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Sample records for staffordshire bull terrier

  1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Staffordshire bull terrier with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B M; Dukes-McEwan, J; Rhind, S; French, A

    1999-04-01

    Radiographic evidence of chronic interstitial lung changes, usually believed to be attributable to lung fibrosis, is readily recognised in canine practice. Furthermore, there is a body of anecdotal evidence suggesting that a specific clinical entity consistent with chronic lung fibrosis occurs in specific breeds of terrier dogs. However, there is little pathological data to confirm these radiographic and clinical findings and, therefore, chronic interstitial lung disease of dogs is poorly characterised. In this report, a case of chronic pulmonary fibrosis is described in which histopathological confirmation was possible, and suggested that the condition might be analogous to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis) in humans.

  2. L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria in a South African Staffordshire Bull Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Böhm

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria is an autosomal recessive error of metabolism that manifests as an encephalopathy. The most common presenting signs are seizures, tremors, ataxia and/ or dementia. Some affected dogs show only subtle behavioural changes. Amongst canines, the condition has been best described in Staffordshire Bull Terriers. Although this is the first reported case in South Africa, at least three other affected dogs have been indentified by polmerase chain reaction (PCR in this country. Affected dogs have normal haematology, serum biochemistry and routine urine analysis. This report discusses the advantages and limitations of the three main diagnostic modalities, namely: magnetic resonance imaging, urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and genetic testing. The aim of this report is to increase awareness of the condition, assist diagnosis in encephalopathic dogs and improve detection of carriers amongst breeding stock.

  3. Computerized electrocardiography in American pit bull terrier dogsEletrocardiografia computadorizada em cães da raça American pit bull terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro José Lahm Cardoso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG is an essential examination for evaluation of patient with heart disease is great importance the diagnosis of arrhythmias. The examination can determine source f rhythm and frequency depolarization heart, providing information in clinical status myocardium, since deflections P-QRS-T tracing can be altered by disease or physiological factor. With advancement of computer technology, computerized electrocardiography has been used in human medicine as auxiliary diagnostic method and currently is being increasingly used in veterinary medicine. The objectives this study were to study e computerized electrocardiographic parameters in dogs breed American Pit Bull Terrier, comparing them with patterns species. In present study, we evaluated electrocardiographic examinations 42 dogs the breed American Pit Bull clinically healthy, 22 males and 20 females, aged between 1 and 6 years. Sinus rhythm was observed in 57% of dogs showed sinus rhythm and only 26% were wandering pacemaker. The electrocardiographic values obtained from these dogs computerized ECG were within the normal range of species, except the duration of the P wave which had longer than 0.04 seconds in 24% of dogs. We conclude that the dogs of the breed American Pit Bull Terrier have the same electrocardiographic values obtained in other breeds by the computerized method, except for the increase in P-wave duration. A eletrocardiografia (ECG é um exame essencial para avaliação do paciente com doença cardíaca, sendo de grande importância para o diagnóstico das arritmias. O exame pode determinar a origem do ritmo e a freqüência de despolarização do coração, fornecendo informações do estado clínico do miocárdio, uma vez que as deflexões P-QRS-T do traçado podem ser alteradas por uma enfermidade ou fator fisiológico. Com o avanço da informática, a eletrocardiografia computadorizada tem sido utilizada na medicina humana e veterinária como método de

  4. Trilostane Treatment of Canine Alopecia X in an American Pit Bull Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kolevská

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the case of a one-year-old female American Pit Bull Terrier, presented with the history of progressive baldness. The initial clinical signs were demonstrated by symmetric, primarily non-pruritic alopecia that began in the perineal, genital, and ventral abdominal regions and propagated cranially to the thorax and to the neck. Based on physical and dermatological examination, laboratory findings, and results of skin biopsy, a hormone-responsive dermatosis was diagnosed. Once hypothyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism were ruled out, with the help of hormonal tests, the diagnosis was specified as alopecia X. The first treatment option recommended for the patient and subsequently completed was ovariohysterectomy. After three months, the owner reported improvement; the dog was almost covered with hair. The patient was presented again six months later, showing almost the same dermatological symptoms, which, however, were of a more striking character than before ovariohysterectomy. Again a series of hormonal tests was carried out. Considering the elevated basal and post-adrenocorticothropin stimulation progesterone concentrations, the final aetiology of the disease was determined as an adrenal sex hormone imbalance. Therefore trilostan therapy was initiated. The trilostan dosage of 8 mg/kg/day was divided and given 2 times daily. This treatment led to complete hair regrowth in the dog within four months. No adverse effects associated with trilostane were recognized.

  5. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S

    2015-11-01

    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characterisation of Babesia gibsoni infection from a Pit-bull terrier pup recently imported into South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Matjila

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni was diagnosed in a 3-month-old Pit-bull pup during a routine clinical examination. Diagnosis was confirmed by way of smear examination, PCR, Reverse Line Blot (RLB and sequence analysis which showed 100% homology with B. gibsoni (Japan AB118032 and Babesia sp. (Oklahoma (AF205636. Haematology showed moderate anaemia and severe thrombocytopenia. Treatment was initiated with diminazene aceturate (Berenil RTU(R followed by 2 doses of imidocarb diproprionate (Forray-65(R 3 days and 14 days later, respectively. Babesia gibsoni DNA was still detectable 2 weeks post-treatment on the PCR/RLB test. A 10-day course of combination drug therapy using atovaquone and azithromycin was initiated. Blood samples taken on Day 1 and Day 40 after completion of treatment were negative for B. gibsoni DNA on PCR/RLB test. The implications of a possible introduction of B. gibsoni into South Africa are discussed.

  7. Genetics of Hereditary Ataxia in Scottish Terriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urkasemsin, G; Nielsen, D M; Singleton, A; Arepalli, S; Hernandez, D; Agler, C; Olby, N J

    2017-07-01

    Scottish Terriers have a high incidence of juvenile onset hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex and causing slowly progressive cerebellar dysfunction. To identify chromosomal regions associated with hereditary ataxia in Scottish Terriers. One hundred and fifty-three Scottish Terriers were recruited through the Scottish Terrier Club of America. Prospective study. Dogs were classified as affected if they had slowly progressive cerebellar signs. When possible, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological evaluation of the brain were completed as diagnostic aids. To identify genomic regions connected with the disease, genome-wide mapping was performed using both linkage- and association-based approaches. Pedigree evaluation and homozygosity mapping were also performed to examine mode of inheritance and to investigate the region of interest, respectively. Linkage and genome-wide association studies in a cohort of Scottish Terriers both identified a region on CFA X strongly associated with the disease trait. Homozygosity mapping revealed a 4 Mb region of interest. Pedigree evaluation failed to identify the possible mode of inheritance due to the lack of complete litter information. This finding suggests that further genetic investigation of the potential region of interest on CFA X should be considered in order to identify the causal mutation as well as develop a genetic test to eliminate the disease from this breed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Primary splenic torsion in a Boston terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHTA, Hiroshi; TAKAGI, Satoshi; MURAKAMI, Masahiro; SASAKI, Noboru; YOSHIKAWA, Muneyoshi; NAKAMURA, Kensuke; HWANG, Shiang-Jyi; YAMASAKI, Masahiro; TAKIGUCHI, Mitsuyoshi

    2009-11-01

    A 7-year-old female Boston terrier was referred to Hokkaido University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a history of hemoglobinuria and anemia for several days. Abdominal radiographs showed splenomegaly, and ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic splenic parenchyma with interspersed linear echoes consistent with the ultrasonographic appearance of splenic torsion. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) indicated a C-shaped spleen. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of splenic torsion. A splenectomy was performed, and the dog recovered well without complications. This is the first report of splenic torsion in Boston terriers, and the usefulness of ultrasonographic and CT findings of the splenic torsion was also confirmed.

  9. Primary splenic torsion in a Boston terrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, H.; Takagi, S.; Murakami, M.; Sasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Hwang, S.J.; Yamasaki, M.; Takiguchi, M.

    2009-01-01

    A 7-year-old female Boston terrier was referred to Hokkaido University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a history of hemoglobinuria and anemia for several days. Abdominal radiographs showed splenomegaly, and ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic splenic parenchyma with interspersed linear echoes consistent with the ultrasonographic appearance of splenic torsion. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) indicated a C-shaped spleen. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of splenic torsion. A splenectomy was performed, and the dog recovered well without complications. This is the first report of splenic torsion in Boston terriers, and the usefulness of ultrasonographic and CT findings of the splenic torsion was also confirmed

  10. L-2-hydroxyglutaric Aciduria in Two Female Yorkshire Terriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Masian, D.F.; Artuch, R.; Mascort, J.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Salomons, G.S.; Zamora, A.; Casado, M.; Fernandez, M.; Recio, A.; Lujan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Two female Yorkshire terrier puppies were presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and ataxia. MRI revealed bilaterally symmetrical, diffuse regions of gray matter hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Urinary organic acids were quantified by gas

  11. Chronic pulmonary disease in West Highland white terriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, B.M.; Cobb, M.; Martin, M.W.S.; Dukes-McEwan, J.; French, A.; Fuentes, V.L.; Boswood, A.; Rhind, S.

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic pelvimetry was used to assess the role of pelvic anatomy in obstructive dystocia in bitches. Based on the history of previous whelpings, 20 Boston terrier and 14 Scottish terrier bitches were divided into two equal groups: normally whelping bitches and bitches with obstructive dystocia. Additional whelpings during the period of study were closely observed and the pups were immediately weighed and measured. The bitches were clinically examined and the pelvis was radiographed in ventrodorsal and lateral projections. Measurements from the radiographs showed a significantly smaller pelvic size in the bitches with obstructive dystocia compared to the normally whelping bitches. Fetal-pelvic disproportion in the Scottish terrier was mainly due to a dorsoventrally flattened pelvic canal, whereas in the Boston terrier it arose from the combination of a dorsoventrally flattened pelvic canal and big fetuses with large heads. These results suggest that radiographic pelvimetry could be used to predict a disposition for dystocia in individual bitches, and as a basis for selection of breeding animals

  12. Transient bilateral diabetic cataracts in a Brazilian Terrier puppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Carla de Freitas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a Brazilian Terrier puppy presenting diabetic lens opacity that restored transparency after insulin therapy and control of blood glucose levels is reported. This entity has been rarely reported in human beings and has not been reported in dogs before. The rapid glycemic control may have been responsible for the transparency recovery.

  13. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  14. Destructive Cholangitis in an Adult Jack Russell Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kodama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old female Jack Russell terrier dog exhibited vomiting and severe jaundice of the visible mucous membranes and skin. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse areas of high echogenicity and focal areas of low echogenicity in the left lobe of the liver. On macroscopic observation of the biopsied liver specimen, many scattered irregularly shaped red spots were observed on the liver surface and on the cut surface. Histopathologically, there was loss of the interlobular bile duct and cholangitis accompanied by infiltration of pigment-laden macrophages in the Glisson’s capsule. Therefore, in the present case the dog was diagnosed with destructive cholangitis.

  15. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  16. Rectal diverticulum in a terrier dog: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kazemi Mehrjerdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rectal diverticulum is a rare condition in dogs characterized by formation of a pouch orsac due to hernial protrusion of the mucous membranes through a defect in the muscularcoat of the rectum. A 12-year-old male terrier dog was admitted with a history of a leftperineal swelling, dyschezia and tenesmus during the last five months. Digital rectalexamination identified a weakness in the left pelvic diaphragm and feces-filled sac withinthe lateral wall of the rectum. Positive contrast radiography showed a marked solitarydiverticulum (3.5×4×4.5 cm with wide-orifice neck arising from the left rectal wall.Using a lateral approach, a large rectal diverticulum was found and diverticulectomyfollowing standard herniorrhaphy was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully with nosigns of dyschezia during the next three years. Diverticulectomy by lateral approach andperineal herniorrhaphy produced excellent results.

  17. Congenital peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a terrier dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A one-month-old male terrier dog was referred in shock status with a history of anorexia, tachypnea, abdominal distention and progressive weight loss. Auscultation of right side of the lungs found enhanced respiratory noises. The thorough auscultation of the opposite side of the chest revealed the presence of typical intestinal sounds. Cardiac auscultation revealed muffled heart sounds and a diminished palpable precordial cardiac impulse was evident. The radiograph showed the presence of gas within the bowel in abrupt contrast to the adjacent structures of soft tissue opacity. Conservative treatment was failed and the animal died. At necropsy, cranial displacement of abdominal viscera into the pericardial sac was seen. A definitive diagnosis of peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was made. Although congenital pericardial diseases are rare in dogs, awareness of the clinical manifestation of these kinds of defects combined with early use of available imaging modalities can yield a preoperative diagnosis.

  18. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from the...

  19. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypophysitis, Panhypopituitarism, and Hypothalamitis in a Scottish Terrier Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polledo, L; Oliveira, M; Adamany, J; Graham, P; Baiker, K

    2017-09-01

    A 6-year old male neutered Scottish Terrier was referred with a 1 week history of progressive lethargy and anorexia. Neurological examination localized a lesion to the forebrain and hormonal testing showed panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a rounded, well-defined, suprasellar central mass. The mass was slightly hyperintense to the cortical grey matter on T2-weighted (T2W), hypointense on T1-weighted (T1W) images and without T2* signal void. There was a central fusiform enhancement of the mass after contrast administration which raised the suspicion of a pituitary neoplasm. Rapid deterioration of the dog prevented further clinical investigations. Histopathologic examination revealed a lymphocytic panhypophysitis of unknown origin suspected autoimmune involving the hypothalamus (hypothalamitis). This is a unique case report of a dog presenting with inflammatory hypophysitis and hypothalamitis of suspected autoimmune origin with detailed clinical, MRI, histology and immunohistochemistry findings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Energy requirements for growth in the Yorkshire terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Janet E; Colyer, Alison; Morris, Penelope J

    2017-01-01

    The 2006 National Research Council (NRC) equation calculating puppy energy requirements does not account for reported breed differences in growth pattern. Energy requirements of toy breed puppies are unknown and it is unclear whether feeding guidelines should differ between breeds. Energy requirements of Yorkshire terrier (YT) puppies were observed over their first year of life and compared with those predicted by the NRC and those previously observed in large (Labrador retriever) and medium (miniature Schnauzer; MS) breed puppies. Twenty-two puppies (from eight litters) were offered complete and balanced diets to maintain ideal body condition score (BCS). Energy intake, body weight and BCS were recorded from 10 to 52 weeks of age. Every 12 weeks, health was monitored by veterinary examination, routine haematology and plasma biochemistry. Puppies remained clinically healthy with normal skeletal development throughout. After analysis by linear mixed models it was observed that the NRC equation overestimates YT energy requirements between 10 and 20 weeks of age by up to 324·3 (95 % CI 390·4, 258·2) kJ/kg 0·75 . Energy intake was lower ( P  < 0·05) in YT than Labradors until 29 weeks by up to 376·6 (95 % CI 477·4, 275·3) kJ/kg 0·75 and lower than MS between 16 and 25 weeks by up to 216·3 (95 % CI 313·0, 119·7) kJ/kg 0·75 ( P  < 0·05). Data indicate differences in toy, medium and large breed energy requirements for growth. The NRC equation for puppy energy requirements overestimated the requirements of this YT population, suggesting the need for breed-specific feeding guides for growth to avoid overfeeding.

  2. Flight performance summary for three NASA Terrier-Malemute II sounding rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the presentation of flight data for three Terrier-Malemute II sounding rocket vehicles. The Malemute motor was modified by adding insulation and using a propellant that produced less Al2O3 agglomerate in the chamber. This modification, designated Malemute II, reduced the sensitivity of the motor to the roll rate induced motor case burnthrough experienced on some earlier Malemute flights. Two flight tests, including a single stage Malemute II and a Terrier-Malemute II, were made by Sandia to qualify this modification. The three NASA operational flights that are the subject of this paper were made using the modified Malemute II motors.

  3. Dog attack resulting in evisceration in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Laura A; Yamout, Sani Z; Glick, Philip L

    2011-04-01

    Severe dog bites can result in substantial morbidity and potentially fatal injury. We present a case of an infant attacked by a Staffordshire bull terrier with resultant soft tissue injury, evisceration, and bowel injury. Rapid assessment in the emergency department included evaluation for both blunt and penetrating injuries. After initial survey and resuscitation, the patient was transported to the operating room where he underwent an exploratory laparotomy, small bowel repair, and abdominal wall closure. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  4. Radiographic pelvimetry for assessment of dystocia in bitches: a clinical study in two Terrier breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eneroth, A.; Linde-Forsberg, C.; Uhlhorn, M.; Hall, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic pelvimetry was used to assess the role of pelvic anatomy in obstructive dystocia in bitches. Based on the history of previous whelpings,20 Boston terrier and 14 Scottish terrier bitches were divided into two equal groups: normally whelping bitches and bitches with obstructive dystocia. Additional whelpings during the period of study were closely observed and the pups were immediately weighed and measured. The bitches were clinically examined and the pelvis was radiographed in ventrodorsal and lateral projections. Measurements from the radiographs showed a significantly smaller pelvic size in the bitches with obstructive dystocia compared to the normally whelping bitches. Fetal-pelvic disproportion in the Scottish terrier was mainly due to a dorsoventrally flattened pelvic canal, whereas in the Boston terrier it arose from the combination of a dorsoventrally flattened pelvic canal and big fetuses with large heads. These results suggest that radiographic pelvimetry could be used to predict a disposition for dystocia in individual bitches, and as a basis for selection of breeding animals

  5. Border Terriers under primary veterinary care in England: demography and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Darwent, Elisabeth C; Church, David B; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2017-01-01

    The Border Terrier is a working terrier type that is generally considered to be a relatively healthy and hardy breed. This study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of Border Terriers receiving veterinary care in England using de-identified electronic patient record data within the VetCompass™ Programme. Annual birth proportion for Border Terriers showed a decreasing trend from 1.46% in 2005 to 0.78% in 2014. The median adult bodyweight for males (10.9 kg, IQR: 9.6-12.3, range: 6.3-25.0) was higher than for females (9.1 kg, IQR: 8.2-10.3, range: 5.2-21.6) ( P  skin disorder (10.17%, 95% CI: 8.60-11.93).Syndromic analysis showed that the most prevalent body locations affected were the head-and-neck (37.75%, 95% CI: 35.14-40.43), abdomen (18.61%, 95% CI: 16.55-20.81) and limb (11.53%, 95% CI: 9.86-13.37). At least one organ system was affected in 834 (62.85%) Border Terriers. The most prevalent organ systems affected were the digestive (32.03%, 95% CI: 29.52-34.61), integument (26.68%, 95% CI: 24.31-29.14), connective/soft tissue (11.15%, 95% CI: 9.51-12.97) and auditory (9.87%, 95% CI: 8.32-11.60). At least one affected pathophysiological process was described in 881 (66.39%) Border Terriers. The most prevalent pathophysiologic processes recorded were inflammation (31.65%, 95% CI: 29.15-34.23), nutritional (9.04%, 95% CI: 7.55-10.72), mass/swelling (8.89%, 95% CI: 7.42-10.55), traumatic (7.99%, 95% CI: 6.59-9.58) and infectious (7.76%, 95% CI: 6.38-9.33). This study documented a trend towards reducing ownership and relatively long-livedness in the Border Terrier. The most common disorders were periodontal disease, overweight/obesity and otitis externa. Predisposition to dental and neurological disease was suggested. These results can provide a comprehensive evidence resource to support breed-based health plans that can contribute positively to reforms to improve health and welfare within the breed.

  6. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  7. From Hippocrates to Commodities: three models of NHS governance: NHS governance, regulation, Mid Staffordshire inquiry, health care as a commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    A series of inquiries and reports suggest considerable failings in the care provided to some patients in the NHS. Although the Bristol Inquiry report of 2001 led to the creation of many new regulatory bodies to supervise the NHS, they have never enjoyed consistent support from government and the Mid Staffordshire Inquiry in 2013 suggests they made little difference. Why do some parts of the NHS disregard patients' interests and how we should we respond to the challenge? The following discusses the evolution of approaches to NHS governance through the Hippocratic, Managerial and Commercial models, and assesses their risks and benefits. Apart from the ethical imperative, the need for effective governance is driven both by the growth in information available to the public and the resources wasted by ineffective systems of care. Appropriate solutions depend on an understanding of the perverse incentives inherent in each model and the need for greater sensitivity to the voices of patients and the public. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. permissions@oup.com.

  8. Late-onset Becker-type muscular dystrophy in a Border terrier dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, A; Garosi, L S; Davies, L; Guo, L T; Salgüero, R; Shelton, G D

    2018-01-29

    A 9-year-old Border terrier was presented to a referral hospital after a 1-year history of progressive stiffness and exercise intolerance. Neurological examination was consistent with a neuromuscular disorder. Serum creatine kinase activity was mildly elevated. A myopathy was suspected based on MRI findings and electrophysiological examination. Muscle histopathology was consistent with a severe non-inflammatory myopathy of a dystrophic type. Immunofluorescence and western blotting confirmed a dystrophinopathy with an 80-kDa truncated dystrophin fragment similar to Becker muscular dystrophy in people. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a late-onset Becker-type muscular dystrophy in a dog, and the first description of a dystrophinopathy in a Border terrier. Muscular dystrophy in dogs should not be ruled out based on late onset clinical signs and only mildly elevated creatine kinase. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Pemanfaatan kulit kodok (bull frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchtar Lutfie

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the tensile strength and the elongation of finished leather made from Bull Frog skin, so that the utilization of that leather can be specified. The samples used were twenty pieces of wet salted Bull Frog skin from East Java which have been processed to finished leather using chromosal B. and Irgatan LV as the tanning agents. Laboratory tests shawed that the average tensile strength was 177,675 Kg/Cm2 and the average elongation was 89,9%. Based on those results, it can be concluded that Bull Frog leather was suitable for leather goods such as bag, wallet, etc. so it can be used as substitute for Glace leather.

  10. Terrier Black Brant VC design characteristics and program status. [rocket development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B. R.; Mayo, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, the design analysis of the Terrier-Black Brant VC, representing the latest addition to the Black Brant rocket family, is discussed, including the aerodynamic, structural, thermal, and operational aspects. An appreciable increase in apogee, as compared to the BBVC and Nike/BBVC, is achieved without any modifications to the well-proven BBV motor or degradation of the thermal or dynamic flight environment.

  11. Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a terrier dog: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdieh Rezaei; Sara Rostami; Mehdi Saberi; Dariush Vosugh

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a 10-year-old, female, terrier dog. The animal was admitted due to polyphagia, weight gain, polyuria, polydipsia, hair loss, exercise intolerance and panting at rest. On physical examination, abdominal distention, truncal and bilaterally symmetric alopecia, thin hypotonic skin, comedones, bruising, hyperpigmentation and calcinosis cutis on the dorsal midline were observed. Hematologic investigations showed stress l...

  12. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  13. The 1000 bull genome project

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet growing global demands for high value protein from milk and meat, rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle must be accelerated. At the same time, animal health and welfare must be considered. The 1000 bull genomes project supports these goals by providing annotated sequence variants and ge...

  14. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV. Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%. The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%. Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8% of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4% of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the ventricles in the Yorkshire Terrier and the German Shepherd dog using low-field MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Ratsch, B; Kneissl, S; Gabler, C

    2001-01-01

    MR images provide for the exact assessment of the brain, including ventricular size. Still inter- and intrabreed comparison of ventricle size is difficult due to the varying anatomies in dogs. To compare the ventricle area of different sized breeds, 25 dogs (13 Yorkshire Terriers and 12 German Shepard dogs) were reviewed, retrospectively. Hemisphere and ventricle of each side were outlined manually three times. All measurements were averaged and their percentage (ventricle area by hemisphere area) was defined as the relative ventricle area. This value in Yorkshire Terriers (5.3) was significantly higher compared to German Shepard dogs (1.7). However, on the basis of the neurologically symptomatic sample (7 Yorkshire Terriers) in this study, threshold values of normal and abnormal relative ventricle areas could not be detected.

  16. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FEATURES OF CRANIOMANDIBULAR OSTEOPATHY IN AN AIREDALE TERRIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiasovic, Matej; Caine, Abby; Scarpante, Elena; Cherubini, Giunio Bruto

    2016-05-01

    An Airedale Terrier was presented for evaluation of depression and reluctance to be touched on the head. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head was performed. The images revealed bone lesions affecting the calvarium at the level of the coronal suture and left mandibular ramus, with focal cortical destruction, expansion, and reactive new bone formation. Skull lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted sequences, hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences, and showed an intense and homogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration. Reactive new bone formation and periosteal proliferation were confirmed histopathologically. The clinical signs, imaging findings, and histopathological examination were consistent with craniomandibular osteopathy. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Effect of dietary vitamin E and selenium supplementation on semen quality in Cairn Terriers with normospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, K. T.; Failing, K.; Goericke-Pesch, S.

    2017-01-01

    Among others, selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VitE) have been provided to dogs to improve semen quality. However, scientific evidence documenting an effect in dogs is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of these antioxidants on various ejaculate parameters......). Although some effects could be identified for selected parameters, we failed to identify a clear trend about how a 3 months VitE and/or Se supplementation affects semen parameters in normospermic Cairn Terriers....

  18. Occurrence of small intestinal volvulus in a terrier puppy-a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Hannaneh; Tavasoly, Abbas; Namjoo, Abdolrasol; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Volvulus is the torsion of an organ around its root. In dogs, volvulus of the stomach is well known, but volvulus of the small intestine is rare. A dead 3-month-old female terrier puppy was presented for postmortem examination. According to owner statements, the puppy was depressed, lethargic and had abdominal pain, abdominal distension, severe diarrhea and vomiting a few hours before death. With gross and histopathologic studies, the death of this puppy was indorsed to small intestinal volvulus, subsequent infarction, peritonitis and likely acute toxaemia and/or septicaemia. The present case is going to be the first recorded case of small intestinal volvulus in dog in Iran.

  19. Clinical features of progressive vacuolar hepatopathy in Scottish Terriers with and without hepatocellular carcinoma: 114 cases (1980-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Catherine C; Center, Sharon A; Randolph, John F; McDonough, Sean P; Fecteau, Kellie A; Warner, Karen L; Chiapella, Ann M; Pierce, Rhonda L; Graham, A Heather; Wall, Linda J; Heidgerd, John H; Degen, Melisa A; Lucia, Patricia A; Erb, Hollis N

    2014-10-01

    To characterize signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, hepatic ultrasonographic characteristics, endocrinologic profiles, treatment response, and age at death of Scottish Terriers with progressive vacuolar hepatopathy (VH) with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Retrospective case series. 114 Scottish Terriers with progressive VH. Electronic databases from 1980 to 2013 were searched for adult (age > 1 year) Scottish Terriers with histopathologic diagnoses of diffuse glycogen-like VH. Available sections of liver specimens were histologically reevaluated to confirm diffuse VH with or without HCC; 8 dogs with HCC only had neoplastic tissue available. Physical examination, clinicopathologic, treatment, and survival data were obtained. 39 of 114 (34%) dogs with VH had HCC detected at surgery or necropsy or by abdominal ultrasonography. Histologic findings indicated that HCC was seemingly preceded by dysplastic hepatocellular foci. No significant differences were found in clinicopathologic variables or age at death between VH-affected dogs with or without HCC. Fifteen of 26 (58%) dogs with high hepatic copper concentrations had histologic features consistent with copper-associated hepatopathy. Although signs consistent with hyperadrenocorticism were observed in 40% (46/114) of dogs, definitive diagnosis was inconsistently confirmed. Assessment of adrenal sex hormone concentrations before and after ACTH administration identified high progesterone and androstenedione concentrations in 88% (22/25) and 80% (20/25) of tested dogs, respectively. Results suggested that VH in Scottish Terriers may be linked to adrenal steroidogenesis and a predisposition to HCC. In dogs with VH, frequent serum biochemical analysis and ultrasonographic surveillance for early tumor detection are recommended.

  20. Intussuscepção uterina em uma cadela Yorkshire Terrier

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Filho, S.T.L.; Carus, D.S.; Dalmolin, F.; Anjos, B.L.; Segatto, T.; Krabbe, A.; Oliveira, M.T.; Pippi, N.L.; Brun, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    A intussuscepção uterina é condição rara em pequenos animais. No presente relato descreve-se um caso de intussuscepção uterina em um canino, fêmea Yorkshire Terrier no pós-parto imediato, diagnosticada por meio de laparotomia exploratória e pela avaliação anatomopatológica. Realizou-se a ovariossalpingo-histerectomia (OSH) como tratamento definitivo para a alteração. Conclui-se, portanto, que a intussuscepção uterina pode ocorrer em cadelas, de forma espontânea no pós-parto imediato. Uteri...

  1. Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a terrier dog: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rezaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a 10-year-old, female, terrier dog. The animal was admitted due to polyphagia, weight gain, polyuria, polydipsia, hair loss, exercise intolerance and panting at rest. On physical examination, abdominal distention, truncal and bilaterally symmetric alopecia, thin hypotonic skin, comedones, bruising, hyperpigmentation and calcinosis cutis on the dorsal midline were observed. Hematologic investigations showed stress leukogram, high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, mild to moderate alanine aminotransferase activity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia. Mild generalized interstitial lung patterns and hepatomegaly were detected in the radiographs. Bilaterally symmetric normal-sized adrenal glands were also diagnosed in ultrasonography. Diagnosis of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was confirmed with low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. The dog was successfully treated with mitotane.

  2. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  3. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaraknath, P.K.; Agarwal, S.P.; Agarwal, V.K.; Dixit, N.K.; Sharma, I.J.

    1984-01-01

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T 4 and T 3 . In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T 4 and T 3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T 4 and T 3 . Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  4. Further characterization of computed tomographic and clinical features for staging and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland white terriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Florence; Handel, Ian; Hammond, Gawain; King, Lesley G; Corcoran, Brendan M; Schwarz, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology resulting in progressive interstitial fibrosis, with a known predilection in West Highland white terriers. In humans, computed tomography (CT) is a standard method for providing diagnostic and prognostic information, and plays a major role in the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis staging process. Objectives of this retrospective, analytical, cross-sectional study were to establish descriptive criteria for reporting CT findings and test correlations among CT, clinical findings and survival time in West Highland white terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Inclusion criteria for affected West Highland white terriers were a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and available CT, bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, echocardiography, and routine blood analysis findings. Clinically normal West Highland white terriers were recruited for the control group. Survival times were recorded for affected dogs. The main CT lung pattern and clinical data were blindly and separately graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Twenty-one West Highland white terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 control West Highland white terriers were included. The severity of pulmonary CT findings was positively correlated with severity of clinical signs (ρ = 0.48, P = 0.029) and negatively associated with survival time after diagnosis (ρ = -0.56, P = 0.025). Affected dogs had higher lung attenuation (median: -563 Hounsfield Units (HU)) than control dogs (median: -761 HU), (P idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland white terriers and providing prognostic information for owners. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. A Nonsense Variant in the ACADVL Gene in German Hunting Terriers with Exercise Induced Metabolic Myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lepori

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Several enzymes are involved in fatty acid oxidation, which is a key process in mitochondrial energy production. Inherited defects affecting any step of fatty acid oxidation can result in clinical disease. We present here an extended family of German Hunting Terriers with 10 dogs affected by clinical signs of exercise induced weakness, muscle pain, and suspected rhabdomyolysis. The combination of clinical signs, muscle histopathology and acylcarnitine analysis with an elevated tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1 peak suggested a possible diagnosis of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain deficiency (ACADVLD. Whole genome sequence analysis of one affected dog and 191 controls revealed a nonsense variant in the ACADVL gene encoding acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain, c.1728C>A or p.(Tyr576*. The variant showed perfect association with the phenotype in the 10 affected and more than 500 control dogs of various breeds. Pathogenic variants in the ACADVL gene have been reported in humans with similar myopathic phenotypes. We therefore considered the detected variant to be the most likely candidate causative variant for the observed exercise induced myopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of this disease in dogs, which we propose to name exercise induced metabolic myopathy (EIMM, and the identification of the first canine pathogenic ACADVL variant. Our findings provide a large animal model for a known human disease and will enable genetic testing to avoid the unintentional breeding of affected offspring.

  6. A Nonsense Variant in the ACADVL Gene in German Hunting Terriers with Exercise Induced Metabolic Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, Vincent; Mühlhause, Franziska; Sewell, Adrian C; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Janzen, Nils; Rosati, Marco; Alves de Sousa, Filipe Miguel Maximiano; Tschopp, Aurélie; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Matiasek, Kaspar; Tipold, Andrea; Leeb, Tosso; Kornberg, Marion

    2018-05-04

    Several enzymes are involved in fatty acid oxidation, which is a key process in mitochondrial energy production. Inherited defects affecting any step of fatty acid oxidation can result in clinical disease. We present here an extended family of German Hunting Terriers with 10 dogs affected by clinical signs of exercise induced weakness, muscle pain, and suspected rhabdomyolysis. The combination of clinical signs, muscle histopathology and acylcarnitine analysis with an elevated tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1) peak suggested a possible diagnosis of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain deficiency (ACADVLD). Whole genome sequence analysis of one affected dog and 191 controls revealed a nonsense variant in the ACADVL gene encoding acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain, c.1728C>A or p.(Tyr576*). The variant showed perfect association with the phenotype in the 10 affected and more than 500 control dogs of various breeds. Pathogenic variants in the ACADVL gene have been reported in humans with similar myopathic phenotypes. We therefore considered the detected variant to be the most likely candidate causative variant for the observed exercise induced myopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of this disease in dogs, which we propose to name exercise induced metabolic myopathy (EIMM), and the identification of the first canine pathogenic ACADVL variant. Our findings provide a large animal model for a known human disease and will enable genetic testing to avoid the unintentional breeding of affected offspring. Copyright © 2018 Lepori et al.

  7. Histological characterization of dilated cardiomyopathy in the juvenile toy Manchester terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, C H; López, A; Hanna, P; Côté, E; Hare, E; Martinson, S A

    2013-11-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the most common form of cardiomyopathy in the dog, most often occurs in certain breeds. The objective of this study was to describe a rapidly progressive form of DCM that has been recently recognized in juvenile Toy Manchester Terrier dogs (TMTs). The clinical history and gross findings were reviewed in a group of 14 TMTs, and histologic sections of heart were examined in 12 of those 14 TMTs with DCM. Histochemical and histomorphometric analyses were employed to compare the heart in TMTs affected by DCM with that of control dogs. TMTs ranged in age from 10 to 58.3 weeks, with males and females being equally affected. Affected TMT hearts contained foci of degeneration and loss of myofibers with fibrosis and mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. Less prominent features included foci of acute myofiber degeneration and necrosis with or without intralesional mineralization and mild to moderate suppurative and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. Morphometric quantification demonstrated that the right ventricle was more severely affected (P ≤ .05) than the left ventricle with variable involvement of the interventricular septum. Immunohistochemistry for canine parvovirus was negative in all heart samples. However, the absence of parvoviral antigen does not rule out a possible viral or autoimmune cause. The presence of these myocardial lesions among closely related dogs suggests a genetic contribution to this disease process in the TMT.

  8. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a jack russell terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO'Neill Emma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A twenty-month-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with a four-day history of thrombocytopenia, echymotic inguinal haemorrhages, coughing and reduced exercise tolerance. Clinical examination revealed several petechial haemorrhages on the gingivae and small echymotic haemorrhages in the inguinal region, along with mild bilateral epistaxis. Haematology confirmed a platelet count of 1.0 × 10/L. Thoracic radiographs revealed a wide-spread mixed alveolar-interstitial lung pattern, apparent throughout the entire lungfield, but particularly marked within the left lung lobes. A presumptive diagnosis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was made and the dog was treated with vincristine and immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone. Initially anaemia developed following gastrointestinal haemorrhage; however, after symptomatic treatment the dog showed a marked clinical improvement. Evaluation for an underlying cause of the disease revealed Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae on faecal analysis and treatment with fenbendazole was commenced. The dog made a full clinical recovery with all treatment was withdrawn within five weeks of diagnosis. This is the second report of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection and it is the first to be successfully managed. The report highlights that Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered in young dogs presented with thrombocytopenia.

  9. The extraosseal intrathoracic radiopaque bone cyst in West Highland White Terrier – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent Ledecký

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was to present a clinical case and diagnostics of intrathoracic bone cyst as well as successful outcome of the surgical treatment in a male, 3-year-old West Highland White Terrier dog, weighing 6.9 kg. The dog was admitted in a very poor condition with clinical signs of severe dyspnoea that developed during about one month period of time before admission to our clinic. The dog underwent physical examination and further examinations including radiological examination which revealed a radiopaque mass formation in the cranial mediastinum. Ultrasonographic examination showed the presence of fluid; following thoracentesis revealed pseudochylous fluid. The bone cyst was surgically removed and more than 10 months after surgery the dog’s health was very good without any difficulties. Bone cysts in dogs are infrequent; this was the first case at our clinic and presented a successful treatment.

  10. Characterization of Paroxysmal Gluten‐Sensitive Dyskinesia in Border Terriers Using Serological Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, O.A.; Hadjivassiliou, M.; Sanders, D.S.; Powell, R.; Garosi, L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Paroxysmal gluten‐sensitive dyskinesia (PGSD) in border terriers (BTs) results from an immunologic response directed against transglutaminase (TG)2 and gliadin. Recent evidence suggests that PGSD is only one aspect of a range of possible manifestations of gluten sensitivity in the breed. Hypothesis/Objectives Gluten sensitivity in BTs is a heterogeneous disease process with a diverse clinical spectrum; to characterize the phenotype of PGSD using TG2 and gliadin autoantibodies as diagnostic markers. Animals One hundred twenty‐eight client‐owned BTs with various disorders. Methods Prospective study. BTs with paroxysmal episodes and a normal interictal examination were phenotyped using footage of a representative episode and assigned to 3 groups: idiopathic epilepsy (IE), paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD), or other. Owners of each dog completed a questionnaire to obtain information regarding clinical signs. Healthy BTs formed a control group. Serum antibodies against TG2 and AGA were measured in all dogs. Results One hundred twenty‐eight BTs were enrolled; 45 with PD, 28 with IE, 35 with other conditions, and 20 controls. Three overlapping phenotypes were identified; PD, signs suggestive of gastrointestinal disease, and dermatopathy. AGA‐IgG concentrations were increased in PD, compared with IE (P = 0.012), controls (P < 0.0001) and other (P = 0.018) conditions. Anti‐canine TG2‐IgA concentrations were increased in PD, compared with IE (P < 0.0001), controls (P < 0.0001) and other (P = 0.012) conditions. Serological markers are highly specific for PGSD but lack sensitivity. Conclusions PGSD appears part of a syndrome of gluten intolerance consisting of episodes of transient dyskinesia, signs suggestive of gastrointestinal disease, and dermatological hypersensitivity. PMID:29424456

  11. Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

  12. Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Griebel

    Full Text Available Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to "fast mapping", with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion.

  13. Development of bull trout sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Thurow; J. T. Peterson; J. W. Guzevich

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in Washington in 2000 through Interagency Agreement #134100H002 between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS). The purpose of this agreement is to develop a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) sampling protocol by integrating...

  14. A one base pair deletion in the canine ATP13A2 gene causes exon skipping and late-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in the Tibetan terrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Wöhlke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain and retinal atrophy and the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lysosomal storage bodies resembling lipofuscin in neurons and other cells. Tibetan terriers show a late-onset lethal form of NCL manifesting first visible signs at 5-7 years of age. Genome-wide association analyses for 12 Tibetan-terrier-NCL-cases and 7 Tibetan-terrier controls using the 127K canine Affymetrix SNP chip and mixed model analysis mapped NCL to dog chromosome (CFA 2 at 83.71-84.72 Mb. Multipoint linkage and association analyses in 376 Tibetan terriers confirmed this genomic region on CFA2. A mutation analysis for 14 positional candidate genes in two NCL-cases and one control revealed a strongly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the MAPK PM20/PM21 gene and a perfectly with NCL associated single base pair deletion (c.1620delG within exon 16 of the ATP13A2 gene. The c.1620delG mutation in ATP13A2 causes skipping of exon 16 presumably due to a broken exonic splicing enhancer motif. As a result of this mutation, ATP13A2 lacks 69 amino acids. All known 24 NCL cases were homozygous for this deletion and all obligate 35 NCL-carriers were heterozygous. In a sample of 144 dogs from eleven other breeds, the c.1620delG mutation could not be found. Knowledge of the causative mutation for late-onset NCL in Tibetan terrier allows genetic testing of these dogs to avoid matings of carrier animals. ATP13A2 mutations have been described in familial Parkinson syndrome (PARK9. Tibetan terriers with these mutations provide a valuable model for a PARK9-linked disease and possibly for manganese toxicity in synucleinopathies.

  15. Pain at multiple body sites and health-related quality of life in older adults: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rosie J; Belcher, John; Rathod, Trishna; Wilkie, Ross; Thomas, Elaine; McBeth, John

    2014-11-01

    Number of pain sites (NPS) is a potentially important marker of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but remains unexplored in older people. This cross-sectional study investigated whether, in older people including the oldest old, NPS was independently associated with poorer mental and physical HRQoL and if the association was moderated by age. A postal questionnaire sent to a population sample of adults aged ≥50 years in North Staffordshire, UK, included the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS), a blank body pain manikin, socio-demographic, health behaviour and morbidity questions. Participants shaded sites of pain lasting ≥1 day in the past 4 weeks on the manikin. OA consultation data were obtained for participants consenting to medical records review. A total of 13 986 individuals (adjusted response 70.6%) completed a questionnaire, of which 12 408 provided complete pain data. The median NPS reported was 4 [interquartile range (IQR) 0-8]. General linear models showed that an increasing NPS was significantly associated with poorer MCS (β = -0.43, 95% CI -0.46, -0.40) and PCS (β = -0.87, 95% CI -0.90, -0.84). Adjustment for covariates attenuated the associations but they remained significant ( β = -0.28, 95% CI -0.31, -0.24; PCS: β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.66, -0.59). The association between NPS and MCS or PCS was moderated by age, but the strongest associations were not in the oldest old. NPS appears to be a potentially modifiable target for improving physical and mental HRQoL in older people. Future analyses should investigate the influence of NPS on HRQoL over time in older people. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  16. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Fabiana HG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8 month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

  17. Heritability and complex segregation analysis of deafness in Jack Russell Terriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain George M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between patterns of pigmentation and deafness in the dog has a long-documented history, with reports dating back over one hundred years. Long suspected of having a genetic basis, the search for loci with a pronounced influence in the expression of hearing loss in the dog has yet to be successful. No studies in the dog to date have found a possible influence of a specific colour locus associated with deafness. The present study is intended to evaluate the heritability of deafness in the Jack Russell Terrier (JRT, characterize the mode of inheritance, and evaluate the existence of a sex, coat colour, or coat texture influence on the expression of sensorineural deafness. Results The estimation of heritability of deafness in the JRT was 0.22 when deafness was considered a binary (normal/deaf trait and 0.31 when deafness was considered a three-category (normal/unilateral/bilateral deafness. The influence of coat colour in the incidence of JRT deafness was statistically significant, indicating that dogs with more white are more likely to be deaf. The influence of sex or coat texture was not statistically significant in the incidence of JRT deafness. Complex segregation analysis revealed a model of a single locus with a large effect on the binary measure of hearing loss is not supported. Conclusion This is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to characterize a genetic component responsible for deafness in the JRT. The heritability of deafness in the JRT was found to be 0.22 and 0.31 considering deafness to be a two-category or three-category trait, respectively. There appears to be an influence of coat colour on the expression of deafness. In an attempt to characterize the mode of inheritance of deafness in the JRT, a model of a single locus with a large effect on hearing loss is not supported with this data. Further study is needed to determine if a single locus may be influencing deafness in the JRT. While the

  18. Infertility of the breeding bull in insemination technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Mirko R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of very strict breeding bull selection, especialy for A.I programes their infertility is a very serius problem in everyday practice. Especially bull semen has been marked as the main factor for unsatisfied cow fertility in the A.I.programme. The reason could be the bull semen which really may play as the spreading factor of the specific or non-specific reproductive infective disoders – IBR, IPV, BVD, Campylobacter-Vibrio fetus, brucellosis leptospirosis, tuberculosis and other reproductive diseases. Secondarily, the percentage of vitality, motility, penetration abilities, and immonological properties of bull spermatozoa also have an important role in unsuccessful bovine fecundation. That is, why it is necessary to secure professional health care for breedig bull in AI centres, becase only healthy bulls can ensure good bovine genetic transmission and progress in cattle production for today's growing population.

  19. The effect of mature elephant bull introductions on ranging patterns of resident bulls: Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Druce

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing popularity of wildlife viewing has resulted in a rapid increase in small, enclosed reserves in South Africa. The African elephant is one of the many species that has been reintroduced into these reserves for eco-tourism. These elephant populations were established as young (smaller that 10 years old orphans from prior Kruger National Park culling operations. Consequently, this abnormal sex and age structure of these introduced populations has influenced their behavioural and spatial ecology. In Pilanesberg National Park, this abnormal behaviour was corrected by introducing older bulls and culling certain problem elephants. In July 2003, three older bulls (29–41 years old were introduced into Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in order to normalise the bull age structure. These introduced bulls were monitored intensively after release, as was the resident bull population, both before and after introduction of the older bulls. The introduced bulls settled into restricted ranges separate from the family groups. All the resident bulls decreased their home ranges at first, with most increasing their home ranges a year later. The resident bulls’ change in ranging patterns was due more to ecological factors than to the influence of the mature bull introduction. This study indicates that the introduction of older male elephants into small populations does not pose major risks or animal welfare concerns.

  20. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  1. Demographic and habitat requirements for conservation of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; John D. Mclntyre

    1993-01-01

    Elements in bull trout biology, population dynamics, habitat, and biotic interactions important to conservation of the species are identified. Bull trout appear to have more specific habitat requirements than other salmonids, but no critical thresholds of acceptable habitat condition were found. Size, temporal variation, and spatial distribution are likely to influence...

  2. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  3. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  4. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  5. Gastrointestinal foreign bodies in dogs and cats: a retrospective study of 208 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, G

    2009-11-01

    To establish predilection sites of obstruction and to investigate clinical factors associated with a poor outcome. A retrospective study of 208 consecutive cases over a 48-month period from first-opinion practice. Overall, 91 per cent of cases recovered with higher survival rates from discrete foreign bodies (94 per cent in dogs and 100 per cent in cats) as opposed to linear foreign bodies (80 per cent in dogs and 63 per cent in cats). English bull terriers, springer spaniels, Staffordshire bull terriers, Border collies and Jack Russell terriers were over-represented. In dogs, 63 per cent of obstructions occurred in the jejunum but foreign objects were encountered at all points along the gastrointestinal tract. A longer duration of clinical signs, the presence of a linear foreign body and multiple intestinal procedures were associated with significantly increased mortality. Neither the degree of obstruction (partial or complete) nor the location of the foreign body was shown to have a significant influence on survival. Prompt presentation, diagnosis and surgical intervention improve the outcome of gastrointestinal obstruction by foreign bodies. At surgery, the minimal number of intestinal procedures should be performed to restore the integrity of the alimentary tract.

  6. Testicle size as indicator of fertility in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male calves from the high value parents, bull fathers and bull dams, enter the selection for artificial insemination. After laboratory tests, the calves are taken to the center for artificial insemination, and after a stay in quarantine the are moved to a test station. At the age of twelve months they are measured for assessing the value of each calf exterior. One of the measures recorded was the testicle scope. On the basis of testicle size, it is possible to predict sperm production potential. For the determination of testicle size (testicular biometry, tapes or rulers were used. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible effect of testicle size on sperm production in young bulls used for artificial insemination. For that purpose there were used the data on circumference of testicles of one year old bulls just starting production of sperm, and then compared with certain semen quality parameters such as: volume of ejaculate and concentration and percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa. The investigation included all young bulls that started production in the period from 2010. to 2012., that is 36 bulls of various breeds (Simmental, Holstein Friesian, Montafon. After the testicle scope measuring in these bulls, there were observed the parameters of the sperm quality during the following one year period. The obtained results showed that the increased testicle size was followed by the increased average ejaculate quantity, in other words: 3.7 ml in group of bulls with testicle circumference below 30 cm, to 6.7 ml in bulls whose testicle circumference was over 40 cm. Also, the results showed that there was a correlation between the increased testicle size and the increased spermatozoa concentration. The values grow to testicle scope of 36 cm, and above that they were still high but with some oscillations. When it came to relation between testicle scope and the percentage of alive and progressively mobile spermatozoa, the

  7. Atopic dermatitis in West Highland white terriers is associated with a 1.3-Mb region on CFA 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Joana B; O'Leary, Caroline A; Duffy, David L; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Gharahkhani, Puya; Vogelnest, Linda; Mason, Kenneth; Shipstone, Michael; Latter, Melanie

    2012-03-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is an allergic inflammatory skin disease that shares similarities with AD in humans. Canine AD is likely to be an inherited disease in dogs and is common in West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). We performed a genome-wide association study using the Affymetrix Canine SNP V2 array consisting of over 42,800 single nucleotide polymorphisms, on 35 atopic and 25 non-atopic WHWTs. A gene-dropping simulation method, using SIB-PAIR, identified a projected 1.3 Mb area of association (genome-wide P = 6 × 10(-5) to P = 7 × 10(-4)) on CFA 17. Nineteen genes on CFA 17, including 1 potential candidate gene (PTPN22), were located less than 0.5 Mb from the interval of association identified on the genome-wide association analysis. Four haplotypes within this locus were differently distributed between cases and controls in this population of dogs. These findings suggest that a major locus for canine AD in WHWTs may be located on, or in close proximity to an area on CFA 17.

  8. John Pope - Failure at Second Battle of Bull Run

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morio, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Was the failure of the Army of Virginia at the Second Battle of Bull Run a result of General John Pope being a failure as a leader or were there other circumstances that helped him in his loss? Conclusion...

  9. Bull Moose Tube Company - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  10. 22Na and 86Rb effluxes from bull spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.; Steffens, T.; Bernhardt, I.

    1986-01-01

    Active transport of sodium and potassium has been postulated for bull sperms by various authors. In the present paper the sodium and rubidium efflux was determined by tracer kinetics. For uninhibited sodium and rubidium efflux a rate constant of 8.9 +- 2.13/min and 13.9 +- 3.89 min, respectively, was found for a bull sperm suspension (20 vol.%, 310 K). After ouabain treatment (0.1 mM), a reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux to 5.1 +- 1.06/min was found. After cryopreserving (pelletizing process) the majority of samples investigated did not exhibit any inhibition of sodium and rubidium efflux as compared with fresh bull sperms. The inhibition of sodium efflux observed in some cases corresponds to the reduction of the rate constant of sodium efflux caused by ouabain. At storage in seminal plasma (24 h, 278 K) the rate constant of sodium efflux is reduced to 2.7 +- 0.25/min. Both after ouabain treatment and after cryopreserving of sperms having a reduced rate constant the motility of bull sperms is reduced. It is concluded from the results that in bull sperms there exists an ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux, the inhibition of which reduces the rate constant of sodium efflux by 42%. The ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux is related to the motility of the bull sperm cell. (author)

  11. Adrenal involvement in the biostimulatory effect of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardinelli James G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to evaluate if cortisol concentrations are associated with the resumption of luteal activity in postpartum, primiparous cows exposed to bulls. The hypotheses were that 1 interval from start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity; 2 proportions of cows that resumed luteal function during the exposure period; and 3 cortisol concentrations do not differ among cows exposed or not exposed to bulls (Exp. 1, and cows continuously exposed to bull or steer urine (Exp. 2. Methods In Exp. 1, 28 anovular cows were exposed (BE; n = 13 or not exposed (NE; n = 15 to bulls for 30 d at 58 d after calving. In Exp. 2, 38 anovular cows were fitted with a controlled urine delivery device at 45 d after calving and exposed continuously (24 h/d to bull (BUE; n = 19 or steer (SUE; n = 19 urine. Length of exposure was ~64 d. Blood samples were collected from each cow on D 0 and every 3 d throughout exposure periods in both experiments and assayed for progesterone. Cortisol was assayed in samples collected on D 0, 8, 16, and 24 in Exp. 1; and, D 0, 19, 38, and 57 in Exp. 2. Results In Exp. 1, interval from the start of exposure to resumption of luteal activity was shorter (P Conclusion We conclude that the physical presence of bulls stimulates resumption of luteal activity and is coincident with increased cortisol concentrations, and hypothesize a possible association between adrenal activation and the biostimulatory effect of bulls.

  12. Epidemiologic features of von Willebrand's disease in Doberman pinschers, Scottish terriers, and Shetland sheepdogs: 260 cases (1984-1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M; Dodds, W J; Raymond, S L

    1992-04-15

    During a study period from 1985 through 1988, plasma von Willebrand's factor antigen (vWF:Ag) concentration was measured as a marker for prevalence of the von Willebrand's disease (vWD) trait in Doberman Pinschers (doberman, n = 5,554), Scottish Terriers (scottie, n = 1,363), and Shetland Sheepdogs (sheltie, n = 4,279). Significant increase in prevalence of the trait was seen in scotties and shelties during this period. In 1988, 73% of dobermans, 30% of scotties, and 28% of shelties tested had abnormal vWF:Ag concentration (less than 50% vWF:Ag). We found significant differences between breeds with respect to age and vWF:Ag concentration of clinically affected dogs at time of diagnosis. The affected dobermans were older (doberman mean age, 4.6 years; scottie mean age, 1.7 years; sheltie mean age, 1.9 years) and had higher concentration of plasma vWF:Ag (doberman mean vWF:Ag, 15%; scottie mean vWF:Ag, 0%; sheltie mean vWF:Ag, 8%). Bleeding in affected dogs of all 3 breeds was observed predominantly from mucosal surfaces and from cutaneous sites of surgery or trauma. The most common site of mucosal bleeding in scotties and shelties was oral or nasal cavity, and in dobermans was the urogenital tract. Differences in clinical manifestations of vWD in purebred dogs may reflect heterogeneous defects within the vWF gene, causing a variety of abnormalities in production, structure, and function of vWF protein. Analogous to vWD in human beings, acquired deficiencies of vWF may also contribute to the clinical variability of vWD in dogs.

  13. Missense mutation in CAPN1 is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia in the Parson Russell Terrier dog breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver P Forman

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA in the Parson Russell Terrier (PRT dog breed is a disease of progressive incoordination of gait and loss of balance. Clinical signs usually become notable between 6 and 12 months of age with affected dogs presenting with symmetric spinocerebellar ataxia particularly evident in the pelvic limbs. The degree of truncal ataxia, pelvic limb hypermetria and impaired balance is progressive, particularly during the initial months of disease. A certain degree of stabilisation as well as intermittent worsening may occur. At the later stages of the disease ambulation often becomes difficult, with owners often electing to euthanise affected dogs on welfare grounds. Using a GWAS approach and target-enriched massively-parallel sequencing, a strongly associated non-synonymous SNP in the CAPN1 gene, encoding the calcium dependent cysteine protease calpain1 (mu-calpain, was identified. The SNP is a missense mutation causing a cysteine to tyrosine substitution at residue 115 of the CAPN1 protein. Cysteine 115 is a highly conserved residue and forms a key part of a catalytic triad of amino acids that are crucial to the enzymatic activity of cysteine proteases. The CAPN1 gene shows high levels of expression in the brain and nervous system and roles for the protein in both neuronal necrosis and maintenance have been suggested. Given the functional implications and high level of conservation observed across species, the CAPN1 variant represents a provocative candidate for the cause of SCA in the PRT and a novel potential cause of ataxia in humans.

  14. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  15. Evaluating bull fertility based on non-return method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prka Igor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the results of reproductive cows and heifers, different parameters of fertility are used, such as the service period, insemination index, intercalving time and others, and of the breeding bulls the values obtained through non-return. An ejaculate is taken up for further processing by veterinary centres only provided it meets the prescribed quality parameters. Rating semen parameters includes a macroscopic (volume, colour, consistency, smell and pH and a microscopic evaluation (mobility, density, percentage of live sperm and abnormal and damaged sperm. In addition to sperm quality and the fertility of the female animal, the results of the non-return method are also influenced by a number of exogenous causes (season, age, race, insemination techniques that have no small impact on the end result of insemination - pregnancy. In order to obtain more objective results of the fertility of bulls the following tasks were undertaken, namely: 1. to calculate with the non-return method the fertility of bulls in over 10,000 cows inseminated for the first time during a period of 6 years; and 2. to analyze the impact of semen quality, season, age of cow and bull, and the bull breed on the results of fertility.

  16. Relationship of nonreturn rates of dairy bulls to binding affinity of heparin to sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.L.; Ax, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of the glycosaminoglycan [ 3 H] heparin to bull spermatozoa was compared with nonreturn rates of dairy bulls. Semen samples from five bulls above and five below an average 71% nonreturn rate were used. Samples consisted of first and second ejaculates on a single day collected 1 d/wk for up to 5 consecutive wk. Saturation binding assays using [ 3 H] heparin were performed to quantitate the binding characteristics of each sample. Scatchard plot analyses indicated a significant difference in the binding affinity for [ 3 H] heparin between bulls of high and low fertility. Dissociation constants were 69.0 and 119.3 pmol for bulls of high and low fertility, respectively. In contrast, the number of binding sites for [ 3 H] heparin did not differ significantly among bulls. Differences in binding affinity of [ 3 H] heparin to bull sperm might be used to predict relative fertility of dairy bulls

  17. Subacute ruminal acidosis reduces sperm quality in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M J; McAuliffe, P; Rodgers, R J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A

    2016-08-01

    Breeding bulls are commonly fed high-energy diets, which may induce subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this experiment, 8 Santa Gertrudis bulls (age 20 ± 6 mo) were used to evaluate the extent and duration of effects of SARA on semen quality and the associated changes in circulating hormones and metabolites. The bulls were relocated and fed in yards with unrestricted access to hay and daily individual concentrate feeding for 125 d before SARA challenge. Semen was collected and assessed at 14-d intervals before the challenge to ensure acclimatization and the attainment of a stable spermiogram. The challenge treatments consisted of either a single oral dose of oligofructose (OFF; 6.5 g/kg BW) or an equivalent sham dose of water (Control). Locomotion, behavior, respiratory rate, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal function were intensively monitored during the 24-h challenge period. Rumen fluid samples were retained for VFA, ammonia, and lactate analysis. After the challenge, semen was then collected every third day for a period of 7 wk and then once weekly until 12 wk, with associated blood collection for FSH, testosterone, inhibin, and cortisol assay. Percent normal sperm decreased in bulls dosed with OFF after the challenge period ( < 0.05) and continued to remain lower on completion of the study at 88 d after challenge. There was a corresponding increase in sperm defects commencing from 16 d after challenge. These included proximal cytoplasmic droplets ( < 0.001), distal reflex midpieces ( = 0.01), and vacuole and teratoid heads ( < 0.001). Changes in semen quality after challenge were associated with lower serum testosterone ( < 0.001) and FSH ( < 0.05). Serum cortisol in OFF bulls tended to be greater ( = 0.07) at 7 d after challenge. This study shows that SARA challenge causes a reduction in sperm quality sufficient to preclude bulls from sale as single sire breeding animals 3 mo after the event occurred.

  18. On-farm welfare and estimated daily carcass gain of slaughtered bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herva, T.; Virtala, A.M.; Huuskonen, A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Peltoniemi, O.

    2009-01-01

    Welfare of growing bulls was evaluated using on-farm scoring modified by well-described test theory methods. Production parameters of the bulls were collected at slaughter. A positive relationship was observed between on-farm welfare, using the full A-Index score, and daily carcass gain of bulls.

  19. Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daetwyler, Hans D; Capitan, Aurélien; Pausch, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes p...

  20. Relationships between heart rate and age, bodyweight and breed in 10,849 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezzell, M J; Dennis, S G; Humm, K; Agee, L; Boswood, A

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate relationships between heart rate and clinical variables in healthy dogs and dogs examined at a referral hospital. Clinical data were extracted from the electronic patient records of a first opinion group (5000 healthy dogs) and a referral hospital (5849 dogs). Univariable and multi-variable general linear models were used to assess associations between heart rate and clinical characteristics. Separate multi-variable models were constructed for first opinion and referral populations. In healthy dogs, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (PChihuahuas. The mean difference in heart rate between a 5 and 55 kg dog was 10.5 beats per minute. In dogs presenting to a referral hospital, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (P<0.001) and the following breeds; border collie, golden retriever, Labrador retriever, springer spaniel and West Highland white terrier and positively associated with age, admitting service (emergency and critical care, emergency first opinion and cardiology) and the following breeds; Cavalier King Charles spaniel, Staffordshire bull terrier and Yorkshire terrier. Bodyweight, age, breed and disease status all influence heart rate in dogs, although these factors account for a relatively small proportion of the overall variability in heart rate. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Prevalence and features of canine atopic dermatitis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpataki, Noémi; Pápa, Kinga; Reiczigel, J; Vajdovich, P; Vörösi, K

    2006-09-01

    Medical records of 600 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were reviewed and evaluated with reference to history, geographical distribution, breed predilection, clinical signs and positive reactions to allergens as determined by intradermal skin testing (IDT) manufactured by Artuvetrin Laboratories. In 66.6% of dogs, the age of onset of atopic dermatitis was between 4 months and 3 years. Dogs living in the garden suburb of Budapest were more sensitive to house dust mites, fleas and moulds, and dogs from the western part of Hungary were more sensitive to weeds than to other allergens (p French bulldog, Doberman Pinscher and Bobtail which were over-represented among atopic dogs compared to the breed distribution of the general dog population of a large city in Hungary. Breeds with verified adverse reaction to food were Cocker spaniels, French bulldogs, Bullmastiffs, Bull terriers, St. Bernards, Tervurens, West Highland White terriers and American Staffordshire terriers (p < 0.05). The clinical signs of atopic dermatitis and their occurrence are in accordance with the data described in the literature.

  2. Bulls and bears: the stock market and clinical pathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2009-09-01

    To analyse the level of funded research in clinical pathology in a recent bear and bull market to act as a predictor for future funding during the current global financial crisis. The level of funding for research published in three clinical pathology journals in 2005 and 2008 to coincide with the bear market of March 2000 to October 2002 and with the subsequent bull market to October 2007 was determined using a Medline query. Other parameters examined were the type of article, affiliation of the first author and the pathology subspecialty. Approximately 30% of publications were funded and did not differ between the 2 years studied. Original research papers were more likely to be funded than case reports or reviews. Research from university departments of pathology was more likely to be funded than from hospital pathology departments but there were more publications from hospital pathology departments. The proportion of research in the different subspecialties that was funded did not differ significantly between each other and between 2005 and 2008. Based on data from the previous bear market, which was the longest and deepest of the post 1950 era, and the subsequent bull market, which led to the all-time high in the Dow Jones Industrial Index, funding for clinical pathology research does not seem to be affected by bull or bear markets.

  3. Autumn feeding cycle of the bull-dog fish, Gnathonemus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rhythm may vary considerably due to habitat circumstances and generalizations must therefore be made with great caution. In order to evaluate the influence on the feeding cycle of the bull-dog fish, Gnathonemus macrolepidotus, a 24-hour study was undertaken in Loskop Dam, Transvaal, starting on 1 April 1970.

  4. Germ cell transplantation in an azoospermic Klinefelter bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerg, Hannes; Janett, Fredi; Schlatt, Stefan; Mueller, Simone; Graphodatskaya, Daria; Suwattana, Duangsmorn; Asai, Mika; Stranzinger, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Germ cell transplantation is a technique that transfers donor testicular cells into recipient testes. A population of germ cells can colonize the recipient testis, initiate spermatogenesis, and produce sperm capable of fertilization. In the present study, a nonmosaic Klinefelter bull was used as a germ cell recipient. The donor cell suspension was introduced into the rete testis using ultrasound-guided puncture. A pulsatile administration of GnRH was performed to stimulate spermatogenesis. The molecular approach to detect donor cells was done by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction with allele discrimination based on a genetic mutation between donor and recipient. Therefore, a known genetic mutation, associated with coat-color phenotype, was used to calculate the ratio of donor to recipient cells in the biopsy specimens and ejaculates for 10 mo. After slaughtering, meiotic preparations were performed. The injected germ cells did not undergo spermatogenesis. Six months after germ cell transplantation, the donor cells were rejected, which indicates that the donor cells could not incorporate in the testis. The hormone stimulation showed that the testosterone-producing Leydig cells were functionally intact. Despite subfertility therapy, neither the recipient nor the donor cells underwent spermatogenesis. Therefore, nonmosaic Klinefelter bulls are not suitable as germ cell recipients. Future germ cell recipients in cattle could be mosaic Klinefelters, interspecies hybrids, bulls with Sertoli cell-only syndrome, or bulls with disrupted germ cell migration caused by RNA interference.

  5. Record Litter Size for the Bull Shark, Carcharhinus leucas (Muller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the morning of 25 September 2013, a large female bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, was landed in Port Victoria, Seychelles. It had been caught on an anchored long line set the previous evening, within 100 m of the main fishing quay. The female exhibited an unusually large girth for this heavy-set species. The shark ...

  6. Bulls, Goats, and Pedagogy: Engaging Students in Overseas Development Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates the profound learning that occurs--for students and instructor alike--when a class on third-world development attempts to undertake foreign aid. With undergraduate, graduate, and departmental money, I purchased bulls and carts for farmers, and goats for widows, in two West African villages. Such experiential learning…

  7. The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

  8. Sensory characteristics and tenderness of meat from Ankole bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... Eating-quality attributes of meat from Ankole cattle and their Friesian and Boran crossbreds finished in different feeding ... palatable than steaks from supplemented and feedlot finished bulls. ... Phosphorus (g/kg DM). 4.2 ± 0.4.

  9. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  10. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9-10 year old children in Liverpool, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Boddy, Lynne M; Stratton, Gareth; German, Alexander J; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; Bundred, Peter; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2013-05-13

    Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or 'attachment' that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9-10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common 'favourite' pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a 'Bull Breed' dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child's favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and 'other' pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. 'Pit Bull or cross' and 'Bull Breed' dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a 'Pit Bull or cross' than Whites. Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when conducting research into the health benefits and risks of the

  11. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  12. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Oliveira J.M.B., Batista Filho A.F.B., Borges J. de M., Soares L.B.F., Ortega-Mora L.M., Brandespim D.F., Mota R.A. & Pinheiro Júnior J.W. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. [Tritrichomonas foetus em touros no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:449-453, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sanidade e Reprodução de Ruminantes. Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Bom Pastor s/n, Boa Vista, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, 55296-901, Brazil. E-mail: juniormariobaltazar@gmail.com The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 105 samples of preputial smegma were collected from bulls in service belonging to different herds (n=63 and slaughterhouses (n=42. Genomic DNA extraction from collected samples was carried out to identify the agent in the samples and they were also submitted to the polymerase chain reaction. A frequency of 6.6% (2.7 - 13.2%; C.I. 95% was found for T. foetus. None of the slaughterhouse samples were positive. With regards to the number of foci, 21.8% (7/32 of the properties contained animals that were positive for T. foetus. In conclusion, T. foetus infection occurred in bulls in this way, this agent should be included in the diagnosis in animal health control programs. Therefore, as the removal of infected bulls and their replacement by younger animals, should be implemented in order to avoid the dissemination of the agent in herds.

  13. Demographic characteristics of an adfluvial bull trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbins, Jonathan L; Hansen, Michael J.; DosSantos, Joseph M; Dux, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative species, habitat loss, and stream fragmentation have caused the Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus to decline throughout much of its native distribution. Consequently, in June 1998, the Bull Trout was listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as threatened. The Bull Trout has existed in Lake Pend Oreille and its surrounding tributaries since the last ice age, and the lake once supported a world-renowned Bull Trout fishery. To quantify the current status of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, we compared the mean age, growth, maturity, and abundance with reports in a study conducted one decade earlier. Abundance was estimated by mark–recapture for Bull Trout caught in trap nets and gill nets set in Lake Pend Oreille during ongoing suppression netting of Lake Trout S. namaycushin 2007–2008. Bull Trout sampled in 2006–2008 were used to estimate age structure, survival, growth, and maturity. Estimated Bull Trout abundance was similar to that estimated one decade earlier in Lake Pend Oreille. Bull Trout residing in Lake Pend Oreille between 2006 and 2008 were between ages 4 and 14 years; their growth was fastest between ages 1 and 2 and slowed thereafter. Male and female Bull Trout matured at a similar age, but females grew faster than males, thereby maturing at a larger size. Our findings suggest that management has effectively addressed current threats to increase the likelihood of long-term persistence of the Bull Trout population in Lake Pend Oreille.

  14. Imported leishmaniasis in a dog in a sandfly-populated area in northeastern Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Geta; Timofte, Dorina; Mocanu, Diana; Malancus, Razvan; Solcan, Carmen

    2017-09-01

    We report the importation of a clinical case of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Romania, a country where several types of sandflies are present with the potential to develop a new focus of CanL. The Staffordshire Bull Terrier dog was imported into Romania from Spain 1.5 y before he developed clinical symptomatology that included proliferative dermatitis, lymphadenomegaly, and bilateral uveitis. Hematologic analyses showed regenerative anemia and subacute inflammation. Cytologic examination of lymph node fine-needle aspirates revealed Leishmania spp. amastigotes that were confirmed as L. infantum by PCR. The importation of canine leishmania cases into nonendemic areas in which the vector exists could potentially lead to the silent spread of a disease posing a significant public health threat.

  15. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  16. THE ESTIMATION OF CARCASS TRAITS OF BALI BULLS USING ULTRASOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sri Rachma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to collect information on Bali bulls carcass traits estimation as one of theselection criteria using ultrasound. Ultrasonic estimation of carcass traits such as M. longissimusthoracis area (MLTA, Subcutaneous Fat Thickness (SFT, Inter Muscular Fat Thickness (IMFT, RibThickness (RT and Beef Marbling Score (BMS were obtained from 92 head of bulls at Barru districtand 74 head of bulls at Bone district, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The carcass traits estimation werescanned between the 6th - 7th ribs using ultrasound. The ultrasound is made of Fujihira Super-Eye FHK,Co. Meat. Ltd. with B-Mode and electronic linear probe, which used frequency of 2 MHz. The carcasstraits estimation photos were printed by video-copy machine (Aloka Co. Ltd., SSZ-300S. The dataobtained were analyzed using basic statistic and was discussed descriptively. The averages of all carcasstraits estimation of the Bali bull at Bone district at 12, 18 and 24 months of ages were higher than thoseat Barru district. The MLTA estimation of Bali bulls at Bone and Barru districts were 18.0 cm2, 24.3cm2, 23.8 cm2 Vs 16.6 cm2, 18.5 cm2, 23.3 cm2, respectively; the BMS estimated were 0.14, 0.24 and0.20 Vs 0.00, 0.15 and 0.17, respectively; the SFT estimation were 0.26 mm, 0.33 mm, 0.34 mm Vs0.28 mm, 0.26 mm, 0.34 mm, respectively; the IMFT estimation were 1.13 mm, 1.24 mm, 1.31 mm Vs0.97 mm, 1.06 mm, 1.14 mm, respectively; the RT estimation were 2.04 mm, 2.52 mm, 2.72 mm Vs1.19 mm, 2.12 mm, 2.30 mm, respectively. The growth of MLTA, SFT, IMFT, RT and BMS of thebulls of Bali cattle at the 12, 18 and 24 months of age were not reaching the optimally performances,yet. Therefore the selection process of the bulls of Bali cattle to be candidate of sire based on theestimation of carcass traits should be done after since 4 years of age.

  17. Ultrasound Imaging of Testes and Epididymides of Normal and Infertile Breeding Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Shujait Ali, Maqbool Ahmad and Muhammad Younis1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Echotexture of testes and epididymides from 10 slaughtered male buffaloes was studied. Diameter of testis and mediastinum testis was measured by ultrasound and compared with respective values taken by calipers. Testes and epididymides of another 10 fertile and 10 infertile breeding bulls were examined in vivo through manual palpation and ultrasound imaging. Semen quality of these bulls was also monitored. There were significant (P<0.01 positive correlations between ultrasound and calipers values of all parameters. The testicular parenchyma of fertile bulls was uniformly homogeneous and moderately echogenic. Epididymal tail was more heterogeneous and less echogenic, while epididymal head was homogeneous and less echogenic, than the testicular parenchyma. The epididymal body appeared as hypoechoic structure with echogenic margin. Among 10 infertile bulls, nine had poor semen quality, while one bull failed to give any ejaculate. On ultrasonography, six bulls showed abnormalities in their scrotal echotexture. Among these, one had an abundance of hyperechoic areas scattered in the testicular parenchyma, some of these showed acoustic shadowing, showing testicular degenerations with mineralization. The second bull showed many anechoic areas in the testes and epididymal head, demarcated from the rest of the organ by well defined margins. In the third bull, three-fourth of the right testis showed hyperechoic areas, suspected of testicular degeneration with mineralization. The fourth bull had two anechoic areas in one testis assumed to represent dilated blood vessel. The fifth bull showed small hyperechoic areas within the testicular parenchyma. The sixth bull showed an anechoic area with distinct hyperechogenic margin below the testicular tunics. The remaining four bulls had normal echogenicity of testes and epididymides in spite of poor semen quality. In conclusion, diagnostic ultrasound may be included in breeding soundness examination of breeding

  18. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA integrity percentage among breeds. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the quality of pure Jersey bull semen was comparatively better than the crossbred Jersey bulls. PMID:27047028

  19. Symmetry breaking in a bull and bear financial market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Iryna; Tramontana, Fabio; Westerhoff, Frank; Avrutin, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We investigate bifurcation structures in the parameter space of a one-dimensional piecewise linear map with two discontinuity points. This map describes endogenous bull and bear market dynamics arising from a simple asset-pricing model. An important feature of our model is that some speculators only enter the market if the price is sufficiently distant to its fundamental value. Our analysis starts with the investigation of a particular case in which the map is symmetric with respect to the origin, associated with equal market entry thresholds in the bull and bear market. We then generalize our analysis by exploring how novel bifurcation structures may emerge when the map’s symmetry is broken.

  20. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  1. Inquisitorial bulls : Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Duarte Rust

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present two important medieval documents, the decretals Ad Abolendam (1184 and Vergentis in Senium (1199, in a bilingual edition, Latin-Portuguese. Usually described as "the founding texts of Inquisition", these bulls record the political scene at the end of the 12th century. Unpublished in Portuguese, the translation comes to public with a brief introductory text and some notes for historical information.

  2. Genetic variability of muscle biological characteristics of young limousin bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Renand, Gilles; Jurie, Catherine; Robelin, Jacques; Picard, Brigitte; Geay, Y.; Menissier, Francois

    1995-01-01

    Genetic parameters of 4 muscle biological characteristics (protein to DNA ratio (Pro/DNA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity and the proportion of type I myosin heavy chains (MHC I)), in the Semitendinosus and the Longissimus thoracis, were estimated simultaneously with average daily gain (ADG), 480-d final weight (FW), carcass lean and fat contents (CL% and CF% respectively) in a sample of young Limousin bulls tested in station. The data came f...

  3. The study of myocardial ischemic quality with weighted-subtraction-bull's-eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wuduan; Tian Jiahe; Hou Qingtian

    1993-01-01

    Weighted-Subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis was studied in 33 normal subjects and 58 patients with coronary artery disease after dipyridamole 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial SPECT imaging. Two kinds of Bull's-eye were produced: (1) subtract rest from 1.2 times dipyridamole from 1.2 times rest Bull's-eye; (2) subtract dipyridamole Bull's-eye. The results showed that the weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye could clearly displayed the location and puality of ischemic myocardium. And also 74% segments showed so called combined ischemic i.e the blood perfusion reduced, increased and sustained simultaneously after dipyridamole. Therefore weighted-subtraction-Bull's-eye analysis had provided a new method for determination of the quality of ischemia

  4. Fixation of femoral capital physeal fractures with 7.0 mm cannulated screws in five bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.G.; Crawford, W.H.; Stone, W.C.; Frampton, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Salter-Harris type I fractures of the femoral capital physis were repaired in five Holstein bulls with three 7.0 mm cannulated screws placed in lag fashion. Radiographically at months 7 to 10, the fractures were healed and there was periarticular bone production on the femoral necks and the dorsal acetabular rims. Four bulls had normal gaits, and one bull had muscle atrophy and barely detectable lameness

  5. Joint disorder; a contributory cause to reproductive failure in beef bulls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Stina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lame sire, unsound for breeding, can cause substantial economic loss due to reduced pregnancies in the beef-producing herd. To test the hypothesis that joint disorder is a possible cause of infertility in beef sires, right and left hind limb bones from 34 beef sires were examined postmortem to identify lesions in the femorotibial, femoropatellar (stifle, tarsocrural, talocalcaneus, and proximal intertarsal (tarsal joints. The bulls were slaughtered during or after the breeding season due to poor fertility results. Aliquots of the cauda epididymal contents taken postmortem from 26 bulls were used for sperm morphology evaluation. As a control, hind limbs (but no semen samples from 11 beef bulls with good fertility results were included. Almost all infertile bulls (30/34 had lesions in at least one joint. Twenty-eight bulls (28/30, 93% had lesions in the stifle joint, and 24 (24/28, 86% of these were bilateral. Fourteen bulls (14/30, 47% had lesions in the tarsal joint, and 10 (10/14, 71% of these were bilateral. Four bulls (4/34, 12% had no lesions, three bulls (3/34, 9% had mild osteoarthritis (OA, 5 (5/34, 15% moderate OA, 17 (17/34, 50% severe OA and 5 (5/34, 15% deformed OA. Almost all OA lesions (97% were characterized as lesions secondary to osteochondrosis dissecans. All the bulls with satisfactory sperm morphology (n = 12/34 had joint lesions, with mostly severe or deformed bilateral lesions (83%. Consequently, the most likely cause of infertility in these 12 bulls was joint disease. Almost all control bulls (10/11 had OA lesions, but most of them were graded as mild (55% or moderate (36%. None of the control bulls had severe lesions or deformed OA. We suggest that joint lesions should be taken into consideration as a contributory cause of reproductive failure in beef sires without symptoms of lameness.

  6. Effect of behaviour of Holstein Friesian and Simmental bulls on semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls and the quality of their semen. A total of 76 breeding bulls of the Holstein-Friesian and dual-purpose Simmental breeds were investigated. Analysis was made of the response of bulls to humans and other bulls, facial hair whorl position and length, scrotal circumference, and semen characteristics (mean ejaculate volume, mean sperm concentration, and sperm wave motion. The age and breed of the bulls had a statistically significant effect on semen quality, scrotal circumference and the animals response to an unfamiliar human (Plt,0.05, Plt,0.01. The coefficients of correlation between the bull s response to a handler and to other bulls averaged 0.73. In general, only weak correlations were found between behavioural traits of the bulls and quality of their semen. It is worth noting a good correlation (r=0.50; Plt;0.05 between hair whorl position and sperm concentration in Simmental bulls.

  7. Quick cytogenetic screening of breeding bulls using flow cytometric sperm DNA histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Szabolcs; Polgár, Péter J; Andersson, Magnus; Kovács, András

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the FXCycle PI/RNase kit for routine DNA analyses in order to detect breeding bulls and/or insemination doses carrying cytogenetic aberrations. In a series of experiments we first established basic DNA histogram parameters of cytogenetically healthy breeding bulls by measuring the intraspecific genome size variation of three animals, then we compared the histogram profiles of bulls carrying cytogenetic defects to the baseline values. With the exception of one case the test was able to identify bulls with cytogenetic defects. Therefore, we conclude that the assay could be incorporated into the laboratory routine where flow cytometry is applied for semen quality control.

  8. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bittante; Paolo Carnier; Luigi Gallo Gallo; Riccardo Dal Zotto; Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID)  on official estimated breeding values (EBV) for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least on...

  9. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellerud, B.L.; Gunkel, S.; Hemmingsen, A.R.; Buchanan, D.V.; Howell, P.J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout

  10. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  11. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment alternatives for beef bulls with preputial prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, T R; McGrann, J M; Hooper, R N

    1997-10-01

    To develop an economic model for comparing cost-effectiveness of medical and surgical treatment versus replacement of beef bulls with preputial prolapse. Economic analysis. Estimates determined from medical records of bulls treated for preputial prolapse at our hospital and from information about treatment of bulls published elsewhere. Annual depreciation cost for treatment (ADC(T)) and replacement (ADC(R)) were calculated. Total investment for an injured bull equaled the sum of salvage value, maintenance cost, and expected cost of the treatment option under consideration. Total investment for a replacement bull was purchase price. Net present value of cost was calculated for each year of bull use. Sensitivity analyses were constructed to determine the value that would warrant treatment of an injured bull. The decision to treat was indicated when ADC(T) was less than ADC(R). In our example, it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. The ADC(R) was $97 less than ADC(T) for medical treatment ($365 vs $462) and $280 less than ADC(T) for surgical treatment ($365 vs $645). Likewise, net present value of cost values indicated that it was more cost-effective for owners to cull an injured bull. Sensitivity analysis indicated treatment decisions were justified on the basis of replacement value or planned number of breeding seasons remaining for the bull. The model described here can be used by practitioners to provide an objective basis to guide decision making of owners who seek advice on whether to treat or replace bulls with preputial prolapse.

  13. SEMEN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVE LIFE OF SAHIWAL BULLS: RELATIONSHIP WITH GENETIC WORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. KHAN, A. A. BHATTI, S. A. BHATTI1 AND M. ASHIQ2

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to document the semen producing ability, productive life and genetic ability for lactation milk yield of Sahiwal bulls used for artificial insemination (AI in Punjab and to find the impact of AI bulls on the improvement of Sahiwal cattle. Data from Semen Production Unit (SPU, Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan were used for this purpose. A repeatability animal model was used for estimation of breeding values for lactation milk yield. Productive life of a bull was calculated as a difference between culling age and the age at first ejaculation. Number of bulls brought to SPU varied from 9 to 102 for any year. Average number of doses of semen produced by any bull for a year varied from 724 to 5745. On the average, 238 bulls produced 17143 ± 1164 semen doses during their average stay of 5.4 ± 0.2 years. About 50% of the bulls stayed for less than four years at the SPU; with a maximum range of 14 years. Progeny tested bulls (n=90 produced 5000 and 10000 semen doses (Y in three and four years of stay (X, respectively (Y = 24.8 + 2.3635 X - 0.0112 X2. To produce 20,000 doses, it is predicted that bulls need to stay for six and a half years at the SPU. There was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield estimated under a repeatability animal model (EBVs and number of semen doses produced (r = 0.17 and EBVs and number of daughters. Lack of genetic superiority of bulls used indicated that AI did not bring desired genetic improvement in Sahiwal cattle in the present situation. Modifications for judicious utilization of bulls are suggested along with improvements in data recording.

  14. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  15. Polymyxin B effects on motility parameters of cryopreserved bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rashedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of adding different values of polymyxin B (PMB to bull semen on various motility parameters of post-thawed semen such as total motility, progressive motility and velocity parameters using kinetic parameters of sperm by Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis.Methods: Gram negative bacteria release lipopolysaccharide, which induces the apoptotic pathway. Antibiotics are added to semen in order to prevent bacterial contaminations in bovine semen. These antibiotics kill the bacteria especially gram negative bacteria. Therefore, their endotoxins are released during bacteriolysis and bind to the head region and midpiece of sperm. PMB is a bactericidal antibiotic against multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria and is able to neutralize the toxic effects of the released endotoxin. This study was performed on 3-year old Taleshi bulls.Results: The results showed both positive and negative significant effects of PMB on semen quality. Total motility and progressive motility were significantly increased (P<0.000 1 by 100 μg per mL of PMB (55.2% and 48.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Moreover, they were significantly decreased (P<0.000 1 by 1 000 μg per mL of PMB (35.2% and 28.8% respectively against the control groups (43.5% and 37.7% respectively in above-mentioned parameters. In Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer, parameter VAP was significantly decreased (P<0.04 in 1 000 μg (69.6 μm/s against the control group (78.7 μm/s. Finally, using PMB in processing cryopreserved bull semen is advised, but before using it, the rate of endotoxins must be measured.Conclusions: We advise using PMB after measuring endotoxin concentration; In vitro, in vivo and in field fertilization, adding other sperm evaluation factors such as acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity, mitochondrial function to PMB treated semen.

  16. "Buzz marketing" : estudo de caso da marca Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, Miguel David

    2012-01-01

    Este relatório é baseado no estágio efetuado na agência de publicidade Ogilvy & Mather e é dedicado à temática do Buzz Marketing. De modo a poder explorar a fundo as dinâmicas deste tema foi feita uma análise à estratégia de marketing da marca Red Bull, considerada como um dos principais estudos de caso no âmbito do Buzz Marketing. Este tema pode ser definido como uma estratégia de marketing inovadora cujo objetivo principal é a criação de conversas entre os consumidores, colocando-os a falar...

  17. Repeatability of number of progeny born to bulls used in group mating of cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The group mating of bulls in pasture situations is a management practice that might be more efficient if an individual bull’s ability to sire calves could be predicted. Retrospective data on numbers of progeny born to bulls from 4 populations (Angus and 3 composite breeds) in 4 consecutive years of...

  18. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

  19. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

  20. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  1. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  2. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N

    2016-09-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR 59.102 - Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow and...

  4. Modified rib pivot lateral thoracotomy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgrein, C; Hosgood, G

    2018-01-01

    To describe a modified rib pivot thoracotomy and its clinical application in client-owned dogs and cats. Case series of 24 dogs and 1 cat requiring a thoracotomy. A lateral thoracic incision over the required thoracic segment was made. The latissimus dorsi muscle was reflected dorsally. The predetermined rib was identified and the periosteum overlying the rib was elevated circumferentially, avoiding the intercostal neurovascular structures. Holes were pre-placed above and below the proposed osteotomy site. The rib was osteotomised and pivoted cranially. The pleura was incised and the required intrathoracic procedure was then performed. The thoracic cavity was closed by pre-placement of a suture through the pre-placed holes within the osteotomised rib. The pleura and intercostal musculature were closed, avoiding the intercostal neurovascular structures. The rib was re-apposed and the lateral approach was closed. The cases included were reviewed for both the rib pivoted as per the procedure required and postoperative complications. The study group comprised 8 Staffordshire Bull Terriers, 2 Poodles, 2 German Shepherd Dogs, 1 each of Basset Hound, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Golden Retriever, Australian Shepherd, Vizsla, Bull Mastiff, Schnauzer, Jack Russell Terrier, Bulldog, Deerhound, Labrador Retriever and Australian Terrier, and 1 cat. A modified rib pivot thoracotomy was performed for lung lobectomy (n = 11), oesophagectomy (7), subtotal pericardectomy (5), patent ductus arteriosus ligation (1) and thoracic duct ligation (1). Follow-up ranged from 2 to 40 weeks postoperatively. Postoperative complications included seroma formation in two dogs. A modified rib pivot thoracotomy should be considered as an alternative lateral thoracic approach with good exposure, minimal complications and low morbidity. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  6. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  7. Bull trout population assessment in the Columbia River Gorge/annual report fy2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-01-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were and lt;15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m(sup 2) in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m(sup 2) on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m(sup 2) in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  8. Reversible bull's-eye maculopathy associated with intravitreal fomivirsen therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T W; Jaffe, G J

    2000-08-01

    To report two cases in which a bull's eye maculopathy developed after intravitreal injection of fomivirsen. Case reports. A 50-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and refractory cytomegalovirus retinitis developed bull's-eye pigmentary changes in the macula of the right eye after initiating therapy with fomivirsen (Vitravene; CIBA Vision, Atlanta, Georgia) intravitreal injections. These pigmentary changes resolved upon cessation of treatment. A 36-year-old man with AIDS and refractory bilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis developed bull's-eye pigmentary changes in both eyes during bilateral intravitreal treatment with fomivirsen. Vision was not affected. These changes resolved after treatment with fomivirsen was stopped. Fomivirsen, a new medication for the treatment of refractory cytomegalovirus retinitis, may cause a bull's-eye maculopathy in some patients. The bull's-eye maculopathy is reversible and does not appear to affect vision.

  9. Ureaplasma diversum in bull semen in Australia: its detection and potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, N; Chousalkar, K K; Chenoweth, P J

    2013-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to confirm the infection status of Ureaplasma diversum in Australian bulls and to identify morphological changes of sperm from U. diversum-positive bulls. Fresh semen samples were taken from 29 sexually active beef bulls from suspect herds in the Riverina/Upper Murray region. U. diversum was identified using PCR analyses and culture of the organism. Nine of the bulls were PCR-positive for U. diversum but none of these had genital lesions. Sperm from infected bulls showed increased incidence of abnormal tails (bent and coiled), as well as surface abnormalities (i.e. small protuberances or lumps). The results suggest impairment of sperm function and possibly fertility. Further investigations into the potential role of U. diversum as a pathogen for Australian cattle are warranted. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Plasma kinetics of 14C-uric acid in bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma kinetics of uric acid were followed by 14C labelled uric acid to measure the effects of feed intake upon kinetic parameters. Two bulls (average L W 346±79 kg) were given an intravenous administration of a tracer (8-14C-uric acid, 250μCi/50 ml) by single injection via a jugular catheter. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed as 95 and 60 % of the voluntary intake. Voluntary intakes were 8 kg/d as fed for two bulls. Blood samples, were collected at 0, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h after tracer administration. Fractional rates of clearance from the blood and pool size of compartments in the blood were estimated using plasma 8-14C-counts, following the method proposed by Chen and Franklin. The mean values of fractional rates (K 2,1 , K 1,2 ) and compartments pool size (V 1 , V 2 ) and the total pool size of compartments I and 2 at 60% and 95% feeding level were 1.97 and 1.44, 1.06 and 0.78; 76.9 L and 94.5 L, 137.01 L and 163.51 L; 214.0 L and 250.3 L respectively. Plasma kinetic parameters of 14C-uric acid were not affected at different feed intakes

  11. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  12. Breed differences of bull frozen-thawed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntemka, A; Tsousis, G; Brozos, C; Kiossis, E; Boscos, C M; Tsakmakidis, I A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of frozen-thawed semen from different bull breeds. Commercial frozen-thawed bull semen samples (26 per breed, 130 totally) of five breeds (Holstein [Η], Brown Swiss [BS], Limousin [L], Belgian Blue [BB], Blonde d' Aquitaine [BA]) were used. After thawing, each semen sample was subjected to thermal resistance test (TR) for 0.5 and 1 hr at 38°C and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) for 1 hr at 150 mOsm at 37°C. Additionally, all samples were evaluated at times 0 hr (thawing), 0.5 hr (TR), 1 hr (TR) for kinetics by CASA [progressive, immotile, rapid, medium, slow moving spermatozoa, curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), straight line velocity (VSL), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), beat cross-frequency (BCF), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), wobble (WOB)]. Moreover, directly after thawing, all semen samples were evaluated for morphometry, morphology, viability and DNA fragmentation. Statistical analysis was conducted using a mixed model for repeated measures. The results showed (a) higher VCL after thawing in H, L breeds compared to BB and BA, (b) higher VAP after thawing in L compared to BB, BA, (c) higher values of progressive spermatozoa after TR in H, BS compared to BB, BA, (d) higher values of rapid spermatozoa after thawing and 0.5 hr of TR in H, BS, L compared to BB, BA, (e) lower viability in BA after thawing compared to H, BS, BB, (f) lower morphological abnormalities in H compared to L, BB, (g) higher head length in Η compared to BB. No significant differences were observed in the results from HOST and DNA fragmentation between breeds. In conclusion, quality characteristics of frozen-thawed bull semen are dependent on the breed. Frozen semen from BB and BA breeds should be handled more carefully after thawing, as it is more sensitive to stress. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara bulls and heifers: quality attributes and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen samples of L. dorsi muscles were taken from western Baggara cattle, one sample from each of seven bulls and seven heifers randomly selected for slaughter at the end of an experimental feedlot feeding which lasted for 16 weeks at Kuku Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan, to study sex effects on meat chemical composition and quality attributes. Moisture content of beef was higher in bulls meat than in heifers meat. Protein and ash content were significantly (P<0.001 higher in bulls meat, whereas fat content was significantly (P<0.001 higher in heifers meat than in bulls meat. Cooking loss of bulls meat was significantly (P<0.001 lower and water-holding capacity was also significantly (P<0.01 lower in the bulls meat than in heifers meat. Bull’s meat colour had low lightness (L and high redness (a and yellowness (b, as determined by Hunter Lab. Tristimulus colorimeter, as compared with heifers meat. Sensory panelist scores were higher for colour darkness and flavour intensity and lower for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of bulls meat as compared with heifers meat.

  14. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program: 2000 data report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00)

  15. Landsat satellite evidence of the decline of northern California bull kelp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, A.; Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana), a species of canopy-forming brown macroalga dominant in the Pacific Northwest of North America, provides critical ecological services such as habitat for a diverse array of marine species, nutrient regulation, photosynthesis, and regional marine carbon cycling. Starting around 2014, annual aerial surveys of bull kelp forests along California's northern coastline conducted by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) have reported a sudden 93% reduction in bull kelp canopy area. Remote sensing using satellite imagery is a robust, highly accurate tool for detecting and quantifying the abundance of the canopy-forming giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera; however, it has not been successfully applied to measuring northern bull kelp forests. One of the main difficulties associated with bull kelp detection via satellite is the small surface area of bull kelp canopies. As a result, bull kelp beds often only constitute part of a satellite pixel, making it difficult to obtain a kelp reflectance signal significantly different than water's reflectance signal. As part of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), we test a novel method for assessing bull kelp canopy using a multiple endmember spectral mixing analysis (MESMA) applied to Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 imagery from 2003-2016. Water and kelp spectral endmembers are selected along the northern California coastline from Havens Neck cape to Point Arena. MESMA results are ground truthed with the CDFW aerial multispectral imagery data. This project will present a satellite-based time series of bull kelp canopy area and evaluate canopy change in a northern California kelp ecosystem.

  16. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  17. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  18. Re-evaluating the Contribution and Legacy of Hedley Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Maione Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims, in the first instance, to make a detailed analysis of the work of Hedley Bull, approaching the main themes and concepts developed by him. Secondly, it aims to re-evaluate the potential of the author’s contribution, given the new conditions of the post-Cold War period. With this in mind, the article critically analyses the most recent interpretations of this work, which seek to highlight its critical and normative potential, as well as to dissociate it from the realist tradition in international relations. These two facts differentiate the new commentators from older ones and reaffirm the continuing relevance of Hedley Bull’s work, the latter being the article’s chief conclusion.

  19. Mitochondrial genome of the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Peng, Zaiqing; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    The bull shark Carcharhinus leucas is a large elasmobranch species widespread in tropical and warm oceans, rivers and lakes. We first determine the complete mitogenome of C. leucas in this article. It is 16,704 bp in length, consists 37 genes and one control region with the typical gene order in vertebrates. The ND6 gene used the rare AGG as stop codon. The 22 tRNA genes ranged from 67 to 75 bp. The tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm and cannot form the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region is 1066 bp in length with high A+T and low G contents.

  20. Development and evaluation of a bioenergetics model for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Welland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Sauter, Sally T.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to parameterize a bioenergetics model for wild Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus, estimating the effects of body mass (12–1,117 g) and temperature (3–20°C) on maximum consumption (C max) and standard metabolic rates. The temperature associated with the highest C max was 16°C, and C max showed the characteristic dome-shaped temperature-dependent response. Mass-dependent values of C max (N = 28) at 16°C ranged from 0.03 to 0.13 g·g−1·d−1. The standard metabolic rates of fish (N = 110) ranged from 0.0005 to 0.003 g·O2·g−1·d−1 and increased with increasing temperature but declined with increasing body mass. In two separate evaluation experiments, which were conducted at only one ration level (40% of estimated C max), the model predicted final weights that were, on average, within 1.2 ± 2.5% (mean ± SD) of observed values for fish ranging from 119 to 573 g and within 3.5 ± 4.9% of values for 31–65 g fish. Model-predicted consumption was within 5.5 ± 10.9% of observed values for larger fish and within 12.4 ± 16.0% for smaller fish. Our model should be useful to those dealing with issues currently faced by Bull Trout, such as climate change or alterations in prey availability.

  1. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca

    2008-07-01

    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  2. Continuous progeny testing, use and selection of proven bulls in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bar-Anan

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The breeding policy of the Israeli Holstein-type dairy cattle is reviewed. The bulls are progeny tested on their daughters’ first three lactations. The traits evaluated are the following: milk, fat, yield persistency, fertility, incidence of mastitis, and % cullings for three most important reasons. The test analysis takes into account the genetic level of daughters’ contemporaries and maternal grandsires. The paper describes a general outline of the selection decisions in AI bulls. Considerable amount of imported semen is used for breeding young bulls. Breeding goals are discussed against the estimated genetic parameters for and between the given traits.

  3. Duration Dependence in Stock Prices: An Analysis of Bull and Bear Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This article studies time series dependence in the direction of stock prices by modeling the (instantaneous) probability that a bull or bear market terminates as a function of its age and a set of underlying state variables, such as interest rates. A random walk model is rejected both for bull...... and bear markets. Although it . ts the data better, a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model is also found to be inconsistent with the very long bull markets observed in the data. The strongest effect of increasing interest rates is found to be a lower bear market hazard rate...

  4. Genomic Prediction from Whole Genome Sequence in Livestock: The 1000 Bull Genomes Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Benjamin J; MacLeod, Iona M; Daetwyler, Hans D

    Advantages of using whole genome sequence data to predict genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) include better persistence of accuracy of GEBV across generations and more accurate GEBV across breeds. The 1000 Bull Genomes Project provides a database of whole genome sequenced key ancestor bulls....... In a dairy data set, predictions using BayesRC and imputed sequence data from 1000 Bull Genomes were 2% more accurate than with 800k data. We could demonstrate the method identified causal mutations in some cases. Further improvements will come from more accurate imputation of sequence variant genotypes...

  5. Radiation damage to bull sperm motility. III. Further x-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikmenspoel, R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of previous radiation experiments, which indicated that the centriole serves as a control center for bull sperm motility, appear to be in conflict with experiments showing that the bull sperm flagellum is an autonomous oscillator. To resolve this conflict experiments were conducted to calibrate absolutely the dose-response curves for the radiation damage, and to measure the force production and the mechanochemical energy conversion after irradiation in bull sperm. The results indicate that the centriole acts as a mechanical anchor for the contractile fibers

  6. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  7. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  8. In vitro assessment of sperm from bulls of high and low field fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Hanrahan, J P; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for differences in field fertility of bulls following insemination with frozen-thawed semen. The study was carried out in two separate parts over two years and comparisons were made between 5 high and 4 low fertility Holstein Friesian bulls as determined by their either 90 day non-return rate (Year 1) or calving rate (Year 2). Two high fertility Limousin bulls were included in Year 1 for comparative purposes. The ability of sperm from each bull to penetrate artificial mucus was assessed (Year 1 = 7 replicates; Year 2 = 5 replicates). Glass capillary tubes (2 per bull per replicate) were filled with artificial mucus and incubated with sperm stained in 1% Hoechst 33342 for 30 min at 37 °C. The number of sperm were subsequently counted at 10 mm intervals along the tube between 40 and 80 mm markers. Sperm mitochondrial activity of each bull was assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay (4 replicates in each year). Sperm were incubated with MTT for 1 h at 37 °C following which the absorbance of formazan was read using a spectrophotometer. Sperm viability after thawing was assessed for each bull using a live/dead sperm viability kit (Year 1 = 3 replicates; Year 2 = 4 replicates). A minimum of 250 cells were assessed per bull in each replicate and classified as either live or dead. Finally, the ability of sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro and their ability to develop to blastocyst stage embryos were assessed (5 replicates in each year involving 220 to 306 oocytes per bull). Data transformation to normalize residuals was required for mucus sperm penetration (square root) and IVF (cleavage and blastocyst rate) results (arcsin). The mean number of sperm counted at each 10 mm mark between 40 and 80 mm was higher in the high fertility (56.0; 95% CI 39.5 to 75.3) compared to the low fertility (42.9; 95% CI 29.3 to 59.1) Holstein Friesian bulls but the difference did not

  9. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Fact in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-08-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek.

  10. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting fact in central and northeast Oregon/1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; Gunckel, S.L.; Howell, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 1999 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we used radio telemetry to determine the seasonal movements of bull trout. In the John Day and Walla Walla basins we also used traps to capture migrant bull trout. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish, and capture bull trout to be implanted with radio transmitters. In the John Day basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from the upper John Day River and its tributaries, Call Creek, Reynolds Creek, and Roberts Creek. In the Walla Walla basin, we captured adult and juvenile bull trout from Mill Creek

  11. Intake, physiological parameters and behavior of Angus and Nellore bulls subjected to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetics differences between breeds may determine the tolerance to high temperature, effect dry matter intake and consequently cattle performance. The effect of temperature and humidity index (THI on diurnal, nocturnal and daily intake, water intake, physiologic parameters and behavior of Nellore (B. indicus and Angus (B. taurus bulls were evaluated. Eight Angus and eight Nellore young bulls (337±7.4 kg and 16 months of age were allocated in two climate-controlled rooms for 32 days. In the period 1, all bulls were housed in thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 72.6 for 10 days. In period 2 (10 days, four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to low heat stress (LHS, THI = 76.4 in daytime, and four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to high heat stress (HHS, THI = 81.5 in daytime. The diurnal and daily dry matter intake (DMI of Nellore were not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. However, Angus bulls decreased diurnal DMI by 24% and daily DMI decreased (P<0.05 by 15% on HHS. In TN Angus bulls had higher (P<0.05 daily DMI (36.2 g/kg of BW than Nellore (29.1 g/kg of BW, but in HHS they had similar (P>0.05 daily DMI (31.6 and 30.2 g/kg of BW, respectively. We observed an increase (P<0.05 in respiratory frequency, but water intake was not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. The heart rate decreased (P<0.05 with heat stress. No differences were found (P>0.05 in feeding behavior. Therefore, THI stress threshold should distinct for Angus and Nellore bulls. The use of feed intake information may improve the prediction of thermic discomfort on specific climate condition. 

  12. Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek bull trout enumeration project 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing

  13. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  14. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2003-06-01

    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  15. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  16. MEAT PERFORMANCE OF THE CZECH SPOTTED CATTLE BULLS BRED IN MOUNTAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chosen indicators of meat performance of 98 bulls of Czech Spotted cattle bred in elevation above 720 m above sea-level in the mountain region of Šumava are presented in the article. The fattening was realized in a barn with a deep litter. The feed ration consisted of haylage throughout the year. The bulls were divided into three groups according to their genotype - C100, C75-85R (CxR and C75-85A (CxA. The highest live weight at slaughter was achieved in the group C100 with 650 kg with the average age of 726 days and the weight of the carcasses of 363.8 kg. On the other hand, the worst results were achieved in the group CxA. For comparison a group of 14 bulls of the Holstein breed was created (H100, which was fattened in the same conditions. The bulls achieved their highest live weight before slaughter (664.6 kg, but at the highest age (743 days. Statistically significant differences were proven in the meat performance after individual fathers – the best results were documented with the offspring of the bull BO-837. After the separation of the set of bulls according to live weight at the end of fattening, the highest results were achieved by the group above 700 kg. The best class using the SEUROP method was achieved by the group with slaughtering live weight between 650 kg and 700 kg.

  17. Are brown trout replacing or displacing bull trout populations in a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Schmetterling, David A.; Clancy, Chris; Saffel, Pat; Kovach, Ryan; Nyce, Leslie; Liermann, Brad; Fredenberg, Wade A.; Pierce, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how climate change may facilitate species turnover is an important step in identifying potential conservation strategies. We used data from 33 sites in western Montana to quantify climate associations with native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance and population growth rates (λ). We estimated λ using exponential growth state space models and delineated study sites based on bull trout use for either Spawning and Rearing (SR) or Foraging, Migrating, and Overwintering (FMO) habitat. Bull trout abundance was negatively associated with mean August stream temperatures within SR habitat (r = -0.75). Brown trout abundance was generally highest at temperatures between 12 and 14°C. We found bull trout λ were generally stable at sites with mean August temperature below 10°C but significantly decreasing, rare, or extirpated at 58% of the sites with temperatures exceeding 10°C. Brown trout λ were highest in SR and sites with temperatures exceeding 12°C. Declining bull trout λs at sites where brown trout were absent suggests brown trout are likely replacing bull trout in a warming climate.

  18. Correlation between hypoosmotic swelling test and breeding soundness evaluation of adult Nelore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Miranda Neto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the relationship between physical and morphological semen features with the hypoosmotic swelling (HOS test in raw semen of adult Nelore bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Two hundred and six Nelore bulls aging from 3-10 years old were subjected to breeding soundness examination. After physical and morphological semen examination, HOS test was done. After the breeding soundness examination, 94.2% of the bulls were classified as sound for breeding. There was no difference between the average scrotal circumference of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was difference between all semen physical and morphological aspects of bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding (P>0.05, but there was no difference in the mean percentage of reactive spermatozoa to HOS test results both for sound (38.4±17.9 and unsound animals (39.5±16.4; P>0.05, with no Pearson correlation between the HOS test and variables. According to these results HOS test can not be used alone to predict the reproductive potential of adult Nelore bulls.

  19. High salt inclusion reduces concentrate intake without major effects on renal function in young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef producers prefer to feed concentrates on an ad libitum basis to increase the flexibility of their work. Including salt, which is a self-limiting supplement, could control or reduce concentrate intake without increasing the workforce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of including 10%NaCl in the concentrate on intake, growth, blood ions (sodium, potassium and chlorine, renal function (through creatinine and urea concentrations in blood, and daytime behaviour of bulls over 6 weeks. Bulls consuming the control concentrate (Control bulls had greater weight gain (P<0.05 and concentrate intake (P<0.001 than those consuming the concentrate with 10%NaCl (10%NaCl bulls. Lower plasma sodium concentration was found in Control bulls after 6 weeks (P<0.05, while potassium concentration was lower after 4 (P<0.05 and 6 weeks (P<0.01. Blood urea did not differ between the groups, and creatinine only differed at week 4 (P<0.01. Control bulls spent less time eating hay (P<0.001 and more time idling (P<0.01 during daylight hours. In conclusion, the inclusion of 10%NaCl in the concentrate for short periods could be used to reduce concentrate intake without major effects on renal function; however, a concomitant decrease in weight gain should be expected.

  20. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason B.; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.

    2018-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  1. Clinical application of bull's eye map in 201Tl myocardial tomography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongchang

    1991-01-01

    Bull's eye map in thallium-201 myocardial tomography was performed in 50 patients, and compared with planar imaging. In 27 rest imaging, 6 AMI were abnormal both in plannar and bull's eye images, in 10 OMI, planar abnormal in 6 and doubtful in 4, while bull's eye abnormal in 8 and doubtful in 2; in 11 angina, planar abnormal in 2, doubtful in 5 and normal in 4; but bull's eye abnormal in 5, doubtful abnormal in 4 and normal in 2. In 3 cases of dipyridamole imaging 2 angina were positive, 1 hypertension was negetive, while bull's eye map were all positive. It was demonstrated that bull's eye map gives a direct and clean view and also easy for the anatomical localization of the hypoperfused area

  2. Effect of a ceiling fan ventilation system on finishing young bulls' health, behaviour and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, L; Brscic, M; Lora, I; Rumor, C; Tondello, L; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74. Health and behaviour of the bulls were evaluated through 8-h observation sessions starting after morning feed delivery. The study was carried out during a rather cool summer with a climate average THI of 68.9 and 4 days with average THI>75. Despite these mild climate conditions, ceiling fans lowered litter moisture and acted as a preventive measure for bulls' dirtiness (odd ratio=47.9; 95% CI 19.6 to 117.4). The risk of abnormal breathing was increased for Control bulls (odd ratio=40.7; 95% CI 5.4 to 304.2). When exposed to alert THI conditions, respiration rate and panting scores increased and rumination duration dropped in Control bulls compared with bulls provided with a ceiling fan. During observations under alert THI, bulls spent less time eating, more time being inactive and consumed more water compared with normal THI conditions. Bulls' daily dry matter intake measured during the observation sessions decreased on alert compared with normal THI days (Pbehaviour (rumination, lying down and drinking water) and respiration rate, however. The lack of a significant improvement of bulls' growth response should not discourage beef farmers from using ceiling fans in indoor systems, considering the likely increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves in the planet

  3. Improved assay for measuring heparin binding to bull sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Ax, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The binding of heparin to sperm has been used to study capacitation and to rank relative fertility of bulls. Previous binding assays were laborious, used 10 7 sperm per assay point, and required large amounts of radiolabeled heparin. A modified heparin-binding assay is described that used only 5 x 10 4 cells per incubation well and required reduced amounts of [ 3 H] heparin. The assay was performed in 96-well Millititer plates, enabling easy incubation and filtering. Dissociation constants and concentrations of binding sites did not differ if analyzed by Scatchard plots, Woolf plots, or by log-logit transformed weighted nonlinear least squares regression, except in the case of outliers. In such cases, Scatchard analysis was more sensitive to outliers. Nonspecific binding was insignificant using nonlinear logistic fit regression and a proportion graph. The effects were tested of multiple free-thawing of sperm in either a commercial egg yolk extender, 40 mM Tris buffer with 8% glycerol, or 40 mM Tris buffer without glycerol. Freeze-thawing in extender did not affect the dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites. However, freeze-thawing three times in 40 mM Tris reduced the concentration of binding sites and lowered the dissociation constant (raised the affinity). The inclusion of glycerol in the 40 mM Tris did not significantly affect the estimated dissociation constant or the concentration of binding sites as compared to 40 mM Tris without glycerol

  4. Polarized light use in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Lemesle, Corentin; Cheng, Ken

    2017-08-01

    Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas . We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°. Both outbound and inbound foragers responded to the polarized light change, but the extent to which they responded to the rotation varied. Outbound ants, both close to and further from the nest, compensated for the change in the overhead e-vector by about half of the manipulation, suggesting that outbound ants choose a compromise heading between the celestial and terrestrial compass cues. However, ants returning home compensated for the change in the e-vector by about half of the manipulation when the remaining home vector was short (1-2 m) and by more than half of the manipulation when the remaining vector was long (more than 4 m). We report these findings and discuss why weighting on polarization cues change in different contexts.

  5. Compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Narendra, Ajay; Cheng, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Ants use both terrestrial landmarks and celestial cues to navigate to and from their nest location. These cues persist even as light levels drop during the twilight/night. Here, we determined the compass cues used by a nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas , in which the majority of individuals begin foraging during the evening twilight period. Myrmecia midas foragers with vectors of ≤5   m when displaced to unfamiliar locations did not follow the home vector, but instead showed random heading directions. Foragers with larger home vectors (≥10   m) oriented towards the fictive nest, indicating a possible increase in cue strength with vector length. When the ants were displaced locally to create a conflict between the home direction indicated by the path integrator and terrestrial landmarks, foragers oriented using landmark information exclusively and ignored any accumulated home vector regardless of vector length. When the visual landmarks at the local displacement site were blocked, foragers were unable to orient to the nest direction and their heading directions were randomly distributed. Myrmecia midas ants typically nest at the base of the tree and some individuals forage on the same tree. Foragers collected on the nest tree during evening twilight were unable to orient towards the nest after small lateral displacements away from the nest. This suggests the possibility of high tree fidelity and an inability to extrapolate landmark compass cues from information collected on the tree and at the nest site to close displacement sites. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.

    1988-01-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201 TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images requires gender-matched normal files

  7. Direct measurement of bull's-eye nanoantenna metal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani Nia, Iman; Jang, Sung J.; Memis, Omer G.; Gelfand, Ryan; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-09-01

    The loss in optical antennas can affect their performance for their practical use in many branches of science such as biological and solar cell applications. However the big question is that how much loss is due to the joule heating in the metals. This would affect the efficiency of solar cells and is very important for single photon detection and also for some applications where high heat generation in nanoantennas is desirable, for example, payload release for cancer treatment. There are few groups who have done temperature measurements by methods such as Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence polarization anisotropy. The latter method, which is more reliable than Raman spectroscopy, requires the deposition of fluorescent molecules on the antenna surface. The molecules and the polarization of radiation rotate depending upon the surface temperature. The reported temperature measurement accuracy in this method is about 0.1° C. Here we present a method based on thermo-reflectance that allows better temperature accuracy as well as spatial resolution of 500 nm. Moreover, this method does not require the addition of new materials to the nanoantenna. We present the measured heat dissipation from bull's-eye nanoantennas and compare them with 3D simulation results.

  8. Selection of performance-tested young bulls and indirect responses in commercial beef cattle herds on pasture and in feedlots

    OpenAIRE

    Raidan , Fernanda S. S.; Santos , Dalinne C. C.; Moraes , Mariana M.; Araújo , Andresa E. M.; Ventura , Henrique T.; Bergmann , José A. G.; Turra , Eduardo M.; Toral , Fabio L. B.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackgroundCentral testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots.MethodsRecords on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were ...

  9. Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls by semen analysis, testicular fine needle aspiration cytology and trans-scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapwanya A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of trans-scrotal ultrasonography and testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in assessing bulls for breeding suitability. These two techniques were also compared with semen analysis. Bulls presented for breeding soundness evaluation were assessed using all three techniques. The findings of each technique were compared. There was agreement in classification of fertile bulls using all three techniques, suggesting that the combined use of these techniques enhances routine breeding soundness examination. Use of the three techniques also enhances detailed investigation of suspected sub-fertile bulls while accurately identifying testicular cause(s of sire sub-fertility.

  10. Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2006-03-01

    People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is the wine of celebration. This fame is largely linked to the elegance of its effervescence and foaming properties. In this book, the latest results about the chemical physics behind the bubbling properties of Champagne and sparkling wines are collected and fully illustrated. The first chapter is devoted to the history of champagne and to a presentation of the tools of the physical chemistry of interfaces needed for a whole comprehension of the book. Then, the three main steps of a fleeting champagne bubble's life are presented in chronological order, that is, the bubble nucleation on the glass wall (Chap.2), the bubble ascent and growth through the liquid matrix (Chap.3), and the bursting of bubbles at the liquid surface (Chap.4), which constitutes the most intriguing, functional, and visually appealing step. L'objectif général de ce travail consacré à l'étude des processus physicochimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne était de décortiquer les différentes étapes de la vie d'une bulle de champagne en conditions réelles de consommation, dans une flûte. Nous résumons ci-après les principaux résultats obtenus pour chacune des étapes de la vie de la bulle, depuis sa naissance sur les parois d'une flûte, jusqu'à son éclatement en surface. Nucléation À l'aide d'une caméra rapide munie d'un objectif de microscope, nous avons pu mettre à mal une idée largement répandue. Ce ne sont pas les anfractuosités de la surface du verre ou de la flûte qui sont responsable de la nucléation hétérogène des bulles, mais des particules adsorbées sur les parois du

  11. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program : 2001 data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0(sup+), 1(sup+) and 2(sup+) age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m(sup 2) (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m(sup 2)). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m(sup 2) (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0(sup+)) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are ecologically

  12. Carcass characteristics and sensorial evaluation of meat from Nellore steers and crossbred Angus vs. Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cunha Barcellos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 36-month old Nellore steers finished in pastures (n = 10 and 20-month old Angus vs. Nellore bulls finished in feedlot (n = 10. Final body weight, carcass weight, characteristics, conformation and fat thickness, were higher (p 0.05 throughout the ageing period for the Angus vs. Nellore bulls, but higher in meat from the Nellore steers (p 0.05 on meat a* value (redness. Likewise, ageing time had no effect on a* in both genetic groups, and genetic group had no effect (p > 0.05 on meat b* value (yellowness. On the other hand, b* was increased after day 7 of ageing for the bulls from the two genetic groups. Thawing and cooking losses were lower for Nellore steers after day 7 of aging (p 0.05 on lipid oxidation; however, lipid oxidation increased after day7. Meat from Nellore steers contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, a lower percentage of unsaturated (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA than the meat from Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Intramuscular fat from Nellore steers had a more favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio than that from Angus vs. Nellore bulls (4.37 vs. 11.45, respectively. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were higher (p < 0.001 for meats of the Nellore steers, regardless of ageing time (1, 4, 7 and 14 days.

  13. [Severe inflammation of the muzzle caused by a nose ring in a breeding bull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Gautschi, A; Reichle, S; Gerspach, C

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the findings in a bull with severe inflammation of the muzzle and nose attributable to a nose ring. The most striking finding was that the bull continually licked the right side of the upper lip. The muzzle and right upper lip were swollen, hard, reddened and partially depigmented. Mucopurulent nasal discharge and salivation were also noted, and palpation of the right upper lip was extremely painful. Based on the findings, purulent infection of the right side of the muzzle, right naris and external nasal passage was diagnosed. After removing the nose ring the affected areas were washed daily for four days with a camomile-containing solution after which a chlorhexidine and dexpanthenol salve was applied. The bull also received ceftiofur and ketoprofen. The general condition and appetite of the bull normalised within a few days, and the inflammatory lesions resolved with the exception of the areas of depigmentation. After ten days of treatment, the bull was considered healthy and discharged from the clinic.

  14. Rearing environment influences boldness and prey acquisition behavior, and brain and lens development of bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Pike, Martin M.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Schaller, Howard A.; Peterson, James T.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Animals reared in barren captive environments exhibit different developmental trajectories and behaviors than wild counterparts. Hence, the captive phenotypes may influence the success of reintroduction and recovery programs for threatened and endangered species. We collected wild bull trout embryos from the Metolius River Basin, Oregon and reared them in differing environments to better understand how captivity affects the bull trout Salvelinus confluentusphenotype. We compared the boldness and prey acquisition behaviors and development of the brain and eye lens of bull trout reared in conventional barren and more structurally complex captive environments with that of wild fish. Wild fish and captive reared fish from complex habitats exhibited a greater level of boldness and prey acquisition ability, than fish reared in conventional captive environments. In addition, the eye lens of conventionally reared bull trout was larger than complex reared captive fish or same age wild fish. Interestingly, we detected wild fish had a smaller relative cerebellum than either captive reared treatment. Our results suggest that rearing fish in more complex captive environments can create a more wild-like phenotype than conventional rearing practices. A better understanding of the effects of captivity on the development and behavior of bull trout can inform rearing and reintroduction programs though prediction of the performance of released individuals.

  15. Influence of season of birth on growth and reproductive development of Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatman, Shawn R; Neuendorff, Don A; Wilson, Timothy W; Randel, Ronald D

    2004-07-01

    Seasonal effects on reproduction are more dramatic in Bos indicus than Bos taurus cattle. This experiment evaluated reproductive development of fall- (n=7) versus spring- (n = 10) born Brahman bulls to determine if season of birth affects reproductive development. Measurements of growth and reproductive development began after weaning and continued at bi-weekly intervals until each bull reached sexual maturity. Different stages of sexual development were classified according to characteristics of the ejaculate and included first sperm in the ejaculate, puberty (> 50 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate), and sexual maturity (two ejaculates with > 500 = 10(6) sperm/ejaculate). Average daily increases in all measured traits were similar in fall- and spring-born bulls and there were no differences in age, body weight, scrotal circumference, or paired testis volume between groups at first sperm or puberty. However, fall-born bulls were older (P days versus 481 days, respectively) as the interval between puberty and sexual maturity was longer (P days versus 54 days, respectively). The prolonged interval between puberty and sexual maturity in fall-born calves coincided with a short photoperiod (winter) whereas the short interval between puberty and sexual maturity in spring-born calves coincided with a long photoperiod (summer). In conclusion, season of birth affected sexual development; photoperiod might be involved in regulating testicular function immediately after puberty in Brahman bulls.

  16. Bull's-eye map of myocardial perfusion MR imaging. Comparison with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yukihiro; Nanjo, Shuji; Yamazaki, Junichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Inoue, Yusuke

    2003-01-01

    When diagnosing heart disease, chest roentgenograms, ultrasonography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and coronary arteriography are usually performed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is not widely used for evaluating heart disease. Recent technological progress has allowed high quality images of the heart to be reliably obtained. A routine MR study taking about 30-40 minutes can provide a large amount of diagnostic information, such as cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and myocardial viability. The analysis software that can offer Bull's-eye maps from myocardial perfusion images has recently become commercially available. In this study, the characteristics of Bull's-eye mapping of MR imaging is compared with that of Bull's-eye mapping of SPECT using the same heart phantom. The difference in the image quality of the Bull's-eye maps was evaluated among the receiver coils of MR imaging. On Bull's-eye maps from both MR imaging and SPECT, decreased signal intensity was noted in the posterolateral wall. The degree of decrease in the signal of the MR imaging was more prominent than of SPECT. The decrease was severe for the general-purpose receive-only flexible (GPFLEX) coil, moderate for the cardiac and TORSO coil, and slight for the body coil. In the selection of a coil, it is necessary to take into consideration the trade-off between the distribution of signal intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). (author)

  17. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Irons

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid. In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  18. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Gunckel, Stephanie L.; Sankovich, Paul M.; Howell, Philip J.

    2001-11-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000.

  19. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting fact in central and northeast Oregon, annual report 2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.

    2001-01-01

    This section describes work accomplished in 2000 that continued to address two objectives of this project. These objectives are (1) determine the distribution of juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and habitats associated with that distribution, and (2) determine fluvial and resident bull trout life history patterns. Completion of these objectives is intended through studies of bull trout in the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and John Day basins. These basins were selected because they provide a variety of habitats, from relatively degraded to pristine, and bull trout populations were thought to vary from relatively depressed to robust. In all three basins we continued to monitor the movements of bull trout with radio transmitters applied in 1998 (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and 1999 (Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001). No new radio transmitters were applied to bull trout of the upper John Day River subbasin, Mill Creek (Walla Walla Basin), or the Grande Ronde Basin in 2000. We did implant radio transmitters in two bull trout incidentally captured in the John Day River near the confluence of the North Fork John Day River. In Mill Creek, we used traps to capture migrant bull trout to obtain data for the third successive year in this stream. With these traps, we intended to determine the timing of bull trout movements both upstream and downstream, and to determine the relative abundance, size and age of migrant fish. Because we captured migrant bull trout with traps for three years in the upper John Day River and its tributaries (Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Buchanan, Gunckel, Shappart and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Bellerud, Gunckel and Howell 2001; Hemmingsen, Gunckel and Howell 2001) and traps were no longer needed to capture bull trout for radio-tagging, no traps were operated in the John Day Basin in 2000

  20. Measurement of scrotal circumference in beef bulls in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.O Menegassi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The variability of scrotal circumference and the effects of age and breed as well as the relationship between testicular weight (TW, scrotal circumference (SC, and live weight (BW were investigated in bulls. Devon, Polled Hereford, and Red Angus breeds showed higher SC values than the other British, Continental, Synthetic, and Zebu studied breeds. The percentage of culled bulls because of low SC ranged from 7.01 to 24.25%. The increase of SC was proportional to the increase in TW and they were highly correlated (r²= 0.90. The results suggest that SC in young bulls is the best way to predict TW and, therefore, a useful tool for their selection

  1. PERFORMANCE OF BALI BULL IN GREENLOT FATTENING BY FARMERS WHEN RAINY SEASON IN TIMOR ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tahuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the performance of Bali bull in rainy season underfeedlotting management on farmer level in Timor Island. Twenty Bali bulls with 2.0-2.5 years old on thebasis of teeth eruption were used in this study. Feed for animals was field grass, king grass and cornstraw. The type, quantity and quality of feed given in accordance with the habits of farmers in thefattened cattle. Research was conducted by direct observation in farmer management during rainyseason. Data measured were daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The data collected wastabulated and analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the average of daily gain weight was 0.53kg/head/d, dry matter intake was 3.88 kg/head/d and feed conversion was 7.55 kg DM/kg daily gain. Inconclusion, performance of Bali bull fattened at farmers level with forage in the rainy season could beimproved.

  2. DETECTION OF RECESSIVE MUTATIONS (CVM, BLAD AND RED FACTOR INHOLSTEIN BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betka LOGAR

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection of recessive mutations that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion defi ciency (BLAD in Holstein cattle is especially required for bulls, which are used for artifi cial insemination (A.I.; these enable elimination of carriers from the A.I. programs and therefore prevent transmission of unwanted mutations to a large number of offspring. Some breeders are also interested in the identifi cation of carriers of recessive allele for red and white coat colour (Red factor. Here, we performed genetic tests for detection of mutations associated with CVM, BLAD and Red factor using methods previously reported or modifi ed methods. Analysis of Holstein bulls, which were recommended for A.I in Slovenia in the years 2007 and 2008, revealed four (10 % carriers of CVM, and two (5.4 % carriers of red gene, while all bulls were non-carriers of BLAD.

  3. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  4. Split Bull's eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang-Fang; Ang, Kah-Wee; Ye, Jiandong; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2011-03-09

    Bull's eye antennas are capable of efficiently collecting and concentrating optical signals into an ultrasmall area, offering an excellent solution to break the bottleneck between speed and photoresponse in subwavelength photodetectors. Here, we exploit the idea of split bull's eye antenna for a nanometer germanium photodetector operating at a standard communication wavelength of 1310 nm. The nontraditional plasmonic metal aluminum has been implemented in the resonant antenna structure fabricated by standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing. A significant enhancement in photoresponse could be achieved over the conventional bull's eye scheme due to an increased optical near-field in the active region. Moreover, with this novel antenna design the effective grating area could be significantly reduced without sacrificing device performance. This work paves the way for the future development of low-cost, high-density, and high-speed CMOS-compatible germanium-based optoelectronic devices.

  5. Hepatic transcriptional changes in critical genes for gluconeogenesis following castration of bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassah, Dilla Mareistia; Jeong, Jin Young

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to understand transcriptional changes in the genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways following castration of bulls. Methods Twenty Korean bulls were weaned at average 3 months of age, and castrated at 6 months. Liver tissues were collected from bulls (n = 10) and steers (n = 10) of Korean cattle, and hepatic gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We examined hepatic transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes for irreversible reactions in both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis as well as genes encoding enzymes for the utilization of several glucogenic substrates. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and carcass characteristics were performed to understand their associations. Results Castration increased the mRNA (3.6 fold; pgluconeogenesis reactions from pyruvate to glucose and enzymes responsible for incorporation of glucogenic substrates including lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression levels were associated with intramuscular fat deposition. PMID:29502393

  6. Levels of natural resistance to Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in Carora breed bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy D. Meléndez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Boophilus microplus infestation is one of the most serious limitations to cattle industry in tropical regions, even though bovines show natural resistance to ticks. This resistance was evaluated in Cross-bred Carora Bulls (CCB a tropicalized dairy breed from Venezuela. Seven CCB were experimentally infested with B. microplus larvae, "Mozo" strain, they were considered tick-naive because they had never been infested with ticks. The mean inoculum size applied on each bull was 6 477 larvae. After life cycle was completed adult female body weight (BW, egg mass weight (EW, egg hatching rate (%EH, and reproductive index (RI were recorded. Results revealed a high variability in the levels of resistance to B. microplus. Thus, one animal showed greater resistance (Dunnett, p< 0.05 for the analyzed parameters in contrast with three non-resistant bulls. The others had moderate resistance. The trait "resistance" should be included togheter with other traits often used in genetic selection of cattle.

  7. Manipulation of extraordinary acoustic transmission by a tunable bull's eye structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Wei; Cheng Ying; Liu Xiao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary acoustic transmission (EAT) has been investigated in a tunable bull's eye structure. We demonstrate that the transmission coefficient of acoustic waves can be modulated by a grating structure. When the grating is located at a distance of 0.5 mm from the base plate, the acoustic transmission shows an 8.77-fold enhancement compared to that by using a traditional bull's eye structure. When the distance increases to 1.5 mm, the transmission approaches zero, indicating a total reflection. Thus, we can make an efficient modulation of acoustic transmission from 0 to 877%. The EAT effects have been ascribed to the coupling of structure-induced resonance with the diffractive wave and the waveguide modes, as well as the Fabry-Perot resonances. As a potential application, the modulation of far-field collimation is illustrated in the proposed bull's eye structure. (rapid communication)

  8. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Neo Christopher; Szyda, Joanna; Frąszczak, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources...... and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Importantly, we relaxed a strong assumption of discrete or admixed population, by adapting latent variable models...... harboring largest genetic differentiation suggest positive selection underlying population structure. We carried out gene set analysis using SNP annotations to identify enriched functional categories such as energy-related processes and multiple development stages. Our population structure analysis of bull...

  9. The Spectacle of Redemption: Guilt and Violence in Martin Scorsese’s Raging Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Serrano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Of all the characters that undertake a search for redemption in Martin Scorsese’s films, perhaps it is the story of Jake La Motta in Raging Bull that for many reasons presents the greatest challenge to understanding redemption’s role in the narratives of his films. Is Jake La Motta a redeemed character at the end of Raging Bull? I argue that Scorsese uses Raging Bull to criticize a ritualistic view of redemption by portraying the beginning of Jake’s search as a futile attempt to submit himself to a public spectacle of ritual violence in the boxing ring while visually relating this to the Catholic sacraments and the crucifixion. It will only be later—in the loneliness of a jail cell, estranged from his family and without having to have had gone through a rite—that Jake achieves the self-awareness redemption requires.

  10. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  11. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  12. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  13. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  14. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  15. The effects of Red Bull energy drink compared with caffeine on cycling time-trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Alannah; Irwin, Christopher; Grant, Gary D; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Sheilandra; Skinner, Tina; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the ergogenic effects of a commercial energy drink (Red Bull) or an equivalent dose of anhydrous caffeine in comparison with a noncaffeinated control beverage on cycling performance. Eleven trained male cyclists (31.7 ± 5.9 y 82.3 ± 6.1 kg, VO2max = 60.3 ± 7.8 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study involving 3 experimental conditions. Participants were randomly administered Red Bull (9.4 mL/kg body mass [BM] containing 3 mg/kg BM caffeine), anhydrous caffeine (3 mg/kg BM given in capsule form), or a placebo 90 min before commencing a time trial equivalent to 1 h cycling at 75% peak power output. Carbohydrate and fluid volumes were matched across all trials. Performance improved by 109 ± 153 s (2.8%, P = .039) after Red Bull compared with placebo and by 120 ± 172 s (3.1%, P = .043) after caffeine compared with placebo. No significant difference (P > .05) in performance time was detected between Red Bull and caffeine treatments. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in mean heart rate or rating of perceived exertion among the 3 treatments. This study demonstrated that a moderate dose of caffeine consumed as either Red Bull or in anhydrous form enhanced cycling time-trial performance. The ergogenic benefits of Red Bull energy drink are therefore most likely due to the effects of caffeine, with the other ingredients not likely to offer additional benefit.

  16. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  17. Superheavy-element fission tracks in iron meteorites, and reply by Bull, R.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runcorn, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Comment is made on the lack of superheavy element (SHE) fission tracks observed in silicates from the class IA Odessa iron meteorite by Bull (Nature; 282:393 (1979)). Two explanations are suggested. Firstly, a thermal history for Odessa can be constructed in which the meteorite reaches track retention temperatures only after a time corresponding to many half lives for the SHEs (taken to be approximately 100 Myr) has elapsed and secondly that the IA irons never took up many SHEs. These suggestions are discussed in a reply by Bull. (U.K.)

  18. Victims and offenders in a situation of bulling: who are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekimova V.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulling is one of the most common form of violence in the school environment, adversely affecting the physical and mental health of all its members. The article provides a brief review of foreign studies of this phenomenon, the actual statistics of its prevalence and forms of manifestation. Research focuses on the General characteristics of the bulling participants – aggressors and victims of aggression. The article points to the descriptive character of the studies and contradictory results. It also draws attention to the scarcity of diagnostic tools and a lack of understanding of the psychological component of the problem

  19. Quantitative protein and fat metabolism in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with 12 Red Danish bulls during two subsequent 6 weeks trials (Sections A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg respectively. Treatments were control (Group 1) and beta-agonist (L-644...... matter, metabolizable energy and digestible protein was of the same magnitude for all groups. The beta-agonist had no significant effect on protein digestibility and metabolizability of energy, but daily live weight gain was significantly higher in the treated bulls. The utilization of digested protein...

  20. Value of Bull's eye thallium 201 tomoscintigraphic images for the appreciation of coronary artery disease extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, G.; Merlet, P.; Bourguignon, M.H.; Syrota, A.

    1990-01-01

    A myocardial tomography (T1-201) has been performed in 97 patients after exercise and 3 hours later. Tomographic slices were reconstructed using a standard software. Bull's eye images of short axis slices were compared, in blind manner, by 5 physicians, to the standard display. For the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, both displays had the same clinical value. For the appreciation of the extension of the disease, results obtained from bull's eye display were slightly better than those obtained from the conventional display [fr

  1. Perfusion SPECT of the myocardium with 99mTc-MIBI and Bull's Eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belohlavek, O.; Svobodova, J.; Kotik, I.; Peterka, K.; Vodak, M.; Cervenka, V.

    1993-01-01

    Single-photon emission tomography and its application to the determination of myocardial perfusion are described. The radiopharmaceutical Cardiolite is used for this. The radiation burden due to Cardiolite is several times lower than that from 201 Tl-labelled compounds. The examination is performed at rest and at load. In addition to conventional methods, the Bull's Eye Image method can also be applied to process the data obtained. Bull's Eye Image is a polar map in whose centre is the apex of the heart, surrounded by the various sections. (M.D.). 6 refs

  2. Skin and gonadal dose reduction during hip radiography of the bull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.; Blockey, deB.; Reynolds, K.M.; Leith, I.S.; Burns, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiology is being used to an increasing extent in the clinical diagnosis of hip lameness in bulls. Consequent gonadal doses may have important implications in later breeding programmes. Skin and gonadal doses were recorded during hip radiography of 18 bulls. An additional 0.13 mm copper filtration reduced skin dose by more than one third, but had no effect on gonadal dose. The average radiation dose to the gonads was approximately halved by completely surrounding the scrotum with lead sheeting 0.95 mm in thickness. (author)

  3. A definition of unknown parent groups based on bull usage patterns across herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Renand, G; Phocas, F

    2011-03-01

    In genetic evaluations, the definition of unknown parent groups (UPG) is usually based on time periods, selection path and flows of foreign founders. The definition of UPG may be more complex for populations presenting genetic heterogeneity due to both, large national expansion and coexistence of artificial insemination (AI) and natural service (NS). A UPG definition method accounting for beef bull flows was proposed and applied to the French Charolais cattle population. It assumed that, at a given time period, unknown parents belonged to the same UPG when their progeny were bred in herds that used bulls with similar origins (birth region and reproduction way). Thus, the birth period, region and AI rate of a herd were pointed out to be the three criteria reflecting genetic disparities at the national level in a beef cattle population. To deal with regional genetic disparities, 14 regions were identified using a factorial approach combining principal component analysis and Ward clustering. The selection nucleus of the French cattle population was dispersed over three main breeding areas. Flows of NS bulls were mainly carried out within each breeding area. On the contrary, the use and the selection of AI bulls were based on a national pool of candidates. Within a time period, herds of different regions were clustered together when they used bulls coming from the same origin and with an estimated difference of genetic level lower than 20% of genetic standard deviation (σg) for calf muscle and skeleton scores (SS) at weaning. This led to the definition of 16 UPG of sires, which were validated as robust and relevant in a sire model, meaning numerically stable and corresponding to distinct genetic subpopulations. The UPG genetic levels were estimated for muscle and SS under sire and animal models. Whatever the trait, differences between bull UPG estimates within a time period could reach 0.5 σg across regions. For a given time period, bull UPG estimates for muscle and

  4. Viimane valik / Malcolm Bull ; tõlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bull, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Genotsiidi mõistest ja teostamisest. Rets. rmt.: Michael Mann. The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge, 2005; Marc Levene. Genocide in the age of the nation state. Volume I: The meaning of genocide; Volume II: The rise of the West and the coming of genocide. Tauris, 2005. Lisa: Malcolm Bull

  5. A feed forward neural network for classification of bull's-eye myocardial perfusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.; Riley, P.J.; Miola, U.J.; Amro, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Identification of hypoperfused areas in myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography studies can be aided by bull's-eye representation of raw counts, lesion extent and lesion severity, the latter two being produced by comparison of the raw bull's-eye data with a normal data base. An artificial intelligence technique which is presently becoming widely popular and which is particularly suitable for pattern recognition is that of artificial neural network. We have studied the ability of feed forward neural networks to extract patterns from bull's-eye data by assessing their capability to predict lesion presence without direct comparison with a normal data base. Studies were undertaken on both simulation data and on real stress-rest data obtained from 410 male patients undergoing routine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The ability of trained neural networks to predict lesion presence was quantified by calculating the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Figures as high as 0.96 for non-preclassified patient data were obtained, corresponding to an accuracy of 92%. The results demonstrate that neural networks can accurately classify patterns from bull's-eye myocardial perfusion images and detect the presence of hypoperfused areas without the need for comparison with a normal data base. Preliminary work suggests that this technique could be used to study perfusion patterns in the myocardium and their correlation with clinical parameters. (orig.)

  6. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  7. Bos taurus strain:dairy beef (cattle): 1000 Bull Genomes Run 2, Bovine Whole Genome Sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Daetwyler, H.D.; Chamberlain, Amanda J.; Ponce, Carla Hurtado; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flavio S.; Sahana, Goutam; Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Boitard, Simon; Dolezal, Marlies; Pausch, Hubert; Brøndum, Rasmus F.; Bowman, Phil J.; Thomsen, Bo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.; Servin, Bertrand; Garrick, Dorian J.; Reecy, James M.; Vilkki, Johanna; Bagnato, Alessandro; Wang, Min; Hoff, Jesse L.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Holm, Lars-Erik; Gredler, Birgit; Hozé, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Sanchez, Marie Pierre; Rocha, Dominique; Capitan, Aurelien; Tribout, Thierry; Barbat, Anne; Croiseau, Pascal; Drögemüller, Cord; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Vander Jagt, Christy; Crowley, John J.; Bieber, Anna; Purfield, Deirdre C.; Berry, Donagh P.; Emmerling, Reiner; Götz, Kay Uwe; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Russ, Ingolf; Sölkner, Johann; Tassell, van Curtis P.; Fries, Ruedi; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, R.F.; Boichard, Didier; Goddard, Mike E.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome sequence data (BAM format) of 234 bovine individuals aligned to UMD3.1. The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants (SNPs and indels) for downstream analysis such as imputation, GWAS, and detection of lethal recessives. Additional sequences for later 1000 bull genomes runs can

  8. Laminitis with severe rarefactive osteitis of the distal phalanx in a young Simmental bull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofler, J.; Stanek, C.

    1990-01-01

    A case report of a 9-month-old Simmental bull with chronic laminitis is presented including clinical examination, radiology and pathomorphology. The condition is similar to several cases of laminitis described earlier in Jersey cattle, which have been attributed to hereditary factors

  9. Reproductive performance of peranakan ongole (PO) bull at different altitudes areas in Lampung province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suretno, N. D.; Supriyatna, I.; Purwanto, B.; Priyanto, R.

    2018-01-01

    Peranakan Ongole (PO) cattle are famous for their bulls and known for their toughness, rapid growth and natural tolerance to tropical heat and disease resistance. This study was conducted to determine the reproductive performance of PO bull in some altitude in Lampung Province. A total of PO bulls used were 48 heads, with age three to four years. The variables observed were volume, consistency, pH, semen colour, concentration, mass movement, motility, percentage of living spermatozoa and abnormality. Data were collected during the rainy season and dry season, calculated with the average and standard deviation and then analyzed descriptively. Based on the macroscopic examination, Peranakan Ongole bull living in low temperature place had a normal semen volume, the consistency mostly watery to moderate, fresh semen pH is in the normal range and the color of semen are all normal both in the rainy and dry seasons. The results of microscopic examination showed that PO cattle had a good reproduction conditions at all three

  10. 77 FR 55139 - Safety Zone; Chicago Red Bull Flugtag, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ..., Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may..., Chicago, IL. The Captain of the Port, Sector Lake Michigan, has determined that the Red Bull Flugtag event...

  11. Effects of pedigree and exotic genetic inheritance on semen production traits of dairy bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Bajjalli Thippeswamy

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: It may be inferred that the “acceptable quality semen producing ability” decreased from grandsire through sire to male progeny and among the increasing exotic genetic levels of CB cattle, F1 bulls produced significantly higher “low grade ejaculates” that were unfit for cryopreservation.

  12. Seasonal variability of bull and tiger shark presence on the west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fisheries-independent survey using longlines and drumlines, and an acoustic telemetry study, revealed that bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier occur throughout the year off the west coast of Reunion Island. The research, which commenced in 2011, was conducted in response to an ...

  13. Carcass and meat quality in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; De Campeneere, S; Van Caelenbergh, W; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M

    2003-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality of 37 bulls and 91 cows of the Belgian Blue breed (double-muscled type) were compared. Age at slaughter averaged 648±73 and 1820±689 days, respectively. Both groups of cattle were finished on maize silage supplemented with concentrate, and were slaughtered at about 750 kg live weight. Females had a lower (P=0.004) cold carcass weight (469.7 kg) in comparison with bulls (500.8 kg), due to a reduced dressing percentage (63.8 vs. 66.6; P M. longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle (2.3 vs. 1.1%; P <0.001) were higher for females than for males. The LT of cows was darker (lower L* and higher a*-value; P <0.001), had a better waterholding capacity (P⩽0.063) and was slightly more tender (P=0.120) than the LT of bulls. Increasing parity reduced dressing percentage and increased LT lightness (L*-value) in cows. Several carcass (SEUROP-grading, composition, LT-area) and meat quality traits (protein and fat contents, drip and cooking losses, a*-value) were better correlated with carcass weight than parity. It is concluded that meat quality of the aged LT of cows is not negatively affected by age, while some carcass quality traits decreased with advancing age. Carcass quality traits adjusted for age at slaughter were better for bulls, but LT meat quality characteristics were at least as good for females as for males.

  14. A Report on the Sexual Cycle in the Kudu Bull Tragelaphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Report on the Sexual Cycle in the Kudu Bull Tragelaphus Strepsiceros Pallas and a Description of an Inter-Sex. JD Skinner, BJ Huntley. Abstract. Although Ansell (1960) reported that there was no seasonal calving pattern in kudu in Zambia, many workers in southern. Africa have since reported that there is a definite ...

  15. Neurosurgical considerations after bull goring during festivities in Spain and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Matoses, Salvador Martorell

    2011-08-01

    Bullfighting is a highly popular activity during festivities in Spain and Latin America. A scientific society for bullfight injuries, Congreso Internacional de Cirugía Taurina, was founded on November 24, 1974, in recognition of the distinctive pattern of injury that results from bull goring, and a subspecialty of general surgical trauma with emphasis on the acute surgical management of bull-goring injuries has emerged. Injuries to the head and neck are less frequent than genitourinary, inguinal, and abdominal injuries, but are more severe and more likely to result in death. This report reviews the primary venues in which bull goring and associated injuries occur, including the bullfight and the running of the bulls. The biomechanics of the primary and secondary goring injuries are reviewed, with an emphasis on those with the potential to result in neurosurgical injuries. This results in a very unique and devastating pattern of injury that combines penetrating and blunt mechanisms and results in polytrauma. Neurosurgical expertise should be immediately available on-site in the event of a life-threatening neurological injury.

  16. Sources and magnitude of sampling error in redd counts for bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Bruce Rieman

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of salmonid populations often involves annual redd counts, but the validity of this method has seldom been evaluated. We conducted redd counts of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in two streams in northern Idaho to address four issues: (1) relationships between adult escapements and redd counts; (2) interobserver variability in redd...

  17. Models to predict suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; G. L. Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research conducted in 2000 to develop models of suitable habitat for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Washington State. The research is associated with a cooperative agreement (Agreement #134100H001) between U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research...

  18. Virulence and genotype of a bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate from semen of a subclinically infected bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Straver, P.J.; Ruuls, R.C.; Quak, J.; Davidse, A.; Westenbrink, E.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Dijk, van J.E.; Moerman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate from the semen of a subclinically infected bull was administered to cattle by various routes to assess its virulence. Cattle that were artificially inseminated or inoculated intrapreputially did not develop clinical signs, but did transmit the virus to contact

  19. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus ) in a fire-prone landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A. Falke; Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Jason B. Dunham; Kristina M. McNyset; Paul F. Hessburg; Gordon H. Reeves; C. Tara Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River...

  20. A new application of Bull's eye analysis to lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Kotaro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Akaki, Shiro; Hasegawa, Mari; Nakagawa, Tomio; Simizu, Mitsuharu; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Nagaya, Isao.

    1990-01-01

    Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed and evaluated semiquantitatively by Bull's eye analysis in 24, including 7 with central pulmonary carcinoma, 3 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), 3 with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) and 11 normal subjects. First, whole lung field was divided into three regions by three concentric circles. And then radial axes were projected from the center to define 36 sectors, 10 degree each. The counts of each sector was calculated and Bull's eye image and circumferential profile curve were displayed. The patient's map was compared with the lower limit of normal (mean-2 SD), and the extent score (ES) and the severity score (SS) were calculated. The ES was 0.25±0.12 in pulmonary carcinoma (n=7), 0.08±0.07 in HP (n=3), 0.06±0.04 in DPB (n=3). The SS was 26.39±15.17 in pulmonary carcinoma, 4.75±5.57 in HP, 4.29±3.67 in DPB. In one case of central pulmonary carcinoma, segmental perfusion defect was evaluated semiquantitatively by Bull's eye image and circumferential profile curve. And in one case of HP, the change of regional pulmonary blood flow could be followed easily using extent and severity map. This new application of Bull's eye analysis to lung perfusion scintigraphy might be useful to evaluate regional pulmonary blood flow. (author)

  1. Oxidation of nutrients in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Oxidation of protein (OXP), carbohydrate (OXCHO) and fat (OXF) was investigated with 12 growing bulls treated with beta-agonist (L-644, 969) during two 6 weeks trials (Section A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg. Heat production and nutrient oxidation was calculated from gas exchange...

  2. Relationship between temperament and transportation with rectal temperature and secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning with the 8...

  3. Thermoregulatory responses and reproductive traits in composite beef bulls raised in a tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Narian; de Brito Lourenço Junior, José; Barioni Junior, Waldomiro; Brandão, Felipe Zandonadi; Marcondes, Cintia Righetti; Pezzopane, José Ricardo Macedo; de Andrade Pantoja, Messy Hannear; Botta, Daniela; Giro, Alessandro; Moura, Ana Beatriz Bossois; do Nascimento Barreto, Andréa; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2018-05-01

    It is believed that increased livestock production is limited by tropical climate. Thermal imbalance in bulls can lead to hyperthermia and alter testicular metabolism, causing subfertility or infertility. Therefore, the thermoregulation of composite Canchim bulls (5/8 Charolais × 3/8 Zebu) raised in tropical climate as well as their consequences in the physiological, hematological, hormonal, and andrological parameters were evaluated monthly. The bulls (n = 18; 30.0 ± 1.5 months; 503.8 ± 23.0 kg) were kept on pasture, in a single group, from August 2015 to March 2016, comprising the winter, spring, and summer seasons. Biometeorological variables were continuously monitored, and the Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) was calculated. A greater thermal challenge occurred in spring and summer (THI ≥ 72.0). Nevertheless, the bulls exhibited normothermia (38.6 to 38.9 °C) in these seasons. The cortisol did not vary between seasons (7.0 vs. 8.7 vs. 6.8 ng/mL; P > 0.05) and remained within the physiological patterns. Independent of the seasons, stress leukogram was also not observed, refuting the incidence of acute or chronic thermal stress. It is noteworthy that T3 and testosterone increased (P < 0.0001, P < 0.05) in spring and summer, the time that coincides with the breeding season, when there is increased metabolic requirement from the bulls. The progressive thermal challenge increase did not affect the scrotal thermoregulatory capacity, and in general, scrotal temperature remained at 5.2 °C below the internal body temperature. In summer, there was a 5% reduction in the minor sperm defects (P < 0.05) and DNA fragmentation in 2.4% of spermatozoa, a compatible value for high fertility bulls. The results show that the studied composite bulls can be considered as climatically adapted and constitute a viable alternative to be used in production systems in a tropical climate, even if the breeding seasons occur during the most critical thermal condition periods of

  4. Evaluation of bull fertility in dairy and beef cattle using cow field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Mc Parland, S

    2011-01-01

    A successful outcome to a given service is a combination of both male and female fertility. Despite this, most national evaluations for fertility are generally confined to female fertility with evaluations for male fertility commonly undertaken by individual breeding organisations and generally not made public. The objective of this study was to define a pertinent male fertility trait for seasonal calving production systems, and to develop a multiple regression mixed model that may be used to evaluate male fertility at a national level. The data included in the study after editing consisted of 361,412 artificial inseminations from 206,683 cow-lactations (134,911 cows) in 2,843 commercial dairy and beef herds. Fixed effects associated with whether a successful pregnancy ensued (pregnant = 1) or not (pregnant = 0) from a given service were year by month of service, day of the week, days since calving, cow parity, level of calving difficulty experienced, whether or not the previous calving was associated with perinatal mortality, and age of the service bull at the date of insemination. Non-additive genetic effects such as heterosis and recombination loss as well as inbreeding level of the service bull, dam or mating were not associated with a successful pregnancy; there was no difference in pregnancy rate between fresh or frozen semen. Random effects included in the model were the additive genetic effect of the cow, as well as a within lactation and across lactation permanent environmental effect of the cow; pedigree group effects based on cow breed were also included via the relationship matrix. Temporal differences in the AI technician and service bull were also included as random effects. A difference in five percentage units in male fertility was evident between the average effects of different dairy and beef breeds. The correlation between raw pregnancy rates for bulls with more than 100 services (n = 431) and service bull solutions from the mixed model analysis

  5. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  6. Genetic diversity is related to climatic variation and vulnerability in threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Wade, Alisa A.; Hand, Brian K.; Whited, Diane C.; DeHaan, Patrick W.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how climatic variation influences ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for informed conservation decision-making. Nevertheless, few studies have measured how climatic variation influences genetic diversity within populations or how genetic diversity is distributed across space relative to future climatic stress. Here, we tested whether patterns of genetic diversity (allelic richness) were related to climatic variation and habitat features in 130 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from 24 watersheds (i.e., ~4–7th order river subbasins) across the Columbia River Basin, USA. We then determined whether bull trout genetic diversity was related to climate vulnerability at the watershed scale, which we quantified on the basis of exposure to future climatic conditions (projected scenarios for the 2040s) and existing habitat complexity. We found a strong gradient in genetic diversity in bull trout populations across the Columbia River Basin, where populations located in the most upstream headwater areas had the greatest genetic diversity. After accounting for spatial patterns with linear mixed models, allelic richness in bull trout populations was positively related to habitat patch size and complexity, and negatively related to maximum summer temperature and the frequency of winter flooding. These relationships strongly suggest that climatic variation influences evolutionary processes in this threatened species and that genetic diversity will likely decrease due to future climate change. Vulnerability at a watershed scale was negatively correlated with average genetic diversity (r = −0.77;P bull trout and other imperiled species. Genetic diversity is already depressed where climatic vulnerability is highest; it will likely erode further in the very places where diversity may be most needed for future persistence.

  7. Consequences of actively managing a small Bull Trout population in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Moran, Sean; McHugh, Peter; Bernall, Shana; Fredenberg, Wade; DosSantos, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, which affects many native salmonid species, is one of the major factors contributing to the declines in distribution and abundance of Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus. Increasingly, managers are considering options to maintain and enhance the persistence of isolated local populations through active management strategies. Understanding the ecological consequences of such actions is a necessary step in conservation planning. We used an individual-based model to evaluate the consequences of an ongoing management program aimed at mitigating the anthropogenic fragmentation of the lower Clark Fork River in Montana. Under this program juvenile Bull Trout are trapped and transported from small, headwater source populations to Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, for rearing, and adults are subsequently recaptured in their upstream migration and returned to the natal population for spawning. We examined one of these populations and integrated empirical estimates of demographic parameters to simulate different management scenarios where moderate (n = 4) and high (n = 8) numbers of age-2, age-3, or age-4 Bull Trout were removed for transport with variable return rates under both demographic stochasticity and environmental perturbations. Our results indicated the risks from removal with no returns increased substantially when removal totals and age of Bull Trout removed from the simulated population increased. Specifically, removing eight age-3 or age-4 individuals resulted in 26% and 62% reductions in average adult population size, respectively, across simulations. We found the risks of transport were not likely alleviated with low (3%) or moderate (6%) return rates, and there were considerable risks of declines for the source population even when return rates were extremely high (>12%). Our simulations indicated little risk of declines for the source population with removals of age-2 Bull Trout, and any risks were alleviated with low return rates. However, we

  8. Seminal quality and sperm production in beef bulls with chronic dietary vitamin A deficiency and subsequent re-alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, L M; Coulter, G H; Kastelic, J P; Bailey, D R

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen Hereford bulls (16 mo of age, 462 kg average body weight) were used in each of 2 yr to evaluate the effects of hypovitaminosis A on seminal quality and sperm production. Bulls were fed a high-concentrate diet with (+VIT) or without (-VIT) supplemental Vitamin A until the apparent onset of hypovitaminosis A (28 and 32 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively). Half of the bulls on each treatment were then slaughtered and those remaining were re-alimented with Vitamin A. Plasma retinol concentration in -VIT bulls reached a nadir at approximately 25 wk. In Year 1, the proportion of progressively motile spermatozoa was lower in -VIT bulls after 17 wk but returned to that of the +VIT group after re-alimentation. The proportion of spermatozoa with primary morphological defects appeared to be greater in -VIT bulls compared to +VIT bulls by 26 and 24 wk in Year 1 and 2, respectively. The incidence of these defects declined in -VIT bulls upon re-alimentation, and approached the incidence observed in +VIT bulls by 8 to 12 wk of re-alimentation. Hypovitaminosis A decreased paired testes weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm reserves but did not affect daily gain. Prolonged dietary Vitamin A deficiency impaired semen quality and sperm production in the absence of other clinical symptoms. However, under practical feeding conditions, diets that result in long-term, marginal Vitamin A deficiency or a relatively short-term absence of Vitamin A intake probably would have minimal effects on spermatogenesis.

  9. Initial steps in defining the environment of the prepuce of the bull by measuring pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, J H; Fraser, N S; Passler, T; Wolfe, D F

    2017-12-01

    To determine the baseline pH and temperature of the preputial cavity of bulls. We enrolled 55 bulls ranging in age from 15 to 84 months. The preputial temperature and pH were measured by insertion of temperature and pH probes, respectively, into the preputial orifice prior to routine breeding soundness examinations. Information was obtained from owners regarding the diet of each bull and categorised as one of three categories: forage only, grain supplemented or silage supplemented. The average temperature of the prepuce was 37.81°C ± 1.76 and the median pH of the prepuce was 8.45 (6.35-9.46). Preputial temperatures of the bull weakly correlated with ambient temperatures (r s  = -0.29, P = 0.028). The preputial pH of silage-fed bulls was significantly lower than that of bulls fed forage only (P = 0.025) or grain-supplemented diets (P = 0.002). The median preputial pH of bulls fed a silage-based diet was 7.6 (6.3-8.9) compared with a median pH 8.7 (7.8-9.1) for bulls fed forage-based diets or a median of 8.5 (7.7-9.4) for those given grain-supplemented diets. Diet and ambient temperature can, respectively, affect pH and the temperature in the prepuce. Further studies to describe and understand the microbiota of the prepuce and penis may assist in developing treatments for diseases of the genital tract in bulls. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  11. Trophic ontogeny of fluvial Bull Trout and seasonal predation on Pacific Salmon in a riverine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus are typically top predators in their host ecosystems. The Skagit River in northwestern Washington State contains Bull Trout and Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschapopulations that are among the largest in the Puget Sound region and also contains a regionally large population of steelhead O. mykiss (anadromous Rainbow Trout). All three species are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Our objective was to determine the trophic ecology of Bull Trout, especially their role as predators and consumers in the riverine food web. We seasonally sampled distribution, diets, and growth of Bull Trout in main-stem and tributary habitats during 2007 and winter–spring 2008. Consumption rates were estimated with a bioenergetics model to (1) determine the annual and seasonal contributions of different prey types to Bull Trout energy budgets and (2) estimate the potential impacts of Bull Trout predation on juvenile Pacific salmon populations. Salmon carcasses and eggs contributed approximately 50% of the annual energy budget for large Bull Trout in main-stem habitats, whereas those prey types were largely inaccessible to smaller Bull Trout in tributary habitats. The remaining 50% of the energy budget was acquired by eating juvenile salmon, resident fishes, and immature aquatic insects. Predation on listed Chinook Salmon and steelhead/Rainbow Trout was highest during winter and spring (January–June). Predation on juvenile salmon differed between the two study years, likely due to the dominant odd-year spawning cycle for Pink Salmon O. gorbuscha. The population impact on ocean- and stream-type Chinook Salmon was negligible, whereas the impact on steelhead/Rainbow Trout was potentially very high. Due to the ESA-listed status of Bull Trout, steelhead, and Chinook Salmon, the complex trophic interactions in this drainage provide both challenges and opportunities for creative adaptive management strategies.

  12. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (construction and selection of spawning sites with strong downwelling appear to enhance hyporheic flow rates and bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  13. Effects of fine sediment, hyporheic flow, and spawning site characteristics on survival and development of bull trout embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Neilson, Bethany; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Successful spawning is imperative for the persistence of salmonid populations, but relatively little research has been conducted to evaluate factors affecting early life-stage survival for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a threatened char. We conducted a field experiment to assess the relationship between site-specific environmental factors and bull trout embryo survival and fry emergence timing. Survival from egg to hatch was negatively related to percent fine sediment (bull trout egg survival, but early life-stage success may ultimately be limited by intrusion of fine sediment into the incubation environment.

  14. Impaired protamination and sperm DNA damage in a Nellore bull with high percentages of morphological sperm defects in comparison to normospermic bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Carreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The routine semen evaluation assessing sperm concentration, motility and morphology, does not identify subtle defects in sperm chromatin architecture. Bulls appear to have stable chromatin, with low levels of DNA fragmentation. However, the nature of fragmentation and its impact on fertility remain unclear and there are no detailed reports characterizing the DNA organization and damage in this species. The intensive genetic selection, the use of artificial insemination and in vitro embryo production associated to the cryopreservation process can contribute to the chromatin damage and highlights the importance of sperm DNA integrity for the success of these technologies. Frozen-thawed semen samples from three ejaculates from a Nellore bull showed high levels of morphological sperm abnormalities (55.8±5.1%, and were selected for complementary tests. Damage of acrosomal (76.9±8.9% and plasma membranes (75.7±9.3% as well as sperm DNA strand breaks (13.8±9.5% and protamination deficiency (3.7±0.6% were significantly higher compared to the values measured in the semen of five Nellore bulls with normospermia (24.3±3.3%; 24.5±6.1%; 0.6±0.5%; 0.4±0.6% for acrosome, plasma membrane, DNA breaks and protamine deficiency, respectively (P<0.05. Motility and percentage of spermatozoa with low mitochondrial potential showed no differences between groups. This study shows how routine semen analyses (in this case morphology may point to the length and complexity of sperm cell damage emphasizing the importance of sperm function testing.

  15. PRODUCTION OF IN VITRO EMBRYO USING SEXED SPERM OF 5/8 GIROLANDO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pábola Santos Nascimento

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the "in vitro" blastocyst rate production using bovine sexed semen. Semen from three bulls was used to verify the individual's semen variation, cleavage rates and embryo production. In this study, we employed reproductive biotechnologies, computer analysis of post-thawed semen and fluorescent probes for sperm cells integrity analysis (plasma membrane, acrosome membrane and mitochondrial potential. A total of 959 oocysts went through in vitro maturation steps for in vitro fertilization and cultivation, being 473 with sexed semen and 486 with conventional semen. The cleavage rate was observed in blastocysts on D2 and D7. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software using analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student's t-test was used to detect differences between groups, and chi-square analysis for in vitro production results (P <0.05 . The results differed between conventional (31.06% and sexed semen (21.10% in the obtainment of blastocyst. When the blastocyst production was individually compared in sexed semen samples (27.69%, 17.93% and 25.56%, bulls 1, 2 and 3, respectively we verified T2 bulls in curvilinear speed, linear speed and path velocity variables where T1 (117.7 ± 1.6 µm/s; 60.0 ± 0.3 µm/s, 73.6 ± 0.4 µm/s, respectively showed the highest values when compared to T2 bulls (80.2 ± 2.3 µm/s, 47.0 ± 2.0 µm/s, 57.7 ± 0, 9 µm/s, respectively and T3 (86.4 ± 5.7 µm/s, 46.2 ± 2.7 µm/s, 53.8 ± 2.8 µm/s, respectively. Analyses of sperm cell integrity did not differ among conventional semen samples, but in the sexed semen, membrane integrity was the variable that differ statistically among bulls once T1 (38 ± 2.7 differed from T3 (53 8 ± 1.8 (P = 0.009 but did not differ from T2 (44.1 ± 4.4. It is possible to conclude that sexed semen was less efficient in blastocyst production when compared with conventional semen

  16. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroney, Joseph R. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  17. Assessing the feasibility of native fish reintroductions: a framework and example applied to bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Gallo, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    In a species conservation context, translocations can be an important tool, but they frequently fail to successfully establish new populations. We consider the case of reintroductions for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a federally-listed threatened species with a widespread but declining distribution in western North America. Our specific objectives in this work were to: 1) develop a general framework for assessing the feasibility of reintroduction for bull trout, 2) provide a detailed example of implementing this framework to assess the feasibility of reintroducing bull trout in the Clackamas River, Oregon, and 3) discuss the implications of this effort in the more general context of fish reintroductions as a conservation tool. Review of several case histories and our assessment of the Clackamas River suggest that an attempt to reintroduce bull trout could be successful, assuming adequate resources are committed to the subsequent stages of implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

  18. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  19. Distribution and Dynamic Habitat Use of Young Bull Sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a Highly Stratified Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Drymon, J. Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J.; Powers, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sha...

  20. Structured decision making for conservation of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Long Creek, Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; McDonnell, Kevin; Dunham, Jason B.; Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.

    2017-06-21

    With the decline of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), managers face multiple, and sometimes contradictory, management alternatives for species recovery. Moreover, effective decision-making involves all stakeholders influenced by the decisions (such as Tribal, State, Federal, private, and non-governmental organizations) because they represent diverse objectives, jurisdictions, policy mandates, and opinions of the best management strategy. The process of structured decision making is explicitly designed to address these elements of the decision making process. Here we report on an application of structured decision making to a population of bull trout believed threatened by high densities of nonnative brook trout (S. fontinalis) and habitat fragmentation in Long Creek, a tributary to the Sycan River in the Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon. This involved engaging stakeholders to identify (1) their fundamental objectives for the conservation of bull trout, (2) feasible management alternatives to achieve their objectives, and (3) biological information and assumptions to incorporate in a decision model. Model simulations suggested an overarching theme among the top decision alternatives, which was a need to simultaneously control brook trout and ensure that the migratory tactic of bull trout can be expressed. More specifically, the optimal management decision, based on the estimated adult abundance at year 10, was to combine the eradication of brook trout from Long Creek with improvement of downstream conditions (for example, connectivity or habitat conditions). Other top decisions included these actions independently, as well as electrofishing removal of brook trout. In contrast, translocating bull trout to a different stream or installing a barrier to prevent upstream spread of brook trout had minimal or negative effects on the bull trout population. Moreover, sensitivity analyses suggested that these actions were consistently identified as optimal across

  1. Bull trout life history, genetics, habitat needs, and limiting factors in central and northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; Buchanan, D.V.; Howell, P.J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured

  2. Analýza komunikační strategie společnosti Red Bull ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Syrovátková, Anežka

    2015-01-01

    In my thesis I focused on the analysis of communication strategy of Red Bull Czech Republic, specifically on advertising, communication at the point of sale, public relations and media communications, opinion leaders program, event marketing and digital communications. I started from global communication strategy represented by Red Bull Media House and I have examined, how this strategy is implemented at local level. For this analysis, it was also necessary to analyze market of energy drinks ...

  3. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kapoor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull, were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01 correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05 negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities.

  4. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  5. Administering the Bull of the Crusade in New Spain (1574-1659

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Martínez López-Cano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bull of the Crusade was one of the most original sources of income for the Real Hacienda. It consisted of charity provided by the faithful in exchange for indulgences, exemptions from fasting, and other spiritual privileges; this church rent was handed over to the Catholic monarchy after negotiations between the Crown and the Holy See. The predication of the bull in the viceroyalty began officially in 1574; this work examines how this revenue was levied from that year until 1659, a period characterized by the system of asientos generales (general entries, thus called because the contract included all the bishoprics in New Spain, Guatemala, and the Philippines. The author provides data on treasurers, collections, and entry conditions, and reflects on the opportunities opened by these arrangements.

  6. A functional probe with bowtie aperture and bull's eye structure for nanolithograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuo; Wang Qiao; Guo Ying-Yan; Pan Shi; Li Xu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The bowtie aperture surrounded by concentric gratings (the bull's eye structure) integrated on the near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) probe (aluminum coated fiber tip) for nanolithography has been investigated using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. By modifying the parameters of the bowtie aperture and the concentric gratings, a maximal field enhancement factor of 391.69 has been achieved, which is 18 times larger than that obtained from the single bowtie aperture. Additionally, the light spot depends on the gap size of the bowtie aperture and can be confined to sub-wavelength. The superiority of the combination of the bowtie aperture and the bull's eye structure is confirmed, and the mechanism for the electric field enhancement in this derived structure is analyzed

  7. A functional probe with bowtie aperture and bull's eye structure for nanolithograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Feng; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Ying-Yan; Pan, Shi

    2012-10-01

    The bowtie aperture surrounded by concentric gratings (the bull's eye structure) integrated on the near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) probe (aluminum coated fiber tip) for nanolithography has been investigated using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. By modifying the parameters of the bowtie aperture and the concentric gratings, a maximal field enhancement factor of 391.69 has been achieved, which is 18 times larger than that obtained from the single bowtie aperture. Additionally, the light spot depends on the gap size of the bowtie aperture and can be confined to sub-wavelength. The superiority of the combination of the bowtie aperture and the bull's eye structure is confirmed, and the mechanism for the electric field enhancement in this derived structure is analyzed.

  8. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Marie Bustin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue… can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  9. Perbedaan jenis bahan penyamak terhadap sifat fisik kulit katak bull frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochtar Lutfie

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The Obyective of this research is to study the effects of various tanning agents on the qualities of leather made from Bull Frog skin. Fifteen pieces of wet salted Bull Frog from Malang were tanned with several tanning agents, wich are mineral (10% Chromosal B, vegetable (10% Mimosa extract and synthetic tensile strengths and elongations. Its turned out that vegetable tanning agent gave the higest tensile strength (279,62 kg/cm2, while mineral tanning agent gave the lowest one (183.04 kg/cm2. It showed that the type of tanning agent used significantly effects the tensile strength of the leather produced (p ≤ 0.005. On the other hand, mineral tanning agent gave the higest elongation (105.20%. While vegetable tanning agent gave the lowest one (91.20%. This result implied that the type of tanning agent used has a significant effect on the elongation (p ≤ 0.01.

  10. Evaluating trade-offs in bull trout reintroduction strategies using structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.; Dunham, Jason B.; Schaller, Howard A.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2018-01-01

    Structured decision making allows reintroduction decisions to be made despite uncertainty by linking reintroduction goals with alternative management actions through predictive models of ecological processes. We developed a decision model to evaluate the trade-offs between six bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) reintroduction decisions with the goal of maximizing the number of adults in the recipient population without reducing the donor population to an unacceptable level. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the decision identity and outcome were most influenced by survival parameters that result in increased adult abundance in the recipient population, increased juvenile survival in the donor and recipient populations, adult fecundity rates, and sex ratio. The decision was least sensitive to survival parameters associated with the captive-reared population, the effect of naivety on released individuals, and juvenile carrying capacity of the reintroduced population. The model and sensitivity analyses can serve as the foundation for formal adaptive management and improved effectiveness, efficiency, and transparency of bull trout reintroduction decisions.

  11. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, T.; Bodrogi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary). 1. Belklinika); Makray, S. (Mezoegazdasagi Foeiskola, Kaposvar (Hungary))

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormone level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration.

  12. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Tibor; Bodrogi, Lajos

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormon level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration. (author)

  13. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe

    2016-01-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database....... According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn...

  14. Biological characteristics that influence the SEUROP system classification for Czech fleckvieh and Holstein bull carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the influence of certain characteristics (aptitude, age, carcass weight, net daily gain, feeding on the final carcass classification in the SEUROP system. 703 Czech Fleckvieh bulls and 642 Holstein bulls were studied. The animals were slaughtered and evaluated at a designated beef processing company. Combine aptitude carcasses shown significant differences between characteristics. Remarkable differences of group averages (P>0, 01 were established between farms and they were due to various rearing conditions. Also the levels of net daily gain between aptitudes were proved significantly. Holstein breed showed significant difference among The net daily gain < 500 g.day–1 and levels 551–600; 601–650 and above 651 g.day–1. The SEUROP system is influenced the most by the feeding regime, which is described by a net daily gain in this work, and farm impact.

  15. Acute effects of Red Bull energy drink on ventricular repolarization in healthy young volunteers: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Ali; Öz, Fahrettin; Panc, Cafer; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Sezikli, Selim; Pala, Yasin; Bugan, Övgü Sinem; Ateş, Müge; Parıldar, Hilal; Ayaz, Mustafa Buğra; Atıcı, Adem; Oflaz, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Energy drinks (EDs) are widely consumed products of the beverage industry and are often chosen by teenagers and young adults. Several adverse cardiovascular events and malignant cardiac arrhythmias following consumption of EDs have been reported in the literature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the dispersion of repolarization and that an increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the acute effects of Red Bull ED on ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. Methods: A prospective, open-label study design was used. After an 8-h fast, 50 young, healthy subjects consumed 355 mL of Red Bull ED. The Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, and several other electrocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline and 2 h after ingestion of Red Bull ED. Results: No significant changes in the Tp-e interval or Tp-e/QTc ratio were observed with Red Bull ED consumption. Red Bull ED consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were associated with an increased heart rate. Conclusion: Although ingestion of Red Bull ED increases the heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures, it does not cause alterations in ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio. PMID:25868042

  16. Acute effects of Red Bull energy drink on ventricular repolarization in healthy young volunteers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Ali; Öz, Fahrettin; Panc, Cafer; Sarıkaya, Remzi; Sezikli, Selim; Pala, Yasin; Bugan, Övgü Sinem; Ateş, Müge; Parıldar, Hilal; Ayaz, Mustafa Buğra; Atıcı, Adem; Oflaz, Hüseyin

    2015-11-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are widely consumed products of the beverage industry and are often chosen by teenagers and young adults. Several adverse cardiovascular events and malignant cardiac arrhythmias following consumption of EDs have been reported in the literature. Several studies have suggested that the interval from the peak to the end of the electrocardiographic T wave (Tp-e) may correspond to the dispersion of repolarization and that an increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the acute effects of Red Bull ED on ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio. A prospective, open-label study design was used. After an 8-h fast, 50 young, healthy subjects consumed 355 mL of Red Bull ED. The Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QTc ratio, and several other electrocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline and 2 h after ingestion of Red Bull ED. No significant changes in the Tp-e interval or Tp-e/QTc ratio were observed with Red Bull ED consumption. Red Bull ED consumption led to increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were associated with an increased heart rate. Although ingestion of Red Bull ED increases the heart rate and diastolic and systolic blood pressures, it does not cause alterations in ventricular repolarization as assessed by the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio.

  17. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2006-11-01

    Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters.

  18. Flehmen response in bull: role of vaginal mucus and other body fluids of bovine with special reference to estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, R; Archunan, G

    2004-07-30

    The present investigation was carried out with a view to evaluate the frequency of Flehmen behaviour in bull in response to body fluids of cows in various stages of the estrous cycle, in the context of estrus detection. The study was performed on free moving bulls under natural conditions. Samples of vaginal mucus, saliva, faeces and milk of pro-estrus, estrus and di-estrus stages collected from donor cows were rubbed individually onto the genital regions of non-estrus animals (dummy cows) and the bulls were observed for 30 min for assessment of Flehmen behaviour. The duration of Flehmen behaviour shown by bulls was maximum towards the dummy cows receiving estrus sample. Such Flehmen behaviour, however, did not occur in bulls in response to the cows receiving samples of other stages. The statistical significance was higher (P mucus may act as an additional/secondary source along with urine in eliciting copulatary behaviour and executing coitus in bulls during estrus. The results further suggest that in addition to vaginal mucus, other body fluids like saliva, faeces and milk have estrus-related odours and are probably involved in bovine bio-communication.

  19. Aggregated forms of bull seminal plasma proteins and their heparin-binding activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Petra; Ryšlavá, H.; Liberda, J.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 616-630 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : bull seminal plasma proteins * heparin-binding proteins * aggregated forms of proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  20. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Jovana; Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa; Barros, Lillian; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. was studied regarding the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The studied mushroom is a rich source of carbohydrates and proteins. Mannitol and trehalose were the main free sugars, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherols were found. Oxalic and citric acids were the most abundant organic acids; cinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were quantified in the methanolic extract...

  1. [Laminitis with a high degree of osteitis rarefaciens of the distal phalanx in a Fleckvieh bull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J; Stanek, C

    1990-06-01

    Chronic laminitis with severe rarefactive osteitis was diagnosed in a nine month old Simmental fattening bull. The condition was observed in all eight weight bearing digits. Clinical, radiological and pathomorphological examinations revealed osteolysis and downward rotation of all the distal phalanges. The condition appears to resemble the several cases of laminitis in Jersey cattle, which have been attributed to hereditary factors. In this case, however, the genetic background was unavailable for evaluation.

  2. D-fructose-binding proteins in bull seminal plasma: Isolation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberda, J.; Kraus, Marek; Ryšlavá, H.; Vlasáková, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2001), s. 113-119 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : bull seminal plasma * non-heparin-binding and heparin-binding proteins * D-fructose-binding proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  3. Kootenai River fisheries investigations: rainbow and bull trout recruitment: annual progress report 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher Charles

    2001-01-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I.= 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m(sup 2), respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline

  4. The corkscrew sperm defect in Danish bulls - a possible indicator of nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Erik

    1978-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the sterilizing corkscrew sperm defect was described about 20 years ago, very little is as yet known about a possible causal factor and about the genesis of the defect. Up to now 60 Danish cases have been recorded showing no proof whatsoever of heredity. The cases have predominantly been found in older bulls of the Red Danish breed and during a period with a rather high degree of atmospheric pollution from nuclear fallout. (author)

  5. Multi-peak electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission from bull's-eye-shaped metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter R

    2010-08-16

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of the concentric multi-ring, or the bull's eye, structure as an extension of the dual-ring metamaterial which exhibits electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission characteristics. Our results show that adding inner rings produces additional EIT-like peaks, and widens the metamaterial's spectral range of operation. Analyses of the dispersion characteristics and induced current distribution further confirmed the peak's EIT-like nature. Impacts of structural and dielectric parameters are also investigated.

  6. Evaluation of cytotoxic action of antihistamines desloratadine and loratadine using bulls spermatozoa as a test object

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminov, O.; Ostapiv, D.; Alekhina, T.

    2014-01-01

    Antihistamines with active ingredients of loratadine and desloratadine are produced by Ukrainian pharmaceutical industry. According to the law, ther are assessed for their potential danger to human health and the environment, including alternative test objects. Evaluation has been carried out with regard to cytotoxic effect of pharmacological substances (loratadine and desloratadine) using the bull sperm suspension as test objects, standardized and highly sensitive to toxic substances. Sperm ...

  7. Cultural Differences Applied in International Marketing : Cases Of McDonalds and Red Bull

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkerimova, Assiyat

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate how culture and cultural differences influence on the international marketing. Also, it demonstrates how international companies deal with cross-cultural issues and problems. First, the importance of culture and two models of cultural dimensions like Hofstede and Trompenaars will be analyzed and discussed. Second, the marketing activities of two international corporations- McDonald's and Red Bull will be discussed and analyzed. The research wi...

  8. The effect of sperm concentration in the ejaculate on morphological traits of bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondracki, Stanisław; Banaszewska, Dorota; Wysokńjska, Anna; Iwanina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 75 ejaculates obtained from 19 bulls representing different cattle breeds used at the Masovian Centre for Animal Breeding and Reproduction in Łowicz. Fresh ejaculates were measured in respect to their volume and sperm count in the ejaculates was determined. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into five groups. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each bull and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope using preparations made from fresh ejaculates. For each slide, morphometric measurements were taken of 15 randomly selected spermatozoa characterised by normal morphology and well visible under the microscope. Additionally, in each preparation morphometry of 500 spermatozoa was evaluated, numbers of spermatozoa with normal morphology and morphological abnormalities were recorded and these were categorized into spermatozoa with major and minor defects. An insignificant correlation was observed between the sperm concentration in the ejaculate and morphological traits, dimensions and shapes of bull spermatozoa. The less concentrated ejaculates contained spermatozoa with a slightly larger head circumference and a more elongated head shape in comparison with the spermatozoa in the more concentrated ejaculates. The highest frequency of morphologically malformed spermatozoa, both in the case of primary and secondary alterations, was observed in ejaculates with sperm concentration of no more than 1000 x 10(3)/mm3.

  9. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Antioxidative effects of melatonin on kinetics, microscopic and oxidative parameters of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Iraj; Kohram, Hamid; Ardabili, Farhad Farrokhi

    2013-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated during the freeze-thawing process may reduce sperm quality. This study evaluates the effects of melatonin supplementation as an antioxidant in the semen extender on post-thaw parameters of bull spermatozoa. Melatonin was added to the citrate-egg yolk extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 2, 3 and 4mM. Ejaculates were collected from six proven Holstein bulls. Semen was diluted in the extender packaged in straws, which was frozen with liquid nitrogen. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of melatonin increased (peffective concentration of melatonin in microscopic evaluations of the bull sperm freezing extender was 2mM. The highest (pconcentration of melatonin in the semen extender and the highest activity of catalase (0.7±0.1) was obtained by 2mM melatonin. Four millimolar concentration of melatonin were reduced (pconcentration of melatonin in the semen extender improved the quality of post-thawed semen, which may associate with a reduction in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in the total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism in longissimus dorsi of Korean bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Jin Jong; Jeong, Jin Young; Rajasekar, Panchamoorthy; Cho, Young Moo; Kwon, Eung Gi; Kim, Hyeong Cheol; Paek, Bong Hyun; Baik, Myunggi

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expression of genes associated with lipid deposition and removal between bulls and steers in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) tissue of Korean cattle. Castration increased the expression of lipid uptake lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid translocase, and fatty acid transport protein 1 in LM. Castration increased lipogenic gene expression of both acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. In contrast, castration downregulated lipolytic gene expression of both adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and monoglyceride lipase. Steers showed higher expression levels of insulin signaling phospho-v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 than bulls but lower protein levels of nuclear Forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) than bulls, suggesting that increased insulin signaling following castration decreases nuclear FoxO1 levels, leading to downregulation of ATGL gene expression. These findings suggest that castration contributes to increases in lipid uptake and lipogenesis and a decrease in lipolysis, resulting in improved marbling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatic transcriptional changes in critical genes for gluconeogenesis following castration of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassah, Dilla Mareistia; Jeong, Jin Young; Baik, Myunggi

    2018-04-01

    This study was performed to understand transcriptional changes in the genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways following castration of bulls. Twenty Korean bulls were weaned at average 3 months of age, and castrated at 6 months. Liver tissues were collected from bulls (n = 10) and steers (n = 10) of Korean cattle, and hepatic gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We examined hepatic transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes for irreversible reactions in both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis as well as genes encoding enzymes for the utilization of several glucogenic substrates. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and carcass characteristics were performed to understand their associations. Castration increased the mRNA (3.6 fold; pcastration. Castration increased mRNA levels of both lactate dehydrogenase A (1.5 fold; pCastration increased mRNA levels of glycerol kinase (2.7 fold; pCastration also increased mRNA levels of propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta (mitochondrial) (3.5 fold; pCastration increases transcription levels of critical genes coding for enzymes involved in irreversible gluconeogenesis reactions from pyruvate to glucose and enzymes responsible for incorporation of glucogenic substrates including lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression levels were associated with intramuscular fat deposition.

  13. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a fire-prone landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Dunham, Jason B.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River basin, Washington, USA, under current and future climate and fire scenarios. The BN was based on modeled estimates of wildfire, water temperature, and physical habitat prior to, and following, simulated fires throughout the basin. We found that bull trout population vulnerability depended on the extent to which climate effects can be at least partially offset by managing factors such as habitat connectivity and fire size. Moreover, our analysis showed that local management can significantly reduce the vulnerability of bull trout to climate change given appropriate management actions. Tools such as our BN that explicitly integrate the linked nature of climate and wildfire, and incorporate uncertainty in both input data and vulnerability estimates, will be vital in effective future management to conserve native coldwater fishes.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of regional blood flow in pulmonary sarcoidosis with Bull's eye analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaki, Shiro

    1991-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed in 23 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 11 normal volunteers. Bull's eye analysis was used to analyze regional pulmonary blood flow quantitatively. First, whole lung perfusion images were divided into three regions by three concentric circles. Then radial axes were projected from the center to define 36 x 10deg sectors. The counts for each sector were calculated and a Bull's eye image was displayed. The counts were compared with the lower limit of normal (mean -2SD), and as the indices of reduction in perfusion, extent score (ES) and severity score (SS) were calculated. ES and SS showed significant reduction in perfusion 16 patients (70%) with sarcoidosis. In stage II sarcoidosis, both ES and SS were significantly higher than in stage I sarcoidosis (p 67 Ga scintigraphy findings. In comparison with clinical data, ES had a positive correlation with serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (p + /CD8 + ratio (p<0.05). The Bull's eye analysis was considered useful for the quantitative evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow in pulmonary sarcoidosis, and it was suggested that the mechanism of reduction in perfusion might result mainly in its alveolitis and angitis. Ventilation abnormality, which may happen prior to reduction in perfusion, may be an important factor of reduction in perfusion. (author)

  15. Testicular Cell Indices and Peripheral Blood Testosterone Concentrations in Relation to Age and Semen Quality in Crossbred (Holstein Friesian×Tharparkar Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rajak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study analyzed the changes in peripheral blood testosterone concentrations and testicular cytogram in relation to age and semen quality in crossbred males. Three different age groups of crossbred males viz. bull calves (6 months, n = 5, young bulls (15 months, n = 5 and adult bulls (4 to 6 years, n = 8 were utilized for the study. Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology technique was used to quantify testicular cytology and their indices. Peripheral blood testosterone concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Semen samples collected from adult bulls were microscopically evaluated for quality parameters. Mean peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves, young bulls and adult bulls were 2.28±0.09 ng/mL, 1.42±0.22 ng/mL and 5.66±1.08 ng/mL respectively, and that in adult bulls were significantly different (p<0.01 from young bulls and bull calves. There was no significant difference between the proportion of different testicular cells in bull calves and young bulls. Between young and adult bulls, significant differences (p<0.01 were observed in the proportion of spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and sperm: Sertoli cell ratio. The proportions of Sertoli cells showed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the three age groups. The number of primary spermatocytes had a positive correlation with peripheral blood testosterone concentrations in bull calves (r = 0.719, p<0.01. Number of Sertoli cells per 100 germ cells was negatively correlated with blood testosterone concentration in young bulls (r = −0.713, p<0.01. Among different semen parameters in adult bulls, ejaculate volume (r = 0.790, p<0.05 had positive relationship, and sperm motility had significant negative correlation (r = −0.711, p<0.05 with testosterone concentrations. The number of Sertoli cells and Sertoli cell index had a positive correlation with various semen quality parameters (p<0.001. Results of the present study

  16. Food hypersensitivity reactions in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers with protein-losing enteropathy or protein-losing nephropathy or both: gastroscopic food sensitivity testing, dietary provocation, and fecal immunoglobulin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, S L; Hammerberg, B; Davenport, D J; Orton, S M; Trogdon, M M; Melgarejo, L T; VanCamp, S D; Williams, D A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWTs) affected with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) or protein-losing nephropathy (PLN) or both for allergy to food. We performed gastroscopic food-sensitivity testing, a provocative dietary trial, and measurement of fecal immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 6 SCWTs affected with PLE or PLN or both. Positive gastroscopic food-sensitivity test reactions were noted in 5 of 6 dogs. Positive reactions were found to milk in 4 dogs, to lamb in 2 dogs, and to wheat and chicken each in 1 dog. Adverse reactions to food (diarrhea, vomiting, or pruritus) were detected in all 6 dogs during the provocative dietary trial. Adverse reactions were found to corn in 5 dogs, to tofu in 3 dogs, to cottage cheese in 2 dogs, to milk in 2 dogs, to farina cream of wheat in 2 dogs, and to lamb in 2 dogs. Serum albumin concentrations significantly decreased and fecal alpha1-protease inhibitor concentration significantly increased 4 days after the provocative trial when compared with baseline values. Antigen-specific fecal IgE varied throughout the provocative trial, with peak levels following ingestion of test meals. We conclude that food hypersensitivities are present in SCWTs affected with the syndrome of PLE/PLN. Mild inflammatory bowel disease was already established in the 6 SCWTs of this report at the time of study, making it impossible to determine if food allergies were the cause or result of the enteric disease.

  17. Improving Libido and Sperm Quality of Bali Bulls by Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Syarifuddin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (Moringa leaves contain high levels of nutrition that can be utilized as a feed supplement to increase libido and semen quality. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Moringa leaves supplementation on libido and sperm quality of Bali bulls. This study used two-sample t-test on four Bali bulls were kept under individual pens for two periods of eight weeks. During the first period (control, the experimental Bali bulls were fed concentrates (1% of body weight and rice straw ad libitum. During the second period, the experimental Bali bulls were fed similar to the first period with an additional of Moringa leaves 15% of the weight of the concentrate (treatments. Libido and sperm quality were measured twice a week. Plasma samples were taken three times a day (06:00, 14:00, and 22:00h on the last day of each period. Plasma testosterone concentrations were analyzed by using ELISA techniques. Variables measured were compared using paired student's t-test. Supplementation of Moringa leaves increased testosterone levels (P<0.05 (4.57 vs 4.79, 0.45 vs 4.78, and 2.35 vs 5.63 ng/mL, respectively during 06.00; 14.00; and 22.00h, increased libido (P<0.05 (7.20±1.49 vs 3.49±0.40 min, and increased both the total motility (P<0.05 (63.99±3.37% vs 84.96±3.09% and the progressive motility (P<0.05 (52.77±1.76% vs 67.03±3.74% of sperm. Supplementation of Moringa leaves also increased (P<0.05 the velocity and the amplitude and decreased (P<0.05 the linearity of sperm. It can be concluded that the supplementation of Moringa leaves could increase plasma testosterone concentrations, libido, and sperm motility of Bali bulls.

  18. The value of using DNA markers for beef bull selection in the seedstock sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; van der Werf, J H J; Goddard, M E

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the value derived from using DNA information to increase the accuracy of beef sire selection in a closed seedstock herd. Breeding objectives for commercial production systems targeting 2 diverse markets were examined using multiple-trait selection indexes developed for the Australian cattle industry. Indexes included those for both maternal (self-replacing) and terminal herds targeting either a domestic market, where steers are finished on pasture, or the export market, where steers are finished on concentrate rations in feedlots and marbling has a large value. Selection index theory was used to predict the response to conventional selection based on phenotypic performance records, and this was compared with including information from 2 hypothetical marker panels. In 1 case the marker panel explained a percentage of additive genetic variance equal to the heritability for all traits in the breeding objective and selection criteria, and in the other case to one-half of this amount. Discounted gene flow methodology was used to calculate the value derived from the use of superior bulls selected using DNA test information and performance recording over that derived from conventional selection using performance recording alone. Results were ultimately calculated as discounted returns per DNA test purchased by the seedstock operator. The DNA testing using these hypothetical marker panels increased the selection response between 29 to 158%. The value of this improvement above that obtained using traditional performance recording ranged from $89 to 565 per commercial bull, and $5,332 to 27,910 per stud bull. Assuming that the entire bull calf crop was tested to achieve these gains, the value of the genetic gain derived from DNA testing ranged from $204 to 1,119 per test. All values assumed that the benefits derived from using superior bulls were efficiently transferred along the production chain to the seedstock producer incurring

  19. The role of kelp crabs as consumers in bull kelp forests—evidence from laboratory feeding trials and field enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Dobkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northern kelp crab (Pugettia producta and the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis are common primary consumers in bull kelp beds near the San Juan Islands (Salish Sea, NE Pacific. In this system, urchins (often considered the most voracious herbivores exerting top-down control on kelp beds tend to remain sedentary because of the high availability of detrital macroalgae, but the extent to which kelp crabs consume kelp (and other food options is largely unknown. I conducted four types of laboratory feeding experiments to evaluate kelp crab feeding patterns: (1 feeding electivity between bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana and seven species of co-occurring local macroalgae; (2 feeding electivity on aged vs. fresh bull kelp; (3 feeding preference between N. luetkeana and small snails (Lacuna sp.; and (4 scaling of feeding rate with body size in P. producta and P. gracilis. In choice experiments, P. producta consumed greater mass of N. luetkeana than of other macroalgal species offered and elected to eat fresh bull kelp over aged. However, P. producta also consumed snails (Lacuna sp., indicating more generalized feeding than previously suspected. Feeding rates for P. producta exceeded the expected 3∕4 scaling rule of metabolic rates, indicating that larger P. producta may have a disproportionately large impact on bull kelp. A subtidal field experiment, designed to assess the influence of consumers on juvenile bull kelp net tissue gain, found that only fully enclosed (protected bull kelp increased in wet mass and blade length. Herbivory by kelp crabs, among other consumers, is likely to play a previously unrecognized role in mediating the growth and survival of this annual kelp species within the Salish Sea.

  20. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  1. Selection of performance-tested young bulls and indirect responses in commercial beef cattle herds on pasture and in feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidan, Fernanda S S; Santos, Dalinne C C; Moraes, Mariana M; Araújo, Andresa E M; Ventura, Henrique T; Bergmann, José A G; Turra, Eduardo M; Toral, Fabio L B

    2016-11-09

    Central testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots. Records on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were estimated. Correlated responses for commercial animals when selection was applied on performance-tested young bulls were computed. The 90% highest posterior density (HPD90) intervals for heritabilities of final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG) and scrotal circumference (SC) ranged from 0.41 to 0.49, 0.23 to 0.30 and 0.47 to 0.57, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, from 0.45 to 0.60, 0.20 to 0.32 and 0.56 to 0.70, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots, from 0.29 to 0.33, 0.14 to 0.18 and 0.35 to 0.45, respectively, for commercial animals on pasture, and from 0.24 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.24 and 0.35 to 0.57 respectively, for commercial animals in feedlots. The HPD90 intervals for genetic correlations of FW, ADG and SC in performance-tested young bulls on pasture (feedlots) with FW, ADG and SC in commercial animals on pasture (feedlots) ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 (0.83 to 0.94), 0.78 to 0.90 (0.40 to 0.79) and from 0.92 to 0.97 (0.50 to 0.83), respectively. Age at first calving was genetically related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.48 to -0.06) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.41 to -0.05) for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, however it was not related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.29 to 0.10) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.35 to 0.13) for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots. Heritabilities for growth and SC are higher for performance-tested young bulls than for commercial animals. Evaluating and selecting for increased growth and SC on performance-tested young bulls is

  2. Evaluation of Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2006 Project Completion Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Michael P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Mendel, Glen; Fulton, Carl [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-20

    The Columbia River Distinct Population Segment of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1998. One of the identified major threats to the species is fragmentation resulting from dams on over-wintering habitats of migratory subpopulations. A migratory subgroup in the Tucannon River appeared to utilize the Snake River reservoirs for adult rearing on a seasonal basis. As a result, a radio telemetry study was conducted on this subgroup from 2002-2006, to help meet Reasonable and Prudent Measures, and Conservation Recommendations associated with the lower Snake River dams in the FCRPS Biological Opinion, and to increase understanding of bull trout movements within the Tucannon River drainage. We sampled 1,109 bull trout in the Tucannon River; 124 of these were surgically implanted with radio tags and PIT tagged, and 681 were only PIT tagged. The remaining 304 fish were either recaptures, or released unmarked. Bull trout seasonal movements within the Tucannon River were similar to those described for other migratory bull trout populations. Bull trout migrated upstream in spring and early summer to the spawning areas in upper portions of the Tucannon River watershed. They quickly moved off the spawning areas in the fall, and either held or continued a slower migration downstream through the winter until early the following spring. During late fall and winter, bull trout were distributed in the lower half of the Tucannon River basin, down to and including the mainstem Snake River below Little Goose Dam. We were unable to adequately radio track bull trout in the Snake River and evaluate their movements or interactions with the federal hydroelectric dams for the following reasons: (1) none of our radio-tagged fish were detected attempting to pass a Snake River dam, (2) our radio tags had poor transmission capability at depths greater than 12.2 m, and (3) the sample size of fish that actually entered the Snake River

  3. Bull trout distribution and abundance in the waters on and bordering the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Christopher V.; Dodson, Rebekah D.

    2002-01-01

    The range of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Deschutes River basin has decreased from historic levels due to many factors including dam construction, habitat degradation, brook trout introduction and eradication efforts. While the bull trout population appears to be stable in the Metolius River-Lake Billy Chinook system they have been largely extirpated from the upper Deschutes River (Buchanan et al. 1997). Little was known about bull trout in the lower Deschutes basin until BPA funded project No.9405400 began during 1998. In this progress report we describe the findings from the fourth year (2001) of the multi-year study aimed at determining the life history, habitat needs and limiting factors of bull trout in the lower Deschutes subbasin. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek by night snorkeling. In the Warm Springs R. juvenile bull trout were slightly more numerous than brook trout, however, both were found in low densities. Relative densities of both species were the lowest observed since surveys began in 1999. Relative densities of juvenile bull trout and brook trout increased in Shitike Cr. Juvenile bull trout vastly out numbered brook trout in Shitike Cr. The utility of using index reaches to monitor trends in juvenile bull trout and brook trout relative abundance was assessed in the Warm Springs R. for the third year. Mean relative densities of juvenile bull trout within the index reaches was slightly higher than what was observed in the 2.4 km control reach. However, the mean relative density of brook trout in the 2.4 km control reach was slightly higher than what was observed in within the index reaches. Habitat use by both juvenile bull trout and brook trout was determined in the Warm Springs R. Juvenile bull trout and brook trout occupied pools more frequently than glides, riffles and rapids. However, pools accounted for only a small percentage

  4. A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy K. Franks

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned, Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs.

  5. Glycerin and essential oils in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance and apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrayny Galoro da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the effect of partial replacing corn by glycerin and essential oils addition in the diet of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot on feed intake, animal performance and three markers were assessed to estimate apparent digestibility. Thirty bulls with average weight 400 ± 34.1 kg and 22 ± 2 months old were housed in collective pens (10 x 20 m2 for 63 days. The bulls were randomly assigned to 3 diets (10 bulls per treatment: CON – Control (without glycerin or Essential® oils; GLY – Glycerin (15% on dry matter - DM; and GEO – Glycerin (15% on DM and Essential® oils (3 g animal day-1. Three different markers were used to estimate apparent digestibility in the diets: indigestible dry matter –iDM; indigestible neutral detergent fiber – iNDF; and purified lignin – LIPE®. Feed efficiency and animal performance were not affected by the corn partial replacing by glycerin. No effects were found in partial corn replacing by glycerin and Essential® oils addition in the diets on the fecal output, crude protein and ether extract digestibility among the diets. The DM and OM apparent digestibility were higher for bulls fed with glycerin and Essential® oils. The CHO digestibility was higher for CON diet. The markers iDM, iNDF and LIPE® were similarly to estimate apparent digestibility to all nutrients in the diets.

  6. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  8. Tumor thrombus formation in two dogs with insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrook, Lydia E; Kudnig, Simon T

    2012-10-15

    A 9-year-old sexually intact male Staffordshire Bull Terrier and a 9-year-old neutered male Boxer were evaluated for intermittent neurologic signs including muscle tremors, ataxia, episodic collapse, disorientation, and seizures. Both dogs had low blood glucose and high serum insulin concentrations. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were unremarkable for both dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass that extended from the body of the pancreas into the pancreaticoduodenal vein in each dog. Marginal resection of pancreatic masses was performed, and tumor thrombi were removed via venotomy in both dogs. Histologic evaluation indicated the masses were pancreatic islet cell tumors with tumor thrombi. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of tumors and tumor thrombi, and the dogs were euglycemic during the follow-up period (17 and 45 months after surgery). Although gross tumor thrombus formation has been identified in humans with insulinomas, tumor thrombi have not been previously reported for dogs with insulinomas. Surgical removal of tumor thrombi via venotomy seemed to be well tolerated by the dogs. Tumor thrombus formation did not seem to adversely affect prognosis for the 2 dogs of this report.

  9. Email Reminders Increase the Frequency That Pet Owners Update Their Microchip Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Goodwin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stray animals with incorrect microchip details are less likely to be reclaimed, and unclaimed strays are at increased risk of euthanasia. A retrospective cohort study was performed using 394,747 cats and 904,909 dogs registered with Australia’s largest microchip database to describe animal characteristics, determine whether annual email reminders increased the frequency that owners updated their information, and to compare frequencies of microchip information updates according to pet and owner characteristics. More than twice as many dogs (70% than cats (30% were registered on the database; the most numerous pure-breeds were Ragdoll cats and Staffordshire Bull Terrier dogs, and the number of registered animals per capita varied by Australian state or territory. Owners were more likely (p < 0.001 to update their details soon after they were sent a reminder email, compared to immediately before that email, and there were significant (p < 0.001 differences in the frequency of owner updates by state or territory of residence, animal species, animal age, and socioeconomic index of the owner’s postcode. This research demonstrates that email reminders increase the probability of owners updating their details on the microchip database, and this could reduce the percentages of stray animals that are unclaimed and subsequently euthanized.

  10. Sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushant Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, NDRI, Karnal, to determine the sexual behavior and its relationship with semen quality parameters in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 ejaculates were collected from six adult Sahiwal bulls (age ~47 mo and bwt ~466 kg, to study the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality. The degree of association between different variables was estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficient method. Results: The results depicted that, sexual aggressiveness showed significantly high positive correlation with libido score (LS and sexual behavior score (SBS. Reaction time (RT and total time taken in mounts (TTTM had a significant negative correlation with LS and SBS. Penile erection score and penile protrusion score (PPS both had a significant positive correlation with ejaculatory thrust score, mating ability score, and SBS. Results of correlation among seminal attributes and with sexual behavior depicted that ejaculate volume had positive significant correlation with initial progressive motility (IPM, sperm concentration (SCON, head abnormality, total abnormality, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST, acrosomal integrity (AI whereas, mass activity had positive significant correlation with IPM, SCON, non-eosinophilic spermatozoa count (NESC, HOST, AI, RT and TTTM and IPM had positive significant correlation with SCON, NESC, HOST, AI, and TTTM, whereas and HOST had positive significant correlation with AI. Among seminal attributes, SCON had a positive significant correlation with PPS where as head abnormalities had a positive significant correlation with RT and TTTM. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the relationship of sexual behavior and semen quality parameters are reflecting that the sexual behavior of individual bulls is important to harvest good quality and quantity of semen as desired type of sexual preparation can be provided.

  11. Branchial osmoregulation in the euryhaline bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas: a molecular analysis of ion transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Beau D; Cramp, Rebecca L; Wilson, Jonathan M; Campbell, Hamish A; Franklin, Craig E

    2011-09-01

    Bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, are one of only a few species of elasmobranchs that live in both marine and freshwater environments. Osmoregulation in euryhaline elasmobranchs is achieved through the control and integration of various organs (kidney, rectal gland and liver) in response to changes in environmental salinity. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms of ion transport in the gills of euryhaline elasmobranchs and how they are affected by osmoregulatory challenges. This study was conducted to gain insight into the branchial ion and acid-base regulatory mechanisms of C. leucas by identifying putative ion transporters and determining whether their expression is influenced by environmental salinity. We hypothesised that expression levels of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) pump, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA) and anion exchanger pendrin (PDN) would be upregulated in freshwater (FW) C. leucas. Immunohistochemistry was used to localise all four ion transporters in gills of bull sharks captured in both FW and estuarine/seawater (EST/SW) environments. NHE3 immunoreactivity occurred in the apical region of cells with basolateral NKA expression whereas PDN was apically expressed in cells that also exhibited basolateral VHA immunoreactivity. In accordance with our hypotheses, quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression of NHE3 and NKA was significantly upregulated in gills of FW-captured C. leucas relative to EST/SW-captured animals. These data suggest that NHE3 and NKA together may be important in mediating branchial Na(+) uptake in freshwater environments, whereas PDN and VHA might contribute to Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) transport in marine and freshwater bull shark gills.

  12. Genomic stability and physiological assessments of live offspring sired by a bull clone, Starbuck II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegon, H; Betts, D H; Lin, L; Coppola, G; Perrault, S D; Blondin, P; King, W A

    2007-01-01

    It appears that overt phenotypic abnormalities observed in some domestic animal clones are not transmitted to their progeny. The current study monitored Holstein heifers sired by a bull clone, Starbuck II, from weaning to puberty. Genomic stability was assessed by telomere length status and chromosomal analysis. Growth parameters, blood profiles, physical exams and reproductive parameters were assessed for 12 months (and compared to age-matched control heifers). Progeny sired by the clone bull did not differ (P>0.05) in weight, length and height compared to controls. However, progeny had lower heart rates (HR) (P=0.009), respiratory rates (RR) (P=0.007) and body temperature (P=0.03). Hematological profiles were within normal ranges and did not differ (P>0.05) between both groups. External and internal genitalia were normal and both groups reached puberty at expected ages. Progeny had two or three ovarian follicular waves per estrous cycle and serum progesterone concentrations were similar (P=0.99) to controls. Telomere lengths of sperm and blood cells from Starbuck II were not different (P>0.05) than those of non-cloned cattle; telomere lengths of progeny were not different (P>0.05) from age-matched controls. In addition, progeny had normal karyotypes in peripheral blood leukocytes compared to controls (89.1% versus 86.3% diploid, respectively). In summary, heifers sired by a bull clone had normal chromosomal stability, growth, physical, hematological and reproductive parameters, compared to normal heifers. Furthermore, they had moderate stress responses to routine handling and restraint.

  13. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  14. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatic transcriptional changes in critical genes for gluconeogenesis following castration of bulls

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    Dilla Mareistia Fassah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to understand transcriptional changes in the genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways following castration of bulls. Methods Twenty Korean bulls were weaned at average 3 months of age, and castrated at 6 months. Liver tissues were collected from bulls (n = 10 and steers (n = 10 of Korean cattle, and hepatic gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We examined hepatic transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes for irreversible reactions in both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis as well as genes encoding enzymes for the utilization of several glucogenic substrates. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and carcass characteristics were performed to understand their associations. Results Castration increased the mRNA (3.6 fold; p<0.01 and protein levels (1.4 fold; p< 0.05 of pyruvate carboxylase and mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes (1.7 fold; p<0.05. Hepatic mRNA levels of genes encoding the glycolysis enzymes were not changed by castration. Castration increased mRNA levels of both lactate dehydrogenase A (1.5 fold; p<0.05 and lactate dehydrogenase B (2.2 fold; p<0.01 genes for lactate utilization. Castration increased mRNA levels of glycerol kinase (2.7 fold; p<0.05 and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (1.5 fold; p<0.05 genes for glycerol utilization. Castration also increased mRNA levels of propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta (mitochondrial (3.5 fold; p<0.01 and acyl-CoA synthetase short chain family member 3 (1.3 fold; p = 0.06 genes for propionate incorporation. Conclusion Castration increases transcription levels of critical genes coding for enzymes involved in irreversible gluconeogenesis reactions from pyruvate to glucose and enzymes responsible for incorporation of glucogenic substrates including lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression levels were associated with intramuscular

  16. Analysis of the Ocular Refractive State in Fighting Bulls: Astigmatism Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Bueno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.. The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between −1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D, with a mean of +0.66±0.85 D in post-mortem animals. Values for in vivo conditions were similar (+0.75±0.46 D. Left and right eyes were highly correlated in both sets (p<0.001. A fairly good correlation was also observed when comparing living and post-mortem eyes in the same animals. Anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D was diagnosed in 3 animals. Astigmatism (≥+0.5 D was detected in 93% of the eyes. To our knowledge, the ORS of the fighting bull has been reported for the first time. Although values vary among individuals, all eyes presented a marked astigmatism. Whereas the horizontal meridian was slightly hyperopic, the vertical meridian was always closer to emmetropia. These results represent a starting point to understand the ocular optics of this kind of animals, which might benefit the selection of animals at the farm before being sent to the bullfighting arena.

  17. Semen Quality of Holstein and Buffalo Bulls after Filtration using Sephadex Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdelKhalek, A E; AboulEla, M B; Soheir, A Fawzy; Dandooush E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37degree C) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as well as sperm cell concentration pre-and post-filtration. Results show that among all physical semen characteristics, only ejaculate semen volume was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Holstein than buffalo bulls, but motility, livability, abnormality, sperm concentration and sperm with intact acrosome did not differ between both species. As a result of filtration, sperm motility and livability increased (P<0.05) by 16.4 and 11.8% in Holstein and by 16.9 and 10.1% in buffalo semen, respectively. Sperm abnormality and concentration reduced (P<0.05) by 2.6 and 3.3% in Holstein and by 2.4 and 3.5% in buffalo semen, respectively. Improvements of live sperm and the reduction in sperm concentration (proportional to the pre-filtration value) were better (P<0.05) in Holstein than buffalo semen (15.5% and %52.4 vs. 13.2 and -49.3%, respectively). Improvement of motility and abnormality did not differ in Holstein (25.4 and %57.8) and buffalo semen (26.6 and ,(%54.5respectively. The present results indicate that using sephadex column filter technique has beneficial effects on improving quality of spermatozoa in both species. (author)

  18. FACTORES QUE AFECTAN LA CALIDAD SEMINAL EN TOROSFACTORS AFFECTING SEMINAL QUALITY IN BULLS

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    Lozano Marquez Harvey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La calidad seminal de los toros se puede ver afectada por múltiples causas tanto de origen infeccioso o no infeccioso. El entendimiento adecuado de estas causas es de gran importancia ya que de este modo se pueden tomar los correctivos necesarios ya sea para tratar al toro, o en otros casos para descartarlo del sistema productivo del cual haga parte. No se debe olvidar como la presencia física del toro se puede dar a partir de un banco de germoplasma (semen congelado, el cual puede tener problemas de calidad no inherentes al proceso de criopreservación sino a factores infecciosos o no infecciosos previos a la congelación. Los problemas de calidad seminal se verán reflejados en los diferentes parámetros reproductivos del sistema productivo, lo que a su véz será de gran relevancia al hacer un balance de pérdidas y ganancias de una ganadería tanto de ganado de carne como de leche.Semen quality of bulls can be affected by multiple causes, both infectious and non infectious. Proper understanding of these causes is imperative, either to take the necessary correctives to treat the bull or to discard it from the productive system. It is important not to forget that the physical presence of the bull can be from a germoplasm bank (frozen semen which can have quality problems not related to the cryopreservation procedure but to infectious or not infectious factors before freezing. Seminal quality problems will be reflected on different reproductive parameters of the productive system and these will be highly relevant when estimating earnings and losses of the productive system, both for beef or milk production.

  19. Effect of rib fat thickness on the quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Dallantonia,Erick Escobar; Lage,Josiane Fonseca; Simonetti,Laís Regina; Vito,Elias San; Delevatti,Lutti Maneck; Berchielli,Telma Teresinha

    2015-01-01

    This trial aimed to evaluate the quality of aged beef from Nellore young bulls under two yield grade (YG). Fourteen animals with approximately 450 ± 30 kg body weight were evaluated for backfat thickness (BFT) at the beginning of the experimental period. Seven animals had BFT of 0-3 mm and seven animals, 3.1-6 mm. Two groups were formed at the end of the experiment: animals finished with 3-6 mm BFT (seven animals) and animals finished with 6.1 to 10 mm BFT (seven animals). Every 28 days, we e...

  20. Slatan Dudow, Bulles de savon (1934) et la Suisse, ou Le mouvement des copies

    OpenAIRE

    Cosandey, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Observations à partir des deux copies de Bulles de savon conservées à la Cinémathèque suisse (35mm sonore et 16mm muette) dans le Fonds CSEO/SABZ dont le directeur de l’époque, Hans Neumann fit l’acquisition auprès du cinéaste. A discussion based on the two copies of Dudow’s Soap Bubbles held at the Cinémathèque suisse (sound 35mm and silent 16mm) in the CSEO/SABZ collection, whose director at the time, Hans Neumann, acquired the copies from the filmmaker....

  1. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.

    2017-03-23

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  2. Bull trout population assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington; ANNUAL fiscal year 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesfield, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River

  3. Performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of Nellore and Angus young bulls fed a whole shelled corn diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Schoonmaker, J P; Teixeira, P D; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, C V R; Ladeira, M M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the interaction of breed (Nellore or Angus) and diet (whole shelled corn [WSC] or ground corn [GC] with silage) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal pH of young bulls. Thirty-six bulls (18 Nellore and 18 Angus) with the range in age of 18 to 22 mo and BW of 381 ± 12 kg were used in a completely randomized design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (2 breeds and 2 diets). Experimental diets (DM basis) included 1) a GC diet containing 30% corn silage and 70% GC- and soybean meal-based concentrate and 2) a WSC diet containing 85% WSC and 15% of a soybean meal- and mineral-based pelleted supplement. An additional 8 bulls were slaughtered at the beginning of the experimental period for determination of initial carcass weight. The treatments were Nellore fed the GC diet, Nellore fed the WSC diet, Angus fed the GC diet, and Angus fed the WSC diet. Greater DMI ( Angus bulls compared with Nellore bulls, regardless of diet. Lower average ruminal pH ( = 0.04), maximum ruminal pH (P = 0.02), and DMI ( Angus breed ( < 0.02) and were greater when bulls were fed the GC diet. The WSC diet without forage may be useful for feedlots because this diet promoted greater G:F than the GC diet, regardless of breed. However, special care must be exercised in feed management during adaptation and throughout the feeding of Nellore animals to avoid digestive disorders and fluctuations in DMI.

  4. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  5. Regional Differences of Proteins Expressing in Adipose Depots Isolated from Cows, Steers and Bulls as Identified by a Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT and omental adipose tissue (OMAT from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental were collected from cows (n = 7, steers (n = 7, or bulls (n = 7. LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle.

  6. The effect of floor type on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality of dairy origin bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, V S; Lowe, D E; Lively, F O; Gordon, A W

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using different floor types to accommodate growing and finishing beef cattle on their performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics and meat quality. In total, 80 dairy origin young bulls (mean initial live weight 224 kg (SD=28.4 kg)) were divided into 20 blocks with four animals each according to live weight. The total duration of the experimental period was 204 days. The first 101 days was defined as the growing period, with the remainder of the study defined as the finishing period. Cattle were randomly assigned within blocks to one of four floor type treatments, which included fully slatted flooring throughout the entire experimental period (CS); fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips throughout the entire experimental period (RS); fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to a solid floor covered with straw bedding during the finishing period (CS-S) and fully slatted flooring during the growing period and moved to fully slatted flooring covered with rubber strips during the finishing period (CS-RS). Bulls were offered ad libitum grass silage supplemented with concentrates during the growing period. During the finishing period, bulls were offered concentrates supplemented with chopped barley straw. There was no significant effect of floor type on total dry matter intake (DMI), feed conversion ratio, daily live weight gain or back fat depth during the growing and finishing periods. Compared with bulls accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a significantly lower straw DMI (Pcarcass characteristics or meat quality. However, bulls accommodated on CS-S had a tendency for less channel, cod and kidney fat (P=0.084) compared with those accommodated on CS, RS and CS-RS. Overall, floor type had no effect on the performance, cleanliness, carcass characteristics or meat quality of growing or finishing beef cattle.

  7. Usefulness of 99mTc-MIBI stress myocardial SPECT Bull's-eye quantification incoronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubello, D.; Zanco, P.; Borsato, N.; Chierichetti, F.; Saitta, B.; Ferlin, G.; Candelpergher, G.; Minello, S.

    1995-01-01

    99m Tc-methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) myocardial SPECT quantification performed using a Bull's-eye polar map, was evaluated and compared with visual analysis in 120 patients with proven or suspected CAD. The study series comprised 106 men and 14 women, age 37-75 years, 68 of whom had had a prior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography was taken as the gold standard. Forty age-matched subjecs, with less than a 5% chance of having CAD, were enrolled to establish the normal database for males and females. ROC analysis was used to calculate the optimal thresholds for the definition of the disease extension in each vascular territory of the Bull's-eye polar map. Bull's-eye analysis agreed with visual analysis in 296/360 vessels. Two and three-vessel disease were most frequently observed using the Bull's-eye approach. However, a greater number of false positive (FP) cases were found with Bull's-eye than with visual analysis (28 versus 3 cases): FP cases were detected principally (21/28) in patients with previous myocardial infarction. It is interesting to note that this phenomenon, commonly observed in the LCX or RCA territory, was almost always correctly interpreted as a FP case by visual analysis. In conclusion, it is found the sensitivity and specificity for CAD diagnosis with the Bull's-eye approach to be similar to that of visual analysis, but the former method seems to be somewhat more sensitive for the localization of LAD and LCX disease. However, particular attention should be paid to patients with previous myocardial infarction, as FP cases are not infrequently observed with quantitative analysis, especially in the LCX and RCA territories

  8. Relationship between feed intake, feeding behaviors, performance, and ultrasound carcass measurements in growing purebred Angus and Hereford bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Hill, R A

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the growth, DMI, and feeding behaviors of Angus and Hereford bulls; identify the relationships between feeding behaviors and variation in DMI and residual feed intake (RFI); and determine the value of feeding behaviors in predicting DMI. Individual DMI was measured in Angus bulls (n=189; initial BW=427±3.4 kg) and Hereford bulls (n=146; initial BW=411±4.1 kg) fed a grower ration for 71 d in 2009, 78 d in 2010, and 74 d in 2011 using a GrowSafe intake monitoring system. Feeding frequency (FF, meals/d), head down duration (HDD, s/d), head down duration per meal (HDDM, HDD/FF, s/meal), average meal size [AMS, kg/(meal·d)], and feeding rate (FR, g/s) were also measured or calculated using behavior data collected by the GrowSafe system. Ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (UFT), longissimus muscle area (ULMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF) were determined during the midtest-weight event of every trial. The data from 3 yr were pooled to generate mean differences between the breeds. Residual feed intake was calculated using a linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest BW0.75 (MMWT). Animals were classified into 3 RFI groups based on their RFI score as Low (>0.5 SD below the mean), Average (±0.5 SD from the mean), or High RFI (>0.5 SD above the mean). Angus bulls in the Low RFI group consumed 17% (PAngus and Hereford bulls, respectively. The HDD, HDDM, and FR were significantly correlated with DMI. The feeding behavior traits, HDD, HDDM, and FR when added to the RFI base model, explained 18, 17, and 13%, respectively, of the variation in DMI not explained by ADG and MMWT in Angus bulls. Similarly, in Hereford bulls, HDD, HDDM, and FR explained 35, 26, and 24%, respectively, of the variation in DMI not explained by ADG and MMWT. These data suggest that feeding behaviors are related to DMI of growing Angus and Hereford bulls.

  9. Population status, distribution and potential threats of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae along the Tinau River of Rupandehi District, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Aryal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and conservation of the Blue Bull Boselaphus tragocamelus is becoming one of the prominent discourses of wildlife research.  The study was carried out along the Tinau River at Rupandehi District in western Nepal to ascertain the population status, distribution and potential threats to the Blue Bull.  The study was conducted along six transect lines in the forest.  A total of 40 Blue Bulls were recorded in different transects.  The average group size was five.  The average population density was 0.228 Blue Bulls per ha and the sex ratio was 1 male: 3 females.  The potential threats of the Blue Bull along the Tinau River were habitat destruction, overgrazing, conflict, flooding and accident.  

  10. Assessment of semen quality in Swamp Buffalo AI Bulls in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koonjaenak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Thai swamp buffalo bulls semen used for artificial insemination (AI in Thailand, aspects relevance in freezing and thawing of semen are review. Semen and sperm characteristics were evaluated included sperm count, motility (assessed subjectively and by CASA, morphology (using phase-contrast light microscopy and SEM, plasma membrane integrity (PMI (using a hypo-osmotic swelling test [HOST] and SYBR- 14/propidium iodide [PI], plasma membrane stability (PMS (using Annexin-V/PI and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity (using SCSA and flow cytometry [FCM]. The average ejaculate volume was about 3.0–4.0 mL, with good viability (PMI measured by the HOST and motility (>65% and >70%, respectively. Sperm concentration ranged from 1.1 to 1.2 billion/mL, being also affected by bull age. Whereas semen quality (including sperm output, pH and initial sperm motility did not differ between the seasons. Few spermatozoa (<15%/ ejaculate had abnormal morphology with abnormalities resembling those in other bovidae. In FT semen, PMI (using SYBR-14/PI and PMS were highest in winter. Across seasons, ~50% of post-thaw spermatozoa depicted linear motility, a proportion that decreased to ~35% during incubation (38oC for 60 minutes, without marking any seasonal difference. The sperm DNA was hardly damaged (with <3% fragmentation, expressed as DNA fragmentation index [DFI], among seasons.

  11. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) inhabiting a wastewater-impacted river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsleichter, James; Szabo, Nancy J

    2013-07-01

    The presence of human pharmaceuticals in sewage-impacted ecosystems is a growing concern that poses health risks to aquatic wildlife. Despite this, few studies have investigated the uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in aquatic organisms. In this study, the uptake of 9 APIs from human drugs was examined and compared in neonate bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) residing in pristine (Myakka River) and wastewater-impacted (Caloosahatchee River) tributaries of Florida's Charlotte Harbor estuary. The synthetic estrogen used in human contraceptives (17α-ethynylestradiol) and 6 of the selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine) used in human antidepressants were observed at detectable and, in some cases, quantifiable levels in plasma of Caloosahatchee River sharks. Comparatively, only venlafaxine was detected in the plasma of a single Myakka River shark at a level below the limit of quantitation. These results suggest that sharks residing in wastewater-impacted habitats accumulate APIs, a factor that may pose special risks to C. leucas since it is one of few shark species to regularly occupy freshwater systems. Further research is needed to determine if the low levels of API uptake observed in Caloosahatchee River bull sharks pose health risks to these animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protothecal enteritis as a cause of protein-losing enteropathy in a bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterstock, Jason B; Mansell, Joanne L; Roussel, Allen J

    2005-11-01

    Prototheca spp are achlorophyllic saprophytic algae found in wastewater, sewage, agricultural waste, and possibly elsewhere in the environment. Infections with these organisms have been reported in cattle, humans, and dogs; affected cattle commonly develop mastitis. A 5-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated because of a history of diarrhea and weight loss. The history and physical examination and clinicopathologic findings were similar to those associated with granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Johne's disease), which is the most common protein-losing enteropathy of cattle. However, diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis yielded negative results. Biopsy specimens from the ileum, jejunum, and ileocecal lymph node were collected for histologic examination and preparation of tissue impression smears; Prototheca-like organisms were identified. Because of the poor prognosis associated with this infection and the lack of safe and economical therapeutic agents for cattle, the owner decided to euthanatize the bull. Infection with Prototheca organisms was confirmed postmortem. As this case illustrates, protothecosis may be a cause of granulomatous enteritis in cattle.

  13. Potential of biogas production with young bulls manure on batch biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M.; Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The feedlot system concerning the young bull model allows that animals gain weight in a shorter time since there is higher daily intake of protein when compared to fiber. This change on animals' diet alters particularly manure characteristics and thus interferes on performance of biological systems of treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of biogas production using manure of young bulls that received two different diets on batch biodigesters under three temperatures, with and without inoculum use. The results showed that manure from animals that received more protein on diet (80% concentrate + 20% roughage) had greater reductions on volatile solids when submitted to anaerobic biodigestion. Although the speed of biogas production was superior on treatments with inoculum, it was observed negative effect on inoculum use. There was no effect on temperature during biogas production. Regarding diet effect, manure of animals fed on diet with more protein produced larger amounts of biogas per kg of total added solids (0.2543) when compared to those who received less protein on diet (65% concentrate + 35% roughage), which meant 0.1001 m{sup 3} biogas/kg/total solids. (author)

  14. Masculinization of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using extract of bull testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustiati, A.; Bangkit, I.; Zidni, I.

    2018-03-01

    Tilapia males grow faster to increase the production of the fish, there is a necessity to produce all males by using extract of bull testes. The research method used in this study was the experimental Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. The treatments were A: without immersion and without oral treatment (control); B; immersion 600 μg·L-1 without oral treatment; C: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 30 mg·kg-1 feeds, D: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 40 mg·kg-1 feeds, E: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 feeds. Results showed that the use of bull testicle extract mixed to media at concentration of 3 ml L-1 produced red male nile of 69.07 %. In addition, the immersion of the extract at 500 μg·L-1 resulted the male of 86.71 %. Sex reversal by dipping at 600 μg·L-1 17α-methyltestosterone combined with oral administration at 40 mg·kg-1 produced the highest male of Nile Tilapia Java carp (86.67 %) compared with dipping, which produced 65.56 % of male. These results suggested that combination of dipping and oral is more effective for sex reversal.

  15. Profile of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Zahidah Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of serum total protein concentration and main fractions (albumin and globulin can be used as an important diagnostic tool in clinical biochemistry. Several factors can affect the concentration of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio (A/G. The aim of this study is to obtain serum protein profiles, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio based on breed, age and BCS (body condition score. Blood samples from 160 bulls were collected. Blood chemistry were analyzed by photometer principle using a commercial kit. There were significant (P<0.001 breed variation on total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio. Significant age differences were observed on total protein and albumin concentration (P<0.001, while globulin concentration and A/G ratio were also significant (P<0.05. Amongs groups of BCS, significant difference was verified only in the albumin concentration (P<0.05. The concentration of total proteins, albumins and globulins in the serum of the bulls are higher than standard values for cattle, while A/G ratio is lower.

  16. Transcriptome changes favoring intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle following castration of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J; Bong, J; Kim, G D; Joo, S T; Lee, H-J; Baik, M

    2013-10-01

    Castration increases intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, improving beef quality in cattle. The present study was performed to determine the global transcriptome changes following castration of bulls and to identify genes associated with IMF deposition in the longissimus dorsi (LM) of Korean cattle. A customized bovine CombiMatrix oligonucleotide microarray was constructed, and transcriptome changes following castration were determined by microarray hybridization. Transcriptome comparison between bulls and steers indicated that 428 of 8,407 genes were differentially expressed in the LM by greater than two fold (P castration. Castration upregulated transcription of adipogenic perilipin 2 (PLIN2) and visfatin, lipogenic fatty acid synthase, fatty acid esterification 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5, and many fatty acid oxidation-related genes. Many TCA cycle and OP genes were also transcriptionally upregulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the IMF content in the LM was highly correlated with mRNA levels of PLIN2 (r = 0.70, P castration shifts transcription of lipid metabolism genes, favoring IMF deposition by increasing adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis. This study also indicated that castration increases transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and subsequent energy production (TCA and OP genes). Our microarray analysis provided novel information that castration alters the transcriptome associated with lipid/energy metabolism, favoring IMF deposition in the LM.

  17. Computed tomographic findings and treatment of a bull with pituitary gland abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Malbon, Alexandra; Kochan, Manon; Riond, Barbara; Janett, Fredi; Iten, Cornelia; Dennler, Matthias

    2017-01-13

    In cattle, the prognosis of brain abscess is unfavourable and treatment is therefore not recommended. To the knowledge of the authors, there has been no report of successful treatment of a brain abscess in cattle.This report describes the clinical, computed tomographic and postmortem findings in a Holstein-Friesian bull with a hypophyseal abscess. The main clinical findings were generalised ataxia, ptyalism, prolapse of the tongue, dropped jaw, dysphagia, head tilt and unilateral ptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid evaluation revealed 2437 leukocytes/µl and severe pleocytosis. CT examination of the head showed a cavitary lesion consistent with an abscess in the hypophysis. Treatment consisted of gentamicin and flunixin meglumine for 3 days and amoxicillin for 40 days. The neurological signs resolved within 8 days of the start of treatment. The bull was slaughtered 11 months later because of infertility, and a postmortem examination was carried out. Histologically, a mild chronic non suppurative meningoencephalitis restricted to the ventral diencephalon was diagnosed. In addition, there was mild to moderate multifocal chronic lymphoplasmacytic hypophysitis with mild multifocal fibrosis. This case report stresses the significance of CT in confirming the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in cattle and for localising brain lesions. Treatment of the brain abscess resulted, with respect to the central nervous disorder, in a successful outcome and was encouraging considering that most cases have an unfavourable prognosis.

  18. Seasonal effect on physiological, reproductive and fertility profiles in breeding mithun bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the seasonal effect on physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility in breeding mithun bulls.Methods: A total of ten adult mithun bulls age of 5 to 6 years old with good body condition (score 5-6 were selected from ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The seasons were categorised into winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons based on the meteorological data and sunshine hours. The physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility parameters were assessed during different seasons in mithun under the semi-intensive system of management.Results: The statistical analysis revealed that these experimental parameters were differed significantly (P<0.05 among the seasons and in overall spring and winter seasons were more beneficial in mithun breeding programme, although, the breeding in mithun occurred throughout the year with variation.Conclusions: It is concluded that collection & preservation of mithun semen and artificial insemination in mithun species during the season of spring and winter has significant beneficial effect in terms of semen production, freezability and fertility for artificial breeding programme in mithun under the semi-intensive system.

  19. A floral survey of cliff habitats along Bull Run at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.

    2015-08-06

    Isolated patches of native vegetation in human-modified landscapes are important reservoirs of biological diversity because they may be the only places in which rare or native species can persist. Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia, is an island embedded in a matrix of intensively modified lands; it is becoming increasingly isolated due to growth of the greater Washington, D.C. area. A series of cliffs along Bull Run support an eastern white pine community disjunct from its more typical range in the Appalachian Mountains. Cliffs frequently support vegetation communities that differ from surrounding habitat. In this ecological context, the cliffs along Bull Run are islands of specialized habitat within an island of natural and semi-natural communities (the park), surrounded by a human-dominated landscape. A floral survey of these cliffs was a top priority identified by the National Park Service National Capital Region via the National Resource Preservation Program; in 2014, we completed a floral survey of 11 cliffs in the park. We recorded 282 species in 194 genera and 83 families, including 23 newly documented species for the park.

  20. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  1. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  2. Investigations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) interactions in Southeast Washington streams. Final report 1992; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, K.D.; Martin, S.W.; Schuck, M.L.; Scholz, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed

  3. Tactical decisions of concentrate level, slaughter age and carcass weight of bulls of five beef breeds under Norwegian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BONESMO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beef production based on suckler cow breeds is a relatively new production system in Norway as in most Nordic countries. To ensure the continuation of this production, profitable management practices designed for Norwegian conditions have to be established. Thus a simulation model was developed that integrates the daily feed intake, the daily live weight (LW gain, silage net energy concentration for beef production (feed units beef (FUb kg?1 dry matter and price, concentrate level and price, and carcass price for bulls of the country's five most common beef breeds. In this work the model was combined with production statistics to find general recommendations in the finishing of beef bulls under Norwegian conditions. Among all the five breeds the Limousin bulls had the highest estimated mean daily return and the Hereford bulls the lowest estimated mean daily return from 20 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 940 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter, and from 40 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 800 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter. Our estimated optimal slaughter ages and carcass weights shows that it pays to more intensively feed during the finishing period for all five breeds. Current farming practice in Norway for the five major breeds studied is that slaughter age is at least two months later with lighter carcass weights than the results expected from following our model estimated recommendations.

  4. Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media: Commentary on Bull et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The recent editorial in this journal by Bull et al. ("Connecting Informal and Formal Learning Experiences in the Age of Participatory Media" Vol 8, Iss 2) discussed the challenges of bridging formal learning practices and informal learning opportunities within the context of today's Web-enhanced world. In this commentary, Christine…

  5. Assessment of glucose homeostasis in crossbred steer progeny sired by Brahman bulls that experienced prenatal transportation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to assess glucose homeostasis of crossbred male progeny whose Brahman sires experienced prenatal transportation stress (PS) in utero. Sixteen steers (PNS group) sired by 3 PS bulls gestating dams were transported for 2 h at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 ± 5 d of gest...

  6. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma Panhandle, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Leland C.; Madden, Andrew S.; Carter, Brian J.; Simms, Alexander R.; Swindle, Andrew L.; Alexander, Hanna M.; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-02-01

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  7. Risk assessments of lumpy skin diseases in Borena bull market chain and its implication for livelihoods and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Zewde, Girma; Admassu, Berhanu

    2013-06-01

    Risks of introduction of lumpy skin disease (LSD) through traded Borena bulls to market chain and its consequences were assessed. The assessment used the framework that has been recommended by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) for risk analysis. Likelihoods for release and exposure were estimated by a qualitative scale ranging from negligible to very high, whereas the consequences which resulted from disease occurrences were assessed quantitatively. The likelihood of the introduction of LSD to the market chain through traded Borena bulls is found to be high (medium uncertainty), whereas the probability of exposure is very high (medium uncertainty). From the total of 11,189 bulls observed during outbreak investigation of LSD in six sites of feedlot operation in and around Adama, 681(6.1 %) and 204 (1.8 %) bulls were found to be affected and dead with LSD, respectively. The total economic loss due to LSD was estimated to be 667,785.6 USD. The risk estimates for LSD are greater than negligible; therefore, disease prevention and control strategy along the chain should be carefully considered by the Ethiopian veterinary services.

  8. Relationships Between Temperament and Transportation With Rectal Temperature and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Epinephrine in Bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...

  9. Effect of shadow availability at pasture on reproductive traits of Nelore bulls (Bos indicus raised in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Fabián Bao Tarragó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is responsible for bull body temperature elevation. An alternative to minimize heat stress is to use artificial shade. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal stress reduction, through shade availability, on reproductive characteristics of Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. For this, ten bulls were divided in: Available artificial shade (AS, n = 5 and Unavailable shade (US, n = 5. Each group was kept in two hectare paddocks, in which shade availability for group AS was artificially created. Animals were submitted to a clinical-reproductive evaluation and seminal analyses. No interaction was observed between treatments (AS and US and time (8 collections for all analyzed variables (P>0.05. No significant effect (P > 0.05 of treatment was observed for all parameters analyzed. So, it can be concluded that the absence of shaded areas during summer does not negatively affect reproductive characteristics such as: scrotal circumference, testicular consistency, progressive motility, percentage of rapidly moving cells (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis - CASA, morphology or sperm viability in Nellore bulls raised in southeastern Brazil, considering that results could be different in other regions of the country where average temperature is higher.

  10. The implementation of CP1 computer code in the Honeywell Bull computer in Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of the CP1 computer code in the Honeywell Bull computer in Brazilian Nuclear Energy Comission is presented. CP1 is a computer code used to solve the equations of punctual kinetic with Doppler feed back from the system temperature variation based on the Newton refrigeration equation (E.G.) [pt

  11. Quantifying the distribution of nanodiamonds in pre-Younger Dryas to recent age deposits along Bull Creek, Oklahoma panhandle, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Leland C; Madden, Andrew S; Carter, Brian J; Simms, Alexander R; Swindle, Andrew L; Alexander, Hanna M; Fine, Scott; Benamara, Mourad

    2014-02-04

    High levels of nanodiamonds (nds) have been used to support the transformative hypothesis that an extraterrestrial (ET) event (comet explosion) triggered Younger Dryas changes in temperature, flora and fauna assemblages, and human adaptations [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(41):16016-16021]. We evaluate this hypothesis by establishing the distribution of nds within the Bull Creek drainage of the Beaver River basin in the Oklahoma panhandle. The earlier report of an abundance spike of nds in the Bull Creek I Younger Dryas boundary soil is confirmed, although no pure cubic diamonds were identified. The lack of hexagonal nds suggests Bull Creek I is not near any impact site. Potential hexagonal nds at Bull Creek were found to be more consistent with graphene/graphane. An additional nd spike is found in deposits of late Holocene through the modern age, indicating nds are not unique to the Younger Dryas boundary. Nd distributions do not correlate with depositional environment, pedogenesis, climate perturbations, periods of surface stability, or cultural activity.

  12. Persistent bovine pestivirus infection localized in the testes of an immuno-competent, non-viraemic bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voges, H.; Horner, G.W.; Rowe, S.; Wellenberg, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    A post-pubertal bull on an artificial insemination station was found to be persistently shedding bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in semen over a period of eleven months, while demonstrating no viraemia. Circulating antibodies to BVDV were consistently high, suggesting that the immune system was

  13. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  14. Influence of a CIDR prior to bull breeding on pregnancy rates and subsequent calving distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, G C; Dahlen, C R; Vonnahme, K A; Hansen, G R; Arseneau, J D; Perry, G A; Walker, R S; Clement, J; Arthington, J D

    2008-11-01

    We determined whether insertion of a CIDR for 7 days prior to the breeding season enhanced pregnancy rates and altered the date of conception in suckled beef cows mated naturally. Suckled beef cows (n=2033) from 15 locations were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (1) cows received a CIDR 7 days prior to the breeding season for 7 days (CIDR; n=999); (2) cows received no treatment (Control; n=1034). On the first day of the breeding season bulls were introduced to herds at a rate of 15-25 cows per yearling bull or 20-30 cows per mature bull. Pregnancy status and the date of conception were determined via transrectal ultrasonography at 56 and 120 days after initiation of the breeding season. Overall pregnancy rates ranged from 59.3 to 98.9% among the 15 locations. The percentage of cows becoming pregnant during the first 30 days of the breeding season was similar between CIDR (68.2%) and Control (66.7%) cows, and overall pregnancy rates were similar between CIDR (88.9%) and Control (88.6%) cows. The average day of conception after initiation of the breeding season was shorter (Pbody condition score and nor parity affected pregnancy rates or days to conception, whereas pregnancy rates and days to conception were affected (Pconception were greater for cows that calved within 40 days (31.6+/-1.2 days) of initiation of the breeding season compared to cows calving between 40 and 50 days (25.3+/-1.2 days) prior to initiation of the breeding season, which were greater than those cows calving between 50-60 days (20.0+/-0.8 days) and 60-70 days (21.3+/-1.0 days) prior to initiation of the breeding season. Cows calving greater than 70 days (17.3+/-1.5 days) from initiation of the breeding season had the shortest interval to conception. We concluded that insertion of a CIDR prior to the breeding season failed to increase overall pregnancy rates, but did influence the average day of conception.

  15. Le Narrateur kafkaïen ou la conscience malheureuse prisonnière en régime hégélien. L’exemple du Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteni Oriane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Nous aimerions montrer que Le Terrier de Kafka est représentatif de l’étrange «intersubjectivité» telle qu’elle peut être pensée chez un auteur «mineur». La nouvelle tend à nous rappeler qu’être un sujet à part entière (susceptible d’intersubjectivité c’est tout d’abord occuper une place «majeure» dans la société. C’est à cette condition que peut être dépassé le moi animal, que peut être risquée la vie, pour se poser comme maître. Ceux qui occupent une place mineure en sont réduit à un Moi animal au sens hégélien, pour qui la vie est la suprême valeur. Ils n’ont pas la force de la risquer et ne peuvent donc entrer dans une lutte frontale pour l’affirmation de leur liberté et de leurs droits, dite de maîtrise. Leur espace de lutte n’est pas une scène publique, de bataille, une scène de la représentation pour filer la métaphore théâtrale, mais un boyau souterrain duquel, dans leur farouche isolement, ils entendent grouiller d’autres consciences prisonnières comme eux. Cellesci n’arrivent pas à accéder à la lumière de la reconnaissance publique, condition d’une existence pleinement accomplie chez Hegel, pour qui l’homme trouve son accomplissement en tant que citoyen de l’État. Ceux qui sont à la marge doivent inventer de nouvelles formes de luttes, souterraines, sous la figure du couloir retors, du réseau, de l’interaction, de branchement de masses entre elles.

  16. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marcus Drymon

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas, habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010 and spatially (upper vs lower bay. Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C, moderate salinities (10-11 psu and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l, although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  17. Associations of hypoosmotic swelling test, relative sperm volume shift, aquaporin7 mRNA abundance and bull fertility estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R K; Kasimanickam, V R; Arangasamy, A; Kastelic, J P

    2017-02-01

    Mammalian sperm are exposed to a natural hypoosmotic environment during male-to-female reproductive tract transition; although this activates sperm motility in vivo, excessive swelling can harm sperm structure and function. Aquaporins (AQPs) is a family of membrane-channel proteins implicated in sperm osmoregulation. The objective was to determine associations among relative sperm volume shift, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm aquaporin (AQP) 7 mRNA abundances, and sire conception rate (SCR; fertility estimate) in Holstein bulls at a commercial artificial insemination center. Three or four sires for each full point SCR score from -4 to +4 were included. Each SCR estimate for study bulls (N = 30) was based on > 500 services (mean ± SEM) of 725 ± 13 services/sire). Sperm from a single collection day (two ejaculates) from these commercial Holstein bulls were used. Relative mRNA expression of AQP7 in sperm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Mean relative sperm volume shift and percentage of sperm reacted in a HOST (% HOST) were determined (400 sperm per bull) after incubating in isoosmotic (300 mOsm/kg) and hypoosmotic (100 mOsm/kg) solutions for 30 min. There was no correlation between %HOST and SCR (r = 0.28 P > 0.1). However, there was a positive correlation between relative sperm volume shift and SCR (r = 0.65, P 2) fertility sire groups. In conclusion, bulls with higher SCR had significantly greater AQP7 mRNA abundance in frozen-thawed sperm. This plausibly contributed to greater regulation of sperm volume shift, which apparently conferred protection from detrimental swelling and impaired functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Outlining adequate protocols for Lidia bull epididymal storage and sperm cryopreservation: use of glycerol, dimethylformamide and N-acetylcysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Matilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lidia bovine breed is an important hallmark of the Spanish cattle industry. Bulls are selected based upon aggressiveness and epididymal sperm cryopreservation is the way to obtain and store their genetics. There are not specifically designed protocols yet to perform Lidia bull sperm cryopreservation. The present study aimed to determine if a tris-fructose-citrate-egg yolk (20% v/v; TFY extender supplemented with 7% glycerol (TFY1 or 3.5% glycerol plus 3.5% dimethylformamide (DMF; TFY2 are suitable media for cryopreservation of epididymal Lidia bull sperm. Moreover, the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a potent antioxidant, was evaluated. The epididymis were stored at 4°C for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h, and both freezing media were tested as such or supplemented with 1 or 2.5 mM of NAC. Our data demonstrated that post-thaw viability was well maintained (TFY1: 50.8% ± 1.9 at 24 h and 52.4% ± 0.8 at 96 h and TFY2: 52.6% ± 1.6 at 24 h and 56.1% ± 1.8 at 96 h; mean % ± SEM; p>0.05 as also were total and progressive sperm motility, high mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production, DNA status and acrosomal intactness of Lidia bull sperm up to 96 h of epididymal storage, all extender variations being similar (p>0.05. In conclusion, the use of TFY medium supplemented either with 7% glycerol alone or the combination of 3.5% glycerol and 3.5% DMF were equally safe choices for epididymal Lidia bull sperm cryopreservation, and NAC addition did not significantly improve sperm post-thaw quality.

  19. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason B.; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  20. Distribution and dynamic habitat use of young bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas in a highly stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymon, J Marcus; Ajemian, Matthew J; Powers, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how animals alter habitat use in response to changing abiotic conditions is important for effective conservation management. For bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), habitat use has been widely examined in the eastern and western Gulf of Mexico; however, knowledge of their movements and the factors influencing them is lacking for populations in the more temperate north-central Gulf of Mexico. To examine how changes in hydrographic conditions affected the presence of young bull sharks in Mobile Bay, Alabama, thirty-five sharks were fitted with internal acoustic transmitters and monitored with an acoustic monitoring array consisting of thirty-three receivers between June 2009 and December 2010. Tagged sharks ranged in size from 60 to 114 cm fork length and were detected between the upper and lower portions of Mobile Bay. Despite a variety of freshwater sources associated with this highly productive estuary, sharks were most consistently detected at the largest input to the system--the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. Our findings suggest a combination of hydrographic factors interact to influence the distribution of juvenile bull sharks in Mobile Bay. The factors affecting the probability of detecting at least one bull shark varied both temporally (2009 vs 2010) and spatially (upper vs lower bay). Electivity analysis demonstrated that bull sharks showed highest affinity for warm water (29-32 °C), moderate salinities (10-11 psu) and normoxic waters (5-7 mg/l), although these patterns were not consistent between regions or across years. We suggest future studies coupling telemetry and hydrographic variables should, when possible, consider the interactions of multiple environmental parameters when defining the dynamic factors explaining the spatial distribution of coastal sharks.

  1. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. was studied to determine the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidants, and antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The studied mushroom is a rich source of carbohydrates and proteins. Mannitol and trehalose were the main free sugars. In addition, the polyunsaturated fatty acids α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols were found. Oxalic and citric acids were the most abundant organic acids; cinnamic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were quantified in the methanolic extract and could be related to the antioxidant properties. It was the polysaccharidic extract that exhibited higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, indicating that the compounds present in this extract possess stronger bioactivity. Only the polysaccharidic extract revealed antiproliferative activity in human tumor cell lines. In addition, a suitable model system with chicken pâté was developed to test the antimicrobial preserving properties of L. sulphureus. The methanolic extract was used to examine in situ preserving properties against Aspergillus flavus and demonstrated excellent preserving potential.

  2. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, V.; Porca, E. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Pastrana, M.P. [Centro de Conservacion y Restauracion de Bienes Culturales, Junta de Castilla y Leon, Simancas (Spain); Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Saiz-Jimenez, C., E-mail: saiz@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-08-01

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  3. Lizards, ticks and contributions to Australian parasitology: C. Michael Bull (1947-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephanie S; Gardner, Michael G

    2017-12-01

    Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species ( Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri ) on the sleepy lizard ( Tiliqua rugosa ). In this article, we provide an overview of how this research journey developed to become one of the longest-running studies of lizards and their ticks, totalling 35 years of continuous surveys of ticks on lizards, and the insights and knowledge that he generated along that journey.

  4. Futures hedging effectiveness under the segmentation of bear/bull energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chiao-Yi; Lai, Jing-Yi; Chuang, I-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This article undertakes eight hedging models (Regression, MD-GARCH, BEKK-GARCH, CCC-GARCH, ECM-MD, ECM-BEKK, ECM-CCC, and state space models) to investigate hedging effectiveness of different price scenarios in energy futures markets. Different models have systematically evidenced that hedging effectiveness is higher in an increasing pattern (termed 'bull markets') than in a decreasing pattern (termed 'bear markets') for crude oil and gasoline futures. That is, findings show asymmetric hedging performance between upward and downward price trends consistently from the most popular hedging models in literature. Out-of-sample examination also suggests that the ranking of hedging effectiveness of different hedging models is not parallel in different price patterns across futures contracts, implying that investors should adjust their hedging strategies accordingly. (author)

  5. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T V; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly (P ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated (P ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  6. Futures hedging effectiveness under the segmentation of bear/bull energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chiao-Yi [Department of Money and Banking, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Rd., Nanzih, Kaohsiung City, 811 (China); Lai, Jing-Yi; Chuang, I-Yuan [Department of Finance, National Chung-Cheng University, No. 168, University Rd., Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62102. (China)

    2010-03-15

    This article undertakes eight hedging models (Regression, MD-GARCH, BEKK-GARCH, CCC-GARCH, ECM-MD, ECM-BEKK, ECM-CCC, and state space models) to investigate hedging effectiveness of different price scenarios in energy futures markets. Different models have systematically evidenced that hedging effectiveness is higher in an increasing pattern (termed 'bull markets') than in a decreasing pattern (termed 'bear markets') for crude oil and gasoline futures. That is, findings show asymmetric hedging performance between upward and downward price trends consistently from the most popular hedging models in literature. Out-of-sample examination also suggests that the ranking of hedging effectiveness of different hedging models is not parallel in different price patterns across futures contracts, implying that investors should adjust their hedging strategies accordingly. (author)

  7. Microbiological study of bulls of indulgence of the 15th-16th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, V.; Porca, E.; Pastrana, M.P.; Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    During the restoration of the church of 'San Esteban' in Cuellar (Segovia, Spain) a few sepulchres were opened. Among them was that of Dona Isabel de Zuazo, from the 16th century. Together with the corpse was found a series of printed documents from the 15th-16th centuries, most of which were bulls of indulgence. A microbiological study of the documents was carried out using techniques of isolation and molecular microbiology, together with scanning electron microscopy. Most of the identified bacteria were highly suggestive of a human origin, particularly the predominance of Clostridium species consistent with the flora of the human intestinal tract. Our results demonstrate that appreciable post-mortem migration of bacteria has taken place from the corpse to the historic documents. This can be explained considering that the documents were found on pelvic region, and were contaminated by body fluids and putrefaction.

  8. Improving the accuracy of acetabular cup implantation using a bulls-eye spirit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Duncan; Gupta, Sanjay; Ohly, Nicholas E; Patil, Sanjeev; Meek, R; Mohammed, Aslam

    2011-01-01

    Acetabular introducers have a built-in inclination of 45 degrees to the handle shaft. With patients in the lateral position, surgeons aim to align the introducer shaft vertical to the floor to implant the acetabulum at 45 degrees. We aimed to determine if a bulls-eye spirit level attached to an introducer improved the accuracy of implantation. A small circular bulls-eye spirit level was attached to the handle of an acetabular introducer. A saw bone hemipelvis was fixed to a horizontal, flat surface. A cement substitute was placed in the acetabulum and subjects were asked to implant a polyethylene cup, aiming to obtain an angle of inclination of 45 degrees. Two attempts were made with the spirit level masked and two with it unmasked. The distance of the air bubble from the spirit level's center was recorded by a single assessor. The angle of inclination of the acetabular component was then calculated. Subjects included both orthopedic consultants and trainees. Twenty-five subjects completed the study. Accuracy of acetabular implantation when using the unmasked spirit level improved significantly in all grades of surgeon. With the spirit level masked, 12 out of 50 attempts were accurate at 45 degrees inclination; 11 out of 50 attempts were "open," with greater than 45 degrees of inclination, and 27 were "closed," with less than 45 degrees. With the spirit level visible, all subjects achieved an inclination angle of exactly 45 degrees. A simple device attached to the handle of an acetabular introducer can significantly improve the accuracy of implantation of a cemented cup into a saw bone pelvis in the lateral position.

  9. Technical note: Relationship between infrared thermography and heat production in young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, R A; Busato, K C; Ladeira, M M; Johnson, K A; Galvão, M C; Rodrigues, A C; Lourençoni, D; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-03-01

    The traditional techniques to measure heat production (HP) are calorimetry (direct and indirect) and comparative slaughter. Both methods are expensive and require extensive amounts of time and infrastructure. Infrared thermography (IRT) could be a faster and less expensive alternative to estimate cattle HP. The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of the IRT technique as an indicator of HP in cattle. A total of 24 bulls (12 Nellore and 12 Black Angus) with initial BW of 380 ± 7 kg were used. Initially, 4 animals of each breed were harvested (baseline animals) and simple regressions were developed for each breed from these baseline animals to estimate the initial chemical composition of the remaining bulls. Eight animals of each breed were fed a silage/concentrate diet for ad libitum intake in individual stalls. On the 25th, 50th, and 75th experimental day, infrared thermal images (Fluke Ti 55ft; Fluke Corporation) were taken of each animal's face to access skin and ocular surface temperatures. A metabolism trial was conducted to estimate the ME intake (MEI). After 84 experimental days, the cattle were harvested and retained energy (RE) and HP were calculated. The data were analyzed using the MIXED and REG procedures of SAS adopting a significance level of 0.05. Angus cattle had a greater daily MEI, HP, and skin and eye temperatures than Nellore. We found significant correlations ( ≤ 0.005) between daily HP and maximum ( = 0.65) and average skin temperatures ( = 0.65) and maximum ( = 0.65) and average ocular surface ( = 0.69) temperatures recorded on d 50. Infrared thermography has potential to be used to evaluate HP in cattle.

  10. Application of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques to assess sensory characteristics of young dairy bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2018-05-01

    This work aims to develop a rapid analytical technique to predict beef sensory attributes using Raman spectroscopy (RS) and to investigate correlations between sensory attributes using chemometric analysis. Beef samples (n = 72) were obtained from young dairy bulls (Holstein-Friesian and Jersey×Holstein-Friesian) slaughtered at 15 and 19 months old. Trained sensory panel evaluation and Raman spectral data acquisition were both carried out on the same longissimus thoracis muscles after ageing for 21 days. The best prediction results were obtained using a Raman frequency range of 1300-2800 cm -1 . Prediction performance of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models developed using all samples were moderate to high for all sensory attributes (R 2 CV values of 0.50-0.84 and RMSECV values of 1.31-9.07) and were particularly high for desirable flavour attributes (R 2 CVs of 0.80-0.84, RMSECVs of 4.21-4.65). For PLSR models developed on subsets of beef samples i.e. beef of an identical age or breed type, significant improvements on prediction performances were achieved for overall sensory attributes (R 2 CVs of 0.63-0.89 and RMSECVs of 0.38-6.88 for each breed type; R 2 CVs of 0.52-0.89 and RMSECVs of 0.96-6.36 for each age group). Chemometric analysis revealed strong correlations between sensory attributes. Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis was demonstrated to have high potential as a rapid and non-destructive technique to predict the sensory quality traits of young dairy bull beef. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Detection of copy number variations and their effects in Chinese bulls

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Liangzhi

    2014-06-17

    Background: Copy number variations (CNVs) are a main source of genomic structural variations underlying animal evolution and production traits. Here, with one pure-blooded Angus bull as reference, we describe a genome-wide analysis of CNVs based on comparative genomic hybridization arrays in 29 Chinese domesticated bulls and examined their effects on gene expression and cattle growth traits.Results: We identified 486 copy number variable regions (CNVRs), covering 2.45% of the bovine genome, in 24 taurine (Bos taurus), together with 161 ones in 2 yaks (Bos grunniens) and 163 ones in 3 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Totally, we discovered 605 integrated CNVRs, with more " loss" events than both " gain" and " both" ones, and clearly clustered them into three cattle groups. Interestingly, we confirmed their uneven distributions across chromosomes, and the differences of mitochondrion DNA copy number (gain: taurine, loss: yak & buffalo). Furthermore, we confirmed approximately 41.8% (253/605) and 70.6% (427/605) CNVRs span cattle genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), respectively. Finally, we confirmed 6 CNVRs in 9 chosen ones by using quantitative PCR, and further demonstrated that CNVR22 had significantly negative effects on expression of PLA2G2D gene, and both CNVR22 and CNVR310 were associated with body measurements in Chinese cattle, suggesting their key effects on gene expression and cattle traits.Conclusions: The results advanced our understanding of CNV as an important genomic structural variation in taurine, yak and buffalo. This study provides a highly valuable resource for Chinese cattle\\'s evolution and breeding researches. 2014 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts and glutathione antioxidants on bull semen quality after cryopreservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghigh-Kia, H.; Olfati-Karaji, R.; Hoseinkhani, A.; Ashrafi, I.

    2014-06-01

    The present study determined the effects of the addition of rosemary extract (ROM), glutathione (GSH), and their combination (ROM + GSH) to freezing extender on the quality of bull semen after cryopreservation. Before cryoperservation, the samples were diluted in a tris-egg yolk (TEY) extender containing 5 mM GSH (treatment I), 5 or 10 g L{sup -}1 ROM (treatments II and III), and ROM with GSH (5 mM GSH with 5 or 10 g L{sup -}1 of ROM) (treatments IV and V). An extender containing no antioxidants (non-ROM/GSH-treated) served as control group. Kinematic parameters were evaluated by means of a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). The viability and membrane integrity of the sperm were assessed using eosin-nigrosin stain and the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) at 0 and 2 h after freezethawing. Lipooxidative parameters, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were assessed after thawing. Treatment III showed positive effects for total motility (TM) (p < 0.01), average path velocity (VAP) (p < 0.001), viability (p < 0.01) and HOST (p < 0.01); however, lipid peroxidation (LPO) decreased (p < 0.05) and GPx activity increased (p < 0.05) immediately after thawing compared to the control. The TM (p < 0.01), VAP (p < 0.01), viability (p < 0.01), HOST (p < 0.01) decreased in LPO (p < 0.01) and GPx activity (p < 0.05) for treatment V and the viability and GPx activity (p < 0.05) for treatment I were significantly higher than for the control group at 2 h after thawing. It was concluded that the inclusion of ROM and its combination with GSH improves the post-thaw quality of bull semen. (Author)

  13. A framework for assessing the feasibility of native fish conservation translocations: Applications to threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Benjamin T.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to consider more aggressive and direct interventions for the conservation of freshwater fishes that are threatened by invasive species, habitat loss, and climate change. Conservation introduction (moving a species outside its indigenous range to other areas where conditions are predicted to be more suitable) is one type of translocation strategy that fisheries managers can use to establish new conservation populations in areas of refugia. To date, however, there are few examples of successful conservation-based introductions. Many attempts fail to establish new populations—in part because environmental factors that might influence success are inadequately evaluated before the translocation is implemented. We developed a framework to assess the feasibility of rescuing threatened fish populations through translocation into historically unoccupied stream and lake habitats. The suitability of potential introduction sites was evaluated based on four major components: the recipient habitat, recipient community, donor population, and future threats. Specific questions were then developed to evaluate each major component. The final assessment was based on a scoring system that addressed each question by using criteria developed from characteristics representative of highly suitable habitats and populations. This framework was used to evaluate the proposed within-drainage translocation of three Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus populations in Glacier National Park, Montana. Our results indicated that within-drainage translocation is a feasible strategy for conserving locally adapted populations of Bull Trout through the creation of new areas of refugia in Glacier National Park. The framework provides a flexible platform that can help managers make informed decisions for moving threatened fishes into new areas of refugia for conservation and recovery programs.

  14. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  15. Carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of longissimus muscle of young bulls from four genetic groups finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Haruyoshi Ito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle of 32 young bulls from four genetic groups: Caracu; Canchin; Aberdeen Angus × Canchin; and Charolais × Caracu, finished in feedlot and slaughtered at 22 months old. Each group was composed of eight animals. There was no difference for moisture, ash, crude protein or total cholesterol between bulls from different genetic groups. However, total lipids percentage was higher for bulls from Caracu and Aberdeen Angus × Canchin and lower for Canchin and Charolais genetic groups. Polyunsaturated fattty acids and n-6 percentage was higher for Canchin and lower for Caracu, Aberdeen Angus × Canchin and Charolais genetic groups. Canchin and Charolais × Caracu genetic groups presented higher n-3 percentage than Caracu and Aberdeen Angus × Canchin. There was no difference for the n-6/n-3 ratio among the bulls from the four genetic groups.

  16. Evaluation of long-acting oxytetracycline and a commercial monovalent vaccine for the control of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nathan E N; Lanigan, Emily; Waugh, Taryn; Gesy, Karen; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    A blinded randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a multi-modal therapeutic regime for treatment of beef bulls infected with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) . Treatment included 2 doses of a commercially available monovalent vaccine and long-acting oxytetracycline applied twice at a 2-week interval with treatment completed 2 weeks before post-treatment observation. Fifteen confirmed Cfv infected bulls were randomly allocated to control ( n = 8) or treatment groups ( n = 7). Preputial scrapings were collected each week from before infection to 11 weeks following the last treatment. When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for both culture and preputial scrapings were interpreted in parallel, there were no significant differences between treated and untreated bulls. Regardless of the type of diagnostic testing considered, treatment with 2 label doses of this regime did not stop shedding of Cfv in all treated bulls and is, therefore, not recommended as an effective management strategy.

  17. Prevalence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in crossbred breeding bulls kept on zero-grazed smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Swai

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey to demonstrate the presence or absence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in cross-bred breeding bulls kept under smallholding dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania was carried out during the period of January-June 1996. Sheath washings, swabs and preputial scrapings were collected from 58 randomly selected bulls. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis was demonstrated in 3/58 (5.1 % and Tritrichomonas foetus in 0/58 (0 % of all bulls tested. Bull-level variables of level of taurine genes (62.5 % taurine genes, F2; 75 % taurine genes, F3 and age were not significantly associated with campylobacteriosis (P > 0.05. The result of the study identifies Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerelias as the agent of enzootic infertility in smallholder herds and suggests that may be a significant problem.

  18. Different DNA methylation patterns detected by the Amplified Methylation Polymorphism Polymerase Chain Reaction (AMP PCR) technique among various cell types of bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Phutikanit, Nawapen; Suwimonteerabutr, Junpen; Harrison, Dion; D'Occhio, Michael; Carroll, Bernie; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to apply an arbitrarily primed methylation sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay called Amplified Methylation Polymorphism Polymerase Chain Reaction (AMP PCR) to investigate the methylation profiles of somatic and germ cells obtained from Holstein bulls. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from sperm, leukocytes and fibroblasts obtained from three bulls and digested with a methylation sensitive endonuclease (HpaII). The native genomic ...

  19. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  20. Post-death cloning of endangered Jeju black cattle (Korean native cattle): fertility and serum chemistry in a cloned bull and cow and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Song, Dong Hwan; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Kim, Young Hoon; Mun, Seong Ho; Oh, Chang Eon; Ko, Moon Suck; Lee, Dong Sun; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2013-12-17

    To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC.

  1. Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, G D; Kroetsch, T; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2017-07-01

    Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) eliminates bulls that are grossly abnormal; however, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in field fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. The testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) is involved in regulation of sperm motility and capacitation in bulls through well-established enzyme activity and signaling functions. The objective was to determine ATP1A4 content, activity and their relationship to post-thaw sperm function and field fertility, using semen samples from low-fertility (LF) and high-fertility (HF) Holstein bulls (n = 20 each) with known FERTSOL rates (measure of field fertility, based on non-return rate). Frozen-thawed sperm from HF bulls had increased ATP1A4 content and activity compared to LF bulls. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm from HF bulls had increased tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS, F-actin content, and low intracellular calcium compared to LF bulls. Subsequent incubation of HF bull sperm with ouabain (a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) further augmented the post-thaw increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS production, and F-actin content, whereas the increase in intracellular calcium was still low compared to LF bull sperm. ATP1A4 content and activity, ROS, F-actin and calcium were significantly correlated with fertility. In conclusion, we inferred that ATP1A4 content and activity differed among dairy bulls with satisfactory semen characteristics and that ATP1A4 may regulate sperm function through mechanisms involving ROS, F-actin and calcium in frozen-thawed sperm of HF and LF dairy bulls. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND IMMUNO-BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF FERTILITY ASSOCIATED PROTEIN OF KARAN FRIES BULL SEMINAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Raman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was detection, isolation, partial purification and immunobiochemical characterization of fertility associated protein in the seminal plasma of high prolific Karan fries bull. Seminal plasma of Karan Fries bull was partially purified by gel filtration chromatography and analyzed by 10% SDS-PAGE for their polypeptide profile. PAGE analysis revealed major band of 55 kDa, and 26 kDa. Hyperimmune serum was raised in rabbit against crude seminal plasma protein. Single precipitin line was observed in DID test when each of the partially purified 26 kDa and 55 kDa proteins were reacted with hyperimmune serum. These proteins were also found to be immunoreactive against hyperimmune serum in Western blot technique.

  3. Characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone in primiparous, postpartum, anovular, suckled, beef cows exposed acutely to bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauck Shaun A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological mechanism by which bulls stimulate resumption of ovarian cycling activity in postpartum, anovular, suckled cows after calving may involve the concurrent activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian (HPO axis and hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenal (HPA axis. Thus, the objectives of this experiment were to determine if characteristics of temporal patterns of cortisol and luteinizing hormone (LH in postpartum, anovular, beef cows are influenced by acute exposure to bulls. The null hypotheses were that daily, temporal characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns do not differ between cows exposed acutely to bulls or steers. Methods Sixteen cows were assigned randomly 67 +/- 4 (+/- SE after calving to be exposed to bulls (EB, n = 8 or steers (ES, n = 8 5 h daily for 9 d (D 0 to 8. Blood samples were collected daily from each cow via jugular catheters at 15-min intervals for 6 h from 1000 to 1600 h each day. The 5-h exposure period began 1 h after the start of the intensive bleeding period. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns (mean, baseline, pulse frequency, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration were identified by PULSAR analyses. Results Mean cortisol concentrations decreased (P 0.10 between EB and ES cows. The decrease in mean cortisol concentrations in EB and ES cows from D 0 to D 2 was attributed to cows acclimatizing to intensive blood sampling and handling procedures. Consequently, analyses for characteristics of cortisol and LH concentration patterns included D 2 through 8 only. Cortisol mean and baseline concentrations, and pulse amplitude did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows. However, cortisol pulse duration tended to be longer (P = 0.09 and pulse frequency was lower (P = 0.05 in EB than ES cows. LH pulse frequency was greater (P = 0.06 in EB than ES cows. All other characteristics of LH concentration patterns did not differ (P > 0.10 between EB and ES cows

  4. Cultura e Sociedade Internacional: uma conjunção possível entre Clifford Geertz e Hedley Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Arend

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva a aproximação dos estudos de Hedley Bull e de Clifford Geertz no que respeita o lugar e a dimensão da cultura em seus pensamentos. Considero, primeiramente, o lugar da cultura no pensamento de Bull, para, logo após, apontar quais de seus traços podemser enriquecidos pelos estudos de Geertz, e, a partir daí, problematizar e dimensionar o lugar da cultura para o estudo das relações internacionais, tomando como foco o conceito de intersubjetividade, latente em ambos os teóricos. Ao final, realizo um estudo de caso, interpretando a forma como foram estruturados os discursos de George W. Bush, Tony Blair e José Maria Aznar para dar legitimidade à invasão do Iraque, a 16 de março de 2003.

  5. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of increasing plant maturity in timothy-dominated grass silage on the performance of growing/finishing Norwegian Red bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, Å T; Nørgaard, P; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made of the potential for attaining high daily live weight (LW) gain, high feeding efficiency and carcass quality in Norwegian Red (NRF) bulls fed grass silage harvested at early stages of maturity, supplemented with minimal amounts of concentrates. Roundbale silage was produ......An investigation was made of the potential for attaining high daily live weight (LW) gain, high feeding efficiency and carcass quality in Norwegian Red (NRF) bulls fed grass silage harvested at early stages of maturity, supplemented with minimal amounts of concentrates. Roundbale silage...... and a formic acid-based additive applied. All silages were preserved with restricted fermentation. Silage DOMD values were 0·747, 0·708 and 0·647 for harvesting time (H) 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Silages were fed ad libitum as sole feed, or supplemented with 2–4 kg concentrate at increasing LW, to six bulls per...... treatment from age 7 months (288 kg) to slaughter at 575 kg. Daily LW gain for bulls fed unsupplemented silage was 1423, 1262 and 936 g, respectively, for H1, H2 and H3, and 1570, 1567 and 1357 g for supplemented bulls. For concentrate-supplemented bulls, higher energy intake increased proportions...

  7. RESEARCH ON A SIMPLIFIED MIXED MODEL VERSUS CONTEMPORARY COMPARISON USED IN BREEDING VALUE ESTIMATION AND BULLS CLASSIFICATION FOR MILK PRODUCTION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to set up a simplified BLUP model in order to estimate the bulls' breeding value for milk production characters and establish their hierarchy, Also, it aimed to compare the bulls' hierarchy set up by means of the simplified BLUP model with their hierarchy established by using the traditional contemporary comparison method. In this purpose, a number of 51 Romanian Friesian bulls were used for evaluating their breeding value for milk production characters: milk yield, fat percentage and fat yield during the 305 days of the 1st lactation of a number of 1,989 daughters in various dairy herds. The simplified BLUP model set up in this research work has demonstrated its high precision of breeding value, which varied between 55 and 92, and more than this it proved that in some cases, the position occupied by bulls could be similar with the one registered by using the contemporary comparison. The higher precision assured by the simplified BLUP model is the guarantee that the bulls' hierarchy in catalogues is a correct one. In this way, farmers could chose the best bulls for improving milk yield in their dairy herds.

  8. The combination of kinetic and flow cytometric semen parameters as a tool to predict fertility in cryopreserved bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, T M; Turri, F; Manes, S; Cassinelli, C; Pizzi, F

    2017-11-01

    Within recent years, there has been growing interest in the prediction of bull fertility through in vitro assessment of semen quality. A model for fertility prediction based on early evaluation of semen quality parameters, to exclude sires with potentially low fertility from breeding programs, would therefore be useful. The aim of the present study was to identify the most suitable parameters that would provide reliable prediction of fertility. Frozen semen from 18 Italian Holstein-Friesian proven bulls was analyzed using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (motility and kinetic parameters) and flow cytometry (FCM) (viability, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial function, lipid peroxidation, plasma membrane stability and DNA integrity). Bulls were divided into two groups (low and high fertility) based on the estimated relative conception rate (ERCR). Significant differences were found between fertility groups for total motility, active cells, straightness, linearity, viability and percentage of DNA fragmented sperm. Correlations were observed between ERCR and some kinetic parameters, and membrane instability and some DNA integrity indicators. In order to define a model with high relation between semen quality parameters and ERCR, backward stepwise multiple regression analysis was applied. Thus, we obtained a prediction model that explained almost half (R 2=0.47, P<0.05) of the variation in the conception rate and included nine variables: five kinetic parameters measured by CASA (total motility, active cells, beat cross frequency, curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement) and four parameters related to DNA integrity evaluated by FCM (degree of chromatin structure abnormality Alpha-T, extent of chromatin structure abnormality (Alpha-T standard deviation), percentage of DNA fragmented sperm and percentage of sperm with high green fluorescence representative of immature cells). A significant relationship (R 2=0.84, P<0.05) was observed between

  9. Diagnosis of lumbosacral diskospondylosis in a bucking bull assisted by high-definition thermal and nuclear scintigraphic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Marc; Passler, Thomas; Purohit, Ram C; Pascoe, David; Wolfe, Dwight F

    2017-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION An 8-year-old Brahman-cross bull was evaluated for left hind limb lameness of 2 months' duration. The lameness was first noticed during a rodeo bucking performance, immediately after the bull appeared to land inappropriately on the affected limb. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination findings revealed left hind limb lameness, ataxia, and left-sided epaxial muscle atrophy. Palpation per rectum along the lumbar portion of the vertebral column revealed evidence of exostosis of the ventral aspect. High-definition infrared thermal imaging revealed a pattern of reduced skin temperature in the area of the left lumbar and gluteal regions suggestive of a disruption in the sympathetic control of peripheral blood flow. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed a focal area of increased radioisotope uptake on the left ventrolateral aspect of the L2-3 intervertebral joint. A presumptive diagnosis of ventrolateral vertebral spondylosis resulting in spinal nerve impingement was made. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME 200 mg of methylprednisolone was epidurally injected at the site of the lesion, and treatment with polysulfated glycosaminoglycans was initiated (500 mg, IM, every 4 days for 7 treatments, then monthly thereafter). The lameness and ataxia observed in the left hind limb resolved within 1 week after treatment began. Subsequently, the bull was discharged from the hospital and was used successfully for semen collection and live-cover breeding. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of thermography for the bull of this report provided additional insight into neurovascular physiologic function that classical imaging modalities are unable to provide and, when combined with nuclear scintigraphy, aided in identifying the most critical lesion in a complex clinical case.

  10. Scared of the bull. Not-for-profit hospitals are costing themselves millions with timid investment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarito, K

    1997-03-10

    While level-headed noncasino-going people have accumulated tidy sums by judicious investing in higher-yielding debt and equities, the culture of hospital management and governance frowns on any financial risk. There are stirrings of change, especially among cash-rich systems. But naive as it sounds, some hospitals would rather stick with the tried-and-true than run with bulls.

  11. Pulse radiolysis study of reaction of bull serum albumin electron adduct with oxygen. Polychromatic kinetics of reaction with adsorbed oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribush, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    By the method of pulse radiolysis the reaction of bull serum albumin electron adduct with oxygen is investigated. As pulsed radiation source electron linear accelerators with particle energy of 8.0 and 4.5 MeV and pulse time of 40 ns and 2.2 μs, respectively have been used. It is assumed that the disappearance of protein electron adduct occurs in the course of its interaction with oxygen adsorbed on protein globular molecule

  12. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24% and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole, for 98 days (77 days of data collection and 21 days of adaptation. The intakes and digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM and nutrients were determined. There were no significant interaction effects of the BMB inclusion level and the form of corn used on the performance and digestibility variables. The intakes of DM, crude protein (CP, and neutral detergent fibre (NDF increased with the inclusion of BMB in the diets. However, the inclusion of BMB in the diets decreased the ether extract intake, the NDF apparent digestibility, and the feed efficiency of DM and CP. Dry matter and NDF intakes also increased with the use of ground corn in the diet, which promoted an increase in the intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN, digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates, and average daily gain. However, the supply of ground corn reduced the feed efficiency of TDN. The remaining measured variables did not vary with the tested diets. The levels of plasma protein and albumin remained normal, but glucose concentrations were always high, irrespective of the tested diet. The form of corn supplied and the level of BMB inclusion had a significant interaction effect on the levels of triglycerides, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Babassu mesocarp bran can be included up to 41.24% in the diet of confined bulls without a negative effect on the animal weight gain. Corn should be supplied ground because this form improves the performance of crossbred bulls

  13. Effect of surgical castration with or without oral meloxicam on the acute inflammatory response in yearling beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S L; Hughes, H D; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Powell, J G; Hubbell, D S; Richeson, J T

    2015-08-01

    Pain management and welfare are increasingly prevalent concerns within animal agriculture. Analgesics may alleviate pain and inflammation associated with castration of beef cattle. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of surgical castration on the acute inflammatory response and immunomodulation and whether concurrent oral administration of meloxicam (1 mg/kg BW) would alter these responses. On d -1, crossbred bull calves ( = 30; initial BW = 227.4 ± 10.3 kg) were fitted with indwelling jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices, placed into individual stanchions, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Treatment application occurred at h 0 and consisted of 1) intact bull calves treated with sham castration (CON), 2) bulls surgically castrated without meloxicam administration (CAS), and 3) bulls surgically castrated with oral meloxicam (1 mg/kg BW) administration (MEL). Blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from h -2 to 4, 1.0-h intervals from h 4 to 8, and 12-h intervals from h 12 to 72. Serum was analyzed for cortisol and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations using ELISA. Whole blood was analyzed for complete blood counts at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h, and RT was recorded in 5-min intervals. Postcastration RT was greatest for MEL (39.04), intermediate for CAS (38.99), and least for CON (38.93°C; ≤ 0.01). Serum cortisol was increased ( castration reduced the acute inflammatory response in castrates, as evidenced by a reduction in Hp and certain leukocyte concentrations; it also caused a delayed increase in RT. Further research is needed to determine if this reduced acute inflammatory response would equate to improved health and/or performance after castration.

  14. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  15. Genetic analysis of body weights of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selapa, N W; Nephawe, K A; Maiwashe, A; Norris, D

    2012-02-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weights of individually fed beef bulls measured at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models. Weekly body weights of Bonsmara bulls (N = 2919) tested between 1999 and 2003 were available for the analyses. The model included a fixed regression of the body weights on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, and 84) for starting age and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test were included for additive genetic effects and additional uncorrelated random effects of the weaning-herd-year and the permanent environment of the animal. Residual effects were assumed to be independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test day. Variance ratios for additive genetic, permanent environment and weaning-herd-year for weekly body weights at different test days ranged from 0.26 to 0.29, 0.37 to 0.44 and 0.26 to 0.34, respectively. The weaning-herd-year was found to have a significant effect on the variation of body weights of bulls despite a 28-day adjustment period. Genetic correlations amongst body weights at different test days were high, ranging from 0.89 to 1.00. Heritability estimates were comparable to literature using multivariate models. Therefore, random regression model could be applied in the genetic evaluation of body weight of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa.

  16. Prediction of beef carcass and meat traits from rearing factors in young bulls and cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulat, J; Picard, B; Léger, S; Monteils, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the beef carcass and LM (thoracis part) characteristics and the sensory properties of the LM from rearing factors applied during the fattening period. Individual data from 995 animals (688 young bulls and 307 cull cows) in 15 experiments were used to establish prediction models. The data concerned rearing factors (13 variables), carcass characteristics (5 variables), LM characteristics (2 variables), and LM sensory properties (3 variables). In this study, 8 prediction models were established: dressing percentage and the proportions of fat tissue and muscle in the carcass to characterize the beef carcass; cross-sectional area of fibers (mean fiber area) and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity to characterize the LM; and, finally, overall tenderness, juiciness, and flavor intensity scores to characterize the LM sensory properties. A random effect was considered in each model: the breed for the prediction models for the carcass and LM characteristics and the trained taste panel for the prediction of the meat sensory properties. To evaluate the quality of prediction models, 3 criteria were measured: robustness, accuracy, and precision. The model was robust when the root mean square errors of prediction of calibration and validation sub-data sets were near to one another. Except for the mean fiber area model, the obtained predicted models were robust. The prediction models were considered to have a high accuracy when the mean prediction error (MPE) was ≤0.10 and to have a high precision when the was the closest to 1. The prediction of the characteristics of the carcass from the rearing factors had a high precision ( > 0.70) and a high prediction accuracy (MPE 0.10). Only the flavor intensity of the beef score could be satisfactorily predicted from the rearing factors with high precision ( = 0.72) and accuracy (MPE = 0.10). All the prediction models displayed different effects of the rearing factors according to animal categories

  17. Color, sensory and physicochemical attributes of beef burger made using meat from young bulls fed levels of licuri cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouvêa, Ana Al; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Leão, André G; Assis, Dallyson Yc; Bezerra, Leilson R; Nascimento Júnior, Nilton G; Trajano, Jaqueline S; Pereira, Elzania S

    2016-08-01

    Licuri cake is a biodiesel byproduct and has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study analyzed the color, sensory and chemical attributes of burger meat from bovines. Thirty-two young Nellore bulls were used, housed in individual pens and distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments: no addition or the addition of 7, 14 or 21% (w/w) licuri cake in the dry matter of the diet. Interactions between the licuri cake level and the physicochemical variables (P > 0.05) were observed. Additionally, an interaction was observed between the licuri cake level and the burger beef color parameter lightness index (L*) (P = 0.0305). The L* value was positively and linearly correlated with the proportion of licuri cake in the diet of young bulls. The level of inclusion of licuri cake did not affect (P > 0.05) the sensory characteristics; the variables were graded between 6 and 7, indicating good overall acceptance. Up to 21% (w/w) licuri cake can be included in the diet of young bulls without negatively impacting on beef burger quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of Vitamin E and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cryopreserved Sperm Quality in Bos taurus Bulls Under Testicular Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losano, João D A; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Rocha, Carolina C; Brito, Maíra M; Perez, Eduardo G A; Tsunoda, Roberta H; Góes, Paola A A; Mendes, Camilla M; Assumpção, Mayra E O A; Barnabe, Valquiria H; Nichi, Marcilio

    2018-04-03

    Taurine bulls are highly susceptible to heat stress, leading to increased oxidative stress (OS) and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation can be an alternative to improve semen quality, which also results in more sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Moreover, this deleterious effect can be exacerbated in animals affected by heat stress. Vitamin E is a key antioxidant that counteracts lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane caused by OS. Thus, combining PUFAs with vitamin E may improve sperm quality. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of interaction between PUFAs and vitamin E on sperm quality in Bos taurus bulls under testicular heat stress. Sixteen taurine bulls under testicular heat stress were randomly assigned in four groups: Control, Vitamin E, PUFA, and PUFA + Vitamin E. All groups lasted for 60 days. Samples were cryopreserved/thawed and analyzed for motility variables (CASA), membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, susceptibility to oxidative stress, DNA integrity, and sperm-binding capacity. Results showed that vitamin E had a beneficial effect on some sperm characteristics, whereas PUFA supplementation had an adverse effect when the two treatments were evaluated separately. Finally, the association between PUFAs and vitamin E did not improve sperm quality.

  19. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls.

  20. Influence of season, age and management on scrotal thermal profile in Murrah bulls using scrotal infrared digital thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwar, Maneesh Kumar; Kataktalware, Mukund Amritrao; Ramesha, Kerekoppa Puttaiah; Pushpadass, Heartwin Amaladhas; Jeyakumar, Sakthivel; Revanasiddu, Deginal; Kour, Reen Jagish; Nath, Sapna; Nagaleekar, Anand Kumar; Nazar, Sayyad

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of non-genetic factors on scrotal thermographic profile viz., proximal pole temperature (PPT °C), mid pole temperature (MPT °C), distal pole temperature (DPT °C) and ocular temperature (OcT) of Murrah ( Bubalus bubalis) breeding bulls. A total of 109 buffalo bulls, maintained at three semen stations (SS), were monitored for scrotal surface and ocular temperatures using infrared thermography twice daily during rainy, winter and summer seasons using an FLIR i5 infrared camera and temperatures were measured. Thermograms were analysed by FLIR QuickReport v.1.2 SP2 software. Statistical analysis revealed that semen station, season, temperature humidity index (THI), housing system and timing of observations had significant ( P 80.88; system and timing of observations had a significant influence on scrotal surface temperature. The monitoring of scrotal surface temperature by infrared thermography was found to be useful in evaluating the effects of thermal stress on physiology and health of buffalo bulls.

  1. Dipyridamole 201T1 myocardial perfusion tomography and bull's--eye analysis for quantitative evaluation of CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Maosong; Tang Xi

    1992-01-01

    To assess the ability of quantitative analysis of dipyridamole 201 T1 tomography for detecting and localizing coronary artery disease (CAD), 55 patients with angiographically proved CAD ( = 50% stenosis) were studied. All patients underwent dipyridamole 201 T1 myocardial perfusion tomography and coronary arteriography. The overall sensitivity for detection of CAD by Bull's-eye analysis was 89% (50 patients) and 92% (51 patients) with visual analysis. The sensitivity for detecting individual vessel involvement with the Bull'-eye analysis was 88% for LAD. 81% for RCA and 67% for LCX. With visual analysis, the results were 88%, 83% and 58% respectively. The overall rate of detection was 87% in lesions greater than or equal to 75% stenosis vs 59% in those under 75% stenosis (P 201 T1 tomography using Bull's-eye display is a highly accurate reproducible technique for the detection of patients with CAD and the localization of individual coronary vessel, and it offers the potential to quantify the percentage of the abnormally perfused myocardium

  2. Testicular echotexture and seminal quality of young Montana Tropical Compound bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Oliveira Pinho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between testicular echotexture and seminal quality, in addition to evaluate the testicular parenchyma echogenicity pattern in young Montana bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Fifty-two young Montana Tropical Compound bulls from 22 to 33 months of age were used. The animals were previously evaluated by breeding soundness evaluation and thereafter divided into two groups of breeding soundness classes: 1 = 16 animals sound for breeding; 2 = 36 animals unsound for breeding by means of physical and morphological analysis of semen. All animals underwent an ultrasound examination of the testes, and the images were analyzed with the software "Image J". ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, to determine the effect of groups in relation to testicular measurements, physical and morphological semen features and ultrasound pixel analysis. There was a difference between scrotal circumference between classes, with 39.7±2.1 cm and 37.3±3.1 cm for sound and unsound animals, respectively. Regarding testicular echotexture, mean values for the pixel intensity were 95.7 and 94.0 for sound and unsound animals for breeding, respectively, with no difference between the classes. None of the studied parameters were correlated with each other, indicating that the quantification of the pixel intensity in testicular echotexture was not effective in determining the degree of sexual maturity in Montana Tropical Compound bulls.

  3. Parental education and exposure of female and male students to bulling in school environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research exploring the correlation between exposure of elementary school students to various types of bulling at school (stealing of personal belongings, violence, coercion, mockery, shunning and their parents' educational level. Special emphasis was put on connections in mother-daughter and father-son dyads were explored. The research is a part TIMSS 2007 International Project covered a representative sample of 2447 8th Grade students (1161 boys and 1286 girls from 36 elementary schools in Serbia. A questionnaire was used to collect the information on assessment of school environment, as well as students' experience of peer victimization. Overall, 48.1% students (in male sub-sample 54.4%; in female sub-sample 42.7% reported being subjected to some kind of bullying in the preceding month. Much more frequently than girls, boys were subjected to theft of personal belongings, coercion and shunning. Correlation is found between educational level of mothers and bullying of their daughters at schools (especially violence, coercion and mockery. While students/daughters of highly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to coercion (forced to do something they did not want to do, daughters of poorly educated mothers were more frequently subjected to shunning. The sub-sample of boys did not indicate any correlation between educational level of fathers and peer victimization in school environment.

  4. Complication following primary repair of a penetrating bull horn injury to the trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mozaffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old male patient was admitted to the casualty with a bull horn injury in the lower zone of the neck in the midline. The patient was conscious and distressed but hemodynamically stable. Local examination revealed a lacerated wound. He underwent emergency primary repair of the wound under halothane anesthesia; intubation was done keeping in readiness all preparations for difficult airway management. Postoperatively, elective controlled ventilation was performed with continuous infusion of muscle relaxant. After approximately 8 hours of controlled ventilation, the syringe pump failed; this initially went unnoticed and made the patient cough and buck on the tube. Infusion was restarted after a bolus dose of vecuronium bromide intravenously but, meanwhile, the patient developed subcutaneous emphysema in the neck. He was immediately transferred to the operating room, where exploration of the surgical site revealed dehiscence of the tracheal wound; this had led to the subcutaneous emphysema. Repair of the tracheal wound dehiscence was not possible due to both lack of space and lack of tissue for apposition. Hence, a tracheostomy tube was inserted through the tracheal wound and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit for elective controlled ventilation. The patient was weaned off the ventilator within 24 h and transferred to the surgical ward on spontaneous ventilation with the tracheostomy tube in situ. The size of the patient′s tracheostomy tube was reduced gradually by the serial exchange method. The wound ultimately healed with minimal scarring.

  5. Effect of rib fat thickness on the quality of aged meat from Nellore young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Escobar Dallantonia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to evaluate the quality of aged beef from Nellore young bulls under two yield grade (YG. Fourteen animals with approximately 450 ± 30 kg body weight were evaluated for backfat thickness (BFT at the beginning of the experimental period. Seven animals had BFT of 0-3 mm and seven animals, 3.1-6 mm. Two groups were formed at the end of the experiment: animals finished with 3-6 mm BFT (seven animals and animals finished with 6.1 to 10 mm BFT (seven animals. Every 28 days, we evaluated by ultrasound the BFT between the 12nd 13rd ribs. There was no interaction between YG and aging for beef color, pH, cooking losses and shear force (p > 0.05. There was no effect of YG on sarcomere length (p = 0.11. However, there was interaction between YG and aging on water holding capacity (p < 0.01. The yield grades evaluated did not interfere with meat quality, but carcasses with 6.1 - 10 mm of backfat thickness showed highest water holding capacity. The aging of the longissimus muscle for up to 14 days improves beef tenderness.

  6. Body measurements and carcass characteristics correlation of Nellore young bulls finishidedED IN FEEDLOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Laurindo Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was aimed to evaluate Pearson correlations between body measurements, carcass characteristics and production of 35 Nellore bulls, confined for 96 days, with 402±14.90 kg and 18 months old. Weightings, ultrasound images and 14 measurements were obtained at the beginning of each experimental period and before slaughter, totaling four weight ratings of ultrasound images and measurements per animal. For the evaluation of body measurements and ultrasound images with carcass traits the values from the last measurement were considered. The images were made along with weighing animals through a Scanner, and measurements with a tape measure and a zoométrica cane, and these were correlated with each other and with productive and carcass characteristics. For measures of loin eye area evaluated by ultrasonography, it were found positive correlations with body length (0.32, rump (0.36 and thigh (0.20; withers height (0.20 and pelviano contour (0.38 (P<0.05. Variables of hip height and chest, chest width and pin bones, and heart girth showed positive correlations with two or more productive traits of economic interest, such as slaughter weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage (P<0.05. Significant correlations were found for most of the variables studied. Linear body measurements such as length and height emerge as a tool that can be useful in the formation of more homogenous lots and to predict the point of slaughter, along with the weight of the animals.

  7. Supplementation of Nellore young bulls on Marandu grass pastures in the dry period of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and daytime ingestive behavior of 84 Nellore young bulls in the post-weaning phase kept on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season. Treatments were protein mineral supplementation (1 g/kg body weight and protein+energy mineral supplementation (3 g/kg body weight. The experimental area comprised 12 paddocks in a total area of 27.36 ha, divided in two blocks of six paddocks each, having three replications per treatment in each block, with 42 animals/treatment. The data were subjected to variance analysis with repeated measures over time via procedure PROCMIXED of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.0 and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The initial average weight of animals was 204.8 kg; final weights were 260.9 and 276.9 kg for animals that received protein and protein+energy supplement, respectively. The forage availability, sward height and stocking rate values did not differ with supplementation, but they showed difference between the experimental periods. The average time spent grazing during daylight of animals fed protein+energy supplement was shorter as compared with those which consumed protein supplement. Animals kept under the same pasture conditions during the dry season show better performance when they receive protein+energy supplement than protein supplement.

  8. Structure and kinematics of bubble flow; Structure et cinematique des ecoulements diphasiques a bulles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackme, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    This report deals with the components and use of resistivity probes in bubble flow. With a single probe, we have studied the longitudinal and radial structure of the flow. The very complicated evolution of the radial structure is shown by the measurement of the mean bubble flux at several points in the tube. A double probe associated with a device the principle of which is given in this report, permits the measure of the local velocity of bubbles. Unlike the mean bubble flux profile, the change in the velocity profile along the tube is not significant. We have achieved the synthesis of these two pieces of information, mean local bubble flux and local velocity, by computing the mean weighed velocity in the tube. This weighed velocity compares remarkably with the velocity computed from the volumetric gas flow rate and the mean void fraction. (author) [French] Ce rapport traite d'une etude methodologique des ecoulements diphasiques a bulles. Les fluides sont l'air et l'eau, ils circulent du bas vers le haut dans un tube vertical de 32 mm de diametre et 2 metres de long. Cette etude a pour but de permettre une description fine de l'ecoulement. Pour cela, il a ete necessaire de developper des appareillages nouveaux et de mettre au point les methodes d'analyses correspondantes. La valeur des mesures effectuees et des methodes utilisees apparait dans une comparaison concluante et conclusive entre des resultats de mesures globales et des resultats integres de mesures locales. (auteur)

  9. Qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed different levels of crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J R R; Chizzotti, M L; Ramos, E M; Machado Neto, O R; Lanna, D P D; Lopes, L S; Teixeira, P D; Ladeira, M M

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from young bulls fed crude glycerin. Forty-four animals with an initial live weight of 368 ± 4 kg were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments: no glycerin or addition of 6, 12 or 18% glycerin. The animals were slaughtered with 519.5 ± 14.9 kg of live weight. The meat characteristics assessed were chemical composition, shear force, fatty acid concentration, color and lipid oxidation. The addition of glycerin increased the content of ether extract (P<0.05) in the muscle. A linear increase was observed (P<0.05) in the oleic acid contents (C18:1 cis 9). The saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents linearly decreased in the muscle as a function of glycerin addition. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) indices increased with the use of crude glycerin (P<0.05). The crude glycerin increased the intramuscular fat and oleic acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle. © 2013.

  10. An experimental propane bubble chamber; Sur une chambre a bulles experimentale a propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozinski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Describes a propane bubble chamber 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep. The body of the chamber is in stainless steel, and it has two windows of polished hardened glass. The compression and decompression of the propane are performed either through a piston in direct contact with the liquid, or by the action on the liquid, through a triple-mylar-Perbunan membrane, of a compressed gas. The general and also optimum working conditions of the chamber are described, and a few results are given concerning, in particular, the tests of the breakage-resistance of the windows and the measurements of the thermal expansion of the compressibility isotherm for the propane employed. (author) [French] Description d'une chambre a bulles a propane de 10 cm de diametre et de 5 cm de profondeur. La chambre, dont le corps est en acier inoxydable, est munie de deux fenetres en verre poli et trempe. La compression et la detente du propane sont effectuees, soit a l'aide d'un piston en contact direct avec le liquide, soit en faisant agir sur ce dernier un gaz comprime a travers une triple membrane de teflon-mylar-perbunan. On decrit les conditions generales, ainsi que les conditions optimales de fonctionnement de la chambre et l'on signale un certain nombre de resultats obtenus concernant, notamment, les essais de resistance a la rupture des fenetres et les mesures de dilatation thermique de compressibilite isotherme du propane utilise. (auteur)

  11. Heparin and glutathione II: correlation between decondensation of bull sperm cells and its nucleons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, N M; Flores-Alonso, J C; Rodríguez-Hernández, H M; Merchant-Larios, H; Reyes, R

    2001-01-01

    The correlation between the kinetics of bull sperm nuclear and nucleon decondensation induced by the action of physiological concentrations of heparin/GSH was studied. Sperm and nucleon suspensions were incubated at 37 degrees C in salt medium, at a constant concentration of either heparin or GSH and increasing concentrations of the other reagent. Even though nucleons are pretreated with DTT/CTAB, when they are incubated alone with GSH for 96 h, they remain intact, no matter which concentration is employed, and it was impossible to observe the slightest sign of nuclei decondensation. Therefore, rupture of disulfide bridges is not the main mechanism to induce nuclei decondensation and perhaps the GSH role resides in potentate the heparin effect by increasing its negative charge. Nevertheless, nucleons reach 95% of chromatin decondensation in the presence of heparin plus GSH or heparin alone. The fact that the correlation between heparin and GSH concentrations needed to induce sperm nuclei decondensation was 3- to 4-fold greater that in nucleons might be due to the complete lack of nucleon membranes. Heparin/GSH seem to induce nuclei decondensation by an ionic chromatin charge neutralization mechanism.

  12. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Miller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001 than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05. Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  13. Differences in CASA output according to the chamber type when analyzing frozen-thawed bull sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibănescu, Iulian; Leiding, Claus; Ciornei, Ştefan Gregore; Roșca, Petru; Sfartz, Ioana; Drugociu, Dan

    2016-03-01

    As demonstrated by some authors, the type of analyzing chamber can greatly influence the results of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). This study aimed to compare three of the disposable chamber types currently available on the market and to determine whether the CASA output may be significantly different among them. The semen from five Fleckvieh bulls was analyzed by CASA using three different disposable chambers: Leja (20μm), MofA (20μm) and Minitube (20μm), at three different time points: immediately after filling the chamber, at 6min, and also at 12min after filling. Sperm concentration was also determined using the Nucleocounter® NC-100™ device and the hemocytometer as standard methods. The results showed higher values in terms of total and progressive sperm motility for MofA compared to the other two chambers immediately after filling (pCASA only when the other methods are not available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crude glycerine inclusion in Limousin bull diets: animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, M; Linares, M B; Garrido, M D; Villodre, C; Madrid, J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Hernández, F

    2014-12-01

    Three hundred and six Limousin young bulls (7±1months of age, initial body weight 273±43kg) were used to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine supplementation on animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. Animals were assigned to three different diets: Control (0% of crude glycerine), G2 and G4 (2 and 4% of crude glycerine, respectively). The diets were administrated ad libitum for 240days (final body weight 644±24kg). Average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, the gain:feed ratio, ultrasound measures in vivo, carcass characteristics, pH, water holding capacity, drip losses, and cooking losses were not affected (P>0.05) by diets. Diet decreased C16:0 (P<0.01) and C16:1 (P<0.05) contents in meat. The G4 meat showed lower C12:0, C14:0, C17:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, c9,t11-c18:2, C20:0 and C20:4 levels (P<0.05) than control. Glycerine increased desirable fatty acid percentages (P<0.05) in intramuscular fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. © 2013 SETAC.

  16. PECULIARITIES OF WATER FREEZING IN CRYOPROTECTIVE MEDIUM IMPLEMENTED IN A MATRIX OF HYDROPHOBIC SILICA BULL SPERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Turov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the process of melting water in lactose-glycerol-yolk kriomedium containing gametes bull, incorporated in the hydrophobic silica powder, which are adsorbed on the surface of fixed amounts of nonpolar hydrocarbon – n-decane was the aim of the work. The possibility of water polyassociates structuring with a solid surface of interfacial water and solubility of trifluoroethanoic acid in it have been studied. Thereat survival of the germ cell after contact with the surface was not analyzed. State of water in initial cryoprotective glycerol-lactose-yolk medium and hydrophobic nanosilica TS-100 containing n-decane additive adsorbed on its surface incorporated in a matrix was studied using low-temperature 1H-NMR spectroscopy method. It is shown that the solid matrix induces formation of 6–7 water molecules per each dean molecule at the interface, which do not take part in formation of hydrogen bonds, and a sharp radius decrease (from 100 to 20 nm of ice crystals formed in cell suspension at its freezing. The results could give rise to safety improving of their cells at their cryopreservation and low temperature storage conditions by incorporating into a powder composite environment.

  17. Testicular development and establishment of spermatogenesis in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N; Umair, S; Shahab, M; Arslan, M

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen longitudinally reared Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were slaughtered at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo of age (n=3 per group) to observe testicular development and to examine qualitatively the establishment of spermatogenesis. With the age held constant, scrotal circumference and testes weight were correlated (0.95; Pfashion (57microm at 1 mo and 178microm at 24 mo), and the lumen formed at 12 mo of age. Differentiation of basal indifferent supporting cells to Sertoli cells started at 6 mo, and formation of Sertoli cells completed near 12 mo of age. Gonocytes predominated at 1 mo, but by 12 mo, most had been replaced by spermatogonia, thus rapid proliferation of tubular contents occurred at 12 mo (testes weight=75g). Spermatocytes were first observed at 12 mo, and their number increased through 18 and 24 mo. Establishment of spermatogenesis, as reflected by appearance of significant number of spermatids, occurred by 18 mo of age (testes weight 122g). Thus, the establishment of spermatogenesis was progressive from birth, and marked changes were observed during the last 6 mo.

  18. Effect of hair coat clipping on some physiological changes of dairy bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanpanich, S.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Some physiological responses of 6 Friesian crossbred (87.5% bull yearling with 2.5 years old, averaging 235 kg. bodyweight were investigated under hot humid conditions. All animals were raised in a house (4 × 15 × 5; w × l × h meters, respectively with concrete floor and were assigned to the Pair Comparison Design according to their weight and age into 2 groups. Animals in group 1 were maintained with their natural hair coat while their counterparts in group 2 were coat clipped fortnightly through a 70-day experimental period. The results indicated that the clipped animals had a significantly (P<0.05 lower sweating rate than did the unclipped ones (102.7±15.48 and 48.3±15.48 g/m2/hour, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in rectal temperature, skin temperature and respiratory rate between the two groups of animals. Further study should be done to clarify the consequences of lower sweating rate in clipped animals under hot humid conditions.

  19. Motility analysis of circularly swimming bull spermatozoa by quasi-elastic light scattering and cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T; Hallett, F R; Nickel, B

    1982-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation is used to predict the electric field autocorrelation functions of light scattered from circularly swimming bull spermatozoa. Using parameters determined from cinematography and modeling the cells as coated ellipsoids of semiaxes a = 0.5 micrometers, b = 2.3 micrometers, and c = 9.0 micrometers, we were able to obtain model spectra that mimic the data exactly. A coat is found to be a necessary attribute of the particle. It is also clear that these model functions at 15 degrees may be represented by the relatively simple function used before by Hallett et al. (1978) to fit data from circularly swimming cells, thus giving some physical meaning to these functional shapes. Because of this agreement the half-widths of experimental functions can now be interpreted in terms of an oscillatory frequency for the movement of the circularly swimming cell. The cinematographic results show a trend to chaotic behavior as the temperature of the sample is increased, with concomitant decrease in overall efficiency. This is manifested by a decrease in oscillatory frequency and translational speed.

  20. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBerge, Kelsen; Handschuh, Robert; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite)configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp(2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Researchers continue to search for the cause of this orbit shift.

  1. Domestic estimated breeding values and genomic enhanced breeding values of bulls in comparison with their foreign genomic enhanced breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibyl, J; Bauer, J; Čermák, V; Pešek, P; Přibylová, J; Šplíchal, J; Vostrá-Vydrová, H; Vostrý, L; Zavadilová, L

    2015-10-01

    Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBVs) for milk production of young genotyped Holstein bulls were predicted using a conventional BLUP - Animal Model, a method fitting regression coefficients for loci (RRBLUP), a method utilizing the realized genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP), by a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) and by a one-step blending procedure. Information sources for prediction were the nation-wide database of domestic Czech production records in the first lactation combined with deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull files (August 2013) and domestic test-day (TD) records for the first three lactations. Data from 2627 genotyped bulls were used, of which 2189 were already proven under domestic conditions. Analyses were run that used Interbull values for genotyped bulls only or that used Interbull values for all available sires. Resultant predictions were compared with GEBV of 96 young foreign bulls evaluated abroad and whose proofs were from Interbull method GMACE (August 2013) on the Czech scale. Correlations of predictions with GMACE values of foreign bulls ranged from 0.33 to 0.75. Combining domestic data with Interbull EBVs improved prediction of both EBV and GEBV. Predictions by Animal Model (traditional EBV) using only domestic first lactation records and GMACE values were correlated by only 0.33. Combining the nation-wide domestic database with all available DRP for genotyped and un-genotyped sires from Interbull resulted in an EBV correlation of 0.60, compared with 0.47 when only Interbull data were used. In all cases, GEBVs had higher correlations than traditional EBVs, and the highest correlations were for predictions from the ssGBLUP procedure using combined data (0.75), or with all available DRP from Interbull records only (one-step blending approach, 0.69). The ssGBLUP predictions using the first three domestic lactation records in the TD model were correlated with GMACE predictions by 0.69, 0.64 and 0

  2. Comparative feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas in the coastal waters of the southwest Indian Ocean inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Daly

    Full Text Available As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ(13C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ(13C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range.

  3. Relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, certain routine sperm characteristics and testosterone in breeding Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to examine the relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, seminal quality, and testosterone concentration in Murrah buffalo bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 breeding Murrah buffalo bulls (either progeny tested or under progeny testing program were randomly selected from two government bull farms in Punjab. None of the bulls selected for this study had any preceding physical abnormality. A field fertility trial was conducted to determine the first service conception rate (FSCR. The number of females inseminated per bull semen was 10. All the bulls were inspected for structural soundness, measurement of scrotal circumference, testicular biometry, and internal pelvic area (IPA. Frozen-thawed semen was evaluated for total motility, progressive motility, viability, concentration, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST. Testosterone was estimated in blood plasma, seminal plasma as well as frozen-thawed semen extracts for establishing relationship. Results: The FSCR was 48% in the bulls having a scrotal circumference of ≥44 cm, although, there was no significant correlation between FSCR and scrotal circumference. Similarly, no consistent relationship existed between sperm concentration and scrotal circumference. A positive correlation was observed between IPA and FSCR (r=0.294. Of the six post-thaw seminal components (total motility, progressive motility, viability, HOST (%, total abnormality and concentration only total motility had a high significant (p<0.01 correlation with FSCR (r=0.694. Varied correlations existed between other seminal parameters and fertility. Using a simple regression analysis, the post-thaw motility, IPA, prepuce length and testosterone (independent variables combined to explain approximately 62% of the variation in the FSCR (dependent variable. Conclusion: The present study indicated that despite low to high correlations between seminal

  4. Comparative feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) in the coastal waters of the southwest Indian Ocean inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Froneman, Pierre W; Smale, Malcolm J

    2013-01-01

    As apex predators, sharks play an important role shaping their respective marine communities through predation and associated risk effects. Understanding the predatory dynamics of sharks within communities is, therefore, necessary to establish effective ecologically based conservation strategies. We employed non-lethal sampling methods to investigate the feeding ecology of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) using stable isotope analysis within a subtropical marine community in the southwest Indian Ocean. The main objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the predatory role that sub-adult and adult bull sharks play within a top predatory teleost fish community. Bull sharks had significantly broader niche widths compared to top predatory teleost assemblages with a wide and relatively enriched range of δ(13)C values relative to the local marine community. This suggests that bull sharks forage from a more diverse range of δ(13)C sources over a wider geographical range than the predatory teleost community. Adult bull sharks appeared to exhibit a shift towards consistently higher trophic level prey from an expanded foraging range compared to sub-adults, possibly due to increased mobility linked with size. Although predatory teleost fish are also capable of substantial migrations, bull sharks may have the ability to exploit a more diverse range of habitats and appeared to prey on a wider diversity of larger prey. This suggests that bull sharks play an important predatory role within their respective marine communities and adult sharks in particular may shape and link ecological processes of a variety of marine communities over a broad range.

  5. Opportunistic visitors: long-term behavioural response of bull sharks to food provisioning in Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004-2011 underwater visual (n = 48 individuals and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00-12:00 when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site.

  6. A haplotype regression approach for genetic evaluation using sequences from the 1000 bull genomes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhssassi, K.; González-Recio, O.

    2017-01-01

    Haplotypes from sequencing data may improve the prediction accuracy in genomic evaluations as haplotypes are in stronger linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci than markers from SNP chips. This study focuses first, on the creation of haplotypes in a population sample of 450 Holstein animals, with full-sequence data from the 1000 bull genomes project; and second, on incorporating them into the whole genome prediction model. In total, 38,319,258 SNPs (and indels) from Next Generation Sequencing were included in the analysis. After filtering variants with minor allele frequency (MAF< 0.025) 13,912,326 SNPs were available for the haplotypes extraction with findhap.f90. The number of SNPs in the haploblocks was on average 924 SNP (166,552 bp). Unique haplotypes were around 97% in all chromosomes and were ignored leaving 153,428 haplotypes. Estimated haplotypes had a large contribution to the total variance of genomic estimated breeding values for kilogram of protein, Global Type Index, Somatic Cell Score and Days Open (between 32 and 99.9%). Haploblocks containing haplotypes with large effects were selected by filtering for each trait, haplotypes whose effect was larger/lower than the mean plus/minus 3 times the standard deviation (SD) and 1 SD above the mean of the haplotypes effect distribution. Results showed that filtering by 3 SD would not be enough to capture a large proportion of genetic variance, whereas filtering by 1 SD could be useful but model convergence should be considered. Additionally, sequence haplotypes were able to capture additional genetic variance to the polygenic effect for traits undergoing lower selection intensity like fertility and health traits.

  7. Opportunistic visitors: long-term behavioural response of bull sharks to food provisioning in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Barnett, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Shark-based tourism that uses bait to reliably attract certain species to specific sites so that divers can view them is a growing industry globally, but remains a controversial issue. We evaluate multi-year (2004-2011) underwater visual (n = 48 individuals) and acoustic tracking data (n = 82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers) of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa Channel on the southern coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. Individual C. leucas showed varying degrees of site fidelity. Determined from acoustic tagging, the majority of C. leucas had site fidelity indexes >0.5 for the marine reserve (including the feeding site) and neighbouring reefs. However, during the time of the day (09:00-12:00) when feeding takes place, sharks mainly had site fidelity indexes <0.5 for the feeding site, regardless of feeding or non-feeding days. Site fidelity indexes determined by direct diver observation of sharks at the feeding site were lower compared to such values determined by acoustic tagging. The overall pattern for C. leucas is that, if present in the area, they are attracted to the feeding site regardless of whether feeding or non-feeding days, but they remain for longer periods of time (consecutive hours) on feeding days. The overall diel patterns in movement are for C. leucas to use the area around the feeding site in the morning before spreading out over Shark Reef throughout the day and dispersing over the entire array at night. Both focal observation and acoustic monitoring show that C. leucas intermittently leave the area for a few consecutive days throughout the year, and for longer time periods (weeks to months) at the end of the calendar year before returning to the feeding site.

  8. Texas Bull Nettle (Cnidoscolus texanus) Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2017-06-01

    Texas bull nettle (Cnidoscolus texanus) is covered in bristly hairs similar to stinging nettle. Contact with the plant may result in intense dermal pain, burning, itching, cellulitis, and allergic reaction. This study characterizes C texanus exposures reported to a large state-wide poison center system. Cases were C texanus exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015. The distribution of cases was determined for patient demographics, exposure circumstances, and patient outcome. A total of 140 C texanus exposures were identified. Twenty percent of the patients were aged ≤5 years, 21% were 6 to 12 years, 5% were 13 to 19 years, and 51% were ≥20years; and 51% of the patients were male. Eighty-one percent of the exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, 11% in a public area, 2% at another residence, and 1% at school. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were managed on site, 13% were already at or en route to a health care facility, and 6% were referred to a health care facility. Eighty-eight percent of the exposures resulted in dermal effects: irritation or pain (56%), erythema or flushing (31%), edema (27%), pruritus (24%), rash (19%), puncture or wound (19%), and hives or welts (11%). C texanus exposures reported to Texas poison centers were most likely to be unintentional and occur at the patient's own residence. The outcomes of the exposures tended not to be serious and could be managed successfully outside of health care facilities. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tube bundle system studies at Signal Peak Energy Bull Mountains #1 Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, R K; Ochsner, R; Krog, R; Marchewka, W; Valente, M; Jensen, R

    2014-03-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine for analysis and display on the surface. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in collaboration with Signal Peak Energy (SPE), LLC, Bull Mountains No. 1 Mine, operated a TBS during mining of two bleederless, longwall panels. This paper describes the gas analysis data and its interpretation. As verified by the TBS, coal at the SPE mine tends to oxidize slowly. It was known that a reservoir of low-oxygen concentration atmosphere developed about 610 m (2,000 ft) behind the longwall face. A bleederless ventilation system facilitates formation of an inert atmosphere in this longwall gob and decreases the likelihood of spontaneous combustion. Connections of the mine atmosphere to the surface through subsidence cracks could allow airflow into the longwall gob, revive coal oxidation and increase spontaneous combustion risk. The atmospheric composition of the sealed areas was homogeneous, except in the immediate vicinity of suspected ingassing points. The TBS verified that gases within the partially sealed, bleederless longwall gob expanded into the longwall tailgate area when barometric pressure decreased. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the back return airflow at the longwall tailgate was observed to increase by a factor of three and possibly up to 10 times the typical background concentration of 0.5 to 1.0%, depending on the size of the longwall gob and the magnitude of barometric pressure decrease. TBS have the inherent disadvantage of slow response time due to travel time of the gas samples and sequential gas analyses. A TBS or similar continuous monitoring system could be beneficial in detecting and providing warning of potentially hazardous gas concentrations, if the slow response time of the system is always understood.

  10. A haplotype regression approach for genetic evaluation using sequences from the 1000 bull genomes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhssassi, K.; González-Recio, O.

    2017-07-01

    Haplotypes from sequencing data may improve the prediction accuracy in genomic evaluations as haplotypes are in stronger linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci than markers from SNP chips. This study focuses first, on the creation of haplotypes in a population sample of 450 Holstein animals, with full-sequence data from the 1000 bull genomes project; and second, on incorporating them into the whole genome prediction model. In total, 38,319,258 SNPs (and indels) from Next Generation Sequencing were included in the analysis. After filtering variants with minor allele frequency (MAF< 0.025) 13,912,326 SNPs were available for the haplotypes extraction with findhap.f90. The number of SNPs in the haploblocks was on average 924 SNP (166,552 bp). Unique haplotypes were around 97% in all chromosomes and were ignored leaving 153,428 haplotypes. Estimated haplotypes had a large contribution to the total variance of genomic estimated breeding values for kilogram of protein, Global Type Index, Somatic Cell Score and Days Open (between 32 and 99.9%). Haploblocks containing haplotypes with large effects were selected by filtering for each trait, haplotypes whose effect was larger/lower than the mean plus/minus 3 times the standard deviation (SD) and 1 SD above the mean of the haplotypes effect distribution. Results showed that filtering by 3 SD would not be enough to capture a large proportion of genetic variance, whereas filtering by 1 SD could be useful but model convergence should be considered. Additionally, sequence haplotypes were able to capture additional genetic variance to the polygenic effect for traits undergoing lower selection intensity like fertility and health traits.

  11. Hope for restoration of dead valuable bulls through cloning using donor somatic cells isolated from cryopreserved semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selokar, Naresh L; Saini, Monika; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radheysham; Singla, Suresh K

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cells were isolated from cryopreserved semen of 4 buffalo bulls, 3 of which had died over 10 years earlier, and were established in culture. The cells expressed cytokeratin-18, keratin and vimentin indicating that they were of epithelial origin. The cells were used as nuclear donors for hand-made cloning for producing buffalo embryos. The blastocyst rate and quality, as indicated by apoptotic index, were comparable among embryos produced using cells obtained from fresh or frozen-thawed semen or those obtained from conventional cell sources such as skin. Examination of the epigenetic status revealed that the global level of H3K27me3 but not that of H3K9/14ac and H4K5ac differed significantly (Pcloned embryos from different bulls. The relative mRNA abundance of HDAC1, DNMT1, P53 and CASPASE 3 but not that of DNMT3a differed in cells and in cloned embryos. Following transfer of 24 cloned embryos produced from fresh semen-derived cells to 12 recipients, one calf weighing 55 kg, which is now 6 months of age and is normal, was born through normal parturition. Following transfer of 20 embryos produced from frozen-thawed semen-derived cells to 10 recipients, 2 became pregnant, one of which aborted in the first trimester; the calf born was severely underweight (17 kg), and died 12 h after birth. The ability of cells derived from fresh and frozen-thawed semen to produce live offspring confirms the ability of these cells to be reprogrammed. Our findings pave the way for restoration of highly precious progeny-tested bulls, which has immense economic importance, and can also be used for restoration of endangered species.

  12. Linseed plus nitrate in the diet for fattening bulls: effects on methane emission, animal health and residues in offal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreau, M; Arbre, M; Popova, M; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

    2018-03-01

    The combination of linseed and nitrate is known to decrease enteric methane emission in dairy cows but few studies have been carried out in fattening cattle for animal liveweight gain, enteric methane emission, animal health and presence of residues in beef products. To address this gap, 16 young bulls received a control (C) diet between weaning at 9 months and 14 months, then were split into two groups of eight balanced on feed intake, BW gain and methane emission to receive either the C diet or a diet moderately supplemented with extruded linseed and calcium nitrate (LN) for 2 months before being slaughtered. On a dry matter (DM) basis, the C diet contained 70% baled grass silage and 30% concentrate mainly made of maize, wheat and rapeseed meal. In the LN diet, rapeseed meal and a fraction of cereals were replaced by 35% extruded linseed and 6% calcium nitrate; linseed fatty acids and nitrate supply in the LN diet were 1.9% and 1.0%, respectively. Methane emission was measured continuously using the GreenFeed system. Methaemoglobin was determined every week in peripheral blood from bulls receiving the LN diet. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were determined in rumen, liver and tongue sampled at slaughter. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for LN diet (P=0.10). Body weight gain was lower for LN diet (P=0.01; 1.60 and 1.26 kg/day for C and LN diet, respectively). Daily methane emission was 9% lower (Pmethane yield did not differ between diets (24.1 and 23.2 g/kg DM intake for C and LN diet, respectively, P=0.34). Methaemoglobin was under the limit of detection (methane yield and impaired bull liveweight gain but without adverse effects for animal health and food safety.

  13. Performance, profitability and greenhouse gas emissions of alternative finishing strategies for Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B; Crosson, P; Kelly, A K; Prendiville, R

    2018-02-06

    Modifying finishing strategies within established production systems has the potential to increase beef output and farm profit while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of finishing duration on animal performance of Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls and steers and evaluate the profitability and GHG emissions of these finishing strategies. A total of 90 HF calves were assigned to a complete randomised block design; three bull and three steer finishing strategies. Calves were rotationally grazed in a paddock system for the first season at pasture, housed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus 1.5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for the first winter and returned to pasture for a second season. Bulls were slaughtered at 19 months of age and either finished indoors on concentrates ad libitum for 100 days (19AL), finished at pasture supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 100 (19SP) or 150 days (19LP). Steers were slaughtered at 21 months of age and finished at pasture, supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 60 (21SP) and 110 days (21LP) or slaughtered at 24 months of age and finished indoors over the second winter on grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily (24MO). The Grange Dairy Beef Systems Model and the Beef Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model were used to evaluate profitability and GHG emissions, respectively. Average daily gain during the finishing period (Pprofit.

  14. Hope for restoration of dead valuable bulls through cloning using donor somatic cells isolated from cryopreserved semen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh L Selokar

    Full Text Available Somatic cells were isolated from cryopreserved semen of 4 buffalo bulls, 3 of which had died over 10 years earlier, and were established in culture. The cells expressed cytokeratin-18, keratin and vimentin indicating that they were of epithelial origin. The cells were used as nuclear donors for hand-made cloning for producing buffalo embryos. The blastocyst rate and quality, as indicated by apoptotic index, were comparable among embryos produced using cells obtained from fresh or frozen-thawed semen or those obtained from conventional cell sources such as skin. Examination of the epigenetic status revealed that the global level of H3K27me3 but not that of H3K9/14ac and H4K5ac differed significantly (P<0.05 among cloned embryos from different bulls. The relative mRNA abundance of HDAC1, DNMT1, P53 and CASPASE 3 but not that of DNMT3a differed in cells and in cloned embryos. Following transfer of 24 cloned embryos produced from fresh semen-derived cells to 12 recipients, one calf weighing 55 kg, which is now 6 months of age and is normal, was born through normal parturition. Following transfer of 20 embryos produced from frozen-thawed semen-derived cells to 10 recipients, 2 became pregnant, one of which aborted in the first trimester; the calf born was severely underweight (17 kg, and died 12 h after birth. The ability of cells derived from fresh and frozen-thawed semen to produce live offspring confirms the ability of these cells to be reprogrammed. Our findings pave the way for restoration of highly precious progeny-tested bulls, which has immense economic importance, and can also be used for restoration of endangered species.

  15. Propolis or cashew and castor oils effects on composition of Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural additive products (propolis or essential oils, in replacing antibiotics, could be used as an alternative for feed strategies to improve animal production. This work was performed to evaluate the effect of natural additives as propolis or essential oils on meat quality of crossbred (Aberdeen Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Thirty bulls were kept in feedlot (individual pen for 55 d and randomly assigned to one of three diets (n = 10: control (CON, propolis (PRO, or essential oils (OIL. CON diet consists of corn silage (45% DM and concentrate (cracked corn, soybean meal, glycerin, limestone, and mineral salt, 55% DM. The PRO group received same CON diet plus 3 g animal-1 d-1 of propolis premix added to the concentrate. The OIL group received same CON diet and 3 g animal-1 d-1 of a premix (cashew Anacardium occidentale L. and castor Ricinus communis L. oils added to the concentrate. Fat thickness (5.0 mm, pH (5.9, Longissimus muscle area 58.0 cm², marbling, texture, color (L* = 36.6, a* = 17.3, and b* = 5.9, lipid oxidation (0.08 malonaldehyde kg-1 meat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (3.3 kg were unaffected by the diet. PRO and OIL diets had no effect neither on moisture (73.7%, ashes (1.1%, protein (23.8%, and lipids (1.7%, fatty acid composition or polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/ SFA, 0.13, and n-6/n-3 ratio (6.9 on Longissimus muscle. Addition of natural additives as propolis extract or cashew and castor oils in the diet of bulls when they are finished in a feedlot did not change meat qualities.

  16. Hope for Restoration of Dead Valuable Bulls through Cloning Using Donor Somatic Cells Isolated from Cryopreserved Semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selokar, Naresh L.; Saini, Monika; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Manik, Radheysham; Singla, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cells were isolated from cryopreserved semen of 4 buffalo bulls, 3 of which had died over 10 years earlier, and were established in culture. The cells expressed cytokeratin-18, keratin and vimentin indicating that they were of epithelial origin. The cells were used as nuclear donors for hand-made cloning for producing buffalo embryos. The blastocyst rate and quality, as indicated by apoptotic index, were comparable among embryos produced using cells obtained from fresh or frozen-thawed semen or those obtained from conventional cell sources such as skin. Examination of the epigenetic status revealed that the global level of H3K27me3 but not that of H3K9/14ac and H4K5ac differed significantly (Pcloned embryos from different bulls. The relative mRNA abundance of HDAC1, DNMT1, P53 and CASPASE 3 but not that of DNMT3a differed in cells and in cloned embryos. Following transfer of 24 cloned embryos produced from fresh semen-derived cells to 12 recipients, one calf weighing 55 kg, which is now 6 months of age and is normal, was born through normal parturition. Following transfer of 20 embryos produced from frozen-thawed semen-derived cells to 10 recipients, 2 became pregnant, one of which aborted in the first trimester; the calf born was severely underweight (17 kg), and died 12 h after birth. The ability of cells derived from fresh and frozen-thawed semen to produce live offspring confirms the ability of these cells to be reprogrammed. Our findings pave the way for restoration of highly precious progeny-tested bulls, which has immense economic importance, and can also be used for restoration of endangered species. PMID:24614586

  17. Residency Patterns and Migration Dynamics of Adult Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the East Coast of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ryan; Smale, Malcolm J.; Cowley, Paul D.; Froneman, Pierre W.

    2014-01-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195–283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km.d−1 (mean  = 17.58 km.d−1) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean  = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales. PMID:25295972

  18. Purification, characterization and antioxidant activities in vitro and in vivo of the polysaccharides from Boletus edulis bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Aoxue; Luo, Aoshuang; Huang, Jiandong; Fan, Yijun

    2012-07-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP) was extracted from Boletus edulis Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw), IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  19. Effect of mating between the donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on the in vitro production of bovine embryos

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    Ana Paula Toledo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on in vitro production (IVP parameters of bovine embryos comparing the mean number of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture, the rate of suitable oocytes, and cleavage and blastocyst rates. Data from 1,000 follicular aspiration sessions (OPU, including 500 in donor cows of the Holstein breed and 500 of the Gyr breed, were collected. The results were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test and chi-square test, adopting a level of significance of 5%. The mean number and standard deviation of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture were 15.1±13.0 and 8.7±7.6 for the Holstein breed and 15.5±11.9 and 9.1±7.9 for the Gyr breed. The rates of suitable oocytes were 57.7% and 58.5% for Holstein and Gyr breeds, respectively. A significant difference between breeds was observed for the number of oocytes suitable for culture (P<0.05, but not for the number of recovered oocytes or rates of suitable oocytes (P>0.05. Similarly, the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull influenced cleavage and blastocyst rates (P<0.05. The cleavage rates were 65.7, 60.3, 59.6 and 56.5% for the combinations (donor breed x bull breed Holstein x Holstein (G1, Holstein x Gyr (G2, Gyr x Holstein (G3 and Gyr x Gyr (G4, respectively, with G1>G2, G1>G3, G1>G4, G2=G3, G2>G4, and G3>G4. The blastocyst rates were 28.1, 33.3, 26.8 and 31.0%, respectively, with G1>G2, G1=G3, G1bull influenced IVP parameters, with a larger number of oocytes suitable for culture in the Gyr breed.

  20. Comparison of silage and hay of dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) fed to Thai native beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapato, Chaowarit; Wanapat, Metha

    2018-03-23

    Both quantity and quality of forages are important in dry season feeding. Eight Thai native beef bulls were arranged in a Completely randomized design to evaluate dwarf Napier namely Sweet grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mahasarakham) preserved as silage or hay on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The animals were fed with forage ad libitum supplemented with concentrate mixture at 1.0% of BW for 21 days; data were collected during the last 7 days. The results showed that there were differences (P  0.05) in animals fed silage and hay. Sweet grass is better preserved as hay rather than silage.

  1. Comparison of sperm subpopulation structures in first and second ejaculated semen from Japanese black bulls by a cluster analysis of sperm motility evaluated by a CASA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-08-04

    In the present study, bull sperm in the first and second ejaculates were divided into subpopulations based on their motility characteristics using a cluster analysis of data from computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA). Semen samples were collected from 4 Japanese black bulls. Data from 9,228 motile sperm were classified into 4 clusters; 1) very rapid and progressively motile sperm, 2) rapid and circularly motile sperm with widely moving heads, 3) moderately motile sperm with heads moving frequently in a short length, and 4) poorly motile sperm. The percentage of cluster 1 varied between bulls. The first ejaculates had a higher proportion of cluster 2 and lower proportion of cluster 3 than the second ejaculates.

  2. Spatial and temporal distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish near the floating surface collector in the North Fork Reservoir, Oregon, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Noah S.; Smith, Collin D.

    2017-06-26

    Acoustic cameras were used to assess the behavior and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)-size fish at the entrance to the North Fork Reservoir juvenile fish floating surface collector (FSC). The purpose of the FSC is to collect downriver migrating juvenile salmonids at the North Fork Dam, and safely route them around the hydroelectric projects. The objective of the acoustic camera component of this study was to assess the behaviors of bull trout-size fish observed near the FSC, and to determine if the presence of bull trout-size fish influenced the collection or abundance of juvenile salmonids. Acoustic cameras were deployed near the surface and floor of the entrance to the FSC. The acoustic camera technology was an informative tool for assessing abundance and spatial and temporal behaviors of bull trout-size fish near the entrance of the FSC. Bull trout-size fish were regularly observed near the entrance, with greater abundances on the deep camera than on the shallow camera. Additionally, greater abundances were observed during the hours of sunlight than were observed during the night. Behavioral differences also were observed at the two depths, with surface fish traveling faster and straighter with more directed movement, and fish observed on the deep camera generally showing more milling behavior. Modeling potential predator-prey interactions and influences using collected passive integrated transponder (PIT) -tagged juvenile salmonids proved largely unpredictable, although these fish provided relevant timing and collection information. Overall, the results indicate that bull trout-size fish are present near the entrance of the FSC, concomitant with juvenile salmonids, and their abundances and behaviors indicate that they may be drawn to the entrance of the FSC because of the abundance of prey-sized fish.

  3. Habitat features influence catch rates of near-shore bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) in the Queensland Shark Control Program, Australia 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Jodie A.; Lambert, Gwladys I.; Sumpton, Wayne D.; Mayer, David G.; Werry, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding shark habitat use is vital for informing better ecological management of coastal areas and shark populations. The Queensland Shark Control Program (QSCP) operates over ∼1800 km of Queensland coastline. Between 1996 and 2012, catch, total length and sex were recorded from most of the 1992 bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) caught on drum lines and gill-nets as part of the QSCP (sex and length was not successfully recorded for all individuals). Gear was set at multiple sites within ten locations. Analysis of monthly catch data resulted in a zero-inflated dataset for the 17 years of records. Five models were trialled for suitability of standardising the bull shark catch per unit effort (CPUE) using available habitat and environmental data. Three separate models for presence-absence and presence-only were run and outputs combined using a delta-lognormal framework for generalized linear and generalized additive models. The delta-lognormal generalized linear model approach resulted in best fit to explain patterns in CPUE. Greater CPUE occurred on drum lines, and greater numbers of bull sharks were caught on both gear types in summer months, with tropical sites, and sites with greater adjacent wetland habitats catching consistently more bull sharks compared to sub-tropical sites. The CPUE data did not support a hypothesis of population decline indicative of coastal overfishing. However, the total length of sharks declined slightly through time for those caught in the tropics; subtropical catches were dominated by females and a large proportion of all bull sharks caught were smaller than the size-at-maturity reported for this species. These factors suggest that growth and sex overfishing of Queensland bull shark populations may be occurring but are not yet detectable in the available data. The data highlight available coastal wetlands, river size, length of coastline and distance to the 50 m depth contour are important for consideration in future whole of

  4. Effect of different compound feeds on the fatty acid composition and other quality indicators in the meat of Lithuanian black-and-white bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrukonienė, Gintarė

    2015-01-01

    Aim and objectives – To evaluate the effect of compound feed on the milk and dairy Black-and white bulls grawing and beef quality, fatty acids composition in the meat and liver, to evaluate meat sensory and textere characteristics. Objectives of the study: 1. to analyze the chemical composition of rapeseed, linseed and sunflower cakes and accordingly that of compound feeds and to determine the content and ratio of fatty acids; 2. to evaluate the growth rate of bulls and carry out contro...

  5. Movement of bull trout in the upper Jarbidge River watershed, Idaho and Nevada, 2008-09--A supplement to Open-File Report 2010-1033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Carrie S.; Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in 2008 and 2009 as a continuation of our work in 2006 and 2007, which involved the tagging of 1,536 bull trout with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River and their tributaries in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed PIT tag interrogation systems (PTISs) at established locations soon after ice-out, and maintained the PTISs in order to collect information on bull trout movements through December of each year. We observed a marked increase of movement in 2008 and 2009. Bull trout tagged in the uppermost portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River at altitudes greater than 2,100 meters moved to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River in summer and autumn. Ten bull trout tagged upstream of the confluence of Pine Creek and the West Fork Jarbidge River moved downstream and then upstream in the East Fork Jarbidge River, and then past the PTIS at Murphy Hot Springs (river kilometer [rkm] 4.1). Two of these fish ascended Dave Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Jarbidge River, past the PTIS at rkm 0.4. One bull trout that was tagged at rkm 11 in Dave Creek on June 28, 2007 moved downstream to the confluence of the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River (rkm 0) on July 28, 2007, and it was then detected in the West Fork Jarbidge River moving past our PTIS at rkm 15 on May 4, 2008. Combined, the extent and types of bull trout movements observed indicated that the primarily age-1 and age-2 bull trout that we tagged in 2006 and 2007 showed increased movement with age and evidence of a substantial amount of fluvial life history. The movements suggest strong connectivity between spawning areas and downstream mainstem areas, as well as between the East Fork Jarbidge River and West Fork Jarbidge River.

  6. Effects of GnRH vaccination in wild and captive African Elephant bulls (Loxodonta africana on reproductive organs and semen quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Lueders

    Full Text Available Although the African elephant (Loxodonta africana is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN, in some isolated habitats in southern Africa, contraception is of major interest due to local overpopulation. GnRH vaccination has been promoted as a non-invasive contraceptive measure for population management of overabundant wildlife. We tested the efficacy of this treatment for fertility control in elephant bulls.In total, 17 male African elephants that were treated with a GnRH vaccine were examined in two groups. In the prospective study group 1 (n = 11 bulls, ages: 8-36 years, semen quality, the testes, seminal vesicles, ampullae and prostate, which were all measured by means of transrectal ultrasound, and faecal androgen metabolite concentrations were monitored over a three-year period. Each bull in the prospective study received 5 ml of Improvac® (1000 μg GnRH conjugate intramuscularly after the first examination, followed by a booster six weeks later and thereafter every 5-7 months. In a retrospective study group (group 2, n = 6, ages: 19-33 years, one examination was performed on bulls which had been treated with GnRH vaccine for 5-11 years.In all bulls of group 1, testicular and accessory sex gland sizes decreased significantly after the third vaccination. In six males examined prior to vaccination and again after more than five vaccinations, the testis size was reduced by 57.5%. Mean testicular height and length decreased from 13.3 ± 2.6 cm x 15.2 ± 2.8 cm at the beginning to 7.6 ± 2.1 cm x 10.2 ± 1.8 cm at the end of the study. Post pubertal bulls (>9 years, n = 6 examined prior to vaccination produced ejaculates with viable spermatozoa (volume: 8-175 ml, sperm concentration: 410-4000x106/ml, total motility: 0-90%, while after 5-8 injections, only 50% of these bulls produced ejaculates with a small number of immotile spermatozoa. The ejaculates of group 2 bulls (vaccinated >8 times were

  7. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  8. The effects of cholesterol on the viability and fertility of bull spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polmer Situmorang

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cholesterol on the viability and fertility of chilled and deep-frozen bull spermatozoa. Semen was collected by means of artificial vagina, diluted in Tris-Citrat diluent and cooled to 50C for 60 minutes. Following an equiliberation for 4 hours, semen was frozen at 5 cm above surface of liquid nitrogen for 10 minutes. The experiment was 2 x 3 factorial designed with two level of egg yolk (10 and 20% v/v and 3 level of cholesterol (0; 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml. The viability of spermatozoa was evaluated after the temperature reduced to 50C, stored at 50C for 1, 3 and 7 days and after thawing. For fertility test, cows were artificially inseminated (AI using chilled and frozen semen on the onset or 6 hours of oestrus. Rectal palpation was conducted 3 months after AI to determine the pregnancy. The percentages motile of chilled semen was higher in 0.5 mg/ml than those of 0.0 or 1.0 mg/ml cholesterol but this difference was not significant. After thawing, the effects of cholesterol on the percentage motile was significant (P<0.05. The mean percentage motile was 47.5; 51,5 and 56.0 for 0.0; 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml cholesterol respectively. The percentage of live sperm and intact apical ridge was higher in cholesterol however this effects was not significant. The effects level of egg yolk and its interaction with cholesterol on the viability was not significant. The percentage of pregnant was higher in 1.0 mg/ml and the mean percentage of pregnant was 45.8; 48.2 and 55.7 for 0.0; 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml cholesterol respectively. Percentage of pregnant was higher for chilled semen than those of frozen semen (54.3 vs 45.5. In conclusion the addition of 1 mg/ml cholesterol increase the percentage of motile after thawing and pregnancy of cows inseminated with chilled and frozen semen.

  9. Freezability of water buffalo bull (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa is improved with the addition of curcumin (diferuoyl methane) in semen extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S A H; Andrabi, S M H; Qureshi, I Z

    2017-10-01

    Effects of curcumin as antioxidant in extender were evaluated on freezability of buffalo spermatozoa. Semen from each of the five bulls (n = 3 replicates, six ejaculates/bull, a total of 30 ejaculates) was diluted in Tris-citric acid extender containing curcumin (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mM) or control. At pre-freezing and post-thawing, total antioxidant contents (μM/L) and lipid peroxidation levels (μM/ml) were higher (p curcumin and control. At post-thawing, progressive motility (PM, %) and rapid velocity (RV, %) were higher (p curcumin and control (except in case of RV, 1.5 was similar with 1.0 mM). Kinematics (average path velocity, μm/s; straight-line velocity, μm/s; curved-line velocity, μm/s; straightness, %; linearity, %), in vitro longevity (%, PM and RV) and DNA integrity (%) at post-thawing were higher (p curcumin and control. We concluded that freezability of water buffalo spermatozoa is improved with the addition of 1.5 mM curcumin in extender. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Comparative functional anatomy of the epaxial musculature of dogs (Canis familiaris) bred for sprinting vs. fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Emma L; Hudson, Penny E; Channon, Sarah B

    2014-09-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system of quadrupedal mammals is not currently well understood despite its functional importance in terms of facilitating postural stability and locomotion. Here we examined the detailed architecture of the muscles of the vertebral column of two breeds of dog, the Staffordshire bull terrier (SBT) and the racing greyhound, which have been selectively bred for physical combat and high speed sprint performance, respectively. Dissections of the epaxial musculature of nine racing greyhounds and six SBTs were carried out; muscle mass, length, and fascicle lengths were measured and used to calculate muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and to estimate maximum muscle potential for force, work and power production. The longissimus dorsi muscle was found to have a high propensity for force production in both breeds of dog; however, when considered in combination with the iliocostalis lumborum muscle it showed enhanced potential for production of power and facilitating spinal extension during galloping gaits. This was particularly the case in the greyhound, where the m. longissimus dorsi and the m. iliocostalis lumborum were estimated to have the potential to augment hindlimb muscle power by ca. 12%. Breed differences were found within various other muscles of the axial musculoskeletal system, particularly in the cranial cervical muscles and also the deep muscles of the thorax which insert on the ribs. These may also highlight key functional adaptations between the two breeds of dog, which have been selectively bred for particular purposes. Additionally, in both breeds of dog, we illustrate specialisation of muscle function by spinal region, with differences in both mass and PCSA found between muscles at varying levels of the axial musculoskeletal system, and between muscle functional groups. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  11. Genetic effects of PDGFRB and MARCH1 identified in GWAS revealing strong associations with semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Cong; Qin, Chunhua; Cai, Wentao; Cao, Mingyue; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-07-03

    Using a genome-wide association study strategy, our previous study discovered 19 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. Among them, three SNPs were within or close to the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) genes. The present study was designed with the objectives of identifying genetic polymorphism of the PDE3A, PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes and their effects on semen production traits in a Holstein bull population. A total of 20 SNPs were detected and genotyped in 730 bulls. Association analyses using de-regressed estimated breeding values of each semen production trait revealed four statistically significant SNPs for one or more semen production traits (P semen volume per ejaculate. Furthermore, high expression of the MARCH1 gene was observed in sperm cells. One SNP (rs43445726) in the regulatory region of MARCH1 had a significant effect on gene expression. Our study demonstrated the significant associations of genetic variants of the PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes with semen production traits. The identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to optimize breeding programs for semen production traits in Holstein bull populations.

  12. An expert panel approach to assessing potential effects of bull trout reintroduction on federally listed salmonids in the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Chris S. Allen; Steve Morey; Dan Shively; Rollie. White

    2012-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is an apex predator in native fish communities in the western USA and is listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Restoration of this species has raised concerns over its potential predatory impacts on native fish fauna. We held a five-person expert panel to help determine potential...

  13. Spectral shape of sea level muons derived from the model of Bull et al using ISR results on kaon-pion ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P; Choudhury, B

    1978-01-01

    The diffusion model developed by Bull et al. (1965) is used to calculate the sea-level spectra in the energy range 5-650 GeV. Experimental values taken for the K/ pi ratio are those produced by the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings, (Antinucci et al., 1973).

  14. Influences of temperature and environmental variables on the distribution of bull trout within streams at the southern margin of its range

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunham; B. Rieman; G. Chandler

    2003-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus is believed to be among the most thermally sensitive species in coldwater habitats in western North America. We conducted a comprehensive field assessment of thermal habitat associations throughout the southern margin of the species' range. We developed models of thermal habitat associations using two data sets representing a...

  15. A comparison of purebred Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × beef breed bulls for beef production and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine beef production traits of purebred Holstein-Friesian (Hol and Hol×beef breed crossbred bulls. The data collected from slaughterhouses included observations of 87323 purebred Hol, 783 Hol×Aberdeen angus (Hol×Ab, 621 Hol×Blonde d’Aquitaine (Hol×Ba, 562 Hol×Charolais (Hol×Ch, 349 Hol×Hereford (Hol×Hf, 1691 Hol×Limousin (Hol×Li and 570 Hol×Simmental (Hol×Si bulls. For estimating valuable cuttings also a separate dataset was collected and included observations of 8806 purebred Hol, 57 Hol×Ab, 29 Hol×Ba, 22 Hol×Ch, 15 Hol×Hf, 111 Hol×Li and 58 Hol×Si bulls. Crossbreeding Hol cows with late maturing breeds (Ba, Ch, Li, Si had favorable effects on carcass gain, conformation and proportion of high value joints of the progeny when compared to purebred Hol bulls. No advantages in proportion of valuable cuttings seemed to be obtained by crossbreeding with Ab or Hf breeds, while the improvements in gain and conformation were intermediate compared to the late maturing crossbreds.

  16. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-01-01

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon

  17. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    Full Text Available The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity.

  18. Numerical modeling of the Snowmass Creek paleoglacier, Colorado, and climate in the Rocky Mountains during the Bull Lake glaciation (MIS 6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Leonard; Mitchell A. Plummer; Paul E. Carrara

    2014-04-01

    Well-preserved moraines from the penultimate, or Bull Lake, glaciation of Snowmass Creek Valley in the Elk Range of Colorado present an opportunity to examine the character of the high-altitude climate in the Rocky Mountains during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6. This study employs a 2-D coupled mass/energy balance and flow model to assess the magnitudes of temperature and precipitation change that could have sustained the glacier in mass-balance equilibrium at its maximum extent during the Bull Lake glaciation. Variable substrate effects on glacier flow and ice thickness make the modeling somewhat more complex than in geologically simpler settings. Model results indicate that a temperature depression of about 6.7°C compared with the present (1971–2000 AD) would have been necessary to sustain the Snowmass Creek glacier in mass-balance equilibrium during the Bull Lake glaciation, assuming no change in precipitation amount or seasonality. A 50% increase or decrease from modern precipitation would have been coupled with 5.2°C and 9.1°C Bull Lake temperature depressions respectively. Uncertainty in these modeled temperature depressions is about 1°C.

  19. Relationship between residual feed intake and daily methane emission in young Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Melo Caliman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cattle production is a sector of agricultural activity that has impact on global warming due to enteric fermentation from digestive process that releases methane (CH4, with energy loss of food and consequent inefficiency of system. Residual feed intake (RFI is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for body weight production and maintenance. There are evidences that more efficient cattle (low RFI have lower methane daily emissions than less efficient cattle (high RFI. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of CH4 daily emission and its relationship with RFI obtained during the CH4 collection in Nelore previously evaluated for this trait. A sample of 23 from 62 young bulls, previously classified into low RFI72 and high RFI72 in the 72-days performance test (RFI72, were evaluated. After the 72-days test, the individual feed intake was recorded for a further 45 days. Another RFI was obtained from the last 32 days (RFI32, and the animals were classified into two RFI32 classes: below zero (low RFI32 and above zero (high RFI32. CH4 daily emissions of each animal were collected during the last 7 days of this period, being preceded by 7 days for adaptation of animals to the collection apparatus. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique was used for estimating enteric methane emissions. CH4 and SF6 local background were also collected each day from inside of the installation using the same apparatus. The SF6 and CH4 gases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The correlation between RFI72 and RFI32 was not high (0.41 as a 32 days is a short period for accurately measuring the average daily gain. However, the additional period of 32 days is more representative of age, weight and feed intake at the time of CH4 collecting period than 72-days performance test itself. The averages of age, weight and CH4 daily emission were 351±24 days, 343±34 kg, and 155.5

  20. Growth, ruminal measurements, and health characteristics of Holstein bull calves fed an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, T T; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2015-09-01

    A fermentation extract of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae can be used as a prebiotic. The objective was to determine if dietary inclusion of a fermentation extract of A. oryzae as well as calf age would alter growth, health, performance parameters, and the growth and development of the rumen in Holstein calves from birth thru 1 wk postweaning; it was hypothesized that it would. Purchased bull calves (n=52) that originated from 1 of 13 farms were used in this experiment. All calves had serum IgG greater than 10 mg/mL. Calves were randomly assigned to a slaughter age, 4 (n=16) or 8 wk (n=36), and treatment, control (n=27) or fermentation extract of A. oryzae (AMF; n=25). Calves were housed and fed individually; no bedding was used and no forage was fed. Calves assigned to AMF were fed 2 g of AMF daily. Liquid AMF was delivered in milk replacer for the first 4 wk of the study; solid AMF was top-dressed on texturized starter thereafter. Calves were fed nonmedicated milk replacer twice daily (22.0% crude protein, 20.0% fat, dry matter basis; 680 g/d) and were weaned upon consumption of 0.91 kg of starter (20% crude protein, 2.0% fat; medicated with decoquinate) for 3 consecutive days or on d 45 of the study, whichever came first. Calves had ad libitum access to starter and water throughout the study. Feed intake as well as fecal and respiratory scores were recorded daily; body weight, withers height, and hip height were recorded weekly. Gross rumen measurements and rumen samples for future gross and histological analyses were taken at 4 and 8 wk. All calves grew similarly; weaning age averaged 40.39±0.77 d. Lifetime average daily gain was 0.60±0.05 kg/d and lifetime gain-to-feed ratio was 0.56±0.05. Milk replacer, starter, total dry matter intake, gross and histological rumen measurements, rumen pH, fecal and respiratory scores, and total medical costs were not affected by treatment. Despite total medical costs not differing by treatment, a lower percentage of AMF

  1. Plasma IGF-I, INSL3, testosterone, inhibin concentrations and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls with normal and abnormal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, W W P N; Sakase, M; Kawate, N; Hannan, M A; Kohama, N; Tamada, H

    2018-07-01

    The relationships between semen abnormalities and peripheral concentrations of testicular and metabolic hormones in beef bulls are unclear. Here we compared plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), testosterone, inhibin concentrations, and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls (n = 66) with normal or abnormal semen. We collected blood samples and measured scrotal circumferences monthly from 4 to 24 months of age. Semen was collected weekly from 12 months until at least 18 months of age. Fresh semen was evaluated for semen volume, sperm motility, concentrations, and morphological defects. The normal fresh semen was frozen by a standard method and examined for post-thaw sperm motility and fertility. Bulls were classified as having either normal post-thaw semen (n = 45) or abnormal semen (n = 21, when at least one of the above test items was abnormal for 6 months). Abnormal semen was classified into abnormal fresh or low-fertility post-thaw which evaluated for rates of transferable embryos. The abnormal fresh was categorized as having sperm morphological defects, low motility, and morphological defects plus low motility. Scrotal circumferences were smaller for the abnormal-semen group vs. the normal-semen group at 20 and 24 months (p IGF-I, INSL3, and inhibin concentrations in the abnormal-semen group were lower than those of the normal-semen group (p IGF-I; 6, 9, 11-14, 17, and 20-21 months for INSL3; 5, 8-13, 16, 17, 19, and 20 months for inhibin). The plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in the abnormal-semen bulls vs. normal-semen bulls only at 22 months (p IGF-I and inhibin concentrations for low-fertility post-thaw semen (p IGF-I, INSL3, and inhibin surrounding puberty may be associated with semen aberration in beef bulls. Notably, the combined sperm abnormality of morphological defects and low motility in fresh semen could involve lowered INSL3, whereas the low

  2. Objective Measures for the Assessment of Post-Operative Pain in Bos indicus Bull Calves Following Castration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, Gabrielle C.; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Lehmann, Heidi S.; Tuke, S. Jonathon; Collins, Teresa; Johnson, Craig B.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Surgical castration of cattle is a common husbandry procedure, and although this procedure is known to cause pain in cattle and other species, in some countries it is often performed without anaesthesia or analgesia. Society is increasingly aware of this animal welfare issue and it is creating pressure to drive research into animal welfare science with the aim of identifying practical and economical approaches to pain management in livestock. To effectively manage pain, a pain assessment must be performed. Pain assessment methods are often subjective and therefore influenced by the observer. Ideally, objective assessments that generate consistent and repeatable results between observers should be identified. Bos indicus bull calves were divided into four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative local anaesthetic (CL n = 12); castration with pre-operative anti-inflammatory medication (CM, n = 12); and, castration without pain relief (C, n = 12). A range of objective assessments was performed: bodyweight measurements, activity, and rest levels, and four different compounds in the blood. The results of this study suggest that animals rest for longer periods after the pre-operative administration of anti-inflammatory medication. The other objective assessments measured in this study were not able to consistently differentiate between treatment groups. These findings emphasise the need for alternative quantifiable and objective indicators of pain in Bos indicus bull calves. Abstract The aim of the study was to assess pain in Bos indicus bull calves following surgical castration. Forty-two animals were randomised to four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative lidocaine (CL, n = 12); castration with pre-operative meloxicam (CM, n = 12); and, castration alone (C, n = 12). Bodyweight was measured regularly and pedometers provided data on activity and rest from day −7 (7 days prior to surgery) to 13. Blood

  3. Impact of oral meloxicam administration before and after band castration on feedlot performance and behavioral response in weanling beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repenning, P E; Ahola, J K; Callan, R J; French, J T; Giles, R L; Bigler, B J; Coetzee, J F; Wulf, L W; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Fox, J T; Engle, T E

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of band castration and oral administration of an analgesic in association with castration on performance and behavioral and physiological responses in yearling beef bulls. In Exp. 1 Angus and Charolais-crossbred bull calves (n = 127; 309.8 ± 59.04 kg BW) and in Exp. 2 Hereford, Angus, and Hereford × Angus crossbred bulls (n = 30; 300.8 ± 4.96 kg BW) were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) band castration (BAND), 2) band castration with oral administration of meloxicam (BAND-MEL), and 3) sham castration (SHAM). The BAND and SHAM procedures were completed on d 0. The SHAM treatment consisted of all animal manipulations associated with band castration without band application. Meloxicam was administered on d -1, 0, and 1 (1.0, 0.5, and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively) via an oral bolus. Body weight and a subjective chute score (CS) were collected on d -1, 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 (d 28 Exp. 1 only). In Exp. 2, jugular blood samples were collected immediately before castration and 24 h postcastration for substance P (SP) analysis. In Exp. 2, video documentation on d 0 was used to determine range of vertical head motion (DIST) on a subset of animals during treatment administration. In both experiments, ADG was similar (P ≥ 0.50) between BAND and BAND-MEL, but ADG in SHAM cattle was greater (P castrates in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. In Exp. 1, CS did not differ (P ≥ 0.26) between BAND and BAND-MEL on any day, but castrates exhibited less desirable CS on d 1 and 28 than SHAM cattle. In Exp. 2, CS was not affected (P ≥ 0.41) by castration or the presence of meloxicam. In Exp. 2, DIST did not differ (P = 0.57) between BAND and BAND-MEL, but when pooled, castrates exhibited greater (P = 0.04) DIST than SHAM. In Exp. 2, plasma SP concentrations were similar between BAND and BAND-MEL (P = 0.81) and between castrates vs. sham cattle (P = 0.67). Results indicate no impact of meloxicam administration on performance

  4. Animal Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim) Slaughtered at 16 and 22 Months Old, and Three Different Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Ivanor Nunes; Eiras, Carlos Emanuel; Fugita, Carlos Alberto; Passetti, Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz; Ornaghi, Mariana Garcia; Rivaroli, Dayane Cristina; Pinto, Adriana Aparecida; Moletta, José Luiz

    2015-05-01

    Current study aimed to evaluate the performance of bulls (1/2 Purunã vs 1/2 Canchim) slaughtered at two ages and three different weights. One hundred and thirteen bulls were divided into two slaughter ages (16 and 22 months) and three different slaughter weights (light, 422 kg; medium, 470 kg; and heavy, 550 kg). The body weight was higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Daily gain, carcass weight and dressing were higher for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Feed intake was higher for bulls slaughtered at 22 months although feed efficiency was better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. Carcass characteristics were better for bulls slaughtered at 16 months. The percentages of muscle, fat and bone and meat characteristics were similar between two slaughter ages. Feed intake and animal performance was lower for lighter animals. Feed conversion and carcass dressing were similar in the three slaughter weights. Muscle percentage was higher for heavier animals but fat and bone percentages were lower. Slaughter weight had no effect on meat characteristics.

  5. Differential testosterone response to GnRH-induced LH release before and after musth in adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Boonprasert, Khajohnpat; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-04-15

    Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon after musth has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate LH and testosterone responses to GnRH challenge in nine adult Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) bulls during three periods relative to musth: premusth, postmusth, and nonmusth. Bulls were administered 80 μg of a GnRH agonist, and blood was collected before and after injection to monitor serum hormone concentrations. The same bulls were injected with saline 2 weeks before each GnRH challenge and monitored using the same blood collection protocol. All bulls responded to GnRH, but not saline, with an increase in LH and testosterone during all three periods. The mean peak LH (1.76 ± 0.19 ng/mL; P elephants. Furthermore, although the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is active throughout the year, the testis appears to be more responsive to LH in terms of testosterone production in the period leading up to musth, compared to the nonmusth and postmusth periods. This heightened sensitivity, perhaps as a result of LH receptor up-regulation, may prime the testis for maximal testosterone production, leading to the physiological and behavioral changes associated with musth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  7. Evaluation of arterial blood gases and arterial blood pressures in brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoareau, G L; Jourdan, G; Mellema, M; Verwaerde, P

    2012-01-01

    Brachycephalic dogs (BD) are prone to congenital upper airway obstruction (brachycephalic syndrome, BS). In humans suffering from sleep apnea, upper airway obstruction is known to cause hypertension. There is no information regarding the influence of BS in dogs on cardiorespiratory physiology. BD are prone to lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO (2), and hypertension compared with meso- or dolicocephalic dogs (MDD). Eleven BD and 11 MDD. After a questionnaire was completed by the owner, a physical examination was performed. Height and thoracic circumferences were measured. Arterial blood gases, electrolyte concentrations, and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured. Systolic (SAP), mean (MAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure recordings were performed. A total of 7 French and 4 English bulldogs met the inclusion criteria. The control group consisted in 6 Beagles, 2 mixed breed dogs, 1 Staffordshire Bull Terrier, 1 Parson Russell Terrier, and 1 Australian Cattle Dog. Statistically, BD had lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO2, and higher PCV when compared with controls (86.2 ± 15.9 versus 100.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, P = .017; 36.3 ± 4.6 versus 32.7 ± 2.6 mmHg, P = .019; 48.2 ± 3.5 versus 44.2 ± 5.4%, P = .026, respectively). Also, they had significantly higher SAP (177.6 ± 25.0 versus 153.5 ± 21.7 mmHg, P = .013), MAP (123.3 ± 17.1 versus 108.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, P = .014), and DAP (95.3 ± 19.2 versus 83.0 ± 11.5 mmHg, P = .042). BD with a P(a) CO (2) >35 mmHg were significantly older than those with a P(a) CO (2) ≤35 mmHg (58 ± 16 and 30 ± 11 months, P = .004). Results of this study suggest that some BD are prone to lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO (2), and hypertension when compared with MDD. Age may be a contributing factor. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Habitat use and movement patterns of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas determined using pop-up satellite archival tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J K; Ribera, M M; Conrath, C L; Heupel, M R; Burgess, G H

    2010-08-01

    Habitat use, movement and residency of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas were determined using satellite pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags throughout coastal areas in the U.S., Gulf of Mexico and waters off the south-east U.S. From 2005 to 2007, 18 fish (mean size = 164 cm fork length, L(F)) were tagged over all seasons. Fish retained tags for up to 85 days (median = 30 days). Based on geolocation data from initial tagging location to pop-off location, C. leucas generally travelled c. 5-6 km day(-1) and travelled an average of 143.6 km. Overall, mean proportions of time at depth revealed C. leucas spent the majority of their time in waters freshwater inflow.

  9. A comparison of semen diluents on the in vitro and in vivo fertility of liquid bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edel M; Murphy, Craig; O'Meara, Ciara; Dunne, Gemma; Eivers, Bernard; Lonergan, Patrick; Fair, Sean

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of semen diluent on calving rate (CR) following artificial insemination with liquid bull semen stored for up to 3 d postcollection. In experiment 1, the effect of storing liquid semen maintained at a constant ambient temperature in 1 of 7 different diluents [Caprogen (homemade), OptiXcell, BioXcell, BullXcell, INRA96, NutriXcell, or AndroMed (all commercially available)] on total and progressive motility was assessed on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 postcollection. In experiment 2, the field fertility of liquid semen diluted in Caprogen, BioXcell, or INRA96 and inseminated on d 1, 2, or 3 postcollection was assessed in comparison to frozen-thawed semen (total of n = 19,126 inseminations). In experiment 3, the effect of storage temperature fluctuations (4 and 18°C) on total and progressive motility following dilution in Caprogen, BioXcell, and INRA96 was assessed on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 postcollection. In experiment 1, semen stored in Caprogen, BioXcell, and INRA96 resulted in the highest total and progressive motility on d 1, 2, and 3 of storage compared with OptiXcell, BullXcell, NutriXcell, and AndroMed. In experiment 2, an effect of diluent on CR was found as semen diluted in BioXcell had a lower CR on d 1, 2, and 3 of storage (46.3, 35.4, and 34.0%, respectively) in comparison with Caprogen (55.8, 52.0, and 51.9%, respectively), INRA96 (55.0, 55.1, and 52.2%, respectively), and frozen-thawed semen (59.7%). Effects were found of parity, cow fertility sub-index, as well as the number of days in milk on CR. In experiment 3, when the storage temperature of diluted semen fluctuated between 4 and 18°C, to mimic what occurs in the field (nighttime vs. daytime), BioXcell had the lowest total and progressive motility in comparison to Caprogen and INRA96. In conclusion, diluent significantly affected sperm motility when stored for up to 3 d. Semen diluted in INRA96 resulted in a similar CR to semen diluted in Caprogen and to frozen

  10. Model comparison on genomic predictions using high-density markers for different groups of bulls in the Nordic Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hongding; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2013-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions based on imputed high-density markers (~777,000) in the Nordic Holstein population using a genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model, 4 Bayesian exponential power models with different shape parameters (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) for the exponential power distribution...... relationship with the training population. Groupsmgs had both the sire and the maternal grandsire (MGS), Groupsire only had the sire, Groupmgs only had the MGS, and Groupnon had neither the sire nor the MGS in the training population. Reliability of DGV was measured as the squared correlation between DGV...... and DRP divided by the reliability of DRP for the bulls in validation data set. Unbiasedness of DGV was measured as the regression of DRP on DGV. The results indicated that DGV were more accurate and less biased for animals that were more related to the training population. In general, the Bayesian...

  11. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 8 (ATHETH00090008) on Town Highway 9, crossing Bull Creek, Athens, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ATHETH00090008 on Town Highway 9 crossing Bull Creek in Athens, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  12. Effect of prolonged heat treatments at low temperature on shear force and cooking loss in cows and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.; Andersen, L.; Løje, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    and cooking loss in semitendinosus from cows (4-6 years) and young bulls (12-14 months), representing 2 categories of beef with varying thermal strength of connective tissue. Vacuum packed muscle samples were heat treated at 53°C, 55°C, 58°C and 63°C in water baths for 2½, 7½ and 19½ h. Cooking loss...... 53°C to 55°C, or when increasing heating time from 2½ to 7½ h at 53°C. In semitendinosus from cows shear force decreased significantly with increasing temperature, and with increasing heating time from 2½ to 19½ h at 55°C and 63°C. Cooking loss increased with increasing heating temperature in both...

  13. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-27

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity.

  14. Radioiodination of surface proteins of bull spermatozoa and their characterization by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierula, M.

    1980-01-01

    Surface proteins of ejaculated bull spermatozoa were radioiodinated using Ma 125 I, solubilized and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The electron microscopic autoradiographs showed that the labelling was equally distributed to all parts of the spermatozoon and restricted to the sperm surface. The electrophoresis of solubilized radioactivity revealed 6 radioactive fractions with approximate molecular weights of 67 000-69 000, 47 000-50 000, 34 000-37 000, 25 000-28 000 and 14 000-16 000. The 6th fraction probably represented labelled lipids. The electrophoresis of radioiodinated seminal plasma proteins revealed only 2 radioactive protein peaks which coincided with the sperm surface protein fractions IV and V. (author)

  15. Effect of urea-supplemented diets on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Jiang, Lan; Wu, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of urea-supplemented diets on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal communities of finishing bulls using sequencing technology. Eighteen bulls were fed a total mixed ration based on maize silage and concentrate (40:60) and randomly allocated to one of three experimental diets: a basal diet with no urea (UC, 0%), a basal diet supplemented with low urea levels (UL, 0.8% dry matter (DM) basis), and a basal diet supplemented with high urea levels (UH, 2% DM basis). All treatments were iso-nitrogenous (14% crude protein, DM basis) and iso-metabolic energetic (ME = 11.3 MJ/kg, DM basis). After a 12-week feeding trial, DNA was isolated from ruminal samples and used for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. For bacteria, the most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (44.47%) and Bacteroidetes (41.83%), and the dominant genera were Prevotella (13.17%), Succiniclasticum (4.24%), Butyrivibrio (2.36%), and Ruminococcus (1.93%). Urea supplementation had no effect on most phyla (P > 0.05), while there was a decreasing tendency in phylum TM7 with increasing urea levels (P = 0.0914). Compared to UC, UH had lower abundance of genera Butyrivibrio and Coprococcus (P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0222, respectively). For archaea, the most abundant phylum was Euryarchaeota (99.81% of the sequence reads), and the most abundant genus was Methanobrevibacter (90.87% of the sequence reads). UH increased the abundance of genus Methanobrevibacter and Methanobacterium (P = 0.0299 and P = 0.0007, respectively) and decreased the abundance of vadinCA11 (P = 0.0151). These findings suggest that urea-supplemented diets were associated with a shift in archaeal biodiversity and changes in the bacterial community in the rumen.

  16. Listeria prevalence and Listeria monocytogenes serovar diversity at cull cow and bull processing plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Michael N; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Shackelford, T Steven D; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of epidemic and sporadic listeriosis, is routinely isolated from many sources, including cattle, yet information on the prevalence of Listeria in beef processing plants in the United States is minimal. From July 2005 through April 2006, four commercial cow and bull processing plants were sampled in the United States to determine the prevalence of Listeria and the serovar diversity of L. monocytogenes. Samples were collected during the summer, fall, winter, and spring. Listeria prevalence on hides was consistently higher during cooler weather (28 to 92% of samples) than during warmer weather (6 and 77% of samples). The Listeria prevalence data collected from preevisceration carcass ranged from undetectable in some warm season samples to as high as 71% during cooler weather. Listeria on postintervention carcasses in the chill cooler was normally undetectable, with the exception of summer and spring samples from one plant where > 19% of the carcasses were positive for Listeria. On hides, L. monocytogenes serovar 1/2a was the predominant serovar observed, with serovars 1/2b and 4b present 2.5 times less often and serovar 1/2c not detected on any hides sampled. L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 1/2c, and 4b were found on postintervention carcasses. This prevalence study demonstrates that Listeria species are more prevalent on hides during the winter and spring and that interventions being used in cow and bull processing plants appear to be effective in reducing or eliminating Listeria contamination on carcasses.

  17. Effects of pain mitigation and method of castration on behavior and feedlot performance in cull beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repenning, P E; Ahola, J K; Callan, R J; Fox, J T; French, J T; Giles, R L; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Engle, T E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of castration method (banding vs. surgical) and use of analgesia on behavior and feedlot performance in cull bulls. Angus, Hereford, and Angus-crossbred bulls (n = 20; initial BW = 384 ± 59.3 kg; 336 ± 20.1 d old) were housed in feedlot pens equipped with the ability to measure individual daily feed intake. A balanced randomized block design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A multimodal analgesia (MMA) protocol was used and consisted of sutcutaneous ketamine stun containing butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg BW), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg BW), ketamine (0.04 mg/kg BW), and a local 2% lidocaine hydrochloride anesthetic block of the spermatic cords (10 mL/cord) and scrotum (10 mL) on d 0. Flunixin meglumine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered intravenously on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 to MMA cattle. Cattle were stratified to treatments based on breed, BW, age, and a temperament score. Treatments included 1) band castration without analgesia (BND), 2) band castration with analgesia (BND-MMA), 3) surgical castration without analgesia (SURG), and 4) surgical castration with analgesia (SURG-MMA). All castrations were performed on d 0. Chute exit velocity (EV) and time in chute (TIC) were collected on d -9, 0, 1, 2, and 13. Willingness-to-enter-chute (WTE) score, rectal temperature (TEMP), heart rate (HR), and respiration (RESP) were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13. Cattle were weighed on d -9 and 13 while feeding behaviors were collected continuously for 57 d precastration and 28 d postcastration. There was a tendency (P cattle receiving analgesia. Both SURG treatments exhibited elevated TEMP on d 1 (P castrates during the first week postcastration. Results suggest that pain mitigation reduces the impact of castration on ADG and DMI.

  18. Effect of energy and protein levels on health, growth, puberty and semen quality of Holstein bull-calves undergoing progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J L; Zaldivar, V; Tamayo-Aviles, A; Faure, R [Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria, Havana (Cuba). Dept. de Reproduccion; Boado, A; Lannes, M [Instituto Superior de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Habana, Havana (Cuba). Dept. de Nutricion Animal

    1996-05-01

    Three energy and protein levels in the ration fed potential artificial insemination sires during the first year of age were evaluated with respect to health, body and testicular growth rate, puberty and sperm quality of the animals. Treatment were, Group I, NRC requirements for energy and protein for growing dairy bulls with daily weight gains from 0.4 to 0.9 kg/day; and Groups II and III which were fed 15 and 30% over the recommended energy and protein requirements, respectively. Blood metabolites were found within the reference range. Plasma Cu and Zn were lower in Groups I and III as compared to Group II. Histological studies and gross weights of the thyroid glands were compatible with hypofunction of the glands in animals from Groups I and III. In Group III, 60% of animals showed abundant fat deposition in testicles. Normal fibroelastic consistency of testicles was found in 30, 80, and 20% of animals in Groups I, II, and III, respectively, at 365 days of age. The area under the curve was 641.5, 982.9 and 462.2 for Groups I, II and III, respectively. Volume, motility and percentage of living spermatozoa increased with age (P<0.05) while total morphological alterations decreased significantly. Animals in Group II had the best sperm production. Histological evaluation revealed 80 and 100% of testicular degeneration in animals from Groups I and III, respectively. The application of diet in Group II is recommended to be used in specialized AI bull rearing units in Cuba according to the quantities and characteristics evaluated in this design. 61 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs.

  19. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus outbreak reduced bulls' weight gain and feed conversion for eight months in a Norwegian beef herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Thea Blystad; Kjæstad, Hans Petter; Kummen, Eiliv; Holen, Hallstein; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-01-25

    Cost-benefit evaluation of measures against respiratory disease in cattle requires accounting with the associated production losses. Investigations of naturally occurring respiratory infections in a herd setting are an opportunity for accurate estimates of the consequences. This article presents estimates based on individual monitoring of weight and concentrate intake of several hundred bulls previous to, during and after a respiratory infection outbreak with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) as the main pathogen. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between exposure to BRSV, weight gain and feed conversion rate, quantify any change in these parameters, and estimate the duration of the change in production. A comparison of growth curves for the bulls that were present during the outbreak revealed that bulls with severe clinical signs had a clear and consistent trend of poorer growth rate than those with milder or no signs. The weight/age-ratio was 0.04-0.10 lower in the severely affected bulls, and evident throughout the study period of 8 months. A comparison of growth rates between apparently healthy bulls being present during the outbreak and a comparable group of bulls exactly 1 year later (n = 377) showed a reduced growth rate of 111 g/day in the first group. The difference amounted to 23 extra days needed to reach the reference weight. Feed conversion was also reduced by 79 g weight gain/kilogram concentrate consumed in the outbreak year. This study indicates significant negative effects on performance of animals that develop severe clinical signs in the acute stage, and that the growth and production is negatively affected many months after apparent recovery. In addition, the performance of apparently healthy animals that are exposed during an outbreak are severely negatively affected. The duration of this decrease in production in animals after recovery, or animals that have not shown disease at all, has not previously been

  20. Effect of reduced glutathione supplementation in semen extender on tyrosine phosphorylation and apoptosis like changes in frozen thawed Hariana bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nadeem; Singh, Vijay; Yadav, Hanuman Prasad; Verma, Meena; Chauhan, Dharmendra Singh; Saxena, Atul; Yadav, Sarvajeet; Swain, Dilip Kumar

    2017-07-01

    To provide new insights into the mechanisms through which reduced glutathione (GSH) is able to protect spermatozoa, we tested the hypothesis that cryocapacitation and apoptosis like changes can contribute to the negative effect of freezing and thawing on bull spermatozoa, and that GSH prevent this damage. Having known protective effects of GSH in terms of a potent antioxidant, we evaluated capacitation, tyrosine phosphorylation and apoptosis like changes in bull spermatozoa after freezing and thawing in egg yolk tris glycerol extender containing (0.5m M-GSH-T1 & 1mM GSH-T2) and without GSH serving as the control (C). Forty ejaculates were collected from four Hariana bulls and were pooled due to non significant variations among the bull ejaculates for the evaluation of sperm attributes. Capacitation like changes, tyrosine phosphorylation, localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, apoptosis like changes in terms of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and DNA fragmentation after final dilution, 4h of equilibration at 4°C and 24h after freezing and thawing were evaluated. GSH supplementation at 0.5mM showed significant reduction in B- and AR- pattern spermatozoa during all stages of semen freezing and thawing. Immunoblot revealed six proteins which were tyrosine phosphorylated and protein of 30 and 75kDa (p30, p75) were the major tyrosine phosphorylted proteins. On further analysis, the p30 showed differential variation in intensity in all the three groups after freezing and thawing. Positive immune reactivity for tyrosine phosphorylated proteins was found in neck, middle piece and post-acrosomal regions of spermatozoa. Addition of 0.5mM GSH decreased percentage of spermatozoa showing fragmented DNA and increased the percentage of spermatozoa having high transmembrane mitochondrial potential (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that GSH favours survival of bull spermatozoa by interfering with apoptotic and cryocapacitation pathways, and thereby protects the

  1. Effects of maize maturity at harvest and dietary proportion of maize silage on intake and performance of growing/finishing bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaralis, K.; Nørgaard, P.; Helander, C.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-crop maize silage as forage in diets of finishing cattle can promote high intakes and thus, enhances animal performance. In the present study we evaluated the effect of whole-crop maize maturity at harvest and the proportion of maize-silage in diets of finishing bulls, on feed intake...... of treatments, involving two maturity stages of maize at harvest (i.e. dough stage or dent stage) and two maize silage proportions (i.e. 100% maize silage or 50% maize and 50% grass silage). The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations (TMRs) with inclusion of concentrates (i.e. rolled barley; dried...... distillers’ grain plus soluble; cold-pressed rapeseed cake) in a 40% proportion on DM basis. All animals were slaughtered at a target body weight of 630 kg. Bulls fed on diets containing maize silage as sole forage achieved higher live-weight gain (P

  2. Effect on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls of adding combinations of vitamin C and either catalase or reduced glutathione to Tris extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidan, Sajeda M

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of adding combinations of vitamin C to Tris extender with either catalase or reduced glutathione on post-cryopreserved semen characteristics of Holstein bulls for different preservation periods (cooling at 5°C, 48 h, 1, 2 and 3 months post cryopreservation, PC). Seven Holstein bulls of 2.5-3 years of age were used in this experiment. Semen was collected via artificial vagina in one ejaculate per bull per week for the 7 week experimental period. Pooled semen was equally divided into three treatments using Tris extender. Combinations of vitamin C (2.5mM) were added with either catalase (100 IU/ml, T2) or reduced glutathione (2mM, T3) to Tris extender and comparisons in response were made with the control group (Tris extender, T1). Individual sperm motility (IM), viability (V), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and acrosome integrity (AI) were assessed during all periods of the study along with Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and freezing ability. The IM was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T2 as compared with the T1 group at all periods of the study. Furthermore, the IM were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T3 as compared with the T1 group at the 48 h time period and at 3 months PC. The V, PMI and AI were greater (P ≤ 0.01) in T2 and T3 as compared with the T1 group at all the experimental periods. The MDA was greater (P ≤ 0.01) in the T2 as compared with the T1 group at 3 months PC. In conclusion, there was improved semen quality if semen of Holstein bulls was collected and stored in combinations of vitamin C with either catalase (T2) or reduced glutathione (T3) being added to Tris extender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A study on beverage MNCs’ entry mode decisions and determinant factors in internationalization in China: Case studies of Coca-Cola and Red bull

    OpenAIRE

    Tonsuwan, Pantitra

    2015-01-01

    The economic reform and liberalized government regulations toward business operations in 1980s make China a new target of international investments by multinational corporations (MNCs). How to enter this growth market and what entry mode should be implemented remain inconclusive. This paper analyses how two beverage companies- Coca-Cola and Red Bull that are operating in China, evaluate the influences and implications of the factors on their entry mode decisions since they initially came to C...

  4. On the Discovery of Eastern Hellenistic Initiatory Altar of the 3rd – 1st Centuries BC Depicting the Plot of Bull Sacrifice in the City of Stavropol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopenko Yuriy A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the semantic and chronological analysis of the images on the plate of white tuff discovered in the city of Stavropol. The central part of the relief is occupied with the image of table – an altar with hoisted bull head (in the background and the hanging part of bull skin (in the foreground. Between the protruding edges of the hanging skin and lower to the ground (between the legs of the altar an ancient Greek phrase carved in three lines. The composition is completed by flanking images of two figures in long robes depicted in profile, symmetrically turned to the head of the bull. The figure at the right is an image of a man with a long beard, the lower edge of which is bent forward (priest or king. The figure at the left is a female (queen. Both the man and the woman are holding ritual vessels in hands. The plot of bull sacrifice is typical for the cultural traditions of ancient Greece as well as for ancient eastern states. The fact of combining images and inscriptions peculiar of the Hellenistic culture and ancient Iranian mythology on the Stavropol altar should be associated with the religious policy pursued by the Pontic kings since the second half of the 3rd century BC till the Common Era. This policy was focused on the gradual replacement of local cults by Greek ones in the official pantheon. The reasons for the Asia Minor altar existence in the Stavropol Upland include: 1 the military expeditions of the Sarmatians to Asia Minor in 2nd – 1st centuries BC; 2 the establishment of political and economic ties by the North Caucasus population with the state of Seleucids in the 2nd century BC, with Parthia in the 2nd – 1st centuries BC, and especially with the kingdom of Pontus in the 1st century BC.

  5. Anti-Muellerian hormone, inhibin A, gonadotropins, and gonadotropin receptors in bull calves after partial scrotal resection, orchidectomy, and Burdizzo castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlet, Dragos; Aurich, Christine; Ille, Natascha; Walter, Ingrid; Weber, Corinna; Pieler, Dagmar; Peinhopf, Walter; Wohlsein, Peter; Aurich, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Eight-week-old calves were either castrated by partial scrotal resection (SR) without removing the testes (n = 10), Burdizzo (BZ) clamp (n = 10), orchidectomy (OR; n = 10), or were left gonad intact as controls (CO; n = 10). Concentrations of anti-Muellerian hormone (AMH), inhibin A, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in plasma were determined from 16 to 48 weeks of age. At 18 months, testes of SR, BZ, and CO bulls were obtained and the immunolocalization of LH and FSH receptors and AMH analyzed. Concentration of AMH in plasma of CO and SR bulls decreased with increasing age (P < 0.001). A similar AMH profile in CO and SR indicates that SR did not induce a true cryptorchid state. In groups OR and BZ, AMH was undetectable. Plasma inhibin concentration was higher in groups CO and SR than BZ and OR (P < 0.001). Plasma LH and FSH concentrations decreased over time (P < 0.001) and were higher in groups BZ and OR than SR and CO (P < 0.001). In the testes, immunolabeling for AMH existed in Sertoli cells of CO and SR but not BZ bulls. FSH receptors were localized in Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, spermatocytes, and the epididymis of CO and SR animals, whereas LH receptors were restricted to Leydig cells. In BZ animals, FSH and LH receptors and AMH were absent, indicating complete testicular degeneration. In conclusion, AMH is a more reliable marker for the presence of testicular tissue in bulls than inhibin. Scrotal resection did not induce a true inguinal cryptorchid state but affected testicular responsiveness to gonadotropic stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  7. What's in a Name? Effect of Breed Perceptions & Labeling on Attractiveness, Adoptions & Length of Stay for Pit-Bull-Type Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Gunter

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds were compared to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, we compared perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels were analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters.

  8. What's in a Name? Effect of Breed Perceptions & Labeling on Attractiveness, Adoptions & Length of Stay for Pit-Bull-Type Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Lisa M; Barber, Rebecca T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds were compared to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, we compared perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels were analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters.

  9. What’s in a Name? Effect of Breed Perceptions & Labeling on Attractiveness, Adoptions & Length of Stay for Pit-Bull-Type Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Lisa M.; Barber, Rebecca T.; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds were compared to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, we compared perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels were analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters. PMID:27008213

  10. The compartments of the parenchyma of the lymph nodes in newborn bull calves of domestic cattle (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Gavrilin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the structure of the lymphoid lobules of the parenchyma of the superficial somatic (Limphonodi subiliaci, L. cervicales superficiales, profund somatic (L. axillares proprii L. poplitei, somatovisceral (L. iliaci mediales, L. retropharyngei mediales and visceral (L. mediastinales caudales, L. ileocolici lymph nodes of newborn bull calves of domestic cattle. To visualize clearly the boundaries of the structural components of lymphoid lobules we used the author’s modification of the impregnation of total median frozen histological sections with silver nitrate. We have established a high level of tissue differentiation of the lymph nodes, a significant development of the lymphoid parenchyma, the division of the parenchyma into lymphoid lobules, the presence in the lobules of all the main structural components that are represented by two morphotypes. The first morphotype is ribbon-like perisinusoidal cords (interfollicular zone, paracortical and medullary cords. The second morphotype is rounded lymphoid formations (central zones of deep cortex units, lymphatic nodules. Lymphoid lobules are located along the marginal sinus in one row, they are better developed and differentiated in the visceral lymph nodes. In all the lymph nodes, the lymphoid lobules have a similar histoarchitectonic, and each structural component of the lymphoid lobules has a specific architectonic of the reticular meshwork and the density of the location of the fibroblastic reticulocytes. We determined that the structures of the first morphotype which provide the migration of lymphocytes, the detection of antigens and the accumulation of plasmocytes are more developed. We have established that the relative volume of structures of the first morphotype is 4.5–8.0 times larger than the volume of the structures of the second morphotype, which provide clonal proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, especially in deep somatic lymph nodes. Among the

  11. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by

  12. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  13. l-Cysteine improves antioxidant enzyme activity, post-thaw quality and fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Riaz, A; Andrabi, S M H; Shahzad, Q; Durrani, A Z; Ahmad, N

    2016-11-01

    The effects of l-cysteine in extender on antioxidant enzymes profile during cryopreservation, post-thaw quality parameters and in vivo fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa were studied. Semen samples from 4 buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid-based extender having different concentrations of l-cysteine (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm) and frozen in 0.5-ml French straws. The antioxidative enzymes [catalase, super oxide dismutase and total glutathione (peroxidase and reductase)] were significantly higher (P l-cysteine as compared to other groups. Post-thaw total motility (%), progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm s -1 ), straight line velocity (μm s -1 ), curvilinear velocity (μm s -1 ), beat cross frequency (Hz), viable spermatozoa with intact plasmalemma (%), acrosome and DNA integrity (%) were higher with the addition of 2.0 mm l-cysteine as compared to other groups (P l-cysteine than in the control. In conclusion, the addition of 2.0 mm l-cysteine in extender improved the antioxidant enzymes profile, post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Use of post-thaw semen quality parameters to predict fertility of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull during peak breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H; Andrabi, S M H; Anwar, M; Jahan, S

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to predict the fertility of water buffalo bull using post-thaw semen quality parameters during peak breeding season. Thirty ejaculates were collected from five bulls with artificial vagina and cryopreserved. At post-thaw, semen was analysed for motility parameters, velocity distribution, kinematics, DNA integrity/fragmentation, viability, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, morphology, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity. Data of 514 inseminations were collected for estimation of in vivo fertility. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that progressive motility (PM), rapid velocity, average path velocity, straight line velocity, straightness, supravital plasma membrane integrity, viable spermatozoon with intact acrosome or with high mitochondrial activity were correlated with in vivo fertility (r = .81, p fertility was PM. However, combinations of semen quality parameters to predict fertility were better as compared to single parameter. In conclusion, fertility of buffalo bull can be predicted through some of the post-thaw in vitro semen quality tests during peak breeding season. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Quantification of leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo bulls and its correlation with antioxidant status, conventional and computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) semen variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Jan, M H; Swami, Dheer Singh; Sharma, R K

    2016-03-01

    The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of myocardial 123I-BMIPP distribution abnormality in patients with ischemic heart disease based on normal data file in Bull's-eye polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobukazu; Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Kawano, Shigeo; Fukuoka, Syuji; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Visual interpretation of 123 I-BMIPP (BMIPP) myocardial images has difficulties in detecting mild reduction in tracer uptake. We studied the significance of the objective assessment of myocardial BMIPP maldistributions at rest by using a Bull's-eye map and its normal data file for detecting ischemic heart disease. Twenty nine patients, 15 with prior myocardial infarction and 14 with effort angina were studied. The initial 15-min BMIPP image was evaluated by visual analysis and by generating the extent Bull's-eye map which exhibits regions with reduced % uptake under mean-2SD of 10 normal controls. The sensitivity for determining coronary lesions in non-infarcted myocardial regions with the extent map was superior to that with visual analysis (67% vs. 33%). In the regions supplied by the stenotic coronary artery, those which showed visually negative but positive in the map and which showed positive in both had higher incidence of wall motion abnormalities and severe coronary stenosis than those with normal findings in both. These results suggest that the objective assessment based on the normal data file in a Bull's-eye polar map is clinically important for improving the limitation or the visual interpretation in 123 I-BMIPP imaging. (author)

  17. Fertility-associated antigen on Nelore bull sperm and reproductive outcomes following first-service fixed-time AI of Nelore cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J C; Deragon, L; Vasconcelos, J L M; Lopes, C N; Peres, R F G; Ahmadzadeh, A

    2012-01-15

    The objective was to determine whether the presence of fertility-associated antigen (FAA) on sperm collected from Nelore (Bos indicus) bulls can be used to assess potential fertility of sperm for use at first-service fixed-time AI (TAI). Six Nelore bulls were selected based on FAA status (FAA-negative: N = 3; FAA-positive: N = 3) and the ability to produce neat semen with ≥ 70% morphologically normal sperm and 60% estimated progressive motility before cryopreservation. In Experiment 1, suckled multiparous Nelore cows (N = 835) were evaluated for body condition score (BCS) and received an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR) and 2.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (Day 0). On Day 9 the CIDR was removed, 12.5 mg of PGF(2α) and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, and calves were removed for 48 h. All cows received TAI on Day 11 (48 h after CIDR removal). Pregnancy per TAI (P/TAI) was not different between FAA-positive and FAA-negative bulls (41.5% vs. 39.3%, respectively). There was an effect of AI technician on P/TAI (36.0% vs. 43.9%; P cows with BCS ≥ 2.75 were 1.4 times more likely to become pregnant compared with cows with BCS fertility of sperm for use in TAI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The study of protein biomarkers to understand the biochemical processes underlying beef color development in young bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, E M Claudia; Picard, Brigitte

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates relationships between 21 biomarkers and meat color traits of Longissimus thoracis muscles of young Aberdeen Angus and Limousin bulls. The relationships found allowed to propose metabolic processes underlying meat color. The color coordinates were related with several biomarkers. The relationships were in some cases breed-dependent and the variability explained in the regression models varied between 31 and 56%. The correlations between biomarkers and color parameters were sometimes opposite between breeds. The PCA using the 21 biomarkers and the instrumental color coordinates showed that these variables discriminated efficiently between the two studied breeds. Results are coherent with earlier studies on other beef breeds showing that several proteins belonging to different but partly related biological pathways involved in muscle contraction, metabolism, heat stress and apoptosis are related to beef color. The results suggest that in future, biomarkers may be used to classify meat cuts sampled early post-mortem according to their forthcoming color. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies from cows sera and cervical mucus on bull sperm motility

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    Lazarević Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies (ASA from the sera and cervical mucus of cows on bulls sperm motility. A total of 64 cows was included in the study and samples of sera and cervical mucus were collected on the day of artificial insemination. Cows were of Busha breed or mix breed with Simmental. The presence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence method and according to these results, cows were divided in groups as follows: cows with high or low ASA titer in their sera and cows with high or low ASA titer in the cervical mucus. Influence of antisperm antibodies on sperm motility was further estimated by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA. Results demonstrated a significant difference in the influence of antisperm antibodies depending on their origin and titer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molecular genetic and ecophysiological researches on the protection of autochthonous animal resources, sustaining domestic animals’ welfare, health and reproduction, and safe food production

  20. Mycorrhization between Cistus ladanifer L. and Boletus edulis Bull is enhanced by the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Olaya; Olaizola, Jaime; Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Oria-de-Rueda, Juan Andrés; Martín-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Boletus edulis Bull. is one of the most economically and gastronomically valuable fungi worldwide. Sporocarp production normally occurs when symbiotically associated with a number of tree species in stands over 40 years old, but it has also been reported in 3-year-old Cistus ladanifer L. shrubs. Efforts toward the domestication of B. edulis have thus focused on successfully generating C. ladanifer seedlings associated with B. edulis under controlled conditions. Microorganisms have an important role mediating mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as some bacteria species which enhance mycorrhiza formation (mycorrhiza helper bacteria). Thus, in this study, we explored the effect that mycorrhiza helper bacteria have on the efficiency and intensity of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. The aim of this work was to optimize an in vitro protocol for the mycorrhizal synthesis of B. edulis with C. ladanifer by testing the effects of fungal culture time and coinoculation with the helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. The results confirmed successful mycorrhizal synthesis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. Coinoculation of B. edulis with P. fluorescens doubled within-plant mycorrhization levels although it did not result in an increased number of seedlings colonized with B. edulis mycorrhizae. B. edulis mycelium culture time also increased mycorrhization levels but not the presence of mycorrhizae. These findings bring us closer to controlled B. edulis sporocarp production in plantations.

  1. Combinations of glycerol percent, glycerol equilibration time, and thawing rate upon freezability of bull spermatozoa in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, H B; Almquist, J O

    1975-03-01

    Twelve ejaculates were used in a central composite experiment to test 15 combinations of glycerol (7, 9, 11, 13, or 15%), glycerol equilibration times (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h) and thawing rates (water at 35 C for 15 s, 50 C for 13 s, 65 C for 11 s, 80 C for 9 s, or 95 C for 7 s). Semen was diluted in heated skim milk-glycerol, packaged in .3-ml. Continental U.S. straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Based on post-thaw progressive sperm motility after storage at -196 C for 9 to 11 days, estimated optima from multiple regression were 10.7% for glycerol, 2.0 h for glycerol equilibration time, and 76 C for thawing bath temperature. Only the linear effect for each variable was significant. Much faster thawing rates and shorter glycerol equilibration times than those for freezing bull spermatozoa in glass ampules should be used for maximum post-thaw sperm motility in straws.

  2. Combining inferences from models of capture efficiency, detectability, and suitable habitat to classify landscapes for conservation of threatened bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J.; Dunham, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective conservation efforts for at-risk species require knowledge of the locations of existing populations. Species presence can be estimated directly by conducting field-sampling surveys or alternatively by developing predictive models. Direct surveys can be expensive and inefficient, particularly for rare and difficult-to-sample species, and models of species presence may produce biased predictions. We present a Bayesian approach that combines sampling and model-based inferences for estimating species presence. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this approach were compared to those of sampling surveys and predictive models for estimating the presence of the threatened bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) via simulation with existing models and empirical sampling data. Simulations indicated that a sampling-only approach would be the most effective and would result in the lowest presence and absence misclassification error rates for three thresholds of detection probability. When sampling effort was considered, however, the combined approach resulted in the lowest error rates per unit of sampling effort. Hence, lower probability-of-detection thresholds can be specified with the combined approach, resulting in lower misclassification error rates and improved cost-effectiveness.

  3. Bull's-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, John N.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Yedlin, Victoria; Kortte, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lyme disease is an emerging worldwide infectious disease with major foci of endemicity in North America and regions of temperate Eurasia. The erythema migrans rash associated with early infection is found in approximately 80% of patients and can have a range of appearances including the classic target bull's-eye lesion and nontarget appearing lesions. Methods. A survey was designed to assess the ability of the general public to distinguish various appearances of erythema migrans from non-Lyme rashes. Participants were solicited from individuals who visited an educational website about Lyme disease. Results. Of 3,104 people who accessed a rash identification survey, 72.7% of participants correctly identified the classic target erythema migrans commonly associated with Lyme disease. A mean of 20.5% of participants was able to correctly identify the four nonclassic erythema migrans. 24.2% of participants incorrectly identified a tick bite reaction in the skin as erythema migrans. Conclusions. Participants were most familiar with the classic target erythema migrans of Lyme disease but were unlikely to correctly identify the nonclassic erythema migrans. These results identify an opportunity for educational intervention to improve early recognition of Lyme disease and to increase the patient's appropriate use of medical services for early Lyme disease diagnosis. PMID:23133445

  4. Geomorphic and sedimentary responses of the Bull Creek Valley (Southern High Plains, USA) to Pleistocene and Holocene environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauza, Hanna M.; Simms, Alexander R.; Bement, Leland C.; Carter, Brian J.; Conley, Travis; Woldergauy, Ammanuel; Johnson, William C.; Jaiswal, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphology and stratigraphy often reflect past environmental and climate conditions. This study examines the response of Bull Creek, a small ephemeral creek in the Oklahoma panhandle, to environmental conditions through the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Fluvial terraces were mapped and their stratigraphy and sedimentology documented throughout the course of the main valley. Based on their elevations, terraces were broadly grouped into a late-Pleistocene fill terrace (T3) and two Holocene fill-cut terrace sets (T2 and T1). Terrace systems are marked by similar stratigraphies recording the general environmental conditions of the time. Sedimentary sequences preserved in terrace fills record the transition from a perennial fluvial system during the late glacial period and the Younger Dryas to a semiarid environment dominated by loess accumulation and punctuated by flood events during the middle to late Holocene. The highest rates of aeolian accumulation within the valley occurred during the early to middle Holocene. Our data provide significant new information regarding the late-Pleistocene and Holocene environmental history for this region, located between the well-studied Southern and Central High Plains of North America.

  5. Effect of Rapid Chilling on Beef Quality and Cytoskeletal Protein Degradation in of Chinese Yellow Crossbred Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Mao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid chilling (RC on beef quality and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Twenty Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were selected and randomly divided into two groups. RC and conventional chilling (CC were applied to left and right sides of the carcasses respectively after slaughtering. To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES treatment can alleviate the potential hazard of RC on meat quality, ES was applied to one group. The effects of RC and ES were determined by meat color, shear force and cytoskeletal protein degradation postmortem (PM. The results showed that RC decreased beef tenderness at 1 d and 3 d postmortem, but had no detrimental effect on meat color. Western blotting showed that RC decreased the degradation rate of desmin and troponin-T, but the effects weakened gradually as postmortem aging extended. Degradation rates of both desmin and troponin-T were accelerated by ES. The combination of RC and ES could improve beef color, accelerate degradation rate of cytoskeletal protein and improve beef tenderness.

  6. Recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. fruiting bodies in aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalu, Devamalini; Show, Pau Loke; Tan, Yee Shin; Muniandy, Sekaran; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2016-09-01

    The feasible use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to establish a viable protocol for the recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. fruiting bodies was evaluated. Cold-stored (4.00±1.00°C) H. erinaceus recorded the highest laccase activities of 2.02±0.04 U/mL among all the processed techniques. The evaluation was carried out in twenty-five ATPSs, which composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with various molecular weights and potassium phosphate salt solution to purify the protein from H. erinaceus. Optimum recovery condition was observed in the ATPS which contained 17% (w/w) PEG with a molecular weight of 8000 and 12.2% (w/w) potassium phosphate solution, at a volume ratio (VR) of 1.0. The use of ATPS resulted in one-single primary recovery stage process that produced an overall yield of 99% with a purification factor of 8.03±0.46. The molecular mass of laccases purified from the bottom phase was in the range of 55-66 kDa. The purity of the partitioned laccase was confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. RESEARCH ON WEIGHT EVOLUTION AND DAILY AVERAGE INCREASE TO FOUR DIFFERENT GROUPS OF LITTLE CROSSBREED BULLS EXPOSED TO INTENSIVE FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. MOLDOVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed to highlight the weight differences and daily growth average of four groups of little crossbreed bulls raised in the same environmental conditions and having the same feeding diet. Farm in which they do research is TCE 3 abis SRL Piatra Neamt, located in Zanesti village at 14 km from the city of Piatra Neamt. Location of the farm is on the old IAS Zanesti and is endowed eight shelters from which two are still functional. Shelters are divided into collective lumber rooms, on which are housed an optimal number of calves depending on their age, number varied from 25 calves at 0 - 3 months up to 6 heads during growing and finishing period when they reach weights of 600-700 kg. Farm population is obtained with calves from reformed cows from milk farm belonging to the same company. Forage base is provided from the company's vegetable farm, farm exploits about 14,000 ha of arable land in Neamt County. Feeding (in three phases is made with the technological trailer once-daily in morning and drinking is made at discretion at constant.

  8. MKLN1 splicing defect in dogs with lethal acrodermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina Bauer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lethal acrodermatitis (LAD is a genodermatosis with monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance in Bull Terriers and Miniature Bull Terriers. The LAD phenotype is characterized by poor growth, immune deficiency, and skin lesions, especially at the paws. Utilizing a combination of genome wide association study and haplotype analysis, we mapped the LAD locus to a critical interval of ~1.11 Mb on chromosome 14. Whole genome sequencing of an LAD affected dog revealed a splice region variant in the MKLN1 gene that was not present in 191 control genomes (chr14:5,731,405T>G or MKLN1:c.400+3A>C. This variant showed perfect association in a larger combined Bull Terrier/Miniature Bull Terrier cohort of 46 cases and 294 controls. The variant was absent from 462 genetically diverse control dogs of 62 other dog breeds. RT-PCR analysis of skin RNA from an affected and a control dog demonstrated skipping of exon 4 in the MKLN1 transcripts of the LAD affected dog, which leads to a shift in the MKLN1 reading frame. MKLN1 encodes the widely expressed intracellular protein muskelin 1, for which diverse functions in cell adhesion, morphology, spreading, and intracellular transport processes are discussed. While the pathogenesis of LAD remains unclear, our data facilitate genetic testing of Bull Terriers and Miniature Bull Terriers to prevent the unintentional production of LAD affected dogs. This study may provide a starting point to further clarify the elusive physiological role of muskelin 1 in vivo.

  9. Effects of two protein sources and energy level of diet on the performance of young Marchigiana bulls. 2. Meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to study the influence of two protein sources (faba bean-FB vs soybean meal s.e.-SBM and two energy levels of diets given to young Marchigiana bulls on meat quality: water holding capacity (WHC, chemical composition, hydroxyproline and cholesterol contents, fatty acids profile of intramuscular, subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues. While chemical composition and WHC was determined only on muscle Longissimus thoracis (LT, hydroxyproline and cholesterol contents were evaluated also on muscles Semitendinosus (ST and Ileopsoas plus Psoas minor (IP. Eighteen young bulls were divided into three groups. Until the slaughter weight (620 kg was achieved, two groups, FB and SBM, were fed diets with similar protein and energy contents but differing in protein sources, and the third group was fed high energy (HE diets. Protein sources did not affect meat nutritional characteristics; but meat of group SBM had high hydroxyproline content: 62.6 vs 60.0 mg 100g-1, respectively, for SBM and FB groups (P<0.05, while compression losses were higher for FB group (7.6 vs 5.7%, respectively, for FB and SBM groups; P<0.01. As respects the comparison among content of hydroxyproline in the different muscles: IP, corresponding to the tenderloin, showed significantly lower concentrations than the other muscles (55.2 vs 60.7 and 63.5 mg 100g-1 for IP, LT and ST, respectively; P<0.01. Feeding regimes did not affect muscular cholesterol content (average values of 53.6, 55.5 and 52.1 mg 100g-1 of fresh muscle for FB, SBM and HE, respectively which was similar to the levels found in meat from specialised Italian beef breeds and lower than those from other breeds. As respects the differences in cholesterol contents among the muscles, IP showed lower contents than other muscles (50.9 vs 54.1, 56.0 mg 100g-1, respectively for IP, ST, LT; P<0.05. The higher energy diets induced higher concentration of saturated fatty acids, in particular of palmitic

  10. Plasma osmolyte concentrations and rectal gland mass of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas, captured along a salinity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillans, Richard D; Franklin, Craig E

    2004-07-01

    Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) were captured across a salinity gradient from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW). Across all salinities, C. leucas were hyperosmotic to the environment. Plasma osmolarity in FW-captured animals (642 +/- 7 mosM) was significantly reduced compared to SW-captured animals (1067 +/- 21 mosM). In FW animals, sodium, chloride and urea were 208 +/- 3, 203 +/- 3 and 192 +/- 2 mmol l(-1), respectively. Plasma sodium, chloride and urea in SW-captured C. leucas were 289 +/- 3, 296 +/- 6 and 370 +/- 10 mmol l(-1), respectively. The increase in plasma osmolarity between FW and SW was not linear. Between FW (3 mosM) and 24 per thousand SW (676 mosM), plasma osmolarity increased by 22% or 0.92% per 1 per thousand rise in salinity. Between 24 per thousand and 33 per thousand, plasma osmolarity increased by 33% or 4.7% per 1 per thousand rise in salinity, largely due to a sharp increase in plasma urea between 28 per thousand and 33 per thousand. C. leucas moving between FW and SW appear to be faced with three major osmoregulatory challenges, these occur between 0-10 per thousand, 11-20 per thousand and 21-33 per thousand. A comparison between C. leucas captured in FW and estuarine environments (20-28 per thousand ) in the Brisbane River revealed no difference in the mass of rectal glands between these animals. However, a comparison of rectal gland mass between FW animals captured in the Brisbane River and Rio San Juan/Lake Nicaragua showed that animals in the latter system had a significantly smaller rectal gland mass at a given length than animals in the Brisbane River. The physiological challenges and mechanisms required for C. leucas moving between FW and SW, as well as the ecological implications of these data are discussed.

  11. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow-routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22-m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at <13 C° and foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitats at <14 C°. To illustrate the useful application of such a model, we simulated climate warming scenarios to quantify potential loss of critical habitats under forecasted climatic conditions. As air and water temperatures continue to increase, our model simulations show that lower portions of the Flathead River Basin drainage (foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitat) may become thermally unsuitable and headwater streams (spawning and rearing) may become isolated because of increasing thermal fragmentation during summer. Model results can be used to focus conservation and management efforts on populations of concern, by identifying critical habitats and assessing thermal changes at a local scale.

  12. Effect of different concentrations of egg yolk and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extenders on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarig, A A; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Yimer, N; Goh, Y M; Baiee, F H; Khumran, A M; Salman, H; Ebrahimi, M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8% virgin coconut oil (VCO) combined with different percentages of egg yolk in Tris extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen. A total of 24 ejaculates from four bulls were collected using an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 8% VCO in Tris extender which contained different concentrations 0% (control), 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions: one was chilled and stored at 4°C until evaluation after 24, 72, and 144h; the second fraction was processed by chilling for 3h at 4°C to equilibrate, then packaged in 0.25ml straws and frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C until evaluation after 7 and 14 days. Both chilled and frozen semen samples were then thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), viability, acrosome integrity, and morphology (eosin-nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)). The results indicate treatments with 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk with 8% VCO had greater sperm quality (Psemen. In conclusion, the use of 8% VCO combined with 20% egg yolk in a Tris-based extender enhanced the values for chilled and frozen-thawed quality variables of bull sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A survey on feedlot performance of purebred and crossbred European young bulls and heifers managed under intensive conditions in Veneto, northeast Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on a nearly 10-year collection of performance data of young bulls and beef heifers, aimed to benchmark production traits of specialized fattening herds of northern Italy and to compare the performance of stock calves belonging to several European genetic types (GT. Data originated from 2806 batches (a group of stock calves homogeneous for GT, origin, finishing herd, fattening period, and diets, and concerned 188,891 animals of 10 GT herded in 44 farms of the Veneto region. For each batch, average body weight (BW at arrival and at sale, duration of the fattening period, losses due to injury or death, purchase and sell price were collected, and average daily gain (ADG and net sale gain (NSG per head, per day of fattening, and per kg of BW gain were computed. Charolais and Limousine young bulls accounted for nearly 50% and 20%, respective