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Sample records for stage acceptance firing

  1. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of workers' health surveillance for fire fighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a new workers' health surveillance (WHS) for fire fighters in a Dutch pilot-implementation project. In three fire departments, between November 2007 and February 2009, feasibility was tested with respect to i) worker intent

  3. Feasibility and acceptability of workers' health surveillance for fire fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a new workers' health surveillance (WHS) for fire fighters in a Dutch pilot-implementation project. In three fire departments, between November 2007 and February 2009, feasibility was tested with respect to i) worker intent to change health and behavior; ii) the quality of instructions for testing teams; iii) the planned procedure in the field; and iv) future WHS organisation. Acceptability involved i) satisfaction with WHS and ii) verification of the job-specificity of the content of two physical tests of WHS. Fire fighters were surveyed after completing WHS, three testing teams were interviewed, and the content of the two tests was studied by experts. nearly all of the 275 fire fighters intended to improve their health when recommended by the occupational physician. The testing teams found the instructions to be clear, and they were mostly positive about the organisation of WHS. Acceptability: the fire fighters rated WHS at eight points (out of a maximum of ten). The experts also reached a consensus about the optimal job-specific content of the future functional physical tests. Overall, it is feasible and acceptable to implement WHS in a definitive form in the Dutch fire-fighting sector.

  4. Acceptance Probability (P a) Analysis for Process Validation Lifecycle Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmeyer, Daniel; Pazhayattil, Ajay; Chen, Shu; Munaretto, Francesco; Hye, Maksuda; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an innovative statistical approach towards understanding how variation impacts the acceptance criteria of quality attributes. Because of more complex stage-wise acceptance criteria, traditional process capability measures are inadequate for general application in the pharmaceutical industry. The probability of acceptance concept provides a clear measure, derived from specific acceptance criteria for each quality attribute. In line with the 2011 FDA Guidance, this approach systematically evaluates data and scientifically establishes evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. The probability of acceptance provides a direct and readily understandable indication of product risk. As with traditional capability indices, the acceptance probability approach assumes that underlying data distributions are normal. The computational solutions for dosage uniformity and dissolution acceptance criteria are readily applicable. For dosage uniformity, the expected AV range may be determined using the s lo and s hi values along with the worst case estimates of the mean. This approach permits a risk-based assessment of future batch performance of the critical quality attributes. The concept is also readily applicable to sterile/non sterile liquid dose products. Quality attributes such as deliverable volume and assay per spray have stage-wise acceptance that can be converted into an acceptance probability. Accepted statistical guidelines indicate processes with C pk > 1.33 as performing well within statistical control and those with C pk  1.33 is associated with a centered process that will statistically produce less than 63 defective units per million. This is equivalent to an acceptance probability of >99.99%.

  5. Experiences in early stage Alzheimer's disease: understanding the paradox of acceptance and denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Colleen R

    2005-09-01

    A wealth of information about the biomedical aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent dementia among people over age 65, stands in counterpoint to the lack of systematic inquiry around the lived experiences of people with AD. Thirteen (four women, nine men) people, recently diagnosed with early stage AD, participated in this 6-month longitudinal study. This paper reports on AD participant's interviews which focussed on their experiences of AD symptoms, relationships with family and friends, and thoughts about the future. The transcribed interviews, analysed using methodological hermeneutics, revealed a constitutive theme of agency versus objectification and explained the paradox of why people with AD use both acceptance and denial when speaking about their experiences. Participants simultaneously acknowledged and resisted aspects of their disease in order to maintain agency in the face of cognitive losses. Acknowledgement was expressed through the themes involving acceptance of the disease and its symptoms, expression of feelings about the disease, and strategies to cope with the symptoms. Resistance was expressed in themes involving denial, minimization, normalization, and reminiscence about achievements and experiences of competence. Longitudinal analyses of the narratives indicated themes held across time. This research contributes to understanding how people live with early stage AD. Living with AD should not be described as either denial or acceptance, but rather as a paradox of understanding that includes both acknowledgement and resistance.

  6. The physical demands upon (Dutch) fire-fighters in relation to the maximum acceptable energetic workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jurriaan; Mol, Eric; Visser, Bart; Frings-Dresen, Monique

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the tasks and activities that make physical demands on Dutch fire-fighters and to compare them with a guideline related to the development of excessive fatigue. The occupational physical demands on Dutch fire-fighters were assessed by conducting a task analysis

  7. Stages of Adoption Concern and Technology Acceptance in a Critical Care Nursing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gina M; LoCurto, Jamie; Lippoldt, Diana

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the stages of concern (self, task, and impact) and usability (trust, perceived usefulness, and ease of use) shifts experienced by nurses adopting new technology. Patient care processes in critical care units can be disrupted with the incorporation of information technology. New users of technology typically transition through stages of concern and experience shifts in acceptance during assimilation. Critical care nurses (N = 41) were surveyed twice: (1) pre, immediately after training, and (2) post, 3 months after implementation of technology. From presurvey to postsurvey, self-concerns decreased 14%, whereas impact concerns increased 22%. Furthermore, there was a 30% increase in trust and a 17% increase in perceived usefulness, even with a 27% decrease in ease of use. Adoption of new technology requires critical care nurses to adapt current practices, which may improve trust and perceived usefulness yet decrease perceptions of ease of use.

  8. A Stage I Pilot Study of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Methadone Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L.; Green, Charles; Masuda, Akihiko; Grabowski, John; Wilson, Kelly; Northrup, Thomas; Moeller, F. Gerard; Schmitz, Joy

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND While agonist replacement therapies are effective for managing opioid dependence, community treatment programs are increasingly choosing detoxification. Unfortunately, success rates for opioid detoxification are very low, in part, due to physical and psychological symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. Few behavior therapies specifically address the distressing experiences specific to opioid withdrawal. A novel behavioral treatment, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), works from the premise that the avoidance of unpleasant private experiences (thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations) is ubiquitous yet may be pathogenic, resulting in treatment drop-out and further drug use. METHODS This Stage I pilot study developed and tested an ACT-based opioid detoxification behavioral therapy. Opioid dependent patients (N = 56) who were attending a licensed methadone clinic were randomized to receive either 24 individual therapy sessions of ACT or Drug Counseling (DC) in the context of a 6-month methadone dose reduction program. RESULTS While no difference was found on opioid use during treatment, 37% of participants in the ACT condition were successfully detoxified at the end of treatment compared to 19% of those who received DC. Fear of detoxification was also reduced across time in the ACT condition relative to DC. CONCLUSION This first study of ACT to assist opioid detoxification indicates promise. Research is needed to refine specific treatment strategies for this population to further strengthen effects. PMID:22425411

  9. Offer acceptance practices and geographic variability in allocation model for end-stage liver disease at transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Andrew; Pyke, Joshua; Schladt, David P; Gentry, Sommer E; Weaver, Tim; Salkowski, Nicholas; Kasiske, Bertram L; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J

    2018-04-01

    Offer acceptance practices may cause geographic variability in allocation Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (aMELD) score at transplant and could magnify the effect of donor supply and demand on aMELD variability. To evaluate these issues, offer acceptance practices of liver transplant programs and donation service areas (DSAs) were estimated using offers of livers from donors recovered between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016. Offer acceptance practices were compared with liver yield, local placement of transplanted livers, donor supply and demand, and aMELD at transplant. Offer acceptance was associated with liver yield (odds ratio, 1.32; P offer acceptance (r = 0.09; P = 0.50). Additionally, the association between DSA-level donor-to-candidate ratios and aMELD at transplant did not change after adjustment for offer acceptance. The average squared difference in median aMELD at transplant across DSAs was 24.6; removing the effect of donor-to-candidate ratios reduced the average squared differences more than removing the effect of program-level offer acceptance (33% and 15% reduction, respectively). Offer acceptance practices and donor-to-candidate ratios independently contributed to geographic variability in aMELD at transplant. Thus, neither offer acceptance nor donor-to-candidate ratios can explain all of the geographic variability in aMELD at transplant. Liver Transplantation 24 478-487 2018 AASLD. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Qualitative study on needs and wishes of early-stage dementia caregivers: the paradox between needing and accepting help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Lizzy M M; Wolfs, Claire A G; Verhey, Frans R J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; de Vugt, Marjolein E

    2015-06-01

    Early individualized interventions for informal dementia caregivers can prevent overburdening in the later stages. However, the needs of early-stage dementia caregivers (EDC) remain largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the needs and wishes and need for care of EDC to maximize the benefit of potential programs for EDC and tailor interventions accordingly. Four focus group interviews with 28 informal caregivers of people with dementia (PwD) were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Both EDC and caregivers in the later stages were included to compare perceived EDC needs from different points in the caregiver career. Four themes were identified: the early-stage needs paradox, barriers in acceptance, facilitators in acceptance, and a transition from loss to adaptation. The retrospective view provided by later-stage caregivers differed from the view of EDC; EDC struggled with acknowledging needs due to fear of stigma and low acceptance. EDC stressed the importance of acceptance as a prerequisite for adequate adaptation, but were hindered by lack of knowledge, difficulty acknowledging changes, and focus on loss. In contrast, better understanding of the disease, increasing personal time, structuring ones day, and using appropriate humor can reduce negative communication, increase positive encounters and caregiver-confidence, contributing to positive interaction with the care recipient and an increase in well-being. Early therapeutic interventions could help caregivers identify their needs, increase knowledge about changes in roles and relationship reciprocity, and focus on enhancement of the positive, intact experiences to prevent caregiver burden.

  11. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  12. Hot-Fire Test of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen Space Launch Mission Injector Applicable to Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Greg; Turpin, Jason; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task is to hot-fire test an existing Space Launch Mission (SLM) injector that is applicable for all expander cycle engines being considered for the exploration upper stage. The work leverages investment made in FY 2013 that was used to additively manufacture three injectors (fig. 1) all by different vendors..

  13. Evolution of gene expression in fire ants: the effects of developmental stage, caste, and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Lino; Shoemaker, DeWayne; Ross, Kenneth G; Keller, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Ants provide remarkable examples of equivalent genotypes developing into divergent and discrete phenotypes. Diploid eggs can develop either into queens, which specialize in reproduction, or workers, which participate in cooperative tasks such as building the nest, collecting food, and rearing the young. In contrast, the differentiation between males and females generally depends upon whether eggs are fertilized, with fertilized (diploid) eggs giving rise to females and unfertilized (haploid) eggs giving rise to males. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the relative contributions of gender (sex), caste, developmental stage, and species divergence to gene expression evolution, we investigated gene expression patterns in pupal and adult queens, workers, and males of two species of fire ants, Solenopsis invicta and S. richteri. Microarray hybridizations revealed that variation in gene expression profiles is influenced more by developmental stage than by caste membership, sex, or species identity. The second major contributor to variation in gene expression was the combination of sex and caste. Although workers and queens share equivalent diploid nuclear genomes, they have highly distinctive patterns of gene expression in both the pupal and the adult stages, as might be expected given their extraordinary level of phenotypic differentiation. Overall, the difference in the proportion of differentially expressed genes was greater between workers and males than between workers and queens or queens and males, consistent with the fact that workers and males share neither gender nor reproductive capability. Moreover, between-species comparisons revealed that the greatest difference in gene expression patterns occurred in adult workers, a finding consistent with the fact that adult workers most directly experience the distinct external environments characterizing the different habitats occupied by the two species. Thus, much of the evolution of gene expression in ants may

  14. Effects on NOx and SO2 Emissions during Co-Firing of Coal With Woody Biomass in Air Staging and Reburning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihad Hodžić

    2018-02-01

    applied in the combustion chamber are compared and quantified with regard to conventional combustion of coals from Middle Bosnian basin. Article History: Received: November 5th 2017; Revised: Januari 6th 2018; Accepted: February 1st 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Hodžić, N., Kazagić, A., and Metović, S. (2018 Experimental Investigation of Co-Firing of Coal with Woody Biomass in Air Staging and Reburning. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.1-6

  15. Multi-stage approach to estimate forest biomass in degraded area by fire and selective logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E. G.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Arai, E.; Duarte, V.; Jorge, A.; Gasparini, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon forest has been the target of several threats throughout the years. Anthropogenic disturbances in the region can significantly alter this environment, affecting directly the dynamics and structure of tropical forests. Monitoring these threats of forest degradation across the Amazon is of paramount to understand the impacts of disturbances in the tropics. With the advance of new technologies such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) the quantification and development of methodologies to monitor forest degradation in the Amazon is possible and may bring considerable contributions to this topic. The objective of this study was to use remote sensing data to assess and estimate the aboveground biomass (AGB) across different levels of degradation (fire and selective logging) using multi-stage approach between airborne LiDAR and orbital image. The study area is in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. It is predominantly characterized by agricultural land and remnants of the Amazon Forest intact and degraded by either anthropic or natural reasons (selective logging and/or fire). More specifically, the study area corresponds to path/row 226/69 of OLI/Landsat 8 image. With a forest mask generated from the multi-resolution segmentation, agriculture and forest areas, forest biomass was calculated from LiDAR data and correlated with texture images, vegetation indices and fraction images by Linear Spectral Unmixing of OLI/Landsat 8 image and extrapolated to the entire scene 226/69 and validated with field inventories. The results showed that there is a moderate to strong correlation between forest biomass and texture data, vegetation indices and fraction images. With that, it is possible to extract biomass information and create maps using optical data, specifically by combining vegetation indices, which contain forest greening information with texture data that contains forest structure information. Then it was possible to extrapolate the biomass

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Improving Well-Being in Patients With Stage III-IV Cancer and Their Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm; Malignant Hepatobiliary Neoplasm; Partner; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Colorectal Cancer; Stage III Lung Cancer; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Skin Melanoma; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Cervical Cancer; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  17. Experimental-theoretical approach to carbon monoxide density calculation at the incipient stage of the fire indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzach, S. V.; Suleykin, E. V.; Akperov, R. G.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new experimental-theoretical approach to the toxic gases concentrations assessment in case of fire indoors is offered. The analytical formulas for calculation of CO average volume density are received. These formulas do not contain the geometrical sizes of the room and surfaces dimensions of combustible materials and, therefore, are valid under conditions of as a small-scale fire as a large-scale fire. A small-scale experimental installation for modeling fire thermal and gas dynamics in the closed or open thermodynamic system has been designed. The results of the experiments on determining dependencies of CO average volume density from average volume temperature and oxygen average volume density as well as dependencies of specific coefficients of CO emission and specific mass rates of the combustible material gasification from the time of tests during the burning of wood, transformer oil and PVC cables shield are presented. The results of numerical experiments on CO density calculation in small and large scale rooms using the proposed analytical solutions, integral, zone and field models for calculation of fire thermal and gas dynamics are presented. The comparison with the experimental data obtained by the authors and given in the literature has been performed. It is shown that CO density calculation in the full-scale room at the incipient stage of the fire can be carried out taking into account only the experimental dependences of CO from temperature or O2 density, that have been obtained from small-scale experiments. Therefore the solution of the equation of carbon monoxide mass conservation law is not necessary.

  18. Fire protection in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackroyd, G.C.; Lake, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    To reduce fire hazards at a nuclear power plant to an acceptable level it is stressed that the planning of a fire protection programme should be an integral part of the design stage. The formulation of a suitable programme involves assessment of direct danger and subsequent losses, devising preventative measures and devising fire fighting equipment. The sort of considerations that apply and measures that might be taken are outlined. (UK)

  19. Older Adults' Perceptions of and Preferences for a Fall Risk Assessment System: Exploring Stages of Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Colleen; Rantz, Marilyn; Back, Jessie; Jun, Jung Sim; Skubic, Marjorie; Miller, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    Aging in place is a preferred and cost-effective living option for older adults. Research indicates that technology can assist with this goal. Information on consumer preferences will help in technology development to assist older adults to age in place. The study aim was to explore the perceptions and preferences of older adults and their family members about a fall risk assessment system. Using a qualitative approach, this study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and preferences of 13 older adults and five family members about their experience living with the fall risk assessment system during five points in time. Themes emerged in relation to preferences and expectations about the technology and how it fits into daily routines. We were able to capture changes that occurred over time for older adult participants. Results indicated that there was acceptance of the technology as participants adapted to it. Two themes were present across the five points in time-safety and usefulness. Five stages of acceptance emerged from the data from preinstallation to 2 years postinstallation. Identified themes, stages of acceptance, and design and development considerations are discussed.

  20. Acceptability of bone antiresorptive therapy among HIV-infected adults at different stages of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Jillian; Arbess, Gordon; Owen, James; Guiang, Charlie B; Tan, Darrell H S

    2014-01-01

    Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture rates. To prepare for a randomized controlled trial of prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy during ART initiation, we assessed the acceptability of this strategy, bone health knowledge, and fracture risk among HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected adults with no history of osteoporosis were recruited from one tertiary and one primary care HIV clinic. Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent chart review. The primary outcome was the proportion of respondents expressing interest in taking prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy in conjunction with ART. Of 112 respondents, 25.0% were ART naïve, 23.2% had been taking ART for ≤1 year, and 51.8% had been taking ART for >1 year. Half (51.9%) indicated interest in taking short-course prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy; this did not differ by ART status (53.6% among ART-naïve, 51.3% among ART-treated; P=0.84, chi-square test). In exploratory multivariable analysis adjusted for ART status, a greater number of pills taken per day was positively associated with this outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.12 per pill, 95% confidence limit [CL] =1.01, 1.25), while male sex was inversely associated (adjusted OR =0.05, 95% CL =0.01, 0.24). Among those willing to take therapy, most (80.4%) were willing to do so for "as long as needed" and preferred weekly dosing (70.9%) to daily dosing (12.7%). Half of this sample would be willing to take bone antiresorptive therapy together with ART, with preferences for weekly dosing and for whatever duration may be required. These data will inform the design of future trials to protect bone health in HIV.

  1. A Qualitative Case Study to Investigate the Technology Acceptance Experience Outlined in the TAM Using the Kubler-Ross Stages of Grieving and Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Benjamin Eladio

    2015-01-01

    The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been an important model for the understanding of end user acceptance regarding technology and a framework used in thousands of researched scenarios since publication in 1986. Similarly, the Kubler-Ross model of death and dying has also been used as a model for the study of acceptance within the medical…

  2. Acceptability of bone antiresorptive therapy among HIV-infected adults at different stages of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jillian Taras,1 Gordon Arbess,1,2 James Owen,1,2 Charlie B Guiang,1,2 Darrell H S Tan1,3 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART are associated with ­significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture rates. To prepare for a randomized controlled trial of prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy during ART initiation, we assessed the acceptability of this strategy, bone health knowledge, and fracture risk among HIV-infected adults.Methods: HIV-infected adults with no history of osteoporosis were recruited from one tertiary and one primary care HIV clinic. Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent chart review. The primary outcome was the proportion of respondents expressing interest in taking prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy in conjunction with ART.Results: Of 112 respondents, 25.0% were ART naïve, 23.2% had been taking ART for ≤1 year, and 51.8% had been taking ART for >1 year. Half (51.9% indicated interest in taking short-course prophylactic bone antiresorptive therapy; this did not differ by ART status (53.6% among ART-naïve, 51.3% among ART-treated; P=0.84, chi-square test. In exploratory multivariable analysis adjusted for ART status, a greater number of pills taken per day was positively associated with this outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.12 per pill, 95% confidence limit [CL] =1.01, 1.25, while male sex was inversely associated (adjusted OR =0.05, 95% CL =0.01, 0.24. Among those willing to take therapy, most (80.4% were willing to do so for “as long as needed” and preferred weekly dosing (70.9% to daily dosing (12.7%.Conclusions: Half of this sample would be willing to take bone antiresorptive therapy together with ART, with preferences

  3. Morphological and transcriptomic analyses reveal three discrete primary stages of postembryonic development in the common fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Eugenia; Küpfer, Eliane; Goedbloed, Daniel J; Nolte, Arne W; Lüddecke, Tim; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2018-03-05

    The postembryonic development of amphibians has been characterized as divided into three predominant periods, hereafter named primary developmental stages: premetamorphosis (PreM), prometamorphosis (ProM), metamorphic climax (Meta), and completion of metamorphosis (PostM), largely based on examination of anuran development. Here, we categorized the postembryonic development of larvae of a poisonous fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) by integrating morphology and gene expression (transcriptomic) data. Morphological analysis revealed three distinct clusters suggestive of PreM, ProM, and Meta, which were confirmed in parallel by microarray-derived gene expression analysis. In total, 3,510 probes targeted transcripts differentially expressed between the clusters we identified. Genes upregulated in PreM related to organogenesis, and those upregulated in Meta underlie structural proteins and related to development of anatomical structures and pigmentation. Biosynthesis pathways of pigments (pteridines and melanin) were upregulated during late ProM and Meta. Gas chromatographic analysis of alkaloids indicated the onset of steroidal alkaloid biosynthesis at ProM. When comparing gene expression in the fire salamander to that in other amphibians-three anurans, Xenopus laevis, X. tropicalis, and Michrohyla fissipes, and one caudate, Ambystoma mexicanum- we identified genes with conserved expression patterns involved in basic metamorphic processes such as skin restructuring and tail fin resorption. Our results support that primary stages of postembryonic development in caudates are homologous to those of anurans, and offer a baseline for the study of the evolution of developmental modes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Establishing the accuracy and acceptability of abdominal ultrasound to define the foetal head position in the second stage of labour: a validation study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramphul, Meenakshi

    2012-09-01

    To compare the diagnosis of the foetal head position in the second stage of labour by ultrasound scan performed by a novice sonographer and by clinical assessment, to that of an expert sonographer (gold standard); and to evaluate the acceptability of ultrasound in the second stage of labour to women and clinicians.

  5. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  6. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  7. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics with respect to staged-air damper opening in a 600 MWe down-fired pulverized-coal furnace under deep-air-staging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Wang, Zhihua; Jing, Xinjing; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi; Ling, Zhongqian

    2014-01-01

    Deep-air-staging combustion conditions, widely used in tangential-fired and wall-arranged furnaces to significantly reduce NOx emissions, are premature up to now in down-fired furnaces that are designed especially for industry firing low-volatile coals such as anthracite and lean coal. To uncover combustion and NOx emission characteristics under deep-air-staging conditions within a newly operated 600 MWe down-fired furnace and simultaneously understand the staged-air effect on the furnace performance, full-load industrial-size measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the furnace, CO and NOx emissions in flue gas, and carbon in fly ash were performed at various staged-air damper openings of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%. Increasing the staged-air damper opening, gas temperatures along the flame travel (before the flame penetrating the staged-air zone) increased initially but then decreased, while those in the staged-air zone and the upper part of the hopper continuously decreased and increased, respectively. On opening the staged-air damper to further deepen the air-staging conditions, O2 content initially decreased but then increased in both two near-wall regions affected by secondary air and staged air, respectively, whereas CO content in both two regions initially increased but then decreased. In contrast to the conventional understanding about the effects of deep-air-staging conditions, here increasing the staged-air damper opening to deepen the air-staging conditions essentially decreased the exhaust gas temperature and carbon in fly ash and simultaneously increased both NOx emissions and boiler efficiency. In light of apparently low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash (i.e., 696-878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 9.81-13.05%, respectively) developing in the down-fired furnace under the present deep-air-staging conditions, further adjustments such as enlarging the staged-air declination angle to prolong pulverized-coal residence times in the

  8. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: pathogenesis and stage specificity in red imported fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Firth, Andrew E

    2014-07-01

    Solenopsis invicta colonies were exposed to purified preparations of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) to investigate virus pathogenesis at the colony level. Time course experiments revealed an infection exhibiting specificity for the adult stage (workers). SINV-3 genome and a capsid protein were increasingly present in worker ants with time. Northern blot analysis revealed two bands in RNA preparations from worker ants infected with SINV-3 corresponding to the genomic and sub-genomic species. Conversely, larval RNA preparations from SINV-3-infected colonies showed a near-complete absence of SINV-3 genome or sub-genome. The data confirm that SINV-3 is the etiological agent causing mortality among S. invicta colonies in the laboratory. We propose that SINV-3 infection somehow alters worker ant behavior, which may prevent them from acquiring and/or distributing solid food to the larvae. Consequently, larval mortality and impaired queen health occur as a result of starvation or neglect by the worker caste. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Overall evaluation of combustion and NO(x) emissions for a down-fired 600 MW(e) supercritical boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi

    2013-05-07

    To achieve significant reductions in NOx emissions and to eliminate strongly asymmetric combustion found in down-fired boilers, a deep-air-staging combustion technology was trialed in a down-fired 600 MWe supercritical utility boiler. By performing industrial-sized measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the near wing-wall region, carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions at various settings, effects of overfire air (OFA) and staged-air damper openings on combustion characteristics, and NOx emissions within the furnace were experimentally determined. With increasing the OFA damper opening, both fluctuations in NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash were initially slightly over OFA damper openings of 0-40% but then lengthened dramatically in openings of 40-70% (i.e., NOx emissions reduced sharply accompanied by an apparent increase in carbon in fly ash). Decreasing the staged-air declination angle clearly increased the combustible loss but slightly influenced NOx emissions. In comparison with OFA, the staged-air influence on combustion and NOx emissions was clearly weaker. Only at a high OFA damper opening of 50%, the staged-air effect was relatively clear, i.e., enlarging the staged-air damper opening decreased carbon in fly ash and slightly raised NOx emissions. By sharply opening the OFA damper to deepen the air-staging conditions, although NOx emissions could finally reduce to 503 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 (i.e., an ultralow NOx level for down-fired furnaces), carbon in fly ash jumped sharply to 15.10%. For economical and environment-friendly boiler operations, an optimal damper opening combination (i.e., 60%, 50%, and 50% for secondary air, staged-air, and OFA damper openings, respectively) was recommended for the furnace, at which carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions attained levels of about 10% and 850 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, respectively.

  10. Fuel loads and simulated fire behavior in "old-stage" beetle-infested ponderosa pine of the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Morris C. Johnson; Barbara J. Bentz; James C. Vandygriff; A. Steven. Munson

    2015-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have led to concerns regarding changes in fuel profiles and associated changes in fire behavior. Data are lacking for a range of infestation severities and time since outbreak, especially for relatively arid cover types. We surveyed fuel loads and simulated fire behavior for ponderosa pine stands of the...

  11. Safety design guides for fire protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide establishes design requirements to ensure the radiological risk to the public due to fire is acceptable and operating personnel are adequately protected from the hazards of fires. This safety design guide also specifies the safety criteria for fire protection to be applied to mitigate fires and recommends the fire protection program to be established to initiate, coordinate and document the design activities associated with fire protection. The requirements for fire protection outlined in this safety design guide shall be satisfied in the design stage and the change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and incorporated into this safety design guide accordingly. 1 fig., (Author) .new

  12. The designing of launch vehicles with liquid propulsion engines ensuring fire, explosion and environmental safety requirements of worked-off stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.

  13. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  14. Hot-Fire Test Results of an Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged-Combustion Integrated Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.; Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. For the thrust chamber assembly of the test article, several configurations of new main injectors, using relatively conventional gas-centered swirl coaxial injector elements, were designed and fabricated. The design and fabrication of these main injectors are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF meeting. New ablative combustion chambers were fabricated based on hardware previously used at NASA for testing at similar size and pressure. An existing oxygen/RP-1 oxidizer-rich subscale preburner injector from a previous NASA-funded program, along with existing and new inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware, were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. Results from independent hot-fire tests of the preburner injector in a combustion chamber with a sonic throat are described in companion papers at this JANNAF conference. The resulting integrated test article - which includes the preburner, inter-connecting hot gas duct, main injector, and ablative combustion chamber - was assembled at Test Stand 116 at the East Test Area of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The test article was well instrumented with static and dynamic pressure, temperature, and acceleration sensors to allow the collected data to be used for

  15. A longitudinal study on the acceptance and effects of a therapeutic renal food in pet dogs with IRIS-Stage 1 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Fritsch, D A; Yerramilli, M; Obare, E; Yerramilli, M; Jewell, D E

    2018-02-01

    Currently, nutritional management is recommended when serum creatinine (Cr) exceeds 1.4 mg/dl in dogs with IRIS-Stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) to slow progressive loss of kidney function, reduce clinical and biochemical consequences of CKD, and maintain adequate nutrition. It is unknown if dietary interventions benefit non-azotemic dogs at earlier stages. A prospective 12-month feeding trial was performed in client-owned dogs with IRIS-Stage 1 CKD (n = 36; 20 had persistently dilute urine with urine specific gravity (USG) 0.5; 10 had both). Ease of transition to therapeutic renal food and effects on renal biomarkers and quality of life attributes were assessed. Dogs were transitioned over 1 week from grocery-branded foods to renal food. At 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12-months a questionnaire to assess owner's perception of their pet's acceptance of renal food and quality of life was completed. Renal biomarkers, including serum Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and USG and UPC ratio were measured. Of 36 dogs initially enrolled, 35 (97%) dogs were transitioned to therapeutic renal food. Dogs moderately or extremely liked the food 88% of the time, ate most or all of the food 84% of the time, and were moderately or extremely enthusiastic while eating 76% of the time. All renal biomarkers (Cr, BUN, and SDMA) were decreased (p ≤ .05) from baseline at 3-months, and remained decreased from baseline at 12-months in dogs completing the study (n = 20). Proteinuria was reduced in 12 of 16 dogs (p = .045) with proteinuria. Owners reported improvement in overall health and quality of life attributes, and hair and coat quality (all p food. Decreasing serum biomarker concentrations and reduction in proteinuria suggest stabilized kidney function. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. An idealized model for tree-grass coexistence in savannas : The role of life stage structure and fire disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudena, Mara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340303867; D'Andrea, Fabio; Provenzale, A.

    2010-01-01

    1. We discuss a simple implicit-space model for the competition of trees and grasses in an idealized savanna environment. The model represents patch occupancy dynamics within the habitat and introduces life stage structure in the tree population, namely adults and seedlings. A tree can be

  17. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  18. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  19. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  20. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  1. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  2. Glovebox fire experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Keiichi; Sunaoshi, Mitsugu; Mishima, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Koichi.

    1979-01-01

    The gloveboxes used for plutonium facilities in Japan and foreign countries have considerable combustibles as their components, so that the fire resistivity of the gloveboxes is a serious problem in the safety evaluation of the facilities. Actually, a big fire having burned gloveboxes occurred in a foreign weapon facility. But the fire in the weapon facility should be distinguished from that in nuclear fuel facilities, since the former handles quite combustible plutonium metal, while the latter handle quite stable plutonium oxide. The countermeasures to fires should be decided, considering the properties and quantity of combustibles around gloveboxes and ventilation systems, as the probability and scale of fires can be presumed from them. From the viewpoint of safety, the experiment on glovebox fires was carried out by the Plutonium Fuel Division, PNC. The experimental conditions are explained. The samples were the acrylic resin panels with four glove ports and a small glovebox currently used. The glovebox showed the considerable fire resistance, and the panel hardly burned. The weakest component of the glovebox against fire was the gloves. The countermeasure to curtain the gloves with an insulating material seemed to be effective. The ventilation of the room and the glovebox worked as fire preventer at least in the first stage of fire. (Kako, I.)

  3. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  4. Acceptability and preliminary feasibility of an internet/CD-ROM-based education and decision program for early-stage prostate cancer patients: randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Michael A; Mohamed, Nihal E; Butz, Brian P; Bar-Chama, Natan; Stock, Richard; Cesaretti, Jamie; Hassan, Waleed; Samadi, David; Hall, Simon J

    2012-01-13

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men in the United States. Management options for localized disease exist, yet an evidence-based criterion standard for treatment still has to emerge. Although 5-year survival rates approach 98%, all treatment options carry the possibility for significant side effects, such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. It is therefore recommended that patients be actively involved in the treatment decision process. We have developed an Internet/CD-ROM-based multimedia Prostate Interactive Educational System (PIES) to enhance patients' treatment decision making. PIES virtually mirrors a health center to provide patients with information about prostate cancer and its treatment through an intuitive interface, using videos, animations, graphics, and texts. (1) To examine the acceptability and feasibility of the PIES intervention and to report preliminary outcomes of the program in a pilot trial among patients with a new prostate cancer diagnosis, and (2) to explore the potential impact of tailoring PIES treatment information to participants' information-seeking styles on study outcomes. Participants (n = 72) were patients with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer who had not made a treatment decision. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 experimental conditions: (1) control condition (providing information through standard National Cancer Institute brochures; 26%), and PIES (2) with tailoring (43%) and (3) without tailoring to a patient's information-seeking style (31%). Questionnaires were administrated before (t1) and immediately after the intervention (t2). Measurements include evaluation and acceptability of the PIES intervention, monitoring/blunting information-seeking style, psychological distress, and decision-related variables (eg, decisional confidence, feeling informed about prostate cancer and treatment, and treatment preference). The PIES program was well accepted by patients and did not interfere

  5. Advanced air/flue gas staging based on CFD modelling for enhanced combustion and burnout in a waste-wood fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the impacts of the jet momentum, position and orientation of air and Recycled Flue Gas (RFG) streams on the performance of a grate-fired boiler burning waste wood via a comprehensive CFD-based parametric study. It is found that the air and RFG jets can be optimized to enhance m...

  6. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  7. Fire investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, A.

    There was considerable progress made on several fronts of fire investigation in the United States in recent years. Progress was made in increasing the quantity of fire investigation and reporting, through efforts to develop the National Fire Incident Reporting System. Improving overall quality of fire investigation is the objective of efforts such as the Fire Investigation Handbook, which was developed and published by the National Bureau of Standards, and the upgrading and expanding of the ""dictionary'' of fire investigation and reporting, the NFPA 901, Uniform Coding for Fire Protection, system. The science of fire investigation as furthered also by new approaches to post fire interviews being developed at the University of Washington, and by in-depth research into factors involved in several large loss fires, including the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. Finally, the use of special study fire investigations - in-depth investigations concentrating on specific fire problems - is producing new glimpses into the nature of the national fire problem. A brief description of the status of efforts in each of these areas is discussed.

  8. Standpipe systems for fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Isman, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    This important new manual goes beyond the published NFPA standards on installation of standpipe systems to include the rules in the International Building Code, municipal fire codes, the National Fire Code of Canada, and information on inspection, testing, and maintenance of standpipe systems. Also covered are the interactions between standpipe and sprinkler systems, since these important fire protection systems are so frequently installed together. Illustrated with design examples and practical applications to reinforce the learning experience, this is the go-to reference for engineers, architects, design technicians, building inspectors, fire inspectors, and anyone that inspects, tests or maintains fire protection systems. Fire marshals and plan review authorities that have the responsibility for reviewing and accepting plans and hydraulic calculations for standpipe systems are also an important audience, as are firefighters who actually use standpipe systems. As a member of the committees responsible for s...

  9. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  10. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  11. Perceived Severity of Visually Accessible Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolf, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of past fires suggest that building occupants faced with a fire have problems defining the severity of it, especially in the early stages of the fire. An experiment was therefore carried out to study people’s ability to estimate fire growth, and their perceived ability to extinguish a fire using a portable fire extinguisher. A total of 535 persons, namely 304 men and 231 women, were asked to fill out a questionnaire that was divided into three parts. In the first part the test ...

  12. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  13. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  14. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  15. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  16. The effect of bi-directional reflectance distribution function on the estimation of vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI): A case study of the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire in northwestern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.; Matsuyama, H.; Tsuzuki, H.; Sweda, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dependence of the satellite data on sun/sensor geometry must be considered in the case of monitoring vegetation from satellites. Vegetation structure causes uneven scattering of sunlight, which is expressed by bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of BRDF of monitoring vegetation using the reflectance of visible and near-infrared bands. We investigated the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire (main species: spruce) in the northwestern Canada. BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) was measured in the seven sites of some succession stages, along with the measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and biomass. The main results obtained in this study are summarized as follows. (1) In each site, the difference of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) value around 0.1-0.2 was caused by BRDF when the sensor angle was changed from -15deg to 15 deg, being equivalent to the standard image of IKONOS. Also, LAI estimated by NDVI varied from 22% to 65% of the average. (2) The robustness of other vegetation indices to BRDF was compared. The reflectance of the near-infrared band normalized by the sum of other bands (nNIR), and Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI) were investigated along with NDVI. It is clarified that nNIR was most robust in the site where vegetation existed. GEMI was most robust in the sites of scarce vegetation, while NDVI was strongly affected by BRDF in such sites

  17. Fire Whirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Ali; Gollner, Michael J.; Xiao, Huahua

    2018-01-01

    Fire whirls present a powerful intensification of combustion, long studied in the fire research community because of the dangers they present during large urban and wildland fires. However, their destructive power has hidden many features of their formation, growth, and propagation. Therefore, most of what is known about fire whirls comes from scale modeling experiments in the laboratory. Both the methods of formation, which are dominated by wind and geometry, and the inner structure of the whirl, including velocity and temperature fields, have been studied at this scale. Quasi-steady fire whirls directly over a fuel source form the bulk of current experimental knowledge, although many other cases exist in nature. The structure of fire whirls has yet to be reliably measured at large scales; however, scaling laws have been relatively successful in modeling the conditions for formation from small to large scales. This review surveys the state of knowledge concerning the fluid dynamics of fire whirls, including the conditions for their formation, their structure, and the mechanisms that control their unique state. We highlight recent discoveries and survey potential avenues for future research, including using the properties of fire whirls for efficient remediation and energy generation.

  18. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...... of frustrations and riots...

  19. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1000ºC or special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such a situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity alumina and related oxides. Fire Synthesis. Preparation of Alumina ...

  20. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  1. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifie...

  2. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  3. 10 CFR 50.48 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... issued before the effective date of February 19, 1981; or (ii) Fire protection features were accepted by... pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) is not permitted. (iv) Uncertainty analysis. An uncertainty analysis...

  4. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  5. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  6. Industrial Application of an Improved Multiple Injection and Multiple Staging Combustion Technology in a 600 MWe Supercritical Down-Fired Boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minhang; Zeng, Lingyan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Zhengqi; Zhu, Qunyi; Kuang, Min

    2016-02-02

    To solve the water wall overheating in lower furnace, and further reduce NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash, continuous improvement of the previously proposed multiple injection and multiple staging combustion (MIMSC) technology lies on three aspects: (1) along the furnace arch breadth, changing the previously centralized 12 burner groups into a more uniform pattern with 24 burners; (2) increasing the mass ratio of pulverized coal in fuel-rich flow to that in fuel-lean flow from 6:4 to 9:1; (3) reducing the arch-air momentum by 23% and increasing the tertiary-air momentum by 24%. Industrial-size measurements (i.e., adjusting overfire air (OFA) damper opening of 20-70%) uncovered that, compared with the prior MIMSC technology, the ignition distance of fuel-rich coal/air flow shortened by around 1 m. The gas temperature in the lower furnace was symmetric and higher, the flame kernel moved upward and therefore made the temperature in near-wall region of furnace hopper decrease by about 400 °C, the water wall overheating disappeared completely. Under the optimal OFA damper opening (i.e, 55%), NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash attained levels of 589 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 6.18%, respectively, achieving NOx and carbon in fly ash significant reduction by 33% and 37%, respectively.

  7. Efficient video-equipped fire detection approach for automatic fire alarm systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myeongsu; Tung, Truong Xuan; Kim, Jong-Myon

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient four-stage approach that automatically detects fire using video capabilities. In the first stage, an approximate median method is used to detect video frame regions involving motion. In the second stage, a fuzzy c-means-based clustering algorithm is employed to extract candidate regions of fire from all of the movement-containing regions. In the third stage, a gray level co-occurrence matrix is used to extract texture parameters by tracking red-colored objects in the candidate regions. These texture features are, subsequently, used as inputs of a back-propagation neural network to distinguish between fire and nonfire. Experimental results indicate that the proposed four-stage approach outperforms other fire detection algorithms in terms of consistently increasing the accuracy of fire detection in both indoor and outdoor test videos.

  8. Tactical and technological scheme of fire fighting in goaf left after longwall mining under conditions of methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, A.L.; Zrelyi, N.D.; Privalov, N.I.; Aleinikova, G.M.

    1981-07-01

    Presents recommendations on fire fighting in underground black coal mines. Situation when fire center is located in the goaf area left after longwall mining is analyzed. Fire fighting operations are divided into three stages: 1. fire fighting in the initial stage (installation of additional methane degassing means such as pipelines and pumps, pumping water, fire extinguishing foams or powders into fire center, ventilation, determining composition of the air in fire center), 2. intensification of fire fighting (increasing efficiency of degassing and fire extinguishing, improving ventilation of zone affected by the fire), 3. stage three occurs when fire extinguishing operations have been successful and consists in complete separation of the fire zone from the rest of the mine and from the ventilation system (changes in composition of fire gases and air are determined by automated instruments, injection of carbon dioxide or other inert gases, continuous deatatssing of the separated fire zone). Recommendations are listed in a detailed table. (In Russian)

  9. Fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Fire ant venom contains a chemical called ... Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 140. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill ...

  10. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  11. Acceptability, acceptance and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerschott, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is a fundamental difference between the acceptability of a civilizatory or societal risk and the acceptability of the decision-making process that leads to a civilizatory or societal risk. The analysis of individual risk decisions - regarding who, executes when which indisputably hazardous, unhealthy or dangerous behaviour under which circumstances - is not helpful in finding solutions for the political decisions at hand in Germany concerning nuclear energy in particular or energy in general. The debt for implementation of any technology, in the sense of making the technology a success in terms of broad acceptance and general utilisation, lies with the particular industry involved. Regardless of the technology, innovation research identifies the implementation phase as most critical to the success of any innovation. In this sense, nuclear technology is at best still an innovation, because the implementation has not yet been completed. Fear and opposition to innovation are ubiquitous. Even the economy - which is often described as 'rational' - is full of this resistance. Innovation has an impact on the pivotal point between stability, the presupposition for the successful execution of decisions already taken and instability, which includes insecurity, but is also necessary for the success of further development. By definition, innovations are beyond our sphere of experience; not at the level of reliability and trust yet to come. Yet they are evaluated via the simplifying heuristics for making decisions proven not only to be necessary and useful, but also accurate in the familiar. The 'settlement of the debt of implementation', the accompanying communication, the decision-making procedures concerning the regulation of averse effects of the technology, but also the tailoring of the new technology or service itself must be directed to appropriate target groups. But the group often aimed at in the nuclear debate, the group, which largely determines political

  12. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains... pump connected to a fixed piping system. This pump must be capable of delivering an effective stream of...

  13. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps... be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire pump connected to a fixed piping system. (1) A...

  14. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    special infrastructure which require careful maintenance. In such situation fire synthesis is a simpler method that can be adopted for the bulk production of high purity .... reaction between Ti and B to form titanium boride. The reaction between titanium (fuel- electron donor) and boron (oxidiser-electron acceptor) once initiated ...

  15. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  16. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1324-1332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1324-1332 ...

  17. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/02/0050-0057 ...

  18. Probabilistic analysis of fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unione, A.; Teichmann, T.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a multilevel (i.e., staged) probabilistic analysis of fire risks in nuclear plants (as part of a general PRA) which maximizes the benefits of the FRA (fire risk assessment) in a cost effective way. The approach uses several stages of screening, physical modeling of clearly dominant risk contributors, searches for direct (e.g., equipment dependences) and secondary (e.g., fire induced internal flooding) interactions, and relies on lessons learned and available data from and surrogate FRAs. The general methodology is outlined. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  20. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  1. The case for fire safe cigarettes made through industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunja, M; Wayne, G Ferris; Landman, A; Connolly, G; McGuire, A

    2002-12-01

    To examine the extensive research undertaken by the tobacco industry over the past 25 years toward development of a fire safe cigarette. Research was conducted through a web based search of internal tobacco industry documents made publicly available through the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. The documents reveal that the tobacco industry produced a fire safe cigarette years ago, but failed to put it on the market. These findings contradict public industry claims that denied the technical feasibility and commercial acceptability of fire safe cigarettes. Internal documents also reveal a decades long, coordinated political strategy used to block proposed legislation and obfuscate the fire safe issue. Federal legislation mandating fire safe cigarettes is needed.

  2. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... documented a simple relation that can be used for estimating the impact of thermal feedback for pre-flashover design fires. A rapid increase of the heat release rate commenced after the incipient phase. This is seen as thermal runaway caused by the energy gain in the smoke layer exceeding the energy that can...... and in two different rooms, which only are varied by linings of significantly different thermal inertia. As all linings were non-combustible the heat release rate could be found without the influence of thermal feedback and for two different levels of thermal feedback. The ISO 9705 Room Corner Test facility...

  3. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  4. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

    2009-01-01

    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...

  5. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  6. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  8. Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-12-01

    Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans. With a view to gaining an insight into the mechanisms underlying fire dynamics, fire control, and prevention, we formulated a model that predicts the wildfire regime in fire-prone Mediterranean ecoregions. The model is based on the positive feedback between forest expansion following cropland abandonment, fuel abundance, and fire. Our results demonstrate that progressive land abandonment leads to different fire dynamics in the Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Starting at a no-fire regime when the land is almost completely cultivated, the ecosystem reaches a chaotic fire regime, passing through intermediate land development stages characterized by limit cycle fire dynamics. Wildfires are more devastating, albeit more predictable, in these intermediate stages when fire frequency is higher.

  9. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  10. Approach to fire-PSA study of KAPS IPHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.C.; Chatterjee, D.; Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Gadge, S.S.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Some safety significant fire events in nuclear power plants like Browns Ferry (U.S.A, 1975), NAPS (Narora, India, 1993) had serious implication on nuclear safety. Some of them had direct or indirect potential to cause sever reactor core damage. Therefore fire-induced core damage frequencies (FCDF) can be a significant contributor to the overall risk for a plant depending upon the design and operational characteristics of the NPP. Fire probabilistic safety assessment (Fire-PSA) studies for KAPS has been initiated using probabilistic and deterministic analysis like 'Fire Hazard Analysis' to identify the main contributing 'Fire Zone' and 'fire scenarios' to FCDF. The study is being done based on the IAEA guideline and as per international practice for carrying out Fire-PSA. Fire zone are screened out qualitatively and quantitatively based on their direct or indirect potential to Conditional Core Dantage frequency (CCDF). Fire database used for the analysis was for 25 Reactor-years of commercial operation of KAPS. Fire frequency was very low in most of the 'Fire Zone' and most of the fire were detected and suppressed at incipient stage. In most of the cases safety systems were not challenged, and all safety functions were fully available. It gives an insight to fire risk related strength- weaknesses of design and operation of IPHWR. Major contributor to fire risk i.e vulnerable area, vulnerable nuclear safety items, vulnerable fire risk action, and important fire safety components can be identified. It helps the designer and plant management to prioritize their effort in fire risk reduction. (author)

  11. Root cause analysis for fire events at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    Fire hazard has been identified as a major contributor to a plant' operational safety risk. The International nuclear power community (regulators, operators, designers) has been studying and developing tools for defending against this hazed. Considerable advances have been achieved during past two decades in design and regulatory requirements for fire safety, fire protection technology and related analytical techniques. The IAEA endeavours to provide assistance to Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants. A task was launched by IAEA in 1993 with the purpose to develop guidelines and good practices, to promote advanced fire safety assessment techniques, to exchange state of the art information, and to provide engineering safety advisory services and training in the implementation of internationally accepted practices. This TECDOC addresses a systematic assessment of fire events using the root cause analysis methodology, which is recognized as an important element of fire safety assessment

  12. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  13. Intumescent paint as fire protection coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. R.S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a compendium on intumescent paint and its main features regarding chemical composition, thermophysical properties and performance as a fire-retardant material. Some of the main technical publications and lines of research on the subject are presented herein. The purpose of this paper is to show the current stage of the technical research being conducted on the topic and enable a better understanding of this fire-retardant material.

  14. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  15. Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices

  16. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  17. General fire protection guidelines for egyptian nuclear facilities. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhad, S.; Hussien, A.Z.; Hammad, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the regulatory requirements of that will provide and ensure fire protection of egyptian nuclear facilities. Those facilities that use, handle and store low and/or medium radioactive substances are included. Two or more classes of occupancy are considered to occur in the same building or structure. Fir protection measures and systems were reviewed for three of the egyptian Nuclear facilities. These are egypt first nuclear reactor (ETRR-1) building and systems, hot laboratories buildings and facilities, and the building including the AECL type Is-6500 industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator E gypt's mega gamma I . The study includes the outlines of the various aspects of fire protection with a view to define the relevant highlights and scope of egyptian guideline for nuclear installations. The study considers fire protection aspects including the following items: 1- Site selection. 2- General facility design. 3- Fire alarm, detection and suppression systems. 4- Protection for specific areas/control room, cable spreading room, computer room) 5- Fire emergency response planning. 6- Fire water supply. 7- Emergency lighting and communication. 8- Rescue and escape routes. 9- Explosion protection. 10-Manual fire fighting. 11- Security consideration in the interest of fire protection. 12- quality assurance programme. Therefore, first of all the design stage, then during the construction stage, and later during the operation stage, measures must be taken to forestall the risks associated with the outbreak of fire and to ensure that consequences of fire accidents remain limited

  18. Fire regimes during the last glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniau, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Fire regimes during the last glacial A.-L. Daniau (1), S.P. Harrison (1) and P.J. Bartlein (2) (1) School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK (2) Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA Sedimentary charcoal records document changes in fire regime. We have identified 67 sites which have records for some part of the last glacial and have used the 30 of these sites with better-than millennial-resolution to analyse changes in global fire regimes. Fire was consistently lower during the glacial than during the Eemian and Holocene. Within the glacial, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 is characterised globally by more fire than MIS 2. The signal for MIS 4 is less clear: there is more fire in the northern hemisphere and less fire in the southern hemisphere than during MIS 2 and 3. The records, most particularly records from the northern extratropics, show millennial-scale variability in fire regimes corresponding to the rapid climate changes associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles. Most of the D-O cycles during the last glacial and all of the Heinrich Stadials are apparent in the composite global record of the high-resolution sites: fire increases during D-O warming events and decreases during intervals of cooling. Our analyses show that fire regimes show a lagged response to rapid climate changes of ca 100-200 years in the case of D-O warming events, ca 0-100 years in the case of D-O cooling events and ca 200 years in the case of Heinrich Stadials. The strong climatic variability experienced during the glacial resulted in important changes in fire regimes even though the base level of biomass burning was less than today.

  19. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  20. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  1. Smoldering - The Fire Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Torero, Jose L

    2000-01-01

    There are certain fire initiation scenarios that are particularly common, one of great significance is a fire initiated from the ignition of a porous fuel. Nearly 40% of the deaths due to fire can be traced to cigarette induced smolder of upholstered furniture and the mechanisms that control the process that transforms the weak smolder reaction occurring in the cigarette to a fire are still mostly unknown. A general description of this fire scenario and a discussion of its threats is pr...

  2. Davis Fire: Fire behavior and fire effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth

    2010-01-01

    The Davis Fire presents an interesting example of fire behavior in subalpine fir, partially dead lodgepole pine with multiple age classes, and moist site Douglas-fir vegetation types. This has been summer of moderate temperatures and intermittent moisture that has kept live herbaceous and live woody moistures fairly high and dead fuel moistures at a moderate level....

  3. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  4. Coal fired steam generation for heavy oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, K.

    1992-01-01

    In Alberta, some 21,000 m 3 /d of heavy oil and bitumen are produced by in-situ recovery methods involving steam injection. The steam generation requirement is met by standardized natural-gas-fired steam generators. While gas is in plentiful supply in Alberta and therefore competitively priced, significant gas price increases could occur in the future. A 1985 study investigating the alternatives to natural gas as a fuel for steam generation concluded that coal was the most economic alternative, as reserves of subbituminous coal are not only abundant in Alberta but also located relatively close to heavy oil and bitumen production areas. The environmental performance of coal is critical to its acceptance as an alternate fuel to natural gas, and proposed steam generator designs which could burn Alberta coal and control emissions satisfactorily are assessed. Considerations for ash removal, sulfur dioxide sorption, nitrogen oxides control, and particulate emission capture are also presented. A multi-stage slagging type of coal-fired combustor has been developed which is suitable for application with oilfield steam generators and is being commissioned for a demonstration project at the Cold Lake deposit. An economic study showed that the use of coal for steam generation in heavy oil in-situ projects in the Peace River and Cold Lake areas would be economic, compared to natural gas, at fuel price projections and design/cost premises for a project timing in the mid-1990s. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Land cover, more than monthly fire weather, drives fire-size distribution in Southern Québec forests: Implications for fire risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Jean; Cumming, Steve G; McIntire, Eliot J B

    2017-01-01

    Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region. Fires were highly selective on fuel-type under a wide range of fire weather conditions: specifically, deciduous forest, lakes and to a lesser extent recently burned areas decreased the expected fire size in their vicinity compared to conifer forest. This has large implications for fire risk management in that fuels management could reduce fire risk over the long term. Our results imply, for example, that if 30% of a conifer-dominated landscape were converted to hardwoods, the probability of a given fire, occurring in that landscape under mean fire weather conditions, exceeding 100,000 ha would be reduced by a factor of 21. A similarly marked but slightly smaller effect size would be expected under extreme fire weather conditions. We attribute the decrease in expected fire size that occurs in recently burned areas to fuel availability limitations on fires spread. Because regenerating burned conifer stands often pass through a deciduous stage, this would also act as a negative biotic feedback whereby the occurrence of fires limits the size of nearby future for some period of time. Our parameter estimates imply that changes in vegetation flammability or fuel availability after fires would tend to counteract shifts in the fire size distribution favoring larger fires that are expected under climate warming. Ecological forecasts from models neglecting these feedbacks may markedly overestimate the

  6. Land cover, more than monthly fire weather, drives fire-size distribution in Southern Québec forests: Implications for fire risk management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marchal

    Full Text Available Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region. Fires were highly selective on fuel-type under a wide range of fire weather conditions: specifically, deciduous forest, lakes and to a lesser extent recently burned areas decreased the expected fire size in their vicinity compared to conifer forest. This has large implications for fire risk management in that fuels management could reduce fire risk over the long term. Our results imply, for example, that if 30% of a conifer-dominated landscape were converted to hardwoods, the probability of a given fire, occurring in that landscape under mean fire weather conditions, exceeding 100,000 ha would be reduced by a factor of 21. A similarly marked but slightly smaller effect size would be expected under extreme fire weather conditions. We attribute the decrease in expected fire size that occurs in recently burned areas to fuel availability limitations on fires spread. Because regenerating burned conifer stands often pass through a deciduous stage, this would also act as a negative biotic feedback whereby the occurrence of fires limits the size of nearby future for some period of time. Our parameter estimates imply that changes in vegetation flammability or fuel availability after fires would tend to counteract shifts in the fire size distribution favoring larger fires that are expected under climate warming. Ecological forecasts from models neglecting these feedbacks may markedly

  7. Fire risk assessment for hydrogen at EDG/battery room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hyun Jong; Park, Kyung Hyum; Song, Jin Bae

    2004-01-01

    At the design stage of Nuclear Power Plant, the fire hazard analysis for the fire zone or compartment is implemented according to the fire protection requirement and the document is required for the licensing approval. On the basis of fire hazard analysis, the evaluation for the safe shutdown capability is preceded for each fire zone that contains safety-important systems and facilities. The primary philosophy for the fire safety is to secure fire defense-in-depth at Nuclear Power Plants that represents fire prevention, fire protection, and mitigation from fire damage. One of the concerning fire zones that need quantitative fire hazard analysis as well as qualitative fire evaluation at Nuclear Power Plants is the battery room at Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) Room. For an example, Emergency Power Supply System called as EPS at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant generates emergency power and supply the electric power to the safety-related systems and essential facilities during the loss of on-site and off-site AC power. For the start of emergency power generator, it needs DC power from the battery units inside the EPS room. For the emergency supply of DC power, the battery at EPS room should be recharged during the standby period to compensate the reduced chemical energy that was converted to the electric energy or depleted through the natural process. During the recharge process, especially at the time of charging current becoming greater than the nominal floating current or at the time of over-charging period, the hydrogen and the oxygen are generated from the positive plate and cathodic part respectively and escaped through the vent holes or crevices. In this context, the fire hazard assessment should be done for the EPS/battery room with quantitative approach and the fire safety evaluation for the explosion of hydrogen gas must be done under the specific fire protection program at Nuclear Power Plants

  8. Responsible technology acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Schuitema, Geertje; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    on private consumers’ acceptance of having Smart Grid technology installed in their home. We analyse acceptance in a combined framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Norm Activation Model. We propose that individuals are only likely to accept Smart Grid technology if they assess usefulness......As a response to climate change and the desire to gain independence from imported fossil fuels, there is a pressure to increase the proportion of electricity from renewable sources which is one of the reasons why electricity grids are currently being turned into Smart Grids. In this paper, we focus...... in terms of a positive impact for society and the environment. Therefore, we expect that Smart Grid technology acceptance can be better explained when the well-known technology acceptance parameters included in the Technology Acceptance Model are supplemented by moral norms as suggested by the Norm...

  9. Analyzing the Risk of Fire in a Hospital Complex by “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering”(FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsangi V.* MSc,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims The occurrence of fire in residential buildings, commercial complexes and large and small industries cause physical, environmental and financial damages to many different communities. Fire safety in hospitals is sensitive and it is believed that the society takes the responsibility to care sick people. The goal of this study was to use Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering (FRAME in a hospital complex environment and assess the level of fire risks. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was conducted in Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital in 2013. The FRAME is designed based on the empirical and scientific knowledge and experiment and have acceptable reliability for assessing the building fire risk. Excel software was used to calculate the risk level and finally fire risk (R was calculated separately for different units. Findings Calculated Rs were less than 1for health, autoclave, office of nursing and infection control units. R1s were greater than 1 for all units. R2s were less than 1 for office of nursing and infection control units. Conclusion FRAME is an acceptable tool for assessing the risk of fire in buildings and the fire risk is high in Shahid Beheshti Hospital Complex of Kashan and damages can be intolerable in the case of fire.

  10. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption specifies the amount of vegetative biomass consumed during wildland fire. It is a two-stage process of pyrolysis and combustion that occurs simultaneously and at different rates depending on the characteristics and condition of the fuel, weather, topography, and in the case of prescribed fire, ignition rate and pattern. Fuel consumption is the basic...

  11. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  12. Synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments conducive to forest fires during the October 2003 extreme fire event in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenjie Huang; Y.L. Lin; M.L. Kaplan; Joseph J.J. Charney

    2009-01-01

    This study has employed both observational data and numerical simulation results to diagnose the synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments conducive to forest fires during the October 2003 extreme fire event in southern California. A three-stage process is proposed to illustrate the coupling of the synoptic-scale forcing that is evident from the observations,...

  13. Modeling Urban Fire Growth,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear explosion damage, *Explosion effects, *Fires, *Flame propagation, Growth (General), Area coverage, Ignition, Combustion, Casualties...Computerized simulation, Predictions, Countermeasures, Fire suppression, Damage assessment, Urban areas, Vulnerability, Data acquisition, Methodology, Symposia

  14. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  15. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  16. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  17. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  18. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  19. Fire Making, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2002-04-01

    In the late 1930's and early 1940's, JCE published several historical accounts on methods for igniting fires. This "From Past Issues" summarizes an article by Warren N. Watson on the fire making arts of primitive peoples.

  20. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  1. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  2. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  3. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  4. Mass Fire Model Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-31

    done by several investigators, the theoretical work of Nielsen (Reference 12) and Nielsen and Tao (Refer- ence 13) specifically models the global...which are approximately equal. This procedure permits computation of the fire..induced wind by a superpositlon of effects from each usub -fire." Outsid...Storm Analysis, ITT Research Institute, Janu- ary 1970. .324 13. Nielsen , H.J. and L.N. Tao, "The Fire Plume Above a Large Free- Burning Fire,’ Tenth S

  5. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  6. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  7. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  8. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  9. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  10. Application of wildfire simulation methods to assess wildfire exposure in a Mediterranean fire-prone area (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, M.; Ager, A.; Arca, B.; Finney, M.; Bacciu, V. M.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

    2012-12-01

    ; Finney et al. 2009; Salis et al. 2012 accepted). In this work, we employed wildfire simulation methods to quantify wildfire exposure to human and ecological values for the island of Sardinia, Italy. The work was focused on the risk and exposure posed by large fires (e.g. 100 - 10,000 ha), and considers historical weather, ignition patterns and fuels. We simulated 100,000 fires using burn periods that replicated the historical size distribution on the Island, and an ignition probability grid derived from historic ignition data. We then examine spatial variation in three exposure components (burn probability, flame length, fire size) among important human and ecological values. The results allowed us to contract exposure among and within the various features examined, and highlighted the importance of human factors in shaping wildfire exposure in Sardinia. The work represents the first application of burn probability modeling in the Mediterranean region, and sets the stage for expanded work in the region to quantify risk from large fires

  11. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires.

  12. Acceptance test report, plutonium finishing plant life safety upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    This acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that modifications to the Fir Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door By Pass Switches

  13. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...

  14. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  15. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supple-mentary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, sup-plementary firing is expected...... to result in a high marginal efficiency. The paper shows that depending on the application, this is not always the case. The interest in this cycle arises from a recent demonstration of the feasibility of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants. The gas from this process...... could be divided into two streams, one for primary and one for supplementary firing. A preliminary analysis of the ideal, recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...

  17. A comparison of marginal fit of glass infiltrated alumina copings fabricated using two different techniques and the effect of firing cycles over them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Hirasankar; Parkhedkar, Rambhao

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated marginal fit of glass infiltrated alumina cores fabricated using two techniques and their marginal stability after firing cycles of veneering porcelain. Fifteen standardized all-ceramic crowns were fabricated on a metal die using each technique: slip cast technique of VITA In-Ceram sprint Alumina (Group A as control) and plastic foil matrix technique of Turkom-Cera fused alumina core system (Group B). Copings were compared between groups and within groups at coping stage and after firing each layer of veneering porcelain. A device was used to standardize seating of copings on the metal die and positioning of the specimens under the microscope after each stage of fabrication. The specimens were not cemented and marginal gap was measured using an image analyzing software (Imagepro Express) on the photographs captured under an optical microscope. Two tailed unpaired 't test' was used to compare marginal gaps in two groups and one way ANOVA was used to analyze marginal distortion within each group at 95% confidence interval. The marginal gap was smaller at the coping stage in group B (60 + 30 µm) than group A (81 + 21 µm) with statistical significance. After firing of veneering porcelain the difference was insignificant. At the final stage, both groups exhibited lower mean marginal gaps than at the initial coping stage with the difference of 11.75 µm for group A and 11.94 µm for group B, but it was statistically insignificant due to high value of standard deviation. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that both techniques produced copings with comparable and acceptable marginal fit and marginal stability on firing veneering porcelain.

  18. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological......Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  19. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  20. FIRE USE IN CERRADO COUNTRY PROPERTIES IN CAVALCANTE, GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Xavier Lara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of fire as a land tool management is a common practice in the agricultural area. This practice requires  a lot of care to avoid forest fires and uncontrollable fires. The uncontrollable fires can reach plantations, pastures and improvements. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fire management patterns and economic impacts of the fire management in the country areas in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, in the city of Cavalcante, Goiás. The data collection was made by means of direct interviews, burnt areas, improvements damages and costs evaluation. Fifty agricultural producers used the fire as a tool of farming handling.  The first stage of the data collection was carried out during 2003. Information on the size of burnt area, damages and investments in wildfire prevention was collected. The second survey, mode with the same 50 land owners, was carried out in 2004 dry station. The data of 2003 and 2004 was compared. Results showed that the use of fire, in such a place, causes damages for those land owners who use the fire as a land management tool and for land owners who do not use it. The lack of prevention activities and fire control approaches are the main causes of uncrontrolled burnts in Chapada dos Veadeiros.

  1. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  2. A critique of the historical-fire-regime concept in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Johanna; Kobziar, Leda; Rose, Elizabeth White; Cropper, Wendell

    2017-10-01

    Prescribed fire is widely accepted as a conservation tool because fire is essential to the maintenance of native biodiversity in many terrestrial communities. Approaches to this land-management technique vary greatly among continents, and sharing knowledge internationally can inform application of prescribed fire worldwide. In North America, decisions about how and when to apply prescribed fire are typically based on the historical-fire-regime concept (HFRC), which holds that replicating the pattern of fires ignited by lightning or preindustrial humans best promotes native species in fire-prone regions. The HFRC rests on 3 assumptions: it is possible to infer historical fire regimes accurately; fire-suppressed communities are ecologically degraded; and reinstating historical fire regimes is the best course of action despite the global shift toward novel abiotic and biotic conditions. We examined the underpinnings of these assumptions by conducting a literature review on the use of historical fire regimes to inform the application of prescribed fire. We found that the practice of inferring historical fire regimes for entire regions or ecosystems often entails substantial uncertainty and can yield equivocal results; ecological outcomes of fire suppression are complex and may not equate to degradation, depending on the ecosystem and context; and habitat fragmentation, invasive species, and other modern factors can interact with fire to produce novel and in some cases negative ecological outcomes. It is therefore unlikely that all 3 assumptions will be fully upheld for any landscape in which prescribed fire is being applied. Although the HFRC is a valuable starting point, it should not be viewed as the sole basis for developing prescribed fire programs. Rather, fire prescriptions should also account for other specific, measurable ecological parameters on a case-by-case basis. To best achieve conservation goals, researchers should seek to understand contemporary fire

  3. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  4. Biological soil crust response to late season prescribed fire in a Great Basin juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Larry L. St.Clair; Jeffrey R. Johansen; Paul Kugrens; L. Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of juniper on U.S. rangelands is a significant environmental concern. Prescribed fire is often recommended to control juniper. To that end, a prescribed burn was conducted in a Great Basin juniper woodland. Conditions were suboptimal; fire did not encroach into mid- or late-seral stages and was patchy in the early-seral stage. This study evaluated the effects...

  5. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  6. New supply for canyon fire foam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    The raw water supply for the B-Plant Canyon fire foam system is being replaced. The 4 inche water supply line to the foam system is being rerouted from the 6 inches raw water line in the Pipe Gallery to the 10 inches raw water main in the Operating Gallery. This document states the acceptance criteria for the flushing and testing to be performed by the contractor

  7. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  8. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  9. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  10. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... as a visiting professor at BYG.DTU financed by the Larsen and Nielsen Foundation, and is entered to the research database by Kristian Hertz responsible for the visiting professorship....

  11. Fire, fuel composition and resilience threshold in subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Blarquez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forecasting the effects of global changes on high altitude ecosystems requires an understanding of the long-term relationships between biota and forcing factors to identify resilience thresholds. Fire is a crucial forcing factor: both fuel build-up from land-abandonment in European mountains, and more droughts linked to global warming are likely to increase fire risks. METHODS: To assess the vegetation response to fire on a millennium time-scale, we analyzed evidence of stand-to-local vegetation dynamics derived from sedimentary plant macroremains from two subalpine lakes. Paleobotanical reconstructions at high temporal resolution, together with a fire frequency reconstruction inferred from sedimentary charcoal, were analyzed by Superposed Epoch Analysis to model plant behavior before, during and after fire events. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that fuel build-up from arolla pine (Pinus cembra always precedes fires, which is immediately followed by a rapid increase of birch (Betula sp., then by ericaceous species after 25-75 years, and by herbs after 50-100 years. European larch (Larix decidua, which is the natural co-dominant species of subalpine forests with Pinus cembra, is not sensitive to fire, while the abundance of Pinus cembra is altered within a 150-year period after fires. A long-term trend in vegetation dynamics is apparent, wherein species that abound later in succession are the functional drivers, loading the environment with fuel for fires. This system can only be functional if fires are mainly driven by external factors (e.g. climate, with the mean interval between fires being longer than the minimum time required to reach the late successional stage, here 150 years. CONCLUSION: Current global warming conditions which increase drought occurrences, combined with the abandonment of land in European mountain areas, creates ideal ecological conditions for the ignition and the spread of fire. A fire return interval of less

  12. Fire, fuel composition and resilience threshold in subalpine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blarquez, Olivier; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2010-08-30

    Forecasting the effects of global changes on high altitude ecosystems requires an understanding of the long-term relationships between biota and forcing factors to identify resilience thresholds. Fire is a crucial forcing factor: both fuel build-up from land-abandonment in European mountains, and more droughts linked to global warming are likely to increase fire risks. To assess the vegetation response to fire on a millennium time-scale, we analyzed evidence of stand-to-local vegetation dynamics derived from sedimentary plant macroremains from two subalpine lakes. Paleobotanical reconstructions at high temporal resolution, together with a fire frequency reconstruction inferred from sedimentary charcoal, were analyzed by Superposed Epoch Analysis to model plant behavior before, during and after fire events. We show that fuel build-up from arolla pine (Pinus cembra) always precedes fires, which is immediately followed by a rapid increase of birch (Betula sp.), then by ericaceous species after 25-75 years, and by herbs after 50-100 years. European larch (Larix decidua), which is the natural co-dominant species of subalpine forests with Pinus cembra, is not sensitive to fire, while the abundance of Pinus cembra is altered within a 150-year period after fires. A long-term trend in vegetation dynamics is apparent, wherein species that abound later in succession are the functional drivers, loading the environment with fuel for fires. This system can only be functional if fires are mainly driven by external factors (e.g. climate), with the mean interval between fires being longer than the minimum time required to reach the late successional stage, here 150 years. Current global warming conditions which increase drought occurrences, combined with the abandonment of land in European mountain areas, creates ideal ecological conditions for the ignition and the spread of fire. A fire return interval of less than 150 years would threaten the dominant species and might override

  13. Fire safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The periodic occurrence of large-scale, potentially disastrous industrial accidents involving fire in hazardous environments such as oilwell blowouts, petrochemical explosions and nuclear installations highlights the need for an integrated approach to fire safety engineering. Risk reduction 'by design' and rapid response are of equal importance in the saving of life and property in such situations. This volume of papers covers the subject thoroughly, touching on such topics as hazard analysis, safety design and testing, fire detection and control, and includes studies of fire hazard in the context of environment protection. (author)

  14. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  15. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... information. March 9, 2018 Nationally, 35 new large fires were reported. Fire activity picked up in the ...

  16. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  17. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    , smoke, and soot. The failure thresholds, modes, and attendant disturbances are treated in Chapter 4. The chapter provides references for statistical and phenomenological information relevant to ignition and component damage, and also for fire events. References are given modeling of fire spreading, the ignitability, damageability, and heat release rates of components such as cables, printed circuit boards, and electronics cabinets. Some experiments and simulations on the development of cabinet as well as cable tray fires are also described. Specific examples are given on the impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics, electrical equipment. References are given on relevant experiments studying the impact of smoke and heat on electronics and/or electrical equipment. Some cases where cable fires have resulted in threats to plant safety or caused power and I and C circuit failures are discussed. References concerning the habitability of main control room are also provided. Applications Issues - The essence of fire PSA is discussed in Chapter 5. The scope and completeness of fire PSA may vary according to the strategy and stage of the overall PSA studies. For the identification of the main vulnerabilities of a plant, rough models are sufficient, whereas in a full scope fire PSA for detailed evaluation and comparison of risks more sophisticated methods have to be applied. Purpose and contents of the fire PSAs, as well as the uses made of these studies in different OECD countries are described in Chapter 5. It should be noted that the report is intended to serve as a resource to fire risk analysts but is not intended to serve as a fire PSA procedures guide. References for fire PSA guidance are provided in Chapter 2

  18. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J.

    2009-09-01

    of Portugal and the overgrown paisaje of Galicia. While international in scope, the real hazards reside in particular places, and while telegenically graphic, the economic losses elsewhere are no worse than those caused by tornadoes. The pressures for the earlier frontier were deep, and often damaged both land and settlers, but until the momentum had exhausted itself, there was little reform possible. So it may take the Great Recession, or worse, to stem the flow of money that has underwritten the colonization of subprime landscapes. Besides, sprawl is interbreeding with whatever hazard it meets. Fire in the I-zone is less damaging than sprawl in floodplains, coastal plains, or earthquake zones. Over the past 20 years, the responsible agencies have largely succeeded in learning how to protect people and houses when fires break out. The tenets of Fire Wise, Fire Safe, and Community Fireguard are widely known. A new kind of landscape is emerging. The worst hazards reside in the older communities that need retrofitting. A fatal plague is becoming a seasonal nuisance. But an appeal to other scholarships might - still can - illuminate the powers and limits of the proposed remediations, which ultimately rely for their success on cultural acceptance. Fire is about context: it synthesizes its surroundings. Yet the only research context allowed is a universalist science, such that the science of south Australia can join that of Catalonia and of Missoula, Montana. It does not mingle with other scholarship. In this way we have come to understand in marvelous detail how houses burn, but not why houses are there in the first place. We understand how to prevent roofs from igniting during ember attacks, but not how to cope with sprawl's attack on the landscape. So long as we leave fire on the fringe of scholarship, it will roar through the fringes of our new- settled countryside. References [1] Wilson A A G and Ferguson I S 1986 Predicting the probability of house survival during

  19. Evalution of forest fire occurrences in the State of Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nepomuceno Patriota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tocantins is one of the Brazilian states most affected by forest fires, which are the largest remnants of the country's Cerrado. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the Fire Occurrence Records (ROIs in the state of Tocantins between 2003 and 2015 through the information provided by INPE and SisFogo. The work was divided into three stages: the first consists in the acquisition the images of the satellite AQUA and the fire occurrence records (ROI's, the second comprises the processing of data on satellite images and fire occurrence records through a spreadsheet and the third consists in carrying out the relevant statistics the information collected. The results showed that the amount of heat sources is above the fire occurrence records available through Sisfogo. Of the 139 municipalities in the state, only 14 municipalities were filled with their reports and stored on site. The farms were the sites with higher occurrences of fires in the municipalities and the cause with the highest frequency of fire occurrences were "agricultural activities". The information on hot spots, obtained from satellite imagery, can contribute positively to a better understanding of spatial and temporal dynamics of occurrence of forest fires. In the State of Tocantins, the municipalities: Formoso do Araguaia, Confusion Lagoon, Mateiros and Pium are the ones that presented the highest averages of occurrences of heat sources in the last 12 years. Compared with SisFogo information, these municipalities are also the ones that presented the highest numbers of Fire Occurrence Reports.

  20. Forest Fires 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heat from within the Earth could be transferred to the charcoal layers above, from there onto the peat and other vegetation in the soil and finally when it comes in contact with forest litter it would develop into a natural forest fire. Ironically, in regions usually thought of as cool and wet, forest fires do occur naturally frop1 time to ...

  1. Fire research issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. McArdle; Donald N. Matthews

    1934-01-01

    This number of Forest Research Motes is primarily for the forest fire protectionist. It consists of a number of very short articles, each of which gives the essence of the results of a study made recently by this Forest Experiment Station. These so-called fire studies which are represented herein by brief fragments are all part of an organized research program, having...

  2. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus...

  3. Fire forum 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 18 presentations on various aspects of fire prevention and protection within the power production plants and industry, safety of building constructions, cable and transformer problems, risk and safety evaluation methods, management aspects, relevant Norwegian and Icelandic laws and regulations and oil analysis. Some examples of fires and explosions are also presented. (tk)

  4. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  5. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  6. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  7. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  8. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  9. FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in native format (FIRE_AX_MALBAL_SONDE)

  10. FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Malcolm Baldridge Radiosonde Data in Native format (FIRE_AX_VALDIV_SONDE)

  11. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  12. UGV acceptance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2006-05-01

    With over 100 models of unmanned vehicles now available for military and civilian safety, security or rescue applications, it is important to for agencies to establish acceptance testing. However, there appears to be no general guidelines for what constitutes a reasonable acceptance test. This paper describes i) a preliminary method for acceptance testing by a customer of the mechanical and electrical components of an unmanned ground vehicle system, ii) how it has been applied to a man-packable micro-robot, and iii) discusses the value of testing both to ensure that the customer has a workable system and to improve design. The test method automated the operation of the robot to repeatedly exercise all aspects and combinations of components on the robot for 6 hours. The acceptance testing process uncovered many failures consistent with those shown to occur in the field, showing that testing by the user does predict failures. The process also demonstrated that the testing by the manufacturer can provide important design data that can be used to identify, diagnose, and prevent long-term problems. Also, the structured testing environment showed that sensor systems can be used to predict errors and changes in performance, as well as uncovering unmodeled behavior in subsystems.

  13. Approaches to acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-01-01

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  14. Performance Assessment and analysis of national building codes with fire safety in all wards of a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahdinia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsAIDS as a re-emergent disease and Viral hepatitis (B and C as one of thBackground and objective: Fire safety is an important problem in hospitals. Movement less, lack of awareness and special situation of residents are the reasons of this subject. In more countries such as Iran, fire protection regulations have compiled within the framework of national building codes. Current building codes don't create sufficient safety for patient in the hospitals in different situations and more of the advanced countries in the world effort to establish building code, base  on performance. This study to be accomplished with this goal that determination of fire risk level in the wards of a hospital and survey the efficiency of the national building codes. Methodsfire risk assesses is done, using "engineering fire risk assessment method" with the checklist for Data gathering. In this manner, risk calculate in all compartments and in the next  stage for survey the effect of building codes, with this supposition that all compartment is  conforming to building code requirement, risk level calculate in two situation.Resultsthe results of present study reveals that, risk level in all wards is more than one and even though risk less than one is acceptable, consequently minimum of safely situations didn't  produce in most wards. The results show the national building code in the different conditions  don't have appropriate efficient for creation of suitable safety. Conclusionin order to access to a fire safety design with sufficient efficiency, suitable selection is use of risk assessment based on, design methods.

  15. Post-fire logging produces minimal persistent impacts on understory vegetation in northeastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Peterson; Erich Dodson

    2016-01-01

    Post-fire forest management commonly requires accepting some negative ecological impacts from management activities in order to achieve management objectives. Managers need to know, however, whether ecological impacts from post-fire management activities are transient or cause long-term ecosystem degradation. We studied the long-term response of understory vegetation...

  16. Change as a factor in advancing fire-management decisionmaking and program effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire management—as evidenced by its nature, historical growth, and development—can be characterized as a program of constant change. To become better able to meet changing conditions and complexity, fire management must be agile, flexible, and able to embrace change. But many challenges and limitations to acceptance continue to hamper...

  17. Camber Evolution and Stress Development of Porous Ceramic Bilayers During Co-Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Esposito, Vincenzo; Schmidt, Cristine Grings

    2013-01-01

    sintering mismatch stress in co-fired CGO-LSM/CGO bilayer laminates was significantly lower than general sintering stresses expected for free sintering conditions. As a result, no co-firing defects were observed in the bilayer laminates, illustrating an acceptable sintering compatibility of the ceramic...

  18. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  19. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  20. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  1. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  2. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  3. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  4. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  5. USFA NFIRS 1999 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 1999 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  6. Fire Detection Using tin Oxide Gas Sensors Installed in an Indoor Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shin-Ichi; Higashino, Tsubasa; Sawada, Ayako; Oyabu, Takashi; Takei, Yoshinori; Nanto, Hidehito; Toko, Kiyoshi

    Many lives and facilities were lost by fire. Especially, there are many damages to elderly, toddlers and babies. In Japan, number of deaths over 65 years old reached to 53% in 2004. Number of over 81 years olds went to 20%. It takes for the elderly person more time to sense fire and also to evacuate to safe places. Although it is important to prevent the fire, it also needs to inform the fire breaking as early as possible. Human sense decreases with age and it is difficult to perceive the fire at an early stage. It is desired to develop a higher sensitive element for fire and its system which can detect fire at an early stage. In this experiment, tin oxide gas sensors were adopted to detect a smoldering fire at the early stage. Most common case of fire is the smoldering fire. The reliability of the sensor is higher and it is adopted in a gas alarm detector. The sensor can also detect slight amount of odor molecule. In our previous experiment, it became obvious that it was better to install the sensor to the ceiling to detect odor components generating from smoldering fire. Therefore, five sensors were installed in the ceiling away from each other and the method to detect the fire was examined. As a result, a characteristic was newly derived by adding the sensor outputs for one minute. The sensor output was input every 0.1s. The characteristic is called as the integrated characteristic. After that, the differential characteristic was derived using the integrated characteristic. The fire was determined using the differential characteristics. The materials causing a smoldering fire were woodchip, wallpaper and carpet as subjects. The system could detect the fire in several minutes for whole materials. The sensor is effective to detect the smoldering fire at an early stage. It is necessary to detect a cigarette smoke to distinguish as non fire. In this study, the discrimination was also examined using a quadratic function (ax2+b). The coefficients a and b were

  7. Application of fire and evacuation models in evaluation of fire safety in railway tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cábová, Kamila; Apeltauer, Tomáš; Okřinová, Petra; Wald, František

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes an application of numerical simulation of fire dynamics and evacuation of people in a tunnel. The software tool Fire Dynamics Simulator is used to simulate temperature resolution and development of smoke in a railway tunnel. Comparing to temperature curves which are usually used in the design stage results of the model show that the numerical model gives lower temperature of hot smoke layer. Outputs of the numerical simulation of fire also enable to improve models of evacuation of people during fires in tunnels. In the presented study the calculated high of smoke layer in the tunnel is in 10 min after the fire ignition lower than the level of 2.2 m which is considered as the maximal limit for safe evacuation. Simulation of the evacuation process in bigger scale together with fire dynamics can provide very valuable information about important security conditions like Available Safe Evacuation Time (ASET) vs Required Safe Evacuation Time (RSET). On given example in software EXODUS the paper summarizes selected results of evacuation model which should be in mind of a designer when preparing an evacuation plan.

  8. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  9. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  10. Mapping landscape fire frequency for fire regime condition class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale A. Hamilton; Wendel J. Hann

    2015-01-01

    Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) is a departure index that compares the current amounts of the different vegetation succession classes, fire frequency, and fire severity to historic reference conditions. FRCC assessments have been widely used for evaluating ecosystem status in many areas of the U.S. in reports such as land use plans, fire management plans, project...

  11. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256

  12. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  13. Controlled fires, politics, and the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Kettridge, Nicholas; Gray, Alan; Ascoli, Davide; Fernandes, Paulo; Marrs, Rob; Allen, Katherine; Doerr, Stephan; Clay, Gareth; McMorrow, Julia; Vandvik, Vidgis; Davies, Matt

    2017-04-01

    A golden rule in science communication is to be in charge - particularly when communicating sensitive topics. When our recent review on the use of fire and UK peatlands (Davies et al. 2016a) was accidentally released into the public domain prior to publication, we were certainly not in charge. The international fire ecology literature recognises that there are many potential benefits from the controlled use of fire, yet this tool is frequently viewed negatively in the UK. This may be at least partly due to its association with (creating habitat for) grouse hunting. In Davies et al. (2016a) we highlighted this controversy. We countered recent publications that portrayed controlled fires as having predominantly negative impacts on the environment (including water quality), often based on studies of potentially severe wildfires. We furthermore explored both the benefits and negative consequence of controlled burns. As fire is a highly political and emotional topic in the UK, we planned a press release upon publication of our paper to take the lead in the communication. The accidental release however prevented us from doing so, and came about inadvertently through one of us following the new rules of publication for University staff within the UK, designed to satisfy the Research Excellence Framework guidelines, i.e. that the accepted version of all papers should be entered immediately on acceptance into institutional repositories. To avoid similar issues, we suggest that all authors of commentary papers, especially if controversial, should endure that embargo terms are enforced in repository depositions strictly to prevent this happening. Ironically, our paper that called for informed, unbiased debate was used out of context by groups aligned with different wider environmental, social and political agendas. Our scientific credibility was consequently questioned in a blog by a prominent Guardian journalist, who disagreed with us on the focus of our review (fire effects

  14. Waste acceptance and logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    There are three major components which are normally highlighted when the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is discussed - the repository, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the transportation system. These are clearly the major physical system elements and they receive the greatest external attention. However, there will not be a successful, operative waste management system without fully operational waste acceptance plans and logistics arrangements. This paper will discuss the importance of developing, on a parallel basis to the normally considered waste management system elements, the waste acceptance and logistics arrangements to enable the timely transfer of spent nuclear fuel from more than one hundred and twenty waste generators to the Federal government. The paper will also describe the specific activities the Program has underway to make the necessary arrangements. (author)

  15. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure. Wireless sensor networks (WSN consist of tiny, cheap, and low-power sensor devices that have the ability to sense the environment and can provide real-time fire detection with high accuracy. In this paper, we designed and evaluated a wireless sensor network using multiple sensors for early detection of house fires. In addition, we used the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM to avoid false alarms. To test the results of our fire detection system, we simulated a fire in a smart home using the Fire Dynamics Simulator and a language program. The simulation results showed that our system is able to detect early fire, even when a sensor is not working, while keeping the energy consumption of the sensors at an acceptable level.

  16. Environment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet; Bresson; Braillard; Ertaud; Ladonchamps, de; Toureau

    1976-01-01

    The problems involved in the siting of nuclear power stations at a local level are of a political economic, social or ecological order. The acceptance of a nuclear station mostly depends on its interest for the local population. In order to avoid negative reactions, the men who are responsible must make the harmonious integration of the station within the existing economic and social context their first priority [fr

  17. Marketing for Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a researcher comes with the credentializing pressure to publish articles in peer-reviewed journals (Glaser, 1992; Glaser, 2007; Glaser, 2008). The work intensive process is exacerbated when the author’s research method is grounded theory. This study investigated the concerns of early and experienced grounded theorists to discover how they worked towards publishing research projects that applied grounded theory as a methodology. The result was a grounded theory of marketing for accept...

  18. Nuclear power and acceptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speelman, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 a workshop was held organized by the IAEA and the Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose was to investigate under which circumstances a large-scale extension of nuclear power can be accepted. Besides the important technical information, the care for the environment determined the atmosphere during the workshop. The opinion dominated that nuclear power can contribute in tackling the environment problems, but that the social and political climate this almost makes impossible. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  20. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  1. Effects of mountain pine beetle on fuels and expected fire behavior in lodgepole pine forests, Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Negron, José F; Smith, Jeremy M

    2012-01-01

    In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1-3 yrs], Grey [4-10 yrs], and Old-MPB [∼30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30-55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25-35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior.

  2. Effects of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels and Expected Fire Behavior in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T.; Negron, José F.; Smith, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1–3 yrs], Grey [4–10 yrs], and Old-MPB [∼30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30–55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25–35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior. PMID:22272268

  3. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  4. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  5. Order acceptance with reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainegra Hing, M.; van Harten, Aart; Schuur, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Order Acceptance (OA) is one of the main functions in a business control framework. Basically, OA involves for each order a 0/1 (i.e., reject/accept) decision. Always accepting an order when capacity is available could unable the system to accept more convenient orders in the future. Another

  6. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  7. East bay fire chiefs' consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to planning for public fire protection has been based on independent actions by each fire department or district. The county fire chiefs’ associations, while providing interagency communication, were not adequate to deal with the regional nature of the wildland urban interface problem. The formation of the East Bay Fire Chiefs’ Consortium grew...

  8. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  9. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  10. [Acceptance and commitment therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Fond, G

    2015-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a third generation of cognitive-behavioral therapies. The point is to help patients to improve their psychological flexibility in order to accept unavoidable private events. Thus, they have the opportunity to invest energy in committed actions rather than struggle against their psychological events. (i) To present the ACT basic concepts and (ii) to propose a systematic review of the literature about effectiveness of this kind of psychotherapy. (i) The core concepts of ACT come from Monestès (2011), Schoendorff (2011), and Harris (2012); (ii) we conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA's criteria. The research paradigm was « acceptance and commitment therapy AND randomized controlled trial ». The bases of the MEDLINE, Cochrane and Web of science have been checked. Overall, 61 articles have been found, of which, after reading the abstracts, 40 corresponded to the subject of our study. (I) Psychological flexibility is established through six core ACT processes (cognitive defusion, acceptance, being present, values, committed action, self as context), while the therapist emphasizes on experiential approach. (II) Emerging research shows that ACT is efficacious in the psychological treatment of a wide range of psychiatric problems, including psychosis, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders. ACT has also shown a utility in other areas of medicine: the management chronic pain, drug-dependence, smoking cessation, the management of epilepsy, diabetic self-management, the management of work stress, the management of tinnitus, and the management of multiple sclerosis. Meta-analysis of controlled outcome studies reported an average effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.66 at post-treatment (n=704) and 0.65 (n=580) at follow-up (on average 19.2 weeks later). In studies involving

  11. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  12. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  13. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  14. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  15. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  16. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  17. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  18. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Centritto, Mauro; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  20. RETRO_FIRES_WCS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  1. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  2. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  3. Fire Mapper, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  4. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  5. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  6. Burns and Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Website. Unintentional fire/burn fatalities and nonfatal injuries, children ages 19 and under. Available from: http: / / www. ... Prevention and Control. Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

  7. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harvey became 'a landmark in the evolution of drone usage.' Learn more in NFPA Journal Storm stats ... YouTube GooglePlus Blogger Pinterest RSSFeeds Instagram Terms of Use Privacy Policy © National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 2017

  8. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  9. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  10. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  11. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  12. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  13. Aircraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    fabrics of seats, carpets, drapes, lap robes, and sound deadening insulation. Also of concern are the polymeric based plastics used in interior walls...intumescent paints and foams is considered to be feasible; cabin transparencies with improved fire resistance and structure integrity over thermoformed...aircraft fire safety as well as provide a sound basis for further : long-term imp-ovem nts in new aircraft. REFERENCES 1. Final Report of the Special

  14. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  15. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  16. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  17. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  18. Marketing for Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a researcher comes with the credentializing pressure to publish articles in peer-reviewed journals (Glaser, 1992; Glaser, 2007; Glaser, 2008. The work intensive process is exacerbated when the author’s research method is grounded theory. This study investigated the concerns of early and experienced grounded theorists to discover how they worked towards publishing research projects that applied grounded theory as a methodology. The result was a grounded theory of marketing for acceptance that provides the reader with insight into ways that classic grounded theorists have published their works. This is followed by a discussion of ideas for normalizing classic grounded theory research methods in our substantive fields.

  19. Acceptance, Tolerance, Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management from an ethical and societal viewpoint was treated in this seminar, which had participants from universities (social, theological, philosophical and science institutes), waste management industry, and regulatory and controlling authorities. After initial reviews on repository technology, policies and schedules, knowledge gaps, and ethical aspects on decision making under uncertainty, four subjects were treated in lectures and discussions: Democratic collective responsibility, Handling threats in democratic decision making, Waste management - a technological operation with a social dimension, Acceptance and legitimity. Lectures with comments and discussions are collected in this report

  20. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  1. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  2. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  3. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  4. Fire propagation equation for the explicit identification of fire scenarios in a fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    When performing fire PSA in a nuclear power plant, an event mapping method, using an internal event PSA model, is widely used to reduce the resources used by fire PSA model development. Feasible initiating events and component failure events due to fire are identified to transform the fault tree (FT) for an internal event PSA into one for a fire PSA using the event mapping method. A surrogate event or damage term method is used to condition the FT of the internal PSA. The surrogate event or the damage term plays the role of flagging whether the system/component in a fire compartment is damaged or not, depending on the fire being initiated from a specified compartment. These methods usually require explicit states of all compartments to be modeled in a fire area. Fire event scenarios, when using explicit identification, such as surrogate or damage terms, have two problems: there is no consideration of multiple fire propagation beyond a single propagation to an adjacent compartment, and there is no consideration of simultaneous fire propagations in which an initiating fire event is propagated to multiple paths simultaneously. The present paper suggests a fire propagation equation to identify all possible fire event scenarios for an explicitly treated fire event scenario in the fire PSA. Also, a method for separating fire events was developed to make all fire events a set of mutually exclusive events, which can facilitate arithmetic summation in fire risk quantification. A simple example is given to confirm the applicability of the present method for a 2x3 rectangular fire area. Also, a feasible asymptotic approach is discussed to reduce the computational burden for fire risk quantification

  5. Conditional acceptability of random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasos C Christofides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acceptable random variables introduced by Giuliano Antonini et al. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 338:1188-1203, 2008 form a class of dependent random variables that contains negatively dependent random variables as a particular case. The concept of acceptability has been studied by authors under various versions of the definition, such as extended acceptability or wide acceptability. In this paper, we combine the concept of acceptability with the concept of conditioning, which has been the subject of current research activity. For conditionally acceptable random variables, we provide a number of probability inequalities that can be used to obtain asymptotic results.

  6. Experimental measurement of a shipboard fire environment with simulated radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. The calorimeters were both located adjacent to the fires and on the opposite side of the cargo hold bulkhead nearest the fire. The calorimeters were constructed from 1.5 m length sections of nominal 2 foot diameter schedule 60 steel pipe. Type K thermocouples were attached at 12 locations on the circumference and ends of the calorimeter. Fire heat fluxes to the calorimeter surfaces were estimated with the use of the Sandia SODDIT inverse heat conduction code. Experimental results from all types of tests are discussed, and some comparisons are made between the environments found on the ship and those found in land-based pool fire tests

  7. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasa, J; Valasek, L; Weisenpacher, P; Halada, L

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  8. Fire blight in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali L. Gaganidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  9. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. First annual technical progress report, May 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.E.; Hines, J.E.; Stewart, D.L. Jr.; Yu, H.

    1979-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 lb/h (coal) staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft dia aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 lb capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time. A major design subcontract for assistance in the design of the SSCC is 80% completed.

  10. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  11. Action taken by the french safety authorities for fire protection and fire fighting in basic nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Gibault, M.; Berger, R.; Kaluzny, Y.; Wallard, H.E.; Winter, D.

    1989-03-01

    The safety goal for nuclear installations is to prevent the dispersal of radioactive substances, both in the work area and outside the buildings into the environment. It is therefore at the design stage, then during construction and subsequent operation that it is necessary to take preventive measures against the outbreak of fire, and to take precautions to ensure that the consequences will always be limited. The paper describes the arrangements made by the French safety authorities to provide protection against fire in both nuclear plants and nuclear fuel cycle installations at all these stages

  12. Fire mosaics and reptile conservation in a fire-prone region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, D G; Kelly, L T; Spence-Bailey, L M; Watson, S J; Taylor, R S; Clarke, M F; Bennett, A F

    2013-04-01

    Fire influences the distribution of fauna in terrestrial biomes throughout the world. Use of fire to achieve a mosaic of vegetation in different stages of succession after burning (i.e., patch-mosaic burning) is a dominant conservation practice in many regions. Despite this, knowledge of how the spatial attributes of vegetation mosaics created by fire affect fauna is extremely scarce, and it is unclear what kind of mosaic land managers should aim to achieve. We selected 28 landscapes (each 12.6 km(2) ) that varied in the spatial extent and diversity of vegetation succession after fire in a 104,000 km(2) area in the semiarid region of southeastern Australia. We surveyed for reptiles at 280 sites nested within the 28 landscapes. The landscape-level occurrence of 9 of the 22 species modeled was associated with the spatial extent of vegetation age classes created by fire. Biogeographic context and the extent of a vegetation type influenced 7 and 4 species, respectively. No species were associated with the diversity of vegetation ages within a landscape. Negative relations between reptile occurrence and both extent of recently burned vegetation (≤10 years postfire, n = 6) and long unburned vegetation (>35 years postfire, n = 4) suggested that a coarse-grained mosaic of areas (e.g. >1000 ha) of midsuccessional vegetation (11-35 years postfire) may support the fire-sensitive reptile species we modeled. This age class coincides with a peak in spinifex cover, a keystone structure for reptiles in semiarid and arid Australia. Maintaining over the long term a coarse-grained mosaic of large areas of midsuccessional vegetation in mallee ecosystems will need to be balanced against the short-term negative effects of large fires on many reptile species and a documented preference by species from other taxonomic groups, particularly birds, for older vegetation. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, O.H.

    1990-01-01

    The lecture addresses the question why we need public acceptance work and provides some clues to it. It explains various human behaviour patterns which determine the basics for public acceptance. To some extent, the opposition to nuclear energy and the role the media play are described. Public acceptance efforts of industry are critically reviewed. Some hints on difficulties with polling are provided. The lecture concludes with recommendations for further public acceptance work. (author)

  14. Prescribed Fire Impacts to Amphibians and Reptiles in Shelterwood-harvested Oak-dominated Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Keyser; David J. Sausville; W. Mark Ford; Donald J. Schwab; Partick H. Brose

    2004-01-01

    As part of a larger study examining the role of prescribed fire in regenerating upland oaks (Quercus spp.), seasonal prescribed burns (winter, spring, summer, and unburned control) were applied to first-stage shelterwood-harvested stands on Horsepen Wildlife Management Area in the Virginia Piedmont in 1995. Because fire impacts are poorly documented...

  15. Aerosol generation from Kerosene fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1981-01-01

    The course of solvent surface fires is dependent on the surface area on fire; depth of pool and solvent composition do not influence the fire rate. But the fire rate increases rapidly with the burning area. The residual oxygen concentration after a fire in a closed container is dependent on the violence of the fire, i.e. on the burning surface. Moreover the ending of the fire is influenced by the TBP-concentration of the solvent. With sufficient supply of solvent the TBP-concentration changes only slightly during the fire, so that a fire at 14% O 2 -concentration is extinguished within the container. With the TBP-concentration changing considerably, i.e. little mass, a fire with a similar burning surface is already extinguished at an O 2 -content of 18%. The aerosol generation depends on the fire rate, and so it is higher in free atmosphere than in closed containers. The soot production in the mixture fire (kerosene /TBP 70/30) is higher by a factor 7 than in the pure kerosene fire. Primary soot-particles have a diameter of approximately 0,05 μm and agglomerate rapidly into aggregates of 0,2-0,4 μm. (orig.) [de

  16. FARSITE: a fire area simulator for fire managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney

    1995-01-01

    A fire growth model (FARSITE) has been developed for use on personal computers (PC’s). Because PC’s are commonly used by land and fire managers, this portable platform would be an accustomed means to bring fire growth modeling technology to management applications. The FARSITE model is intended for use in projecting the growth of prescribed natural fires for wilderness...

  17. Fire-protection research for DOE facilities: FY 82 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Priante, S.J.; Foote, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    We summarize our research in FY 82 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies for energy technology facilities to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are concurrently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to current fusion energy facilities; (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models

  18. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models

  19. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  20. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  1. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  2. Hollow tree fire is a useless forest fire category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chromek Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the term “hollow tree fire“ was first used in a publication in 1956 without being well defined and was then uncritically used in other publications. The term refers to fires occurring in the rotted, inner trunks of trees. The main aim of the current study was to determine whether the term should be considered a useful category for the statistical analysis of forest fires. The nature and causes of fires from 2006–2015 were assessed by performing a detailed analysis of the Fire Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR database. The database included a total of 7,256 fires in the natural environment, but only 18 of these were hollow tree fires. Most hollow tree fires were initiated by human carelessness, and only three were initiated by lightning. Based on our critical consideration of fire attributes, hollow tree fires should not be considered a category of forest fire. The presence of rotten trees is, however, a serious problem because such trees represent long-lasting sources of fire in forest stands and because they complicate firefighting. The numbers of rotten trees in forests is increasing, and firefighters should be made aware of the complications of extinguishing fires involving rotten trees in forests.

  3. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available and in logistic planning of fire fighting resources. In this study historical fire activity from remotely sensed data are compared with various FDIs to identify which index has the strongest statistical relationship with fire occurrences and therefore the highest...

  4. Returning fire to the land: celebrating traditional knowledge and fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank K. Lake; Vita Wright; Penelope Morgan; Mary McFadzen; Dave McWethy; Camille Stevens-Rumann

    2017-01-01

    North American tribes have traditional knowledge about fire effects on ecosystems, habitats, and resources. For millennia, tribes have used fire to promote valued resources. Sharing our collective understanding of fire, derived from traditional and western knowledge systems, can benefit landscapes and people. We organized two workshops to investigate how traditional...

  5. HPS simulation and acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Luiz Martins [UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pol, Maria Elena [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The High Precision Spectrometer (HPS) is a proposal of sub-detector to be installed in the region of 200-240m from each side of CMS along the LHC beam-line to measure scattered protons from exclusive centrally produced processes, pp → p + X + p. In order to study the protons that reach the detectors, the beam-line of the LHC accelerator has to be taken into account, as the particles are deflected by dipoles and suffer the influence of quadrupoles and other beam devices. The LHC team provides a detailed description of these elements, currents, energies, magnetic fields, and all the information needed to study the propagation of the protons. The program HECTOR, developed at the University of Louvain, uses the information from LHC to calculate at any point along the beam-line the kinematic quantities that characterize the scattered protons. A simple minded program was initially developed for the preliminary studies of acceptances varying the position and size of the foreseen detectors. Also, it took into account vertex and position smearing, to simulate a realistic resolution of the tracking detectors. These studies were performed using a particle gun generator which shoot protons from the IP within reasonable ranges of possible t and ξ (the square of the four-momentum transfer and the fractional energy loss of the outgoing proton in a diffractive collision), and propagated them to the position of the tracking detectors. These kinematic quantities were reconstructed back at the IP using the transport equations from HECTOR. This simplified simulation was afterwards interfaced with the full software of CMS, CMSSW, in such a way that when a diffractive event was fully simulated and reconstructed in the central detector, the outgoing protons were treated by the HPS software and then the complete (CMS+HPS) event was output. The ExHuME generator was used to produce Monte Carlo simulations to study the mass acceptance of the HPS detector, and central and

  6. Residual Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Through 50+ years, high quality research has been conducted in order to characterize ash and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. The basic mechanism of fly ash formation in suspension fired coal boilers is well described, documented and may even....... The objective of this work was to generate novel and comprehensive data on the formation of residual fly ash during the initial stage (0.25 – 2.0 s) of suspension-firing of biomass (pulverized wood and straw). Combustion experiments were carried out with bio-dust (pulverized straw and wood), in an entrained...... flow reactor, simulating full-scale suspension-firing of biomass. By the use of a movable, cooled and quenched gas/ particle sampling probe, samples were collected at different positions along the vertical axis in the reactor, corresponding to gas residence times, varying in the range [0.25 – 2.0 s...

  7. Integrating Fire, Climate, and Societal Factors into Decision Support for Strategic Planning in Wildland Fire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Morehouse; Gregg Garfin; Timothy Brown; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2006-01-01

    An El Niño winter in 1998-99, followed by a strong La Niña winter in 1999- 2000, set the stage for potentially large wildfires in the southwestern, southeastern, and northwestern forests of the United States. Researchers at the University of Arizona organized a three-day workshop to discuss the relationship between synoptic scale climate conditions and wildland fire...

  8. Bridging the Gap between Social Acceptance and Ethical Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Behnam

    2017-10-01

    New technology brings great benefits, but it can also create new and significant risks. When evaluating those risks in policymaking, there is a tendency to focus on social acceptance. By solely focusing on social acceptance, we could, however, overlook important ethical aspects of technological risk, particularly when we evaluate technologies with transnational and intergenerational risks. I argue that good governance of risky technology requires analyzing both social acceptance and ethical acceptability. Conceptually, these two notions are mostly complementary. Social acceptance studies are not capable of sufficiently capturing all the morally relevant features of risky technologies; ethical analyses do not typically include stakeholders' opinions, and they therefore lack the relevant empirical input for a thorough ethical evaluation. Only when carried out in conjunction are these two types of analysis relevant to national and international governance of risky technology. I discuss the Rawlsian wide reflective equilibrium as a method for marrying social acceptance and ethical acceptability. Although the rationale of my argument is broadly applicable, I will examine the case of multinational nuclear waste repositories in particular. This example will show how ethical issues may be overlooked if we focus only on social acceptance, and will provide a test case for demonstrating how the wide reflective equilibrium can help to bridge the proverbial acceptance-acceptability gap. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Wilderness fire management planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a procedure for fire management planning for parks; wilderness areas; and other wild, natural, or essentially undeveloped areas. Discusses background and philosophy of wilderness fire management, planning concepts, planning elements, and planning methods.

  10. Public acceptance of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2010-01-01

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  11. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Matchett, John R.; Shive, Kristen L.; Povak, Nicholas A.; Kane, Van R.; Smith, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western U.S. Given this increase there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation and water balance on fire severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. Proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high fire severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience.

  12. Automatic fire hydrant valve development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumheller, K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a remotely-controlled valve to operate a fire hydrant is described. Assembled from off-the-shelf components, the prototype illustrates that a valve light enough to be handled by one man is possible. However, it does not have the ruggedness or reliability needed for actual fire-fighting operations. Preliminary testing by City of Tacoma fire department personnel indicates that the valve may indeed contribute significantly to fire-fighting efficiency

  13. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  14. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  15. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  16. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Innes

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/) has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  17. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  18. The CERN fire-fighters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1959-01-01

    CERN is one of the few laboratories to have its own fire station. The CERN fire brigade was set up in July 1956 to provide a rapid response in the event of an accident and to tackle the risks specific to the Organisation's activities. Six members of the CERN fire brigade in 1959. From left to right: Messrs. Ubertin, Dalbignat, Verny, Vosdey, Lissajoux, Favre.

  19. Fire behavior, fuel treatments, and fire suppression on the Hayman Fire - Part 1: Fire weather, meteorology, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Bradshaw; Roberta Bartlette; John McGinely; Karl Zeller

    2003-01-01

    The Hayman Fire in June 2002 was heavily influenced by antecedent regional weather conditions, culminating in a series of daily weather events that aligned to produce widely varying fire behavior. This review of weather conditions associated with the Hayman Fire consists of two parts: 1) A brief overview of prior conditions as described by a regional climate review and...

  20. Fire Frequency Effects on Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) Vegetation in South Carolina and Northeast Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff S. Glitzenstein; Donna R. Streng; Dale D. Wade

    2003-01-01

    Southeastern United States habitats dominated by longleaf pine (Pinus pulutris P. Miller) have declined precipitously in area and extent. Conservation of diverse ground-layer vegetation in these endangered habitats depends on prescribed fire. While the need for prescribed fire is now generally accepted, there is disagreement concerning the most...

  1. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs

  2. Research and development of methods and technologies for CO2 capture in fossil fuel power plants and storage in geological formations in the Czech Republic, stage E2: Methods of and technologies for CO2 capture from flue gas and a draft conceptual design of 2 selected variants of a CO2 capture system for a Czech coal fired power plant unit. Final report for Stage 2. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubra, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The following topics are summarised: Aim and scope of Stage 2. List of research reports developed within Stage 2. Stage 2.1: Methods of and technologies for post-combustion CO 2 capture from the flue gas. Status of research and development worldwide. Stage 2.2: Oxyfuel method and technology. Status of research and development worldwide. Stage 2.3: Selection of a chemical absorption based method for post-combustion CO 2 separation; and Stage 2.4: Conceptual proposals for a technological solution for the selected chemical absorption based method and for application of the oxyfuel method. (P.A.)

  3. Geographic variation in social acceptability of wildland fuels management in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, M.; Schindler, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary natural resource management requires consideration of the social acceptability of management practices and conditions. Agencies wishing to measure, respond to, and influence social acceptability must understand the nuances of public perception regarding controversial issues. This study explores social acceptability judgments about one such issue: reduction of wildland fuel hazards on federal lands in the western United States. Citizens were surveyed in four locations where fire has been a significant ecological disturbance agent and public land agencies propose to reduce wildland fuel levels and wildfire hazards via prescribed burning, thinning, brush removal, and/or livestock grazing. Respondents in different locations differed in their knowledge about fire and fuel issues as well in their acceptability judgments. Differences are associated with location-specific social and environmental factors as well as individual beliefs. Results argue against using a??one-size-fits-alla?? policies or information strategies about fuels management.

  4. Thermal stress analysis of FIRE divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Heizenroeder, P.; Driemeyer, D.

    2003-01-01

    The fusion engineering research experiment (FIRE) device is designed for high power density and advanced physics operating modes. Due to the short distance of the divertor from the X-point, the connection lengths are short and the scrape off layer thickness is small. A relatively high peak heat flux of 25 MW/m 2 is expected on the divertor. The FIRE divertor engineering design is based on the design approaches developed for international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The geometry of the FIRE divertor consists of water cooled copper fingers and a tungsten brush armor as plasma facing material. The divertor assembly consists of modular units for remote handling. A 316 stainless steel back plate is used for support and manifolding. The backing plate is joined to the copper fingers by pins. The coolant channel diameter is 8 mm at a pitch of 14 mm. The total power flow to the outer divertor is 35 MW. Water at an inlet temperature of 30 deg.C, 1.5 MPa and a flow velocity of 10 m/s is used with two channels in series. A margin of ∼1.6 is obtained on the critical heat flux. A three dimensional thermal stress finite element (FE) analysis of this geometry was performed. Thermal hydraulic correlations derived for ITER were used to perform the thermal analysis. Design changes were implemented to reduce the stresses and temperatures to acceptable levels

  5. Determination Public Acceptance Segmentation for Nuclear Power Program Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Aini Wahidah Abdul Wahab

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focus to discuss segmentation aspect among inter-disciplinary group of public. This discussion is the pre-stage to ensure the right initiative strategies are implemented to gain public interest and acceptance towards on developing nuclear power plant. The applied strategies are implemented based on different interest among the different groups of public. These strategies may increase public acceptance level towards developing nuclear power plant. (author)

  6. Hiring without Firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  7. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    batteries were charged at 260 amps and 30 volts. • Time to first visible signs of thermal runaway ranged from 30 to 70 minutes. 1 uNcLAssiFIED The... casas . JP-8 Spray fires as large as 8 GPH were used in most tests. All flame extinction times were less than 475 ms. Note: 1 Current prototype weights

  8. Fire, ice, and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of tree injury often begins with a loss assessment. For winter storm injury, percent crow loss or branch breakage is often estimated. For injury from fire or some mechanical source to the lower trunk, the height and width of the killed vascular cambium and resulting scar are often measured. Both crown breakage and stem wounds provide the opportunity for...

  9. Fire in the forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Saveland

    1995-01-01

    From ancient philosophies to present day science, the ubiquity of change and the process of transformation are core concepts. The primary focus of a recent white paper on disturbance ecology is summed up by the Greek philosopher Heraclitus who stated, "Nothing is permanent but change." Disturbance processes, such as fire, provide a window into the emerging...

  10. Fire Incident Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    the result of an incident that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine , a registered emergency medical technician, or a...UNANNOUNCED AIRCRAFT EMERGENCYS ~~PRIOR TO TAKE OFF OR AFTERLADN 5 FUEL OPERATIONS REQUIRING 1AREING G A FIRE10 ARRESTING GEAR’BARRIER FR . ENGAGEMENTS AND

  11. Direct fired heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  12. Motorcoach Fire Safety Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to collect and analyze information from Government, industry, and media sources on the causes, frequency, and severity of motorcoach fires in the U.S., and to identify potential risk reduction measures. The Volpe Center...

  13. De fire dimensioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mihail

    De fire dimensioner er en humanistisk håndbog beregnet især på studerende og vejledere inden for humaniora, men kan også læses af andre med interesse for, hvad humanistisk forskning er og kan. Den er blevet til over et langt livs engageret forskning, uddannelse og formidling på Roskilde Universitet...... og udgør på den måde også et bidrag til universitetets historie, som jeg var med til at grundlægge. De fire dimensioner sætter mennesket i centrum. Men det er et centrum, der peger ud over sig selv; et centrum, hvorfra verden anskues, erfares og forstås. Alle mennesker har en forhistorie og en...... fremtid, og udstrakt mellem disse punkter i tiden tænker og handler de i rummet. Den menneskelige tilværelse omfatter alle fire dimensioner. De fire dimensioner udgør derfor også et forsvar for en almen dannelse, der gennemtrænger og kommer kulturelt til udtryk i vores historie, viden, praksis og kunst....

  14. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venom in a fire ant sting will kill bacteria and some of your skin cells. This results in the formation of a blister that fills with a cloudy white material in about 24 hours. While this looks like a pus-filled lesion that should be drained, ...

  15. Fire When Ready.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrass, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    There are ways to fire an unproductive volunteer and still do minimal damage to both the volunteer and the alumni association, but an ounce of prevention is advocated. Some types of volunteers that might cause problems are identified and advice on what to do when dismissing a volunteer is provided. (MLW)

  16. Boerhaave on Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemente, Damon

    2000-01-01

    In 1741 an English translation of Herman Boerhaave's celebrated textbook Elementa Chemic was published under the title A New Method of Chemistry. True to its time, this book included elaborate discussions of the elements earth, water, air, and fire. This article offers to teachers for classroom use a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Now, today's teacher of chemistry is apt to feel that little of significance to the modern classroom can be gleaned from a two-and-a-half-centuries-old text, and especially from a topic as old-fashioned as fire. But this view is decidedly shortsighted. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas. In the readings presented here I have found material for discussion in class, for investigation in the laboratory, and for a few homework assignments. Modern students are well able to comprehend and paraphrase Boerhaave, to check his results, appreciate his insights, and identify his shortfalls. From him they learn firsthand how painstaking and difficult it was to imagine and develop the concepts of thermochemistry. To read from his chapter on fire is to stand witness to the birth and infancy of thermodynamics as conceived in the mind of a great chemist from the age when coherent chemical theory was just beginning to emerge.

  17. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M; Brooks, Matthew L; Matchett, John R; Shive, Kristen L; Povak, Nicholas A; Kane, Van R; Smith, Douglas F

    2017-10-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western United States. Given this increase, there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation, and water balance on fire-severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate-severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high-severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high-severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. The proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high-severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate-severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. FIRE-PRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterfall, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM), is a service company in the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies who provides services worldwide (outside of the USA) to Shell Operating Companies. It has defined and recommended for implementation by Shell Companies a policy on safety (Enhanced Safety Management policy) to manage the total safety aspects of all they do, including the design, engineering, installation and operation of their facilities worldwide. This policy affects all activities in such a way as to avoid harm to health of, or injury to employees and others as well as avoiding damage to property. This in turn reflects through specific policies and standards for investment strategy, engineering and operations of facilities. With average Group losses due to major fires and explosion (for each incident over Brit-pounds 100,000) between 1988 and 1990 being of the order of Brit-pounds 28 million, there is an obvious potential to effectively employ fire protection criteria in design. However, Shell need to ensure the cost-effective application of protective measures, but first and foremost it is essential not to jeopardize life or risk damage to the environment. FIRE-PRAN has the possibility to do this efficiently as it is A systematic team approach for identification of all potential fire and explosion hazards and consequences, and a means for developing optimal means of protection for all types of facilities. It should thus be considered as an auditing technique, but one that fits into the overall safe management of activities. This paper discusses the status of development of the FIRE-PRAN technique following its successful application over a number of years to a variety of equipment and installations

  19. Stochastic representation of fire behavior in a wildland fire protection planning model for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried

    1998-01-01

    A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...

  20. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  1. Clinimetric quality of the fire fighting simulation test as part of the Dutch fire fighters Workers' Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluiter Judith K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinimetric data for the fire fighting simulation test (FFST, a new test proposed for the Workers' Health Surveillance (WHS of Dutch fire fighters, were evaluated. Methods Twenty-one fire fighters took the FFST three times with one and three weeks between testing. Clinimetric quality was determined by means of reliability, agreement and validity. For reliability and agreement, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and standard error of measurement (SEM, were analysed. For construct validity, the tests from 45 fire fighters were correlated with their own and their supervisors' rated work ability. Results The ICCs were 0.56 and 0.79 at the one-week and three-week test-retest periods, respectively. Testing times ranged from 9 to 17 minutes; the SEMs were 70 s at the one-week and 40 s at the three-week test-retest periods. The construct validity was moderate (-0.47 ≤ r ≤ -0.33; p Conclusions The FFST was reliable with acceptable agreement after three weeks. Construct validity was moderate. We recommend using FFST as a part of the WHS for Dutch fire fighters. It is advised that fire fighters should perform the FFST once as a trial before judging their performance in testing time during the second performance.

  2. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  3. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  4. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  5. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  6. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  7. Tacit acceptance of the succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana NICOLAE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some essential and contradictory aspects regarding the issue of tacit acceptance of succession in terms of distinction between documents valuing tacit acceptance of succession and other acts that would not justify such a solution. The documents expressly indicated by the legislator as having tacit acceptance value as well as those which do not have such value are presented and their most important legal effects are examined and discussed.

  8. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    . Thus, night-time analysis is the most suitable for thermal anomaly mapping of underground coal fires, although this is not always feasible. The heat of underground coal fires only progresses very slowly through conduction in the rock material. Anomalies of coal fires completely covered by solid unfractured bedrock are very weak and were only measured during the night. The thermal pattern of underground coal fires manifested on the surface during the daytime is thus the pattern of cracks and vents, which occur due to the volume loss underground and which support radiation and convective energy transport of hot gasses. Inside coal fire temperatures can hardly be measured and can only be recorded if the glowing coal is exposed through a wider crack in the overlaying bedrock. Direct coal fire temperatures measured ranged between 233 °C and 854 °C. The results presented can substantially support the planning of thermal mapping campaigns, analyses of coal fire thermal anomalies in remotely sensed data, and can provide initial and boundary conditions for coal fire related numerical modeling. In a second paper named "Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: results of measurements on simulated coal fires" [ Zhang J., Kuenzer C., Tetzlaff A., Oettl D., Zhukov B., Wagner W., 2007. Thermal Characteristics of Coal Fires 2: Result of measurements on simulated coal fires. Accepted for publication at Journal of Applied Geophysics. doi:10.1016/j.jappgeo.2007.08.003] we report about thermal characteristics of simulated coal fires simulated under simplified conditions. The simulated set up allowed us to measure even more parameters under undisturbed conditions — especially inside fire temperatures. Furthermore we could demonstrate the differences between open surface coal fires and covered underground coal fires. Thermal signals of coal fires in near range thermal remotely sensed imagery from an observing tower and from an airplane are presented and discussed.

  9. Fire analysis. Relevant aspects from Spanish nuclear power plants experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Pedro; Villar, Tomas [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Madrid (Spain). Nuclear Safety Dept.

    2015-12-15

    not fall within the range of the study, further justification must be made. Additionally, in order to compare the results and to check that the semi-empirical equations described in NUREG-1805 lead to conservative results, some calculations for a few fire zones were performed using the more accurate CFD model ''Fire Dynamics Simulator'' (FDS). As a result of Human Reliability Analysis, more complete and accurate information about equipment and instrumentation that can fail due to a fire in the different fire areas will be provided to the operators in order to assure them about the equipment they can rely on in case of fire, thus helping them respond better to a plant transient caused by the fire. As part of the transition process to NFPA-805, an estimation has been performed of the increase in risk associated with non-compliance with Appendix R of 10 CFR 50, for both Core Damage Frequency (CDF) and Large Early Release Frequency (LERF), in order to determine its acceptability within the criteria established in the Regulatory Guide 1.174.

  10. Use of operational experience in fire safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Fire hazard has been identified as a major contributor to a plant's operational risk and the international nuclear power industry has been studying and developing tools for defending against this hazard. Considerable progress in design and regulatory requirements for fire safety, in fire protection technology and in related analytical techniques has been made in the past two decades. Substantial efforts have been undertaken worldwide to implement these advances in the interest of improving fire safety both at new and existing nuclear power plants. To assist in these efforts, the IAEA initiated a programme on fire safety that was intended to provide assistance to Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants. In order to achieve this general objective, the IAEA programme aimed at the development of guidelines and good practices, the promotion of advanced fire safety assessment techniques, the exchange of state of the art information between practitioners and the provision of engineering safety advisory services and training in the implementation of internationally accepted practices. During the period 1993-1994, the IAEA activities related to fire safety concentrated on the development of guidelines and good practice documents related to fire safety and fire protection of operating plants. One of the first tasks was the development of a Safety Guide that formulates specific requirements with regard to the fire safety of operating nuclear power plants. Several documents, which provide advice on fire safety inspection, were developed to assist in its implementation. In the period 1995-1996, the programme focused on the preparation of guidelines for the systematic analysis of fire safety at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The IAEA programme on fire safety for 1997-1998 includes tasks aimed at promoting systematic assessment of fire safety related occurrences and dissemination of essential insights from this assessment. One of the topics addressed is the

  11. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part 2: Fire detection and -extinguishing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1996-01-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Detection and extinguishing systems in Swedish nuclear power plants have only to a limited extent been designed after functional demands, such as a maximum acceptable damage or a maximum time to detect a fire. The availability of detection systems is difficult to assess, partly because of lack of statistics. The user interface is very important in complex systems as nuclear plants. An extinguishing system designed according to the insurance companies' regulations will only fulfill the basic demands. It should be noted that normal sprinkler design does not aim for extinguishing fires, the objective is to control fire until manual extinguishment is possible. There is a great amount of statistics on wet and dry pipe sprinkler systems, while statistics are more scarce for deluge systems. The statistics on the reliability of gaseous extinguishing systems have been found very scarce. A drawback of these systems is that they are normally designed for one shot only. There are both traditional and more recent extinguishing systems that can replace halons. From now on there will be a greater need for a thorough examination of the properties needed for the individual application and a quantification of the acceptable damage. There are several indications on the importance of a high quality maintenance program as well as carefully developed routines for testing and surveillance to ensure the reliability of detection and extinguishing systems. 78 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  12. Bridging the Gap between Social Acceptance and Ethical Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.

    2016-01-01

    New technology brings great benefits, but it can also create new and significant risks. When evaluating those risks in policymaking, there is a tendency to focus on social acceptance. By solely focusing on social acceptance, we could, however, overlook important ethical aspects of technological

  13. Biscuit Fire, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This image, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on August 14, 2002, shows the pillars of smoke arising from the fires. Active fire areas are in red. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire alone, which was 390,276 acres as of Thursday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission

  14. Acceptance conditions in automated negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties has to accept an offer to avoid a break off. A break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, therefore it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept.

  15. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to

  16. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent t...

  17. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, Luc H.; Crommelynck, Yves A.

    2009-01-01

    The current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad are outlined. The development of public opinion in the last decade is playing an important part. This has turned from clear rejection to careful acceptance. Transparency and open communication will be important aspects in the further development of nuclear acceptance. (orig.)

  18. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  19. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  20. Holocene fire dynamics in Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Jennifer; Seppa, Heikki; Kuosmanen, Niina; Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Allen, Katherine; Bradshaw, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Prescribed burning is advocated in Fennoscandia to promote regeneration and to encourage biodiversity. This method of forest management is based on the perception that fire was much more frequent in the recent past and over a century of active fire suppression has created a boreal forest ecosystem almost free of natural fire. The absence of fire is thought to have contributed to the widespread dominance of Picea abies (Norway spruce) with the successive spruce dominated forest further reducing fire ignition potential. However, humans have altered the natural fire dynamics of Fennoscandia since the early- to mid-Holocene and disentangling the anthropogenic driven fire dynamics from the natural fire dynamics is challenging. Through palaeoecology and sedimentary charcoal deposits we are able to explore the Holocene spatial and temporal variability and changing drivers of fire and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia. At the local-scale, two forest hollow environments (history are compared to identify unique and mutual changes in disturbance history. Pollen derived quantitative reconstruction of vegetation at both the local- and regional-scale identifies local-scale disturbance dynamics and large-scale ecosystem response. Spatio-temporal heterogeneity and variability in biomass burning is explored throughout Fennoscandia and Denmark to identify the changing drives of fire dynamics throughout the Holocene. Palaeo-vegetation reconstructions are compared to process-based, climate driven dynamic vegetation model output to test the significance of fire frequency as a driver of vegetation composition and dynamics. Early-Holocene fire regimes in Fennoscandia are driven by natural climate variations and fuel availability. The establishment and spread of Norway spruce is driven by an increase in continentality of climate, but local natural and anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance may have aided this spread. The expansion of spruce led to a step-wise reduction in regional biomass

  1. Repeated Stand-Replacing Crown Fires Affect Seed Morphology and Germination in Aleppo pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, Antonio; Bellino, Alessandro; Allevato, Emilia; Mingo, Antonio; Conti, Stefano; Rossi, Sergio; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Carputo, Domenico; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Post-fire reproductive niche of Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis ) is deeply interlaced with fire products. Indeed, the high pH and low osmotic potentials of ash beds under burnt crowns constitute the main constraints to seed germination. In this study, we aim to investigate whether fire recurrence, through the physico-chemical constraints imposed by the ash beds, affects the reproduction ability of P. halepensis at the germination stage. To this aim, Aleppo pine seeds were collected in neighboring even-aged stands subjected to 0, 1, or 2 fires (namely fire cohorts), and seed morphology and germination performance, in terms of cumulative germination and germination kinetics, were studied under increasing osmotic potentials (from 0.0 to -1.2 MPa) and pH (from 6 to 11). Besides fire history, the role of ontogenetic age of mother plants on seed morphology and germination was also investigated. Differences in seed morphology among the three cohorts have been highlighted in a multivariate context, with anisotropic enlargement of the seeds produced by pine stands experiencing repeated fires. The patterns of seed germination varied primarily in relation to the fire cohort, with seeds from the pine stand experiencing repeated fires exhibiting enhanced tolerance to pH stress. Conversely, germination performances under osmotic constraints mainly depends on tree ontogenetic stage, with an involvement of fire history especially in the timing of seed germination. Our results suggest that, at least in the short term, fire recurrence does not constrain the reproduction ability of Aleppo pine. These results highlight the need for further research to elucidate the mechanisms behind these responses to recurrent fires.

  2. Some insights from fire risk analysis of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, M.; Lambright, J.A.; Frank, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Fire risk analysis has been conducted for a significant portion of the nuclear power plants in the U.S. using either Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) or FIVE or a combination of the two methodologies. Practically all fire risk studies have used step-wise, screening approach. To establish the contents of a compartment, the cable routing information collected for Appendix R compliance have been used in practically all risk studies. In several cases, the analysts have gone beyond the Appendix R and have obtained the routing of additional cables. For fire impact analysis typically an existing PRA model is used. For fire frequencies, typically, a generic data base is used. Fire scenarios are identified in varying levels of detail. The most common approach, in the early stages of screening, is based on the assumption that given a fire, the entire contents of the compartment are lost. Less conservative scenarios are introduced at later stages of the analysis which may include fire propagation patterns, fires localized to an item. and suppression of the fire before critical damage. For fire propagation and damage analysis, a large number of studies have used FIVE and many have used COMPBRN. For detection and suppression analysis, the generic suppression system unavailabilities given in FIVE have been used. The total core damage frequencies typically range between 1x10 -6 to 1x10 -4 per year. Control rooms and cable spreading rooms are the two most common areas found to be significant contributors to fire risk. Other areas are mainly from the Auxiliary Building (in the case of PWRs) and Reactor Building (in the case of BWRs). Only in one case, the main contributor to fire is the turbine building, which included several safety related equipment and cables. (author)

  3. Gis-Based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Forest Fire Risk Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, A. E.; Erdoğan, A.

    2017-11-01

    The forested areas along the coastal zone of the Mediterranean region in Turkey are classified as first-degree fire sensitive areas. Forest fires are major environmental disaster that affects the sustainability of forest ecosystems. Besides, forest fires result in important economic losses and even threaten human lives. Thus, it is critical to determine the forested areas with fire risks and thereby minimize the damages on forest resources by taking necessary precaution measures in these areas. The risk of forest fire can be assessed based on various factors such as forest vegetation structures (tree species, crown closure, tree stage), topographic features (slope and aspect), and climatic parameters (temperature, wind). In this study, GIS-based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method was used to generate forest fire risk map. The study was implemented in the forested areas within Yayla Forest Enterprise Chiefs at Dursunbey Forest Enterprise Directorate which is classified as first degree fire sensitive area. In the solution process, "extAhp 2.0" plug-in running Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in ArcGIS 10.4.1 was used to categorize study area under five fire risk classes: extreme risk, high risk, moderate risk, and low risk. The results indicated that 23.81 % of the area was of extreme risk, while 25.81 % was of high risk. The result indicated that the most effective criterion was tree species, followed by tree stages. The aspect had the least effective criterion on forest fire risk. It was revealed that GIS techniques integrated with MCDA methods are effective tools to quickly estimate forest fire risk at low cost. The integration of these factors into GIS can be very useful to determine forested areas with high fire risk and also to plan forestry management after fire.

  4. Repeated Stand-Replacing Crown Fires Affect Seed Morphology and Germination in Aleppo pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Saracino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Post-fire reproductive niche of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis is deeply interlaced with fire products. Indeed, the high pH and low osmotic potentials of ash beds under burnt crowns constitute the main constraints to seed germination. In this study, we aim to investigate whether fire recurrence, through the physico-chemical constraints imposed by the ash beds, affects the reproduction ability of P. halepensis at the germination stage. To this aim, Aleppo pine seeds were collected in neighboring even-aged stands subjected to 0, 1, or 2 fires (namely fire cohorts, and seed morphology and germination performance, in terms of cumulative germination and germination kinetics, were studied under increasing osmotic potentials (from 0.0 to −1.2 MPa and pH (from 6 to 11. Besides fire history, the role of ontogenetic age of mother plants on seed morphology and germination was also investigated. Differences in seed morphology among the three cohorts have been highlighted in a multivariate context, with anisotropic enlargement of the seeds produced by pine stands experiencing repeated fires. The patterns of seed germination varied primarily in relation to the fire cohort, with seeds from the pine stand experiencing repeated fires exhibiting enhanced tolerance to pH stress. Conversely, germination performances under osmotic constraints mainly depends on tree ontogenetic stage, with an involvement of fire history especially in the timing of seed germination. Our results suggest that, at least in the short term, fire recurrence does not constrain the reproduction ability of Aleppo pine. These results highlight the need for further research to elucidate the mechanisms behind these responses to recurrent fires.

  5. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  6. GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS FOR FOREST FIRE RISK MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Akay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The forested areas along the coastal zone of the Mediterranean region in Turkey are classified as first-degree fire sensitive areas. Forest fires are major environmental disaster that affects the sustainability of forest ecosystems. Besides, forest fires result in important economic losses and even threaten human lives. Thus, it is critical to determine the forested areas with fire risks and thereby minimize the damages on forest resources by taking necessary precaution measures in these areas. The risk of forest fire can be assessed based on various factors such as forest vegetation structures (tree species, crown closure, tree stage, topographic features (slope and aspect, and climatic parameters (temperature, wind. In this study, GIS-based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method was used to generate forest fire risk map. The study was implemented in the forested areas within Yayla Forest Enterprise Chiefs at Dursunbey Forest Enterprise Directorate which is classified as first degree fire sensitive area. In the solution process, "extAhp 2.0" plug-in running Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in ArcGIS 10.4.1 was used to categorize study area under five fire risk classes: extreme risk, high risk, moderate risk, and low risk. The results indicated that 23.81 % of the area was of extreme risk, while 25.81 % was of high risk. The result indicated that the most effective criterion was tree species, followed by tree stages. The aspect had the least effective criterion on forest fire risk. It was revealed that GIS techniques integrated with MCDA methods are effective tools to quickly estimate forest fire risk at low cost. The integration of these factors into GIS can be very useful to determine forested areas with high fire risk and also to plan forestry management after fire.

  7. Coal fire interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Genderen, J.L.; Prakash, A.; Gens, R.; Van Veen, B.; Liding, Chen; Tao, Tang Xiao; Feng, Guan

    2000-07-01

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  8. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detailed information about the cancer stage. TNM Staging System The most common system for staging cancer in the form of solid tumor is the TNM system. Most providers and cancer centers use it to stage ...

  9. Fire weather conditions and fire-atmosphere interactions observed during low-intensity prescribed fires - RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig B. Clements; Neil P. Lareau; Daisuke Seto; Jonathan Contezac; Braniff Davis; Casey Teske; Thomas J. Zajkowski; Andrew T. Hudak; Benjamin C. Bright; Matthew B. Dickinson; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; J. Kevin. Hiers

    2016-01-01

    The role of fire-atmosphere coupling on fire behaviour is not well established, and to date few field observations have been made to investigate the interactions between fire spread and fire-induced winds. Therefore, comprehensive field observations are needed to better understand micrometeorological aspects of fire spread. To address this need, meteorological...

  10. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  11. STS-47 crew extinquishes fire during JSC fire fighting exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers lined up along water hoses direct spray at fire blazing in JSC's Fire Training Pit. At the left are backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, holding the hose nozzle, and Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis. Manning the hose on the right are backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, holding the hose nozzle, followed by Commander Robert L. Gibson, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, and MS Jerome Apt. Guiding the teams are MS Mae C. Jemison (front) and a veteran fire fighter and instructor (center). Doi and Mohri represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  12. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  13. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 10: Stages of collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Collaboration is a powerful tool for improving both the management of wildland fire and the overall health of forests and other elements of fire-dependent ecosystems. This fact sheet discusses seven stages that are typical of most collaborations.Other publications in this...

  14. Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project, Phase 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    The Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (phase 3D) is reported. The scope encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, fabrication and assembly of first and second stage hardware, plans for second stage design verification testing and power testing, and designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section. Progress includes the following: (1) operational verification testing of the first stage at the CDIF was completed; (2) assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM is 75 to 90% completed; (3) conceptual designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section are completed and low preheat preliminary design work is 75% completed; and (4) revision of the users' manual to include the second stage is 75% completed and a draft Test Plan for power train testing is reviewed.

  15. Getting fire risk assessment right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, David

    2012-06-01

    The NHS has one of the world's largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the 'foundation' for effective fire safety measures.

  16. Survey design for precise fire management conservation targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitters, Holly; Di Stefano, Julian; Wills, Timothy; Swan, Matthew; York, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Common goals of ecological fire management are to sustain biodiversity and minimize extinction risk. A novel approach to achieving these goals determines the relative proportions of vegetation growth stages (equivalent to successional stages, which are categorical representations of time since fire) that maximize a biodiversity index. The method combines data describing species abundances in each growth stage with numerical optimization to define an optimal growth-stage structure that provides a conservation-based operational target for managers. However, conservation targets derived from growth-stage optimization are likely to depend critically on choices regarding input data. There is growing interest in the use of growth-stage optimization as a basis for fire management, thus understanding of how input data influence the outputs is crucial. Simulated data sets provide a flexible platform for systematically varying aspects of survey design and species inclusions. We used artificial data with known properties, and a case-study data set from southeastern Australia, to examine the influence of (1) survey design (total number of sites and their distribution among growth stages) and (2) species inclusions (total number of species and their level of specialization) on the precision of conservation targets. Based on our findings, we recommend that survey designs for precise estimates would ideally involve at least 80 sites, and include at least 80 species. Greater numbers of sites and species will yield increasingly reliable results, but fewer might be sufficient in some circumstances. An even distribution of sites among growth stages was less important than the total number of sites, and omission of species is unlikely to have a major influence on results as long as several species specialize on each growth stage. We highlight the importance of examining the responses of individual species to growth stage before feeding survey data into the growth-stage optimization

  17. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models

  18. Studies on the behavior of Reinforced Concrete Short Column subjected to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesha Balaji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the axial capacity of reinforced columns exposed to fire. The simplified method namely 500 °C isotherm method explained in Eurocode 2 is used to assess the capacity of the column. Finite element software ANSYS is used to perform the thermal analysis. A set of numerical studies were carried out to quantify the effect of various parameters on short columns subjected to fire. The study is performed on columns of different cross-sections to investigate the effect of eight parameters, namely the thermal boundary conditions, grades of concrete, grades of steel, types of aggregate, distribution of reinforcement on column faces, concrete cover, load eccentricity and support conditions. The fire ratings based on various failure criteria are determined, and minimum rating is accepted as design fire rating. A simplified interaction curve to predict the failure of columns under fire subjected to axial load and uniaxial moment for square cross-sections was also developed.

  19. Estimating fire behavior with FIRECAST: user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen

    1986-01-01

    FIRECAST is a computer program that estimates fire behavior in terms of six fire parameters. Required inputs vary depending on the outputs desired by the fire manager. Fuel model options available to users are these: Northern Forest Fire Laboratory (NFFL), National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), and southern California brushland (SCAL). The program has been...

  20. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be..., the minimum capacity of the fire pump must be 189 liters (50 gallons) per minute at a pressure of not...

  1. A national cohesive wildland fire management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture; Office of Wildland Fire Coordination. Department of the Interior

    2011-01-01

    Addressing wildfire is not simply a fire management, fire operations, or wildland-urban interface problem - it is a larger, more complex land management and societal issue. The vision for the next century is to: Safely and effectively extinguish fire, when needed; use fire where allowable; manage our natural resources; and as a Nation, live with wildland fire. Three...

  2. Fire and bird communities in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2002-01-01

    Fire has long been a natural and anthropogenic force shaping southern forests and their fauna. Some species are attracted to recent burns. There is little direct mortality of adult birds by fire, but growing season fires may consume some nests. Fire affects bird communities mainly through effects on vegetation. Fires effective enough to limit understory hardwood...

  3. Decision modeling for analyzing fire action outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald MacGregor; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2008-01-01

    A methodology for incident decomposition and reconstruction is developed based on the concept of an "event-frame model." The event-frame model characterizes a fire incident in terms of (a) environmental events that pertain to the fire and the fire context (e.g., fire behavior, weather, fuels) and (b) management events that represent responses to the fire...

  4. Relation between the National Fire Danger spread component and fire activity in the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Von J. Johnson

    1970-01-01

    Relationships between the 1964 version of the spread component of the National Fire Danger Rating System and fire activity were established for Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The measures of fire activity included the probability of a fire-day as well as a C, D, or E fire-day, number of fires per fire-day, and acres burned per fire. These measures were examined by...

  5. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  6. Development of a pulsed coal combustor fired with CWM (coal-water mixture): Phase 3, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M.N.; Durai-Swamy, K.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the results of an R and D program aimed at developing a new burner technology for coal-water mixture (CWM) fuels to enable the substitution of these new fuels in utility and industrial boilers and process heaters currently firing oil and gas. The application of pulse combustion to CWM fuels is chosen to alleviate many of the physical plant and environmental constraints presently associated with the direct use of these fuels in equipment designed for oil and gas firing. Pulse combustion has been shown to be capable of high-intensity burning of coal for acceptably complete combustion within relatively small equipment volumes. It also has the inherent capability to agglomerate ash particles, thus rendering ash more easily separable from the combustion gas prior to its entrance into the convective section of the boiler or heater, thereby reducing ash buildup and pluggage. Pulse combustion is also well-suited to staged combustion for NO/sub x/ control and has excellent potential for enhanced in-furnace SO/sub 2/ removal due to the enhanced levels of mass transfer brought about by the vigorous flow oscillations. The primary objective of the Phase 2 work was to develop a detailed program for laboratory development and evaluation of the pulse CWM combustor and system design concepts. 112 refs., 40 figs., 94 tabs.

  7. Transforming Executive Fire Officers-A Paradigm Shift to Meet the Intelligence Needs of the 21st Century Fire Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    liability that EFOs acquire only by experience and scar tissue. Therefore, two streams of literature require review and blending to shed light on this...them after the gas has permeated the building and been ignited by a smoker . Most EFOs have not fully accepted that the fire service should perform...relationships or past practices deemed as positive or negative, depending on the outcome. Thus, the homeowner whose child was rescued before a kitchen

  8. Evolution of fire and invasive alien plant management practices in fynbos

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available frequencies would almost certainly apply to other fynbos plant species.11 He later (1965) extended the notion of safe and unsafe fire periods to fire seasons as well.12 A further study in 1966 demonstrated that all of the 448 species identified..., seasons for burning.26–28 On the termination of the Fynbos Biome Project29 in 1990, it was possible to provide fairly detailed prescriptions regarding the management of fynbos by means of prescribed burning. These included acceptable inter-fire periods...

  9. FIRE_AX_SFC_FUNCHAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (INMG) Funchal Sounding...

  10. Measurements in high intensity fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keltner, N.R.; Bainbridge, B.L.; Kent, L.A.; Schneider, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories utilizes fire test facilities to subject military components and nuclear material shipping containers to postulated accident environments. Understanding and simulating the fire environment found in a severe accident is a complex problem. While there is no concensus as to the appropriate definition of the fire environment, there are two general approaches for defining the minimum thermal exposure. One that is typically used with furnaces involves defining a fire temperature history, e.g., ASTM E-119; the other is to define the heat transfer rate to a surface in terms of the relative temperatures of the surface and the fire. Measurements of heat transfer in a fire and to an object engulfed by the fire are very difficult to make. In general, heat flux sensors are more expensive and less robust than temperature sensors. In the fire test facilities operated by Sandia National Laboratories, a variety of heat flux measurements have been made. These measurements have used circular foil heat flux gages for both total and radiative fluxes, transpiration radiometers, and thermal capacitance calorimeters of several designs. Because the physical size and the thermal mass of the test unit affects the heat transfer to the unit, some of the calorimeters have been designed to represent the physical size and shape of a proposed test item and to have a similar thermal capacitance. This approach provides data for direct comparison with fire test specifications. It can be used to make direct performance comparisons of thermal protection materials

  11. Fire, carbon, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Flannigan, M.

    2005-01-01

    One million hectares of forest are harvested in Canada annually, with 1 to 8 million hectares destroyed by fire and a further 10 to 25 million hectares consumed by insects. Enhanced disturbances have meant that Canadian forests are becoming carbon sources instead of carbon sinks. Canadian fire statistics from the year 1920 were provided along with a map of large fires between 1980 and 1999. A cycle of combustion losses, decomposition and regeneration of forests was presented, along with a stylized concept of forest carbon life cycles with fire. Direct emissions from forests fires were evaluated. An annual net ecosystem production in Canadian boreal forests and stand age was presented. Projections of areas burned were presented based on weather and fire danger relationships, with statistics suggesting that a 75 to 120 per cent increase is likely to occur by the end of this century. Trend observations show that areas burned are correlated with increasing temperature caused by anthropogenic effects. Prevention, detection, suppression and fuels management were presented as areas that needed improvement in fire management. However, management strategies may only postpone an increase in forest fires. Changes in disturbances such as fire and insects will be a significant early impact of climate change on forests. tabs., figs

  12. FIRE_AX_PSU_MALBAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Malcolm Baldridge Data in native...

  13. Chemicals used on Forest Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertol ERTUĞRUL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally water is used to fighting for forest fires. It has been used for extinguish for centuries because of easy use, obstainable, inexpensive and effective. There was renovation to extinguish equipments and retardants with development of industry in the 20th century. Fires have different features because of different fuel materials. Therefore different fire types must be extinguish use with different chemicals and retardants. Nowadays its used to various chemicals like FE-13, Inergen, Halon, Halotren, Purple K. and especially foam for fight fires.

  14. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks; Braender i driftrum - Insatsplaner, slaeckteknik, risker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-15

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  15. Standards regulations and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    Spanish nuclear legislation and the associated procedure for the authorization of installations is summarized. Public acceptance is discussed in the context of the needs for and hazards of nuclear energy. (U.K.)

  16. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  17. Fire safety assessment for the fire areas of the nuclear power plant using fire model CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2005-03-01

    Now the deterministic analysis results for the cable integrity is not given in case of performing the fire PSA. So it is necessary to develop the assessment methodology for the fire growth and propagation. This document is intended to analyze the peak temperature of the upper gas layer using the fire modeling code, CFAST, to evaluate the integrity of the cable located on the dominant pump rooms, and to assess the CCDP(Conditional Core Damage Probability) using the results of the cable integrity. According to the analysis results, the cable integrity of the pump rooms is maintained and CCDP is reduced about two times than the old one. Accordingly, the fire safety assessment for the dominant fire areas using the fire modeling code will capable to reduce the uncertainty and to develop a more realistic model

  18. Fire safety assessment for the fire areas of the nuclear power plant using fire model CFAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2005-03-15

    Now the deterministic analysis results for the cable integrity is not given in case of performing the fire PSA. So it is necessary to develop the assessment methodology for the fire growth and propagation. This document is intended to analyze the peak temperature of the upper gas layer using the fire modeling code, CFAST, to evaluate the integrity of the cable located on the dominant pump rooms, and to assess the CCDP(Conditional Core Damage Probability) using the results of the cable integrity. According to the analysis results, the cable integrity of the pump rooms is maintained and CCDP is reduced about two times than the old one. Accordingly, the fire safety assessment for the dominant fire areas using the fire modeling code will capable to reduce the uncertainty and to develop a more realistic model.

  19. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  20. Fire in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Walter L.

    2000-05-01

    The legend of the lost city of Atlantis has captivated the human imagination for centuries. Did this city actually exist, and, if so, what happened to it? Was it destroyed in the greatest cataclysmic event of the Bronze Age? While the truth behind the legend of Atlantis may never be known, Fire in the Sea tells the story of one of the largest and most devastating natural disasters of classical history that may also hold vital clues to the possible existence and fate of the lost city. In vivid prose, author Walter L. Friedrich describes the eruption of the Greek island of Santorini, or Thera, sometime in the 17th or 16th century BC. This eruption, perhaps one of the largest explosions ever witnessed by humankind, sent a giant cloud of volcanic ash into the air that eventually covered settlements on the island. Friedrich relates how this event forever altered the course of civilization in the region, and inspired a mystery that has fired humanity's imagination ever since. More than 160 elegant, full-color photographs and vivid prose capture the beauty, the geology, archaeology, history, peoples and environmental setting of Santorini. Fire in the Sea will readily appeal to the general reader interested in natural catastrophies as well as the beauty of the region. It will also enchant anyone who has ever dreamt about uncovering the mystery of the legend of Atlantis. Walter Friedrich is currently an associate professor at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark. He has visited Santorini at least 35 times since 1975 and has published numerous scientific articles in such international journals as Nature, Lethaia, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, and other publications.

  1. Public acceptance of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  2. Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Zouhar; Jane Kapler Smith; Steve Sutherland; Matthew L. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-knowledge review of information on relationships between wildland fire and nonnative invasive plants can assist fire managers and other land managers concerned with prevention, detection, and eradication or control of nonnative invasive plants. The 16 chapters in this volume synthesize ecological and botanical principles regarding relationships between...

  3. Fire weather and behavior of the Little Sioux fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney W. Sando; Donald A. Haines

    1972-01-01

    In mid-May 1971, a northern Minnesota fire burned almost 15,000 acres of forest land. The extreme fire behavior it exhibited was the product of a number of described features. This paper documents the attendant fuel and weather conditions.

  4. Fire in High Buildings. Fire Study No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, M.

    Research into and measures of fire protection with regard to high building design are discussed with suggestions for proper building equipment, materials, and planning. The study outlines how smoke and toxic gases spread in high buildings through stairs, service shafts, air handling and heating equipment. The problems of basement fires, means of…

  5. Developing fire management mixes for fire program planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; Patricia B. Shinkle; Thomas J. Mills

    1986-01-01

    Evaluating economic efficiency of fire management program options requires information on the firefighting inputs, such as vehicles and crews, that would be needed to execute the program option selected. An algorithm was developed to translate automatically dollars allocated to type of firefighting inputs to numbers of units, using a set of weights for a specific fire...

  6. How to increase fire safety in buildings: Fire safety engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van R.A.P. (Ruud)

    2011-01-01

    Fire means beside direct (financial)damage often far more indirect costs caused by interruption of operations and loss in sales, market share, property and,in the worst case people can get injured or even get killed (on average around80 persons a year). Fire in buildings is clearly a disaster and

  7. Fired missile projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.; Gieszl, R.; Keller, P.J.; Drayer, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports ferromagnetic properties of fired missile projectiles (bullets, BBs, etc) investigated. Projectile samples were obtained from manufactures, police, and commercial sources. Deflection measurements at the portal of a 1.5-T magnetic field were performed for 47 projectiles. Sixteen bullets were examined in gelatin phantoms for rotation-translation movements as well. Ferromagnetic bullets displayed considerable deflection forces in the presence of the magnetic field and could be rotated to 80 degrees from their previous alignments when introduced perpendicular to the magnetic field in our gelatin phantom experiments. Military bullet calibers appear to pose the greatest ferromagnetic risk. Commercial sporting ammunition is generally nonferromagnetic

  8. Fire safety in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian

    2015-01-01

    An international research team has been assembled to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing material samples in a series of flight experiments (Saffire 1, 2, and-3) to be conducted in an Orbital Science Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has...... in some tests, to simulate the alarm mode environment in the ISS and thereby also to study extinguishment. The materials have been selected based on their known performance in NASA STD-6001Test-1, and with different materials being classified as charring, thermally thin, and thermally thick. Furthermore...

  9. OMS engine firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    An Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engine firing caused this bright glow at the aft end of the shuttle Challenger during STS-7. Also visible in the open payload bay are parts of the Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01), the experiment package for NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA-2), the protective cradles for the Indonesian Palapa-B and Telesat Canada Anik C2 satellites, some getaway special (GAS) canisters and the Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS). Only a small portion of the earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter's vertical stabilizer.

  10. Fighting fire - with teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerron, Kim

    2013-04-01

    Team work is a process of working collaboratively and an important aspect of inter professional team success. This article is a reflective account, following eight midwifery students who participated in group dynamics training with a team of airport fire officers. It highlights howyou can borrow teamwork and communication strategies from other high profile industries and adapt it to midwifery practice. The experience demonstrated how a team approach brought together a cluster of skills, experience and understanding, something that cannot exist in one individual. It also demonstrated that when team work is successful the results are amazing.

  11. Climate data system supports FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Iascone, Dominick; Reph, Mary G.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Climate Data System (NCDS) at Goddard Space Flight Center is serving as the FIRE Central Archive, providing a centralized data holding and data cataloging service for the FIRE project. NCDS members are carrying out their responsibilities by holding all reduced observations and data analysis products submitted by individual principal investigators in the agreed upon format, by holding all satellite data sets required for FIRE, by providing copies of any of these data sets to FIRE investigators, and by producing and updating a catalog with information about the FIRE holdings. FIRE researchers were requested to provide their reduced data sets in the Standard Data Format (SDF) to the FIRE Central Archive. This standard format is proving to be of value. An improved SDF document is now available. The document provides an example from an actual FIRE SDF data set and clearly states the guidelines for formatting data in SDF. NCDS has received SDF tapes from a number of investigators. These tapes were analyzed and comments provided to the producers. One product which is now available is William J. Syrett's sodar data product from the Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observation. Sample plots from all SDF tapes submitted to the archive will be available to FSET members. Related cloud products are also available through NCDS. Entries describing the FIRE data sets are being provided for the NCDS on-line catalog. Detailed information for the Extended Time Observations is available in the general FIRE catalog entry. Separate catalog entries are being written for the Cirrus Intensive Field Observation (IFO) and for the Marine Stratocumulus IFO. Short descriptions of each FIRE data set will be installed into the NCDS Summary Catalog.

  12. The combined use of the RST-FIRES algorithm and geostationary satellite data to timely detect fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2017-04-01

    Timely detection of fires may enable a rapid contrast action before they become uncontrolled and wipe out entire forests. Remote sensing, especially based on geostationary satellite data, can be successfully used to this aim. Differently from sensors onboard polar orbiting platforms, instruments on geostationary satellites guarantee a very high temporal resolution (from 30 to 2,5 minutes) which may be usefully employed to carry out a "continuous" monitoring over large areas as well as to timely detect fires at their early stages. Together with adequate satellite data, an appropriate fire detection algorithm should be used. Over the last years, many fire detection algorithms have been just adapted from polar to geostationary sensors and, consequently, the very high temporal resolution of geostationary sensors is not exploited at all in tests for fire identification. In addition, even when specifically designed for geostationary satellite sensors, fire detection algorithms are frequently based on fixed thresholds tests which are generally set up in the most conservative way to avoid false alarm proliferation. The result is a low algorithm sensitivity which generally means that only large and/or extremely intense events are detected. This work describes the Robust Satellite Techniques for FIRES detection and monitoring (RST-FIRES) which is a multi-temporal change-detection technique trying to overcome the above mentioned issues. Its performance in terms of reliability and sensitivity was verified using data acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary platform. More than 20,000 SEVIRI images, collected during a four-year-collaboration with the Regional Civil Protection Departments and Local Authorities of two Italian regions, were used. About 950 near real-time ground and aerial checks of the RST-FIRES detections were performed. This study also demonstrates the added value of

  13. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinkova, Nina; Jordanov, Georgi; Mandel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level-set method. We describe a preliminary application of WRF-Fire to a forest fire in Bulgaria, oportunities for research of forest fire models for Bulgaria, and plans for the development of an Environmental Decision Support Systems which includes computational modeling of fire behavior.

  14. Native herbivore exerts contrasting effects on fire regime and vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, José L; Clark, Kenneth L; Branch, Lyn C; Villarreal, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Although native herbivores can alter fire regimes by consuming herbaceous vegetation that serves as fine fuel and, less commonly, accumulating fuel as nest material and other structures, simultaneous considerations of contrasting effects of herbivores on fire have scarcely been addressed. We proposed that a colonial rodent, vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus), reduces and increases fire intensity at different stages in its population cycle in the semiarid scrub of Argentina. Specifically, we hypothesized that, when colonies are active, vizcachas create natural fire-breaks through intense grazing, generating over time patches of large unburned shrubs in grazed zones. In contrast, when colonies are abandoned, recovery of fine fuels and previous accumulation of coarse wood on colonies during territorial displays increases fire intensity, creating patches of high shrub mortality. To test these hypotheses, we estimated stem age of the dominant shrub (Larrea divaricata) and measured aboveground biomass in zones actively grazed by vizcachas and in ungrazed zones, and compared densities of live and dead shrubs on abandoned colonies and adjacent zones following fire. In active colonies, age and biomass of shrubs were much greater in grazed than ungrazed zones. In abandoned colonies that had been burnt, density of dead, burned shrubs was higher and density of live shrubs was lower than in adjacent zones. These results support our hypotheses and reveal a new interaction between native herbivores and fire, in which herbivores augment fire intensity by gathering fuel. Our findings indicate that, through opposing effects on fire, native herbivores enhance the heterogeneity of vegetation in woody-dominated ecosystems.

  15. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  16. Factors impacting public acceptance of medical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Satsuki; Kanda, Reiko

    2009-01-01

    We undertook a survey to determine the public acceptance of medical radiation exposure throughout Japan, and 1,357 responses (67.9% response rate) were obtained using a two-stage systematic stratified random sampling method. The acceptance of exposure of children was generally similar to that of adults. For each of the attributes, 45-60% of the participants were accepting of exposure for cancer treatment and diagnosis, but only 30% were accepting of exposure for X-ray diagnoses of bone fractures and dental caries. In general, the presence of a child did not markedly affect women's acceptance of exposure. Factor analyses identified 3 factors influencing the acceptance of child exposure: symptomatic diseases to determine treatment, the possibility of high-risk diseases (or major organ diseases), and the association with cancer. Cluster analysis showed 4 clusters: a positive group regarding children's exposure for the diagnosis of bone fractures and dental caries (12.9% of all participants), a positive group for major organ disease and cancer (15.5%), a negative group excluding cancer (55.2%), and a positive group for all cases (16.4%). The cluster distributions revealed that mothers with 10- to 18-year-old firstborn children showed a tendency to accept the medical radiation exposure of their children in all cases. (author)

  17. Fire Resistance of Geopolymer Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-21

    and general appearance to Portland cement concrete. Geopolymer concrete has been proposed as an alternative to Portland cement concrete in...1 Project report – Grant FA23860814096, "Fire resistance of geopolymer concretes" – J. Provis, University of Melbourne 1. Background and...experimental program This project provided funding for us to carry out fire testing of geopolymer concrete specimens and associated laboratory

  18. CERN Fire Brigade rescue simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Fire Brigade is made up of experienced firemen from all of the 20 Member States. In these images they are seen at a 'Discovery Monday' held at the Microcosm exhibition. Here visitors learn how the Fire Brigade deal with various situations, including a simulated cave rescue performed by the Hazardous Environments Response Team.

  19. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  20. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  1. Fire Protection. Honeywell Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A general discussion of fire alarms and protection is provided by a manufacturer of automated monitoring and control systems. Background information describes old and new fire alarm systems, comparing system components, wage savings, and cost analysis. Different kinds of automatic systems are listed, including--(1) local system, (2) auxiliary…

  2. Fire intensity and phosphorus availability in Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterings, Q.M.; Bigham, J.M.; Noordwijk, M. van

    1999-01-01

    Fire is still widely used as a tool for land clearing in Indonesia. The environmental problems caused by these became an international issue in the fall of 1997 when smoke originating from land clearing activities in Sumatra and West Kalimantan blanketed not only large parts of Indonesia but also the neighboring countries of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines and Thailand. Alternatives must be found. For alternatives to slash-and-burn to be acceptable, they should address both the problems and the benefits of burning as a land clearing method for small rubber and oil palm farmers. A social/economic/agronomic survey conducted in Sepunggur, Jambi Province, Sumatra, indicated that burning: 1) was the cheapest and easiest way to create space to plant and walk in the field; 2) added free fertilizer in the form of ash; 3) improved soil structure allowing faster establishment of seedlings; 4) reduced weed/tree competition; and 5) reduced problems with pest/diseases. Farmers also indicated that harveys delays and yield reductions would lead to an increase in poverty, mainly due to a loss in ash (fertilizer) addition if fire was no longer used. Slash-sell wood-and-burn is a alternative that has the advantage of maintaining at least part of the benefits of burning while reducing air pollution. The sale of wood (if permitted) could supply the farmer with an extra source of income. Before this alternative can be promoted, it should be known what a reduction in fuel load and fire intensity will mean for soil fertility and plant growth and thus for the economic situation of farmers that depend on it. Two questions need to be answered: 1) how is fir intensity related to nutrient availability; and 2) how important are short-term fertilizer (ash) additions versus longer lasting, heat induced changes in soil mineralogical properties? Refs. 11 (author)

  3. Probability model for analyzing fire management alternatives: theory and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Bratten

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical probability model has been developed for analyzing program alternatives in fire management. It includes submodels or modules for predicting probabilities of fire behavior, fire occurrence, fire suppression, effects of fire on land resources, and financial effects of fire. Generalized "fire management situations" are used to represent actual fire...

  4. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  5. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  6. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elicson, Tom; Harwood, Bentley; Lucek, Heather; Bouchard, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  7. Determination Of Measures That The Operating Nurses Take For The Fire Safety: Example Of Karabuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Isik Andsoy

    2012-06-01

    Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 32 operating room nurses in Karabuk hospitals who accept volunteer to participate. The data were collected with face to face interviews. Questionnaire was prepared by the researcher with the accompaniment of literature. Evaluation of the data, number and percentage were used. Results: In this study, 96.9% of the nurses have indicated that precautionary measures are taken against fire, and 75% of them have reported to have fire extinguishers and alarm system, and also 93.8% of them have stated that maintenance of existing systems in the operating room is done at certain intervals. Furthermore, 87.6% of the nurses have noted to have a fire extinguisher instruction in the operating room, and 62.5% of them have remarked that there are fire exit signs. Conclusion: Finally all of the nurses have indicated that routine checks of the operating rooms' electirical system are done. It has been found out that most of the nurses are knowledgable but inadequate about precautions against fire. As a result, it has been recommended to do an emergency planning in case of fires in operating rooms; to teach this plan to nurses, anesthetists, surgeon and other surgical team by fire drills; to train surgical team about fire risks and measures and to repeat this training regularly. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(2.000: 87-93

  8. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  9. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  10. Cable fire tests in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2000-05-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [German] Modifikationen werden in allen franzoesischen Kernkraftwerken durchgefuehrt, um die Brandschutzsicherung zu verbessern. Die Modifikationen sind auf einem Dreistufenkonzept begruendet: brandvorbeugende Massnahmen, begrenzter Brandschutz und Brandkontrolle. Begrenzter Brandschutz verlangt viele Modifikationen wie Brandschutz von Kabelanlagen und Kenntnisse ueber Feuerentwicklung, die Forschung und Entwicklung brauchen. Einerseits werden die aus Mineralwolle hergestellten Kabelhuellen fuer alle moeglichen Faelle geprueft, einschliesslich der Auswirkung von Alterung, Ueberhitzung und Feuer, um so die Huellen als Schutz zu nutzen. Andererseits werden Kabelanlagen der Stufe eins mit Gas und Loesungsmitteln entzuendet, um Entzuendung, Feuerentwicklung und Feueruebersprung zu simulieren. Diese Versuche werden unter unterschiedlichen Anlagenbedingungen durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse koennen fuer Computermodelle zur Pruefung von Brandschutztechniken benutzt werden. (orig.)

  11. Examining the social acceptability of forest biomass harvesting and utilization from collaborative forest landscape restoration: A case study from western Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica M. Western; Antony S. Cheng; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Pamela Motley

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative efforts have expanded in recent years to reduce fuel loads and restore the resilience of forest landscapes to future fires. The social acceptability of harvesting and using forest biomass associated with these programs are a hot topic, with questions about the extent to which collaboration can generate unified acceptance. We present results from a Q-...

  12. A consideration on Public Nuclear Energy Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yosinobu

    1998-01-01

    PA (Public Acceptance for Nuclear Energy) has been discussed so long time. Much of people understood, it is so important, but they understood, it has not existed with good evaluation method. Only saying, it is necessary to distribute a correct knowledge to public, but how we can do? It is hard to do. Saying inside talking to others, teach speaking for the people, or showing on the same stage opposite people and understandable people. They do not fit the purpose. First key word is curiosity, 2nd one is the intelligence circle, instead of unusable knowledge and third one is the long time continuation. To do actual should consider on the sounding circumstance and the feeling of person to talk. To find the way is very complicated and difficult to do. The second cartoon has been published for high-level waste burying. (author)

  13. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  14. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, N., E-mail: norlailiamir@petronas.com.my; Othman, W. M. S. W., E-mail: wamosa@gmail.com; Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  15. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, N.; Othman, W. M. S. W.; Ahmad, F.

    2015-07-01

    This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber (CWF) reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating. Ten formulations were developed using ammonium polyphosphate (APP), expandable graphite (EG), melamine (MEL) and boric acid (BA). The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The samples were applied on mild steel substrate and exposed to 500°C heat inside Carbolite electric furnace. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight. Fire retardant performance was determined by measuring backside temperature of substrate in 1-hour, 1000°C Bunsen burner test according to UL 1709 fire regime. The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S6-15 significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately 34.7% to around 175°C. However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating.

  16. Historical Susceptibility of Forest Fires in the Carajas Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceicao, M. C.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Barbosa, M. R.; Santos, D. D.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Carajas Region in the Para state, nowadays keeps a vast area of forests protected by Units of Conservation and Indigenous Land. Despite the efforts and investments done by private companies and government agencies to prevent forest fires, they are still registered, being one of the major factors of degradation of forests, flora and fauna. Thus there is a need to improve the understanding of these burning processes at present, and its evolution in different time scales, which allows comparison between patterns of fire occurrences related to climate and human reasons. This study aims to assess the evolution of the climate of Carajas region along the Quaternary, with emphasis on natural occurrence of fires related to historical events palaeoclimatic. For this a sediment core of a lake with 450 cm of depth was collected. Chronology is being determined by the radiocarbon method. Ours specific objectives are quantify and qualify the source of sedimentary material, determine concentrations of biogenic elements and minerals, through granulometric and mineralogical analyses and of quality and quantity of organic matter through the establishment of elementary (the C/N) and isotopic ratios (ä13C and ä15N). The dimensions of processes linked to the biomass burning will be determined by quantifying of charcoal fragments resulting from fires through microscopic analysis. This seeks to reconstruct the environmental scene and paleoclimatics conditions related to events of biomass burning, demonstrating the susceptibility of this historic region to the occurrence of fires according to the different climate stages identified.

  17. Proceedings: workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; [comp.

    2000-01-01

    Contains 18 papers and 16 poster abstracts on the history of fire, fire ecology, fire and ecosystem management, and fire and the future presented at the workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape.

  18. Effects of mountain pine beetle on fuels and expected fire behavior in lodgepole pine forests, Colorado, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Schoennagel

    Full Text Available In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1-3 yrs], Grey [4-10 yrs], and Old-MPB [∼30 yrs]. MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30-55 km/hr across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25-35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr, active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior.

  19. MODIS NDVI Response Following Fires in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, G.; Kovacs, K.; Kharuk, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    The Siberian boreal forest is considered a carbon sink but may become an important source of carbon dioxide if climatic warming predictions are correct. The forest is continually changing through various disturbance mechanisms such as insects, logging, mineral exploitation, and especially fires. Patterns of disturbance and forest recovery processes are important factors regulating carbon flux in this area. NASA's Terra MODIS provides useful information for assessing location of fires and post fire changes in forests. MODIS fire (MOD14), and NDVI (MOD13) products were used to examine fire occurrence and post fire variability in vegetation cover as indicated by NDVI. Results were interpreted for various post fire outcomes, such as decreased NDVI after fire, no change in NDVI after fire and positive NDVI change after fire. The fire frequency data were also evaluated in terms of proximity to population centers, and transportation networks.

  20. Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    This fourth quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase 3D) presents the accomplishments during the period February 1 to April 30, 1985. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, assembly and checkout of first and second stage hardware, second stage design verification testing, designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section, and planning for power train testing. Progress includes the following: assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM was completed and the hardware was shipped to CDIF and FETS; integration of first and second stage hardware on the FETS Cell No. 2 test stand was completed, cold flow functional tests were performed, and hot fire checkout testing was initiated; assembly of the continuous slag rejector test set-up was 70% completed; the low preheat air inlet section Preliminary Design Review was held (work on the detail design was initiated and is 85% complete); and the Users' Manual was updated to include material for the second stage and final revisions to the power train test plan were made.

  1. A burning story: The role of fire in the history of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, J.G.; Keeley, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ecologists, biogeographers, and paleobotanists have long thought that climate and soils controlled the distribution of ecosystems, with the role of fire getting only limited appreciation. Here we review evidence from different disciplines demonstrating that wildfire appeared concomitant with the origin of terrestrial plants and played an important role throughout the history of life. The importance of fire has waxed and waned in association with changes in climate and paleoatmospheric conditions. Well before the emergence of humans on Earth, fire played a key role in the origins of plant adaptations as well as in the distribution of ecosystems. Humans initiated a new stage in ecosystem fire, using it to make the Earth more suited to their lifestyle. However, as human populations have expanded their use of fire, their actions have come to dominate some ecosystems and change natural processes in ways that threaten the sustainability of some landscapes. ?? 2009 by American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  2. Toward an acceptable nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-11-01

    The nuclear option is in danger of being foreclosed. The trend toward antinuclearism may be reversed if concerns about low-level radiation insult can be shown ultimately to be without foundation; evidence for this speculation is presented. Nevertheless it is suggested that the nuclear enterprise itself must propose new initiatives to increase the acceptability of nuclear energy. A key element of an acceptable nuclear future is cluster siting of reactors. This siting plan might be achieved by confining new reactors essentially to existing sites

  3. Effect of fire season, fire frequency, rainfall and management on fire intensity in savanna vegetation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available and fire intensity in conjunction with the park's fire records to reconstruct broad fire intensity regimes. Changes in management from regular prescribed burning to 'natural' fires over the past four decades have resulted in a decrease in moderate...

  4. Factors Potentially Influencing Student Acceptance of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Jason R.

    This investigation explored scientific, religious, and otherwise nonscientific factors that may influence student acceptance of biological evolution and related concepts, how students perceived these factors to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution and changes therein, and what patterns arose among students' articulations of how their levels of acceptance of evolution may have changed. This exploration also measured the extent to which students' levels of acceptance changed following a treatment designed to address factors identified as potentially affecting student acceptance of evolution. Acceptance of evolution was measured using the MATE instrument (Rutledge and Warden, 1999; Rutledge and Sadler, 2007) among participants enrolled in a secondary-level academic program during the summer prior to their final year of high school and as they transitioned to the post-secondary level. Student acceptance of evolution was measured to be significantly higher than pre-treatment levels both immediately following and slightly over one year after treatment. Qualitative data from informal questionnaires, from formal course evaluations, and from semi-structured interviews of students engaged in secondary level education and former students at various stages of post-secondary education confirmed that the suspected factors were perceived by participants to have influenced their levels of acceptance of evolution. Furthermore, participant reports provided insight regarding the relative effects they perceived these factors to have had on their evolution acceptance levels. Additionally, many participants reported that their science teachers in public schools had avoided, omitted, or denigrated evolution during instruction, and several of these students expressed frustration regarding what they perceived to have been a lack of education of an important scientific principle. Finally, no students expressed feelings of being offended by having been taught about

  5. Predicting the acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Véronique; Gelau, Christhard

    2013-01-01

    The strong prevalence of human error as a crash causation factor in motorcycle accidents calls for countermeasures that help tackling this issue. Advanced rider assistance systems pursue this goal, providing the riders with support and thus contributing to the prevention of crashes. However, the systems can only enhance riding safety if the riders use them. For this reason, acceptance is a decisive aspect to be considered in the development process of such systems. In order to be able to improve behavioural acceptance, the factors that influence the intention to use the system need to be identified. This paper examines the particularities of motorcycle riding and the characteristics of this user group that should be considered when predicting the acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems. Founded on theories predicting behavioural intention, the acceptance of technologies and the acceptance of driver support systems, a model on the acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems is proposed, including the perceived safety when riding without support, the interface design and the social norm as determinants of the usage intention. Since actual usage cannot be measured in the development stage of the systems, the willingness to have the system installed on the own motorcycle and the willingness to pay for the system are analyzed, constituting relevant conditions that allow for actual usage at a later stage. Its validation with the results from user tests on four advanced rider assistance systems allows confirming the social norm and the interface design as powerful predictors of the acceptance of ARAS, while the extent of perceived safety when riding without support did not have any predictive value in the present study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  7. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco's facility

  8. AAL- technology acceptance through experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huldtgren, A.; Ascencio San Pedro, G.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial research and development of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies, their acceptance remains low. This is partially caused by a lack of accounting for users' needs and values, and the social contexts these systems are to be embedded in. Participatory design has some potential

  9. Safety culture and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl NPP accident a public acceptance has become a key factor in nuclear power development all over the world. Therefore, nuclear safety culture should be based not only on technical principles, responsibilities, supervision, regulatory provisions, emergency preparedness, but the public awareness of minimum risk during the operation and decommissioning of NPPs, radioactive waste management, etc. (author)

  10. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, Luc H.; Crommelynck, Yves A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper outlines the current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad, the evolution of the public opinion in the last decade, and the interaction between the former and the latter. It emphasises the absolute priority of a professional communication and exchange to gain public acceptance. (orig.)

  11. Energy justice: Participation promotes acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    Wind turbines have been a go-to technology for addressing climate change, but they are increasingly a source of frustration for all stakeholders. While community ownership is often lauded as a panacea for maximizing turbine acceptance, a new study suggests that decision-making involvement — procedural fairness — matters most.

  12. W-025, acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-01-01

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility

  13. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying facility (CVD) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    The CVDF is a nonreactor nuclear facility that will process the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) presently stored in the 105-KE and 105-KW SNF storage basins. Multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) will be loaded (filled) with K Basin fuel transported to the CVDF. The MCOs will be processed at the CVDF to remove free water from the fuel cells (packages). Following processing at the CVDF, the MCOs will be transported to the CSB for interim storage until a long-term storage solution can be implemented. This operation is expected to start in November 2000. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is required for all new facilities and all nonreactor nuclear facilities, in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection. This FHA has been prepared in accordance with DOE 5480.7A and HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazard Analysis Requirements. Additionally, requirements or criteria contained in DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) RL Implementing Directive (RLID) 5480.7, Fire Protection, or other DOE documentation are cited, as applicable. This FHA comprehensively assesses the risk of fire at the CVDF to ascertain whether the specific objectives of DOE 5480.7A are met. These specific fire protection objectives are: (1) Minimize the potential for the occurrence of a fire. (2) Ensure that fire does not cause an onsite or offsite release of radiological and other hazardous material that will threaten the public health and safety or the environment. (3) Establish requirements that will provide an acceptable degree of life safety to DOE and contractor personnel and ensure that there are no undue hazards to the public from fire and its effects in DOE facilities. (4) Ensure that vital DOE programs will not suffer unacceptable delays as a result of fire and related perils. (5) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. (6) Ensure that process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils. This FHA is based on the

  14. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying facility (CVD) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-09-06

    The CVDF is a nonreactor nuclear facility that will process the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) presently stored in the 105-KE and 105-KW SNF storage basins. Multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) will be loaded (filled) with K Basin fuel transported to the CVDF. The MCOs will be processed at the CVDF to remove free water from the fuel cells (packages). Following processing at the CVDF, the MCOs will be transported to the CSB for interim storage until a long-term storage solution can be implemented. This operation is expected to start in November 2000. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is required for all new facilities and all nonreactor nuclear facilities, in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection. This FHA has been prepared in accordance with DOE 5480.7A and HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazard Analysis Requirements. Additionally, requirements or criteria contained in DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) RL Implementing Directive (RLID) 5480.7, Fire Protection, or other DOE documentation are cited, as applicable. This FHA comprehensively assesses the risk of fire at the CVDF to ascertain whether the specific objectives of DOE 5480.7A are met. These specific fire protection objectives are: (1) Minimize the potential for the occurrence of a fire. (2) Ensure that fire does not cause an onsite or offsite release of radiological and other hazardous material that will threaten the public health and safety or the environment. (3) Establish requirements that will provide an acceptable degree of life safety to DOE and contractor personnel and ensure that there are no undue hazards to the public from fire and its effects in DOE facilities. (4) Ensure that vital DOE programs will not suffer unacceptable delays as a result of fire and related perils. (5) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. (6) Ensure that process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils. This FHA is based on the

  15. Making the decision - fire protection and risk identification in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, James

    1986-01-01

    Eight broad areas of potential risk which should be considered when planning fire protection at a power station are identified. They apply to all power stations, including nuclear power plants. These are design and construction (eg use of non-combustible materials), fuel storage and transport systems, oil fires (from hydraulic systems, lubrication etc), electrical systems, especially cable tunnels, (as in the Brown's Ferry PWR reactor fire), ordinary combustibles (eg rubbish) human element risks and smoke hazards, especially from corrosive or toxic fumes from plastics. Risk identification can be by simple checklist fault free analysis, and should be considered at every stage of power plant development. (U.K.)

  16. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  17. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; van Hoof, J.; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors

  18. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; Hoof, J. van; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors

  19. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, Sebastiaan T M; Wouters, Eveline J M; van Hoof, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326053123; Luijkx, Katrien G.; Boeije, Hennie R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119723344; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of factors influencing the acceptance of electronic technologies that support aging in place by community-dwelling older adults. Since technology acceptance factors fluctuate over time, a distinction was made between factors in the pre-implementation stage and factors

  20. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  1. Kindle Fire HDX for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Nancy C

    2013-01-01

    Spark your interest in Kindle Fire HDX and start burning through books, movies, music, and more with this bestselling guide! The Kindle Fire HDX is Amazon's premiere tablet. With its new, more powerful Android operating system, this latest version has some exciting bells and whistles along with the features that have made the Fire a tablet fan favorite: access to the amazing Amazon Appstore, online music storage, a large music and video store, a huge e-book library, and easy one-step ordering from Amazon. This full-color, For Dummies guide shows you how to take advantage of all the Kindle Fi

  2. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  3. News from the Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    Gunther Schoenwerth

    2010-01-01

    During the two weeks before the Christmas shutdown, the members of the Fire Brigade’s Social Club managed to sell nearly 900 Fire Brigade calendars for 2010. We would like to thank all of you who bought one. Thanks to your generosity, we will be able to donate about 5000 Swiss francs to the children of Kanji, one of the Staff Association’s long-term fund-raising projects. Thank you again for your support, and best wishes for 2010. President of the CERN Fire Brigade Social Club

  4. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  5. Vulnerability of bridges to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Crosti, C.; Gentili, F.

    2012-01-01

    Even if recent effort in developing methodology and measures for design structures against fire and explosions has been mostly focused on buildings, bridges can also be very sensitive to those actions, as witnesses by some recent bridge accidents, which caused major economic losses and also......, considering both the costs deriving by structural damages and by limited serviceability and other indirect societal aspects. Few cases of recent bridge fire are reviewed in detail and structural consequences are highlighted, distinguishing between damages directly induced by fire and damages induced by local...

  6. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Xia Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the air-staged combustion technology is one of the key technologies with low investment running costs and high emission reduction efficiency for the pulverized boiler, it is important to reveal the chemical reaction kinetics mechanism for developing various technologies of nitrogen oxide reduction emissions. At the present work, a three-dimensional mesh model of the large-scale four corner tangentially fired boiler furnace is established with the GAMBIT pre-processing of the FLUENT software. The partial turbulent premixed and diffusion flame was simulated for the air-staged combustion processing. Parameters distributions for the air-staged and no the air-staged were obtained, including in-furnace flow field, temperature field and nitrogen oxide concentration field. The results show that the air-staged has more regular velocity field, higher velocity of flue gas, higher turbulence intensity and more uniform temperature of flue gas. In addition, a lower negative pressure zone and lower O2 concentration zone is formed in the main combustion zone, which is conducive to the NO of fuel type reduced to N2, enhanced the effect of NOx reduction. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 5th November 2015; Revised: 14th January 2016; Accepted: 16th January 2016  How to Cite: Zhang, J.X., Zhang, J.F. (2016. Analysis of Chemical Reaction Kinetics Behavior of Nitrogen Oxide During Air-staged Combustion in Pulverized Boiler. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 100-108. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.431.100-108

  7. The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. This quarter, a 217 hour coal-fired long-duration test was completed as part of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) test program. The aggregate test time is now 1512 hours of a planned 2000 hours on Eastern coal. The report contains results of testing the newly installed automatic ash/seed handling system and the high pressure sootblower system. The conceptual design for the modifications to the coal processing system to permit operation with Western coal is presented. Results of analysis of superheater test module tube removed after 500 hours of coal-fired testing are summarized. The status of the environmental program is reported. Pollutant measurements from remote monitoring trailers that give the dispersion of stack emissions are presented. Results of advanced measurement systems operated by both UTSI and Mississippi State University during the POC test are summarized. Actions to prepare for the installation of a 20MW(sub t) prototype of the TRW slag rejection combustor first stage are discussed. Contract management and administrative actions completed during the quarter are included.

  8. Fossil fuel-fired power generation. Case studies of recently constructed coal- and gas-fired plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-23

    To meet future energy demand growth and replace older or inefficient units, a large number of fossil fuel-fired plants will be required to be built worldwide in the next decade. Yet CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fired power generation are a major contributor to climate change. As a result, new plants must be designed and operated at highest efficiency both to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to facilitate deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the future. The series of case studies in this report, which respond to a request to the IEA from the G8 Summit in July 2005, were conducted to illustrate what efficiency is achieved now in modern plants in different parts of the world using different grades of fossil fuels. The plants were selected from different geographical areas, because local factors influence attainable efficiency. The case studies include pulverized coal combustion (PCC) with both subcritical and supercritical (very high pressure and temperature) steam turbine cycles, a review of current and future applications of coal-fuelled integrated gasification combined cycle plants (IGCC), and a case study of a natural gas fired combined cycle plant to facilitate comparisons. The results of these analyses show that the technologies for high efficiency (low CO{sub 2} emission) and very low conventional pollutant emissions (particulates, SO{sub 2}, NOx) from fossil fuel-fired power generation are available now through PCC, IGCC or NGCC at commercially acceptable cost. This report contains comprehensive technical and indicative cost information for modern fossil fuel-fired plants that was previously unavailable. It serves as a valuable sourcebook for policy makers and technical decision makers contemplating decisions to build new fossil fuel-fired power generation plants.

  9. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  10. Home destruction within the Hayman Fire perimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Cohen; Rick Stratton

    2003-01-01

    The Hayman Fire report on home destruction examines the following four questions: 1. How many homes were destroyed out of the total number of homes within the Hayman Fire perimeter? 2. What was the relative wildland fire intensity associated with the destroyed homes? 3. What was the categorical cause of home ignition suggested by the associated wildland fire intensity...

  11. Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire) Development Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The status is presented of a spacecraft fire safety research project that is under development to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems for exploration missions. The Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project is developing three Spacecraft Fire Experime...

  12. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On a..., the fire pump must be capable of delivering a single hose stream from the highest hydrant, through the...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.209 - Fire testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire testing. 3280.209 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.209 Fire testing. All fire testing conducted in accordance with this subpart shall be performed by nationally recognized testing...

  14. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Checking of each cylinder containing compressed gas to ensure it has been tested and marked in accordance... maintenance procedures have been conducted. (2) For semiportable and fixed gas fire extinguishing systems, the...) Inspection of each hand portable fire extinguisher, semiportable fire extinguisher, and fixed gas fire...

  15. Charts for interpreting wildland fire behavior characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Richard C. Rothermel

    1982-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is proposed as a graphical method ofpresenting two primary characteristics of fire behavior – spread rate and intensity. Its primary use is communicating and interpreting either site-specific predictions of fire behavior or National Fire-Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components. Rate of spread, heat per unit area, flame length...

  16. 46 CFR 132.360 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 132.360 Section 132.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.360 Fire axes. (a) Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons must carry one fire axe. (b) Each...

  17. 46 CFR 118.600 - Fire axe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axe. 118.600 Section 118.600 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Additional Equipment § 118.600 Fire axe. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length must have at least one fire axe...

  18. 36 CFR 261.5 - Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire. 261.5 Section 261.5... Prohibitions § 261.5 Fire. The following are prohibited: (a) Carelessly or negligently throwing or placing any ignited substance or other substance that may cause a fire. (b) Firing any tracer bullet or incendiary...

  19. Lab Fire Extinguishers: Here Today, Gone Tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    When renovations or new construction occur, fire extinguishers sometimes get lost in the mix. Unfortunately, whether to save money or because the fire code is misinterpreted, some schools do not install fire extinguishers in laboratories and other areas of the building. Let's set the record straight! If flammables are present, the fire code…

  20. Review of vortices in wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick

    2011-01-01

    Vortices are almost always present in the wildland fire environment and can sometimes interact with the fire in unpredictable ways, causing extreme fire behavior and safety concerns. In this paper, the current state of knowledge of the interaction of wildland fire and vortices is examined and reviewed. A basic introduction to vorticity is given, and the two common...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each floor. (e) Fire alarm devices. (1) An alarm system, e.g., telephone system, siren, etc., shall be... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150 Fire...

  2. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire alarms. 130.470 Section 130.470 Shipping COAST...) No fire-alarm circuit for the engine room may contain a fire detector for any other space. (c) The...

  3. Fire danger and fire behavior modeling systems in Australia, Europe, and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis M. Fujioka; A. Malcolm Gill; Domingos X. Viegas; B. Mike Wotton

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire occurrence and behavior are complex phenomena involving essentially fuel (vegetation), topography, and weather. Fire managers around the world use a variety of systems to track and predict fire danger and fire behavior, at spatial scales that span from local to global extents, and temporal scales ranging from minutes to seasons. The fire management...

  4. How to generate and interpret fire characteristics charts for surface and crown fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Faith Ann Heinsch; Luke Schelvan

    2011-01-01

    A fire characteristics chart is a graph that presents primary related fire behavior characteristics-rate of spread, flame length, fireline intensity, and heat per unit area. It helps communicate and interpret modeled or observed fire behavior. The Fire Characteristics Chart computer program plots either observed fire behavior or values that have been calculated by...

  5. Linking 3D spatial models of fuels and fire: Effects of spatial heterogeneity on fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; William E. Mell; Peter McCauley

    2011-01-01

    Crownfire endangers fire fighters and can have severe ecological consequences. Prediction of fire behavior in tree crowns is essential to informed decisions in fire management. Current methods used in fire management do not address variability in crown fuels. New mechanistic physics-based fire models address convective heat transfer with computational fluid dynamics (...

  6. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

    2012-01-01

    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  7. Fire and fire surrogate study: annotated highlights from oak-dominated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2009-01-01

    The National Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) study was implemented to investigate the ecological impacts of prescribed fire and mechanical operations to mimic fire in restoring the structure and function of forests typically maintained by frequent, low-intensity fires. Two of the 12 sites were located in oak-dominated forests, one in Ohio and another in North Carolina....

  8. The Pictorial Fire Stroop: A Measure of Processing Bias for Fire-Related Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Duffy, Joanne; MacKay, Sherri; Duffy, Jim; Sullivan-Thomas, Meara; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Fire interest is a risk factor for firesetting. This study tested whether a fire-specific emotional Stroop task can effectively measure an information-processing bias for fire-related stimuli. Clinic-referred and nonreferred adolescents (aged 13-16 years) completed a pictorial "Fire Stroop," as well as a self-report fire interest questionnaire and…

  9. An assessment of the fire protection requirements throughout a NPP life related to current IAEA regulations and American, Canadian and UE regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branzeu, N.; Necula, D.; Badea, M.; Teodorescu, D.; Peteu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Statistics on fires has surprisingly shown that the frequency of fires in a nuclear power plant are as high as in the conventional industrial units. The analyses on fires occurred in a NPP need to consider both their well-known severe damages and the nuclear consequences. In 1975 a severe fire occurred in BROWNS FERRY NPP due to the ignition of the polyurethane foam used in the electric cable penetration sealings. The fire propagated to the cable channels and damaged over 1600 cables. The fire event revealed important shortcomings in the fire protection design and procedures. The fire represented a crucial event that changed fundamentally the fire protection regulation in the United States nuclear industry. The fire protection programs, standards and guides currently applied, have been developed on basis of this fire analysis and gained conclusions/experience. The purpose of the article is to be a short presentation of the fire protection requirements for all NPP life stages (i.e. design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning), including the most recent issues of the standards, codes, guides and regulations in US, Canada, IAEA and some European countries. Such documentation represented the main technical support in establishing the national fire protection standard design regarding all the stages of a CANDU-6 NPP life, all the types of operational NPPs, particularly for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and Unit 2 (now in an advanced stage of construction). In order to satisfy the requirements provided by this documentation, as practically as possible, a list of analyses and fire protection improvement measures for Cernavoda NPP is presented. (authors)

  10. Assessing the Fire Risk for a Historic Hangar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Morrison, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is evaluating options of reuse of its historic Hangar 1. As a part of this evaluation, a qualitative fire risk assessment study was performed to evaluate the potential threat of combustion of the historic hangar. The study focused on the fire risk trade-off of either installing or not installing a Special Hazard Fire Suppression System in the Hangar 1 deck areas. The assessment methodology was useful in discussing the important issues among various groups within the Center. Once the methodology was deemed acceptable, the results were assessed. The results showed that the risk remained in the same risk category, whether Hangar 1 does or does not have a Special Hazard Fire Suppression System. Note that the methodology assessed the risk to Hangar 1 and not the risk to an aircraft in the hangar. If one had a high value aircraft, the aircraft risk analysis could potentially show a different result. The assessed risk results were then communicated to management and other stakeholders.

  11. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth eggs and acceptability of irradiated eggs by trichogramma cacoeciae females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2008-12-01

    The sensitivity of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, eggs in different stages of development to gamma irradiation was studied and the acceptability of irradiated eggs by Trichogramma cacoeciae females was examined. In addition, the developmental rate of immature stages (larvae and pupae), resulting from irradiated eggs, to the adult stage was examined and the acceptance of irradiated eggs to T. cacoeciae females was evaluated. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella eggs decreased with increasing age. Irradiation also negatively affected survival to the adult stage and the rate of development of immature stages (larvae and pupae) to adults. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected. Furthermore, irradiation positively affected the degree of acceptance of eggs to parasitization; irradiated eggs were more acceptable to T. cacoeciae than cold treated ones. (Author)

  13. Development of IFC based fire safety assesment tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taciuc, Anca; Karlshøj, Jan; Dederichs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    changes need to be implemented, involving supplementary work and costs with negative impact on the client. The aim of this project is to create a set of automatic compliance checking rules for prescriptive design and to develop a web application tool for performance based design that retrieves data from...... Building Information Models (BIM) to evacuate the safety level in the building during the conceptual design stage. The findings show that the developed tools can be useful in AEC industry. Integrating BIM from conceptual design stage for analyzing the fire safety level can ensure precision in further...

  14. The public and wildland fire management: social science findings for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. McCaffrey

    2006-01-01

    Presents key social science findings from three National Fire Plan-sponsored research projects. Articles highlight information of likely interest to individuals working to decrease wildfire hazards on both private and public lands. Three general topic areas are addressed: (1) public views and acceptance of fuels management, (2) working with homeowners and communities,...

  15. Studies of emissions from oil fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Lambert, L.; Wang, Z.; Li, K.; Ackerman, F.; Goldthorp, M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of in situ burning as a cleanup method for oil spills on water has received limited acceptance despite the fact that the method has been tried for more than 30 years. This lack of acceptance is mainly due to a poor understanding about combustion products and the issues involving the combustibility of oil-on-water. This paper presents results of a collaborative effort of several agencies in the United States and Canada to extensively research the many facets of burning oil. More than 45 mesoscale burns were conducted to examine the various aspects of diesel and crude oil burning in-situ. Sampling and monitoring of these burns was conducted at downwind stations, upwind stations and in the smoke plumes. This research effort has resulted in data which has led to a broader acceptance of in-situ burning as a viable spill countermeasure alternative. However, the concern over atmospheric emissions is the biggest barrier to the widespread use of burning. Emissions include the smoke plume, particulate matter precipitation, combustion gases, unburned hydrocarbons, organic compounds and the residue soot left at the burning pool site. A complete analysis of the emissions was performed by measuring all of these components. Particulate samples were taken in the air and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs were found to be lower in the soot than in the starting oil, but higher concentrations of the larger molecular PAHs were found in the soot and residue, particularly for diesel burns. In general, between 92 to 98 per cent of the PAHs were destroyed. Diesel fires were found to emit more particulate matter and have longer danger zones. Combustion gases were found to be below exposure level maximums. Volatile organic compounds emissions were extensive from the fires, but the levels were less than from an evaporating oil spill. This paper included several tables indicating the 140 compounds that were identified and quantified. Prediction equations were

  16. Analysis of large urban fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures

  17. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

  18. The National Fire Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Fire Research Laboratory (NFRL) is adding a unique facility that will serve as a center of excellence for fireperformance of structures ranging in size...

  19. Computer Calculation of Fire Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Main

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes a computer program that calculates National Fire Danger Rating Indexes. fuel moisture, buildup index, and drying factor are also available. The program is written in FORTRAN and is usable on even the smallest compiler.

  20. The fire-safe cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, J R

    1988-07-08

    Fires caused by cigarettes through the ignition of upholstered furniture and mattresses are a serious public health problem, accounting for more than 1500 deaths and 7000 serious injuries per year in the United States. Fire-resistant fabrics and stuffings, public education, and smoke detectors have had a limited impact on this problem. The federal government recently has completed a three-year study of possible modifications in cigarette design. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of product design changes that would substantially reduce the propensity of cigarettes to ignite fires. Legislation currently is pending in Congress and in three state legislatures to mandate a cigarette fire safety standard. This legislation deserves strong support by the medical profession.

  1. Parametric Fires for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...... compartments. Findings leading to the guide-lines are discussed, and it is indicated what a safe design fire model means for structural design and how it differs from a safe design fire model for evacuation. Furthermore, the paper includes some experiences from the application of the design guide in practise...

  2. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  3. Estimation of CO2-Equivalent Emission under the Copper Fire Refining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, Yu N.; Lisienko, V. G.; Holod, S. I.; Anufriev, V. P.; Lapteva, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Non-ferrous metallurgy is one of the most energy-consuming and carbon-emissive sectors of industry. This is due to the fact that the volume of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is stipulated by energy consumption. Uralelectromed is a city-forming enterprise of the Verkhnyaya Pyshma. The situation is similar other cities of the old industrial regions of the Russian Federation (Krasnouralsk, Verkhnaya Salda, Karabash, etc.) Verkhnyaya Pyshma has many characteristics of “a clever city”. It can be compared to Hamburg where blister copper is being produced at the center of the city at a copper smelting plant Aurubis. Following the example of such ecologically clean country as Germany and in order to assess how modern energy-efficient low-carbon technologies can provide a favorable habitat, and an acceptable level of carbon footprint, the authors estimated the level of greenhouse gas, i.e., carbon dioxide emission produced by the Uralelectromed. The emission of greenhouse gas -carbon dioxide in the process of fire refining of blister copper has been calculated. The anode melting process consists of several stages where the most important ones are melting of charge, oxidation, and copper melt reduction. Calculations are based on taking into account the mass of burnt carbon of natural gas and the thermal dissociation of fuel oil. It implies that a complete combustion of carbon takes place. The specific value of carbon dioxide emission of the copper refining process is averaged 181 kg CO2 per 1 ton of anode copper.

  4. Role of Fire in Lodgepole Pine Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lotan, James E; Brown, James K; Neuenschwander, Leon F

    1985-01-01

    Fire is one of the most important factors involved in the establishment and development of many lodgepole pine forests in North America. In the Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine is usually considered a fire-maintained seral type. But even here fires vary greatly in frequency, intensity, size, and other characteristics. A particular fire regime greatly affects forest succession, longevity of the species, stocking, and species composition; and fire also influences the incidence of insects and disea...

  5. Catastrophic fires in Russian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. I. Sukhinin; D. J. McRae; B. J. Stocks; S. G. Conard; WeiMin Hao; A. J. Soja; D. Cahoon

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001...

  6. Boreal Forest Fire Cools Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.; Chambers, S. D.; Harden, J. W.; Hess, P. G.; Jin, Y.; Mack, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Schuur, E. A.; Treseder, K. K.; Welp, L. R.; Zender, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    We report measurements, modeling, and analysis of carbon and energy fluxes from a boreal forest fire that occurred in interior Alaska during 1999. In the first year after the fire, ozone production, atmospheric aerosol loading, greenhouse gas emissions, soot deposition, and decreases in summer albedo contributed to a positive annual radiative forcing (RF). These effects were partly offset by an increase in fall, winter, and spring albedo from reduced canopy cover and increased exposure of snow-covered surfaces. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosols and ozone and are relatively short (days to months). The radiative effects of soot on snow are also attenuated rapidly from the deposition of fresh snow. As a result, a year after the fire, only two classes of RF mechanisms remained: greenhouse gas emissions and post-fire changes in surface albedo. Summer albedo increased rapidly in subsequent years and was substantially higher than unburned control areas (by more than 0.03) after 4 years as a result of grass and shrub establishment. Satellite measurements from MODIS of other interior Alaska burn scars provided evidence that elevated levels of spring and summer albedo (relative to unburned control areas) persisted for at least 4 decades after fire. In parallel, our chamber, eddy covariance, and biomass measurements indicated that the post-fire ecosystems switch from a source to a sink within the first decade. Taken together, the extended period of increased spring and summer albedo and carbon uptake of intermediate-aged stands appears to more than offset the initial warming pulse caused by fire emissions, when compared using the RF concept. This result suggests that management of forests in northern countries to suppress fire and preserve carbon sinks may have the opposite effect on climate as that intended.

  7. IPSN's experimental programmes on fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Every year fires occur in nuclear installations as they do in any industrial facility. They feed on cables, electrical equipment cabinets, oils, solvents..., they might lead to the degradation of the safety standard of the installation or they might threaten the confinement of radioactive materials. In this document IPSN presents its experimental programmes and its facilities in Saclay and Cadarache designed to study the triggering and the propagation of fires and flames in closed and ventilated premises. (A.C.)

  8. FDS Modeling of the Sensitivity of the Smoke Potential Values used in Fire Safety Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corches, Andrei-Mircea; Ulriksen, Lene; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) with respect to the input parameters that are used to define the optical properties of the smoke, a parametric study was performed for relevant fire scenarios in an open plan office building. The parametric study mainly focuses...... on the two key parameters in FDS that define the optical properties of the smoke, namely the smoke potential and the effective heat of combustion. In Denmark, the open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program Fire Dynamics Simulator is commonly used to assess the production and transport...... of the smoke determine the available safe egress time, as defined based on the acceptance visibility criterion defined in the Danish performance-based fire safety design code. Because there is no uniform test method to measure the optical properties of the smoke and due to the absence of a best practice guide...

  9. Testing and Selection of Fire-Resistant Materials for Spacecraft Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Jackson, Brian; Olson, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft fire-safety strategy emphasizes prevention, mostly through the selection of onboard items classified accord- ing to their fire resistance. The principal NASA acceptance tests described in this paper assess the flammability of materials and components under "worst-case" normal-gravity conditions of upward flame spread in controlled-oxygen atmospheres. Tests conducted on the ground, however, cannot duplicate the unique fire characteristics in the nonbuoyant low-gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft. Research shows that flammability an fire-spread rates in low gravity are sensitive to forced convection (ventilation flows) and atmospheric-oxygen concentration. These research results are helping to define new material-screening test methods that will better evaluate material performance in spacecraft.

  10. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, straw is utilised for the generation of energy and district heating in power plants. Combustion of straw gives rise to high contents of potassium chloride and some sulphur dioxide in the flue gas. These compounds can lead to deposits with high content of potassium chloride and potassium...... sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal...... and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...

  11. Examining Historical and Current Mixed-Severity Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Dennis C.; Hanson, Chad T.; Arsenault, André; Baker, William L.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Hutto, Richard L.; Klenner, Walt; Moritz, Max A.; Sherriff, Rosemary L.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread concern that fire exclusion has led to an unprecedented threat of uncharacteristically severe fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws) and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. These extensive montane forests are considered to be adapted to a low/moderate-severity fire regime that maintained stands of relatively old trees. However, there is increasing recognition from landscape-scale assessments that, prior to any significant effects of fire exclusion, fires and forest structure were more variable in these forests. Biota in these forests are also dependent on the resources made available by higher-severity fire. A better understanding of historical fire regimes in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America is therefore needed to define reference conditions and help maintain characteristic ecological diversity of these systems. We compiled landscape-scale evidence of historical fire severity patterns in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests from published literature sources and stand ages available from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program in the USA. The consensus from this evidence is that the traditional reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes are inaccurate for most forests of western North America. Instead, most forests appear to have been characterized by mixed-severity fire that included ecologically significant amounts of weather-driven, high-severity fire. Diverse forests in different stages of succession, with a high proportion in relatively young stages, occurred prior to fire exclusion. Over the past century, successional diversity created by fire decreased. Our findings suggest that ecological management goals that incorporate successional diversity created by fire may support characteristic biodiversity, whereas current attempts to “restore” forests to open, low-severity fire conditions may not align with historical reference conditions in most ponderosa

  12. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  13. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Irradition has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of 60 Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient

  14. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  15. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  16. A 2-MJ staged explosive generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chare, E. C.; Kaye, R. J.; Cowan, M.

    A self contained, three stage explosive generator is described. The system has produced 2 MJ of magnetic energy in a 40 nH load with a peak VI product of 0.2 TW. Current in the load rises from zero to peak value in 50 (SIGMA)s, the later part of the rise is approximately exponential with 10 (SIGMA)s e-fold time. Support equipment (power supply, initial energy capacitor bank, detonator firing units, delay generators, and Freon gas supply) can be protected from destructive effects of the explosive generators and reused.

  17. 46 CFR 105.35-15 - Fire hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hose. 105.35-15 Section 105.35-15 Shipping COAST... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 105.35-15 Fire hose. (a) One length of fire hose shall be provided for each fire hydrant required. (b) Fire hose may be commercial fire...

  18. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary

  19. Public acceptance and public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1977-01-01

    A set of problems are discussed, which must be studied before the public relations are dealt with. Firstly, the trade-off between energy and health must be considered. There were several ages in which the consideration on health took preference to the energy requirement in the past. For example, the use of coal in London was prohibited by the King's proclamation in 1,306. Secondly, the selection for the acceptance of atomic power development and utilization is based on the subjective susceptibility psychologically, and cannot be concluded only by the logical reasoning. Thirdly, the strict definition of ''national consensus'' is necessary. That is, whether does it mean pleviscite or mere mood. Fourthly, whether the atomic energy is free from the danger or death biologically or not. Fifthly, is there any method for discriminating the persons who accept atomic power from the persons who do not socially. Although the probability of death caused by atomic accidents is very small (one three hundred millionth a year), many peoples hate atomic power and oppose to the construction of nuclear power plants. Four reasons for this are considered: (1) social diffusion of innovation, (2) nuclear allergy, (3) shortage of the conception of risk-benefit, and (4) heterogeneity of the public. According to the investigation of the relationship between electric power and livelihood, carried out by the policy and science research institute in Tokyo, the highly subjective decision for the acceptance of atomic power is independent of the objective knowledge on atomic power. (Iwakiri, K.)

  20. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Radel, Ross F.; Hewson, John C.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-01-01

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior

  1. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Radel, Ross F.; Hewson, John C.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-10-01

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior.

  2. Wide Dynamic Range Multiband Infrared Radiometer for In-Fire Measurements of Wildland Fire Radiant Flux Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremens, R.; Dickinson, M. B.; Hardy, C.; Skowronski, N.; Ellicott, E. A.; Schroeder, W.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a wide dynamic range (24-bit) data acquisition system for collection of radiant flux density (FRFD) data from wildland fires. The data collection subsystem was designed as an Arduino `shield' and incorporates a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter, precision voltage reference, real time clock, microSD card interface, audible annuciator and interface for various digital communication interfaces (RS232, I2C, SPI, etc.). The complete radiometer system consists of our custom-designed `shield', a commercially available Arduino MEGA computer circuit board and a thermopile sensor -amplifier daughter board. Software design and development is greatly assisted by the availability of a library of public-domain, user-implemented software. The daughter board houses a 5-band radiometer using thermopiles designed for this experiment (Dexter Research Corp., Dexter, MI) to allow determination of the total FRFD from the fire (using a wide band thermopile with a KRS-5 window, 0.1 - 30 um), the FRFD as would be received by an orbital asset like MODIS (3.95 um center wavelength (CWL) and 10.95 CWL, corresponding to MODIS bands 21/22 and 31, respectively) and wider bandpass (0.1-5.5 um and 8-14 um) corresponding to the FRFD recorded by `MWIR' and `LWIR' imaging systems. We required a very wide dynamic range system in order to be able to record the flux density from `cold' ground before the fire, through the `hot' flaming combustion stage, to the `cool' phase after passage of the fire front. The recording dynamic range required (with reasonable resolution at the lowest temperatures) is on the order of 106, which is not currently available in commercial instrumentation at a price point, size or feature set that is suitable for wildland fire investigations. The entire unit, along with rechargeable battery power supply is housed in a fireproof aluminum chassis box, which is then mounted on a mast at a height of 5 - 7 m above the fireground floor. We will report initial

  3. Experimental research on fire resistance of circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Siyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete is a new model of composite column design.The fire resistance of this composite column was investigated experimentally.One circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete and one circular steel tube column filled with high- strength concrete were tested under axial load and fire.The test results show that the axial deformations of both kinds of the composite columns under the same load level have experienced three stages variation:the initial expansion deformation stage,the compression deformation gradual growth stage and the damage stage with the dramatic increasing in compression deformation.The second compression stable development stage of the circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete is much longer than that of the circular steel tube column filled with high-strength concrete.Thus the fire endurance of the circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete reaches 166 minutes while the fire endurance of the circular steel tube column filled with high-strength concrete only reaches 46 minutes.Thus encasig section steel can remarkably improve the fire endurance of the circular steel tube filled with high-strength concrete.The research results can provide beneficial reference for the fire design of circular steel tube composite columns filled with steel-reinforced concrete.

  4. Pipeline oil fire detection with MODIS active fire products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Martinez, P.; Eckardt, F. D.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate 85 129 MODIS satellite active fire events from 2007 to 2015 in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The region is the oil base for Nigerian economy and the hub of oil exploration where oil facilities (i.e. flowlines, flow stations, trunklines, oil wells and oil fields) are domiciled, and from where crude oil and refined products are transported to different Nigerian locations through a network of pipeline systems. Pipeline and other oil facilities are consistently susceptible to oil leaks due to operational or maintenance error, and by acts of deliberate sabotage of the pipeline equipment which often result in explosions and fire outbreaks. We used ground oil spill reports obtained from the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) database (see www.oilspillmonitor.ng) to validate MODIS satellite data. NOSDRA database shows an estimate of 10 000 spill events from 2007 - 2015. The spill events were filtered to include largest spills by volume and events occurring only in the Niger Delta (i.e. 386 spills). By projecting both MODIS fire and spill as `input vector' layers with `Points' geometry, and the Nigerian pipeline networks as `from vector' layers with `LineString' geometry in a geographical information system, we extracted the nearest MODIS events (i.e. 2192) closed to the pipelines by 1000m distance in spatial vector analysis. The extraction process that defined the nearest distance to the pipelines is based on the global practices of the Right of Way (ROW) in pipeline management that earmarked 30m strip of land to the pipeline. The KML files of the extracted fires in a Google map validated their source origin to be from oil facilities. Land cover mapping confirmed fire anomalies. The aim of the study is to propose a near-real-time monitoring of spill events along pipeline routes using 250 m spatial resolution of MODIS active fire detection sensor when such spills are accompanied by fire events in the study location.

  5. Estimating fire severity and carbon emissions over Australian tropical savannas based on passive microwave satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Evans, J. P.; Parinussa, R.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon emissions from large-scale fire activity over the Australian tropical savannas have strong inter-annual variability, due mainly to variations in fuel accumulation in response to rainfall. We investigated the use of a recently developed satellite-based vegetation optical depth (VOD) dataset to estimate fire severity and carbon emission. VOD is sensitive to the dynamics of all aboveground vegetation and available nearly every two days. For areas burned during 2003 - 2010, we calculated the VOD change (ΔVOD) pre- and post-fire and the associated loss in above ground biomass carbon. Both results compare well with widely-accepted approaches: ΔVOD agreed well with the Normalized Burn Ratio change (ΔNBR) and carbon loss with modelled emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). We found that the ΔVOD and ΔNBR are generally linearly related. The Pearson correlation coefficients (R) between VOD- and GFED-based fire carbon emissions for monthly and annual total estimates are very high, 0.92 and 0.96 respectively. A key feature of fire carbon emissions is the strong inter-annual variation, ranging from 21.1 million tonnes in 2010 to 84.3 million tonnes in 2004. This study demonstrates that a reasonable estimate of fire carbon emissions can be achieved in a timely manner based on multiple satellite observations over the regions where the emissions are primarily from aboveground vegetation loss, which can be complementary to the currently used approaches.

  6. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX

  7. Faunal responses to fire in chaparral and sage scrub in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Elizabeth; Keeley, Jon E.; Witter, Marti

    2015-01-01

    Impact of fire on California shrublands has been well studied but nearly all of this work has focused on plant communities. Impact on and recovery of the chaparral fauna has received only scattered attention; this paper synthesizes what is known in this regard for the diversity of animal taxa associated with California shrublands and outlines the primary differences between plant and animal responses to fire. We evaluated the primary faunal modes of resisting fire effects in three categories: 1) endogenous survival in a diapause or diapause-like stage, 2) sheltering in place within unburned refugia, or 3) fleeing and recolonizing. Utilizing these patterns in chaparral and sagescrub, as well as some studies on animals in other mediterranean-climate ecosystems, we derived generalizations about how plants and animals differ in their responses to fire impacts and their post fire recovery. One consequence of these differences is that variation in fire behavior has a much greater potential to affect animals than plants. For example, plants recover from fire endogenously from soil-stored seeds and resprouts, so fire size plays a limited role in determining recovery patterns. However, animals that depend on recolonization of burned sites from metapopulations may be greatly affected by fire size. Animal recolonization may also be greatly affected by regional land use patterns that affect colonization corridors, whereas such regional factors play a minimal role in plant community recovery. Fire characteristics such as rate of spread and fire intensity do not appear to play an important role in determining patterns of chaparral and sage scrub plant recovery after fire. However, these fire behavior characteristics may have a profound role in determining survivorship of some animal populations as slow-moving, smoldering combustion may limit survivorship of animals in burrows, whereas fast-moving, high intensity fires may affect survivorship of animals in above ground refugia or

  8. Fire protection in ventilation systems and in case of fire operating ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitzelsberger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The fire risks in ventilation systems are discussed. It follows a survey of regulations on fire prevention and fire protection in ventilation systems and smoke and heat exhaust systems applicable to nuclear installations in the Federal Republic of Germany. Fire protection concepts for normal systems and for systems operating also in case of fire will be given. Several structural elements for fire protection in those systems will be illustrated with regard to recent research findings

  9. Tropical wild-land fires and global changes: Prehistoric evidence, present fire regimes, and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the effects of tropical fires and fire regimes are predicted from suggested paleo-fire information and knowledge of current tropical fire ecology. Models indicating deforestation, greenhouse effect, and global climate changes are discussed. The negative impacts of fires will need to be countered by integrated fire management systems. Forest or vegetation management strategies which consider a global perspective in environmental policies will be needed

  10. How Fire History, Fire Suppression Practices and Climate Change Affect Wildfire Regimes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons, Lluís; Aquilué, Núria; de Cáceres, Miquel; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Fall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain). We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape, climate and

  11. How fire history, fire suppression practices and climate change affect wildfire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Brotons

    Full Text Available Available data show that future changes in global change drivers may lead to an increasing impact of fires on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Yet, fire regime changes in highly humanised fire-prone regions are difficult to predict because fire effects may be heavily mediated by human activities We investigated the role of fire suppression strategies in synergy with climate change on the resulting fire regimes in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain. We used a spatially-explicit fire-succession model at the landscape level to test whether the use of different firefighting opportunities related to observed reductions in fire spread rates and effective fire sizes, and hence changes in the fire regime. We calibrated this model with data from a period with weak firefighting and later assess the potential for suppression strategies to modify fire regimes expected under different levels of climate change. When comparing simulations with observed fire statistics from an eleven-year period with firefighting strategies in place, our results showed that, at least in two of the three sub-regions analysed, the observed fire regime could not be reproduced unless taking into account the effects of fire suppression. Fire regime descriptors were highly dependent on climate change scenarios, with a general trend, under baseline scenarios without fire suppression, to large-scale increases in area burnt. Fire suppression strategies had a strong capacity to compensate for climate change effects. However, strong active fire suppression was necessary to accomplish such compensation, while more opportunistic fire suppression strategies derived from recent fire history only had a variable, but generally weak, potential for compensation of enhanced fire impacts under climate change. The concept of fire regime in the Mediterranean is probably better interpreted as a highly dynamic process in which the main determinants of fire are rapidly modified by changes in landscape

  12. Enhancing fire science exchange: The Joint Fire Science Program's National Network of Knowledge Exchange Consortia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright; Crystal Kolden; Todd Kipfer; Kristine Lee; Adrian Leighton; Jim Riddering; Leana Schelvan

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain region is one of the most fire-prone regions in the United States. With a history of large fires that have shaped national policy, including the fires of 1910 and 2000 in Idaho and Montana and the Yellowstone fires of 1988, this region is projected to have many large severe fires in the future. Communication about fire science needs and...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  14. Technical, economic and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in coal and natural gas fired power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Korbee, R.; Eenkhoorn, S.; De Lange, T.; Groenendaal, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the technical, economic, and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in existing Dutch coal and natural gas fired power plants, and industrial combined-cycles (CC), is addressed. Main criteria that are considered are: the availability and contractibility of biomass for energy purposes; the (technical) operation of the conventional fossil fuel based processes may not be disturbed; the gaseous and liquid plant emissions have to comply to those applicable for power plants/CCs, the commercial applicability of the solid residues may not be negatively influenced; applicable additional biomass conversion technologies must be commercially available; the necessary additional investment costs must be acceptable from an economic point of view, and the co-firing option must result in a substantial CO 2 -emission reduction. The main result of the study described in the paper is the presentation of a clear and founded indication of the total co-firing potential of biomass in existing power plants and industrial CCs in the Netherlands. This potential is determined by considering both technical, economic, and environmental criteria. In spite of the fact that the co-firing potential for the specific Dutch situation is presented, the results of the criteria considered are more generally applicable, and therefore are also very interesting for potential co-firing initiatives outside of the Netherlands

  15. Oak woodlands and forests fire consortium: A regional view of fire science sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Keith W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Marschall, Joseph M.; Abadir, Erin R.

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Fire Science Program established 14 regional fire science knowledge exchange consortia to improve the delivery of fire science information and communication among fire managers and researchers. Consortia were developed regionally to ensure that fire science information is tailored to meet regional needs. In this paper, emphasis was placed on the Oak Woodlands and Forests Fire Consortium to provide an inside view of how one regional consortium is organized and its experiences in sharing fire science through various social media, conference, and workshop-based fire science events.

  16. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  17. Seven Stages of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dementias . Learn more: Daily Care and Behaviors Severe Alzheimer's disease (late-stage) Get support Late-stage care decisions can be some of the hardest families face. Connect with other caregivers who have been through the process on our ...

  18. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  19. Wind energy and social acceptability; Energie eolienne et acceptability sociale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurtey, E. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    This document was prepared as part of a decentralized collaboration between Quebec and France to share knowledge regarding strategies and best practices in wind power development. It reviewed the social acceptance of Quebec's wind power industry, particularly at the municipal level. The wind industry is growing rapidly in Quebec, and this growth has generated many reactions ranging from positive to negative. The purpose of this joint effort was to describe decision making steps to developing a wind turbine array. The history of wind development in Quebec was discussed along with the various hardware components required in a wind turbine and different types of installations. The key element in implementing wind turbine arrays is to establish public acceptance of the project, followed by a good regulatory framework to define the roles and responsibilities of participants. The production of electricity from wind turbines constitutes a clean and renewable source of energy. Although it is associated with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, this form of energy can also have negative environmental impacts, including noise. The revenues generated by wind parks are important factors in the decision making process. Two case studies in Quebec were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Fire structures pine serotiny at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Pausas, Juli G

    2013-12-01

    Serotiny (delayed seed release with the consequent accumulation of a canopy seedbank) confers fitness benefits in environments with crown-fire regimes. Thus, we predicted that serotiny level should be higher in populations recurrently subjected to crown-fires than in populations where crown-fires are rare. In addition, under a high frequency of fires, space and resources are recurrently available, permitting recruitment around each mother to follow the seed rain shadow. Thus, we also predicted spatial aggregation of serotiny within populations. We compared serotiny, considering both the proportion and the age of serotinous cones, in populations living in contrasting fire regimes for two iconic Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster). We framed our results by quantitatively comparing the strength of the fire-serotiny relationship with previous studies worldwide. For the two species, populations living under high crown-fire recurrence regimes had a higher serotiny level than those populations where the recurrence of crown-fires was low. For P. halepensis (the species with higher serotiny), populations in high fire recurrence regimes had higher fine-scale spatial aggregation of serotiny than those inhabiting low fire recurrence systems. The strength of the observed fire-serotiny relationship in P. halepensis is among the highest in published literature. Fire regime shapes serotiny level among populations, and in populations with high serotiny, recurrent fires maintain a significant spatial structure for this trait. Consequently, fire has long-term evolutionary implications at different scales, emphasizing its prominent role in shaping the ecology of pines.