morphology of immature stages of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for use in forensic entomology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Piangjai, Somsak; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-09-01

    In forensic investigations, all immature stages of flies (egg, larvae, and puparium) can serve as entomological evidence at death scenes. These insects are primarily used to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI), but can also be involved in the analysis of toxic substances, determining manner of death, and in indicating relocation of a corpse in homicide cases. In this study, we present the morphology of the egg, larvae, and puparium of Hemipyrellia ligurriens, a blow fly species of forensic importance in Thailand. Examination was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The egg stage was found to display a relatively wide plastron region (or median hatch line area) that spans almost the entire length of the egg. The median hatch line is oriented in an upright position. External chorionic sculpture of the egg is present in a hexagonal pattern whose reticular boundaries are slightly elevated. In the larval stages, the most prominent morphological changes were detected upon comparison of the first to the second instar; whereas, the differences between second and third instar larvae were less obvious outside of the increase in number of posterior spiracular slits. Most of the major differences involve body size and structure of the anterior and posterior spiracles. Each anterior spiracle in both the second and third instars projects five to seven papillae apically. Each posterior spiracular disc of a third instar exhibits a complete peritreme, three spiracular slits, and a prominent button that is ventromedially located. The puparium is coarctate and features a clustered bubble membrane comprised of approximately 57 mammillate structures positioned dorsolaterally on each side of the first abdominal segment in young puparia. This feature is replaced by short, tubular respiratory horns in aged puparia. This study provides more detailed exposure of important morphological features that can be used for accurate identification of immature stages of H

  1. ON-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance: Volume 3: Applications to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specification Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Davis, B Rasmussen

    2004-12-31

    This report is a guide for a technical specification change submittal and subsequent implementation of on-line monitoring for safety-related applications. This report is the third in a three-volume set. Volume 1, ''Guidelines for Model Development and Implementation'', presents the various tasks that must be completed to prepare models for and to implement an on-line monitoring system.

  2. Application of Carnegie stages of development to unify human and baboon ultrasound findings early in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; De Leon-Luis, Juan; Friel, Lara A; Wolf, Roman

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if very early ultrasonographic measurements obtained from human and baboon are comparable. For this purpose, the gestational, amniotic and yolk sacs, embryonic crown rump length (CRL) and heart rate were measured ultrasonographically between 35 and 47 days from the mean day of a three-day mating period in baboons (n=18) and between 42 to 58 days from fertilization as calculated from the CRL measurements in human pregnancies (n=82). Ultrasonographic measurements from both species were then plotted in the same graph using Carnegie stages of embryonic development as the independent variable to allow for visual comparisons. Mean gestational age at ultrasonographic studies was significantly different for humans and baboons (50.4 vs. 41 days, respectively; p>0.01). Significant correlations (p>0.01) were noted between ultrasonographic measurements and Carnegie stages of development in both humans and baboons. Only the gestational and the yolk sacs were significantly smaller in baboons than in humans (p>0.05). The findings that embryonic CRL, extra-embryonic space and heart rate are very similar between the 17th and 23rd Carnegie developmental stages make the baboon a promising surrogate of human pregnancy for investigations using celocentesis.

  3. Molecular theory of partial molar volume and its applications to biomolecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Imai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The paial molar volume (PMV is a thermodynamic quantity which contains important information about the solute-solvent interactions as well as the solute structure in solution.Additionally, the PMV is the most essential quantity in the analysis of the pressure effect on chemical reactions. This aicle reviews the recent developments in molecular theories of the PMV, especially the reference interaction site model (RISMtheory of molecular liquids and its three-dimensional generalization version (3D-RISM, which are combined with the Kirkwood-Buff solution theory to calculate the PMV. This aicle also introduces our recent applications of the theory to some interesting issues concerning the PMV of biomolecules. In addition, theoretical representations of the effects of intramolecular fluctuation on the PMV, which are significant for biomacromolecules, are briefly discussed.

  4. Control and dynamic systems: advances in theory and applications. Volume 14, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leondes, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    The theme for this volume, containing five contributions, is models for complex and/or large-scale engineering systems. The first contribution deals with techniques of modeling and model error compensation in linear regulator problems. The next contribution, on pressurized water reactors, deals with many important systems modeling and control issues in nuclear reactors. The next two contributions serve as a companion set on models for the aircraft jet engine. The first presents the modeling formulation problems for such systems from the point of view of physics and engineering technology; the second emphasizes the system state equation and effective control principles. The last contribution deals with complex many-element power systems, but the techniques presented are generally applicable to any complex engineering system in which there are many interacting elements

  5. A Single-Stage High-Power-Factor Light-Emitting Diode (LED Driver with Coupled Inductors for Streetlight Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-An Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and implements a single-stage high-power-factor light-emitting diode (LED driver with coupled inductors, suitable for streetlight applications. The presented LED driver integrates an interleaved buck-boost power factor correction (PFC converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge-type series-resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier into a single-stage power conversion circuit. Coupled inductors inside the interleaved buck-boost PFC converter sub-circuit are designed to operate in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM for achieving input-current shaping, and the half-bridge-type series resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier is designed for obtaining zero-voltage switching (ZVS on two power switches to reduce their switching losses. Analysis of operational modes and design equations for the presented LED driver are described and included. In addition, the presented driver features a high power factor, low total harmonic distortion (THD of input current, and soft switching. Finally, a prototype driver is developed and implemented to supply a 165-W-rated LED streetlight module with utility-line input voltages ranging from 210 to 230 V. Experimental results demonstrate that high power factor (>0.99, low utility-line current THD (<7%, low-output voltage ripples (<1%, low-output current ripples (<10%, and high circuit efficiency (>90% are obtained in the presented single-stage driver for LED streetlight applications.

  6. Automatic delineation of functional volumes in emission tomography for oncology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, M.

    2008-12-01

    One of the main factors of error for semi-quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for diagnosis and patient follow up, as well as new flourishing applications like image guided radiotherapy, is the methodology used to define the volumes of interest in the functional images. This is explained by poor image quality in emission tomography resulting from noise and partial volume effects induced blurring, as well as the variability of acquisition protocols, scanner models and image reconstruction procedures. The large number of proposed methodologies for the definition of a PET volume of interest does not help either. The majority of such proposed approaches are based on deterministic binary thresholding that are not robust to contrast variation and noise. In addition, these methodologies are usually unable to correctly handle heterogeneous uptake inside tumours. The objective of this thesis is to develop an automatic, robust, accurate and reproducible 3D image segmentation approach for the functional volumes determination of tumours of all sizes and shapes, and whose activity distribution may be strongly heterogeneous. The approach we have developed is based on a statistical image segmentation framework, combined with a fuzzy measure, which allows to take into account both noisy and blurry properties of nuclear medicine images. It uses a stochastic iterative parameters estimation and a locally adaptive model of the voxel and its neighbours for the estimation and segmentation. The developed approaches have been evaluated using a large array of datasets, comprising both simulated and real acquisitions of phantoms and tumours. The results obtained on phantom acquisitions allowed to validate the accuracy of the segmentation with respect to the size of considered structures, down to 13 mm in diameter (about twice the spatial resolution of a typical PET scanner), as well as its robustness with respect to noise, contrast variation, acquisition

  7. Are urine flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian men optimally applicable for Indian men? Need for appraisal of flow-volume relations in local population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank M Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Flow-volume nomograms and volume-corrected flow-rates (cQ are tools to correct uroflow rates (Q with varied voided volumes (VV of urine. We investigated the applicability of the available nomograms in our local population. Materials and Methods : Raw data of our previous study on variation in Q with voiding position (standing, sitting, and squatting in healthy adult men was reanalyzed. Additionally, the departmental urodynamic database of the last four years was searched for uroflow data of men with voiding symptoms (International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS > 7 and global quality of life score >2. These results were projected on the Liverpool and Siroky nomograms for men. The Q-VV relations were statistically analyzed using curve-estimation regression method to examine the current definition of corrected maximum flow rate (Qmax. Results : We found a cubic relation between Q and VV; based on this we developed novel equation for cQ [cQ=Q/(VV 1/3 ] and novel confidence-limit flow-volume nomograms. The imaginary 16 th percentile line of Liverpool nomogram, -1 standard-deviation line of Siroky nomogram and lower 68% confidence-limit line of our nomogram had sensitivity of 96.2%, 100% and 89.3%, and specificity of 75.3% 69.3% and 86.0%, respectively for Qmax-VV relations. Corresponding values for average flow rate (Qave-volume relations were 96.2%, 100% and 94.6%, and 75.2%, 50.4% and 86.0%, respectively. The area under curve of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for cQmax and cQave was 0.954 and 0.965, respectively, suggesting significantly higher discriminatory power than chance (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian population may not be optimally applicable to the Indian population. We introduce flow-volume nomograms and cQ, which have high sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Dynamic modeling of a three-stage low-temperature ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo; Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    A low-temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for the production of hydrogen has been designed aiming the feed of a fuel cell for an autonomous low-scale power production unit. The reformer comprises three stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen over SnO{sub 2} followed by acetaldehyde steam reforming over Co(Fe)/ZnO catalyst and water gas shift reaction. Kinetic data have been obtained under different experimental conditions and a dynamic model has been developed for a tubular reformer loaded with catalytic monoliths for the production of the hydrogen required to feed a 1 kW PEMFC. (author)

  9. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  10. Inspection logistics planning for multi-stage production systems with applications to semiconductor fabrication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kyle Dakai

    Since the market for semiconductor products has become more lucrative and competitive, research into improving yields for semiconductor fabrication lines has lately received a tremendous amount of attention. One of the most critical tasks in achieving such yield improvements is to plan the in-line inspection sampling efficiently so that any potential yield problems can be detected early and eliminated quickly. We formulate a multi-stage inspection planning model based on configurations in actual semiconductor fabrication lines, specifically taking into account both the capacity constraint and the congestion effects at the inspection station. We propose a new mixed First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS) and Last-Come-First-Serve (LCFS) discipline for serving the inspection samples to expedite the detection of potential yield problems. Employing this mixed FCFS and LCFS discipline, we derive approximate expressions for the queueing delays in yield problem detection time and develop near-optimal algorithms to obtain the inspection logistics planning policies. We also investigate the queueing performance with this mixed type of service discipline under different assumptions and configurations. In addition, we conduct numerical tests and generate managerial insights based on input data from actual semiconductor fabrication lines. To the best of our knowledge, this research is novel in developing, for the first time in the literature, near-optimal results for inspection logistics planning in multi-stage production systems with congestion effects explicitly considered.

  11. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A 18 F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm 3 , TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental technologies: Plasma systems and applications. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, P.W.; Mulholland, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma technology is an extremely versatile and powerful means of obtaining very high temperatures that can be used in a variety of environmental situations. Since most types of waste products and contaminants can be treated effectively and efficiently, plasma systems have been developed to address the disposal and annihilation domestic of medical, hazardous, radioactive, military, and miscellaneous wastes. Plasma technologies can also be implemented to recycle and recover usable materials from metallic wastes. The International Symposium on Environmental Technologies: Plasma Systems and Applications was held at the Omni Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8--12, 1995 to bring together a large group of technical experts working on the use of plasma for solving environmental problems. The Symposium is a sequel to the 1994 Metatechnies Conference on Stabilization and Volarization of Ultimate Waste by Plasma Processes that was held in September of 1994 at Bordeaux Lac, France. The proceedings to this second international conference contain the written contributions from eleven sessions and are published in two volumes. A total of 65 papers address the use of plasma systems for environmental applications and include topics concerning the development and use of innovative technologies for waste treatment, environmental remediation, recycling, characterization of the plasma and solid residue, off-gas analyses, as well as case studies and regulatory policies

  13. Study of liver volume measurement and its clinical application for liver transplantation using multiple-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhiyi; Yu Zhefeng; Kuang Pingding; Xiao Shengxiang; Huang Dongsheng; Zheng Shusen; Wu Jian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the accuracy of liver volume measurement using MSCT and its application in liver transplantation. Methods: (1) Experimental study. Ten pig livers were scanned using MSCT with two collimations (3.2 mm and 6.5 mm) and pitch 1.25. Semi-automatic method was used to reconstruct 3D liver models to measure the liver volume. (2) Clinical study. Twenty-three patients received MSCT scan with collimation of 6.5 mm before liver transplantation. Same method was used to calculate the liver volume and the measurement was repeated by the same observer after 1 month. Results: (1) Experimental study. Actual liver volumes were (1134.1 ± 288.0) ml. Liver volumes by MSCT with two collimations were (1125.0 ± 282.5) ml (3.2 mm) and (1101.6 ± 277.6) ml (6.5 mm). The accuracy was (99.5 ± 0.8)% and (97.4 ± 0.8)%, respectively. Both showed same good agreement with actual liver volume: r=0.999, P<0.01 (2) Clinical study. Actual liver volumes were (1455.7±730.0) ml. Liver volume by MSCT was (1462.7 ± 774.1) ml. The accuracy was (99.5±9.6)%, r=0.986, P<0.01. Liver volume measured again was (1449.4 ± 768.9) ml, r=0.991 (P<0.01). Conclusion: MSCT can assess the liver volume correctly, and could be used as a routine step for evaluations before liver transplantation

  14. High-risk clinical target volume delineation in CT-guided cervical cancer brachytherapy - Impact of information from FIGO stage with or without systematic inclusion of 3D documentation of clinical gynecological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegazy, Neamat [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Medical Univ. of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Poetter Rickard; Kirisits, Christian [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical Univ. Vienna (Austria); Berger, Daniel; Federico, Mario; Sturdza, Alina; Nesvacil, Nicole [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)], e-mail: nicole.nesvacil@meduniwien.ac.at

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to improve computed tomography (CT)-based high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV) delineation protocols for cervix cancer patients, in settings without any access to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of brachytherapy. Therefore the value of a systematic integration of comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) documentation of repetitive gynecological examination for CT-based HR CTV delineation protocols, in addition to information from FIGO staging, was investigated. In addition to a comparison between reference MRI contours and two different CT-based contouring methods (using complementary information from FIGO staging with or without additional 3D clinical drawings), the use of standardized uterine heights was also investigated. Material and methods: Thirty-five cervix cancer patients with CT- and MR-images and 3D clinical drawings at time of diagnosis and brachytherapy were included. HR CTV{sub stage} was based on CT information and FIGO stage. HR CTV{sub stage} {sub +3Dclin} was contoured on CT using FIGO stage and 3D clinical drawing. Standardized HR CTV heights were: 1/1, 2/3 and 1/2 of uterine height. MRI-based HR CTV was delineated independently. Resulting widths, thicknesses, heights, and volumes of HR CTV{sub stage}, HR CTV{sub stage+3Dclin} and MRI-based HR CTV contours were compared. Results: The overall normalized volume ratios (mean{+-}SD of CT/MRI{sub ref} volume) of HR CTV{sub stage} and HR{sub stage+3Dclin} were 2.6 ({+-}0.6) and 2.1 ({+-}0.4) for 1/1 and 2.3 ({+-}0.5) and 1.8 ({+-}0.4), for 2/3, and 1.9 ({+-}0.5) and 1.5 ({+-}0.3), for 1/2 of uterine height. The mean normalized widths were 1.5{+-}0.2 and 1.2{+-}0.2 for HR CTV{sub stage} and HR CTV{sub stage+3Dclin}, respectively (p < 0.05). The mean normalized heights for HR CTV{sub stage} and HR CTV{sub stage+3Dclin} were both 1.7{+-}0.4 for 1/1 (p < 0.05.), 1.3{+-}0.3 for 2/3 (p < 0.05) and 1.1{+-}0.3 for 1/2 of uterine height. Conclusion: CT-based HR

  15. Application of SAFRAN Tool for Knowledge Management at the Decommissioning Stage of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetnik, A.; Potapov, V.; Kapralov, E.; Murlis, D.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: As a result of the work performed by specialists of FSUE VO “Safety” under the scope of the CRAFT Project, the IAEA methodology and SAFRAN tool were used for safety assessment of radioactive waste removal from historical near-surface storage of the radon type. SAFRAN tool can be considered as an effective tool for record keeping, safety assessment and knowledge management at the stage of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Main advantages of SAFRAN: • it uses methodologies agreed upon at the international level, namely, by IAEA standards; • several experts can work more effectively when performing the same safety assessment. SAFRAN makes it easier to exchange experience through sharing projects and data bases; • it is helpful for systematic and structured safety assessment as per safety standards; • it manages information and data in the same software environment. (author

  16. Crowdsourcing Stream Stage in Data Scarce Regions: Applications of CrowdHydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Crowdsourced data collection using citizen scientists and mobile phones is a promising way to collect supplemental information in data scarce or remote regions. The research presented here explore the possibilities and pitfalls of crowdsourcing hydrologic data via mobile phone text messaging through the example of CrowdHydrology, a distributed network of over 40 stream gages in four states. Signage at the CrowdHydrology gages ask citizen scientists to answer to a simple question via text message: 'What is the water height?'. While these data in no way replace more traditional measurements of stream stage, they do provide low cost supplemental measurements in data scarce regions. Results demonstrate the accuracy of crowdsourced data and provide insight for successful future crowdsourced data collection efforts. A less recognized benefit is that even in data rich areas, crowdsourced data collection is a cost-effective way to perform quality assurance on more sophisticated, and costly, data collection efforts.

  17. Chemval project report on stage 2: application of speciation models to laboratory and field data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, D.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of Chemval Stage 2, an international chemical model validation exercise involving the active participation of 14 organizations within EC countries, Sweden, Switzerland and Finland. Four different sites have been studied, representing a range of host rock types and proposed disposal facilities. It details the methodology employed and results obtained for 19 test cases of varying complexity, devised to allow comparison between modelling results and experimental measurements. Recommendations are made for enhancement of models and thermodynamic databases employed, as well as for the collection of field/laboratory data geared to the needs of model validation. This report complements a previous one, ref. EUR 12237 EN, devoted to the verification of speciation models. The work is part of the Community's Mirage project - Second phase, on migration of radionuclides in the geosphere

  18. [The Clinical Application of Video Mediastinoscopy and CT in the N Staging of Preoperative Lung Cancer.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Qi, Weibo; Zhu, Yong; Lin, Ruobai

    2009-10-20

    Preoperative lung cancer with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis can be diagnosed by vedio mediastinoscopy (VM) and CT. This study was to explore the value of VM and CT in the diagnosis of N staging of preoperative lung cancer, and to discuss the difference between the two methods. Forty-eight cases diagnosed of lung cancer by CT or PET-CT were examined by VM. The sensitivity, specificity, validity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of VM and CT were speculated according to the postoperative pathological reports, and the difference between VM and CT in the diagnosis of lung cancer with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis was discussed. (1)Under the examination of VM, 31 patients with the negative outcome received the direct operation; 14 patients with N2 received 2 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy before operation; 3 patients with N3 received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. (2)Forty-one cases with final diagnosis of lung cancer were used as samples to speculate the sensitivity, specificity, validity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of VM. They were 93.3%, 100%, 97.6%, 100%, 96.3%, which of CT were 66.7%, 53.8%, 58.5%, 45.5%, 73.7% (Chi-square=4.083, P=0.039), the difference between VM and CT was statistically significant. (3)In this group, the complications of VM incidence rate was 2.08% (1/48), and the case was pneumothorax. VM is superior to CT in the diagnosis of N staging of preoperative lung cancer; Due to its safety and effectiveness, VM will be wildly used in the field of thoracic surgery.

  19. The Clinical Application of Video Mediastinoscopy and CT in the N Staging of Preoperative Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng WANG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Preoperative lung cancer with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis can be diagnosed by vedio mediastinoscopy (VM and CT. This study was to explore the value of VM and CT in the diagnosis of N staging of preoperative lung cancer, and to discuss the difference between the 2 methods. Methods 48 cases diagnosed of lung cancer by CT or PET-CT were examined by VM. The sensitivity, specificity, validity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of VM and CT were speculated according to the postoperative pathological reports, and the difference between VM and CT in the diagnosis of lung cancer with mediastinal lymph nodes metastasis was discussed. Results ①Under the examination of VM, 31 patients with the negative outcome received the direct operation, 14 patients with N2 received 2 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy before operation, 3 patients with N3 received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ②Forty-one cases with final diagnosis of lung cancer were used as samples to speculate the sensitivity, specificity, validity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of VM. They were 93.3%, 100%, 97.6%, 100%, 96.3%, which of CT were 66.7%, 53.8%, 58.5%, 45.5%, 73.7% (χ2=4.083, P=0.039, the difference between VM and CT was statistically significant. ③In this group, the complications of VM incidence rate is 2.08% (1/48, the case is pneumothorax. Conclusion VM is superior to CT in the diagnosis of N staging of preoperative lung cancer, it is safe and effective, and there will be a wide perspective for VM in thoracic surgery.

  20. Accurate Automatic Delineation of Heterogeneous Functional Volumes in Positron Emission Tomography for Oncology Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze le Rest, Catherine; Descourt, Patrice; Dekker, Andre; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oellers, Michel; Lambin, Philippe; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate contouring of positron emission tomography (PET) functional volumes is now considered crucial in image-guided radiotherapy and other oncology applications because the use of functional imaging allows for biological target definition. In addition, the definition of variable uptake regions within the tumor itself may facilitate dose painting for dosimetry optimization. Methods and Materials: Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional volume segmentation use adaptive thresholding. We developed an approach called fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB), validated on homogeneous objects, and then improved it by allowing the use of up to three tumor classes for the delineation of inhomogeneous tumors (3-FLAB). Simulated and real tumors with histology data containing homogeneous and heterogeneous activity distributions were used to assess the algorithm's accuracy. Results: The new 3-FLAB algorithm is able to extract the overall tumor from the background tissues and delineate variable uptake regions within the tumors, with higher accuracy and robustness compared with adaptive threshold (T bckg ) and fuzzy C-means (FCM). 3-FLAB performed with a mean classification error of less than 9% ± 8% on the simulated tumors, whereas binary-only implementation led to errors of 15% ± 11%. T bckg and FCM led to mean errors of 20% ± 12% and 17% ± 14%, respectively. 3-FLAB also led to more robust estimation of the maximum diameters of tumors with histology measurements, with bckg and FCM lead to 10%, 12%, and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: These encouraging results warrant further investigation in future studies that will investigate the impact of 3-FLAB in radiotherapy treatment planning, diagnosis, and therapy response evaluation.

  1. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a 3 He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose

  2. Relationship between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for in situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary sciences, in situ absolute geochronology is a scientific and engineering challenge. Currently, the age of the Martian surface can only be determined by crater density counting. However this method has significant uncertainties and needs to be calibrated with absolute ages. We are developing an instrument to acquire in situ absolute geochronology based on the K-Ar method. The protocol is based on the laser ablation of a rock by hundreds of laser pulses. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) gives the potassium content of the ablated material and a mass spectrometer (quadrupole or ion trap) measures the quantity of 40Ar released. In order to accurately measure the quantity of released 40Ar in cases where Ar is an atmospheric constituent (e.g., Mars), the sample is first put into a chamber under high vacuum. The 40Arquantity, the concentration of K and the estimation of the ablated mass are the parameters needed to give the age of the rocks. The main uncertainties with this method are directly linked to the measures of the mass (typically some µg) and of the concentration of K by LIBS (up to 10%). Because the ablated mass is small compared to the mass of the sample, and because material is redeposited onto the sample after ablation, it is not possible to directly measure the ablated mass. Our current protocol measures the ablated volume and estimates the sample density to calculate ablated mass. The precision and accuracy of this method may be improved by using knowledge of the sample's geologic properties to predict its response to laser ablation, i.e., understanding whether natural samples have a predictable relationship between laser energy deposited and resultant ablation volume. In contrast to most previous studies of laser ablation, theoretical equations are not highly applicable. The reasons are numerous, but the most important are: a) geologic rocks are complex, polymineralic materials; b) the conditions of ablation are unusual (for example

  3. Application Level Protocol Development for Library and Information Science Applications. Volume 1: Service Definition. Volume 2: Protocol Specification. Report No. TG.1.5; TG.50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, James S.; And Others

    This two-volume document specifies a protocol that was developed using the Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), which provides a framework for communications within a heterogeneous network environment. The protocol implements the features necessary for bibliographic searching, record maintenance, and mail transfer between…

  4. Grid-Forming-Mode Operation of Boost-Power-Stage Converter in PV-Generator-Interfacing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Viinamäki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of constant power control and inclusion of energy storage in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV energy systems may increase the use of two-stage system structures composed of DC–DC-converter-interfaced PV generator and grid-connected inverter connected in cascade. A typical PV-generator-interfacing DC–DC converter is a boost-power-stage converter. The renewable energy system may operate in three different operation modes—grid-forming, grid-feeding, and grid-supporting modes. In the last two operation modes, the outmost feedback loops are taken from the input terminal of the associated power electronic converters, which usually does not pose stability problems in terms of their input sources. In the grid-forming operation mode, the outmost feedback loops have to be connected to the output terminal of the associated power electronic converters, and hence the input terminal will behave as a negative incremental resistor at low frequencies. This property will limit the operation of the PV interfacing converter in either the constant voltage or constant current region of the PV generator for ensuring stable operation. The boost-power-stage converter can be applied as a voltage or current-fed converter limiting the stable operation region accordingly. The investigations of this paper show explicitly that only the voltage-fed mode would provide feasible dynamic and stability properties as a viable interfacing converter.

  5. Current stage of fMRI applications in newborns and children during the first year of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, H.; Scheef, L.; Jankowski, J.; Zimmermann, N.; Born, M.; Heep, A.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, a paradigm shift towards expanded early use of cranial MRI in newborns at risk and infants in the first year of life can be observed in neonatology. Beyond clinical MRI applications, there is progressive use of functional MRI (fMRI) in this age group. On the one hand, fMRI allows monitoring of functional developmental processes depending on maturational stage; on the other hand, this technique may provide the basis for early detection of pathophysiological processes as a prerequisite for functionally guided therapeutic interventions. This article provides a comprehensive review of current fMRI applications in neonates and infants during the first year of life and focuses on the associated methodological issues (e.g. signal physiology, sedation, safety aspects). (orig.)

  6. Staging of breast cancer and the advanced applications of digital mammogram: what the physician needs to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Maha H; Mansour, Sahar M; Zaglol, Mai; Salaleldin, Lamia A; Nada, Omniya M; Haggag, Marwa A

    2017-03-01

    To study the role of advanced applications of digital mammogram, whether contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) or digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in the "T" staging of histologically proven breast cancer before planning for treatment management. In this prospective analysis, we evaluated 98 proved malignant breast masses regarding their size, multiplicity and the presence of associated clusters of microcalcifications. Evaluation methods included digital mammography (DM), 3D tomosynthesis and CESM. Traditional DM was first performed then in a period of 10-14-day interval; breast tomosynthesis and contrast-based mammography were performed for the involved breast only. Views at tomosynthesis were acquired in a "step-and-shoot" tube motion mode to produce multiple (11-15), low-dose images and in contrast-enhanced study, low-energy (22-33 kVp) and high-energy (44-49 kVp) exposures were taken after the i.v. injection of the contrast agent. Operative data were the gold standard reference. Breast tomosynthesis showed the highest accuracy in size assessment (n = 69, 70.4%) than contrast-enhanced (n = 49, 50%) and regular mammography (n = 59, 60.2%). Contrast-enhanced mammography presented the least performance in assessing calcifications, yet it was most sensitive in the detection of multiplicity (92.3%), followed by tomosynthesis (77%) and regular mammography (53.8%). The combined analysis of the three modalities provided an accuracy of 74% in the "T" staging of breast cancer. The combined application of tomosynthesis and contrast-enhanced digital mammogram enhanced the performance of the traditional DM and presented an informative method in the staging of breast cancer. Advances in knowledge: Staging and management planning of breast cancer can divert according to tumour size, multiplicity and the presence of microcalcifications. DBT shows sharp outlines of the tumour with no overlap tissue and spots microcalcifications. Contrast

  7. SU-E-T-480: Radiobiological Dose Comparison of Single Fraction SRS, Multi-Fraction SRT and Multi-Stage SRS of Large Target Volumes Using the Linear-Quadratic Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, C; Hrycushko, B; Jiang, S; Meyer, J; Timmerman, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the radiobiological effect on large tumors and surrounding normal tissues from single fraction SRS, multi-fractionated SRT, and multi-staged SRS treatment. Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with a centrally located large volume target (18.2 cm 3 ) was scanned using a 16 slice large bore CT simulator. Scans were imported to the Multiplan treatment planning system where a total prescription dose of 20Gy was used for a single, three staged and three fractionated treatment. Cyber Knife treatment plans were inversely optimized for the target volume to achieve at least 95% coverage of the prescription dose. For the multistage plan, the target was segmented into three subtargets having similar volume and shape. Staged plans for individual subtargets were generated based on a planning technique where the beam MUs of the original plan on the total target volume are changed by weighting the MUs based on projected beam lengths within each subtarget. Dose matrices for each plan were export in DICOM format and used to calculate equivalent dose distributions in 2Gy fractions using an alpha beta ratio of 10 for the target and 3 for normal tissue. Results: Singe fraction SRS, multi-stage plan and multi-fractionated SRT plans had an average 2Gy dose equivalent to the target of 62.89Gy, 37.91Gy and 33.68Gy, respectively. The normal tissue within 12Gy physical dose region had an average 2Gy dose equivalent of 29.55Gy, 16.08Gy and 13.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The single fraction SRS plan had the largest predicted biological effect for the target and the surrounding normal tissue. The multi-stage treatment provided for a more potent biologically effect on target compared to the multi-fraction SRT treatments with less biological normal tissue than single-fraction SRS treatment

  8. Application of the Social Cognitive theory to predict stages of change in exercise for Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is characterized by a peak decline in physical activity levels. Psychological theories, such as Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model have been applied in order to explain the regularity of youth physical activity adherence. These theories, however, are rarely applied to study physical activity behavior in Brazilian adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine personal, behavioral and environmental characteristics associated with different stages of exercise behavior among a sample of Brazilian adolescents. The participants were 488 high-school students (57.5% boys with ages ranging from 14 to 17 years. Valid and reliable instruments were used to measure self-reported physical activity, social cognitive variables and also stages of change in exercise behavior. Multivariate discriminant analyses and One-Way ANOVA were performed to identify associations among these variables and stages of change. Self-efficacy was a significant predictor (p RESUMO A adolescência é caracterizada pelo acentuado declínio nos níveis de atividade física. Teorias psicológicas como a teoria cognitivo-social e o modelo transteorético têm sido empregadas para tentar explicar a aderência dos jovens à atividade física regular. No entanto, tais teorias raramente têm sido utilizadas para estudar a atividade física em adolescentes brasileiros. O propósito do presente estudo foi examinar características pessoais, comportamentais e ambientais associadas com os diferentes estágios de comportamento relacionados ao exercício físico em uma amostra de adolescentes brasileiros. Participaram do estudo 488 estudantes do ensino médio (57,5% garotos com idades entre 14 e 17 anos. Medidas fidedignas e válidas foram empregadas para medir variáveis cognitivo-sociais, atividade física auto-reportada e estágios de mudança de comportamento relacionados ao exercício. A análise múltipla discrimante a analise de vari

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  10. Two-Stage Chaos Optimization Search Application in Maximum Power Point Tracking of PV Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to deliver the maximum available power to the load under the condition of varying solar irradiation and environment temperature, maximum power point tracking (MPPT technologies have been used widely in PV systems. Among all the MPPT schemes, the chaos method is one of the hot topics in recent years. In this paper, a novel two-stage chaos optimization method is presented which can make search faster and more effective. In the process of proposed chaos search, the improved logistic mapping with the better ergodic is used as the first carrier process. After finding the current optimal solution in a certain guarantee, the power function carrier as the secondary carrier process is used to reduce the search space of optimized variables and eventually find the maximum power point. Comparing with the traditional chaos search method, the proposed method can track the change quickly and accurately and also has better optimization results. The proposed method provides a new efficient way to track the maximum power point of PV array.

  11. Double-Stage Delay Multiply and Sum Beamforming Algorithm: Application to Linear-Array Photoacoustic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi; Adabi, Saba; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging medical imaging modality capable of providing high spatial resolution of Ultrasound (US) imaging and high contrast of optical imaging. Delay-and-Sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in PAI. However, using DAS beamformer leads to low resolution images and considerable contribution of off-axis signals. A new paradigm namely delay-multiply-and-sum (DMAS), which was originally used as a reconstruction algorithm in confocal microwave imaging, was introduced to overcome the challenges in DAS. DMAS was used in PAI systems and it was shown that this algorithm results in resolution improvement and sidelobe degrading. However, DMAS is still sensitive to high levels of noise, and resolution improvement is not satisfying. Here, we propose a novel algorithm based on DAS algebra inside DMAS formula expansion, double stage DMAS (DS-DMAS), which improves the image resolution and levels of sidelobe, and is much less sensitive to high level of noise compared to DMAS. The performance of DS-DMAS algorithm is evaluated numerically and experimentally. The resulted images are evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using established quality metrics including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) and contrast ratio (CR). It is shown that DS-DMAS outperforms DAS and DMAS at the expense of higher computational load. DS-DMAS reduces the lateral valley for about 15 dB and improves the SNR and FWHM better than 13% and 30%, respectively. Moreover, the levels of sidelobe are reduced for about 10 dB in comparison with those in DMAS.

  12. Applications of Ni3Al Based Intermetallic Alloys—Current Stage and Potential Perceptivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Jozwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of current and prospective applications of Ni3Al based intermetallic alloys—modern engineering materials with special properties that are potentially useful for both structural and functional purposes. The bulk components manufactured from these materials are intended mainly for forging dies, furnace assembly, turbocharger components, valves, and piston head of internal combustion engines. The Ni3Al based alloys produced by a directional solidification are also considered as a material for the fabrication of jet engine turbine blades. Moreover, development of composite materials with Ni3Al based alloys as a matrix hardened by, e.g., TiC, ZrO2, WC, SiC and graphene, is also reported. Due to special physical and chemical properties; it is expected that these materials in the form of thin foils and strips should make a significant contribution to the production of high tech devices, e.g., Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS or Microtechnology-based Energy and Chemical Systems (MECS; as well as heat exchangers; microreactors; micro-actuators; components of combustion chambers and gasket of rocket and jet engines as well components of high specific strength systems. Additionally, their catalytic properties may find an application in catalytic converters, air purification systems from chemical and biological toxic agents or in a hydrogen “production” by a decomposition of hydrocarbons.

  13. Comparison of different application systems and CT- assisted treatment planning procedures in primary endometrium cancer: Is it technically possible to include the whole uterus volume in the volume treated by brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Knocke, Th.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is regarded as the definitive component of treatment for inoperable patients with endometrium cancer. In published series the whole uterus has been claimed to represent the target volume independently of the individual tumor spread. The purpose of this work is to compare different planning and application procedures and to analyze the target volumes (whole uterus), treatment volumes and their respective relation for the given various conditions. Material and Methods: In ten patients with primary endometrium cancer the correlation between target- and treatment volume was analysed based on standard one-channel applicators or individual Heyman applicators. A comparative analysis of target volumes resulting from two different planning procedures of Heyman applications was performed. CT was carried out after insertion of the Heyman ovoids. Target volume was estimated by measuring the uterus size at different cross sections of the CT images. Dose calculation was performed with (PLATO-system) or without (NPS-system) transferring these data directly to the planning system. We report on the differences in treatment volumes resulting from the two application and planning systems. Results: The mean value of the uterus volume was 180 ccm (range 57 ccm to 316 ccm). Four out of 10 patients had an asymmetric uterus configuration with a side-difference (in longitudinal or transversal direction) of more than 1 cm. On average 70% (range 48-95%) of the uterus volume was included by the treatment volume when Heymann applicators were used compared to 45 % (range 25-89%) when standard one channel applicators were used. This represents an improvement of 25% (range from 11%-35%). By utilizing the more sophisticated way of treatment planning a more adequate coverage of the uterus volume was achieved in five out of ten patients. The treated volume increased on the average by 20 % (range 11 %-32%). In three cases changes in the irradiation volume were less than 5%. In

  14. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkley, Michael S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Shrager, Joseph B. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Leung, Ann N. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Popat, Rita [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Trakul, Nicholas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  15. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ±0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  16. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 1, Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over a period of 5--20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 major, closely linked research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This volume provides a comprehensive executive summary, including research recommendations.

  17. Energy-state formulation of lumped volume dynamic equations with application to a simplified free piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, C. J.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    Lumped volume dynamic equations are derived using an energy-state formulation. This technique requires that kinetic and potential energy state functions be written for the physical system being investigated. To account for losses in the system, a Rayleigh dissipation function is also formed. Using these functions, a Lagrangian is formed and using Lagrange's equation, the equations of motion for the system are derived. The results of the application of this technique to a lumped volume are used to derive a model for the free-piston Stirling engine. The model was simplified and programmed on an analog computer. Results are given comparing the model response with experimental data.

  18. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications; Definition automatique des volumes biologiques cibles pour les applications de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [LaTIM, U650 Inserm, 29 - Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 - Brest (France); Pradier, O. [Service de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2009-10-15

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ({sup 18}F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  19. Virtual Stream Stage Sensor Using Projected Geometry and Augmented Reality for Crowdsourcing Citizen Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Villanueva, P.; Sermet, M. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Accurately measuring the surface level of a river is a vital component of environmental monitoring and modeling efforts. Reliable data points are required for calibrating the statistical models that are used for, among other things, flood prediction and model validation. While current embedded monitoring systems provide accurate measurements, the cost to replicate this current system on a large scale is prohibitively expensive, limiting the quantity of data available. In this project, we describe a new method to accurately measure river levels using smartphone sensors. We take three pictures of the same point on the river's surface and perform calculations based on the GPS location and spatial orientation of the smartphone for each picture using projected geometry. Augmented reality is used to improve the accuracy of smartphone sensor readings. This proposed implementation is significantly cheaper than existing water measuring systems while offering similar accuracy. Additionally, since the measurements are taken by sensors that are commonly found in smartphones, crowdsourcing the collection of river measurements to citizen-scientists is possible. Thus, our proposed method leads to a much higher quantity of reliable data points than currently possible at a fraction of the cost. Sample runs and an analysis of the results are included. The presentation concludes with a discussion of future work, including applications to other fields and plans to implement a fully automated system using this method in tandem with image recognition and machine learning.

  20. Hydration and blood volume effects on human thermoregulation in the heat: Space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Pandolf, Kent B.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to prolonged weightlessness will experience deconditioning, dehydration, and hypovolemia which all adversely affect thermoregulation. These thermoregulatory problems can be minimized by several countermeasures that manipulate body water and vascular volumes. USARIEM scientists have extensively studied dehydration effects and several possible countermeasures including hyperhydration, plasma and erythrocyte volume expansion. This paper reviews USARIEM research into these areas.

  1. Study of factors affecting thyroid volume determination by SPECT and preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan

    1992-01-01

    Volumes of 7 thyroid phantoms (12-113.4 ml) and 25 thyroids of hyperthyroid patients were determined using TOSHIBA GCA-901A SPECT scanner. Accuracy of calculated volumes was strongly affected by the spatial resolution, total counts of acquisition and the threshold of background subtraction which depended on the thyroid size and the type of collimator used

  2. Application of multi-stage, multi-disk type downhole seismic source; Tadanshiki taso enbangata koseinai shingen no tekiyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, N [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoji, Y [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A multi-stage, multi-disk type seismic source was developed as a downhole seismic source. The seismic source is an improved version of the downhole seismic source of a system in which an elastic wave is generated by a weight accelerated by restitutive force of a spring striking the upper part of a laminated structure consisted of metal disks and elastic bodies installed in water in a well. Enhancing the vibration exciting efficiency requires impedance radiated from the disks to be increased. The multi-disk structure was adopted because of restrictions on the disk area under the limiting condition of being inside the well. Further limitation has still existed, which led to finally structuring the multi-disk type to a multi-stage construction to increase the radiated impedance. In order to increase average velocity on the radiation surface, mass relationship between the hammer and the anvil was sought so that the maximum velocity is achieved at the process of converting motion energies among the hammer, anvil and disks. The anvil mass may sufficiently be 50% to 100% of the hammer mass. The equipment was installed in an actual oil well for testing. This seismic source was verified to have sufficient applicability in the cross hole measurement. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Application of Nuclear Volume Measurements to Comprehend the Cell Cycle in Root-Knot Nematode-Induced Giant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dijair Antonino de Souza Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes induce galls that contain giant-feeding cells harboring multiple enlarged nuclei within the roots of host plants. It is recognized that the cell cycle plays an essential role in the set-up of a peculiar nuclear organization that seemingly steers nematode feeding site induction and development. Functional studies of a large set of cell cycle genes in transgenic lines of the model host Arabidopsis thaliana have contributed to better understand the role of the cell cycle components and their implication in the establishment of functional galls. Mitotic activity mainly occurs during the initial stages of gall development and is followed by an intense endoreduplication phase imperative to produce giant-feeding cells, essential to form vigorous galls. Transgenic lines overexpressing particular cell cycle genes can provoke severe nuclei phenotype changes mainly at later stages of feeding site development. This can result in chaotic nuclear phenotypes affecting their volume. These aberrant nuclear organizations are hampering gall development and nematode maturation. Herein we report on two nuclear volume assessment methods which provide information on the complex changes occurring in nuclei during giant cell development. Although we observed that the data obtained with AMIRA tend to be more detailed than Volumest (Image J, both approaches proved to be highly versatile, allowing to access 3D morphological changes in nuclei of complex tissues and organs. The protocol presented here is based on standard confocal optical sectioning and 3-D image analysis and can be applied to study any volume and shape of cellular organelles in various complex biological specimens. Our results suggest that an increase in giant cell nuclear volume is not solely linked to increasing ploidy levels, but might result from the accumulation of mitotic defects.

  4. Bystander Exposure to Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K.D. Peterson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study was to estimate dermal exposures to the insecticide active ingredient permethrin using water- (Aqua-Reslin® and oil-based (Permanone® 30-30 formulations with passive dosimetry. No significant differences in deposition of permethrin were observed between years, distance from the spray source, front or back of the body, or the placement of the patches on the body. However, exposure to Aqua-Reslin was significantly greater than Permanone 30-30 and average concentrations deposited on the body were 4.2 and 2.1 ng/cm2, respectively. The greater deposition of Aqua-Reslin is most likely due to the higher density of the water-based formulation which causes it to settle out faster than the lighter oil-based formulation of Permanone 30-30. The estimated average absorbed dermal exposure for permethrin from Aqua-Reslin and Permanone 30-30 was 0.00009 and 0.00005 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also found that ground deposition of ULV insecticides can be used as a surrogate for estimating dermal exposure. The estimated exposures support the findings of previous risk assessments that exposure to ULV applications used for mosquito management are below regulatory levels of concern.

  5. Report on the Survey of the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 3: Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven; Monninger, John; Nevalainen, Janne; Lorin, Aurelie; ); Webster, Philip; Joyer, Philippe; Kawamura, Tomonori; Lankin, Mikhail; Kubanyi, Jozef; Haluska, Ladislav; Persic, Andreja; Reierson, Craig; Kang, Kyungmin; Kim, Walter

    2016-01-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the Working Group agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This document, which is the third report on the results of the Design Phase Survey, focuses on the Reactor. The Reactor category includes the following technical topics: fuel system design, reactor internals and core support, nuclear design and core nuclear performance, thermal and hydraulic design, reactor materials, and functional design of reactivity control system. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided by the member countries in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Although the description of the information provided by the applicant differs in scope and level of detail among the member countries that provided responses, there are similarities in the information that is required. - All of the technical topics covered in the survey are reviewed in some manner by all of the regulatory authorities that provided responses. - Design review strategies most commonly used to confirm that the regulatory requirements have been met include document review and independent verification of calculations, computer codes, or models used to describe the design and performance of the core and the fuel. - It is common to consider operating experience and

  6. Effect of preload reduction by hemodialysis on left atrial volume and echocardiographic Doppler parameters in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberato, Silvio H; Mantilla, Diego E V; Misocami, M Arcio; Gonçalves, Simone M; Bignelli, Alexandre T; Riella, Miguel C; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    Left atrial (LA) volume has been proposed as a less preload-dependent parameter of diastolic function than Doppler mitral inflow. We hypothesize that in the absence of mitral regurgitation and atrial fibrilation, LA enlargement could be a more practical (and relatively preload-independent) method for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of preload reduction by hemodialysis on LA volume.

  7. Sampling based motion planning with reachable volumes: Application to manipulators and closed chain systems

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2014-09-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.

  8. Sampling based motion planning with reachable volumes: Application to manipulators and closed chain systems

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.

  9. Price-volume multifractal analysis and its application in Chinese stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying

    2012-06-01

    An empirical research on Chinese stock markets is conducted using statistical tools. First, the multifractality of stock price return series, ri(ri=ln(Pt+1)-ln(Pt)) and trading volume variation series, vi(vi=ln(Vt+1)-ln(Vt)) is confirmed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Furthermore, a multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between stock price return and trading volume variation in Chinese stock markets is also conducted. It is shown that the cross relationship between them is also found to be multifractal. Second, the cross-correlation between stock price Pi and trading volume Vi is empirically studied using cross-correlation function and detrended cross-correlation analysis. It is found that both Shanghai stock market and Shenzhen stock market show pronounced long-range cross-correlations between stock price and trading volume. Third, a composite index R based on price and trading volume is introduced. Compared with stock price return series ri and trading volume variation series vi, R variation series not only remain the characteristics of original series but also demonstrate the relative correlation between stock price and trading volume. Finally, we analyze the multifractal characteristics of R variation series before and after three financial events in China (namely, Price Limits, Reform of Non-tradable Shares and financial crisis in 2008) in the whole period of sample to study the changes of stock market fluctuation and financial risk. It is found that the empirical results verified the validity of R.

  10. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  11. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  12. The application of finite volume methods for modelling three-dimensional incompressible flow on an unstructured mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, R. D.; Webster, R.

    This paper demonstrates the application of a simple finite volume approach to a finite element mesh, combining the economy of the former with the geometrical flexibility of the latter. The procedure is used to model a three-dimensional flow on a mesh of linear eight-node brick (hexahedra). Simulations are performed for a wide range of flow problems, some in excess of 94,000 nodes. The resulting computer code ASTEC that incorporates these procedures is described.

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B Permit application. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1-Appendix C8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendices for the following: chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; data accumulated from headspace-gas analyses; totals analysis versus toxicity characteristic leaching procedure; waste characterization sampling methods; applicability of real-time radiography; quality assurance objectives for waste characterization sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance project plan requirements; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program

  14. Application Guide for Bioslurping Volume 2 Principles and Practices of Bioslurping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoeppel, Ron

    1998-01-01

    ...) can make preliminary decisions rather quickly. By reading Volume I, RPMs may determine whether this technology is feasible for remediation of a site contaminated with light, non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL...

  15. Blood volume determination with two radioisotopes: application to non-cardiogenic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, J.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Knowledge of the circulating blood volume may be of great assistance in the study of clinical shock. The isotope dilution principle is used to measure both plasma and red cell volume. Considering the increased capillary permeability in patients in shock, it may be of considerable value to quantify the diffusion of liquid through the capillary walls. A double determination of the volume of distribution of the tracer is to be envisaged. Two methods are described. The first one uses a non-diffusible tracer (sup(99m)Tc-labelled red cells) confined to the intravascular space, giving a measure of the intravascular blood volume. The latter uses 131 I-labelled serum albumin which remains, usually, in the vascular bed, but is able to diffuse through the pores of the capillary membrane, because of its low molecular weight. A resulting increase of the tracer volume distribution, with regard to this capillary diffusion is considered. A comparison of the two methods used simultaneously appear to provide information on the possible liquid diffusion in clinical shock. The results obtained in several pathological conditions are described. They enable conclusion to be drawn on the possibility of errors introduced by the use of 131 I-labelled serum albumin alone in determining the circulating blood volume in clinical shock [fr

  16. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 39 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Via linkage to the US Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrolment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55 580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided information on use of pesticides via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: (1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 39 pesticides, (2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures and (3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalisation. Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide permethrin. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR=2.13; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.89) and hospitalisation due to pesticide use (HR=3.05; 95% CI 1.67 to 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides, and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00352924. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  18. Comparisons of dose-volume histograms for proton-beam versus 3-D conformal X-ray therapy in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changlu; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Sugahara, Shinji; Sakae, Takeji; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were reviewed to determine if there is an advantage of the two modalities when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 24 stage I NSCLC patients who underwent proton-beam therapy (PBT) from June 2003 to May 2007 were included in this study. Based on the same clinical target volumes (CTVs), treatment planning was made to cover CTV within 90% isodose lines. Each patient was evaluated by two sets of DVHs, one for PBT and the other for three-dimensional conformal X-ray therapy (3D-CRT). For all patients, the 95% isodose line covered 86.4% of the CTV for PBT, and 43.2% for 3D-CRT. PBT was associated with significantly lower mean doses to the ipsilateral lung, total lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord than 3D-CRT. PBT offered reduced radiation doses to the lung when evaluated in terms of percentage lung volumes receiving ≥ 5 Gy (V 5 ), ≥ 10 Gy (V 10 ), and ≥ 20 Gy (V 20 ) when compared to 3D-CRT. PBT is advantageous over 3D-CRT in reducing doses to the lung, heart, esophagus, and spinal cord in treating stage I NSCLC. (orig.)

  19. Gastropod shell size and architecture influence the applicability of methods used to estimate internal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagnin, Marilia Nagata; Gorman, Daniel; McCarthy, Ian Donald; Sant'Anna, Bruno Sampaio; de Castro, Cláudio Campi; Turra, Alexander

    2018-01-11

    Obtaining accurate and reproducible estimates of internal shell volume is a vital requirement for studies into the ecology of a range of shell-occupying organisms, including hermit crabs. Shell internal volume is usually estimated by filling the shell cavity with water or sand, however, there has been no systematic assessment of the reliability of these methods and moreover no comparison with modern alternatives, e.g., computed tomography (CT). This study undertakes the first assessment of the measurement reproducibility of three contrasting approaches across a spectrum of shell architectures and sizes. While our results suggested a certain level of variability inherent for all methods, we conclude that a single measure using sand/water is likely to be sufficient for the majority of studies. However, care must be taken as precision may decline with increasing shell size and structural complexity. CT provided less variation between repeat measures but volume estimates were consistently lower compared to sand/water and will need methodological improvements before it can be used as an alternative. CT indicated volume may be also underestimated using sand/water due to the presence of air spaces visible in filled shells scanned by CT. Lastly, we encourage authors to clearly describe how volume estimates were obtained.

  20. Sample volume and alignment analysis for an optical particle counter sizer, and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holve, D.J.; Davis, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Optical methods for particle size distribution measurements in practical high temperature environments are approaching feasibility and offer significant advantages over conventional sampling methods. A key requirement of single particle counting techniques is the need to know features of the sample volume intensity distribution which in general are a function of the particle scattering properties and optical system geometry. In addition, the sample volume intensity distribution is sensitive to system alignment and thus calculations of alignment sensitivity are required for assessment of practical alignment tolerances. To this end, an analysis of sample volume characteristics for single particle counters in general has been developed. Results from the theory are compared with experimental measurements and shown to be in good agreement. A parametric sensitivity analysis is performed and a criterion for allowable optical misalignment is derived for conditions where beam steering caused by fluctuating refractive-index gradients is significant

  1. A Two-Stage Layered Mixture Experiment Design for a Nuclear Waste Glass Application-Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Gan, Hao; Kot, Wing; Pegg, Ian L.

    2003-01-01

    Part 1 (Cooley and Piepel, 2003a) describes the first stage of a two-stage experimental design to support property-composition modeling for high-level waste (HLW) glass to be produced at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Each stage used a layered design having an outer layer, an inner layer, a center point, and some replicates. However, the design variables and constraints defining the layers of the experimental glass composition region (EGCR) were defined differently for the second stage than for the first. The first-stage initial design involved 15 components, all treated as mixture variables. The second-stage augmentation design involved 19 components, with 14 treated as mixture variables and 5 treated as non-mixture variables. For each second-stage layer, vertices were generated and optimal design software was used to select alternative subsets of vertices for the design and calculate design optimality measures. A model containing 29 partial quadratic mixture terms plus 5 linear terms for the non-mixture variables was the basis for the optimal design calculations. Predicted property values were plotted for the alternative subsets of second-stage vertices and the first-stage design points. Based on the optimality measures and the predicted property distributions, a ''best'' subset of vertices was selected for each layer of the second-stage to augment the first-stage design

  2. Weight and volume estimates for aluminum-air batteries designed for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The weights and volumes of reactants, electrolyte, and hardware components are estimated for an aluminum-air battery designed for a 40-kW (peak), 70-kWh aluminum-air battery. Generalized equations are derived which express battery power and energy content as functions of total anode area, aluminum-anode weight, and discharge current density. Equations are also presented which express total battery weight and volume as linear combinations of the variables, anode area and anode weight. The sizing and placement of battery components within the engine compartment of typical five-passenger vehicles is briefly discussed.

  3. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A. [Morgan, Lewis and Bockius, Washington, DC (United States); Baird, R.D. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application.

  4. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2: Recommendations on the content and review of an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application

  5. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 4: License Application Plan and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a

  6. River water quality management considering agricultural return flows: application of a nonlinear two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Ali; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Soltani, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new fuzzy methodology is developed to optimize water and waste load allocation (WWLA) in rivers under uncertainty. An interactive two-stage stochastic fuzzy programming (ITSFP) method is utilized to handle parameter uncertainties, which are expressed as fuzzy boundary intervals. An iterative linear programming (ILP) is also used for solving the nonlinear optimization model. To accurately consider the impacts of the water and waste load allocation strategies on the river water quality, a calibrated QUAL2Kw model is linked with the WWLA optimization model. The soil, water, atmosphere, and plant (SWAP) simulation model is utilized to determine the quantity and quality of each agricultural return flow. To control pollution loads of agricultural networks, it is assumed that a part of each agricultural return flow can be diverted to an evaporation pond and also another part of it can be stored in a detention pond. In detention ponds, contaminated water is exposed to solar radiation for disinfecting pathogens. Results of applying the proposed methodology to the Dez River system in the southwestern region of Iran illustrate its effectiveness and applicability for water and waste load allocation in rivers. In the planning phase, this methodology can be used for estimating the capacities of return flow diversion system and evaporation and detention ponds.

  7. A Two-Stage Estimation Method for Random Coefficient Differential Equation Models with Application to Longitudinal HIV Dynamic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Wu, Hulin; Zhu, Li-Xing

    2011-07-01

    We propose a two-stage estimation method for random coefficient ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. A maximum pseudo-likelihood estimator (MPLE) is derived based on a mixed-effects modeling approach and its asymptotic properties for population parameters are established. The proposed method does not require repeatedly solving ODEs, and is computationally efficient although it does pay a price with the loss of some estimation efficiency. However, the method does offer an alternative approach when the exact likelihood approach fails due to model complexity and high-dimensional parameter space, and it can also serve as a method to obtain the starting estimates for more accurate estimation methods. In addition, the proposed method does not need to specify the initial values of state variables and preserves all the advantages of the mixed-effects modeling approach. The finite sample properties of the proposed estimator are studied via Monte Carlo simulations and the methodology is also illustrated with application to an AIDS clinical data set.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of T stage of gastric cancer from the view point of application of laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzu, Keita; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Hiraki, Shuichi; Nomura, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Junji; Ueno, Hideki

    2018-06-01

    The preoperative diagnosis of T stage is important in selecting limited treatments, such as laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG), which lacks the ability to palpate the tumor. Therefore, the present study examined the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of the depth of tumor invasion in early gastric cancer from the view point of the indication for LPG. A total of 193 patients with cT1 gastric cancer underwent LPG with gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations and a series of upper gastrointestinal radiographs. The patients with pT1 were classified into the correctly diagnosed group (163 patients, 84.5%), and those with pT2 or deeper were classified into the underestimated group (30 patients, 15.5%). Factors that were associated with underestimation of tumor depth were analyzed. Tumor size in the underestimated group was significantly larger; the lesions were more frequently located in the upper third of the stomach and were more histologically diffuse, scirrhous, with infiltrative growth, and more frequent lymphatic and venous invasion. For upper third lesions, in univariate analysis, histology (diffuse type) was associated with underestimation of tumor depth. Multivariate analysis found that tumor size (≥20 mm) and histology (diffuse type) were independently associated with underestimation of tumor depth. gastric cancer in the upper third of the stomach with diffuse type histology and >20 mm needs particular attention when considering the application of LPG.

  9. Cognitive remediation in pediatric chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease: rationale, candidate interventions, and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javalkar, Karina; Ferris, Maria E; Cuttance, Jessica; Hooper, Stephen R

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the potential use of cognitive remediation interventions for children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The prevalence and risk for neurocognitive dysfunction in children with this condition remains high, but, to date, interventions targeting these challenges have not been attempted either individually or as part of a larger treatment program. This is the next logical step in addressing the neurocognitive dysfunction that can be present in pediatric CKD/ESKD, with the field needing to determine the efficacy of cognitive remediation approaches for this population. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to raise this possibility by identifying candidate treatments addressing the neurocognitive challenges observed in children and adolescents with CKD/ESKD. Initially, we present the rationale for the importance of addressing the cognitive difficulties in this population, including an overview of the literature documenting the neurocognitive deficits associated with pediatric-onset CKD/ESKD. This is followed by a review of five candidate cognitive remediation programs that may be applicable to patients with this condition, and associated factors that could affect such treatment. The paper concludes with suggestions for both clinical and research initiatives that could be implemented to examine cognitive remediation as potential components of a larger treatment program for children and adolescents with CKD/ESKD.

  10. Application of the AJCC 7th edition carcinoma of the eyelid staging system: a medical center pathology based, 15-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford CM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Courtney Crawford1, Colby Fernelius2, Paula Young1, Stephen Groo2, Darryl Ainbinder21Blanchfield Army Hospital, Fort Campbell, KY, USA; 2Madigan Army Medical Center, Fort Lewis, WA, USAContext: The purpose of this study was to conduct a quality improvement (QI, applied practical review of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC 7th edition, Carcinoma of the Eyelid staging system. AJCC utilizes a primary tumor, lymph node, metastasis (pTNM cancer staging approach.Objective: We wanted to determine if the AJCC pTNM carcinoma staging system identified patients with highly aggressive carcinoma of the eyelid. We also wanted to determine if there were any unexpected issues in its practical application. Design: We conducted a 15-year, consecutive, retrospective review of all cases of excisional biopsy for carcinoma of the eyelid. We reviewed the original histopathology slides and complete pathology records for each case.Results: Over a 15-year review period, 52 cases of excisional biopsy for carcinoma of the eyelid were identified. The average age of the study population was 72 years. Nodular well-differentiated basal cell carcinoma (BCC was the predominant histology for 85% of cases. Morpheaform/metatypical BCC was the next dominant at 9%. Squamous cell carcinoma and sebaceous carcinoma followed at 4% and 2%, respectively. We were able to assign clear staging to 50 of the 52 cases with the available pathology data. The stage results were as follows: stage 1A 72%, stage 1B 22%, stage II 4%, stage III 2%, with no cases of stage IV metastatic disease.Conclusions: The 7th edition AJCC Carcinoma of the Eyelid chapter proved to be a practical tool for carcinoma staging of the eyelid. The largest tumor dimension remains an effective predictive factor. High-grade pathologic prognostic factors such as tumor necrosis or perineural spread had a 100% association with a final stage of II or greater. Concordance and compliance was 100% for the recommended site

  11. Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, Volume II: Applications. An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Corchon, Luis; Marini, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce here the second volume of the Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, by L. C. Corchón and M. A. Marini (ed.), Edward Elgar, Cheltenam, UK and Northampton, MA, describing its main aim and its basic structure.

  12. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 3. Sections 5 through 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  13. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 1. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  14. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 2. Sections 1 through 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  15. Hybrid Vehicle Technology Constraints and Application Assessment Study : Volume 4. Sections 10, 11, and Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This four-volume report presents analyses and assessments of both heat engine/battery- and heat engine/flywheel-powered hybrid vehicles to determine if they could contribute to near-term (1980-1990) reductions in transportation energy consumption und...

  16. Implementation of Energy Strategies in Communities (Annex 63) Volume 3: Application of Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    This report describes, for different scales (city, district and project level) and for 29 conceptualised case studies, how implementation champions can apply the strategic measues from Volume 2. Implementation champions are hereby understood as stakeholders in the city who take the initiative...... to lead and facilitate implementation processes....

  17. Automated cerebellar segmentation: Validation and application to detect smaller volumes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Cardenas

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center. License application, PSAR, volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Volume 3 comprises Chapter 5 which provides descriptive information on Nuclear Fuel Recovery and Recycling Center buildings and other facilities, including their locations. The design features discussed include those used to withstand environmental and accidental forces and to insure radiological protection

  19. Fluid structure interaction due to fluid communications between fluid volumes. Application to seismic behaviour of F.B.R. vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durandet, E.; Gibert, R.J.; Gantenbein, F.

    1988-01-01

    The internal structures of a pool-type breeder reactor are mainly axisymmetric shells separated by fluid volumes which are connected one to another by small communications. Unfortunately, the communications destroy the axisymmetry of the problem and a correct modelisation by finite element method generally need a lot of small elements compared to the size of the standard mesh of the fluid volumes. To overcome these difficulties, an equivalent axisymmetric element based on a local tridimensional solution in the vicinity of the fluid communication is defined and will be described in the paper. This special fluid element is characterized by an equivalent length and annular cross-section. The second part of the paper is devoted to the application to an horizontal seismic calculation of breeder reactor

  20. Reduction of the treated volume to involved node radiation therapy as part of combined modality treatment for early stage aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhappen, Marieke H.; Poortmans, Philip M.P.; Raaijmakers, Esther; Raemaekers, John M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This retrospective study investigated whether focused involved node radiation therapy (INRT) can safely replace involved field RT (IFRT) in patients with early stage aggressive NHL. Patients and methods: We included 258 patients with stage I/II aggressive NHL who received combined modality treatment (87%) or primary RT alone (13%). RT consisted of a total dose of 30–40 Gy in 15–20 fractions IFRT or INRT. We compared survival, relapse pattern, radiation-related toxicity and quality of life for both RT techniques. Results: Type of RT was not related to the outcome in either the uni- or multivariate survival analysis. Relapses developed in 59 of 252 patients (23%) of which 47 (80%) were documented as distant recurrence only. Failure of the INRT technique was noted in one patient. There was no significant difference in acute radiation-related toxicity between RT-groups but IFRT showed a significantly higher incidence of higher grade toxicities. Patients treated with INRT had a significantly better physical functioning and global quality of life compared to the IFRT group. Conclusions: Given the retrospective nature of this study, no solid conclusions can be drawn. However, in view of the equivalent efficacy and more favorable toxicity profile, the replacement of IFRT by INRT in combination with chemo-(immuno)-therapy looks very attractive for patients with early stage aggressive NHL

  1. Comparison of the clinical efficacy of craniotomy and craniopuncture therapy for the early stage of moderate volume spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage in basal ganglia: Using the CTA spot sign as an entry criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Chunyan; Zhao, Wangmiao; Guo, Hong; Sun, Zhaosheng; Zhang, Wanzeng; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Xuehui; Zhang, Jinrong; Wang, Dongxin; Xiang, Yi; Mao, Jianhui; Zhang, Wenchao; Guo, Hao; Zhang, Yazhao; Chen, Jianchao

    2018-06-01

    Surgical treatment is widely used for haematoma removal in spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) patients, but there is controversy about the selection of surgical methods. The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign has been proven to be a promising factor predicting haematoma expansion and is recommended as an entry criterion for haemostatic therapy in patients with ICH. This trial was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of two surgical methods (haematoma removal by craniotomy and craniopuncture combined with urokinase infusion) for patients in the early stage (≤6h from symptom onset) of spontaneous ICH with a moderate haematoma volume (30 ml - 60 ml). From January 2012 to July 2017, 196 eligible patients treated in our institution were enrolled according to the inclusion criteria. The patients were divided into the CTA spot sign positive type and CTA spot sign negative type according to the presence or absence of the CTA spot sign. For each type, the patients were randomly assigned to two groups, i.e., the craniotomy group, in which patients underwent craniotomy with haematoma removal, and the craniopuncture group, in which patients underwent minimally invasive craniopuncture combined with urokinase infusion therapy. Neurological function was evaluated with the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) at day 14. The disability level and the activities of daily living were assessed using a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Barthel Index (BI) at day 90. Case fatalities were recorded at day 14 and 90. Complications were recorded during hospitalization. For the CTA spot sign positive type, the craniotomy group had a higher SSS than that in the craniopuncture group (P spot sign negative type, there were no significant differences in the SSS, mRS, BI, fatality rate and complication rate between the two groups. ICH can be divided into the CTA spot sign positive and negative type according to the presence or absence of the CTA spot sign. For the CTA spot sign

  2. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  3. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  4. [Application of lateral malleolus hook-plate in treatment of stage II supination-adduction type medial malleolus fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Fuguo; Xiang, Zhuo; Fang, Yue; Liu, Lei; Cen, Shiqiang

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the application of lateral malleolus hook-plate for the treatment of stage II supination-adduction type medial malleolus fractures. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 21 patients with stage II supination-adduction type ankle fractures were treated with lateral malleolus hook-plate, including 12 males and 9 females with an average age of 55.5 years (range, 27-65 years). The injury causes were sprain in 17 cases and traffic accident in 4 cases. The mean time between injury and admission was 12.4 hours (range, 2-72 hours). The tibial distal medial articular surface collapse was found in 7 cases by CT examination and in 3 cases by X-ray film. Of 21 cases, there were 12 cases of low transverse fractures of lateral malleolus, 7 cases of short oblique fractures of lateral malleolus, and 2 cases of ankle joint lateral collateral ligament injury without fractures of lateral malleolus. After operation, the clinical outcome was evaluated according to the talus-leg angle, the recovery of Coin-sign continuity, inside-outside and top ankle gap, talus slope, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, Olerud-Molander score, Kofoed evaluation standards, and patient satisfaction. Seventeen cases were followed up 18.7 months on average (range, 12-25 months). Primary healing was obtained in 16 cases except 1 case of delayed healing. Fracture healed at an average of 14.6 weeks (range, 12-16 weeks). All cases achieved anatomical reduction, the continuity of Coin-sign, and consistency of inside and outside joint gap; no talus tilt occurred. There was no complication of reduction loss, loosening or breakage of internal fixation, or osteoarthritis during follow-up. The talus-leg angle of the affected side was significantly improved to (83.4 ± 1.8)° at 1 week after operation from preoperative (74.8 ± 7.1)° (t = 5.370, P = 0.000), but no significant difference was found when compared with normal side (83.8 ± 2.3)° (t = 0.676, P = 0.509). The AOFAS score

  5. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 1. Application of assay technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, D.J.S.; Green, T.H.; Molesworth, T.V.; Staniforth, D.; Strachan, N.R.; Rogers, J.D.; Wise, M.O.; Forrest, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report, in three volumes, covers the work carried out by Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd., and two major sub-contractors: Harwell Laboratory (AEA Technology) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd., on the development of a radioactive waste package assay facility, for cemented 500 litre intermediate level waste drums. In volume 1, the reasons for assay are considered together with the various techniques that can be used, and the information that can be obtained. The practical problems associated with the use of the various techniques in an integrated assay facility are identified, and the key parameters defined. Engineering and operational features are examined and provisional designs proposed for facilities at three throughput levels: 15,000, 750 and 30 drums per year respectively. The capital and operating costs for such facilities have been estimated. A number of recommendations are made for further work. 16 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Fuzzy Regression Prediction and Application Based on Multi-Dimensional Factors of Freight Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengting; Li, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the reality of the development of air cargo, the multi-dimensional fuzzy regression method is used to determine the influencing factors, and the three most important influencing factors of GDP, total fixed assets investment and regular flight route mileage are determined. The system’s viewpoints and analogy methods, the use of fuzzy numbers and multiple regression methods to predict the civil aviation cargo volume. In comparison with the 13th Five-Year Plan for China’s Civil Aviation Development (2016-2020), it is proved that this method can effectively improve the accuracy of forecasting and reduce the risk of forecasting. It is proved that this model predicts civil aviation freight volume of the feasibility, has a high practical significance and practical operation.

  7. Water volume quantitation using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: application to cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecouffe, P.; Huglo, D.; Dubois, P.; Rousseau, J.; Marchandise, X.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitation in proton NMR imaging is applied to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Total intracranial CSF volume was measured from Condon's method: CSF signal was compared with distilled water standard signal in a single sagittal thick slice. Brain signal was reduced to minimum using a 5000/360/400 sequence. Software constraints did not permit easy implementing on imager and uniformity correction was performed on a microcomputer. Accuracy was better than 4%. Total intracranial CSF was found between 91 and 164 ml in 5 healthy volunteers. Extraventricular CSF quantitation appears very improved by this method, but planimetric methods seem better in order to quantify ventricular CSF. This technique is compared to total lung water measurement from proton density according to Mac Lennan's method. Water volume quantitation confirms ability of NMR imaging to quantify biologic parameters but image defects have to be known by strict quality control [fr

  8. Variations in Target Volume Definition for Postoperative Radiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Analysis of an International Contouring Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelstra, Femke; Senan, Suresh; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Ishikura, Satoshi; Casas, Francesc; Ball, David; Price, Allan; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer with mediastinal involvement is controversial because of the failure of earlier trials to demonstrate a survival benefit. Improved techniques may reduce toxicity, but the treatment fields used in routine practice have not been well studied. We studied routine target volumes used by international experts and evaluated the impact of a contouring protocol developed for a new prospective study, the Lung Adjuvant Radiotherapy Trial (Lung ART). Methods and Materials: Seventeen thoracic radiation oncologists were invited to contour their routine clinical target volumes (CTV) for 2 representative patients using a validated CD-ROM-based contouring program. Subsequently, the Lung ART study protocol was provided, and both cases were contoured again. Variations in target volumes and their dosimetric impact were analyzed. Results: Routine CTVs were received for each case from 10 clinicians, whereas six provided both routine and protocol CTVs for each case. Routine CTVs varied up to threefold between clinicians, but use of the Lung ART protocol significantly decreased variations. Routine CTVs in a postlobectomy patient resulted in V 20 values ranging from 12.7% to 54.0%, and Lung ART protocol CTVs resulted in values of 20.6% to 29.2%. Similar results were seen for other toxicity parameters and in the postpneumectomy patient. With the exception of upper paratracheal nodes, protocol contouring improved coverage of the required nodal stations. Conclusion: Even among experts, significant interclinician variations are observed in PORT fields. Inasmuch as contouring variations can confound the interpretation of PORT results, mandatory quality assurance procedures have been incorporated into the current Lung ART study.

  9. Fly Ash in Civil Engineering Stage 1: Inventory/Application; Flygaska i geotekniska anlaeggningar Etapp 1: Inventering/Tillaemplighet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Svedberg, Bo; Lenstroemer, Stina; Nilsson, Thomas [Scandiaconsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    frost-thaw durability of these fly ashes is also expected to be good but can be further improved by addition of cement. Potential civil engineering use of fly ashes from this group are as liners in landfills, sub-base and base course in secondary roads such as gravel roads or low trafficked paved roads or as stabilising agent in soils (compare to LC-columns or mass stabilisation). Group C fly ashes have high shear strength. These fly ashes can be used without adding cement. Cement can, however, increase shear strength and frost-thaw durability. The need of a stabilising agent should be investigated for each fly ash separately. Potential examples of applications correspond to group B and furthermore they can, for example, be used for stabilising of hazardous waste (such as fly ashes originating from household waste) or contaminated soils. This project indicates that determination of a limited set of properties of a fly ash can identification potential applications. Properties such as void ratio and shear strength give a good indication of appropriate application. The investigation have furthermore shown, for fly ashes in group B and C, that the optimum water content for compaction is lower than the water content needed to achieve a maximum development of strength. It is also obvious that dry storage of fly ashes is important to enable use without need of adding stabilising agents. In other corresponding projects, in Sweden and Finland, the excellent curing properties of fly ashes have been used in order to renovate gravel roads. These applications use large volumes of fly ashes. At the same time the supplies are limited, especially in comparison with the supplies of traditional materials. On the other hand, now ongoing projects indicate that no more than 15% of fresh fly ash applied to the bearing course is adequate to give the road better performance. It is therefore important to investigate how added water (15-30%) reduces the curing properties with time and to study

  10. Radioactivity handbook. Volume 2: radioactive disintegrations, radiations-matter interactions, applications of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.; Bonfand, E.; Rimbert, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the second one of a group of three. The first one exposed nuclides, with neutrons and protons in a stable building: atomic nucleus. Here is the second one with unstable, radioactive nucleus. After the description of different kinds of disintegrations, it is justified to follow radiations in matter and modifications attached to them; different uses of radioactivity are developed in medicine, age determination, industrial utilization and biology

  11. Holographic Recording and Applications of Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    photo-film and was used by Gabor in his first hologram [23]. A photosensitive silver halide is suspended in an emulsion such as a gelatin . The grain...One of the earliest holographic materials to be utilized was the silver halide emulsion. This is essentially a volume manifestation of a traditional...recording full color visible holograms. The sensitivity is around 1-10 μJ/cm2 making silver halide emulsions extremely sensitive and allowing rapid exposure

  12. Application of the finite volume method in the simulation of saturated flows of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, M.A.; Gama, R.M.S. da; Sampaio, R.

    1989-12-01

    This work presents the simulation of saturated flows of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through a rigid, homogeneous and isotropic porous medium. The employed mathematical model is derived from the Continuum Theory of Mixtures and generalizes the classical one which is based on Darcy's Law form of the momentum equation. In this approach fluid and porous matrix are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture. The finite volume method is employed in the simulation. (author) [pt

  13. Volume Recovery of Polymeric Glasses: Application of a Capacitance-based Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Nazam; Simon, Sindee

    Glasses, including polymeric glasses, are inherently non-equilibrium materials. As a consequence, the volume and enthalpy of a glass evolve towards equilibrium in a process termed structural recovery. Several open questions and new controversies remain unanswered in the field. Specifically, the presence of intermediate plateaus during isothermal structural recovery has been reported in recent enthalpy work. In addition, the dependence of the relaxation time on state variables and thermal history is unclear. Dilatometry is particularly useful for structural recovery studies because volume is an absolute quantity and volumetric measurements can be done in-situ. A capillary dilatometer, fitted with a linear variable differential transducer, was used previously to measure volume recovery of polymeric glass formers in our laboratory. To improve on the limitations associated with that methodology, including competition between the range of measurements versus the sensitivity, a capacitance-based technique has been developed following the work of Richert, 2010. The modification is performed by converting the glass capillary dilatometer into a cylindrical capacitor. For precision in capacitance data acquisition, an Andeen-Hagerling ultra-precision capacitance bridge (2550A, 1 kHz) is used. The setup will be tested by performing the signatures of structural recovery as described by Kovacs, 1963. Experiments are also planned to address the open questions in the field.

  14. Technical support document for land application of sewage sludge. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.; Beyer, L.; Rookwood, M.; Pacenka, J.; Bergin, J.

    1992-11-01

    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the land application of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in land applied sewage sludge. The management practices associated with land application are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through land application are discussed

  15. Westinghouse Reference Safety Analysis Report, RESAR-414. License application, preliminary safety analysis report (RESAR-414) volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Westinghouse's standardized four-loop, single unit NSSS for a pressurized water reactor is described including the core, coolant system, ECCS, emergency boration, chemical and volume control, RHR system, boron recycle, fuel handling, spent fuel pool and associated instrumentation and controls. This reactor is applicable to a plant with a core power level of 3800 MW(t) and 1295 MW(e). The reactor is controlled by temperature coefficients of reactivity; control rod motion, and by a soluble neutron absorber-boric acid

  16. Novel regenerative large-volume immobilized enzyme reactor: preparation, characterization and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guihua; Wei, Meiping; Chen, Zhengyi; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou; Zheng, Yanjie

    2014-09-15

    A novel large-volume immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) on small column was prepared with organic-inorganic hybrid silica particles and applied for fast (10 min) and oriented digestion of protein. At first, a thin enzyme support layer was formed in the bottom of the small column by polymerization with α-methacrylic acid and dimethacrylate. After that, amino SiO2 particles was prepared by the sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Subsequently, the amino SiO2 particles were activated by glutaraldehyde for covalent immobilization of trypsin. Digestive capability of large-volume IMER for proteins was investigated by using bovine serum albumin (BSA), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) as model proteins. Results showed that although the sequence coverage of the BSA (20%) and Cyt-c (19%) was low, the large-volume IMER could produce peptides with stable specific sequence at 101-105, 156-160, 205-209, 212-218, 229-232, 257-263 and 473-451 of the amino sequence of BSA when digesting 1mg/mL BSA. Eight of common peptides were observed during each of the ten runs of large-volume IMER. Besides, the IMER could be easily regenerated by reactivating with GA and cross-linking with trypsin after breaking the -C=N- bond by 0.01 M HCl. The sequence coverage of BSA from regenerated IMER increased to 25% comparing the non-regenerated IMER (17%). 14 common peptides. accounting for 87.5% of first use of IMER, were produced both with IMER and regenerated IMER. When the IMER was applied for ginkgo albumin digestion, the sequence coverage of two main proteins of ginkgo, ginnacin and legumin, was 56% and 55%, respectively. (Reviewer 2) Above all, the fast and selective digestion property of the large-volume IMER indicated that the regenerative IMER could be tentatively used for the production of potential bioactive peptides and the study of oriented protein digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N=31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993-1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure-response pattern for husband's cumulative use of these pesticides. ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  19. A new impulse-stage sand fracturing technology and its pilot application in the western Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A better placement of proppants has been always the goal pursued in sand fracturing in order to get longer effective fractures and higher flow conductivity. However, it is always difficult to achieve satisfactory effects by conventional processes. On the basis of theoretical analysis and simulation with FracproPT software, basic experiments, and innovative physical modeling experiment, a new impulse-stage fracturing process has been developed by combining a special pumping process with fiber, liquid and other auxiliary engineering means. Compared with conventional fracturing, the open seepage channel created by the new fracturing process has an obvious edge in effective fracture length and flow conductivity. Moreover, the open seepage channel can also improve fracture cleanliness and reduce pressure loss in artificial fractures, thus reaching the goal of prolonging the single-well production time and maximizing productivity. After the research on principles and optimal design of this new process, on-site pilot test and detailed post-fracturing evaluation were conducted. The results indicated that (1 the new process is highly operable and feasible; (2 compared with the adjacent wells with similar geological conditions, the proppant' cost is reduced by 44%–47%, the ratio of effective fracture length to propped fracture length is increased by about 16%, the fracturing fluid recovery rate is up to 63% after 18 h in the test, and the normalized production is 1.9–2.3 times that of the adjacent wells; and (3 the new process can significantly lower the cost and enhance production. The process has a broad application prospect in shallow-middle sand gas reservoirs and shale gas reservoirs in western Sichuan Basin.

  20. Controlling the Sex of Flowers in Different Stages of Growth and Development of Melon (Cucumis melo var. reticualus L. with Ethephon Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arabsalmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ethephon on control of male flowers in melon, a split plot experiment, with randomized complete blocks design and three replications, was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Varamin, Iran, during 2005-2006. The main factor included three levels of plant growth stage (3-leaf, 6-leaf and early reproductive stage and sub-plots included four ethephon levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/L. The appearance time of female flowers, number of male and female flowers (7 and 14 days after application of ethephon, total yield and female/male flowers ratio were evaluated. Results showed that plant response to increasing concentration of ethephon depends on plant growth stage. By using the ethephon concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L, the emergence of female flowers was delayed 6, 13 and 15 days, respectively, in comparison to control. The highest yield (26430 kg/ha was obtained with spraying of 200 mg/L ethephon in trifoliate plants. In this case, the ratio of female to male flowers was highest (81.5%. A high dose of ethephon (over 200 mg/L was associated with reduced yield and ratio of female to male flowers, at all stages of plant growth, especially in reproductive growth stage. The results this research showed that the beneficial effects of ethephon application is possible only if the right time is chosen with respect to plant growth.

  1. A Study on the Evaluation of Field Application of High-Fluidity Concrete Containing High Volume Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent concrete industry, high-fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high-fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high-fluidity concrete using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high-fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high-fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated for fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration, and drying shrinkage of concrete.

  2. A Two-Stage Layered Mixture Experiment Design for a Nuclear Waste Glass Application-Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, Scott K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Gan, Hao; Kot, Wing; Pegg, Ian L.

    2003-01-01

    A layered experimental design involving mixture variables was generated to support developing property-composition models for high-level waste (HLW) glasses. The design was generated in two stages, each having unique characteristics. Each stage used a layered design having an outer layer, an inner layer, a center point, and some replicates. The layers were defined by single- and multi-variable constraints. The first stage involved 15 glass components treated as mixture variables. For each layer, vertices were generated and optimal design software was used to select alternative subsets of vertices and calculate design optimality measures. Two partial quadratic mixture models, containing 25 terms for the outer layer and 30 terms for the inner layer, were the basis for the optimal design calculations. Distributions of predicted glass property values were plotted and evaluated for the alternative subsets of vertices. Based on the optimality measures and the predicted property distributions, a ''best'' subset of vertices was selected for each layer to form a layered design for the first stage. The design for the second stage was selected to augment the first-stage design. The discussion of the second-stage design begins in this Part 1 and is continued in Part 2 (Cooley and Piepel, 2003b)

  3. Volume of visual field assessed with kinetic perimetry and its application to static perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforidis JB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available John B ChristoforidisCollege of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to quantify the volume of the kinetic visual field with a single unit that accounts for visual field area and differential luminance sensitivity.Methods: Kinetic visual field perimetry was performed with a Goldmann perimeter using I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e targets. The visual fields of 25 normal volunteers (17 women, eight men of mean age 33.9 ± 10.1 (range 17–64 years were obtained and digitized. Isopter areas were measured with a method devised to correct cartographic distortion due to polar projection inherent in perimetry and are expressed in steradians. The third dimension of each isopter represents sensitivity to target luminance and was calculated as log (target luminance-1. If luminance is expressed in cd/m2, the values for the third dimension are 0.5 for I4e, 1.0 for I3e, 1.5 for I2e, and 2.0 for I1e. The resulting unit is a steradian (log 103 (cd/m2-1 which is referred to as a Goldmann. In addition, the visual fields of four patients with representative visual defect patterns were examined and compared with normal subjects.Results: Mean isopter areas for normal subjects were 3.092 ± 0.242 steradians for I4e, 2.349 ± 0.280 steradians for I3e, 1.242 ± 0.263 steradians for I2e, and 0.251 ± 0.114 steradians for the I1e target. Isopter volumes were 1.546 ± 0.121 Goldmanns for the I4e target, 1.174 ± 0.140 Goldmanns for I3e, 0.621 ± 0.131 Goldmanns for I2e, and 0.126 ± 0.057 Goldmanns for I1e. The total mean visual field volume in our study for the I target was 3.467 ± 0.371 Goldmanns.Conclusion: The volume of the island of vision may be used to quantify a visual field with a single value which contains information about both visual field extension and differential luminance sensitivity. This technique may be used to assess the progression or stability of visual field defects over time. A similar method may

  4. Three dimensional volume rendering virtual endoscopy of the ossicles using a multi-row detector CT: applications and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Choi, Sun Seob; Kang, Myung Jin; Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Ki Nam; Kang, Myung Koo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to know the applications and limitations of three dimensional volume rendering virtual endoscopy of the ossicles using a multi-row detector CT. This study examined 25 patients who underwent temporal bone CT using a 16-row detector CT as a result of hearing problems or trauma. The axial CT scan of the temporal bone was performed with a 0.6 mm collimation, and a reconstruction was carried out with a U70u sharp of kernel value, a 1 mm thickness and 0.5-1.0 mm increments. After observing the ossicles in the axial and coronal images, virtual endoscopy was performed using a three dimensional volume rendering technique with a threshold value of-500 HU. The intra-operative otoendoscopy was performed in 12 ears, and was compared with the virtual endoscopy findings. Virtual endoscopy of the 29 ears without hearing problems demonstrated hypoplastic or an incomplete depiction of the stapes superstructures in 25 ears and a normal depiction in 4 ears. Virtual endoscopy of 21 ears with hearing problems demonstrated no ossicles in 1 ears, no malleus in 3 ears, a malleoincudal subluxation in 6 ears, a dysplastic incus in 5 ears, an incudostapedial subluxation in 9 ears, dysplastic stapes in 2 ears, a hypoplastic or incomplete depiction of the stapes in 16 ears and no stapes in 1 ears. In contrast to the intra-operative otoendoscopy, 8 out of 12 ears showed a hypoplastic or deformed stapes in the virtual endoscopy. Volume rendering virtual endoscopy using a multi-row detector CT is an excellent method for evaluation the ossicles in three dimension, even thought the partial volume effect for the stapes superstructures needs to be considered

  5. Atrial function, atrial volume and cardiovascular clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease - A study of cardiac computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laust Dupont; Winther, Simon; Jørgensen, Hanne Skou

    2017-01-01

    and mortality data were extracted from the Western Denmark Heart Registry, a review of patient records and patient interviews. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics did not differ between LAEDV tertiles. LAEDV was positively associated with measures of LV function - both LVEDV (β = 0.36, p ... mass (β = 0.30, p positively and LAEF negatively associated with NT-PRO-BNP (LAEDV: β = 10.28, p patients died and 19 (16.2%) patients suffered......BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Previous studies using 2-dimensional echocardiography show that left atrial end-diastolic volume (LAEDV) predicts cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with CKD. However, contrast...

  6. Real-time bladder volume monitoring by the application of a new implantable bladder volume sensor for a small animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sup Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although real-time monitoring of bladder volume together with intravesical pressure can provide more information for understanding the functional changes of the urinary bladder, it still entails difficulties in the accurate prediction of real-time bladder volume in urodynamic studies with small animal models. We studied a new implantable bladder volume monitoring device with eight rats. During cystometry, microelectrodes prepared by the microelectromechanical systems process were placed symmetrically on both lateral walls of the bladder, and the expanded bladder volume was calculated. Immunohistological study was done after 1 week and after 4 weeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of the microelectrode. From the point that infused saline volume into the bladder was higher than 0.6 mL, estimated bladder volume was statistically correlated with the volume of saline injected (p<0.01. Additionally, the microelectromechanical system microelectrodes used in this study showed reliable biocompatibility. Therefore, the device can be used to evaluate changes in bladder volume in studies with small animals, and it may help to provide more information about functional changes in the bladder in laboratory studies. Furthermore, owing to its biocompatibility, the device could be chronically implanted in conscious ambulating animals, thus allowing a novel longitudinal study to be performed for a specific purpose.

  7. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehndiratta, Amit; Rabinov, James D.; Grasruck, Michael; Liao, Eric C.; Crandell, David; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm 3 . Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  8. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Amit [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Keble College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and All India Institute of Medical Science, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi (India); Rabinov, James D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Liao, Eric C. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Crandell, David [Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm{sup 3}. Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  9. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  10. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  11. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  12. Clinical application of three-dimensional spiral CT cerebral angiography with volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Shaoyin; Huang Xi'en; Kang Jianghe; Zhang Dantong; Lin Qingchi; Cai Guoxiang; Xu Meixin; Pang Ruilin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology and assess the clinical value of three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) with volume rendering (VR) in cerebral vessels. Methods: Sixty-two patients were examined by means of 3D-CTA with volume rendering. VR was used in the reconstruction of 3D images, and the demonstration of normal vessels and vascular lesions were particularly analyzed. At the same time, comparisons were made between the images of VR and SSD, MIP, and also between the diagnosis of VR-CTA and DSA or postoperative results. Results: In VR images, cerebral vessel routes and vessel cavities were showed clearly, while the relationship among vascular lesions, surrounding vessels, and neighboring structure was distinguished. 50 cases (80.6%) were found positive, 48 of which were correct and 2 were false-positive compared with DSA or postoperative results. The accurate rate of diagnosis was 96.0%. There was no obvious difference in showing the cerebral vessel among the images of VR, SSD and MIP (P > 0.25). Conclusion: Three-dimensional CT cerebral angiography with VR is a new noninvasive effective method. It can even partly replace the DSA. The 3D-images have the characteristics of showing the cerebral vascular cavity and overlapped vessels without cutting the skull

  13. Application of the Streamflow Prediction Tool to Estimate Sediment Dredging Volumes in Texas Coastal Waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, E.; Dreaper, G.; Afshari, S.; Tavakoly, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past six fiscal years, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has contracted an average of about a billion dollars per year for navigation channel dredging. To execute these funds effectively, USACE Districts must determine which navigation channels need to be dredged in a given year. Improving this prioritization process results in more efficient waterway maintenance. This study uses the Streamflow Prediction Tool, a runoff routing model based on global weather forecast ensembles, to estimate dredged volumes. This study establishes regional linear relationships between cumulative flow and dredged volumes over a long-term simulation covering 30 years (1985-2015), using drainage area and shoaling parameters. The study framework integrates the National Hydrography Dataset (NHDPlus Dataset) with parameters from the Corps Shoaling Analysis Tool (CSAT) and dredging record data from USACE District records. Results in the test cases of the Houston Ship Channel and the Sabine and Port Arthur Harbor waterways in Texas indicate positive correlation between the simulated streamflows and actual dredging records.

  14. Pin on flat wear volume prediction of UHMWPE against cp Ti for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoko, Suyitno, Dharmastiti, Rini; Magetsari, Rahadyan

    2018-04-01

    Tribological assessment of orthopedic biomaterials requires a lot of testing time. Researchers must test the biomaterials in millions of cycles at low frequency (1 Hz) to mimic the in vivo conditions. It is a problem because product designs and developments could not wait longer for wear data to predict the lifetime of their products. The problem can be solved with the use of computation techniques to model the wear phenomena and provide predicted data. The aim of this research is to predict the wear volume of the commonly used ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) in the unidirectional pin on flat tests. The 9 mm diameter UHMWPE pin and cp Ti plate contact mechanics were modeled using Abaqus. Contact pressure was set at 3 MPa. Outputs of the computations (contact pressure and contact area) were used to calculate the wear volume with Archard law. A custom Python script was made to automate the process. The results were then compared with experimental data for validations. The predicted data were in a good trend with numerical errors from 0.3% up to 26%.

  15. Transfer factor of "9"0Sr and "1"3"7Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (F_vs) of "1"3"7Cs and "9"0Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The F_vs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg"−"1). Significant difference of log-F_vs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, F_vs of "9"0Sr were higher than those of "1"3"7Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher F_vs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. F_vs of "9"0Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced F_vs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of F_vs for "1"3"7Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest F_vs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in F_v for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to "1"3"7Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. - Highlights: • Higher TFs for both radionuclides were observed for leafy plant in comparison to cereals. • Despite the growth stages & plants' variety, TFs of "9"0Sr were always higher than those of "1"3"7Cs. • TFs of "9"0Sr showed comparable trends in both crops and were higher at earlier growth stages. • Fluctuation noted in TFs for "1"3"7Cs in lettuce with higher TFs at second contamination-stage. • High TFs for "1"3"7Cs when contamination occurred at the latest growth stage of wheat vegetative.

  16. Brush Seals for Cryogenic Applications: Performance, Stage Effects, and Preliminary Wear Results in LN2 and LH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Walker, James F.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Hoopes, Joan F.; Williamson, G. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Brush seals are compliant contacting seals and have significantly lower leakage than labyrinth seals in gas turbine applications. Their long life and low leakage make them candidates for use in rocket engine turbopumps. Brush seals, 50.8 mm (2 in.) in diameter with a nominal 127-micron (0.005-in.) radial interference, were tested in liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) at shaft speeds up to 35,000 and 65,000 rpm, respectively, and at pressure drops up to 1.21 MPa (175 psid) per brush. A labyrinth seal was also tested in liquid nitrogen to provide a baseline. The LN2 leakage rate of a single brush seal with an initial radial shaft interference of 127 micron (0.005 in.) measured one-half to one-third the leakage rate of a 12-tooth labyrinth seal with a radial clearance of 127 micron (0.005 in.). Two brushes spaced 7.21 micron (0.248 in.) apart leaked about one-half as much as a single brush, and two brushes tightly packed together leaked about three-fourths as much as a single brush. The maximum measured groove depth on the Inconel 718 rotor with a surface finish of 0.81 micron (32 microinch) was 25 micron (0.0010 in.) after 4.3 hr of shaft rotation in liquid nitrogen. The Haynes-25 bristles wore approximately 25 to 76 micron (0.001 to 0.003 in.) under the same conditions. Wear results in liquid hydrogen were significantly different. In liquid hydrogen the rotor did not wear, but the bristle material transferred onto the rotor and the initial 127 micron (0.005 in.) radial interference was consumed. Relatively high leakage rates were measured in liquid hydrogen. More testing is required to verify the leakage performance, to validate and calibrate analysis techniques, and to determine the wear mechanisms. Performance, staging effects, and preliminary wear results are presented.

  17. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  18. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  19. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  20. Volume-heated boiling pool behavior and application to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in volume-heated boiling pools are reported. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements are presented. Flow regime transition criterial derived from the measurements are discussed. The churn-turbulent flow regime was the dominant regime for superficial vapor velocity. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. The results of the experiment and analysis are extrapolated to transition phase conditions. It is shown that intense pool boil-up could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be greater than 0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels greater than one percent of nominal LMFBR power density. (author)

  1. Volume-heated boiling pool flow behavior and application to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in volume-heated boiling pools are reported. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements are presented. Flow regime transition criteria derived from the measurements are discussed. The churn-turbulent flow regime was the dominant regime for superficial vapor velocities up to nearly five times the Kutateladze dispersal velocity. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. The results of the experiment and analyses are extrapolated to transition phase conditions. It is shown that intense pool boil-up could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be greater than 0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels greater than one percent of nominal LMFBR power density

  2. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  3. Application of volume of fluid method for simulation of a droplet impacting a fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, impact of a Newtonian drop on horizontal thin fibers with circular cross section is simulated in 2D views. The numerical simulations of the phenomena are carried out using volume of fluid (VOF method for tracking the free surface motion. Impacting of a Newtonian droplet on a circular thin fiber (350μm radius investigated numerically. The main focus of this simulation is to acquire threshold radius and velocity of a drop which is entirely captured by the fiber. The model agrees well with the experiments and demonstrates the threshold radius decreased generally with the increase of impact velocity. In other words, for velocity larger than threshold velocity of capture perhaps only a small portion of fluid is stuck on the solid and the rest of the drop is ejected for impact velocity smaller than critical velocity the drop is totally captured. This threshold velocity has been determined when the impact is centered.

  4. Industrial applications study. Volume V. Bibliography of relevant literature. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1976-12-01

    This five-volume report represents an initial Phase O evaluation of waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector. The scope of this initial phase was limited to the two-digit SIC level and addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, a successful methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment are established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. The first section of the bibliography lists extensive citations for all industries. The next section is composed of an extensive literature search with abstracts for industrial energy conservation. EPA publications on specific industries and general references conclude the publication. (MCW)

  5. Multiagent Systems and Applications Volume 2 Development Using the GORITE BDI Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Dennis; Ronnquist, Ralph; Jain, Lakhmi C

    2013-01-01

    Since its conception almost 30 years ago, the BDI (Belief Desire Intention) model of agency has become established, along with Soar, as the approach of choice for practitioners in the development of knowledge intensive agent applications. However, in developing BDI agent applications for over 15 years, the authors of this book have observed a disconnect between what the BDI model provides and what is actually required of an agent model in order to build practical systems. The GORITE BDI framework was  developed to address this gap and this book is written for students, researchers and practitioners who wish to gain a practical understanding of how GORITE is used to develop BDI agent applications. In this regard, a feature of the book is the use of complete, annotated examples. As GORITE is a Java framework,  a familiarity with Java (or a similar language) is assumed, but no prior knowledge of the BDI model is required.

  6. Microinvasion of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: predictive factors and application for determining clinical target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yang; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Ji, Yuan; Xiao, Yin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the microscopic characteristics of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (LMCRC) invasion and provides a reference for expansion from gross tumor volume (GTV) to clinical targeting volume (CTV). Data from 129 LMCRC patients treated by surgical resection at our hospital between January 2008 and September 2009 were collected for study. Tissue sections used for pathology and clinical data were reviewed. Patient information used for the study included gender, age, original tumor site, number of tumors, tumor size, levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, and whether patients received chemotherapy. The distance of liver microinvasion from the tumor boundary was measured microscopically by two senior pathologists. Of 129 patients evaluated, 81 (62.8 %) presented microinvasion distances from the tumor boundary ranging between 1.0 − 7.0 mm. A GTV-to-CTV expansion of 5, 6.7, or 7.0 mm was required to provide a 95, 99, or 100 % probability, respectively, of obtaining clear resection margins by microscopic observation. The extent of invasion was not related to gender, age, synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, tumor size, CA199 level, or chemotherapy. The extent of invasion was related to original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. A scoring system was established based on the latter three positive predictors. Using this system, an invasion distance less than 3 mm was measured in 93.4 % of patients with a score of ≤1 point, but in only 85.7 % of patients with a score of ≤2 points. The extent of tumor invasion in our LMCRC patient cohort correlated with original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. These positive predictors may potentially be used as a scoring system for determining GTV-to-CTV expansion

  7. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Luleaa, Sweden. Basic rock mechanics investigations of interest involving improving the support characteristics of backfilling by adding cement, compacting, and water removal have been entered individually into EDB. The papers also cover measurements of the support capability of such fills and the application of deformation measurements and calculations using finite element computer codes to the mining of particular ore bodies, including changes in the calculations as the mining progressed. (LTN)

  8. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.

  9. The Art and Science of Psychological Operations: Case Studies of Military Application. Volume One

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    and of the Royal Ballet against the background of the Pyramids of Giza during the city of Cairo’s millenary celebrations in 1969, accounted for only 8...Research Associate, Department of Psy- Mary chology, Swarthmore College. GESSNER, Free-lance film editor and camera as- Peter sistant. GIZA ...Army, by Richard H. Giza --------- 1100 East Asia ---------------------------------------------- 1105 Political Warfare-Qualified Application, by

  10. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 2. Probability and statistics for PRA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Prairie, R.R.; Cramond, W.R.

    1985-08-01

    This course is intended to provide the necessary probabilistic and statistical skills to perform a PRA. Fundamental background information is reviewed, but the principal purpose is to address specific techniques used in PRAs and to illustrate them with applications. Specific examples and problems are presented for most of the topics

  12. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals

  13. Iso-Surface Volume Rendering : speed and accuracy for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Marco

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the research on the accuracy and speed of different methods for the visualization of three-dimensional (3D)sets of (measured) data. In medical environments, these 3D datasets are generated by for instance CT and MRI scanners. The medical application makes special demands on the

  14. The Applicability of the International Staging System in Chinese Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Bortezomib or Thalidomide-Based Regimens as Induction Therapy: A Multicenter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Staging System (ISS is the most important prognostic system for multiple myeloma (MM. It was identified in the era of conventional agents. The outcome of MM has significantly changed by novel agents. Thus the applicability of ISS system in the era of novel agents in Chinese patients needs to be demonstrated. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes and prognostic significance of ISS system in 1016 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in Chinese patients between 2008 and 2012, who received bortezomib- or thalidomide-based regimens as first-line therapy. The median overall survival (OS of patients for ISS stages I/II/III was not reached/55.4 months/41.7 months (p<0.001, and the median progression-free survival (PFS was 30/29.5/25 months (p=0.072, respectively. Statistically significant difference in survival was confirmed among three ISS stages in thalidomide-based group, but not between ISS stages I and II in bortezomib-based group. These findings suggest that ISS system can predict the survival in the era of novel agents in Chinese MM patients, and bortezomib may have the potential to partially overcome adverse effect of risk factors on survival, especially in higher stage of ISS system.

  15. A Formal Approach to Exploiting Multi-Stage Attacks based on File-System Vulnerabilities of Web Applications (Extended Version)

    OpenAIRE

    De Meo, Federico; Viganò, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Web applications require access to the file-system for many different tasks. When analyzing the security of a web application, secu- rity analysts should thus consider the impact that file-system operations have on the security of the whole application. Moreover, the analysis should take into consideration how file-system vulnerabilities might in- teract with other vulnerabilities leading an attacker to breach into the web application. In this paper, we first propose a classification of file-...

  16. Two-stage decompositions for the analysis of functional connectivity for fMRI with application to Alzheimer’s disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Caffo, Brian S.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Verduzco, Guillermo; Joel, Suresh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Bassett, Susan Spear; Pekar, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Functional connectivity is the study of correlations in measured neurophysiological signals. Altered functional connectivity has been shown to be associated with a variety of cognitive and memory impairments and dysfunction, including Alzheimer’s disease. In this manuscript we use a two-stage application of the singular value decomposition to obtain data driven population-level measures of functional connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The method is computationally s...

  17. Application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-15

    The conference on application of rock mechanics to cut-and-fill mining was held June 1-3, 1980, at the University of Luleaa, Sweden. The conference began with reviews of the application of rock mechanics to mining and back filling in Australia, Canada and the USA. More particular papers involved mines in Sweden, Italy, Australia (pre reinforcement of walls with steel cables cemented in) and at the Con Mine in Canada. Two papers involved backfill material and specifications. Eight papers involved the use of the mathematical models for calculating the stresses developed in the rock mass by computer calculations and therefore, the probable stability. Such calculations are particularly necessary in deep mines. Papers of general interest were entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

  18. Solar thermal power systems point-focusing thermal and electric applications projects. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A.

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Point-Focusing Thermal and Electric Applications (PETEA) project for the fiscal year 1979 are summarized. The main thrust of the PFTEA Project, the small community solar thermal power experiment, was completed. Concept definition studies included a small central receiver approach, a point-focusing distributed receiver system with central power generation, and a point-focusing distributed receiver concept with distributed power generation. The first experiment in the Isolated Application Series was initiated. Planning for the third engineering experiment series, which addresses the industrial market sector, was also initiated. In addition to the experiment-related activities, several contracts to industry were let and studies were conducted to explore the market potential for point-focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. System analysis studies were completed that looked at PFDR technology relative to other small power system technology candidates for the utility market sector.

  19. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  20. Application of advanced diffraction based optical metrology overlay capabilities for high-volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Ni, Wei-Feng; Chuang, S. M.; Chuang, T. K.; Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jacky; Rao, Shiuan-An; Cumurcu Gysen, Aysegul; d'Alfonso, Maxime; Yueh, Jenny; Izikson, Pavel; Soco, Aileen; Wu, Jon; Nooitgedagt, Tjitte; Ottens, Jeroen; Kim, Yong Ho; Ebert, Martin

    2017-03-01

    On-product overlay requirements are becoming more challenging with every next technology node due to the continued decrease of the device dimensions and process tolerances. Therefore, current and future technology nodes require demanding metrology capabilities such as target designs that are robust towards process variations and high overlay measurement density (e.g. for higher order process corrections) to enable advanced process control solutions. The impact of advanced control solutions based on YieldStar overlay data is being presented in this paper. Multi patterning techniques are applied for critical layers and leading to additional overlay measurement demands. The use of 1D process steps results in the need of overlay measurements relative to more than one layer. Dealing with the increased number of overlay measurements while keeping the high measurement density and metrology accuracy at the same time presents a challenge for high volume manufacturing (HVM). These challenges are addressed by the capability to measure multi-layer targets with the recently introduced YieldStar metrology tool, YS350. On-product overlay results of such multi-layers and standard targets are presented including measurement stability performance.

  1. Remote spectral measurements of the blood volume pulse with applications for imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.; McDuff, Daniel J.

    2018-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography uses camera image sensors to measure variations in light absorption related to the delivery of the blood volume pulse to peripheral tissues. The characteristics of the measured BVP waveform depends on the spectral absorption of various tissue components including melanin, hemoglobin, water, and yellow pigments. Signal quality and artifact rejection can be enhanced by taking into account the spectral properties of the BVP waveform and surrounding tissue. The current literature regarding the spectral relationships of remote PPG is limited. To supplement this fundamental data, we present an analysis of remotely-measured, visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to better understand the spectral signature of remotely measured BVP signals. To do so, spectra were measured from the right cheek of 25, stationary participants whose heads were stabilized by a chinrest. A collimating lens was used to collect reflected light from a region of 3 cm in diameter. The spectrometer provided 3 nm resolution measurements from 500-1000 nm. Measurements were acquired at a rate of 50 complete spectra per second for a period of five minutes. Reference physiology, including electrocardiography was simultaneously and synchronously acquired. The spectral data were analyzed to determine the relationship between light wavelength and the resulting remote-BVP signal-to-noise ratio and to identify those bands best suited for pulse rate measurement. To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive dataset of remotely-measured spectral iPPG data. In due course, we plan to release this dataset for research purposes.

  2. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  3. Development and Application of a Low-Volume Flow System for Solution-State in Vivo NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei Anaraki, Maryam; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Wagner, Nicole; Soong, Ronald; Kovacevic, Vera; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Ortiz Almirall, Xavier; Lane, Daniel; Simpson, Myrna J; Heumann, Hermann; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simpson, André J

    2018-06-18

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a particularly powerful technique, since it allows samples to be analyzed in their natural, unaltered state, criteria paramount for living organisms. In this study, a novel continuous low-volume flow system, suitable for in vivo NMR metabolomics studies, is demonstrated. The system allows improved locking, shimming, and water suppression, as well as allowing the use of trace amounts of expensive toxic contaminants or low volumes of precious natural environmental samples as stressors. The use of a double pump design with a sump slurry pump return allows algal food suspensions to be continually supplied without the need for filters, eliminating the possibility of clogging and leaks. Using the flow system, the living organism can be kept alive without stress indefinitely. To evaluate the feasibility and applicability of the flow system, changes in the metabolite profile of 13 C enriched Daphnia magna over a 24-h period are compared when feeding laboratory food vs exposing them to a natural algal bloom sample. Clear metabolic changes are observed over a range of metabolites including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and a nucleotide demonstrating in vivo NMR as a powerful tool to monitor environmental stress. The particular bloom used here was low in microcystins, and the metabolic stress impacts are consistent with the bloom being a poor food source forcing the Daphnia to utilize their own energy reserves.

  4. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  5. Efficiency and productivity (TFP) of the Turkish electricity distribution companies: An application of two-stage (DEA and Tobit) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelen, Aydın

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the efficiency performances of 21 Turkish electricity distribution companies during the period of 2002–2009. For this aim, we employ a two-stage analysis in order to take into account the business environment variables which are beyond the control of distribution companies. We determine the efficiency performances of the electricity distribution companies by help of DEA in the first stage. Then, in the second stage, using these calculated efficiency scores as dependent variable, we utilize Tobit model to determine the business environment variables which may explain the efficiency scores. According to the results, customer density of the region and the private ownership affect the efficiencies positively. Thus, the best strategy to improve efficiency in the market is privatizing the public distribution companies. - Highlights: • We analyze the efficiencies of 21 Turkish electricity distribution companies. • A two-stage analysis is employed to take into account environmental variables. • We firstly calculate efficiencies of companies with DEA, then Tobit model is used to determine the effects of the variables. • Customer density and ownership type affect the efficiencies positively. • Privatization is a good strategy to improve efficiencies

  6. Successful introduction of Model for End-stage Liver Disease scoring in deceased donor liver transplantation in Korea: analysis of first 1 year experience at a high-volume transplantation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Soo-Min; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Namgung, Jungman; Kang, Woo-Hyoung; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jwa, Eunkyoung; Kwon, Jae-Hyeon; Cho, Hui-Dong; Jung, Yong-Kyu; Kang, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-11-01

    Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was adopted in June 2016 in Korea. We analyzed changes in volumes and outcomes of deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for 1 year before and after introduction of MELD scoring at Asan Medical Center. There were 64 cases of DDLT in 1 year before MELD introduction and 106 in 1 year after MELD introduction, an increase of 65%. The volume of DDLTs abruptly increased during first 3 months, but then returned to its usual level before MELD introduction, which indicated 3-month depletion of accumulated recipient pool with high MELD scores. The number of pediatric DDLT cases increased from 3 before MELD introduction to 11 after it, making up 21.4% and 47.8% of all cases of pediatric liver transplantation, respectively. The number of cases of retransplanted DDLTs increased from 4 to 27, representing 6.3% and 25.5% of all DDLT cases, respectively. The number of status 1 DDLT cases increased from 5 to 12, being 7.8% and 11.3% of all cases. Patient survival outcomes were similar before and after MELD introduction. The number of DDLTs temporarily increased after adoption of MELD scoring due to accumulated recipient pool with high MELD scores. The numbers of retransplanted and pediatric DDLT cases significantly increased. Patient survival in adult and pediatric DDLT was comparable before and after adoption of MELD scoring. These results imply that Korean MELD score-based allocation system was successfully established within its first year.

  7. Preoperative selective desensitization of live donor liver transplant recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease score, and graft liver volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Geun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Suk-won; Yoo, Tae; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Min-Su; Choi, YoungRok; Lee, Kyungbun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Park, Myoung Hee; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have suggested that a positive lymphocyte cross-matching (XM) is associated with low graft survival rates and a high prevalence of acute rejection after adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs) using a small-for-size graft. However, there is still no consensus on preoperative desensitization. We adopted the desensitization protocol from ABO-incompatible LDLT. We performed desensitization for the selected patients according to the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and graft liver volume. We retrospectively evaluated 230 consecutive ALDLT recipients for 5 yr. Eleven recipients (4.8%) showed a positive XM. Among them, five patients with the high titer (> 1:16) by antihuman globulin-augmented method (T-AHG) and one with a low titer but a high MELD score of 36 were selected for desensitization: rituximab injection and plasmapheresis before the transplantation. There were no major side effects of desensitization. Four of the patients showed successful depletion of the T-AHG titer. There was no mortality and hyperacute rejection in lymphocyte XM-positive patients, showing no significant difference in survival outcome between two groups (P=1.000). In conclusion, this desensitization protocol for the selected recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, MELD score, and graft liver volume is feasible and safe.

  8. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  9. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-15

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  10. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2017-01-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  11. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung-Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2018-03-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL -1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Application of an Open-Source 3D Volume Rendering Software to Neurosurgical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Oliveira Santos, Bruno; Silva da Costa, Marcos Devanir; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Antônio de Paiva Neto, Manoel; Lawton, Michael T; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2018-02-01

    Preoperative recognition of the anatomic individualities of each patient can help to achieve more precise and less invasive approaches. It also may help to anticipate potential complications and intraoperative difficulties. Here we describe the use, accuracy, and precision of a free tool for planning microsurgical approaches using 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used the 3D volume rendering tool of a free open-source software program for 3D reconstruction of images of surgical sites obtained by MRI volumetric acquisition. We recorded anatomic reference points, such as the sulcus and gyrus, and vascularization patterns for intraoperative localization of lesions. Lesion locations were confirmed during surgery by intraoperative ultrasound and/or electrocorticography and later by postoperative MRI. Between August 2015 and September 2016, a total of 23 surgeries were performed using this technique for 9 low-grade gliomas, 7 high-grade gliomas, 4 cortical dysplasias, and 3 arteriovenous malformations. The technique helped delineate lesions with an overall accuracy of 2.6 ± 1.0 mm. 3D reconstructions were successfully performed in all patients, and images showed sulcus, gyrus, and venous patterns corresponding to the intraoperative images. All lesion areas were confirmed both intraoperatively and at the postoperative evaluation. With the technique described herein, it was possible to successfully perform 3D reconstruction of the cortical surface. This reconstruction tool may serve as an adjunct to neuronavigation systems or may be used alone when such a system is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  14. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  15. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  16. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  17. Phase 3 study of selected tether applications in space. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering designs were developed relative to a tethered launch assist from the Shuttle for payloads up to 10,000 kg mass and the tethering of a 15,000 kg science platform from the space station. These designs are used for a cost benefit analysis which assesses the feasibility of using such systems as a practical alternative to what would otherwise be accomplished by conventional means. The term conventional as related to both these applications is intended to apply to the use of some form(s) of chemical propulsion system.

  18. Optimal nutrient application strategy for bioremediation of oil-polluted beaches. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Zhao, Q.; Boufadel, M.C.; Venosa, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore oil spills in coastal areas generally occur in the intertidal zone of beaches and affect the top 25 cm of soil, known as the bioremediation zone. Biostimulation by nutrient application such as nitrogen and phosphorus is a viable technology for restoring oil-contaminated beaches. The key for achieving a rapid cost-effective cleanup is to ensure maximum nutrient residence time. This study proposed a strategy that consisted of injecting nutrients through a perforated pipe at the high tide line. Beach hydraulics were numerically simulated to estimate the optimal injection flow rate of nutrient solution. It was shown that the optimal application should begin following high tide just as it drops and should last for half a tidal cycle. The flow rate ensures that the saturated wet-front of the nutrient solution on the beach surface moves seaward with the same speed of the falling tide keeping a constant distance with the tide line. The numerical results were generalized to a broad range of hydraulic and tidal properties of beaches using an innovative dimensionless formulation for water flow and solute transport in porous media. Nomographs were presented to provide the flow rate based on 4 parameters, notably the beach slope, permeability, tidal amplitude and tidal period. 29 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  19. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II. [800 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references. (JRD)

  20. Patterns of Primary Tumor Invasion and Regional Lymph Node Spread Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early-Stage Nasal NK/T-cell Lymphoma: Implications for Clinical Target Volume Definition and Prognostic Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Run-Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Song, Yong-Wen; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Bo; Qi, Shu-Nan; Lu, Ning-Ning; Tang, Yu; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. Methods and Materials: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The incidences of PTI and regional LN involvement were 64.7% and 25.7%, respectively. Based on the incidence of PTI, involved sites surrounding the nasal cavity were classified into 3 risk subgroups: high-risk (>20%), intermediate-risk (5%-20%), and low-risk (<5%). The most frequently involved site was the nasopharynx (35.2%), followed by the maxillary (21.9%) and ethmoid (21.9%) sinuses. Local disease and regional LN spread followed an orderly pattern without LN skipping. The retropharyngeal nodes (RPNs) were most frequently involved (19.0%), followed by level II (11.4%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates for all patients were 72.8%, 65.2%, and 90.0%, respectively. The presence of PTI and regional LN involvement based on MRI significantly and negatively affected PFS and OS. Conclusions: Early-stage nasal NKTCL presents with a high incidence of PTI but a relatively low incidence of regional LN spread. Locoregional spread followed an orderly pattern, and PTI and regional LN spread are powerful prognostic factors for poorer survival outcomes. CTV reduction may be feasible for selected patients.

  1. Selection methodology for LWR safety programs and proposals. Volume 2. Methodology application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzman, R.L.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    The results of work done to update and apply a methodology for selecting (prioritizing) LWR safety technology R and D programs are described. The methodology is based on multiattribute utility (MAU) theory. Application of the methodology to rank-order a group of specific R and D programs included development of a complete set of attribute utility functions, specification of individual attribute scaling constants, and refinement and use of an interactive computer program (MAUP) to process decision-maker inputs and generate overall (multiattribute) program utility values. The output results from several decision-makers are examined for consistency and conclusions and recommendations regarding general use of the methodology are presented. 3 figures, 18 tables

  2. Study of application of adaptive systems to the exploration of the solar system. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence to identify practical applications to unmanned spacecraft used to explore the solar system in the decade of the 80s is examined. If an unmanned spacecraft can be made to adjust or adapt to the environment, to make decisions about what it measures and how it uses and reports the data, it can become a much more powerful tool for the science community in unlocking the secrets of the solar system. Within this definition of an adaptive spacecraft or system, there is a broad range of variability. In terms of sophistication, an adaptive system can be extremely simple or as complex as a chess-playing machine that learns from its mistakes.

  3. Game method application efficiency for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia Deineko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the effectiveness of using the game method for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage. Material & Methods: in the article the materials of the research that was carried out with the help of pedagogical testing of trampoliners of 7–8 years on the basis of the Children and Youth Sports School No. 7, Trampoline Department of Kharkov. Results: conducted pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of the developed methodology for the development of speed-strength abilities of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage using the game method. Conclusion: results of the experiment confirm the importance of the use of the game method for the development of speed-strength abilities in the initial training of young trampolines, which further affects the level of their technical preparedness and the effectiveness of competition activities.

  4. Designing a Multistage Supply Chain in Cross-Stage Reverse Logistics Environments: Application of Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-An Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study designed a cross-stage reverse logistics course for defective products so that damaged products generated in downstream partners can be directly returned to upstream partners throughout the stages of a supply chain for rework and maintenance. To solve this reverse supply chain design problem, an optimal cross-stage reverse logistics mathematical model was developed. In addition, we developed a genetic algorithm (GA and three particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithms: the inertia weight method (PSOA_IWM, VMax method (PSOA_VMM, and constriction factor method (PSOA_CFM, which we employed to find solutions to support this mathematical model. Finally, a real case and five simulative cases with different scopes were used to compare the execution times, convergence times, and objective function values of the four algorithms used to validate the model proposed in this study. Regarding system execution time, the GA consumed more time than the other three PSOs did. Regarding objective function value, the GA, PSOA_IWM, and PSOA_CFM could obtain a lower convergence value than PSOA_VMM could. Finally, PSOA_IWM demonstrated a faster convergence speed than PSOA_VMM, PSOA_CFM, and the GA did.

  5. Designing a multistage supply chain in cross-stage reverse logistics environments: application of particle swarm optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tzu-An; Che, Z H; Cui, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This study designed a cross-stage reverse logistics course for defective products so that damaged products generated in downstream partners can be directly returned to upstream partners throughout the stages of a supply chain for rework and maintenance. To solve this reverse supply chain design problem, an optimal cross-stage reverse logistics mathematical model was developed. In addition, we developed a genetic algorithm (GA) and three particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms: the inertia weight method (PSOA_IWM), V(Max) method (PSOA_VMM), and constriction factor method (PSOA_CFM), which we employed to find solutions to support this mathematical model. Finally, a real case and five simulative cases with different scopes were used to compare the execution times, convergence times, and objective function values of the four algorithms used to validate the model proposed in this study. Regarding system execution time, the GA consumed more time than the other three PSOs did. Regarding objective function value, the GA, PSOA_IWM, and PSOA_CFM could obtain a lower convergence value than PSOA_VMM could. Finally, PSOA_IWM demonstrated a faster convergence speed than PSOA_VMM, PSOA_CFM, and the GA did.

  6. [Application of central lymph node dissection to surgical operation for clinical stage n0 papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Shi, Jun-Yi; Sheng, Yuan; Ll, Li

    2008-03-01

    The treatment for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) without cervical lymph node metastasis (cN0) is controversial. This study was to explore a suitable method to dissect cervical lymph nodes for stage cN0 PTC patients. Eighty-four stage cN0 PTC patients, diagnosed by B ultrasound or cervical MRI from 2005--2006, were randomly divided into two groups. Thyroidectomy and ipsilateral central lymph node dissection were performed in Group A, while only thyroidectomy was performed in Group B. Each group contained 42 patients. Both groups took thyroxin tablets after operation. An average of 3 lymph nodes were found in each case of Group A, and the lymph node metastasis rate was 47.62%. The occurrence rates of complications were not significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). Thyroidectomy plus ipsilateral central lymph node dissection is recommended for the treatment of stage cN0 PTC. It can also avoid damage of recurrent laryngeal nerve in re-dissection.

  7. A two-stage approach for multi-objective decision making with applications to system reliability optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaojun; Liao Haitao; Coit, David W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a two-stage approach for solving multi-objective system reliability optimization problems. In this approach, a Pareto optimal solution set is initially identified at the first stage by applying a multiple objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA). Quite often there are a large number of Pareto optimal solutions, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to effectively choose the representative solutions for the overall problem. To overcome this challenge, an integrated multiple objective selection optimization (MOSO) method is utilized at the second stage. Specifically, a self-organizing map (SOM), with the capability of preserving the topology of the data, is applied first to classify those Pareto optimal solutions into several clusters with similar properties. Then, within each cluster, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) is performed, by comparing the relative efficiency of those solutions, to determine the final representative solutions for the overall problem. Through this sequential solution identification and pruning process, the final recommended solutions to the multi-objective system reliability optimization problem can be easily determined in a more systematic and meaningful way.

  8. Designing a Multistage Supply Chain in Cross-Stage Reverse Logistics Environments: Application of Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tzu-An; Che, Z. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study designed a cross-stage reverse logistics course for defective products so that damaged products generated in downstream partners can be directly returned to upstream partners throughout the stages of a supply chain for rework and maintenance. To solve this reverse supply chain design problem, an optimal cross-stage reverse logistics mathematical model was developed. In addition, we developed a genetic algorithm (GA) and three particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms: the inertia weight method (PSOA_IWM), V Max method (PSOA_VMM), and constriction factor method (PSOA_CFM), which we employed to find solutions to support this mathematical model. Finally, a real case and five simulative cases with different scopes were used to compare the execution times, convergence times, and objective function values of the four algorithms used to validate the model proposed in this study. Regarding system execution time, the GA consumed more time than the other three PSOs did. Regarding objective function value, the GA, PSOA_IWM, and PSOA_CFM could obtain a lower convergence value than PSOA_VMM could. Finally, PSOA_IWM demonstrated a faster convergence speed than PSOA_VMM, PSOA_CFM, and the GA did. PMID:24772026

  9. Assessment of human sinus cavity air volume using tunable diode laser spectroscopy, with application to sinusitis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution (EASIE), version 1.0. Volume 2: Program integration guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Randall, Donald P.; Stallcup, Scott S.; Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environment for Application Software Integration and Execution, EASIE, provides a methodology and a set of software utility programs to ease the task of coordinating engineering design and analysis codes. EASIE was designed to meet the needs of conceptual design engineers that face the task of integrating many stand-alone engineering analysis programs. Using EASIE, programs are integrated through a relational data base management system. In volume 2, the use of a SYSTEM LIBRARY PROCESSOR is used to construct a DATA DICTIONARY describing all relations defined in the data base, and a TEMPLATE LIBRARY. A TEMPLATE is a description of all subsets of relations (including conditional selection criteria and sorting specifications) to be accessed as input or output for a given application. Together, these form the SYSTEM LIBRARY which is used to automatically produce the data base schema, FORTRAN subroutines to retrieve/store data from/to the data base, and instructions to a generic REVIEWER program providing review/modification of data for a given template. Automation of these functions eliminates much of the tedious, error prone work required by the usual approach to data base integration.

  11. Applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to radionuclide determinations: Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W.; Crain, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Even from its early conception, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was thought to be well-suited to the unique measurement problems facing the nuclear industry. These thoughts were well-founded; indeed, one might consider it unusual if a modern nuclear research center did not have access to one or more ICP mass spectrometers (quadrupole or otherwise). However, as ICP-MS has matured, improvements in sensitivity and precision have made possible measurements that were inconceivable to the founding fathers of the technology. Therefore, there is a periodic need to gather information and obtain a snapshot in time of the technology and its applications in nuclear energy. This second symposium was an international event in which speakers from the US, Europe, and the Middle East described new developments in ICP-MS relevant to the nuclear energy community. The papers presented at the 1998 symposium are published herein. Several papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  12. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    Application of venture analysis would, at a minimum, need to address issues involving careful definition of the product/service being considered; market needs that the product will satisfy; investment/manufacturing costs; minimum selling price needed to achieve desired ROI or other financial measure; market potential at relevant prices; potential for competitors to obsolete the product before investment is recovered; assessment of companies' resources and capabilities to supply the product. There is clearly no single method for performing every venture analysis, because the economic and structural environment associated with each industry varies widely. These and other factors produce differences in cost structure, marketing organizations, and nature of products which dictate that an appropriate method of venture analysis must be tailored to each industry. The initial chapter of the report presents some brief remarks concerning the important concepts that all venture analyses must consider and then describes in detail the method used for the venture analyzed in this report. The case study addresses IEUS for commercialization. The type of IEUS investigated supplies electricity and thermal energy; the thermal energy distributed in the form of high-temperature water, i.e., water from at least 90/sup 0/C upwards to 200/sup 0/C. (MCW)

  13. Effect of Irrigation CutOff on Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Various Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plants play major roles in human health. . Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of the total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. It was demonstrated that the peak of the disease incidence is occurring at the flowering stage and irrigation cutoff at this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effects of irrigation cutoff in flowering stage and foliar application of spermidine on some characteristics of various ecotype of cumin, an experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation in two levels (complete irrigation and cutoff the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine in three levels (0, 1 and 2 Mm as a subplot and cumin ecotypes in three levels (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. Plots size under the trial was 4 m × 3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation was applied every 10 days. Foliar application of spermidine was done at three stages (after thinning, before flowering stage and in the middle of flowering stage. No herbicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the expriments. Results and discussion: In this study the number of branches, umbels per plant, 1000-seed weight, seed yield per plant and hectare, harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield, infected

  14. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  15. Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Park, Young Joo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Hong Koo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The renal cortical volume of tumor-bearing and contralateral kidneys was measured using ImageJ software. Split estimated glomerular filtration rate and split renal volume calculated using this renal cortical volume were compared with the split renal function measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. A strong correlation between split renal function and split renal volume of the tumor-bearing kidney was observed before and after surgery (r = 0.89, P volumetry had a strong correlation with the split renal function measured using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Computed tomography-based split renal volume measurement before and after partial nephrectomy can be used as a single modality for anatomical and functional assessment of the tumor-bearing kidney. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Applicability of the BCLC staging system to patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea: analysis at a single center with a liver transplant center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Han Chu; Kim, Kang Mo; Lim, Young-Suk; Chung, Young-Hwa; Lee, Yung Sang; Suh, Dong Jin

    2011-06-01

    The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is logical for the staging and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because it was based on survival data. This study evaluated the applicability of the BCLC staging system and reasons for divergence from BCLC-recommended treatments in Korean HCC patients. One hundred and sixty consecutive HCC patients were prospectively enrolled. Treatments were generally recommended according to the guideline of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, but patients were also informed about alternative treatments. The final decision was made with patient agreement, and was based on the doctor's preferences when a patient was unable to reach a decision. There were 2 (1%), 101 (64%), 20 (12.5%), 34 (21.5%), and 3 (1%) patients with very early-, early-, intermediate-, advanced-, and terminal-stage disease, respectively. Only 64 patients (40%) were treated according to BCLC recommendations. The treatment deviated from BCLC recommendations in 68% (69/101) and 79% (27/34) of patients with early and advanced stage, respectively. The main causes of deviation were refusal to undergo surgery, the presence of an indeterminate malignancy nodule, the absence of a suitable donor, or financial problems. Donor shortage, financial problems, the relatively limited efficacy of molecular targeting agents, and the presence of an indeterminate nodule were the main causes of deviation from BCLC recommendations. Even after excluding cases in which decisions were made by patient preference, only 66% of the HCC patients were treated according to BCLC recommendations. Treatment guidelines that reflect the Korean situation are mandatory for HCC patients.

  17. Raman Spectral Characteristics of Oil-Paper Insulation and Its Application to Ageing Stage Assessment of Oil-Immersed Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Zou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aging of oil-paper insulation in power transformers may cause serious power failures. Thus, effective monitoring of the condition of the transformer insulation is the key to prevent major accidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of confocal laser Raman spectroscopy (CLRS for assessing the aging condition of oil-paper insulation. Oil-paper insulation samples were subjected to thermal accelerated ageing at 120 °C for up to 160 days according to the procedure described in the IEEE Guide. Meanwhile, the dimension of the Raman spectrum of the insulation oil was reduced by principal component analysis (PCA. The 160 oil-paper insulation samples were divided into five aging stages as training samples by clustering analysis and with the use of the degree of polymerization of the insulating papers. In addition, the features of the Raman spectrum were used as the inputs of a multi-classification support vector machine. Finally, 105 oil-paper insulation testing samples aged at a temperature of 130 °C were used to further test the diagnostic capability and universality of the established algorithm. Results demonstrated that CLRS in conjunction with the PCA-SVM technique provides a new way for aging stage assessment of oil-paper insulation equipment in the field.

  18. Quality of Life in Women with Stage 1 Stress Urinary Incontinence after Application of Conservative Treatment—A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ptak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress urinary incontinence (SUI influences quality of life in female patients. In this study, we used ICIQ LUTS QoL (The International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms quality of life to determine the quality of life (QoL in various domains in patients with stage 1 SUI. The study included 140 perimenopausal women subjected to urodynamic tests at the Department of Gynaecology, Endocrinology and Gynaecologic Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, Police (Poland in 2013–2015. The study subjects were divided into two groups, A and B. Each patient completed two questionnaires, an original survey developed by the authors and the validated ICIQ LUTS QoL. Two exercise programs, each lasting for 3 months and consisting of 4 weekly sessions, were recommended to the study subjects. The program for Group A included exercises for pelvic floor muscles (PFM with simultaneous tension of the transverse abdominal muscle (TrA, and the program for Group B, PFM exercises without TrA tension. After completing the exercise programs, patients with stage 1 SUI, both from Group A and from Group B, showed a significant improvement in most QoL domains measured with ICIQ LUTS QoL. However, more beneficial effects of the training were observed in the group subjected to PFM exercises with TrA tension.

  19. Demonstration project as a procedure for accelerating the application of new technology (Charpie Task Force report). Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the ''commercialization'' of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The ''commercial demonstration'' is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focused on R and D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R, D, and D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue of ''prices versus gaps'' is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misalignment of social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political, legal, and institutional problems. Finally, methods for evaluation and planning of commercial demonstration programs are analyzed. The critical areas of ignorance are highlighted and comprise a research agenda for improved analytical techniques to support decisions in this area.

  20. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  1. Application of SLIM-MAUD: A test of an interactive computer-based method for organizing expert assessment of human performance and reliability: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spettell, C.M.; Rosa, E.A.; Humphreys, P.C.; Embrey, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been conducting a multiyear research program to investigate different methods for using expert judgments to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plants. One of the methods investigated, derived from multi-attribute utility theory, is the Success Likelihood Index Methodolocy implemented through Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition (SLIM-MAUD). This report describes a systematic test application of the SLIM-MAUD methodology. The test application is evaluated on the basis of three criteria: practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Volume I of this report represents an overview of SLIM-MAUD, describes the procedures followed in the test application, and provides a summary of the results obtained. Volume II consists of technical appendices to support in detail the materials contained in Volume I, and the users' package of explicit procedures to be followed in implementing SLIM-MAUD. The results obtained in the test application provide support for the application of SLIM-MAUD to a wide variety of applications requiring estimates of human errors

  2. Application of a coproantigen ELISA as an indicator of efficacy against multiple life stages of Fasciola hepatica infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S D; Vanhoff, K; Baker, K; Lake, L; Rolfe, P F; Seewald, W; Emery, D L

    2017-11-15

    At present diagnosis of true resistance and determination of drug efficacy in Fasciola hepatica infection rely solely on terminal experiments. The coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) has been reported previously as a sensitive and specific tool appropriate to detect treatment failure, and potentially drug resistance. Two studies were conducted to determine whether the cELISA was appropriate for on-farm efficacy and resistance testing in Australian Merino sheep. In Study 1 sheep were infected orally with 50 F. hepatica metacercariae on three occasions, twelve, six and two weeks prior to a single flukicide treatment with triclabendazole, closantel or albendazole. Sheep were sampled weekly for a further seven weeks prior to necropsy. Following effective treatment, no faecal antigen was detected from 1 week. When immature stages (≤6 weeks) survived treatment, coproantigen reappeared from 6 weeks post-treatment. Therefore, cELISA conducted 1-4 weeks after treatment will demonstrate obvious treatment failure against adult F. hepatica, but is not sufficiently sensitive to detect survival of immature fluke until these reach maturity. In study 2, fluke burdens of sheep necropsied 13 weeks post single infection were compared to fecal worm egg counts (FWEC) and cELISA at necropsy. Regression analysis demonstrated that cELISA correlated strongly with fluke burden, whilst FWEC correlated weakly with cELISA. The correlation between FWEC and fluke burden was also weak, although stronger than that of FWEC with cELISA. The cELISA is an appropriate tool for monitoring effectiveness of treatments against Fasciola hepatica if an adult infection is present, however when immature stages of the parasite are present it is not as reliable. Where immature parasites are present it is recommended that initial cELISA be followed with a secondary cELISA at least 6 weeks after treatment to ensure resistance to immature stages is detected. Further testing is justified for monitoring the effectiveness

  3. Effect of Dose and Oxadiargyl Application Time at the Different Growth Stages on Weed Biomass and Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of dose and application time of oxadiargyl, as a postemergence herbicide, on weed biomass and tuber yield of potato, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications was conducted at Alaroog Research Station at the University of Mohaghegh-Ardabili in 2013. Treatments consisted of oxadiargyl dosages (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 lit a.i /ha, and its time of applications at different potato growth stages (potato emergence, stolon initiation and potato tuber bulking, weed free treatment was considered as control. Statistical analysis showed that 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl reduced biomass of weed by 66.16 percent. Oxadiargyl application at emergence time resulted in highest percent reduction of weed biomass. Results, also, showed that application 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl, after weed free condition, increased number of seed tuber and total tuber yield by 82.16 and 51.59 percent respectively, but it reduced number of non seed tuber by 43.17 percent. Application of oxadiargyl at emergence time, as compared with the other application times, resulted in highest increase in the number of seed tuber and total tuber yield, but it did not affected number of non seed tubers. Interaction effect of dose by time of oxadiargyl application revealed that using 0.8 lit a.i/ha dose at potato emergence time increased number of edible tubers by 100%. It may be conducted that application of this dose at potato emergence time was highly efficient in controlling weeds and increasing potato tuber yield.

  4. Two-Stage Method Based on Local Polynomial Fitting for a Linear Heteroscedastic Regression Model and Its Application in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Su

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the extension of local polynomial fitting to the linear heteroscedastic regression model. Firstly, the local polynomial fitting is applied to estimate heteroscedastic function, then the coefficients of regression model are obtained by using generalized least squares method. One noteworthy feature of our approach is that we avoid the testing for heteroscedasticity by improving the traditional two-stage method. Due to nonparametric technique of local polynomial estimation, we do not need to know the heteroscedastic function. Therefore, we can improve the estimation precision, when the heteroscedastic function is unknown. Furthermore, we focus on comparison of parameters and reach an optimal fitting. Besides, we verify the asymptotic normality of parameters based on numerical simulations. Finally, this approach is applied to a case of economics, and it indicates that our method is surely effective in finite-sample situations.

  5. Report of the Survey on the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 1 - Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven

    2014-06-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the members agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report, which is the first volume, provides a discussion of the survey responses related to Instrumentation and Control (I and C). The Instrumentation and Control category includes the twelve following technical topics: Reactor trip system, actuation systems for Engineered Safety Features (ESF), safe shutdown system, safety-related display instrumentation, information and interlock systems important to safety, controls systems, main control room, supplementary control room, diverse I and C systems, data communication systems, software reliability and cyber-security. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the Level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Among the regulatory organisations that responded to the survey, there are similarities in the design information provided by an applicant. In most countries, the design information provided by an applicant includes, but is not limited to, a description of the I and C system design and functions, a description of the verification and validation programmes, and provisions for analysis, testing, and inspection of various I and C systems. - In addition to the regulations, it is a common practice for countries

  6. Blinding Applicants in a First-Stage Peer-Review Process of Biomedical Research Grants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans-Domènech, Maite; Guillamón, Imma; Ribera, Aida; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Carrion, Carme; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietà; Pons, Joan M. V.

    2017-01-01

    To blind or not researcher's identity has often been a topic of debate in the context of peer-review process for scientific publication and research grant application. This article reports on how knowing the name and experience of researchers/institutions influences the qualification of a proposal. We present our experience of managing the…

  7. Report on the Survey of the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 4: Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven; Monninger, John; Nevalainen, Janne; Joyer, Philippe; Koley, Jaharlal; Kawamura, Tomonori; Chung, Yeon-Ki; Haluska, Ladislav; Persic, Andreja; Reierson, Craig; Monninger, John; Choi, Young-Joon; )

    2017-01-01

    At the tenth meeting of the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the Working Group agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the licensing process survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report provides a discussion of the survey responses related to the Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems category. The Reactor Coolant and Associated Systems category includes the following technical topics: overpressure protection, reactor coolant pressure boundary, reactor vessel, and design of the reactor coolant system. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided by the member countries in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Although the description of the information provided by the applicant differs in scope and level of detail among the member countries that provided responses, there are similarities in the information that is required. - All of the technical topics covered in the survey are reviewed in some manner by all of the regulatory authorities that provided responses. - It is common to consider operating experience and lessons learnt from the current fleet during the review process. - The most commonly and consistently identified technical expertise needed to perform design reviews related to this category are mechanical engineering and materials engineering. The complete survey

  8. Separation of surface, subsurface and volume fatigue damage effects in AISI 348 steel for power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Martin; Nowak, David; Walther, Frank [Technical Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Materials Test Engineering (WPT); Starke, Peter [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Boller, Christian [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Fraunhofer IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    A wide range of industries including energy, chemistry, pharmacy, textiles, food and drink, pulp and paper, etc. is using stainless steels. Metastable austenitic steels such as used in power plants and chemical industry are subjected to cyclic mechanical and thermal loading in air as well as under the influence of corrosive media. This paper provides an overview on different nondestructive and electrochemical measurement techniques, which allow differentiating fatigue damage effects in total strain controlled multiple and constant amplitude tests with respect to damage appearance on surface, in subsurface area as well as in volume of specimens or components microstructure. In addition to conventional mechanical stress-strain hysteresis curves, electrical resistance, magnetic and open circuit potential measurements have been applied to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of the metastable austenitic steel AISI 348 (X10CrNiNb18-9) in laboratory air and in distilled water. Based on these results obtained, the paper provides an outlook on the possibility for an efficient (remaining) fatigue life evaluation approach, which is adapted to the needs of the application areas.

  9. Aspects of Cultural Landscape Application on Classical Stage Art. Ballet Performance in the Open Space as a Significant Element of the Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lebedeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the applications aspects of cultural landscape for the preparation of the classical performing arts staging. Research findings highlighted that the cultural landscape (parks, estates, castles, bastions, etc. objects occupies an increasingly important role in public recreation and classical art development programs. At the same time it is noted that event’s aesthetic and emotional quality suffers due to the fact that no specific attention was given for the preparation of the event space. More methodological materials are necessary for preparation of this type of design spaces. In Lithuania classical performing arts events in cultural landscape open spaces are based on XVI–XVII century tradition and has good prospects for modern development. A review of some of the classical art events installations, based on the importance of quality of open spaces influence on the emotional impact, that should be an integral part of the cultural event. The author summarizes his experience of ballet events in open spaces in the cultural landscape – Klaipėda, Trakai. Presented is Tchaikovsky's ballet “Swan Lake” construction in Klaipėda John Hill project that includes infrastructure and environmental design concept: audience space, stage design, stage design performance solutions. Analogous key decisions are later adapted to the ballet performance in the natural environment of the lake Trakai. Experience of this project dictated the necessity of deeper understanding and methodological basis for the classical performing arts analysis and design.

  10. Measuring the efficiency of Palestinian public hospitals during 2010-2015: an application of a two-stage DEA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Wasim I M; Crispim, José

    2018-05-29

    While health needs and expenditure in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) are growing, the international donations are declining and the economic situation is worsening. The purpose of this paper is twofold, to evaluate the productive efficiency of public hospitals in West Bank and to study contextual factors contributing to efficiency differences. This study examined technical efficiency among 11 public hospitals in West Bank from 2010 through 2015 targeting a total of 66 observations. Nationally representative data were extracted from the official annual health reports. We applied input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models to estimate efficiency scores. To elaborate further on performance, we used Tobit regression to identify contextual factors whose impact on inefficient performance is statistically significant. Despite the increase in efficiency mean scores by 4% from 2010 to 2015, findings show potential savings of 14.5% of resource consumption without reducing the volume of the provided services. The significant Tobit model showed four predictors explaining the inefficient performance of a hospital (p public hospitals in the OPT. Our work identified their efficiency levels for potential improvements and the determinants of efficient performance. Based on the measurement of efficiency, the generated information may guide hospitals' managers, policymakers, and international donors improving the performance of the main national healthcare provider. The scope of this study is limited to public hospitals in West Bank. For a better understanding of the Palestinian market, further research on private hospitals and hospitals in Gaza Strip will be useful.

  11. Application of tumor-node-metastasis staging 2002 version in locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: is it predictive of surgical outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Binkui; Yuan, Yunfei; Chen, Guihua; He, Liru; Zhang, Yaqi; Li, Jinqing; Li, Guohui; Lau, Wan Yee

    2010-01-01

    Locally advanced (pT3-4N0M0) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous group of tumors, which consists of four different categories, including HCC with 'multiple tumors more than 5 cm', 'major vascular invasion', 'invasion of adjacent organs', and 'perforation of visceral peritoneum'. The aim of our study was to verify whether the 2002 version of the Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging system could predict surgical outcomes in patients with locally advanced HCC. We retrospectively reviewed 298 patients with pT3-4N0M0 HCC who underwent hepatic resection from 1993 to 2000 in an academic tertiary hospital. Overall survival (OS) and cumulative recurrence rate (CRR) of the four categories of locally advanced HCC patients were compared. In multivariate analysis, major vascular invasion was identified as the most significant factor (HR = 3.291, 95% CI 2.362-4.584, P < 0.001) followed by cirrhosis status on OS, and was found to be the only independent factor of CRR (HR = 2.242, 95% CI 1.811-3.358, P < 0.001) in patients with locally advanced HCC. Among the four categories of locally advanced HCC, OS was significantly worse, and CRR was significantly higher in patients with HCC with major vascular invasion (pT3) than with multiple tumors more than 5 cm (pT3); or tumor invasion of adjacent organs (pT4); or perforation of visceral peritoneum (pT4). No significant differences were observed in OS or CRR between the latter three groups of patients. HCC with major vascular invasion, which are classified as pT3 under the current TNM staging, have the worst prognosis when compared with the other categories of pT3-4 disease. There is a need to redefine the T classification and to stratify locally advanced HCC

  12. New methods to interpolate large volume of data from points or particles (Mesh-Free) methods application for its scientific visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lopez, Y.; Yervilla Herrera, H.; Viamontes Esquivel, A.; Recarey Morfa, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    In the following paper we developed a new method to interpolate large volumes of scattered data, focused mainly on the results of the Mesh free Methods, Points Methods and the Particles Methods application. Through this one, we use local radial basis function as interpolating functions. We also use over-tree as the data structure that allows to accelerate the localization of the data that influences to interpolate the values at a new point, speeding up the application of scientific visualization techniques to generate images from large data volumes from the application of Mesh-free Methods, Points and Particle Methods, in the resolution of diverse models of physics-mathematics. As an example, the results obtained after applying this method using the local interpolation functions of Shepard are shown. (Author) 22 refs

  13. A Single-Stage LED Tube Lamp Driver with Power-Factor Corrections and Soft Switching for Energy-Saving Indoor Lighting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-An Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-stage alternating current (AC/direct current (DC light-emitting diode (LED tube lamp driver for energy-saving indoor lighting applications; this driver features power-factor corrections and soft switching, and also integrates a dual buck-boost converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge series resonant converter cascaded with a bridge rectifier into a single-stage power-conversion topology. The features of the presented driver are high efficiency (>91%, satisfying power factor (PF > 0.96, low input-current total-harmonic distortion (THD < 10%, low output voltage ripple factor (<7.5%, low output current ripple factor (<8%, and zero-voltage switching (ZVS obtained on both power switches. Operational principles are described in detail, and experimental results obtained from an 18 W-rated LED tube lamp for T8/T10 fluorescent lamp replacements with input utility-line voltages ranging from 100 V to 120 V have demonstrated the functionality of the presented driver suitable for indoor lighting applications.

  14. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  15. A two-stage approach for managing actuators redundancy and its application to fault tolerant flight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lunlong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In safety-critical systems such as transportation aircraft, redundancy of actuators is introduced to improve fault tolerance. How to make the best use of remaining actuators to allow the system to continue achieving a desired operation in the presence of some actuators failures is the main subject of this paper. Considering that many dynamical systems, including flight dynamics of a transportation aircraft, can be expressed as an input affine nonlinear system, a new state representation is adopted here where the output dynamics are related with virtual inputs associated with the intended operation. This representation, as well as the distribution matrix associated with the effectiveness of the remaining operational actuators, allows us to define different levels of fault tolerant governability with respect to actuators’ failures. Then, a two-stage control approach is developed, leading first to the inversion of the output dynamics to get nominal values for the virtual inputs and then to the solution of a linear quadratic (LQ problem to compute the solicitation of each operational actuator. The proposed approach is applied to the control of a transportation aircraft which performs a stabilized roll maneuver while a partial failure appears. Two fault scenarios are considered and the resulting performance of the proposed approach is displayed and discussed.

  16. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  17. An Industrial Perspective of CAM/ROB Fuzzy Integrated Postprocessing Implementation for Redundant Robotic Workcells Applicability for Big Volume Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, J.; Gracia, L.; Tornero, J.; García, J. A.; González, F.

    2009-11-01

    The implementation of a postprocessor for the NX™ platform (Siemens Corp.) is described in this paper. It is focused on a milling redundant robotic milling workcell consisting of one KUKA KR 15/2 manipulator (6 rotary joints, KRC2 controller) mounted on a linear axis and synchronized with a rotary table (i.e., two additional joints). For carrying out a milling task, a choice among a set of possible configurations is required, taking into account the ability to avoid singular configurations by using both additional joints. Usually, experience and knowledge of the workman allow an efficient control in these cases, but being it a tedious job. Similarly to this expert knowledge, a stand-alone fuzzy controller has been programmed with Matlab's Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (The MathWorks, Inc.). Two C++ programs complement the translation of the toolpath tracking (expressed in the Cartesian space) from the NX™-CAM module into KRL (KUKA Robot Language). In order to avoid singularities or joint limits, the location of the robot and the workpiece during the execution of the task is fit after an inverse kinematics position analysis and a fuzzy inference (i.e., fuzzy criterion in the Joint Space). Additionally, the applicability of robot arms for the manufacture of big volume prototypes with this technique is proven by means of one case studied. It consists of a big orographic model to simulate floodways, return flows and retention storage of a reservoir in the Mijares river (Puebla de Arenoso, Spain). This article deals with the problem for a constant tool orientation milling process and sets the technological basis for future research at five axis milling operations.

  18. The application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in gross tumor volume delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Dongliang; Shi Gaofeng; Gao Xianshu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with esophageal SCC treated with radical surgery were analyzed. Routine CT scan, MRI T 2 -weighted and DWMRI were employed before surgery; diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken 400, 600 and 800 s/mm 2 . GTVs were delineated using CT, MRI T 2 -weighted images and DWMRI under different b-value images. The length of GTVs measured under different images was compared with the pathological length and confirm the most accurate imaging condition. Use radiotherapy planning system to fuse DWMRI images and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineate GTVs on fused images. Results: The difference of GTV length value between CT, T 2 WI images and specimen was 3.36 mm and 2.84 mm. When b =400,600 and 800 s/mm 2 , the difference between GTV length value on the DWMRI images and on specimen was 0.47 mm, -0.47 mm and - 1.53 mm; the correlation coefficient of the measuring esophageal lengths on DWMRI images and the pathological lengths was 0.928, 0.927 and 0.938. DWMRI images and CT images could fuse accurately on radiotherapy planning system. GTV margin could.show clearly on fused images. Conclusions: DWMRI images can display the esophageal carcinoma lengths and margin accurately. When DWMRI images fused with CT images, GTV margin could show clearly,it can be used to delineate GTV accurately. (authors)

  19. Exploratory application of the Ages and Stages (ASQ) child development screening test in a low-income Peruvian shantytown population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyerematen, Victoria; Hamb, Averine; Oberhelman, Richard A; Cabrera, Lilia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Berry, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Public health research on child health is increasingly focusing on the long-term impacts of infectious diseases, malnutrition and social deprivation on child development. The objectives of this exploratory study were to (1) implement the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) in children aged 3 months to 5 years in a low-income Peruvian population and (2) to correlate outcomes of the ASQ with risk factors such as nutritional status, diarrhoea incidence and wealth index. Setting Primary data collection was carried out in the Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, a periurban low-income community in Lima, Peru. Participants The study population included 129 children selected through community census data, with a mean age of 22 months (SD 6.8) and with almost equal gender distribution (51% males). Intervention A Peruvian psychologist administered the age-appropriate (ASQ2 for participants enrolled in 2009, ASQ3 for participants enrolled in 2010). Results of the ASQ are reported separately for five scales, including Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving and Personal-Social. Primary and secondary outcome measures For each scale, results are reported as normal or suspect, meaning that some milestone attainment was not evident and further evaluation is recommended. Results Overall, 50 of 129 children (38.7%) had suspect results for at least one of the five scales, with the highest rates of suspect results on the Communication (15.5%) and Problem Solving scales (13.9%). Higher rates of suspect outcomes were seen in older children, both overall (p=0.06) and on Problem Solving (p=0.009), and for some scales there were trends between suspect outcomes and wealth index or undernutrition. Conclusions The ASQ was successfully applied in a community-based study in a low-income Peruvian population, and with further validation, the ASQ may be an effective tool for identifying at-risk children in resource-poor areas of Latin America. PMID:24413354

  20. Rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement for a piezo drop-on-demand inkjet print head using a scanning mirror for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Youn; Kim, Minsung

    2017-02-01

    Despite the inherent fabrication simplicity of piezo drop-on-demand inkjet printing, the non-uniform deposition of colourants or electroluminescent organic materials leads to faulty display products, and hence, the importance of rapid jetting status inspection and accurate droplet volume measurement increases from a process perspective. In this work, various jetting status inspections and droplet volume measurement methods are reviewed by discussing their advantages and disadvantages, and then, the opportunities for the developed prototype with a scanning mirror are explored. This work demonstrates that jetting status inspection of 384 fictitious droplets can be performed within 17 s with maximum and minimum measurement accuracies of 0.2 ± 0.5 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 50 μ m in diameter and -1.2 ± 0.3 μ m for the fictitious droplets of 30 μ m in diameter, respectively. In addition to the new design of an inkjet monitoring instrument with a scanning mirror, two novel methods to accurately measure the droplet volume by amplifying a minute droplet volume difference and then converting to other physical properties are suggested and the droplet volume difference of ±0.3% is demonstrated to be discernible using numerical simulations, even with the low measurement accuracy of 1 μ m . When the fact is considered that the conventional vision-based method with a CCD camera requires the optical measurement accuracy less than 25 nm to measure the volume of an in-flight droplet in the nominal diameter of 50 μ m at the same volume measurement accuracy, the suggested method with the developed prototype offers a whole new opportunity to inkjet printing for display applications.

  1. Estimation of mean tree stand volume using high-resolution aerial RGB imagery and digital surface model, obtained from sUAV and Trestima mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rybakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a remote sensing technique for mean volume estimation based on a very high-resolution (VHR aerial RGB imagery obtained using a small-sized unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV and a high-resolution photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM as well as an innovative technology for field measurements (Trestima. The study area covers approx. 220 ha of forestland in Finland. The work concerns the entire process from remote sensing and field data acquisition to statistical analysis and forest volume wall-to-wall mapping. The study showed that the VHR aerial imagery and the high-resolution DSM produced based on the application of the sUAV have good prospects for forest inventory. For the sUAV based estimation of forest variables such as Height, Basal Area and mean Volume, Root Mean Square Error constituted 6.6 %, 22.6 % and 26.7 %, respectively. Application of Trestima for estimation of the mean volume of the standing forest showed minor difference over the existing Forest Management Plan at all the selected forest compartments. Simultaneously, the results of the study confirmed that the technologies and the tools applied at this work could be a reliable and potentially cost-effective means of forest data acquisition with high potential of operational use.

  2. Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and Biomembranes: Setting the Stage for Applications in Pharmacology, Biomedicine, and Bionanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Antonio; Ballone, Pietro

    2018-03-21

    Empirical evidence and conceptual elaboration reveal and rationalize the remarkable affinity of organic ionic liquids for biomembranes. Cations of the so-called room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), in particular, are readily absorbed into the lipid fraction of biomembranes, causing a variety of observable biological effects, including generic cytotoxicity, broad antibacterial potential, and anticancer activity. Chemical physics analysis of model systems made of phospholipid bilayers, RTIL ions, and water confirm and partially explain this evidence, quantifying the mild destabilizing effect of RTILs on the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties of lipids in biomembranes. Our Feature Article presents a brief introduction to these systems and to their roles in biophysics and biotechnology, summarizing recent experimental and computational results on their properties. More importantly, it highlights the many developments in pharmacology, biomedicine, and bionanotechnology expected from the current research effort on this topic. To anticipate future developments, we speculate on (i) potential applications of (magnetic) RTILs to affect and control the rheology of cells and biological tissues, of great relevance for diagnostics and (ii) the use of RTILs to improve the durability, reliability, and output of biomimetic photovoltaic devices.

  3. Relationship Between LIBS Ablation and Pit Volume for Geologic Samples: Applications for the In Situ Absolute Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, Damien; Cohen, Barbara; Miller, J.-S.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Lefevre, J.-C.; Boukari, C.

    2014-01-01

    These first results demonstrate that LIBS spectra can be an interesting tool to estimate the ablated volume. When the ablated volume is bigger than 9.10(exp 6) cubic micrometers, this method has less than 10% of uncertainties. Far enough to be directly implemented in the KArLE experiment protocol. Nevertheless, depending on the samples and their mean grain size, the difficulty to have homogeneous spectra will increase with the ablated volume. Several K-Ar dating studies based on this approach will be implemented. After that, the results will be shown and discussed.

  4. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 1. Review of literature on high-temperature behavior of portland cement and refractory concretes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge

  5. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case

  6. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muriana, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.muriana@unipa.it

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  7. Two-stage robust UC including a novel scenario-based uncertainty model for wind power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Miranda, Eduardo; Campos-Valdés, Camilo; Rahmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodological framework for obtaining Robust Unit Commitment (UC) policies. • Wind-power forecast using a revisited bootstrap predictive inference approach. • Novel scenario-based model for wind-power uncertainty. • Efficient modeling framework for obtaining nearly optimal UC policies in reasonable time. • Effective incorporation of wind-power uncertainty in the UC modeling. - Abstract: The complex processes involved in the determination of the availability of power from renewable energy sources, such as wind power, impose great challenges in the forecasting processes carried out by transmission system operators (TSOs). Nowadays, many of these TSOs use operation planning tools that take into account the uncertainty of the wind-power. However, most of these methods typically require strict assumptions about the probabilistic behavior of the forecast error, and usually ignore the dynamic nature of the forecasting process. In this paper a methodological framework to obtain Robust Unit Commitment (UC) policies is presented; such methodology considers a novel scenario-based uncertainty model for wind power applications. The proposed method is composed by three main phases. The first two phases generate a sound wind-power forecast using a bootstrap predictive inference approach. The third phase corresponds to modeling and solving a one-day ahead Robust UC considering the output of the first phase. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated using as case study a new wind farm to be incorporated into the Northern Interconnected System (NIS) of Chile. A projection of wind-based power installation, as well as different characteristic of the uncertain data, are considered in this study

  8. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-01

    Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Excess molar volumes of (an alkanol plus a branched chain ether) at the temperature 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letcher, TM

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase Equilibria 140 (1997) 207-220 The excess molar the temperature volumes of (an alkanol + a branched chain ether) at 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model Trevor M. Letcher * , Penny U. Govender ? Drpartnwnt... V,,? results presented here, together with the previously reported data for the molar excess enthalpy Hi, has been used to test the Extended Real Associated Solution (ERAS) model. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. Ke...

  10. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  11. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m-2 day-1) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20 % higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m-2 day-1), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate ( Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ( Ci), transpiration rate ( Tr), stomatal conductivity ( Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3 %, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9 %, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2 %, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8 %, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  12. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20% higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3%, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9%, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8%, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  13. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume III, evaluation of the prototype expert system TRANZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The validation and evaluation of an expert system for traffic control in highway work zones (TRANZ) is described. The stages in the evaluation process consisted of the following: revisit the experts, selectively distribute copies of TRANZ with docume...

  14. Experimental applications for the MARK-1 and MARK-1A pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, Y.D.; Lawrence, R.S.; Yoon, W.Y.; Lones, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    This report is the third volume in a three volume set describing the MARK series of pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. This volume describes the MARK-1A detection system, compares it with the MARK-1 system, and describes the experimental testing of the detection systems. Volume 1 of this set presents the technical specifications for the MARK-1 detection system. Volume 2 is an operations manual specifically for the MARK-1 system, but it generally applies to the MARK-1A system as well. These detection systems operate remotely and detect photon radiation from a single or a multiple pulsed source. They contain multiple detector (eight in the MARK-1 and ten in the MARK-1A) for determination of does and incident photon effective energy. The multiple detector arrangement, having different detector sizes and shield thicknesses, provides the capability of determining the effective photon energy of the radiation spectrum. Dose measurements using these units are consistent with TLD measurements. The detection range is from 3 nanorads to 90 microrads per source burst; the response is linear over that range. Three units were built and are ready for field deployment

  15. Application of coating and base material living models to evaluate degradation and estimate the mean local operating temperature of two ex-service 1{sup st} stage blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, M. [Proing Italia, Torbole sul Garda, Trento (Italy); Rinaldi, C. [ERSE, Milan (Italy); Vacchieri, E. [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    In the frame of the collaborative program COST 538 a coating life prediction code was implemented by Proing and ERSE with an inverse problem solution routine able to calculate the local mean operating temperature from the operating conditions and the extension of the coating depleted regions. Moreover base material degradation models were developed by Ansaldo Energia on both equiaxed and single crystal superalloys. This paper describes the application of such methodologies to two ex-service 1st stage gas turbine blades delivered to COST 538 by AEN after operation in two different plants with different operating conditions. The objective of the study was the application and validation of an innovative NDT and the estimate of the mean operating temperature at different positions of the components. The destructive metallographic analysis of the blades let to validate the non destructive frequency scanning eddy current technique (F-SECT). Coating life modelling results are compared with those of the base material degradation models. An interesting correlation was found between the estimated temperatures with the two methods and also with the NDT findings at the most significant component positions. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Drought Stress During Phenological Stage and Biofertilizer and Nitrogen Application on Yield and Yield Components of Corn (KSC 704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashkavand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of cutting irrigation and application of biofertilizer and nitrogen on yield and yield components of corn single cross hybrid, an experiment was carried out in Satloo Agricultural and Natural resources Research Station of west Azarbaijan, 2009-2010. This experiment was arranged as split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.Four irrigation factors including I1, I2, I3 and I4, respectively: cutting irrigations at stem elongation, blossom and seed filling stages and normal irrigation assigned to main plots and fertilizer treatments consisted of Nitoxin + 50% urea (F1 , Niragin + 50% urea (F2 , and without biofertilizer application + 100% urea (F3 were allocated to sub plots.Results indicated that the effect of cutting irrigations had negative and significant effects on all characteristics; Fertilizer treatments on the other hand had significant effect only on seed numbers per ear, 100 seeds weight and seed yield. The highest seed yield was obtained under normal irrigation and treatment of Nitragin + 50% urea (12320.7 kg/ha and 11100.5 kg/ha respectively.

  17. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  18. Application of artificial neural networks for the prediction of volume fraction using spectra of gamma rays backscattered by three-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour Peyvandi, R.; Islami Rad, S. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the volume fraction percentage of the different phases flowing in vessels using transmission gamma rays is a conventional method in petroleum and oil industries. In some cases, with access only to the one side of the vessels, attention was drawn toward backscattered gamma rays as a desirable choice. In this research, the volume fraction percentage was measured precisely in water-gasoil-air three-phase flows by using the backscatter gamma ray technique andthe multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network. The volume fraction determination in three-phase flows requires two gamma radioactive sources or a dual-energy source (with different energies) while in this study, we used just a 137Cs source (with the single energy) and a NaI detector to analyze backscattered gamma rays. The experimental set-up provides the required data for training and testing the network. Using the presented method, the volume fraction was predicted with a mean relative error percentage less than 6.47%. Also, the root mean square error was calculated as 1.60. The presented set-up is applicable in some industries with limited access. Also, using this technique, the cost, radiation safety and shielding requirements are minimized toward the other proposed methods.

  19. Application of Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory to excess molar volume of mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Feng; Wang Haijun

    2009-01-01

    The densities of two binary mixtures formed by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [bmim][BF 4 ] and 1-butyl-3-methy limidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF 6 ] with compound N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone have been determined over the full range of composition and range of temperature from (298.15 to 313.15) K and at atmospheric pressure using a vibrating-tube densimeter (DMA4500). Excess molar volumes, V m E , have been obtained from these experimental results, and been fitted by the fourth-order Redlich-Kister equation. From the experimental results, partial molar volumes, apparent molar volume and partial molar volumes at infinite dilution were calculated over the whole composition range. Our results show that V m E decreases slightly when temperature increases in the systems studied. The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP) theory. The results have been interpreted in terms of ion-dipole interactions and structural factors of the ionic liquid and these organic molecular liquids

  20. Early stage cervical cancer of the uterine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneyasu, Yuuko; Fujiwara, Hisaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the present state of radiotherapy (RT) of early stage cervical cancer involving the history, outcomes of clinical trials, procedure for each stage, irradiation methods, concurrent chemo-RT (CCRT), late adverse events, and QOL after RT. It has a history of >100 years from the brachytherapy with radium, but is not yet completely established even now. There are many RT trials hitherto. Retrospectively, no significant difference is seen in outcomes of radical RT and surgery: 80-90% efficacy for stage I and 60-80% for II in the former, respectively, and 80-96% and 65-80%, in the latter. Between RT and surgery, there is a report of randomized comparative study in Italy. In Japan, reported are comparative outcomes based on patients' choice for therapy, retrospective studies including authors' one, prospective multi-institutional cooperative trials by Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group, and Treatment Guidelines for Cervical Cancer (2007). RT procedure depends on the stage defined by FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) and at stages I-II, intracavitary RT is major with optimal dose 29 Gy/5 fractions for I, and 23/4 Gy with external total pelvic radiation 50 Gy for II. In external radiation, the planning target volume includes the whole pelvic field with 1.8-2 Gy/5 weeks and optionally, the extended field when metastasis suspicious. Intracavitary RT with application device in the uterine is of significance for the cancer as 50% complete cure even in stage III is reported. CCRT brings about good prognosis, which is shown in a Japanese trial to compare postoperative RT alone and CCRT with CDDP and 5-FU. The late adverse events are seen mainly in the large bowel and studies of QOL, an important factor for choice of treatment, are now in progress. (T.T.)

  1. Efficacy Of Some Fungal Isolates And Their Applications For Controlling The Immature Stages Of The Medfly, Ceratitis Capitata (Wiedemann) Before And During Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OUDA, S.M.; EL-AKHDAR, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) needs a suitable and effective cheap method alternative to chemical pesticides for suppressing or controlling the population density of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wi ed.). The effectiveness of five different fungal isolates: Trichoderma longibranchiatum, T. harzianum, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger and Penicillium oxalicum was evaluated against the immature stages of med fly. Filtrate and three spore suspension concentrations (104, 106 and 108 spores/ml) of each fungal isolate were applied to both 3 rd larval instar and pupae at two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Percentage pupation, pupal mortality, adult emergence and sex ratio were studied. The percentage of pupation of 3 rd larval instar was not affected. However, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the percentage of pupal mortality as well as in adult emergence from pupae 2 and 8 days-old at all fungal treatments. Pupae (2 days-old) were more susceptible than pupae (8 days-old) to all fungal treatments. The microbial biomass of both A. terreus and P. oxalicum was selected to apply with different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 w/w) on the pupae at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old). Best results were recorded with biomass at 20% concentration of both fungal isolates. Percentage of mortality was significantly higher (P<0.05) than 50% at the two ages (2 and 8 days-old) for both fungi. A significant decrease (P<0.05) was obtained in adult females emergence resulted in a reduction in the number of eggs deposited and subsequently the punctures on fruits. Chitinase enzyme (important for degradation of chitin which is a component of insect cuticle) and cellulase enzyme (used for improving soil fertility) were determined. The microbial biomass by A. terreus was appeared to be safe to human and animals and can be used for combating immature stages of medfly.

  2. Application of single-incision transvaginal mesh in a woman undergoing peritoneal dialysis and suffering from refractory advanced stage pelvic organ prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yi-Hung; Kan, Wei-Chih; Wu, Ming-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We would like to provide an option of minimal invasive surgical intervention for a patient with end-stage renal disease undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, who was at the advanced-stage pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and who also failed to be treated conservatively. Materials and method: We present a case of uterine prolapse stage IV in a woman who underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis due to end-stage renal disease. Her severity of POP had only limi...

  3. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  4. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  5. Field evaluation of indoor thermal fog and ultra-low volume applications for control of Aedes aegypti, in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacies of a hand-held thermal fogger (PatriotTM) and hand-held Ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer (TwisterTM) with combinations of two different adulticides and an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen) were field assessed and compared for their impact on reducing dengue vector populations in Thaila...

  6. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  7. Artificial neural network and neutron application in a volume fraction calculation in annular and stratified multiphase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da

    2009-01-01

    Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a 241 Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)

  8. Artificial neural network and neutron application in a volume fraction calculation in annular and stratified multiphase system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Robson; Brandao, Luis E.B.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A., E-mail: robson@ien.gov.b, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Multiphase flows, type oil-water-gas are very common among different industrial activities, such as chemical industries and petroleum extraction, and its measurements show some difficulties to be taken. Precisely determining the volume fraction of each one of the elements that composes a multiphase flow is very important in chemical plants and petroleum industries. This work presents a methodology able to determine volume fraction on Annular and Stratified multiphase flow system with the use of neutrons and artificial intelligence, using the principles of transmission/scattering of fast neutrons from a {sup 241}Am-Be source and measurements of point flow that are influenced by variations of volume fractions. The proposed geometries used on the mathematical model was used to obtain a data set where the thicknesses referred of each material had been changed in order to obtain volume fraction of each phase providing 119 compositions that were used in the simulation with MCNP-X -computer code based on Monte Carlo Method that simulates the radiation transport. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with data obtained using the MCNP-X, and used to correlate such measurements with the respective real fractions. The ANN was able to correlate the data obtained on the simulation with MCNP-X with the volume fractions of the multiphase flows (oil-water-gas), both in the pattern of annular flow as stratified, resulting in a average relative error (%) for each production set of: annular (air = 3.85; water = 4.31; oil=1.08); stratified (air = 3.10, water 2.01, oil = 1.45). The method demonstrated good efficiency in the determination of each material that composes the phases, thus demonstrating the feasibility of the technique. (author)

  9. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  10. Large-volume injection of sample diluents not miscible with the mobile phase as an alternative approach in sample preparation for bioanalysis: an application for fenspiride bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Udrescu, Stefan; Albu, Florin; Tache, Florentin; David, Victor

    2011-09-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of target compounds from biological matrices followed by the injection of a large volume from the organic layer into the chromatographic column operated under reversed-phase (RP) conditions would successfully combine the selectivity and the straightforward character of the procedure in order to enhance sensitivity, compared with the usual approach of involving solvent evaporation and residue re-dissolution. Large-volume injection of samples in diluents that are not miscible with the mobile phase was recently introduced in chromatographic practice. The risk of random errors produced during the manipulation of samples is also substantially reduced. A bioanalytical method designed for the bioequivalence of fenspiride containing pharmaceutical formulations was based on a sample preparation procedure involving extraction of the target analyte and the internal standard (trimetazidine) from alkalinized plasma samples in 1-octanol. A volume of 75 µl from the octanol layer was directly injected on a Zorbax SB C18 Rapid Resolution, 50 mm length × 4.6 mm internal diameter × 1.8 µm particle size column, with the RP separation being carried out under gradient elution conditions. Detection was made through positive ESI and MS/MS. Aspects related to method development and validation are discussed. The bioanalytical method was successfully applied to assess bioequivalence of a modified release pharmaceutical formulation containing 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride during two different studies carried out as single-dose administration under fasting and fed conditions (four arms), and multiple doses administration, respectively. The quality attributes assigned to the bioanalytical method, as resulting from its application to the bioequivalence studies, are highlighted and fully demonstrate that sample preparation based on large-volume injection of immiscible diluents has an increased potential for application in bioanalysis.

  11. BEDVH--A method for evaluating biologically effective dose volume histograms: Application to eye plaque brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Huber, Kathryn E.; Mignano, John E.; Duker, Jay S.; Laver, Nora V.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A method is introduced to examine the influence of implant duration T, radionuclide, and radiobiological parameters on the biologically effective dose (BED) throughout the entire volume of regions of interest for episcleral brachytherapy using available radionuclides. This method is employed to evaluate a particular eye plaque brachytherapy implant in a radiobiological context. Methods: A reference eye geometry and 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with 103 Pd, 125 I, or 131 Cs sources were examined with dose distributions accounting for plaque heterogeneities. For a standardized 7 day implant, doses to 90% of the tumor volume ( TUMOR D 90 ) and 10% of the organ at risk volumes ( OAR D 10 ) were calculated. The BED equation from Dale and Jones and published α/β and μ parameters were incorporated with dose volume histograms (DVHs) for various T values such as T = 7 days (i.e., TUMOR 7 BED 10 and OAR 7 BED 10 ). By calculating BED throughout the volumes, biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs) were developed for tumor and OARs. Influence of T, radionuclide choice, and radiobiological parameters on TUMOR BEDVH and OAR BEDVH were examined. The nominal dose was scaled for shorter implants to achieve biological equivalence. Results: TUMOR D 90 values were 102, 112, and 110 Gy for 103 Pd, 125 I, and 131 Cs, respectively. Corresponding TUMOR 7 BED 10 values were 124, 140, and 138 Gy, respectively. As T decreased from 7 to 0.01 days, the isobiologically effective prescription dose decreased by a factor of three. As expected, TUMOR 7 BEDVH did not significantly change as a function of radionuclide half-life but varied by 10% due to radionuclide dose distribution. Variations in reported radiobiological parameters caused TUMOR 7 BED 10 to deviate by up to 46%. Over the range of OAR α/β values, OAR 7 BED 10 varied by up to 41%, 3.1%, and 1.4% for the lens, optic nerve, and lacrimal gland, respectively. Conclusions: BEDVH permits evaluation of the

  12. THE PHENOMENON OF FIXATION OF RIGHTS TO INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION OF THE RESULTS OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY AT THE STAGE OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Kurakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the example of evolution of the genome editing technology, the phenomenon of fixing the rights to industrially applicable of the results of intellectual activity at the stage of fundamental research have been studied. Attention is drawn to the fact that the struggle for high added value of not yet created market high-tech product does take place not between industrial companies, but between centers of excellence (universities, research centers and start-ups. The case reviewed in the article makes it possible to cast doubt on the validity of the thesis that modern science exists outside national borders, having become a global network structure that carries out research by the forces of the world scientific community. It is concluded that the transition from an industrial economy to a postindustrial knowledge economy led to the transformation of the spatial cross-border organization of science and the model of interaction between scientists within the framework of open interdisciplinary research projects. This transformation is associated with the leading role of the business sector, supporting basic research, the results of which have obvious commercial projection.

  13. Application of semipermeable membrane devices for long-term monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at various stages of drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelec, Marta; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2018-08-01

    The primary goal of the presented study was the investigation of occurrence and concentration of sixteen selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples from various stages of water treatment and verification of the applicability of semi-permeable membrane devices in the monitoring of drinking water. Another objective was to verify if weather seasons affect the concentration and complexity of PAHs. For these purposes, semipermeable membrane devices were installed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland). Samples were collected monthly over a period of one year. To determine the effect of water treatment on PAH concentrations, four sampling sites were selected: raw water input, a stream of water in the pipe just before ozonation, treated water output and water after passing through the distribution system. After each month of sampling, SPMDs were exchanged for fresh ones and prepared for instrumental analysis. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presented study indicates that semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of drinking water, in which organic micropollutants occur at very low concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. DosedPet application for Nuclear Medicine: Calculation of the volume of medication needed for PET/CT patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the facilities after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  15. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  16. A discriminative structural similarity measure and its application to video-volume registration for endoscope three-dimensional motion tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Mori, Kensaku

    2014-06-01

    Endoscope 3-D motion tracking, which seeks to synchronize pre- and intra-operative images in endoscopic interventions, is usually performed as video-volume registration that optimizes the similarity between endoscopic video and pre-operative images. The tracking performance, in turn, depends significantly on whether a similarity measure can successfully characterize the difference between video sequences and volume rendering images driven by pre-operative images. The paper proposes a discriminative structural similarity measure, which uses the degradation of structural information and takes image correlation or structure, luminance, and contrast into consideration, to boost video-volume registration. By applying the proposed similarity measure to endoscope tracking, it was demonstrated to be more accurate and robust than several available similarity measures, e.g., local normalized cross correlation, normalized mutual information, modified mean square error, or normalized sum squared difference. Based on clinical data evaluation, the tracking error was reduced significantly from at least 14.6 mm to 4.5 mm. The processing time was accelerated more than 30 frames per second using graphics processing unit.

  17. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  18. Gibbs and Hill Standard Safety Analysis Report, GIBBSSAR. License application, volume 1: chapters 1--3 (section 7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    License application for the GIBBSSAR Standard Plant is presented. The reactor used with the GIBBSSAR balance-of-plant system is the Westinghouse 3800 MW(t) PWR. This portion of the application includes a general plant description; site characteristics; and design of structures, components, equipment and systems

  19. Application of ERAS-model and Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory to excess molar volumes for ternary mixtures of (2-chlorobutane + butylacetate + isobutanol) at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanlarzadeh, K.; Iloukhani, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Density of ternary and three binary mixtures of (2-chlorobutane + butylacetate + isobutanol) determined. → Excess molar volume, partial molar volume and apparent molar volume were calculated. → Excess molar volume was correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich-Kister and Cibulka equation for all mixtures. → The experimental results have been used to test the applicability of the ERAS-model and PFP theory. - Abstract: Densities of the ternary mixture consisting of {2-chlorobutane (1) + butylacetate (2) + isobutanol (3)} and related binary mixtures were measured over the whole range of composition at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure. Excess molar volumes V m E for the mixtures were derived and correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich-Kister and the Cibulka equations for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. From the experimental data, partial molar volumes, V-bar m,i excess partial molar volumes, V-bar i E partial molar volumes at infinite dilution V-bar m,i 0 and apparent molar volumes V-bar φ,i were also calculated. For all binary mixtures over the entire range of mole fractions V m E data are positive. The experimental results of the constituted binary mixtures have been used to test the applicability of the extended real associated solution (ERAS-model) and Prigogine-Flory-Paterson (PFP) theory.

  20. Application of Compressible Volume of Fluid Model in Simulating the Impact and Solidification of Hollow Spherical ZrO2 Droplet on a Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah; Jazi, Hamidreza Salimi; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2017-12-01

    Applications of hollow spherical particles in thermal spraying process have been developed in recent years, accompanied by attempts in the form of experimental and numerical studies to better understand the process of impact of a hollow droplet on a surface. During such process, volume and density of the trapped gas inside droplet change. The numerical models should be able to simulate such changes and their consequent effects. The aim of this study is to numerically simulate the impact of a hollow ZrO2 droplet on a flat surface using the volume of fluid technique for compressible flows. An open-source, finite-volume-based CFD code was used to perform the simulations, where appropriate subprograms were added to handle the studied cases. Simulation results were compared with the available experimental data. Results showed that at high impact velocities ( U 0 > 100 m/s), the compression of trapped gas inside droplet played a significant role in the impact dynamics. In such velocities, the droplet splashed explosively. Compressibility effects result in a more porous splat, compared to the corresponding incompressible model. Moreover, the compressible model predicted a higher spread factor than the incompressible model, due to planetary structure of the splat.

  1. Multibeam radiation therapy treatment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manens, J.P.; Le Gall, G.; Chenal, C.; Ben Hassel, M.; Fresne, F.; Barillot, C.; Gibaud, B.; Lemoine, D.; Bouliou, A.; Scarabin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A software package has been developed for multibeam radiation therapy treatment application. We present in this study a computer-assisted dosimetric planning procedure which includes: i), an analytical stage for setting up the large volume via 2D and 3D displays; ii), a planning stage for issue of a treatment strategy including dosimetric simulations; and iii), a treatment stage to drive the target volume to the radiation unit isocenter. The combined use of stereotactic methods and multimodality imagery ensures spatial coherence and makes target definition and cognition of structure environment more accurate. The dosimetric planning suited to the spatial reference (the stereotactic frame) guarantees optimal distribution of the dose, computed by the original 3D volumetric algorithm. A computer-driven chair-framework cluster was designed to position the target volume at the radiation unit isocenter [fr

  2. SPECT/CT for staging and treatment monitoring in oncology. Applications in differentiated thyroid cancer and liver tumors; SPECT/CT zum initialen Staging und Therapiemonitoring in der Onkologie. Indikationen beim differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinom und bei Lebertumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K.; Berger, F.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Innenstadt, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Mustafa, M.; Bartenstein, P.; Haug, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Hybrid imaging of function and morphology has gained significant importance for lesion detection and treatment monitoring in oncology. In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) a planar whole body scan is carried out after radioiodine therapy (RIT) for staging. However, due to limited spatial resolution the diagnostic accuracy of this scintigraphy method is impaired. Radioembolization utilizing {sup 90}Yttrium loaded micro-spheres by selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) allows a minor invasive therapy of primary and secondary liver tumors. In order to avoid side effects of the micro-spheres caused by an outflow into intestines, stomach or lungs, imaging the arteries supplying the liver has to be performed by means of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-MAA) and scintigraphy. The limited morphological information supplied by scintigraphy is again a challenge in treatment monitoring. {sup 131}Iodine whole body scanning is used for staging in patients with DTC 3-4 days after ablation. Monitoring of the tumor marker thyroglobulin and selective radioiodine whole body scans are available for patients with a high risk profile in the further follow-up with imaging of the arteries supplying the liver by means of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA scintigraphy in preparation of SIRT. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the neck and thorax with a therapeutic activity of radioiodine for staging after ablation. Techniques include imaging of arteries supplying the liver by means of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT/CT before SIRT and evaluation and quantification of the uptake of liver tumors, especially in comparison to the uptake of liver parenchyma by means of SPECT/CT. Due to the integration of combined functional and morphological information SPECT/CT can be used to characterize the morphology and iodine uptake of lesions more accurately, resulting in optimized staging in patients with DTC in comparison to whole body iodine scans

  3. Investigations on the properties of gas telescopes with three-piece measuring volume concerning their application for the spectrometry of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borst, H.

    1976-07-01

    In this paper, the properties of gas telescopes with three-piece measuring volume are analyzed. First, the principle of measurement on which gas telescopes are based is explained and ranges of application resulting from it as well as principles of possible realizations are discussed. Then a new theory of proportional gas amplification is derived in its application on methane gas, whose results are used in further descriptions. The following section deals with energy-dependent properties of gas telescopes. Here, it is shown that neutron energies above 100 keV can be measured with gas telescopes. In a further section, the prototype is described and its theoretical properties are shown. Finally, alternative possibilties of design are given from which good properties may be expected, even with accompanying gamma rays. (orig./GSC) [de

  4. High-resolution neutron protein crystallography with radically small crystal volumes: Application of perdeuteration to human aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazemann, I.; Dauvergne, M.T.; Blakeley, M.P.; Meilleur, Flora; Haertlein, M.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Mitschler, A.; Myles, Dean A.A.; Podjarny, A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 (angstrom) resolution from a small (0.15 mm 3 ) crystal of perdeuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR; MW = 36 kDa) in order to help to determine the protonation state of the enzyme. h-AR belongs to the aldo-keto reductase family and is implicated in diabetic complications. Its ternary complexes (h-AR-coenzyme NADPH-selected inhibitor) provide a good model to study both the enzymatic mechanism and inhibition. Here, the successful production of fully deuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR(D)), subsequent crystallization of the ternary complex h-AR(D)-NADPH-IDD594 and neutron Laue data collection at the LADI instrument at ILL using a crystal volume of just 0.15 mm 3 are reported. Neutron data were recorded to 2 (angstrom) resolution, with subsequent data analysis using data to 2.2 (angstrom). This is the first fully deuterated enzyme of this size (36 kDa) to be solved by neutron diffraction and represents a milestone in the field, as the crystal volume is at least one order of magnitude smaller than those usually required for other high-resolution neutron structures determined to date. This illustrates the significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of data collected from perdeuterated crystals and demonstrates that good-quality neutron data can now be collected from more typical protein crystal volumes. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio is then dominated by other sources of instrument background, the nature of which is under investigation. This is important for the design of future instruments, which should take maximum advantage of the reduction in the intrinsic diffraction pattern background from fully deuterated samples.

  5. Application of some geometrical and empirical models to excess molar volume for the multi-component mixtures at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloukhani, H.; Khanlarzadeh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess molar volume of quartenary mixtures of 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, butylamine, and butylacetate was determined. ► The experimental data were correlated by some empirical and semi empirical models. ► A comparison with PFP theory has been successfully applied from binary data. - Abstract: Densities of the quaternary mixture consisting of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3) + butylacetate (4)} and related ternary mixtures of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3)}, {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2) + butylacetate (4)}, {2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3) + butylacetate (4)}, and binary systems of {1-chlorobutane (1) + 2-chlorobutane (2)}, {2-chlorobutane (2) + butylamine (3)}, were measured over the whole range of composition at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure. Excess molar volumes, V m E , for the mixtures were derived and correlated as a function of mole fraction by using the Redlich–Kister and the Cibulka equations for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. From the experimental data, partial molar volumes, V m,i and excess partial molar volumes, V m,i E were also calculated for binary systems. The experimental results of the constituted binary mixtures have been used to test the applicability of the Prigogine–Flory–Paterson (PFP) theory. A number of geometrical and empirical equations were also used to verify their ability to predict ternary and quaternary properties from their lower order mixtures. The experimental data were used to evaluate the nature and type of intermolecular interactions in multi-component mixtures.

  6. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : technical report on prototype development and field testing of R.E.S.C.U.M.E. applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This document is the final project technical report for the development and field testing of the Response, Emergency Staging, Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) application bundle, with a focus on the Incident Zone (I...

  7. Application of gamma irradiation on eggs, active and quiescence stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch as a quarantine treatment of cut flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osouli, Sh.; Ziaie, F.; Haddad Irani Nejad, K.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) is amongst the most serious pests of cut flowers and ornamentals. In this research the effects of gamma irradiation on different biological stages (including quiescent stages) of this pest have been studied. Irradiation at the doses of 250, 250, 200, 250, 200, 350 and 300 Gy causes sterility of females who were able to reach to adult stage from eggs, larva, protochrysalis, protonymph, deutochrysalis, deutonymph and teliochrysalis stages, respectively. The irradiation caused a decrease in percentage of mites entering the adult stage, developed the adult mite‘s longevity, number of laid eggs per adult female emerged from irradiated immature stages, and finally a retardation of embryonic and post-embryonic development. The sex ratio of the adult mites resulted from irradiated immature stages was biased towards females through increase of dose. The adult mites developed from irradiated two-day old eggs, three-day old eggs, larva, protochrysalis and deutochrysalis at 100, 350, 300, 350 and 350 Gy, respectively, were 100% females. In general the females resulted from irradiated quiescent stages have shown a high sensitivity to characteristics like eggs hatchability percentage and the emerged adult's sex ratio. On the other hand with regard to percentage of immature mites developed to adult stages, longevity of adult males and females, number of eggs laid by females and the time needed to complete their development, teliochrysalis has been the most tolerant stage. Also a 300 Gy dose could cause sterility in females irradiated at deutonymph stage and mated with adult males irradiated before mating and prevent their eggs to be hatched. In conclusion the most tolerance stages of this mite for most of characteristics was generally the most developed ones and a dose of around 300 Gy could be a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for Tetranychus urticae Koch. - Highlights: • The effects of γ-radiation on embryonic stages of

  8. High-throughput analysis using non-depletive SPME: challenges and applications to the determination of free and total concentrations in small sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacı, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Reyes-Garcés, Nathaly; Poole, Justen J; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Teixeira, Alexandre; Nicol, Beate; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-18

    In vitro high-throughput non-depletive quantitation of chemicals in biofluids is of growing interest in many areas. Some of the challenges facing researchers include the limited volume of biofluids, rapid and high-throughput sampling requirements, and the lack of reliable methods. Coupled to the above, growing interest in the monitoring of kinetics and dynamics of miniaturized biosystems has spurred the demand for development of novel and revolutionary methodologies for analysis of biofluids. The applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is investigated as a potential technology to fulfill the aforementioned requirements. As analytes with sufficient diversity in their physicochemical features, nicotine, N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, and diclofenac were selected as test compounds for the study. The objective was to develop methodologies that would allow repeated non-depletive sampling from 96-well plates, using 100 µL of sample. Initially, thin film-SPME was investigated. Results revealed substantial depletion and consequent disruption in the system. Therefore, new ultra-thin coated fibers were developed. The applicability of this device to the described sampling scenario was tested by determining the protein binding of the analytes. Results showed good agreement with rapid equilibrium dialysis. The presented method allows high-throughput analysis using small volumes, enabling fast reliable free and total concentration determinations without disruption of system equilibrium.

  9. Bridge between control science and technology. Volume 5 Manufacturing man-machine systems, computers, components, traffic control, space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rembold, U; Kempf, K G; Towill, D R; Johannsen, G; Paul, M

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: robotics; CAD/CAM applications; and man-machine systems. Consideration is also given to: tools and software for system design and integration; communication systems for real-time computer control; fail-safe design of real-time computer systems; and microcomputer-based control systems. Additional topics discussed include: programmable and intelligent components and instruments in automatic control; transportation systems; and space applications of automatic control systems.

  10. Gliomas: Application of Cumulative Histogram Analysis of Normalized Cerebral Blood Volume on 3 T MRI to Tumor Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Ryoo, Inseon; Kim, Soo Chin; Yeom, Jeong A.; Shin, Hwaseon; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, A. Leum; Yun, Tae Jin; Park, Chul-Kee; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma grading assumes significant importance in that low- and high-grade gliomas display different prognoses and are treated with dissimilar therapeutic strategies. The objective of our study was to retrospectively assess the usefulness of a cumulative normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) histogram for glioma grading based on 3 T MRI. Methods From February 2010 to April 2012, 63 patients with astrocytic tumors underwent 3 T MRI with dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging. Regions of interest containing the entire tumor volume were drawn on every section of the co-registered relative CBV (rCBV) maps and T2-weighted images. The percentile values from the cumulative nCBV histograms and the other histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grades. Cochran’s Q test and the McNemar test were used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the histogram parameters after the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Using the parameter offering the highest diagnostic accuracy, a validation process was performed with an independent test set of nine patients. Results The 99th percentile of the cumulative nCBV histogram (nCBV C99), mean and peak height differed significantly between low- and high-grade gliomas (P = histogram analysis of nCBV using 3 T MRI can be a useful method for preoperative glioma grading. The nCBV C99 value is helpful in distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas and grade IV from III gliomas. PMID:23704910

  11. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  12. Amelioration of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cultivars by Exogenous Application of Sulfur at Seedling Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riffat, A.; Ahmad, M. S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur is an important plant nutrient involved in seed germination and seedling establishment. It also plays an important role in response of plants to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity. A study was conducted to assess the role of sulfur on salinity tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) at seed germination stage. Six varieties (Sadaf, MMRI, Pearl Basic, Agaitti 2003, Saiwal 2002 and Pak Afgoi 2003) and two hybrids (Yusafwala Hybrid and Hybrid 1898) of maize were used to assess the modulation of salt stress by exogenously applied sulfur. Three NaCl (25, 50 and 75 mM) and five potassium sulfate (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mM) levels were applied to plants as sand amendment at sowing time along with a control. The experiment was laid down in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates. The data for various germination attributes were recorded. The results revealed that sulfur application significantly modulated all germination parameters i-e. germination percentage germination index, coefficient of velocity of emergence, mean emergence time, vigour index, germination energy, germination speed, mean daily germination and germination value and thus reduced the toxic effect of salinity. It was found that sulfur at 60 and 80 mM had more pronounced effect in enhancing seed germination. Application of sulfur at 60 to 80 mM improved all germination parameters and reduced time needed for 50 percent seed to germinate. The phylogenetic tree constructed by NTSysPC clearly clustered all genotypes the two distinct clusters. The tolerant cluster mainly contained 4 varieties (Sadaf, MMRI, Pearl Basic and Agati 2003) while the sensitive cluster included two varieties (Sahiwal 2002, Pak Afgoi 2003) and two hybrids (Hybrid 1898 and Yusaf wala hybrid). Based on the distance matrixes generated by software, Agati 2003 proved to be the most tolerant genotype. In comparison, a maize variety (Pak Afgoi-2003) and a Hybrid-1898 showed the least improvement by exogenously applied

  13. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav; Duras, Petr; Třeška, Vladislav; Matoušková, Táňa; Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub; Lysák, Daniel; Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  14. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav, E-mail: ludvikj@fnplzen.cz; Duras, Petr [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Třeška, Vladislav [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Matoušková, Táňa [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Lysák, Daniel [Charles University, Department of Haemato-Oncology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  15. RETRAN-02: a program for transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of complex fluid-flow systems. Volume 4. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Gose, G.C.; McFadden, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    RETRAN-02 represents a significant achievement in the development of a versatile and reliable computer program for use in best estimate transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor systems. The RETRAN-02 computer program is an extension of the RETRAN-01 program designed to provide analysis capabilities for 1) BWR and PWR transients, 2) small break loss of coolant accidents, 3) balance of plant modeling, and 4) anticipated transients without scram, while maintaining the analysis capabilities of the predecessor code. The RETRAN-02 computer code is constructed in a semimodular and dynamic dimensioned form where additions to the code can be easily carried out as new and improved models are developed. This report (the fourth of a five volume computer code manual) describes the verification and validation of RETRAN-02

  16. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Luccichenti, Giacomo; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics [it

  17. Assembly Discontinuity Factors for the Neutron Diffusion Equation discretized with the Finite Volume Method. Application to BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, A.; Roman, J.E.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method is proposed to solve the eigenvalue problem of the Neutron Diffusion Equation in BWR. • The Neutron Diffusion Equation is discretized with the Finite Volume Method. • The currents are calculated by using a polynomial expansion of the neutron flux. • The current continuity and boundary conditions are defined implicitly to reduce the size of the matrices. • Different structured and unstructured meshes were used to discretize the BWR. - Abstract: The neutron flux spatial distribution in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) can be calculated by means of the Neutron Diffusion Equation (NDE), which is a space- and time-dependent differential equation. In steady state conditions, the time derivative terms are zero and this equation is rewritten as an eigenvalue problem. In addition, the spatial partial derivatives terms are transformed into algebraic terms by discretizing the geometry and using numerical methods. As regards the geometrical discretization, BWRs are complex systems containing different components of different geometries and materials, but they are usually modelled as parallelepiped nodes each one containing only one homogenized material to simplify the solution of the NDE. There are several techniques to correct the homogenization in the node, but the most commonly used in BWRs is that based on Assembly Discontinuity Factors (ADFs). As regards numerical methods, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) is feasible and suitable to be applied to the NDE. In this paper, a FVM based on a polynomial expansion method has been used to obtain the matrices of the eigenvalue problem, assuring the accomplishment of the ADFs for a BWR. This eigenvalue problem has been solved by means of the SLEPc library.

  18. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  19. Institutional origins of the Department of Energy: the Office of Military Application. Energy History Series Volume 1, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, R.M.

    1980-08-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 brought together for the first time in one department most of the government's energy programs. With these programs came a score of organizational entities, each with its own history and traditions, from a dozen departments and independent agencies. This report traces the history of the Office of Military Application, from its inception as the Division of Military Application in the Atomic Energy Commission, through the Energy Research and Development Administration to its present status as an office in the Department of Energy

  20. Innovation in gynaecological brachytherapy: new technologies, pulse dose-rate brachytherapy, image, definition of new volumes of interest and their impact on dosimetry: application in a clinical research programme 'S.T.I.C.'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haie-Meder, C.; Peiffert, D.

    2006-01-01

    Brachytherapy plays a fundamental role in the therapeutic approach of patients with stage I-IV cervical carcinoma. Technical modalities have evolved during the last decades: stepping source technology, imaging modalities development, specially IMN, treatment planning system integrating 3D images. Images from CT-Scan and MRI have contributed to a better knowledge of tumoral extension and critical organs. CT and/or MRI compatible applicators allow a sectional image based approach with a better definition of tumour volume compared to traditional approaches. The introduction of 3D image based approach for GTV and CTV requires new definitions and a common language. In 2000, a working group within GEC-ESTRO was created to support 3D image based 3D treatment planning approach in cervix cancer BT. The task was to determine a common terminology enabling various groups to use a common language. Recommendations were described and proposed based on clinical experience and dosimetric concepts of different institutions. Two CTVs were described en relation to the risk for recurrence: high-risk CTV and intermediate risk CTV. In order to better define the role of such definitions and their potential impact on the complication incidence in patients with cervical cancer, a special French programme was developed. The aim of this programme is to study the incidence of the severe 2-year complication rate in two comparable patient populations: one population is treated using PDR brachytherapy with CT-Scan or MRI with the applicators in place allowing a 3D dosimetry with optimization, the second population is treated using standard X-rays radiographs, without any delineation of the target nor optimisation. Each population arm includes 425 patients. A medico-economic assessment is performed, allowing a real cost of the most sophisticated approach compared to a historical dosimetric system. (author)

  1. Assessing the impacts of truck based ultra-low volume applications of mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito control reduces populations of mosquitoes to minimize the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. As part of an integrated approach to mosquito control, application of adulticides can be effective in rapidly reducing mosquito populations during times of high arbovirus transmission. However, impact...

  2. Worldwide Intelligent Systems: Approaches to Telecommunications and Network Management. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, Jay, Ed.; Prerau, David S., Ed.

    This is an international collection of 12 papers addressing artificial intelligence (AI) and knowledge technology applications in telecommunications and network management. It covers the latest and emerging AI technologies as applied to the telecommunications field. The papers are: "The Potential for Knowledge Technology in…

  3. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 1. [thermal analyzer manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.

  4. Low volume, large force (>1mN) and nanometer resolution, electrostatic microactuator for low displacement applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic microactuator suitable for low displacement applications is proposed. The actuator employs a large number of basic units working in parallel together with a built-in mechanical transformation to generate large force. Influence of distinct design parameters on actuator

  5. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  6. Application of single-incision transvaginal mesh in a woman undergoing peritoneal dialysis and suffering from refractory advanced stage pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Sun

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Patients with POP at an advanced stage during peritoneal dialysis who failed to be treated conservatively may require a surgical intervention. Uterus-sparing transvaginal mesh was a feasible minimal invasive option.

  7. EVALUATION OF INTERNALLY STAGED COAL BURNERS AND SORBENT JET AERODYNAMICS FOR COMBINED SO2/NOX CONTROL IN UTILITY BOILERS, VOLUME 1, TESTING IN A 10 MILLION BTU/HR EXPERIMENTAL FURNACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document gives results of tests conducted in a 2 MWt experimental furnace to: (1) investigate ways to reduce NOx emissions from utility coal burners without external air ports (i.e., with internal fuel/air staging); and (2) improve the performance of calcium-based sorbents fo...

  8. Setting the Stage with Geometry: Lessons & Worksheets to Build Skills in Measuring Perimeter, Area, Surface Area, and Volume. Poster/Teaching Guide. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Setting the Stage with Geometry" is a new math program aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards that is designed to help students in grades 6-8 build and reinforce basic geometry skills for measuring 2D and 3D shapes. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation, this program seeks to provide skill-building math…

  9. Interim report on the development and application of environmental mapped data digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software for the ALICE system. Volume II. [MAP, CHAIN, FIX, and DOUT, in FORTRAN IV for PDP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiot, L.W.; Lima, R.J.; Scholbrock, S.D.; Shelman, C.B.; Wehman, R.H.

    1979-06-01

    Volume I of An Interim Report on the Development and Application of Environmental Mapped Data Digitization, Encoding, Analysis, and Display Software for the ALICE System provided an overall description of the software developed for the ALICE System and presented an example of its application. The scope of the information presented in Volume I was directed both to the users and developers of digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software. Volume II presents information which is directly related to the actual computer code and operational characteristics (keys and subroutines) of the software. Volume II will be of more interest to developers of software than to users of the software. However, developers of software should be aware that the code developed for the ALICE System operates in an environment where much of the peripheral hardware to the PDP-10 is ANL/AMD built. For this reason, portions of the code may have to be modified for implementation on other computer system configurations. 11 tables.

  10. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 1: Guidelines for evaluating the management and operations planning of photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to the Field Centers for organization, scheduling, project and cost control, and performance in the areas of project management and operations planning for Photovoltaics Test and Applications. These guidelines may be used in organizing a T and A Project Team for system design/test, site construction and operation, and as the basis for evaluating T and A proposals. The attributes are described for project management and operations planning to be used by the Field Centers. Specifically, all project management and operational issues affecting costs, schedules and performance of photovoltaic systems are addressed. Photovoltaic tests and applications include residential, intermediate load center, central station, and stand-alone systems. The sub-categories of system maturity considered are: Initial System Evaluation Experiments (ISEE); System Readiness Experiments (SRE); and Commercial Readiness Demonstration Projects (CRDP).

  11. Calibration of Nanopositioning Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy is one of the most important criteria for the performance evaluation of micro- and nanorobots or systems. Nanopositioning stages are used to achieve the high positioning resolution and accuracy for a wide and growing scope of applications. However, their positioning accuracy and repeatability are not well known and difficult to guarantee, which induces many drawbacks for many applications. For example, in the mechanical characterisation of biological samples, it is difficult to perform several cycles in a repeatable way so as not to induce negative influences on the study. It also prevents one from controlling accurately a tool with respect to a sample without adding additional sensors for closed loop control. This paper aims at quantifying the positioning repeatability and accuracy based on the ISO 9283:1998 standard, and analyzing factors influencing positioning accuracy onto a case study of 1-DoF (Degree-of-Freedom nanopositioning stage. The influence of thermal drift is notably quantified. Performances improvement of the nanopositioning stage are then investigated through robot calibration (i.e., open-loop approach. Two models (static and adaptive models are proposed to compensate for both geometric errors and thermal drift. Validation experiments are conducted over a long period (several days showing that the accuracy of the stage is improved from typical micrometer range to 400 nm using the static model and even down to 100 nm using the adaptive model. In addition, we extend the 1-DoF calibration to multi-DoF with a case study of a 2-DoF nanopositioning robot. Results demonstrate that the model efficiently improved the 2D accuracy from 1400 nm to 200 nm.

  12. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    time of application. Such designs were probably influenced by the ready availabilit " 51 of fire-fighting hoses on ships and tugs; the water stream not...8217 I I1 ---- i . . .. . IIII . . . I I PREFACE The use of chemicals for the dispersal of oil spilled on water has been the subject of discussion (and of...20 Oil Type, Weathering and Emulsification.. 20 Slick Thickness .......................... 28 Water Temperature

  13. Peer Tutoring and Clinical Stage: analysis of experience and potential applications in the First Level Degree Course in Nursing, section of Desenzano Del Garda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Biondo, Paolo; Avino, Nicola; Podavini, Enrica; Prandelli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Among the various methods of learning and experience in the literature, the methodology of Peer Tutoring is particularly important for the formation of the student nurses. The Peer Tutoring identifies a model of cooperative learning, aiming to activate a spontaneous process to transfer knowledge, emotions and experiences from some members of a group to other members of equal status but with a difference in the knowledge and cognitive skills or relational. The First level degree course in Nursing, section of Desenzano del Garda (Brescia, Italy) has been applying a methodology that can be defined as Peer Tutoring for the last four years. The applicability of the method is based on the coupling of an expert student of the 3rd year of the course to a group of students from the 1st or 2nd year. The study has the main objective to analyze the experience in the branch of Desenzano del Garda and see if the learning method of the Peer Tutoring is valid within the context of clinical internship. The study, of descriptive-observational type, was conducted in the academic year 2013-2014. The samples in the research are two: the first sample consisted of 53 students in their first year of studies, 46 students of the 2nd year of the course and 30 students of the 3rd year of the course who attended the experience as tutoring students (students tutors), for a total of 129 students; the second sample consisted of 15 students of the 3rd year of the course who attended the experience of the Peer Tutoring applied to the Stage clinical students as tutors (students Tutor). The research allowed important information to be gathered regarding the utility and interventions to improve the quality of the project of Peer tutoring. Peer Tutoring is a learning methodology that works and that can be applied in learning pathways for nursing students. The training of students Tutor is a matter of considerable importance: in fact the students ask to be trained to respect the structure and functions

  14. Stage-by-Stage and Parallel Flow Path Compressor Modeling for a Variable Cycle Engine, NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program - Commercial Supersonic Technology Project - AeroServoElasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Cheng, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the development of stage-by-stage and parallel flow path compressor modeling approaches for a Variable Cycle Engine. The stage-by-stage compressor modeling approach is an extension of a technique for lumped volume dynamics and performance characteristic modeling. It was developed to improve the accuracy of axial compressor dynamics over lumped volume dynamics modeling. The stage-by-stage compressor model presented here is formulated into a parallel flow path model that includes both axial and rotational dynamics. This is done to enable the study of compressor and propulsion system dynamic performance under flow distortion conditions. The approaches utilized here are generic and should be applicable for the modeling of any axial flow compressor design accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  15. Nanostructural Free-Volume Effects in Humidity-Sensitive MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klym, H.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Hadzaman, I.; Hotra, O.; Kostiv, Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Technologically modified spinel MgO-Al2O3 ceramics were prepared from Al2O3 and 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·5H2O powders at sintering temperatures of 1200, 1300, and 1400 °C. Free-volume structural effects in MgO-Al2O3 ceramics and their electrophysical properties were studied using combined x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Hg-porosimetry, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It is shown that increasing of sintering temperature from 1200 to 1400 °C results in the transformation of pore size distribution in ceramics from tri- to bi-modal including open macro- and meso(micro)pores with sizes from ten to hundreds nm and nanopores with sizes up to a few nm. Microstructure of these ceramics is improved with the increase of sintering temperature, which results in decreased amount of additional phases located near grain boundaries. These phase extractions serve as specific trapping centers for positrons penetrating the ceramics. The positron trapping and ortho-positronium decaying components are considered in the mathematical treatment of the measured spectra. Classic Tao-Eldrup model is used to draw the correlation between the ortho-positronium lifetime and the size of nanopores, which is complementary to porosimetry data. The studied ceramics with optimal nanoporous structure are highly sensitive to humidity changes in the region of 31-96% with minimal hysteresis in adsorption-desorption cycles.

  16. Spine segmentation from C-arm CT data sets: application to region-of-interest volumes for spinal interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, C.; Lorenz, C.; Babic, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.; Homan, R.; Nachabe, R.; Racadio, J. M.; Grass, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spinal fusion is a common procedure to stabilize the spinal column by fixating parts of the spine. In such procedures, metal screws are inserted through the patients back into a vertebra, and the screws of adjacent vertebrae are connected by metal rods to generate a fixed bridge. In these procedures, 3D image guidance for intervention planning and outcome control is required. Here, for anatomical guidance, an automated approach for vertebra segmentation from C-arm CT images of the spine is introduced and evaluated. As a prerequisite, 3D C-arm CT images are acquired covering the vertebrae of interest. An automatic model-based segmentation approach is applied to delineate the outline of the vertebrae of interest. The segmentation approach is based on 24 partial models of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae which aggregate information about (i) the basic shape itself, (ii) trained features for image based adaptation, and (iii) potential shape variations. Since the volume data sets generated by the C-arm system are limited to a certain region of the spine the target vertebra and hence initial model position is assigned interactively. The approach was trained and tested on 21 human cadaver scans. A 3-fold cross validation to ground truth annotations yields overall mean segmentation errors of 0.5 mm for T1 to 1.1 mm for C6. The results are promising and show potential to support the clinician in pedicle screw path and rod planning to allow accurate and reproducible insertions.

  17. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  18. High-Frequency Jet Ventilation for Complete Target Immobilization and Reduction of Planning Target Volume in Stereotactic High Single-Dose Irradiation of Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lung Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Peter; Kraus, Hans-Joerg; Muehlnickel, Werner; Sassmann, Volker; Hering, Werner; Strauch, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of complete target immobilization by means of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV); and to show that the saving of planning target volume (PTV) on the stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) under HFJV, compared with SBRT with respiratory motion, can be predicted with reliable accuracy by computed tomography (CT) scans at peak inspiration phase. Methods and Materials: A comparison regarding different methods for defining the PTV was carried out in 22 patients with tumors that clearly moved with respiration. A movement span of the gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined by fusing respiration-correlated CT scans. The PTV enclosed the GTV positions with a safety margin throughout the breathing cycle. To create a PTV from CT scans acquired under HFJV, the same margins were drawn around the immobilized target. In addition, peak inspiration phase CT images (PIP-CTs) were used to approximate a target immobilized by HFJV. Results: The resulting HFJV-PTVs were between 11.6% and 45.4% smaller than the baseline values calculated as respiration-correlated CT-PTVs (median volume reduction, 25.4%). Tentative planning by means of PIP-CT PTVs predicted that in 19 of 22 patients, use of HFJV would lead to a reduction in volume of ≥20%. Using this threshold yielded a positive predictive value of 0.89, as well as a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.5. Conclusions: In all patients, SBRT under HFJV provided a reliable immobilization of the GTVs and achieved a reduction in PTVs, regardless of patient compliance. Tentative planning facilitated the selection of patients who could better undergo radiation in respiratory standstill, both with greater accuracy and lung protection.

  19. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  20. The Application of Le Chatelier – Brown Principle for Interpretation of the Results of the LongLasting Fluctuations of the Electric Strength in Minor Volumes of Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Glagolev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a Le Chatelier – Brown principle to describe a balanced state in various physical problems. The Le Chatelier – Brown principle applications are demonstrated in problems of chemical thermodynamics, mechanics, electrodynamics as well as in descriptions of biosphere processes. The paper defines an inverse correlation for the Kullback's measure values of fluctuations of the electric strength in minor volumes of electrolytes on the density of entropy production in the environment. It shows that influence of dissipative processes on isolated electrolytic cell can be described using the Le Chatelier – Brown principle. The correlation coefficient of Kullback's measure values and density of entropy production in transformation of the Sun radiation into the Earth surface thermal radiation is calculated.

  1. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. II. Entomologic and operational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R T; Solis, M; Weathers, D B; Taylor, J W

    1975-03-01

    In a large-scale study in the Miragoane Valley of Haiti, designed to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria, spray operations resulted in an immediate and sharp decline in numbers of the vector, Anopheles albimanus. The adult population of this mosquito remained at less than 1% of previous levels until several weeks after a 50-day spray period (27 October-16 December 1972) during which six cycles were completed. The study area offered ideal conditions of wind, temperature, humidity, and mountain barriers. Mosquitoes in the area were highly susceptible to malathion. Results indicated that aerial ULV treatment with malathion can reduce A. albimanus populations rapidly and effectively when applications are made over an area as large as 20,000 acres. Preliminary results showed that effective control was not achieved in areas one-quarter that size; these areas were not sufficiently large, and infiltration of mosquitoes from adjacent untreated areas was possible.

  2. 1993 RCRA Part B permit renewal application, Savannah River Site: Volume 10, Consolidated Incineration Facility, Section C, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molen, G.

    1993-08-01

    This section describes the chemical and physical nature of the RCRA regulated hazardous wastes to be handled, stored, and incinerated at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site. It is in accordance with requirements of South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.13(a) and(b), and 270.14(b)(2). This application is for permit to store and teat these hazardous wastes as required for the operation of CIF. The permit is to cover the storage of hazardous waste in containers and of waste in six hazardous waste storage tanks. Treatment processes include incineration, solidification of ash, and neutralization of scrubber blowdown

  3. New application of 18F-fluoride PET for the detection of bone remodeling in early-stage osteoarthritis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Inaba, Yutaka; Tateishi, Ukihide; Yukizawa, Yohei; Ike, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tomio; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have reported the acceleration of subchondral bone remodeling during the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is not possible to evaluate such molecular abnormalities using conventional radiographic techniques. We have applied 18F-fluoride PET to the analysis of painful or dysplastic hips at various stages of OA and then compared this with radiographic findings and clinical findings. A consecutive series of 65 joints from 48 patients (average age, 40 years; range, 19-72 years) with a hip joint complaint or radiographic dysplastic hip were enrolled in this study. Twenty-five contralateral joints without any evidence of OA or clinical symptoms were assigned as a normal control group. Radiographic evaluations were performed on the basis of Kellgren and Lawrence grade and the minimum joint space. Clinical evaluations were performed using the grading scale for pain severity and the SUVmax was measured for each joint. The association between SUVmax and the radiographic or clinical findings was evaluated. 18F-fluoride PET shows a significantly higher uptake value for progressive-stage OA cases than for early-stage cases and also shows a significantly higher uptake value in cases with severe pain. Even in early-OA-stage patients who do not show joint space narrowing on a plain x-ray, cases with severe pain show a significantly higher uptake value. 18F-fluoride PET has great potential as an imaging method for diagnosing early-stage OA without any marked radiographic changes.

  4. Impaired Skin Barrier Due to Sebaceous Gland Atrophy in the Latent Stage of Radiation-Induced Skin Injury: Application of Non-Invasive Diagnostic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyosun Jang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced skin injury can take the form of serious cutaneous damage and have specific characteristics. Asymptomatic periods are classified as the latent stage. The skin barrier plays a critical role in the modulation of skin permeability and hydration and protects the body against a harsh external environment. However, an analysis on skin barrier dysfunction against radiation exposure in the latent stage has not been conducted. Thus, we investigated whether the skin barrier is impaired by irradiation in the latent stage and aimed to identify the molecules involved in skin barrier dysfunction. We analyzed skin barrier function and its components in SKH1 mice that received 20 and 40 Gy local irradiation. Increased transepidermal water loss and skin pH were observed in the latent stage of the irradiated skin. Skin barrier components, such as structural proteins and lipid synthesis enzymes in keratinocyte, increased in the irradiated group. Interestingly, we noted sebaceous gland atrophy and increased serine protease and inflammatory cytokines in the irradiated skin during the latent period. This finding indicates that the main factor of skin barrier dysfunction in the latent stage of radiation-induced skin injury is sebaceous gland deficiency, which could be an intervention target for skin barrier impairment.

  5. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 1: Model development and applications, part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The development, fabrication and evaluation of a prototype electromechanical actuator (EMA) is discussed. Application of the EMA as a motor for control surfaces in aerospace flight is examined. A mathematical model of the EMA is developed for design optimization. Nonlinearities which complicate the mathematical model are discussed. The dynamics of the EMA from the underlying physical principles are determined and a discussion of similating the control logic by means of equivalent boolean expressions is presented.

  6. A distribution benefits model for improved information on worldwide crop production. Volume 1: Model structure and application to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.

    1976-01-01

    The improved model is suitable for the study of benefits of worldwide information on a variety of crops. Application to the previously studied case of worldwide wheat production shows that about $108 million per year of distribution benefits to the United States would be achieved by a satellite-based wheat information system meeting the goals of LACIE. The model also indicates that improved information alone will not change world stock levels unless production itself is stabilized. The United States benefits mentioned above are associated with the reduction of price fluctuations within the year and the more effective use of international trade to balance supply and demand. Price fluctuations from year to year would be reduced only if production variability were itself reduced.

  7. Evaluation of synthetic rainfall application with respect to the flow volume at upstream Brantas watershed, East Java Province of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limantara Lily Montarcih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Technical Implementation Unit (UPT of Synthetic Rainfall has modified climate by generating synthetic rainfall from 9th May until 4th June 2013. This unit has cooperated with the Department of Technological Study and Application (BPPT of Indonesia and Perum Jasa Tirta I and TNI AU Lanud Abdulrachman Saleh. This study intended to increase reservoirs water level in upstream Brantas watershed, one of them is Sutami reservoir. Successive grade evaluation of synthetic rainfall used the method of Double Ratio and Flow Discharge. The target area is upstream Brantas watershed that is represented by 12 rainfall stations and the control area is in the distance of ±30 km from the boundary of upstream Brantas watershed and is represented by 5 rainfall stations. Results show rainfall increasing by 152.05% according to the Double Ratio method and the increase of flow discharge from Sutami reservoir by 74.19% according to the Flow Discharge method.

  8. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  9. Population projection and development of the loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi, as affected by temperature: application of an age-stage, two-sex life table

    Science.gov (United States)

    The loreyi leafworm, Mythimna (=Leucania) loreyi (Duponchel), has recently emerged as a major pest of grain crops in China. Little is known about its basic biology and ecology, making it difficult to predict its population dynamics. An age-stage, two-sex life table was constructed for this insect wh...

  10. Resistance and tolerance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), in rice infested at different growth stages across a gradient of nitrogen applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G; Peñalver Cruz, Ainara; Bernal, Carmencita C; Ramal, Angelee Fame; Almazan, Maria Liberty P; Wilby, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    High resource availability can reduce anti-herbivore resistance (a plant's ability to defend against herbivores and reduce damage) in rice, Oryza sativa L, but may also increase tolerance (a plant's ability to withstand damage by, for example, compensatory growth). Through a series of greenhouse, screenhouse and field experiments, this study examines fitness (survival and development × reproduction) of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), on resistant (IR62) and susceptible (IR22) rice varieties and age-related rice tolerance to planthopper damage under varying resource (nitrogenous fertilizer) availability. Planthoppers reared on IR62 in the greenhouse had lower fitness than planthoppers on IR22. IR62 became increasingly resistant as plants aged. IR22 was generally more tolerant of planthopper damage, and tolerance increased in IR22, but declined in IR62, as the plants aged. Rice plants infested at pre-tillering stages (3-4 leaf stage) in the screenhouse had greater losses to root, shoot and grain yield per unit weight of planthopper than plants infested at tillering stages, particularly in IR22. These trends were mainly due to the impact of planthoppers during pre-tillering stages and the length of exposure to the planthoppers. High nitrogen compromised IR62 resistance, particularly in tillering plants in the greenhouse study; however, high nitrogen did not increase planthopper biomass-density on IR62 in greenhouse or field cages. Tolerance to damage in IR62 at mid-tillering stages declined under increasing levels of nitrogen, but nitrogen increased tolerance during late-tillering stages. Planthopper damage to IR22 in field cages was severe and hopperburn (plant death) occurred in 83% of IR22 plants under high nitrogen (60-150 kg N ha -1 ). In contrast, despite planthopper infestations, damage to IR62 was low in field-grown plants and productivity (tillers, roots, shoots and grain) increased in IR62 under increasing nitrogen. Our results

  11. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  12. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  13. Identification of growth stage molecular markers in Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' and their potential application in monitoring fungal growth and development in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio; Steyaert, Johanna; Nieto-Jacobo, Maria Fernanda; Holyoake, Andrew; Braithwaite, Mark; Stewart, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Several members of the genus Trichoderma are biocontrol agents of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents depends heavily on how they perform in the complex field environment. Therefore, the ability to monitor and track Trichoderma within the environment is essential to understanding biocontrol efficacy. The objectives of this work were to: (a) identify key genes involved in Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' morphogenesis; (b) develop a robust RNA isolation method from soil; and (c) develop molecular marker assays for characterizing morphogenesis whilst in the soil environment. Four cDNA libraries corresponding to conidia, germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were created, and the genes identified by sequencing. Stage specificity of the different genes was confirmed by either Northern blot or quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis using RNA from the four stages. con10, a conidial-specific gene, was observed in conidia, as well as one gene also involved in subsequent stages of germination (L-lactate/malate dehydrogenase encoding gene). The germination stage revealed high expression rates of genes involved in amino acid and protein biosynthesis, while in the vegetative-growth stage, genes involved in differentiation, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase similar to Kpp7 from Ustilago maydis and the orthologue to stuA from Aspergillus nidulans, were preferentially expressed. Genes involved in cell-wall synthesis were expressed during conidiogenesis. We standardized total RNA isolation from Trichoderma sp. 'atroviride type B' growing in soil and then examined the expression profiles of selected genes using qRT-PCR. The results suggested that the relative expression patterns were cyclic and not accumulative.

  14. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  15. Assessment of United States industry structural codes and standards for application to advanced nuclear power reactors: Appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    Throughout its history, the USNRC has remained committed to the use of industry consensus standards for the design, construction, and licensing of commercial nuclear power facilities. The existing industry standards are based on the current class of light water reactors and as such may not adequately address design and construction features of the next generation of Advanced Light Water Reactors and other types of Advanced Reactors. As part of their on-going commitment to industry standards, the USNRC commissioned this study to evaluate US industry structural standards for application to Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. The initial review effort included (1) the review and study of the relevant reactor design basis documentation for eight Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactor Designs, (2) the review of the USNRCs design requirements for advanced reactors, (3) the review of the latest revisions of the relevant industry consensus structural standards, and (4) the identification of the need for changes to these standards. The results of these studies were used to develop recommended changes to industry consensus structural standards which will be used in the construction of Advanced Light Water Reactors and Advanced Reactors. Over seventy sets of proposed standard changes were recommended and the need for the development of four new structural standards was identified. In addition to the recommended standard changes, several other sets of information and data were extracted for use by USNRC in other on-going programs. This information included (1) detailed observations on the response of structures and distribution system supports to the recent Northridge, California (1994) and Kobe, Japan (1995) earthquakes, (2) comparison of versions of certain standards cited in the standard review plan to the most current versions, and (3) comparison of the seismic and wind design basis for all the subject reactor designs

  16. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy.

  17. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  18. Effects of "Like Type" Sex Pairings between Applicants-Principals and Type of Focal Position Considered at the Screening Stage of the Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the screening decisions for a national random sample of high school principals as viewed from the attraction-similarity theory of interpersonal perceptions. Independent variables are the sex of principals, sex of applicants, and the type of focal positions sought by hypothetical job applicants (teacher or counselor). Dependent…

  19. A simple diabetes vascular severity staging instrument and its application to a Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal adult cohort of north Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Odette R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop an instrument that predicts diabetes-related vascular disease severity using routinely collected data on Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with type 2 diabetes, in the absence of diabetes duration. Methods A complex diabetes severity classification system was simplified and adapted for use with an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult population with type 2 diabetes in north Queensland. Detailed vascular health risks and morbidities were mapped to routinely collected measures. Individual–level health screening, hospital separation and mortality data were linked and used to plot mean monthly in-patient hospital cost and percent mortality by disease severity as defined by the newly developed instrument, to test construct validity. Results The revised instrument consists of four combined diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular stages that range from least severe (stage 1 to severe irreversible vascular impairment (stage 4. When applied to data of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian population the instrument showed good construct validity, predicting higher hospital cost and mortality as vascular disease severity increased. Conclusions This instrument discriminates between levels of diabetes-related vascular disease severity, displays good construct validity by predicting increased hospital cost and mortality with worsening severity and can be populated with routinely collected data. It may assist with future health service research and its use could be extended to practice settings for health care planning for diabetes management programs and monitoring vascular disease progression.

  20. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  1. Determination of the best application time of 2,4-D 14C-labelled herbicides and 14C-labelled glyphosate for translocation to the root system of Glycyrrhiza Glabra vegetative growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, H.; Fathollahi, H.; Naserian, B.; Majd, F.; Rahimian, H.; Ghanbari, A.; Minbashi, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this research work, four different growth stages of Glycyrrhiza Glabra were studied separately and under green house conditions, and in all of these stages the plants were treated by labelled herbicides 14 C-2,4-D and 14 C-Glyphosate through the ad axial surface with activity of 0.60μci up to 0.1018 μci (in each 10μLi of solution). The plants were harvested 72 hours after treatment. They were divided into treated leaf, leaves and stem above the treated leaf and leaves and stem below the treated leaf and root. The amount of radio labelled herbicides in each homo genus solution (produced from extraction of herbicides from plants samples) was quantified using liquid scintillation counter. The amount of herbicide mobility and transfer to different parts of Glycyrrhiza Glabra in each growth stage were determined. This study shows that the best application time of 2,4-D for translocation to the root system of the plant is at 6- leaf stage, and 2,4-D indicates more trans loc ability as compared with Glyphosate

  2. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m 2 , and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  3. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 18 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about pulse power technology and its application sub-volume

  4. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--radiation research and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 12 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation research and its application sub-volume

  5. Application of Nanotrap technology for high sensitivity measurement of urinary outer surface protein A carboxyl-terminus domain in early stage Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Ruben; Espina, Benjamin H; Shah, Ketul; Lepene, Benjamin; Mayuga, Christine; Douglas, Temple A; Espina, Virginia; Rucker, Sally; Dunlap, Ross; Petricoin, Emanuel F Iii; Kilavos, Mary Frekko; Poretz, Donald M; Irwin, Gilbert R; Shor, Samuel M; Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra

    2015-11-04

    Prompt antibiotic treatment of early stage Lyme borreliosis (LB) prevents progression to severe multisystem disease. There is a clinical need to improve the diagnostic specificity of early stage Lyme assays in the period prior to the mounting of a robust serology response. Using a novel analyte harvesting nanotechnology, Nanotrap particles, we evaluated urinary Borrelia Outer surface protein A (OspA) C-terminus peptide in early stage LB before and after treatment, and in patients suspected of late stage disseminated LB. We employed Nanotrap particles to concentrate urinary OspA and used a highly specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a detector of the C-terminus peptides. We mapped the mAb epitope to a narrow specific OspA C-terminal domain OspA236-239 conserved across infectious Borrelia species but with no homology to human proteins and no cross-reactivity with relevant viral and non-Borrelia bacterial proteins. 268 urine samples from patients being evaluated for all categories of LB were collected in a LB endemic area. The urinary OspA assay, blinded to outcome, utilized Nanotrap particle pre-processing, western blotting to evaluate the OspA molecular size, and OspA peptide competition for confirmation. OspA test characteristics: sensitivity 1.7 pg/mL (lowest limit of detection), % coefficient of variation (CV) = 8 %, dynamic range 1.7-30 pg/mL. Pre-treatment, 24/24 newly diagnosed patients with an erythema migrans (EM) rash were positive for urinary OspA while false positives for asymptomatic patients were 0/117 (Chi squared p antibiotic therapy, 10/10 were positive for urinary OspA. Urinary OspA of 8/8 patients switched from detectable to undetectable following symptom resolution post-treatment. Specificity of the urinary OspA test for the clinical symptoms was 40/40. Specificity of the urinary OspA antigen test for later serology outcome was 87.5 % (21 urinary OspA positive/24 serology positive, Chi squared p = 4.072e(-15)). 41 of 100 patients under

  6. Effect of Spray Application of Calcium Compounds Combined with Free Polyamines at Different Growth Stages on Physiological Problems and Yield of ‘Ahmad-Aghaii’ Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid mohammadi

    2017-08-01

    , spermidine and spermine at concentration of 0.5 mM. Spraying were applied at different growth stages including two weeks after full bloom (stage 1, six weeks after full bloom (just before endocarp hardening (stage 2 and the combination sprays of stage 1 and stage 2. Different traits including the percentages of abscission of inflorescence buds, cracking, blankness, early splitting, nut deformation, non-splitting and splitting as well as yield, leaf area and vegetative growth were measured. The individual shoot was the experimental unit and analyses of variance were performed using the General Linear Models procedure of SAS. Means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test (P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the main physiological problems of pistachio crop were decreased by application of calcium compounds combined with free polyamines. Spray application of the mentioned treatments was more effective at combined stages of 1 and 2 rather than the stages separately. It was resulted that calcium nitrate combined with spermine and spermidine treatments at combined stages of 1 and 2 reduced the abscission of inflorescence buds, blankness, nut deformation and non-splitting. Also, it was found that calcium nitrate combined with spermidine at combined stages of 1 and 2 reduced the percentage of early splitting while splitting and yield were increased. Spray application of free polyamines combined with calcium compounds did not affect the length and diameter of current-year shoots but significantly increased the leaf area. It seems that calcium plays a key role in conjunction with free polyamines especially spermidine and spermine in decreasing the abscission of inflorescence buds via improving the stability of cell wall and preventing abscission layer formation. It also seems that polyamines reduce the abscission of inflorescence buds by antagonism with ethylene, possibly by competing for S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, a common precursor of both plant

  7. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (4). 7. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry for drug development. Human mass balance studies at discovery stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Teiji

    2005-01-01

    Following the recent trend of Position Paper issued from European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products on the non-clinical safety studies to support clinical trials with a single micro dose, human mass balance studies at discovery stages were made with special interest in using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) with a small amount of hot (radioisotope-labeled) drug. This method was found to be effective for the purpose of screening in the clinical study for pharmaceutical development. To show an example of the test, 5, 50, 500μg/body of C14-ARA (α1A adrenoreceptor antagonist, 50 nCi or 1.85 kBq/body/dose) were given (cross over) to several persons to be inspected and C14-quantity in the blood plasma or urine was determined with AMS until after 168 hours or so. The results of the present experiment demonstrate that human mass balance study at discovery stages is possible with ultra high sensitive measuring systems such as AMS and PET (positron emission tomography). (S. Ohno)

  8. Cu deficiency in multi-stage co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} for solar cells applications: Microstructure and Ga in-depth alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, R., E-mail: raquel.caballero@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Izquierdo-Roca, V. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fontane, X. [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, C.A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Alvarez-Garcia, J. [Centre de Recerca i Investigacio de Catalunya (CRIC), Trav. de Gracia 108, 08012 Barcelona (Spain); Eicke, A. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Calvo-Barrio, L. [Lab. Analisis de Superficies, SCT, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Schock, H.W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Morante, J.R. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of the maximum Cu content during the deposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) by multi-stage co-evaporation on the phases present in the final film, the film structure and the electrical properties of resulting solar cell devices. The variation of the composition is controlled by the Cu content in stage 2 of the deposition process. The different phases are identified by Raman spectroscopy. The in-depth Ga gradient distribution is investigated by in-depth resolved Raman scattering and secondary neutral mass spectroscopy. The morphology of the devices is studied by scanning electron microscopy. Efficiencies of 9.2% are obtained for ordered-vacancy-compound-based cells with a Cu/(In + Ga) ratio = 0.35, showing the system's flexibility. This work supports the current growth model: a small amount of Cu excess during the absorber process is required to obtain a quality microstructure and high performance devices.

  9. Systems Biology Methods for Alzheimer's Disease Research Toward Molecular Signatures, Subtypes, and Stages and Precision Medicine: Application in Cohort Studies and Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, Juan I; Lista, Simone; Hampel, Harald; Ritchie, Craig W

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex multifactorial disease, involving a combination of genomic, interactome, and environmental factors, with essential participation of (a) intrinsic genomic susceptibility and (b) a constant dynamic interplay between impaired pathways and central homeostatic networks of nerve cells. The proper investigation of the complexity of AD requires new holistic systems-level approaches, at both the experimental and computational level. Systems biology methods offer the potential to unveil new fundamental insights, basic mechanisms, and networks and their interplay. These may lead to the characterization of mechanism-based molecular signatures, and AD hallmarks at the earliest molecular and cellular levels (and beyond), for characterization of AD subtypes and stages, toward targeted interventions according to the evolving precision medicine paradigm. In this work, an update on advanced systems biology methods and strategies for holistic studies of multifactorial diseases-particularly AD-is presented. This includes next-generation genomics, neuroimaging and multi-omics methods, experimental and computational approaches, relevant disease models, and latest genome editing and single-cell technologies. Their progressive incorporation into basic research, cohort studies, and trials is beginning to provide novel insights into AD essential mechanisms, molecular signatures, and markers toward mechanism-based classification and staging, and tailored interventions. Selected methods which can be applied in cohort studies and trials, with the European Prevention of Alzheimer's Dementia (EPAD) project as a reference example, are presented and discussed.

  10. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  11. Summary Stage 2018 - SEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access this manual of codes and coding instructions for the summary stage field for cases diagnosed January 1, 2018 and forward. 2018 version applies to every site and/or histology combination, including lymphomas and leukemias. Historically, also called General Staging, California Staging, and SEER Staging.

  12. Application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and 105-C process water tunnels at the Hanford Site: Volume 2 - source term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Winslow, S.L.; Moeller, M.P.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    As part of environmental restoration activities at the Hanford Site, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. is conducting a series of evaluations to determine appropriate release conditions for specific facilities following the completion of decontamination and decommissioning projects. The release conditions, with respect to the residual volumetric radioactive contamination, are termed authorized limits. This report presents the summary of the supporting information and the final application for approval of derived authorized limits for the release of the 190-C trenches and the 105-C process water tunnels. This document contains two volumes; this volume (Vol. 2) contains the radiological characterization data, spreadsheet analyses, and radiological source terms

  13. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage meta...... is surprisingly similar and thus we are not able to detect any significant difference in performance between the two interfaces. Qualitative data however, suggests that the stage metaphor is largely favoured for its intuitive interaction - confirming earlier studies....

  14. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  15. A method to combine target volume data from 3D and 4D planned thoracic radiotherapy patient cohorts for machine learning applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Corinne; Price, Gareth; Khalifa, Jonathan; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Dekker, Andre; Moore, Christopher; van Herk, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    The gross tumour volume (GTV) is predictive of clinical outcome and consequently features in many machine-learned models. 4D-planning, however, has prompted substitution of the GTV with the internal gross target volume (iGTV). We present and validate a method to synthesise GTV data from the iGTV,

  16. Industrial Application of an Improved Multiple Injection and Multiple Staging Combustion Technology in a 600 MWe Supercritical Down-Fired Boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minhang; Zeng, Lingyan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Zhengqi; Zhu, Qunyi; Kuang, Min

    2016-02-02

    To solve the water wall overheating in lower furnace, and further reduce NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash, continuous improvement of the previously proposed multiple injection and multiple staging combustion (MIMSC) technology lies on three aspects: (1) along the furnace arch breadth, changing the previously centralized 12 burner groups into a more uniform pattern with 24 burners; (2) increasing the mass ratio of pulverized coal in fuel-rich flow to that in fuel-lean flow from 6:4 to 9:1; (3) reducing the arch-air momentum by 23% and increasing the tertiary-air momentum by 24%. Industrial-size measurements (i.e., adjusting overfire air (OFA) damper opening of 20-70%) uncovered that, compared with the prior MIMSC technology, the ignition distance of fuel-rich coal/air flow shortened by around 1 m. The gas temperature in the lower furnace was symmetric and higher, the flame kernel moved upward and therefore made the temperature in near-wall region of furnace hopper decrease by about 400 °C, the water wall overheating disappeared completely. Under the optimal OFA damper opening (i.e, 55%), NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash attained levels of 589 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 6.18%, respectively, achieving NOx and carbon in fly ash significant reduction by 33% and 37%, respectively.

  17. Cross-orientation masking in human color vision: application of a two-stage model to assess dichoptic and monocular sources of suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jin; Gheiratmand, Mina; Mullen, Kathy T

    2013-05-28

    Cross-orientation masking (XOM) occurs when the detection of a test grating is masked by a superimposed grating at an orthogonal orientation, and is thought to reveal the suppressive effects mediating contrast normalization. Medina and Mullen (2009) reported that XOM was greater for chromatic than achromatic stimuli at equivalent spatial and temporal frequencies. Here we address whether the greater suppression found in binocular color vision originates from a monocular or interocular site, or both. We measure monocular and dichoptic masking functions for red-green color contrast and achromatic contrast at three different spatial frequencies (0.375, 0.75, and 1.5 cpd, 2 Hz). We fit these functions with a modified two-stage masking model (Meese & Baker, 2009) to extract the monocular and interocular weights of suppression. We find that the weight of monocular suppression is significantly higher for color than achromatic contrast, whereas dichoptic suppression is similar for both. These effects are invariant across spatial frequency. We then apply the model to the binocular masking data using the measured values of the monocular and interocular sources of suppression and show that these are sufficient to account for color binocular masking. We conclude that the greater strength of chromatic XOM has a monocular origin that transfers through to the binocular site.

  18. A comparison of tumor motion characteristics between early stage and locally advanced stage lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z. Henry; Lin, Steven H.; Balter, Peter; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the increasing use of conformal radiation therapy methods for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is necessary to accurately determine respiratory-induced tumor motion. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the motion characteristics of early and locally advanced stage NSCLC tumors in a large population and correlate tumor motion with position, volume, and diaphragm motion. Methods and materials: A total of 191 (94 early stage, 97 locally advanced) non-small cell lung tumors were analyzed for this study. Each patient received a four-dimensional CT scan prior to receiving radiation treatment. A soft-tissue-based rigid registration algorithm was used to track the tumor motion. Tumor volumes were determined based on the gross tumor volume delineated by physicians in the end of expiration phase. Tumor motion characteristics were correlated with their standardized tumor locations, lobe location, and clinical staging. Diaphragm motion was calculated by subtracting the diaphragm location between the expiration and the inspiration phases. Results: Median, max, and 95th percentile of tumor motion for early stage tumors were 5.9 mm, 31.0 mm, and 20.0 mm, which were 1.2 mm, 12 mm, and 7 mm more than those in locally advanced NSCLC, respectively. The range of motion at 95th percentile is more than 50% larger in early stage lung cancer group than in the locally advanced lung cancer group. Early stage tumors in the lower lobe showed the largest motion with a median motion of 9.2 mm, while upper/mid-lobe tumors exhibited a median motion of 3.3 mm. Tumor volumes were not correlated with motion. Conclusion: The range of tumor motion differs depending on tumor location and staging of NSCLC. Early stage tumors are more mobile than locally advanced stage NSCLC. These factors should be considered for general motion management strategies when 4D simulation is not performed on individual basis.

  19. Aplicação da análise custo/volume/lucro em pequena indústria de laticínios = Application of a cost/volume/profit analysis in a small industry of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Relata estudo de caso em que foi aplicada a Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro como instrumento de avaliação do desempenho de uma pequena indústria. Inicialmente foi efetuada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os conceitos utilizados, especialmente margem de contribuição, ponto de equilíbrio e margem de segurança. Em seguida, descreveu-se o contexto da empresa pesquisada, mostrando suas principais características. Posteriormente foram apresentadas as etapas seguidas para aplicação da Análise Custo/Volume/Lucro. Foram demonstrados os cálculos efetuados e comentados os resultados oriundos mais relevantes para a administração da organização enfocada pelo estudo. Por último, foram elencadas as informações gerenciais obtidas, ressaltadas as limitações inerentes à ferramenta utilizada e sugerido tema para trabalhos futuros.This article reports a study case in which a Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied asa tool to evaluate the performance of a small industry of dairy products. At first, abibliographic revision of the concepts was made, especially contribution margin, balancedpoint and security margin. After, the context of the industry was described, showing itsmain characteristics. After that, the steps which were followed so that the Cost/Volume/Profit Analysis was applied were presented, the calculi made were demonstrated andthe most relevant results from this study were commented for the industry management.Finally, the managerial information obtained was listed; emphasizing the limitations ofthe tool which was used and a theme for further research was suggested.

  20. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease > Stages Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: An Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Myths Clinical Studies Research Brain Donation ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  2. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  3. Stages and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  4. Early-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  6. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  7. DosedPet application for Nuclear Medicine: Calculation of the volume of medication needed for PET/CT patient; Aplicativo DosedPet para uso em Medicina Nuclear: calculo do volume de medicamento necessario para paciente de PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck, E-mail: pedroan88@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias em Saude

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the facilities after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  8. Application of individually performed acrylic cement spacers containing 5% of antibiotic in two-stage revision of hip and knee prosthesis due to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiak, Ireneusz

    2012-07-03

    Deep infection of a joint endoprosthesis constitutes a threat to the stability of the implant and joint function. It requires a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach, involving the joint revision and removal of the bacterial biofilm from all tissues, the endoprosthesis must be often removed and bone stock infection treated. The paper presents the author's experience with the use of acrylic cement spacers, custom-made during the surgery and containing low dose of an antibiotic supplemented with 5% of a selected, targeted antibiotic for the infection of hip and knee endoprostheses. 33 two-stage revisions of knee and hip joints with the use of a spacer were performed. They involved 24 knee joints and 9 hip joints. The infections were mostly caused by staphylococci MRSA (18) and MSSA (8), and in some cases Enterococci (4), Salmonella (1), Pseudomonas (1) and Acinetobacter (1). The infection was successfully treated in 31 out of 33 cases (93.93%), including 8 patients with the hip infection and 23 patients with the knee infection. The endoprosthesis was reimplanted in 30 cases: for 7 hips and 23 knees, in 3 remaining cases the endoprosthesis was not reimplanted. Mechanical complications due to the spacer occurred in 4 cases: 3 dislocations and 1 fracture (hip spacer). The patients with hip spacers were ambulatory with a partial weight bearing of the operated extremity and those with knee spacers were also ambulatory with a partial weight bearing, but the extremity was initially protected by an orthosis. The spacer enables to maintain a limb function, and making it by hand allows the addition of the specific bacteria targeted antibiotic thus increasing the likelihood of the effective antibacterial treatment.

  9. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  11. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the omentum. The cancer ... lymph nodes behind the peritoneum. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to the ...

  12. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  15. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  16. Nitrogen Fertilizer and Straw Applications Affect Uptake of 13C,15N-Glycine by Soil Microorganisms in Wheat Growth Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Yang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of nitrogen (N fertilizer and straw on intact amino acid N uptake by soil microorganisms and the relationship between amino acid turnover and soil properties during the wheat growing season. A wheat pot experiment was carried out with three treatments: control (CK, N fertilizer (NF and N fertilizer plus rice straw (NS. We used stable isotope compound-specific analysis to determine the uptake of 13C,15N-glycine by soil microorganisms. In the NF treatment, microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake was lower compared with CK, suggesting that inorganic N was the preferred N source for soil microorganisms. However, The application of straw with N fertilizer (in NS treatment increased microbial 13C,15N-glycine uptake even with the same amount of N fertilizer application. In this treatment, enzyme activities, soil microbial biomass C and microbial biomass N increased simultaneously because more C was available. Soil mineral N and plant N contents all decreased substantially. The increased uptake of intact 13C,15N-glycine in the NS treatment can be attributed to direct assimilation by soil microorganisms to satisfy the demand for N when inorganic N was consumed.

  17. Application of the PFV EoS correlation to excess molar volumes of (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate + alkanols) at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deenadayalu, N.; Sen, S.; Sibiya, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental densities for the binary systems of an ionic liquid and an alkanol {1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate [EMIM] + [EtSO 4 ] - + methanol or 1-propanol or 2-propanol} were determined at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The excess molar volumes for the above systems were then calculated from the experimental density values for each temperature. The Redlich-Kister smoothing polynomial was used to fit the experimental results and the partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. For all the systems studied, the excess molar volume results were negative over the entire composition range for all the temperatures. The excess molar volumes were correlated with the pentic four parameter virial (PFV) equation of state (EoS) model

  18. Application of IT-technologies in visualization of innovation project life-cycle stages during the study of the course "Management of innovation projects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolychev, V. D.; Prokhorov, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a methodology for the application of IT-technologies in teaching discipline "Management of innovation projects," which helps students to be more competitive and gather the useful skills for their future specialization in high-tech areas. IT-technologies