WorldWideScience

Sample records for stafford loan forgiveness

  1. 76 FR 71060 - Clarification of Duplication of Benefits Requirements Under the Stafford Act for Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Funds for Explicit and Eligible Purposes B. Treatment of Small Business Administration Loans VII... consultation with the Small Business Administration (SBA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA... duplication of benefit inquiries--the Stafford Act and applicable ``necessary and reasonable cost principles...

  2. Best Manufacturing Practices. Report of Survey Conducted at Stafford County Public Schools, Stafford County, VA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    During the week of August 8, 1994, a Best Manufacturing Practices (BMP) survey was conducted at the Stafford County Public Schools located in Stafford County, Virginia, considered one of the fastest growing counties in the state...

  3. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  4. Federal Student Loans: Impact of Loan Limit Increases on College Prices Is Difficult to Discern. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, college prices have been rising consistently and have continued to rise at a gradual pace after the Stafford loan limit increases were enacted in 2008 and 2009. However, it is difficult to determine if a direct relationship exists between increases in college prices and the Stafford loan limit increases because of the…

  5. 34 CFR 682.102 - Obtaining and repaying a loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lender may use for the new loan. (d) Consolidation loan application. Generally, to obtain a Consolidation loan, a borrower completes an application and submits it to a lender participating in the Consolidation..., a borrower is not required to make any principal payments on a Stafford loan during the time the...

  6. Student Debt Levels Continue To Rise. Stafford Indebtedness: 1999 Update. New Agenda Series[TM], Volume 2, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherschel, Patricia M.

    A study of the rate of growth in Stafford student loan debt levels compiled average indebtedness figures for graduate students, undergraduate students, proprietary students, and students enrolled in community colleges and other 2- and 3-year institutions. The study also attempted to develop payment stress indicators by tracking payment status data…

  7. Supernatural agency and forgiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, W.; Schie, H.T. van; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that supernatural agency attributions underlie the relation between religion and forgiveness. In two experiments a priming procedure was used to make religious concepts temporarily more salient. In Experiment 1, a religion prime marginally enhanced

  8. Forgiveness: A Christocentric perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Möller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness is at the core of Christianity and is a gift of God in conquering sin and its destructive fruits. It is therefore important to understand the biblical principles and norms in this regard. This will be done from a dogmatic-ethical view that will be motivated by aC hristocentric perspective. Central to forgiveness is what God has done in Christ to move towards us in brokenness and sin whilst inviting our repentant response. Christ has done a complete work in this regard, and therefore God is faithful and righteous to Christ to forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness. A Christocentric view accentuates God’s initiative in forgiveness and necessitates us to differentiate between God’s unconditional offering of forgiveness and his conditional applying of forgiveness. It is shown that this differentiation is crucial in the understanding and application of forgiveness as portrayed in the Bible. Christ is normative in offering forgiveness, and therefore it should be done in his name. Christ is also normative in the realisation of forgiveness and therefore he is the Subject of forgiveness, not a human being. In conclusion the problem of offered forgiveness that does not evoke repentance and confession is dealt with. Vergifnis: ’n Christosentriese perspektief. Vergifnis is wesenlik deel van die Christendom en ’n gawe van God in die oorwinning van sonde en sy vernietigende gevolge. Dit is daarom belangrik om die bybelse beginsels en norme in hierdie verband te begryp. Dit sal gedoenword vanuit ’n dogmaties-etiese benadering gemotiveer deur ’n Christosentriese perspektief. Dit wat God in Christus gedoen het deur na ons uit te reik in ons gebrokenheid en sonde in afwagting op ons berouvolle reaksie, staan in die kern van vergifnis. Christus het in hierdie verband ’n volkome werk gedoen, en daarom is God getrou en regverdig teenoor Christus om ons sondes te vergewe en ons van alle ongeregtigheid te reinig.

  9. An ethics of forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the argument that the Christian idea of forgiveness can and should be translated into a socio-political context, from a Reformed perspective. It furthermore endeavours to provide guidelines that can be applied in the sphere of a political transition of the basis of an ethics of forgiveness. The new post-Apartheid society of South Africa is a good example of such a political transition. The central theoretical argument of this investigation is that the Christian theological perspective of forgiveness can indeed be translated into a socio-political praxis. Seen within the context of major biblical themes, this can provide a valuable, if not indispensable, contribution to the quest for reconciliation and nation-building in countries troubled by histories of colonialism, ethnocentrism, tribalism, racism and xenophobia.

  10. 78 FR 5433 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education Loan Program AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice... Subsidized and Unsubsidized Stafford and PLUS Loans First First Loan type Student grade level disbursed on...

  11. 78 FR 53433 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education Loan Program Prior to July 1, 2010 AGENCY: Federal Student Aid, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Unsubsidized Stafford and PLUS Loans First First Loan type Student grade level disbursed on disbursed Rate or...

  12. 34 CFR 685.203 - Loan limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... professional student may borrow, for any academic year of study may not exceed the cost of attendance minus... for any academic year of study under the Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loan Program in combination with... on or after July 1, 2007, $3,500, for a program of study of at least a full academic year in length...

  13. Forgiveness and the Limits of Duty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Can there be a duty to forgive those who have wronged us? According to a popular view amongst philosophers working on forgiveness the answer is no. Forgiveness, it is claimed, is always elective. This view is rejected by Gamlund (2010a; 2010b) who argues that duties to forgive do exist and then

  14. Forgiving and Feeling Forgiven in Late Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torges, Cynthia; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Krause, Neal

    2013-01-01

    Enright and colleagues (1996) emphasized the beneficial effect of experiencing forgiveness across multiple domains. We build upon their conceptualization of forgiveness by adding a domain--forgiveness by God--to create global forgiveness. In the current study, we use data from a nationally representative study, the Religion, Aging and Health…

  15. Partners in Community Service: Making a Community Connection Is Part of "The Stafford Way" at Vermont's Stafford Technical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, William, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The Stafford Technical Center (STC) in Rutland, Vermont, operates with a mission statement that proudly touts its desire to "create a learning environment that promotes pride in work, a sense of self-worth and the ability to respect others by developing effective communication and life skills." Stafford acknowledges that these learning…

  16. Forgiveness Working: Forgiveness, Health, and Productivity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Worthington, Everett L; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Hook, Joshua; Berry, Jack W; Shivy, Victoria A; Miller, Andrea J; Davis, Don E

    2018-01-01

    Associations between forgiveness and health promotion in the workplace were examined as mediating effects of workplace interpersonal stress. Cross-sectional. Multiple Washington, DC, office-based and Midwestern manufacturing workplaces. Study 1: 108 employees (40 males and 68 females); mean age was 32.4 years. Study 2: 154 employees (14 males and 140 females); mean age was 43.9 years. Questionnaires measured forgiveness, unproductivity, absenteeism, stress, and health problems. Bivariate and multiple correlation/regression and structural equation models were used. Indirect effects were estimated with bootstrapping methods. In study 1, forgiveness of a specific workplace offense was inversely associated with unproductivity ( r = -.35, P problems. In study 2, trait forgiveness was inversely associated with unproductivity (β = -.20, P = .016) and mental (β = -.31, P problems (β = -.28, P = .001), and workplace interpersonal stress partially mediated these associations (indirect effects = -.03, -.04, -.05, respectively). The association of forgiveness and occupational outcomes is robust. Forgiveness may be associated with outcomes by (at least partially) reducing stress related to workplace offenses. Forgiveness may be an effective means of coping following being emotionally hurt on the job that may promote good health, well-being, and productivity.

  17. I'll pick forgiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, the author gives voice to turning points in her life related to infidelity, mental illness, and forgiveness. By melding poetry, prose, dream journal entries, and medical case notes, she tells the story of how she became a single parent of a young man with mental illness. This narrative constitutes a defining moment in which she reframes an unforgivable relational transgression as an unforgettable opportunity for forgiveness.

  18. A Predictive Model of Student Loan Default at a Two-Year Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chanda Denea

    2015-01-01

    This study explored whether a predictive model of student loan default could be developed with data from an institution's three-year cohort default rate report. The study used borrower data provided by a large two-year community college. Independent variables under investigation included total undergraduate Stafford student loan debt, total number…

  19. Intergroup forgiveness of race-related offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Hook, Joshua N; Burnette, Jeni; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Rice, Kenneth G; Worthington, Everett L

    2015-07-01

    We developed a new intergroup forgiveness measure in the context of identity-related offenses, with a focus on racial conflicts. In Study 1 (N = 384), we adapted a widely used measure of interpersonal forgiveness to develop the Group Forgiveness Scale (GFS) within the context of an identity-related offense. In Study 2, we replicated the 3-factor structure of the GFS (i.e., Avoidance, Revenge, Decision to Forgive) and examined evidence for its construct validity in a sample of African American/Black university students (N = 225). As evidence of convergent validity, intergroup forgiveness correlated with appraising greater relationship value as well as appraising lower likelihood of being exploited in the future. As evidence of discriminant validity, the newly developed intergroup forgiveness scale (i.e., the GFS) correlated only moderately with interpersonal forgiveness and perceived microaggressions. In Study 3, in another sample of racial/ethnic minority individuals (N = 352), we examined the predictive validity of the scale. More specifically, we examined relations of the GFS subscales with religious commitment and racial/ethnic identity. The Decision to Forgive subscale uniquely correlated with religious commitment controlling for the Avoidance and Revenge subscales. Lower revenge correlated with stronger racial/ethnic identity. We conclude with implications of the current findings for the development of intergroup forgiveness measurement and for understanding the nature of forgiveness within marginalized groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Guaranteed Student Loans: Profits of Secondary Market Lenders Vary Widely. United States General Accounting Office Briefing Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report was prepared to determine lenders' rates of return or profitability on Stafford loans in their portfolios, reasons for varying levels of profitability among institutions that hold such loans, and the effect of 1986 subsidy reductions on these lenders' profitability. The study focused on the activities of lenders that purchase Stafford…

  1. 75 FR 8394 - Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, Stafford, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Street, Stafford, KS 67578. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Toni Griffin, 303-236-4378 (phone); or David... opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, and environmental education and... opportunities for the public including hunting, fishing, wildlife observation and photography, interpretation...

  2. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  3. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  4. Terrorism, Forgiveness and Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Pemberton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly public nature of terrorism, in which the attack on the direct victims is intended to influence a (far larger group of so-called vicarious victims. This means that the public is likely to experience terrorist attacks as attacks on themselves. As a consequence the public can feel entitled to processes of forgiveness which in turn can conflict with the direct victims’ own experience. To illuminate this issue the paper proposes a novel distinction in third party forgiveness processes: between public forgiveness, i.e. forgiveness relating to the public wrongfulness inherent in crime, and vicarious forgiveness, i.e. the public’s experience of forgiveness itself. The complexities for restorative justice after terrorism can be then be viewed in terms of the tensions between the direct victims’ private and the publics’ vicarious forgiveness processes. Este artículo pretende facilitar la comprensión de las complejidades de la justicia restaurativa en casos de terrorismo desde una perspectiva victimológica. Lo hace primero mediante el análisis de lo que separa el terrorismo de otras formas de delincuencia. El autor sostiene que la distinción principal se refiere a la naturaleza pública específica del terrorismo, ya que mediante el ataque a las víctimas directas se pretende influir en el grupo (mucho más grande de las llamadas víctimas vicarias. Esto significa que es probable que el público sienta los ataques terroristas como ataques contra ellos mismos. De esta forma, el público puede sentirse con derecho sobre los procesos de perdón, lo que, a su vez, puede entrar en conflicto con la propia experiencia de las víctimas directas. Para iluminar

  5. Forgiveness and Subjective Happiness of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batik, Meryem Vural; Bingöl, Tugba Yilmaz; Kodaz, Aynur Firinci; Hosoglu, Rumeysa

    2017-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the forgiveness and subjective happiness level of university students in terms of gender, faculty, grade, residence, and parental attitudes, and to determine predictive role of forgiveness on subjective happiness. The study group consists of 828 university students (56.3% female, 43.7% male). The data was…

  6. Forgiver triumphs in alternating Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Zagorsky

    Full Text Available Cooperative behavior, where one individual incurs a cost to help another, is a wide spread phenomenon. Here we study direct reciprocity in the context of the alternating Prisoner's Dilemma. We consider all strategies that can be implemented by one and two-state automata. We calculate the payoff matrix of all pairwise encounters in the presence of noise. We explore deterministic selection dynamics with and without mutation. Using different error rates and payoff values, we observe convergence to a small number of distinct equilibria. Two of them are uncooperative strict Nash equilibria representing always-defect (ALLD and Grim. The third equilibrium is mixed and represents a cooperative alliance of several strategies, dominated by a strategy which we call Forgiver. Forgiver cooperates whenever the opponent has cooperated; it defects once when the opponent has defected, but subsequently Forgiver attempts to re-establish cooperation even if the opponent has defected again. Forgiver is not an evolutionarily stable strategy, but the alliance, which it rules, is asymptotically stable. For a wide range of parameter values the most commonly observed outcome is convergence to the mixed equilibrium, dominated by Forgiver. Our results show that although forgiving might incur a short-term loss it can lead to a long-term gain. Forgiveness facilitates stable cooperation in the presence of exploitation and noise.

  7. Humility, Forgiveness, and Emerging Adult Female Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chance A; Fincham, Frank D

    2017-10-26

    Among a sample of emerging adult females (N = 152) we empirically examined the role of humility and forgiveness in romantic relationships. We specifically tested a model linking perceived humility to relationship satisfaction with self-forgiveness and partner-forgiveness. Participants in a romantic relationship completed measures of self-reported humility, self-forgiveness, partner-forgiveness, and relationship satisfaction. Serial mediation analyses were conducted using path analysis to test the following sequence, humility self-forgiveness partner-forgiveness relationship satisfaction. Findings indicate that humility was related to relationship satisfaction via a serially mediated path of self-forgiveness and partner-forgiveness, which was not reducible to impression management. We consider implications for research and clinical practice. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. Forgiving the Unforgivable: Couples’ Forgiveness and Expected Forgiveness of Emotional and Sexual Infidelity From an Error Management Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bendixen, Mons; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo

    2017-01-01

    From an Error Management Theory (EMT) perspective, we expect a negative forgiveness bias, in which one underestimates a romantic partner’s forgiveness following one’s own transgressions. The function would be to secure that the transgressions are fully mended through reparative behavior. The extent to which this bias is related to infidelity and type of infidelity has not yet been examined. Both parties in heterosexual couples (N 92) responded independently to questionnaires about their react...

  9. The Tangled World of Teacher Debt: Clashing Rules and Uncertain Benefits for Federal Student-Loan Subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Holt, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The world of student loans and debt forgiveness for teachers is a patchwork of overlapping programs, contradictory regulations, and expensive subsidies that date back to Dwight D. Eisenhower's signing of the National Defense Education Act of 1958. The 60-year experiment in using federal loan dollars to encourage students to become teachers could…

  10. 34 CFR 685.219 - Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... duty for training or attendance at a service school. For civilians, “Military service” means service on... Revenue Code; (4) A Tribal college or university; or (5) A private organization that— (i) Provides the following public services: Emergency management, military service, public safety, law enforcement, public...

  11. 34 CFR 685.217 - Teacher loan forgiveness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended. Elementary school means a public or nonprofit... school means a public or nonprofit private school that provides secondary education as determined by... of the elementary school curriculum, as certified by the chief administrative officer of the eligible...

  12. 34 CFR 682.216 - Teacher loan forgiveness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Education Act of 1965, as amended. Elementary school means a public or nonprofit private school that... Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended. Secondary school means a public or nonprofit... in reading, writing, mathematics, and other areas of the elementary school curriculum, as certified...

  13. Forgiveness: Letting Go of Grudges and Bitterness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A stronger immune system Improved heart health Improved self-esteem Being hurt by someone, particularly someone you love ... can change your life — by bringing you peace, happiness, and emotional and spiritual healing. Forgiveness can take ...

  14. Forgiveness, historicity ande narrative: discussions from Paul Ricoeur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Dentz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricoeur argues that the inclusion of forgiveness in a trading scheme involves the awareness about the bilateral relationship between the demand and the offer of forgiveness, and, however, remains unrecognized the difference between the levels of conditionality and unconditional. That emerging dilemmas arising from a comparison of speeches guilty declaring its lack and the victim can forgive. Such dilemmas arise as questions: can forgive him who does not confess his fault? We need forgiveness states who has been the victim? You can forgive yourself?

  15. Forgiveness, Gratitude, and Happiness Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Safaria, Triantoro

    2014-01-01

    Wellbeing is the ultimate goal for everyone, not only for adolescence. Present study explore the relationship between gratitude and forgiveness with happiness among college student. A total of 81 undergarduate psychology students were recruited in this study from a private university in Jogjakarta. 29.6% (24) of the sample were males and 70.4% (57) were females Regression analysis was used to predict the model. This model regression predict relationship between gratitude and forgiveness with ...

  16. 75 FR 29569 - Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ...] Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act) AGENCY: Federal... the final Recovery Policy RP9526.1, Hazard Mitigation Funding Under Section 406 (Stafford Act), which... mitigation discretionary funding available under Section 406 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and...

  17. Forgive and Forget? Forgiveness, Personality, and Wellness among Counselors-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Holly J. Hartwig; Gill, Carman; Minton, Casey A. Barrio; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Forgiveness as a method of addressing "wounds" has been linked to enduring aspects of personality and improved physical and mental health outcomes. The aim of this study was to understand the effects of forgiveness on counseling students' overall wellness. Counseling students (N= 115) from 5 universities completed self-report measures of…

  18. Forgiveness and Mercy | Allais | South African Journal of Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that forgiveness is not best understood in terms of waiving a requirement of justice, and, specifically, that forgiveness is distinct from mercy. I question some reasons philosophers have given for distinguishing forgiveness and mercy, but argue that the difference between the two notions can be clearly ...

  19. Reflecting on Jesus' teaching on forgiveness from a positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, (1) the teaching of Jesus in the synoptic tradition on forgiveness will be compared to recent positive psychological approaches (e.g. McCullough & Witvliet); attention will be paid to the (2) contexts of forgiveness (interpersonal and/or political); (3) the (philosophical) positive or negative judgement on forgiveness ...

  20. Forgiveness as Character Education for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei Neng; Enright, Robert; Klatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Forgiveness education has demonstrated psychological, social and academic benefits; however, it has not been discussed as a means of promoting character development for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss forgiveness as a moral concept and explain how forgiveness can contribute to current discussions of character education. After…

  1. Does forgiveness mediate the impact of school bullying on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forgiveness has been associated with better mental health. However, few studies have examined the relationship between adolescent forgiveness, psychopathology and bullying/ victimisation. This study investigated forgiveness as a mediator of the adverse mental health problems experienced by bullies and victims of ...

  2. Forgiveness for transgressions in interpersonal relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Beltrán-Morillas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Through forgiveness, people reduce negative responses toward their transgressors, and are more motivated to show positive behaviors instead. Two studies were performed with the aim to approach the phenomenon of forgiveness. The first study, in which 101 university students participated, aimed to examine the differenttypes of transgressions depending on the type of relationship (friendship vs. couple and gender. In thesecond study (n = 201 participants from general population, we studied the influence of gender, emotional, and motivational variables on forgiveness after infidelity betrayal. Results of the first study showed that infidelity is perceived as the most serious transgression. In the second study, results showed that inunfaithful transgression, women perceived the consequences as more serious, felt more negative emotionsand showed greater empathy and dependency than men. Also, empathy in men as well as dependency in women were found to predict revenge, and resulted in less forgiveness. Finally, results showed that in both men and women, the negative affect mediated the relationship between severity of transgression andmotivation to retaliate as a result of infidelity.

  3. The empowering effect of punishment on forgiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strelan, Peter; Di Fiore, Carolyn; van Prooijen, Jan Willem

    2017-01-01

    We examined the process by which punishment enables forgiveness, testing the proposition that punishment restores a sense of justice to victims, an experience that is empowering. In Study 1 (N = 69), university students received insulting feedback and were given the opportunity (or not) to sanction

  4. Mental health through forgiveness: Exploring the roots and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Raj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness is conceptualized as the process of making peace with life. The three sources of forgiveness, another person, oneself, and a situation or circumstance are capable of freeing a person from a negative association to the source that has transgressed against a person. Research studies show the mental health benefits associated with forgiveness. The present study explores the experiences of adults who practice forgiveness, specifically, the indicators of forgiveness, the childhood antecedents, and the benefits of forgiving behavior. The study uses a qualitative research approach following a phenomenological framework. A total of 12 adults, ranging from 25 to 40 years of age, who received a high score on Heartland Forgiveness Scale were included in the study. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews, their personal experiences were explored. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes emerged show that the childhood antecedents of forgiveness are parental influences and early childhood experiences. The indicators of forgiving behavior include positive emotional state, empathy and perspective taking, and religiosity. The themes identified are enhanced sense of well-being, improved self-acceptance, and competence to deal with challenges. Forgiveness enhanced physical and psychological well-being. The findings of the study have several implications for religious leaders, teachers, parents, mental health professionals, and trainers.

  5. Secularized Society. Conscience and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Grimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper‘s goal is to investigate secularized society by retracing its structure. What is hidden behind the notion of secularization? Our intention here is to analyse the social phenomenon of secularisation through the study of its ontology. The research will be on the identity issue, in the first place the living identity to see its resonance in social, cultural, religious and political areas. We will then arrive at the end of this paper, at the thesis – starting from the consciousness of self and the world – of a return to the authentic form of living together in reciprocal welcome as reason of personal enrichment. In such dynamics the forgiveness issue – taking into account Occidental history – will have a central, and, at the same time, redeeming role.Cette étude se propose d’étudier la société sécularisée, en retraçant sa structure. Qu’est-ce qui se cache derrière la notion de sécularisation? Ici nous entendons analyser le phénomène de la sécularisation sociale par l’intermédiaire de l’étude de son ontologie. La recherche portera sur la question de l’identité, en premier lieu sur l’identité vivante, pour voir ses résonances dans les domaines social, culturel, religieux et politique. Ainsi, nous arriverons à la thèse - à partir de la conscience du soi et du monde - pour un retour à une forme authentique du vivre ensemble dans un accueil réciproque en tant que raison d’enrichissement personnel. Dans cette dynamique la question du pardon – en tenant compte de l’histoire Occidental – aura un rôle centrale, et, en même temps, rédempteur.Il presente saggio si propone di investigare il tema della società secolarizzata ripercorrendone la struttura. Attorno alla nozione di secolarizzazione che cosa si nasconde? Si intende qui analizzare il fenomeno sociale della secolarizzazione studiandone l'ontologia. La riflessione muoverà perciò attorno al tema dell'identità, in prima istanza l

  6. LOAN BROKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A loan is probably the most important financial decision we make in life. In a time when lack of time affects us in every way, including financially, we can only appeal to specialists if we want fast, reliable and quality long-term services. „The notion of “creditor” includes all legal entities, branches of credit institution and nonbankingfinancial institutions that operate in Romania and grant or undertake to grant loans in itscommercial of professional activity”. In the case of loans, the "specialist" has been called loan broker. Loan broker is a person trained in intermediating bank loans who offers advice on choosing the best financial solutions for each client. Through partnerships with banks in Romania, the broker has access to their credit products and assist customers in choosing the loan that best suits their financial needs and possibilities. Moreover, the broker will help in preparing loan application to be submitted to the bank and pursue it to its completion. Loan broker can be defined as the person authorized by the bank or non-bank financial institutions to promote their products through direct contact with natural or legal persons wishing to contract a loan, without any of the parties to have exclusivity. There can be defined as an independent bank or non-bank financial institution, as an intermediary between customers and banks. Through its financial advisors , the company helps customers overcome the difficulty of understanding the credit products, difficulties arising from the multitude of factors that compose such a product, especially in the case of a housing loan or mortgage. Each financial institution is doing everything possible through such partnerships to attract the largest possible portfolio of clients, therefore is developing a real network of brokers to be partners for local or national level (depending on the sites coverage of the branches of each institution on one or more types of credit products. The

  7. Forgiveness and Personality in a Chinese Cultural Context | Fu | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research tested the hypotheses that forgiveness in collectivist China is influenced by the salience of the interdependent self and other-oriented personality factors rather than the salience of the independent self or individually oriented personality factors as in the Western literature. The relationships between forgiveness ...

  8. Situational, interpersonal, and intrapersonal characteristic associations with adolescent conflict forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H Durell; Wernli, Molly A; LaVoie, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Given the voluntary nature of adolescent friendships, forgiveness of interpersonal transgressions has been identified as a critical aspect of maintaining these relationships. However, transgression forgiveness is related to a range of situational (e.g., transgression severity), interpersonal (e.g., friendship commitment), and intrapersonal (e.g., victim's empathy) factors. Data from 161 adolescents were used to examine the nature of the relationships between these factors and forgiveness and to examine the differential association patterns for adolescent boys and girls. Results for the overall adolescent sample indicated both situational and interpersonal factor associations with forgiveness (R2 = .52, p interpersonal factor associations and differential situational factor associations with female (R2 = .46, p < .001), and male (R2 = .60, p < .001) forgiveness. Findings suggest the likelihood of forgiving may be contextually dependent, and that researchers should consider transgression, relationship, and intrapersonal characteristics when examining forgiveness. Further, the present study suggests the contextual factors associated with forgiveness may be further differentiated by gender.

  9. Forgiveness as a Psychological Antecedent of Perceived Parental Nurturance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R; And Others

    While forgiveness has long been a crucial concept in the churches' formulations for the establishment and the preservation of spiritual, social, and emotional health, consideration of forgiveness by psychology pales in comparison. Research is needed to identify the psychological factors in mothers and fathers which serve as antecedents of the…

  10. Forgiveness in Criminal Law through Incorporating Restorative Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph, the author argues for the integration of the concept of forgiveness into criminal law through incorporating restorative justice practices such as victim-offender mediation. Although forgiveness is not a purpose in itself nor can it be enforced, criminal law should provide room for

  11. On the Advocacy of Forgiveness after Mass Atrocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The conviction that forgiveness has an important and valuable role to play in the aftermath of atrocities has gained a considerable momentum in the present day. Brudholm revisits Cynthia Ozick's provocative attack on forgiveness and presents five reasons why her claim - that the face of forgivene...

  12. Having the Power to Forgive: When the Experience of Power Increases Interpersonal Forgiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Smith, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined the association between power, defined in terms of experienced control over outcomes and resources in a relationship, and interpersonal forgiveness. Based on recent findings in the literature suggesting that power is associated with goal directedness, it was

  13. Uranium loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    When NUEXCO was organized in 1968, its founders conceived of a business based on uranium loans. The concept was relatively straightforward; those who found themselves with excess supplies of uranium would deposit those excesses in NUEXCO's open-quotes bank,close quotes and those who found themselves temporarily short of uranium could borrow from the bank. The borrower would pay interest based on the quantity of uranium borrowed and the duration of the loan, and the bank would collect the interest, deduct its service fee for arranging the loan, and pay the balance to those whose deposits were borrowed. In fact, the original plan was to call the firm Nuclear Bank Corporation, until it was discovered that using the word open-quotes Bankclose quotes in the name would subject the firm to various US banking regulations. Thus, Nuclear Bank Corporation became Nuclear Exchange Corporation, which was later shortened to NUEXCO. Neither the nuclear fuel market nor NUEXCO's business developed quite as its founders had anticipated. From almost the very beginning, the brokerage of uranium purchases and sales became a more significant activity for NUEXCO than arranging uranium loans. Nevertheless, loan transactions have played an important role in the international nuclear fuel market, requiring the development of special knowledge and commercial techniques

  14. Federal Student Loans: Patterns in Tuition, Enrollment, and Federal Stafford Loan Borrowing up to the 2007-08 Loan Limit Increase. GAO-11-470R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Although a postsecondary education is vitally important to many individuals and the nation's ability to compete globally, high college tuition rates are prompting concerns that it may remain an elusive goal for some. To help students finance their education, Congress recently raised the ceiling on the amount individual students can borrow under…

  15. Cognitive and emotional predictors of episodic and dispositional forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz Justyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the importance of cognitive (positive orientation, basic hope and emotional (positive and negative affectivity, emotional control variables for state and trait forgiveness. One hundred and thirty nine participants completed six inventories in Polish version: HFS (Thompson et al., 2005, TRIM (McCullough et al., 1998, P-Scale (Caprara et al., 2012, BHI-12 (Trzebiński & Zięba, 2003a, SUPIN (Polish version of PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988, CECS (Watson & Greer, 1983. Results showed that dispositional forgiveness (general and positive was associated with cognitive and emotional predictors, whereas episodic forgiveness primarily with certain emotional variables. In addition, the results indicated that emotional predictors merely participate in the process of reducing unforgiveness, whereas cognitive and emotional variables were shown to be necessary for full forgiveness.

  16. Restorative Justice, Forgiveness and Reparation for the Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lourdes Fernandez-Manzano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness is not one of the aims of restorative processes. However, the conditions that enable these processes can also make forgiveness more likely. The positive impact that forgiveness can have on the lives of the victims of serious crimes, such as terrorism, means that this issue should be discussed when seeking to apply restorative justice in any situation. The main philosophies of forgiveness, the absence of pressure to forgive and the consequences of interpersonal forgiveness in social reconciliation are among the questions addressed. El perdón no es uno de los objetivos de los procesos restaurativos. Sin embargo, algunas condiciones que se han definido como parte de estos procesos hacen el perdón más probable. El impacto positivo que el perdón puede tener en las vidas de las víctimas de delitos graves, como el terrorismo, determina que este tema debe ser discutido en un intento de lograr los resultados más restaurativos en cualquier situación. Las principales filosofías del perdón, la ausencia de presión de perdonar y de las consecuencias del perdón interpersonal en la reconciliación social son algunas de las cuestiones a abordar.

  17. David Stafford-Clark (1916-1999): Seeing through a celebrity psychiatrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the mass-media career of the British psychiatrist David Stafford-Clark (1916-1999) as a case study in the exercise of cultural authority by celebrity medical professionals in post-war Britain. Stafford-Clark rose to prominence in the mass media, particularly through his presenting work on medical and related topics for BBC TV and Radio, and was in the vanguard of psychiatrists and physicians who eroded professional edicts on anonymity. At the height of his career, he traded upon his celebrity status, and consequent cultural authority, to deliver mass media sermons on a variety of social, cultural, and political topics. Stafford-Clark tried to preserve his sense of personal and intellectual integrity by clinging to a belief that his authority in the public sphere was ultimately to be vindicated by his literary, intellectual, and spiritual significance. But as his credibility dwindled, he came to distrust the cultural intermediaries, such as broadcasters and publishers, who had supported him. PMID:28503668

  18. Predictive Role of Forgiveness on Mobbing (A Case Study for Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sarıçam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between mobbing and forgiveness. The participants of the existing research were 436 teachers from Sakarya, Turkey. Their ages ranged from 26 to 55 years and the mean age of the participants was 34 years. In this study, the Mobbing Scale and Heartland Forgiveness Scale were used. The relationships between mobbing and forgiveness were examined using correlation analysis and the hypothesis model was tested through structural equation modeling. Data were analyzed by LISREL 8.54 and SPSS 17. After the analysis, it was seen that forgiveness explains the variance amounting 10 % in mobbing. Also, it was found out that there is a negative and statistically meaningful relationships between forgiveness (Forgiveness of others, Forgiveness of self, Forgiveness of situation and mobbing (Humiliation, Discrimination, Sexual Harassment, Communication Barriers. In conclusion, these results were discussed according to previous studies.

  19. Relational and Social-Cognitive Correlates of Early Adolescents' Forgiveness of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Katherine J.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Busby, Dean M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Day, Randal D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how mother and father-child relationship quality and marital forgiveness were related to early adolescents' forgiveness of mothers and fathers. Adolescents' social-cognitive skills (empathy and emotional regulation) and parents' forgiveness of child were examined as mediators. Mother, father, and child self-reported…

  20. Effects of a Culture-Adaptive Forgiveness Intervention for Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mingxia; Hui, Eadaoin; Fu, Hong; Watkins, David; Tao, Linjin; Lo, Sing Kai

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and application of forgiveness varies across cultures. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a culture-adaptive Forgiveness Intervention on forgiveness attitude, self-esteem, empathy and anxiety of Mainland Chinese college students. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated to either experimental groups or a…

  1. The Need for and Possibility of a Christian Forgiveness Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes; de Muynck, Bram; Broer, Nico; Wolhuter, Charl; Potgieter, Ferdinand

    2018-01-01

    Individuals and communities occasionally need asking and giving forgiveness. Because the process of forgiving is not always well understood, it has become necessary to consider including forgiveness education in school pedagogy and in formal school programs such as Citizenship Education. This possibility is illustrated with examples from South…

  2. Personal Constructs of Betrayed Spouses’ Understanding of Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علیرضا رفیعی

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide a theoretical framework and a paradigmatic model of forgiveness based on personal constructs of betrayed couples in their lives. For this purpose, qualitative methodology and grounded theory was used. Through purposive sampling and after conducting 20 deep interviews with participants including 13 females and 7 males referred to several counseling centers in Isfahan, theoretical saturation was reached. Participants were people whose spouses (male or female committed infidelity but they had forgiven their transgression. To achieve theoretical framework a three-stages coding was conducted. More than 170 significant statements, 34 subcategories, 14 major categories and a core category with the title of "forgiveness as a humanistic, spiritual, social, purposeful and rational representation to keep marriage in a benefit-seeking template" were extracted. This theoretical framework suggests that fear of being unforgiven causes more injuries and forgiveness provides the most desirable and inevitable strategy for solving individual and family problems. By presenting and displaying a humanistic, spiritual, rational and purposeful forgiveness, forgiving partners invest in saving and preserving their marriage.

  3. Federal Student Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For those needing a loan to attend college, think federal aid first. Federal student loans usually offer borrowers lower interest rates and have more flexible repayment terms and options than private student loans. This brief report answers the following questions about federal aid: (1) What is a federal student loan?; (2) What is a private…

  4. Does forgiveness mediate the impact of school bullying on adolescent mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Estie Janse; Raubenheimer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The link between both bullying and victimisation and psychopathology has been well established. Forgiveness has been associated with better mental health. However, few studies have examined the relationship between adolescent forgiveness, psychopathology and bullying/victimisation. This study investigated forgiveness as a mediator of the adverse mental health problems experienced by bullies and victims of bullying. Participants were 355 Year 10 or Year 11 pupils (age = 14.9 years) from two British secondary schools in 2007, who completed self-administered measures on bullying and victimisation, mental health, forgiveness of self and others, and forgivingness. The mediating influence of forgiveness on the impact of bullying/victimisation on mental health was tested with a structural equation model. Data from 55.6% of the 639 eligible pupils were analysed. Results confirmed an association between bullying/victimisation, forgiveness and psychopathology. Forgiveness scores were found to play a mediating role between bullying/victimisation and psychopathology. Victimised adolescents who were better able to forgive themselves were more likely to report lower levels of psychopathology, while bullying adolescents who were unable to forgive others were more likely to report higher levels of psychopathology. This suggests a greater role for forgiveness within future research, intervention and policy on bullying. Forgiveness can form a valuable part of preventative and educational anti-bullying programmes.

  5. Psychotherapeutical effects of stimulate positive connotation in the increase of forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fernando López Pell

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents different aspects that have been related to the aptitude to forgive, emphasizing its importance for the psychotherapeutic practice in order to promote an increase of such capacity. Existing empirical evidence tends to relate forgiveness to emotional, physical and psychological well-being of the persons, and shows that the way of providing sense to the experiences influences the process of forgiveness. An alternative to increase the aptitude to forgive is proposed and results of an experimental study with 60 patients demonstrate the psychotherapeutic effects of stimulating positive connotation in the increase of forgiveness. The independent variable was the type of psychotherapeutic approach applied and the dependant variables were measured with the Aptitude to Forgive Scale (CAPER that evaluates the general predisposition of a subject to forgive, across four independent constructs: a Self, b Others, c Situation, and d Beliefs.

  6. On the relationship between justice and forgiveness: are all forms of justice made equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates whether, following a wrongdoing, the restoration of justice promotes forgiveness. Three studies - one correlational recall study and two experimental scenario studies - provide evidence that while a restored sense of justice is overall positively related to forgiveness, forgiveness is highly dependent on the means of justice restoration being retributive (punitive) versus restorative (consensus-seeking) in nature. The findings showed that, overall, restorative but not retributive responses led to greater forgiveness. Although both retributive and restorative responses appeared to increase forgiveness indirectly through increased feelings of justice, for retributive responses these effects were counteracted by direct effects on forgiveness. Moreover, the experimental evidence showed that, while feelings of justice derived from restorative responses were positively related to forgiveness, feelings of justice derived from retributive responses were not. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. How forgiveness promotes offender pro-relational intentions: The mediating role of offender gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Louise; Strelan, Peter; McKee, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Although relationship restoration is an important outcome of forgiveness, little is known about how forgiveness facilitates such an outcome. In addition, in forgiveness research, little attention is paid to the perspective of the offender. We address these two shortcomings simultaneously, testing the idea that forgiveness promotes offender gratitude, which in turn encourages offender pro-relational intentions. Across three experimental studies, participants were induced to believe they had transgressed; recalled a time when they had transgressed; and imagined transgressing. In studies 1 and 2, forgiveness was manipulated; in Study 3, victim motivation for forgiving was manipulated. State gratitude--in comparison with guilt, indebtedness, and positive affect--was consistently found to play the primary mediating role between forgiveness and pro-relational intentions. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  8. FORGIVENESS AS A MULTIFUNCTIONAL COPING RESOURCE OF A MATURE PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nosenko

    2016-05-01

    Results. The research has shown that the individuals with high level of willingness to forgive demonstrate lower frequency of resorting to the emotion-focused coping in comparison with the individuals characterized as unforgiving, lower proneness to self-handicapping as well as the lower tendency to avoidance. Conclusion. The research findings have confirmed the hypothesis about the existence of the statistically significant differences between the individuals with different levels of willingness to forgive in the efficacy of coping (both reactive and proactive.

  9. Critical Autoethnography, Education, and a Call for Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tony E.

    2017-01-01

    If critical autoethnographers identify and attempt to remedy personal/cultural offenses, then they should also discuss how to live with individuals-- themselves included--who have been complicit in and/or committed these offenses. One way critical autoethnographers can do so is through the concept of forgiveness. In this article, I first describe…

  10. Humility and Forgiveness as Predictors of Teacher Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Ferudun; Erdogan, Onur

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the predictive influence of teachers' humility and forgiveness on their self-efficacy perceptions. The population of this research consists of teachers who work at public primary and secondary schools located in the central districts of Ankara, Turkey. The sample of the study is composed of 303 primary and secondary school…

  11. Cyberbully, Cybervictim, and Forgiveness among Indonesian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaria, Triantoro; Tentama, Fatwa; Suyono, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying has been commonplace practice among Indonesian teenagers engaging in on-line space. However, this phenomenon has not been extensively researched in the context of Indonesia. This present study aims to examine the extent to which level of forgiveness contribute to varying degrees of cyberbullying. It is a quantitative in which the…

  12. The Politics of Mercy, Forgiveness and Love: A Nietzschean Appraisal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nietzsche shows that these shadings of unconditional or unilateral forgiveness do not necessarily arise from a will to live together, as Arendt assumes, but are anchored in and oriented by our need to console ourselves for the narcissistic wounding we inevitably suffer in the struggle for recognition. South African Journal of ...

  13. Emotion-focused couples therapy and the facilitation of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Leslie; Warwar, Serine; Malcolm, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an emotion-focused couple therapy intervention for resolving emotional injuries. Twenty couples acting as their own waitlist controls were offered a 10-12-session treatment to help resolve unresolved anger and hurt from a betrayal, an abandonment, or an identity insult that they had been unable to resolve for at least 2 years. Treated couples fared significantly better on all outcome measures over the treatment period compared to the waitlist period. They showed a significant improvement in dyadic satisfaction, trust, and forgiveness as well as improvement on symptom and target complaint measures. Changes were maintained on all of the measures at 3-month follow-up except trust, on which the injured partners deteriorated. At the end of treatment, 11 couples were identified as having completely forgiven their partners and six had made progress toward forgiveness compared with only three having made progress toward forgiveness over the waitlist period. The results suggest that EFT is effective in alleviating marital distress and promoting forgiveness in a brief period of time but that additional sessions may be needed to enhance enduring change.

  14. Truth Without Reconciliation? The Question of Guilt and Forgiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two controversial and provocative books (both possibly autobiographical) which tackle the question of guilt and forgiveness head on are Simon Wiesenthal\\'s The Sunflower and Bernhard Schlink\\'s The Reader, both of which have led to much debate. The central event in both texts is the slaughter of innocents, burned to ...

  15. Reflecting on Jesus' teaching on forgiveness from a positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-30

    Oct 30, 2015 ... In the Old Testament, God is indeed the granter of forgiveness to humans, but interpersonal human relationships ... remarkable resemblance with Jesus' teaching in the Lord's Prayer (Mt 6:12, 14–15; cf. Table 1). Furthermore ..... crowd, they removed the roof above him; and after having dug through it, they ...

  16. Age, forgiveness, and meeting behavior: A multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, E.-M.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the effects of age on counteractive team meeting behaviors (e.g. complaining). Forgiveness is included as a potential buffer against these behaviors. A multilevel model is developed to test individual and team level age effects. Design/methodology/approach: A

  17. Forgiveness from Emotion Fit: Emotional Frame, Consumer Emotion, and Feeling-Right in Consumer Decision to Forgive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yaxuan; Wei, Haiying; Li, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examine an emotion fit effect in the crisis communication, namely, the interaction between emotional frames of guilt and shame and consumer emotions of anger and fear on consumer forgiveness. Guilt-framing communication results in higher forgiveness than shame-framing for angry consumers, whereas shame-framing communication results in higher forgiveness than guilt-framing for fearful consumers. These effects are driven by consumers' accessible regulatory foci associated with anger/fear and guilt/shame. Specifically, feelings of anger activate a promotion focus that is represented by guilt frames, while feelings of fear activate a prevention focus that is enacted by shame frames. Compared with emotion non-fit (i.e., anger to shame and fear to guilt), emotion fit (i.e., anger to guilt and fear to shame) facilitates greater feeling-right and consumer forgiveness. The findings offer novel insights for extant literature on emotion, crisis communication, and regulatory focus theory, as well as practical suggestions regarding the emotional frames.

  18. Forgiveness from Emotion Fit: Emotional Frame, Consumer Emotion, and Feeling-Right in Consumer Decision to Forgive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yaxuan; Wei, Haiying; Li, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examine an emotion fit effect in the crisis communication, namely, the interaction between emotional frames of guilt and shame and consumer emotions of anger and fear on consumer forgiveness. Guilt-framing communication results in higher forgiveness than shame-framing for angry consumers, whereas shame-framing communication results in higher forgiveness than guilt-framing for fearful consumers. These effects are driven by consumers’ accessible regulatory foci associated with anger/fear and guilt/shame. Specifically, feelings of anger activate a promotion focus that is represented by guilt frames, while feelings of fear activate a prevention focus that is enacted by shame frames. Compared with emotion non-fit (i.e., anger to shame and fear to guilt), emotion fit (i.e., anger to guilt and fear to shame) facilitates greater feeling-right and consumer forgiveness. The findings offer novel insights for extant literature on emotion, crisis communication, and regulatory focus theory, as well as practical suggestions regarding the emotional frames. PMID:27895612

  19. Effects of lifetime stress exposure on mental and physical health in young adulthood: How stress degrades and forgiveness protects health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Shields, Grant S; Dorn, Gabriel; Slavich, George M

    2016-06-01

    To examine risk and resilience factors that affect health, lifetime stress exposure histories, dispositional forgiveness levels, and mental and physical health were assessed in 148 young adults. Greater lifetime stress severity and lower levels of forgiveness each uniquely predicted worse mental and physical health. Analyses also revealed a graded Stress × Forgiveness interaction effect, wherein associations between stress and mental health were weaker for persons exhibiting more forgiveness. These data are the first to elucidate the interactive effects of cumulative stress severity and forgiveness on health, and suggest that developing a more forgiving coping style may help minimize stress-related disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Reflecting on Jesus’ teaching on forgiveness from a positive psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In its quest for a non-medical, pro-health approach to psychotherapy, positive psychology surprisingly focuses on concepts that are biblical and specifically present in the teaching of Jesus of Nazareth. In this paper,(1 the teaching of Jesus in the synoptic tradition on forgiveness will be compared to recent positive psychological approaches (e.g. McCullough & Witvliet; attention will be paid to the (2 contexts of forgiveness (interpersonal and/or political; (3 the (philosophical positive or negative judgement on forgiveness as a positive notion (e.g. the Buddhist concept of karma, [e.g. Arendt, Deridda, Wolterstorff]; (4 the (perceived positive role of forgiveness in psychotherapy; (5 the ‘techniques’ or method of forgiveness when the latter seems difficult; and (6 the relation between forgiveness and religion or spirituality.

  1. Gratitude and forgiveness: Convergence and divergence on self-report and informant ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, William E.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Lenser, Monica L.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Gratitude and forgiveness are theoretically linked character strengths that tend to be studied in isolation from other strengths. We examined gratitude and forgiveness in the same sample using self and confidant reports to better understand how strengths converge and diverge with personality factors, emotional vulnerabilities, and positive psychological processes. Data suggest that gratitude and forgiveness uniquely relate to personality factors, emotional vulnerabilities, and positive psychological processes with forgiveness evidencing stronger relations than gratitude. Forgiveness also appears to be more robust than gratitude due to the unique effects of forgiveness diminishing correlations between gratitude and other variables. Confidant data demonstrated that strengths were observable by others and related to observer perceptions of well-being. Results are discussed with an emphasis on the benefits of studying character strength profiles. PMID:20871779

  2. Student loan burden and its impact on career decisions in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jannett; Song, Eingun; Liu, Michael A; Lee, Patrick K; Truong, Sam

    2017-12-01

    Dermatology departments in the United States face difficulties in recruiting dermatologists to academic positions, raising concerns for the future of dermatology education and research. This preliminary study aimed to explore the impact of student loan burden on career plans in dermatology and to determine if the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program can be used as a recruitment tool for academic positions in dermatology. Results from this electronic survey, which was distributed to dermatology residents and attending physicians, revealed that debt burden may influence career decisions in dermatology. Dermatologists may not be fully educated on loan repayment options. With increased awareness, the PSLF can potentially be used as a recruitment tool for academic positions in dermatology.

  3. Aldrin, Schweickart, Cernan, and Stafford at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the former Apollo program astronauts and their family members and friends tour the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. Observing one of the displays inside the ASVC are (from left): Lois Aldrin, wife of Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edward E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr.; Aldrin; Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweickart; Apollo 10 Lunar Module Pilot and Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Apollo 10 Commander Thomas P. Stafford. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/ Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  4. The Neural Association between Tendency to Forgive and Spontaneous Brain Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Haijiang Li; Jiamei Lu

    2017-01-01

    The tendency to forgive (TTF) refers to one’s global dispositional level of forgiveness across situations and relationships. Previous brain imaging studies examined activation patterns underlying forgiving process, yet the association between individual differences in the TTF and spontaneous brain activity at resting-state remains unknown. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the correlation between the TTF and spontaneous brain act...

  5. Investigating the Mediator role of Social Safeness on the Relationship between Forgiveness and Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umran Akin

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine the mediating effect of social safeness on the relationship between forgiveness and life satisfaction. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Trait Forgiveness Scale, the Social Safeness and Pleasure Scale, and the Life Satisfaction Scale. According to the results, social safeness and life satisfaction were predicted positively by forgiveness. On the other hand, life satisfaction was predicted positively by social safeness. In addition, social safeness mediated on the relationship between forgiveness and life satisfaction. The results were discussed in the light of the related literature and dependent recommendations to the area were given.

  6. Personal Constructs of Betrayed Spouses’ Understanding of Forgiveness

    OpenAIRE

    علیرضا رفیعی; مهرداد کلانتری; حمیدطاهر نشاط‌دوست; حمیدرضا عریضی

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a theoretical framework and a paradigmatic model of forgiveness based on personal constructs of betrayed couples in their lives. For this purpose, qualitative methodology and grounded theory was used. Through purposive sampling and after conducting 20 deep interviews with participants including 13 females and 7 males referred to several counseling centers in Isfahan, theoretical saturation was reached. Participants were people whose spouses (male or female...

  7. Treating Infidelity: Therapists' Ratings Of Hope, Threat, Forgiveness, And Justification

    OpenAIRE

    Dodini, Aaron Jarrett

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the beliefs of 82 experienced Marriage and Family Therapists regarding the treatment of marital infidelity. Participants were asked to read an on-line vignette and respond to a subsequent web based questionnaire by rating levels of hope, threat, forgiveness, and justification for a couple in regard to various affair scenarios. This study employed an experimental design using six groups to discover possible differences in responses across the dependent variabl...

  8. Provider Difficulties With Spiritual and Forgiveness Communication at the End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Ferrell, Betty; Goldsmith, Joy; Buller, Haley

    2016-11-01

    Due to an absence of communication training, provider responses to patient/family spiritual distress are highly variable. Assessing spiritual and forgiveness concerns are important to ensuring quality holistic care. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from providers attending 1 of 2 continuing education courses. The survey measured the frequency and initiation of communication about spirituality and forgiveness with patients/families, the perceived difficulty in communication across topics, and preparation and resources for these discussions. Most participants (n = 124) were nurses followed by social workers with over half of providers having 10 years or more of clinical experience. Participants reported the highest level of difficulty in spiritual communication when talking with family after the death of a patient, followed by conducting a spiritual history with a patient. Facilitating forgiveness communication between parent and adult child, followed by facilitating forgiveness between partners was most difficult for all participants. Social workers reported much lower difficulty than nurses on all items of spiritual and forgiveness communication. The majority of participants indicated they were involved in spiritual and forgiveness communication. The most difficult communication included talking with family after death and facilitating forgiveness between patients and families. These findings support the importance of spiritual communication in clinical practice, and the need for clinician training in communicating about spirituality and forgiveness with patients and families. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Forgiveness, Religiousness, and Life Satisfaction: An Empirical Study on Turkish and Jordanian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ayten

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness has been examined in the science of psychology and its sub-departments like psychology of religion with the focus on the interrelations between personality, attachment, health, religiosity, and so on. In this article, forgiveness has been investigated in the context of its relation with religiosity and life satisfaction. The main aim of the study is to delineate the role of religiosity on forgiveness and life satisfaction. Furthermore, the relationship between forgiveness and demographics (gender and age and the effect of cultural differences on forgiveness have also been investigated in this study. A further goal of this paper will be to describe the effect of forgiveness on life satisfaction. In order to discern the abovementioned goals, the Interpersonal Forgiveness Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale were applied to a sample of 295 students from Yarmouk University in Irbid, Jordan, and Marmara University in Istanbul, Turkey. According to the findings, female students had higher means in “vengeance,” a sub-department of forgiveness, than male students. Female students were more likely to be satisfied with life than male students.

  10. The Relationship between Forgiveness and Humility: A Case Study for University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between humility and forgiveness. The participants were 346 university students. The Heartland Forgiveness Scale and Humility Scale were used as measures. Humility has four dimensions; openness, self-forgetfulness, modest self-assessment, focus on others. The relationships between…

  11. The Mediating and Moderating Role of Subjective Happiness in the Relationship between Vengeance and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to investigate the mediator and moderator effects of subjective happiness on the relationship between forgiveness and vengeance in Turkish university students. A questionnaire containing the Turkish version of Vengeance Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, and Forgiveness Scale were completed by 298…

  12. The Road to Forgiveness: A Meta-Analytic Synthesis of Its Situational and Dispositional Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Ryan; Gelfand, Michele J.; Nag, Monisha

    2010-01-01

    Forgiveness has received widespread attention among psychologists from social, personality, clinical, developmental, and organizational perspectives alike. Despite great progress, the forgiveness literature has witnessed few attempts at empirical integration. Toward this end, we meta-analyze results from 175 studies and 26,006 participants to…

  13. Effect of School System and Gender on Moral Values and Forgiveness in Pakistani School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Anam; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khan, Nashi

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to compare children studying in private and public schools in Pakistan on forgiveness and moral values. It was hypothesized that the type of school and gender of the child are likely to affect forgiveness and moral values in children. A sample of 100 children with equal number of girls and boys was recruited from…

  14. Freedom and Forgiveness: In Debate With Paul Ricoeur Philosophy of the Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Causse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of forgiveness arose for Paul Ricoeur from the first moment of his phenomenology of the will. Isolating consciousness in order to describe its structure, especially that of its willing dimension (freedom, presupposes a distancing from the world, but also a distancing from evil. The precondition of this distancing is forgiveness. Forgiveness appears when consciousness is ready to reject the finitude that, of necessity, opposes itself to freedom: this ‘face’ of freedom, distinguished from the articulation of phenomenology and hermeneutics, is the admiration carried by Stoic and Orphic myths. Freedom appears next when the suffering endured at the hands of another challenges one’s freedom: this essay will develop what Ricoeur could only sketch regarding the idea of “Franciscan” hope. Forgiveness appears, finally, when Ricoeur explores it in connection with guilt. In conclusion, we will seek to find the unity shared between these three ‘faces’ of forgiveness.

  15. Hegel and the Experience of Forgiveness. Starting from the spirit of Christianity

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    Eleonora Caramelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution intends to explore the theme of forgiveness starting from the role it plays in Hegelian philosophy - especially as it appears in the early text The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate and in the Phenomenology of Spirit - with the aim of emphasizing the specifically philosophical meaning of forgiveness. In the 1798-1799 text, in fact, forgiveness gains importance in relation to the comparison between the spirit of Judaism and that of Christianity. Starting from here, one can appreciate how, based on this theological background, the discussion that appears in the last section of the sixth chapter of the Phenomenology considers the experience of forgiveness as the paradigm of experience as such. In this sense, the moment of forgiveness is central insofar as it is a constitutively intersubjective experience.

  16. Forgiveness As A Leadership Feature And A Study O n Its Effects On Organizational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Şener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on forgiveness notion, which is mainly related to the rel igion but has significant effects on organizational level. The frequency of the forgiveness studies on the organization and administration level in the Christian culture is more striking than the Muslim culture. But the rational aspect of this notion is addressed rather than the emotional and religious aspects and its personal and organizational effects are explained. The forgiveness notion which is found to be a feature of both transformationa l and servantleadership in the literature, the things to do to use it as an intervention agent on the organizational level are explained. In this study it is suggested that the reasons why forgiveness is not widely used in practice despite being one of the important element of our culture and qualitative and quantitative research on the use of forgiveness as a culture and intervention agent should be done.

  17. Educating to Forgive as an Expression of Concern for Order in a Person's Natural Environment. Part 2: The Need for Forgiveness and its Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wyrostkiewicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the question of forgiveness and its importance in the process of the integral development of the human person. After earlier perceiving and accepting these anthropological premises, we can think of forgiveness as a necessity. The foundations of such thinking are two basic premises. The first of these is the belief in the inevitability of mistakes, therefore, potentially blaming other people. These faults and, on the other hand, harm suffered, disrupt proper interpersonal relationships, and returning to them is possible only through the act of forgiveness. The second premise is the natural need for justice, which is the realization of the naturally desired good by man. The forgiveness should be included into everyone's agenda and be presented as an imperative whose implementation is a condition of one's development, and the initial condition for order in a social environment.

  18. Forgiveness, Stress, and Health: a 5-Week Dynamic Parallel Process Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L; Shields, Grant S; Slavich, George M

    2016-10-01

    Psychological stress is a well-known risk factor for poor health, and recent research has suggested that the emotion-focused coping process of forgiveness may help mitigate these effects. To date, however, no studies have examined how levels of forgiveness, stress, and health fluctuate and interrelate over time. We addressed this issue by examining how forgiveness, stress, and mental and physical health symptoms change and relate to one another over 5 weeks. We hypothesized that increases in state levels of forgiveness would be associated with decreases in perceptions of stress, which would in turn be related to decreases in mental and physical health symptoms. A reverse effects model was also tested. We recruited a large, community-based sample of 332 young, middle-aged, and older adults (16-79 years old; M age  = 27.9). Each week for 5 weeks, participants reported on their levels of state forgiveness, perceived stress, and mental and physical health symptoms. Levels of forgiveness, stress, and mental and physical health symptoms each showed significant change and individual variability in change over time. As hypothesized, increases in forgiveness were associated with decreases in stress, which were in turn related to decreases in mental (but not physical) health symptoms (i.e., forgiveness → stress → health). The reverse effects model (i.e., health → stress → forgiveness) provided a relatively poorer fit. This study is the first to provide prospective, longitudinal evidence showing that greater forgiveness is associated with less stress and, in turn, better mental health. Strategies for cultivating forgiveness may thus have beneficial effects on stress and health.

  19. Effectiveness of Forgiveness Therapy Based on Islamic Viewpoint on Marital Adjustment and Tendency to Forgive in the Women Afflicted by Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Kiani; Seyed Hakime Safavi Mirmahale; Elahe Saberyan; Mohammad Reza Reza Khodabakhsh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Orienting its approach based on Islamic viewpoint (Quran and Hadith), this study aimed to investigate effectiveness of forgiveness therapy, inclination to forgive, and marital adjustment in affected women who referred to counseling centers in Tehran. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research which made use of test-retest methodology and control group. Statistical population contained women who had suffered unfaithfulness by their husbands and referred...

  20. Effectiveness of Forgiveness Therapy Based on Islamic Viewpoint on Marital Adjustment and Tendency to Forgive in the Women Afflicted by Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kiani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Orienting its approach based on Islamic viewpoint (Quran and Hadith, this study aimed to investigate effectiveness of forgiveness therapy, inclination to forgive, and marital adjustment in affected women who referred to counseling centers in Tehran. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental research which made use of test-retest methodology and control group. Statistical population contained women who had suffered unfaithfulness by their husbands and referred to counseling centers of Tehran in the summer 2015. A number of 30 samples were selected in purposive and convenience manners and were categorized in two test and control groups. After conduction of pretest, which applied Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Amnesty Ray et al., members of the test group attended in nine 90-minute weekly sessions of forgiveness therapy based on Islamic viewpoint. Finally, posttest was conducted on both groups with the same tool. Results: Results of multivariable analysis of covariance showed that forgiveness therapy based on Islamic viewpoint has a significant effect on increased levels of willingness to forgive and marital adjustment in women. Conclusion: The results showed that forgiveness therapy based on Islamic viewpoints could be applied in designation of therapeutic interventions.

  1. The Parent Loan Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

  2. Bullying and the detrimental role of un-forgiveness in adolescents' wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaccia, Barbara; Howard Schneider, Barry; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Many studies have shown that victimisation by bullies is linked with psychopathology. Research has also demonstrated that forgiveness is associated with the mental health of victims of bullying. Our objective was to explore the multiple components of forgiveness (i.e., benevolence, decreased avoidance of the perpetrator and diminished desire for revenge) as mediators of the negative mental health effects of bullying in Italian adolescents. Our hypothesis was that those who forgive their bullies would show lower levels of depression, state anger, and behaviour problems than those who did not forgive. Participants were 319 students ages 14 to 22 from two schools in Southern Italy who completed five self-report questionnaires measuring levels of victimisation, forgiveness, depression, anger, and total behaviour problems. The results varied according to the components of forgiveness: although benevolence toward the victim was not a significant correlate of outcome, harbouring a desire for revenge and avoiding the perpetrator emerged as very maladaptive. Our study indicates that is it important for those working with adolescents to help victims of bullying overcome the negative mental health effects of the victimisation by letting go of un-forgiveness.

  3. How the brain heals emotional wounds: the functional neuroanatomy of forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eRicciardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In life, everyone goes through hurtful events caused by significant others: a deceiving friend, a betraying partner, or an unjustly blaming parent. In response to painful emotions, individuals may react with anger, hostility, and the desire for revenge. As an alternative, they may decide to forgive the wrongdoer and relinquish resentment. In the present study, we examined the brain correlates of forgiveness using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Healthy participants were induced to imagine social scenarios that described emotionally hurtful events followed by the indication to either forgive the imagined offenders, or harbor a grudge towards them. Subjects rated their imaginative skills, levels of anger, frustration and/or relief when imagining negative events as well as following forgiveness. Forgiveness was associated with positive emotional states as compared to unforgiveness. Granting forgiveness was associated with activations in a brain network involved in theory of mind, empathy and the regulation of affect through cognition, which comprised the precuneus, right inferior parietal regions and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results uncovered the neuronal basis of reappraisal-driven forgiveness, and extend extant data on emotional regulation to the resolution of anger and resentment following negative interpersonal events.

  4. THE POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF TEACHERS’ TYPES OF FORGIVENESS ON SCHOOL ORGANISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Burgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out primary school teachers’ types of forgiveness and to discuss organisational reflections of these types. The research is based on a qualitative study. The selection of participants is based on the criterion sampling method which is categorized under purposive sampling. The data for this research was obtained through interviews with five teachers working in the same school. The data from these interviews was categorised into 20 case studies. Data is analysed by descriptive analysis. The results show that teachers totally forgive students, parents and other teachers whereas they do not forgive school managers.

  5. Loan Defaults in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H Baltagi; Panicos O Demetriades

    2011-01-01

    African financial deepening is beset by a high rate of loan defaults, which encourages banks to hold liquid assets instead of lending. We put forward a novel theoretical model that captures the salient features of African credit markets which shows that equilibrium with high loan defaults and low lending can arise when contract enforcement institutions are weak, investment opportunities are relatively scarce and information imperfections abound. We provide evidence using a panel of 110 banks ...

  6. Assessing the relationships among race, religion, humility, and self-forgiveness: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2015-06-01

    Social and behavioral scientists have shown a growing interest in the study of virtues due, in part, to the influence of positive psychology. The underlying premise in this research is that adopting key virtues promotes a better quality of life. Consistent with this orientation, the purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between humility and self-forgiveness over time. The analyses are organized around three issues. First, it is proposed that older Blacks will be more humble than older Whites and older Blacks will be more likely to forgive themselves than older Whites. Second, it is hypothesized that, over time, more humble older people are more likely to forgive themselves than individuals who are less humble. Third, it is proposed that greater involvement in religion is associated with greater humility and greater self-forgiveness. Data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults provides support for all these hypotheses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relation Between Lack of Forgiveness and Depression: The Moderating Effect of Self-Compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung-Sun

    2016-12-01

    Although an association between lack of forgiveness and poor mental health is known, prior studies have reported mixed findings of the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms. In an attempt to explain the strength differences between lack of forgiveness and depressive symptoms, this study examined the moderating effect of self-compassion. A total of 311 Korean teachers (89 men, 222 women; M age = 39.3 year, SD = 9.1) were asked to complete self-report questionnaires, including the Korean versions of the Trait Forgivingness Scale, the Self-Compassion Scale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Moderated multiple regression was used for analysis, and a buffering interaction of self-compassion was discovered. Specifically, self-compassion moderated the relationship between lack of forgiveness and depression; the relationship was stronger for those low on self-compassion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Forgiveness and romantic relationships in college: can it heal the wounded heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Mark S; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2002-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two versions of a six-week group forgiveness intervention for college women who had been wronged in a romantic relationship. Participants (N = 58) were randomly assigned to a secular, religiously integrated, or no-intervention comparison condition. Participants completed a variety of forgiveness and mental health measures at one-week pretest, one-week posttest, and six-week follow-up. Participants in both intervention conditions improved significantly more than did those in the comparison condition on two measures of forgiveness and a measure of existential well-being. Program effects were maintained at six-week follow-up. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no differential treatment effects when comparing participants in the secular and the religiously integrated conditions. Participants generally rated the programs favorably. Forgiveness strategies utilized by participants also were examined. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. On positive psychological outcomes: what helps groups with a history of conflict to forgive and reconcile with each other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Masi; Brown, Rupert; Gonzalez, Roberto; Manzi, Jorge; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2008-06-01

    Three studies examined the roles of traditional and novel social psychological variables involved in intergroup forgiveness. Study 1 (N = 480) revealed that among the pro-Pinochet and the anti-Pinochet groups in Chile, forgiveness was predicted by ingroup identity (negatively), common ingroup identity (positively), empathy and trust (positively), and competitive victimhood (the subjective sense of having suffered more than the outgroup, negatively). Political ideology (Right vs. Left) moderated the relationship between empathy and forgiveness, trust and forgiveness, and between the latter and competitive victimhood. Study 2 (N = 309), set in the Northern Irish conflict between Protestants and Catholics, provided a replication and extension of Study 1. Finally, Study 3 (N = 155/108) examined the longitudinal relationship between forgiveness and reconciliation in Northern Ireland, revealing that forgiveness predicted reconciliation intentions. The reverse direction of this relationship was also marginally significant. Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  10. The potential of forgiveness as a response for coping with negative peer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kelly S; Vanden Hoek, Kristin K; Ranter, Jennifer M; Reich, Holly A

    2012-10-01

    Coping strategies employed by adolescents in response to negative peer experiences are related to their adjustment. This study examines the potential of forgiveness as a coping response for negative peer experiences in early adolescence. Participants were 616 6th through 8th grade students at a middle school (46% girls) who completed self-report measures of bullying and victimization experiences, general coping strategies in response to bullying, social anxiety, self-esteem, and a measure of forgiveness to a self-identified experience of being bullied or hurt by a peer. Forgiveness was positively associated with conflict resolution, advice and support seeking strategies, and negatively associated with revenge seeking. Forgiveness was also positively associated with concurrent self-esteem and negatively associated with social anxiety. Further, forgiveness was related to social anxiety and self-esteem after accounting for bullying behavior and victimization experiences, general coping responses, and gender. Developmental considerations of forgiveness and implications for this response are considered. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  11. Financial literacy and consumer loans

    OpenAIRE

    Lukešová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis deals with problems of financial literacy. The problem with financial literacy is an extensive topic, therefore the paper focuses only on consumer loans which belong to the most used products by citizens. The thesis gives basic information about companies, which offer consumer loans and warn against incorrect financial institutions and loan sharks. One of the chapters dedicates the indicator of advantages of consumer loans. It shows issues of indicator annual percentage ...

  12. Understanding the Relationship Between State Forgiveness and Psychological Wellbeing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Sadaf; Dolan, Alan; Barlow, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, increasing attention has been given to associations between dispositional forgiveness and specific mental health problems. However, few studies have assessed whether forgiving real-life interpersonal hurts may be related to diverse psychological health outcomes. The present study addresses this gap by investigating, in depth, relationships between perceptions about state forgiveness and a variety of mental wellbeing outcomes as well as exploring perceptions about the factors that may modify such effects. Developing an understanding of a forgiveness wellbeing relationship is of relevance to healthcare workers, researchers and policy makers with an interest in improving public health. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted, and data were analysed using grounded theory methods. From England and Ireland, eleven adults who were affiliated with religious/spiritual and secular/atheist groups were recruited using purposive and convenience sampling methods. Key themes that appeared to be related to the effects of unforgiveness were: increases in negative affect; reduction in cognitive abilities and barriers to psychological and social growth. For the majority of participants, state forgiveness had strong ties to participants perceived sense of mental wellbeing, including reductions in negative affect, feeling positive emotions, positive relations with others, spiritual growth, a sense of meaning and purpose in life as well as a greater sense of empowerment. The data also revealed a number of factors that may positively or negatively influence a forgiveness-wellbeing link such as: viewing an offender as spiritually similar or different, responsibility/karma, blaming, wanting restitution/apology as well as practices such as meditation and prayer. The findings suggest that forgiving a range of real-life interpersonal offences may be an important determinant of psychological wellbeing, particularly among religious/spiritual populations

  13. SME loan defaults in Bangladesh

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... disbursement targets, especially in rural areas, also contributes to loan default. Lack of awareness regarding various fees and charges for loan processing purposes deducted at the outset was also found to be a problem. Bank data shows that despite a large amount of excess liquidity, interest rates charged on loans have ...

  14. Mortgage lenders and loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a short historical overview of the different types of lenders that are active in the origination of residential mortgage loans. First, a distinction is made between depository and nondepository lenders. Second, there are two major types of depository lenders: commercial banks,

  15. The (im)possibility of forgiveness? An empirical intercultural Bible reading of Matthew 18.15-35

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forster, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    This book engages the complexity of understandings of forgiveness among Black and White South African Christians within the context of an intercultural Bible reading process. The study shows that concepts of forgiveness among South African Bible readers are diverse, containing nuanced, and even

  16. The Effectiveness of Group Social Work Forgiveness Intervention on the Life Satisfaction of the Elderly Living in Care Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Arshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Participating in forgiveness group sessions has impact upon the life satisfaction of the old people living in care centers and implementing a protocol to increase the forgiveness can help promote the quality of life of old people living in care homes.

  17. Subjective Well-Being of Hong Kong Chinese Teachers: The Contribution of Gratitude, Forgiveness, and the Orientations to Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and forgiveness contribute to subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) above the contribution of the three orientations to happiness in a sample of 143 Hong Kong Chinese teachers. Gratitude and forgiveness correlated substantially and significantly with each other,…

  18. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rashidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.

  19. Colombian Lay People's Willingness to Forgive Different Actors of the Armed Conflict: Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, Wilson; Pineda Marin, Claudia; Murcia Leon, Maria Camila; Perilla Garzon, Diana Carolina; Mullet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study examined lay people's willingness to forgive acts that were committed by actors of the armed conflicts in Colombia. The participants (100 persons living in Bogota) were shown vignettes describing cases in which a member of the guerilla or a member of the former paramilitary forces asks for forgiveness to a victim's family, and were…

  20. Marriage as a training ground: Examining change in self-control and forgiveness over the first four years of marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, T.M.; Buyukcan-Tetik, A.; Iliás, M.; Finkenauer, C.

    2018-01-01

    Do partners’ levels of self-control and forgiveness change over the course of marriage? Based on the idea that marriage may function as a training ground for these vital relationship abilities, we hypothesized that people increase their levels of self-control and forgiveness over time and that these

  1. [Effectiveness of forgiveness therapy on resilience, self-esteem, and spirituality of wives of alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Mihyoung

    2014-06-01

    In this study the effects of forgiveness therapy on the resilience, self-esteem, and spirituality of wives of men suffering from alcohol abuse was examined. The study design was a quasi-experimental design. Forgiveness therapy was conducted once a week for 12 weeks. Data were obtained from March 2012 to December 2013. Participants were chosen from women in two Alcohol Counseling Centers. Of the 29 participants, 16 were assigned to the experimental group and 13 to the control group. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, χ(2)-test, and repeated measure ANOVA. There were statistically significantly differences for resilience, self-esteem, and spirituality between the experimental and control groups. Forgiveness therapy improved the resilience, self-esteem, and spirituality in the experimental group compared to the control group (ptests, the experimental group had a statistically significantly increase only in self-esteem. This study results show that forgiveness therapy is effective in improving resilience, self-esteem, and spirituality in wives of men suffering from alcohol abuse. Therefore, forgiveness therapy can be considered a useful nursing intervention to promote improvements in emotional stability and provide pain relief for these wives.

  2. Impact of negative affectivity and trait forgiveness on aortic blood pressure and coronary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; May, Ross W; Koutnik, Andrew P; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-02-01

    Prior research suggests that negative affectivity (NA) may have a direct adverse effect on coronary circulation, whereas forgiveness may provide cardioprotection. This study examined whether NA and forgiveness were independently related to aortic hemodynamics and the subendocardial viability index (SVI), a marker of coronary perfusion. A sample of 131 adults (M = 21.11 years, SD = 2.52) were evaluated for NA (depression, anxiety, and anger symptoms) and forgiveness (Tendency to Forgive Scale; TTF). Aortic hemodynamic parameters via applanation tonometry were assessed at rest and during sympathostimulation (cold pressor test; CPT). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses of resting values showed that NA was related to higher aortic blood pressure (ABP) and lower SVI. After controlling for demographics and for NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with decreased ABP, but increased SVI. CPT changes from baseline indicated that, after controlling for demographics and NA, TTF scores were significantly associated with SVI. Results indicate that NA significantly predicts ABP and decreased SVI. Conversely, forgiveness seems to provide cardioprotection by evoking decreased ABP while improving SVI. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Interpersonal forgiveness in emotion-focused couples' therapy: relating process to outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Catalina Woldarsky; Greenberg, Leslie S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate the in-session processes involved in interpersonal forgiveness to outcome. The sample consisted of 33 couples who received 10-12 sessions of Emotion-focused couple therapy with the aim of resolving various forms of emotional injuries (i.e., transgression that violates the expectations of a close relationship, which leaves one partner feeling hurt and angry). The results of the present study were based on the analyses of 205 video-taped segments from 33 couples' therapies. Hypotheses relating the role of three in-session components of resolution, the injurer's "expression of shame"; the injured partner's "accepting response" to the shame, and the injured partner's "in-session expression of forgiveness", to outcome were tested using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Outcome measures included the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (The Enright Forgiveness Inventory user's manual. Madison: The International Forgiveness Institute, 2000), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Journal of Marriage and Family, 1976; 13: 723) and the The Interpersonal Trust Scale (Trust; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1985; 49: 95). © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. “Inscrutable Intelligence”: The Case against Plastic Surgery in the Works of Jean Stafford and Sylvia Plath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Cuenca

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Jean Stafford’s short story “The Interior Castle” (1946 and Sylvia Plath’s “Face Lift” and “The Plaster”, written in the early 1960s but published posthumously in Crossing the Water (1971, dwell on a theme which is rarely tackled in Postwar American literature: plastic surgery. Using a markedly mnemonic tone, both authors trace in detail the passive submission of female bodies to male (reconstruction. While the history of women in early Cold War America is usually associated with the patriarchal mystifying of housewifery, the myth of ideal, domestic femininity was also intimately related to bodily beauty. The demand for physical “perfection” which resulted from constructing women as, primarily, objects of male desire was mirrored in popular magazines, such as Ladies’ Home Journal, which endorsed women’s seeking medical aid to model themselves into “ideal” sexual mates (Meyerowitz in Meyerowitz ed., 244. Women’s submission to the notion that they should use any means necessary to become aesthetic objects to be appraised by men was thus represented as desirable. In this paper, I shall trace how both Stafford and Plath adopted a confessional style of writing in the abovementioned pieces in order to denounce the cultural construction of women as passive bodies to be moulded at will, instead of as active, thinking subjects. I shall argue that by reproducing the recollections and thoughts of the women being stitched, sewn and bandaged in their pieces, both authors articulated an alternative protofeminist aesthetics based on the beauty of what Stafford described as “inscrutable intelligence”.

  5. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  6. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boatman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has suggested that some students may be averse to taking out loans to finance their college education, there is little empirical evidence showing the extent to which loan aversion exists or how it affects different populations of students. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using survey data collected on more than 6,000 individuals, we examine the frequency of loan aversion in three distinct populations. Depending on the measure, between 20 and 40% of high school seniors exhibit loan aversion with lower rates among community college students and adults not in college. Women are less likely to express loan-averse attitudes than men, and Hispanic respondents are more likely to be loan averse than White respondents.

  7. Mere Civility, or Genuine Forgiveness? Prosocial Consequences of Belief in Free Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Carmody

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical findings suggest that greater belief in free will predicts positive behavioral outcomes, such as lowered aggression, decreased cheating, bettered work performance, and improved learning. To expand on this research, the current investigation re-examines the link between stronger belief in free will and pro-social behavior in the context of transgressions in interpersonal relationships. Taking into account that one’s philosophical beliefs can fluctuate in strength and across time, we conducted a daily diary survey of 85 undergraduates who reported interpersonal offenses for 14 days. Data were analyzed with a multi-level approach. We found that believing more strongly in free will was associated with greater decisional forgiveness, but was unrelated to emotional forgiveness. Higher levels of belief in scientific determinism, on the other hand, were related to greater emotional forgiveness. These relationships were not mediated by relationship attributions.

  8. Imagery rescripting of revenge, avoidance, and forgiveness for past bullying experiences in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hayley; Rapee, Ronald; Todorov, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Forgiveness has been found to be a useful intervention for past trauma across a variety of situations. However, this has yet to be experimentally tested in victims of bullying. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of imagining forgiveness, avoidance, or revenge responses towards a perpetrator among young adult victims of bullying. One hundred and thirty-five undergraduate psychology students aged 17-24 who reported a recent experience of being victimized were led through imagery rescripting where they recalled a personal episode of bullying and imagined a new ending to one where they forgave, avoided, or took revenge on the bully. Results indicated significant differences between Time 1 (imagining the event as it occurred), to Time 2 (imagining an alternate ending) for all three processes. Negative affect decreased significantly in the forgiveness and avoidance conditions, but not in the revenge condition. Positive evaluations of coping decreased significantly in the revenge condition, but not in the avoidance or forgiveness conditions. However, imagined forgiveness of the bully was more stressful than either imagined avoidance or revenge. The short-term measurements and the researcher-directed re-scripting limit the interpretation of results, however, yield valuable information about the immediate impact of imaginal exposure and point to future research directions. The impact of focusing on immediate stress reduction in dealing with bullying is explored, and a combination of short-term avoidance and longer term forgiveness is highlighted as a potentially effective strategy to deal with the negative emotional consequences of victimization.

  9. 7 CFR 1781.7 - Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred before loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.7 Loan and advance limitations and obligations incurred before loan closing. (a) WS and RCD loan limitations. (1) Loans will not be used for: (i... facilities primarily for the benefit of other than rural areas. (xvii) Any single RCD measure that requires a...

  10. Race and Subprime Loan Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Ruben; Owyang, Michael; Ghent, Andra

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether race and ethnicity influenced subprime loan pricing during 2005, the peak of the subprime mortgage expansion. We combine loan-level data on the performance of non-prime securitized mortgages with individual- and neighborhood-level data on racial and ethnic characteristics for metropolitan areas in California and Florida. Using a model of rate determination that accounts for predicted loan performance, we evaluate the presence of disparate impact and dispar...

  11. 7 CFR 3550.52 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 502 funds may be used to buy, build, rehabilitate, improve, or relocate an eligible dwelling and... added to the loan amount in excess of the area loan limit and appraised value of the house. (e) Loan...

  12. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2008 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  13. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2011 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  14. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2004 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  15. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2007 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  16. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2006 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  17. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2012 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  18. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2005 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.612 - Loan limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.612 Loan limits. The maximum loan amount will be 100 percent of the allowable total development costs of on-farm labor housing and...

  20. Integrating Models of Collaborative Consultation and Systems Change to Implement Forgiveness-Focused Bullying Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Freedman, Suzanne; Carlon, Amy; Watson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Through collaborative consultation with school staff, school psychologists have increasingly helped schools add bullying prevention and intervention programming to their service delivery systems. As schools search for ways to lessen the impact of bullying on the social-emotional health and academic achievement of students, forgiveness education is…

  1. Mediating the Effect of Gratitude in the Relationship between Forgiveness and Life Satisfaction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricioglu, Ahu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of gratitude in the relationship between forgiveness and life satisfaction. A convenience sample of 396 (234 (59%) females, 162 (41%) males) university students was recruited from a University in Denizli, Turkey. The participants' ages ranged between 18 and 27 years, with an average of…

  2. Acting on social exclusion: neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of excluders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2015-02-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of initiators of social exclusion (i.e. 'excluders'). Participants divided money in a modified Dictator Game between themselves and people who previously either included or excluded them during a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Participants selectively punished the excluders by decreasing their outcomes; even when this required participants to give up monetary rewards. Punishment of excluders was associated with increased activation in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and bilateral anterior insula. Costly punishment was accompanied by higher activity in the pre-SMA compared with punishment that resulted in gains or was non-costly. Refraining from punishment (i.e. forgiveness) was associated with self-reported perspective-taking and increased activation in the bilateral temporoparietal junction, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that social exclusion can result in punishment as well as forgiveness of excluders and that separable neural networks implicated in social cognition and cognitive control are recruited when people choose either to punish or to forgive those who excluded them. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. An International Perspective on Value Learning in the Kindergarten--Exemplified by the Value Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnestad, Arve; Mørreaunet, Sissel; Onyango, Silas

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights value learning in kindergartens exemplified by the value of forgiveness. Values are basic ideas on human behaviour and they function as a compass that helps children to make choices and priorities in their lives, to choose between good or bad, right or wrong. Value learning is an important part of the educational work in a…

  4. Disappointment with God and Well-Being: The Mediating Influence of Relationship Quality and Dispositional Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelan, Peter; Acton, Collin; Patrick, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which disappointment with God influenced the psychological and spiritual well-being of 160 churchgoers, and the potential mediating influences of relationship quality (spiritual maturity and relationship commitment) and dispositional forgiveness. Disappointment with God was positively related to depression and…

  5. Offense type as determinant of revenge and forgiveness after victimization : Adolescents’ responses to injustice and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, Coby; Lugtmeyer, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    Victims of injustice and aggression may have strong feelings about the perpetrator(s) that may impede their efforts to cope with the victimizing experience. We examined to what extent adolescents’ interpersonal responses to victimization in terms of revenge and forgiveness depend on offense type. Of

  6. Intolerance, Forgiveness, and Promise in the Rhetoric of Conversion: Italian Women Defy the Mafia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabj, Valeria

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the rhetoric of conversion and conversion narratives by examining the narratives of Italian women who have turned state's evidence against the Mafia. Finds that the "topoi" of intolerance, forgiveness, and promise are used to describe the process of conversion, translate private experiences into public…

  7. Meditation Lowers Stress and Supports Forgiveness among College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Doug; Shapiro, Shauna L.; Thoresen, Carl E.; Plante, Thomas G.; Flinders, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors evaluated the effects on stress, rumination, forgiveness, and hope of two 8-week, 90-min/wk training programs for college undergraduates in meditation-based stress-management tools. Methods: After a pretest, the authors randomly allocated college undergraduates to training in mindfulness-based stress…

  8. The Predictive Power of Undergraduates' Personality Traits and Self-Esteem Regarding Their Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, S. Barbaros; Kavakli, Mehmet; Kesici, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the undergraduates' personality traits and self-esteem predict their forgiveness. Methods: The study was conducted using a descriptive research designed as a relational survey method. The study group consists of 323 undergraduates, of whom 250 (77.2 %) are female and 73 (22.5%) are…

  9. The association between well-being and the COMT gene: Dispositional gratitude and forgiveness as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinting; Gong, Pingyuan; Gao, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the contributions of genetic variants and positive psychological traits (e.g. gratitude and forgiveness) to well-being. However, little is known about how genes interact with positive traits to affect well-being. To investigate to what extent the COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates well-being and to what extent dispositional gratitude and forgiveness mediate the individual differences in well-being, 445 participants were recruited and required to complete a battery of questionnaires. We found that individuals with a smaller number of the Met alleles reported greater well-being, less depressive symptoms, and greater tendencies for gratitude and forgiveness. Moreover, dispositional gratitude and forgiveness mediated the genotype effects on well-being and depressive symptoms. These results remained significant after controlling for non-genetic factors (socioeconomic status, religious beliefs, romantic relationship status, parenting style). The sample size limits the generalizability of results. This study demonstrates the contribution of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism to individual differences in well-being and suggests a potential psychobiological pathway from dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems to happiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An empirical test of forgiveness motives' effects on employees' health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Susie S; Bennett, Rebecca J; Tripp, Thomas M; Aquino, Karl

    2012-07-01

    Two critical-incident studies were conducted to determine what motivates employees to forgive (or reconcile) with coworkers who offend them. Data from the first study's exploratory factor analysis revealed five types of motives for forgiveness: apology, moral, religious, relationship, and lack of alternatives. Data from the second study on a different sample confirmed the five-factor structure, and structural equation modeling demonstrated differential relationships between the five motives and the outcome variables, stress and health. Individuals who claimed to have forgiven because they believed they had no other alternatives, or who forgave because they believed a higher power (religious) required it, were more likely to report greater stress and poorer health. Positive outcomes of forgiveness were discovered for those employees who forgave because they believed it was the right (moral) thing to do. Those who forgave for moral reasons reported less stress than those who forgave because they believed they had no other choice or because a higher power demanded it. Forgiving for relationship and apology reasons was not significantly related to either stress or general health. Future research directions are discussed.

  11. Prosocial Response to Client-Instigated Victimization: The Roles of Forgiveness and Workgroup Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jonathan E; Park, Tae-Youn; Zhu, Luke Lei; Beauregard, T Alexandra; Gu, Fan; Emery, Cécile

    2018-01-22

    We investigate forgiveness as a human service employee coping response to client-instigated victimizations and further explore the role of workgroup conflict in (a) facilitating this response, and (b) influencing the relationship between victimization and workplace outcomes. Using the theoretical lens of Conservation of Resources (Hobfoll, 1989), we propose that employees forgive clients-especially in the context of low workgroup conflict. From low to moderate levels of client-instigated victimization, we suggest that victimization and forgiveness are positively related; however, this positive relationship does not prevail when individuals confront egregious levels of victimization (i.e., an inverted-U shape). This curvilinear relationship holds under low but not under high workgroup conflict. Extending this model to workplace outcomes, findings also demonstrate that the indirect effects of victimization on job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover intentions are mediated by forgiveness when workgroup conflict is low. Experiment- and field-based studies provide evidence for the theoretical model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Interpersonal forgiveness in relation to psychosocial and demographic variables / O perdão interpessoal em relação a variáveis psicossociais e demográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Rique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enright Forgiveness Inventory - EFI (Portuguese version was used to verify relationships between forgiveness and degree of injury to the agents of hurt and also the degree of affect, behavior and judgment from victims towards their offenders. It was also checked whether culture, gender, age and religion affect the act of forgiving. Two hundred Brazilians and 394 Americans participated in the study. Findings were similar for both cultures. Forgiveness was negatively related to the degree of injury. People forgive family and friends at a higher degree than they forgive strangers or co-workers. Positive judgments received significantly higher scores than positive affect. No significant effect was found for forgiveness regarding gender, age or religion. Future studies should verify whether genuine forgiveness shows positive affect for offenders at a same degree as positive judgments or affect remains always lower than judgment for forgiving.

  13. Borrowing and Repaying Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    This essay synthesizes the most recent and rigorous research on student loan debt. It focuses on basic questions about who borrows, how much, and whether debt affects behaviors. Answers to these questions are necessary for informing federal student loan policymaking, yet the research findings are surprisingly mixed because of poor data quality,…

  14. Using collateral to secure loans

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2006-01-01

    In “Using Collateral to Secure Loans,” Yaron Leitner asks: Why is collateral used to secure some loans, but not others? And why does collateral potentially involve more risk? He considers these questions, looking at some of the explanations for using collateral, focusing on its benefits and drawbacks.

  15. Forgiveness and Personality Type among Men and Women Suffering from Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Foroozandeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of personality and some components of behaviors, traits and emotions as effective factors on coronary heart diseases (CHD were presented nearly 50 years ago with the concept of “type A” behavior, a compound of hostility, impatience, competitiveness and dominance. Later studies showed crucial role of other traits and behaviors like anger, introversion, depression and forgiveness. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare personality type and forgiveness in the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases based on gender. Materials and method: The cross sectional study was designed and sample was collected from men and women referred to cardiologists (within the age range of 23-75 years old from the patients of Shahid Rajaee Heart Hospital of Tehran, Iran from December 2010 to March 2011. Total 87 subjects were selected using random method. The study subjects were given two questionnaires: personality type A (with two factors: TA1, pathologic behaviors of type A personality and TA2, non pathologic behaviors of type A personality and Interpersonal Forgiveness Inventory (IFI, with three subscales namely reestablishment of relationship, control of revenge and realistic perception. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Mean(±SD age of men was 50.5±11.6 years (n=33 and 55.7±14.4 years in women (n=54. Mean duration of suffering from cardiovascular diseases in men was 7.8 years and in women was 9.10 years. The study found high mean scores of type A pathologic but not non pathologic type A among women compared to men (p<0.038 and no statistically significant differences in forgiveness subscales. Conclusion: The study revealed significant difference between women and men suffering from cardiovascular disease in pathologic type A (TA1 and negative relationship between pathologic type A and forgiveness.

  16. Forgiveness, Attachment to God, and Mental Health Outcomes in Older U.S. Adults: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Blake Victor; Bradshaw, Matt; Uecker, Jeremy E

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a sample of older U.S. adults with religious backgrounds in order to examine the relationships among two types of divine forgiveness and three indicators of psychological well-being (PWB) as well as the moderating role of attachment to God. Results suggest that (a) feeling forgiven by God and transactional forgiveness from God are not associated with changes in PWB over time, (b) secure attachment to God at baseline is associated with increased optimism and self-esteem, (c) feeling forgiven by God and transactional forgiveness from God are more strongly associated with increased PWB among the securely attached, and (d) among the avoidantly attached, PWB is associated with consistency in one's beliefs, that is, a decreased emphasis on forgiveness from God. Findings underscore the importance of subjective beliefs about God in the lives of many older adults in the United States.

  17. Predicting the intentions of women in domestic violence shelters to return to partners: does forgiveness play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kristina Coop; Burton, Shacunda; Porter, Laura

    2004-06-01

    Recent findings indicate that college women's forgiveness of hypothetical dating violence was predictive of their hypothetical decisions to stay in the relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the role of forgiveness in women's intentions to return to their partners from a domestic violence shelter. A sample of 121 women residing in both urban and rural domestic violence shelters filled out a series of questionnaires evaluating demographic information, severity of violence, attributions for violence, psychological constraints (or investment), and forgiveness of the partner. Forgiveness was found to predict intention to return to partner over and above the other variables studied. These findings suggest that the degree to which women are willing to "move on" from the abuse and to let go of their anger toward their partners may play a significant role in their intention to remain in a relationship with their partners.

  18. 7 CFR 3431.15 - Qualifying loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Reasonable living expenses, as defined in this part and as determined by the Secretary. (b) Non-eligible... accredited veterinary medical school; (5) Loans or portions of loans obtained for educational or living... loans, scholarships, loan repayments, or other awards in exchange for a future service obligation; (7...

  19. 7 CFR 1735.73 - Loan design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan design. 1735.73 Section 1735.73 Agriculture... Funds § 1735.73 Loan design. When loan funds are requested for an acquisition, details of the proposed acquisition shall be included in the Loan Design. See 7 CFR part 1737. ...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.111 - Loan settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., settlement will be made by CCC on the basis of the basic marketing assistance loan rate that is in effect for... other than an authorized warehouse, settlement shall be made by CCC on the basis of the basic marketing...-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance Loans...

  1. 75 FR 66699 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... loan applicants tend to pose a higher economic risk of loss than those operations financed by commercial creditors. Information collections established in the regulations are necessary for FSA to...

  2. Credit, usury and interest loans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lorenzo Barile

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides a brief introduction to the issues of interest loans and usury in the Middle Ages as well as a systematic description of the bibliographic sources and electronic resources.

  3. Gender differences in emotions, forgiveness and tolerance in relation to political violence

    OpenAIRE

    Conejero, Susana; Etxebarria, Itziar; Montero García-Celay, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered bet...

  4. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Shenipsit Dam (CT 00482), Thames River Basin, Stafford, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    calculatec by the Soil Loss Formula (0.1 ton/ac/yr. y±cld). The dosianed heiGht of the structures vill provide st rage for a 50 year sediment...As shown in the above listing the design meet, the c:rr,1 ,ia established in all instances. L B-13 rage -,- n We have discussed with the S. C.S...WALTHAM,* MASS rMdlRie INSPECTION OF Stafford, CT CANIN ENGINEERS INC. WALLINGFORD, CON.NF. DAS CE# 27 785 KC EWNGINEER NO-FD AS DATE Set𔃺 PAGE C-4 S S U

  5. The Neural Association between Tendency to Forgive and Spontaneous Brain Activity in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijiang; Lu, Jiamei

    2017-01-01

    The tendency to forgive (TTF) refers to one's global dispositional level of forgiveness across situations and relationships. Previous brain imaging studies examined activation patterns underlying forgiving process, yet the association between individual differences in the TTF and spontaneous brain activity at resting-state remains unknown. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the correlation between the TTF and spontaneous brain activity in a young adult sample. Participants were 178 young students (55 men) who completed the TTF scale and underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between the regional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and TTF scores corrected for age and sex. Results showed that the ALFF value in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), precuneus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) were negatively associated with TTF scores. These findings suggest that the spontaneous brain activity of brain regions like the dmPFC, precuneus and IPL which are implicated in mentalizing and empathic response are associated with individual differences in the TTF.

  6. Guilt without fault: A qualitative study into the ethics of forgiveness after traumatic childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder, Katja; la Cour, Karen; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Lamont, Ronald F; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2017-03-01

    When a life is lost or severely impaired during childbirth, the midwife and obstetrician involved may experience feelings of guilt in the aftermath. Through three empirical cases, the paper examines the sense of guilt in the context of the current patient safety culture in healthcare where a blame-free approach is promoted in the aftermath of adverse events. The purpose is to illustrate how healthcare professionals may experience guilt without being at fault after adverse events, and Gamlund's theory on forgiveness without blame is used as the theoretical framework for this analysis. Philosophical insight has proven to be a useful resource in dealing with psychological issues of guilt and Gamlund's view on error and forgiveness elucidates an interesting dilemma in the field of traumatic events and medical harm in healthcare, where healthcare professionals experience that well-intended actions may cause injury, harm or even death to their patients. Failing to recognise and acknowledge guilt or guilty feelings may preclude self-forgiveness, which could have a negative impact on the recovery of midwives and obstetricians after adverse events. Developing and improving support systems for healthcare professionals is a multi-factorial task, and the authors suggest that the narrow focus on medico-legal and patient safety perspectives is complemented with moral philosophical perspectives to promote non-judgemental recognition and acknowledgement of guilt and of the fallible nature of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Christian spiritualties of sin and forgiveness according to 1 John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G. van der Merwe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to investigate the possible lived experiences created by this text. The text revolves around the experience of fellowship with God (1:6, 7 who is characterised as ‘light’. For the author of 1 John, sin disrupts this fellowship. He creates an awareness and a ‘spirituality of sin and guilt’ in the lives of his readers through the use of the experiential metaphor of darkness in a dialectic combination with light and the two false negations ‘do not have sin’ (sin as a noun and ‘do not sin’ (sin as a verb. This fellowship is re-established through living in the light: the confession, forgiveness and expiation of sin. The author creates a spirituality of confession, forgiveness and expiation of sin through descriptive cultic (blood of Jesus and expiation, forensic (paraclete, atypical (cleans, expiation, paraclete and all-inclusive (all [twice], whole, anyone language. Thus, in his rhetoric, the author uses metaphor, dialectic, sacrificial, forensic, atypical and all-inclusive language to facilitate a variety of ‘lived experiences’ within his readers. Firstly, he wants them to feel guilty about their sins and consequently, after they have confessed their sins, to strengthen their faith. Secondly, he wants to encourage them to believe that they can experience the forgiveness of their sins and, by doing so, know that they have eternal life (5:13 and can experience fellowship with God and, mutually, with one another.

  8. Credit reporting, relationship banking, and loan repayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Shirzad Kebria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on loan repayment in one of Iranian banks named Sepah Bank over the period 2012-2013. The study selects a sample of 290 bank’s customers who received loans and, using logistic regression technique, tries to find whether or not qualitative as well as quantitative characteristics of loan receivers influence on repayment of loans. The results indicate that history of outstanding debt as well as customers’ past experiences with banks had meaningful relationships with having bad credit and non-payment of loans. In our survey, having a bad credit in the past had positive relationship with non-payment of loans but long-term customers had negative relationship with non-payment of loans. In addition, working capital turnover ratio, cash ratio, total liabilities, current assets and loan value had significant impact on non-repayment of the loan facilities.

  9. Prospective Associations between Religiousness/Spirituality and Depression and Mediating Effects of Forgiveness in a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L.; Marschall, Justin C.; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examines the prospective associations of religiousness/spirituality with depression and the extent to which various dimensions of forgiveness act as mediating mechanisms of these associations. Data are from a nationally representative sample of United States adults who were first interviewed in 1998 and reinterviewed six months later. Measures of religiousness/spirituality, forgiveness, and various sociodemographics were collected. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by trained interviewers. Results showed that religiousness/spirituality, forgiveness of oneself and others, and feeling forgiven by God were associated, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with depressive status. After controlling for initial depressive status, only forgiveness of oneself and others remained statistically significant predictors of depression. Path analyses revealed that religiousness/spirituality conveyed protective effects, prospectively, on depression by way of an indirect path through forgiveness of others but not forgiveness of oneself. Hence, forgiveness of others acts as a mechanism of the salutary effect of religiousness/spirituality, but forgiveness of oneself is an independent predictor. Conclusions regarding the continued development of this type of research and for the treatment of clients with depression are offered. PMID:22675623

  10. Belief in the malleability of groups strengthens the tenuous link between a collective apology and intergroup forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J A; Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Halperin, Eran; Caouette, Julie; Hayes, Nicole; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Although it is widely assumed that collective apologies for intergroup harms facilitate forgiveness, evidence for a strong link between the two remains elusive. In four studies we tested the proposition that the apology-forgiveness link exists, but only among people who hold an implicit belief that groups can change. In Studies 1 and 2, perceived group malleability (measured and manipulated, respectively) moderated the responses to an apology by Palestinian leadership toward Israelis: Positive responses such as forgiveness increased with greater belief in group malleability. In Study 3, university students who believed in group malleability were more forgiving of a rival university's derogatory comments in the presence (as opposed to the absence) of an apology. In Study 4, perceived perpetrator group remorse mediated the moderating effect of group malleability on the apology-forgiveness link (assessed in the context of a corporate transgression). Implications for collective apologies and movement toward reconciliation are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. 26 CFR 1.7872-5T - Exempted loans (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-5T Exempted loans (temporary). (a) In general...: (A) The loan is a demand loan or is a term loan the benefits of the interest arrangements of which...

  12. Repayment policy for multiple loans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Agueda Rios-Solis

    Full Text Available The Repayment Policy for Multiple Loans is about a given set of loans and a monthly incoming cash flow: what is the best way to allocate the monthly income to repay such loans? In this article, we close the almost 20-year-old open question about how to model the repayment policy for multiple loans problem together with its computational complexity. Thus, we propose a mixed integer linear programming model that establishes an optimal repayment schedule by minimizing the total amount of cash required to repay the loans. We prove that the most employed repayment strategies, such as the highest interest debt and the debt snowball methods, are not optimal. Experimental results on simulated cases based on real data show that our methodology obtains on average more than 4% of savings, that is, the debtor pays approximately 4% less to the bank or loaner, which is a considerable amount in finances. In certain cases, the debtor can save up to 40%.

  13. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  14. 76 FR 27986 - Funding for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... conservation practices, techniques, or technologies. This notice announces that FSA is no longer accepting...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Funding for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan Programs... Agency (FSA) is no longer accepting direct or guaranteed loan applications for the Conservation Loan (CL...

  15. Bank Systemic Risk-Taking and Loan Pricing : Evidence from Syndicated Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we document evidence of systemic risk taking from syndicated loan pricing. Using U.S. syndicated loan data, we find that the borrower's idiosyncratic risk is positively priced whereas systematic risk is negatively related to loan spreads, controlling for firm, loan and bank specific

  16. 7 CFR 1421.102 - Adjustment of basic loan rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of basic loan rates. 1421.102 Section 1421...-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Marketing Assistance Loans § 1421.102 Adjustment of basic loan rates. (a) Basic loan rates are established under § 1421.9 and will...

  17. Promoting renewables through soft loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcks, C.

    1999-01-01

    The DtA, founded in 1950s, is a federal institution owned by the German government. It assists the government to implement its economic, environmental and social policy. Financial assistance is being granted mainly through soft loans. Such loans are a flexible instrument, permitting to partially correct prices without severely distorting market forces. They assure total financing while spreading the subsidy over the entire period of the engagement. This avoids windfall opportunities often related to direct subsidies. Investors, therefore, have an intrinsic motivation to only submit sound and profitable projects. (orig./RHM)

  18. 49 CFR 22.67 - Delinquent loans and loan defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimburse the Participating Lender on a pro rata basis in proportion to the loan guarantee percentage for... authorization will not be eligible for a pro rata basis reimbursement of the associated fees and costs. Net recoveries applicable to accrued interest must be applied on a pro rata basis in proportion to the formula...

  19. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Cooperative Share Loan Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA insurance. This new publication will provide instructions...

  20. 7 CFR 1435.104 - Loan maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan maintenance. 1435.104 Section 1435.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Loan maintenance. (a) All processors receiving loans shall: (1) Abide by the terms and conditions of...

  1. Cumulative Student Loan Debt in Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wyche, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand student debt in Minnesota, the Minnesota Office of Higher Education (the Office) gathers information on cumulative student loan debt from Minnesota degree-granting institutions. These data detail the number of students with loans by institution, the cumulative student loan debt incurred at that institution, and the percentage…

  2. 12 CFR 614.4233 - International loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Conditions § 614.4233 International loans. Term loans made by banks for cooperatives and... conditions: (a) The loan shall be denominated in a currency to eliminate foreign exchange risk on repayment... borrower has had a longstanding successful business relationship with an eligible cooperative borrower or...

  3. DETERMINANTS OF BUSINESS LOAN DEFAULT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation, funding, servicing and monitoring of loans by financial intermediaries has been done without regard to some critical factors which could have averted the likelihood of default. The study aimed at measuring the extent that owner-specific, borrower-specific, loan and lender-specific characteristics could determine the probability of loan default. The study used logistic regression for 224 business customers of a bank in Ghana from its nation-wide branches. The study found that owner’s extra income (ownership characteristics, multiple borrowing, diversion of loan purpose (borrower characteristics, loan price, loan purpose, loan age, repayment plan (loan characteristics and underfunding (lender characteristics significantly determined the probability of business loan default. The overall model predicted up to 78.5% of variations in the likelihood of default. The hierarchy of strong determinants given by their odd ratios were loan purpose (47.9 times, underfunding (19.2 times, diversion of loan purpose (11.7 times multiple borrowing (9.4 times and owner’s extra income (8.2 times. The study can conclude that financial intermediaries should be wary of the credit granting process taking cognisance of ownership, borrower, loan and lender characteristics especially the significant predictors. Combining quantitative and qualitative variables as determinants of default could be considered in future.

  4. Student Loan Default Rates in Minnesota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    While Minnesota undergraduates are more likely to take out student loans, they are substantially less likely than their peers nationally to default on federal student loans. Fifty-four percent of Minnesota undergraduates took out student loans in 2007-2008, compared to 39 percent of undergraduates across the U.S. Minnesota undergraduates were also…

  5. 29 CFR 4043.67 - Loan default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan default. 4043.67 Section 4043.67 Labor Regulations... CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Advance Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.67 Loan default. (a) Reportable event and information required. Advance notice is required for a loan default, as described in...

  6. 7 CFR 1779.69 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan servicing. 1779.69 Section 1779.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.69 Loan servicing. (a) Lender...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.469 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lender's close attention. Failure to correct these deficiencies could result in greater credit risk in... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.469 Loan servicing. The lender is... any violations in the Lender's Loan Agreement. (See Paragraph X of Form FmHA or its successor agency...

  8. Rules versus discretion in loan rate setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2011-01-01

    Loan rates for seemingly identical borrowers often exhibit substantial dispersion. This paper investigates the determinants of the dispersion in interest rates on loans granted by banks to small and medium sized enterprises. We associate this dispersion with the loan officers’ use of “discretion” in

  9. Relationship between Personality Traits and Psychological Well-Being with Respect to the Mediating Role of Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Taghvaininia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background and aim: Psychological well-being has been raised in the field of positive psychology and has focused on mental health from an individual's growth and efficiency angle rather than being patient. Identifying the personality building of individuals and adopting appropriate patterns is also of considerable importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits and psychological well-being with mediation as the role of forgiveness. Methods: The present research was a descriptive and causal correlation study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Yasuj University, among which 301 students (171 girls, 130 boys were selected by multi-stage random sampling. The instruments used were Reiff Psychological Well-being Questionnaire (PVBS, NEO Personality Questionnaire (NEO and Hartland Forgiveness Questionnaire (HFS. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling (SEM. Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between personality traits (extraversion = p <0.01, r = 0.32, agreement (p <0.01, r = 0.33, openness to experience (p <0.01, and conscientiousness There was a positive and significant relationship between psychological well-being and psychological well-being (r = 0.41, r = 0.41, r = 0.41, r = 0.41. Also, the results showed that the relationship between forgiveness (forgiveness R = 0.27, r = 0.27, r = 0.27, forgiveness in position (r = 0.20, r = 0.23 was positive and significant with psychological well-being. The results obtained from structural equation modeling also indicated that the path coefficient of features Personality to psychological well-being (β = 0.33 and forgiveness for psychological well-being Β = 258/0 is significant at the level of p≤0.01. Also, the results of indirect relations, the role of forgiveness mediators and the significance of these relationships have been confirmed

  10. Attachment to God and Forgiveness among Iranian Adolescents with Conduct Disorder at Tehran Reformatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salmanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Conduct disorder is characterized with aggressive behaviors, deceitfulness or theft, destruction of property and serious violations of rules, prior to age 18 years. Attachment to God is a relationship with God that reveals aspects of individual thought. Secure attachment is associated with an increased ability to forgive. Various studies indicated the association between insecure attachment and delinquency and criminal behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the attachment to God and forgiveness in adolescents with conduct disorder at Tehran reformatory.Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. The attachment to God and Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Scale--12-Item Form (TRIM-12, were completed by 60 adolescents between 14 -18 years old with conduct disorder, with or without substance abuse disorders, and ADHD, at Tehran reformatory. Descriptive statistics and linear regression methods was used to analyze the data in SPSS-16.Results: The results showed that anxiety and avoidant attachments to God and avoidance and revenge motivations in adolescents with conduct disorder are high. A history of addiction, criminality, and mental disorders among family members predicted increasing avoidant attachment to God among this group of adolescents in the univariate model. Also, parental divorce and attention deficit-hyperactivity variables predicted increased revenge motivation in the univariate model, and unemployed father predicted avoidance motivation, in the multivariate model.Conclusion: There is a defect in the ability to forgive in adolescents with insecure attachment and conduct disorder, there are basic requirements for the design of interventions and spiritual treatment programs specifically for this group of adolescents.

  11. Deposit competition and loan markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    Less-intense competition for deposits, by mitigating banks’ incentive to take excessive risks, is traditionally believed to lead to lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios and more-stable banks. This paper revisits this proposition in a model with borrower moral hazard in which banks’ NPL ratios

  12. Trouble Ahead for Student Loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergungor, O. Emre; Hathaway, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The market for student loans may differ in some respects from other financial markets, but private lenders are the primary source of funds. As in other markets, the incentive to lend those funds comes from the ability to make a profit. But recent turmoil in financial markets is affecting all of the factors that contribute to the profitability of…

  13. Student Loans for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Charlene Wear

    2008-01-01

    Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

  14. Measuring the differences in pairs' marital forgiveness scores: construct validity and links with relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugay, Asli

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a Turkish version for the Marital Dispositional Forgiveness Scale (MDFS). 104 married couples (M age = 36.6 yr., SD = 9.4) living in Turkey completed the Turkish versions of the MDFS and the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS). Cronbach's coefficients a for negative dimension (wives = .82, husbands = .80) and positive dimension (wives = .80, husbands = .79) were adequate. A correlation between the MDFS and RAS scores indicated significant associations, stronger for the positive dimension than the negative dimension, supporting the external validity of the MDFS.

  15. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in 1-4 family real estate in an amount that does not exceed 80 percent of the appraised value of the... concerns about credit quality, undue concentrations in the bank's portfolio of residential real estate, small business, or small farm loans, or concerns about the bank's overall credit risk management systems...

  16. Resources available for nuclear power plant emergencies under the Price-Anderson Act and the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Through a series of TABLETOP exercises and other events that involved participation by State and Federal organizations, the need was identified for further explanation of financial and other related resources available to individuals and State and local governments in a major emergency at a nuclear power plant. A group with representatives from the Nuclear Regulatory commission, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the American Nuclear Insurers/Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters was established to work toward this end. This report is the result of that effort. This document is not meant to modify, undermine, or replace any other planning document (e.g., the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan or the Federal Response Plan). Its purpose is to clarify issues that have surfaced regarding resources available under the Price-Anderson and Stafford Acts

  17. The theme of forgiveness in testaments and epitaphs in Romanian countries, Rzeczpospolita and the Russian Empire (XVIII Century-early XIX Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Felea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The testaments and epitaphs stand out among the most important sources of research of attitudes towards the death. In this article we will refer only to a sequence addressed by these sources: Christian forgiveness, a subject insufficiently researched in historiography. Christian forgiveness, one of the basic principles of Christianity, although rare, was presented in the texts of testaments and epitaphs. Testators or the authors of epitaphs addressed to the Christians their will to be forgiven the sins committed during the life. But the request for forgiveness was addressed primarily to God, before whom they should appear and answer for their deeds.

  18. Tastes of the 'Mongrel' City: Geographies of Memory, Spice, Hospitality and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cultural fragments – local places, people’s gestures, stories, tastes, affective landscapes – to map geographies of ‘Africa’ in a historically ‘mixed’ urban Australian neighbourhood. Focusing on a small Ethiopian business, Addis Ababa Café, the article develops an analysis framed by economies of nostalgic flavours and intimations of transnational belonging. Conceptually, the article approaches the question of how different people manage the task of living together in ‘our mongrel cities’ from two directions. Firstly, it reworks Giard’s celebrations of ‘doing-cooking’ as embedded knowledge to argue that, in the postcolonial city, memories and spices together constitutes significant cultural capital for identity-based trading. Secondly, it worries at Derrida’s arguments that hospitality and forgiveness are paradoxical. Do their contradictions actually preclude productive analytical connections, even when connections are haunted by ambivalence? Commensality based on alliances of ‘others’ might question at least ethnocentric assumptions of who offers hospitality, who forgives.

  19. Oxytocin makes females, but not males, less forgiving following betrayal of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuxia; Zhao, Weihua; Cheng, Rui; Geng, Yayuan; Luo, Lizhu; Kendrick, Keith M

    2014-11-01

    Although oxytocin has been shown to enhance trust behavior, to date no study has directly established whether oxytocin can modulate the effect of repair strategies on restoring damaged trust. In the current double-blind, between-subjects, placebo-controlled design study, two repair strategies were used to examine the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on modulating trust restoration in a revised trust game. The results showed that although oxytocin had no overall effect on modulating trust restoration, it did have a significant gender specific effect. Female subjects showed less evidence for trust repair in the oxytocin compared with the placebo treatment group. This suggests that oxytocin may make female subjects exhibit more punitive behavior towards partners who violate their trust and less sensitive to repair strategies provided by them. Interestingly, this gender specific effect was more evident in the context of attempted trust repair using financial compensation. However, it also extended to both apology alone and no compensation conditions, but not to the fair one, in females exhibiting high trait forgiveness. Thus females with a more forgiving attitude towards betrayal may actually be more likely to punish betrayal following oxytocin treatment.

  20. Hegel’s invisible religion in a modern state: A spirit of forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matějčková Tereza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the interrelation of freedom, finitude, and reconciliation in Hegel’s understanding of religion. These three moments are found at central stages of Hegel’s treatment of the religious, from Hegel’s early fragments to his mature work. Finitude taking shape in the religious phenomena of a tragic fate, sin, or more generally, failing, is central to Hegel’s philosophical understanding of one-sidedness. As finite, man needs to reconcile with the other, and only as reconciled does he achieve freedom. Hegel credits Christianity with the discovery of the primary essences of spirituality: freedom and forgiveness. Freedom is intensified with the death of God: man realizes that there is no God-given, only man-made, legislation. This deepening of freedom does not overcome man’s finitude but instead intensifies it along with a heightened sense for responsibility, and an increased potential for guilt. In this context, forgiveness is the highest spiritual capacity of modern man, whose fate is to bear the freedom of oneself and the other.

  1. Gender differences in emotions, forgiveness and tolerance in relation to political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Susana; Etxebarria, Itziar; Montero, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered between November 2005 and February 2006, a short time before ETA declared a ceasefire. Women reported more intensity in fear for political reasons and scored higher in two of the six measures of empathy included in the study (empathy with prisoners and empathy with those who suffer and think like oneself). Men scored higher in positive emotionality, indifference and Schadenfreude. Women perceived apology and forgiveness as more necessary elements for achieving peace than men. These results suggest that it may be beneficial for women to play a more prominent role in relation to the resolution of intergroup conflicts such as the one existing in the Basque Country.

  2. Explanatory and Predictor Relationships Between Forgiving Behaviors, Social Anxiety Levels and Values of Convict-Prisoners in Penal Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidika Isler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is revealing the correlations between social anxiety, forgiveness and values among convict-prisoners in penal institutions. Relational screening model was adopted in the present research. Relational screening is used to reveal the relationships between two or more variables, and cause-and-effect relationships. The universe of the present research consists of convicts and prisoners in Konya penal institutions in 2013-2014 years. The work group of the present research consists of 680 volunteer convicts and prisoners selected randomly among these. The data collection tool in research value scale, the scale of forgiveness and social anxiety scale was used. The results obtained from this study; The findings of the present research showed that the most important independent variable that affected values was forgiveness, In addition, the most important variable that affects social anxiety in the tested model is values variable and Additionally, second most important variable that affects social anxiety indirectly in the tested model is forgiveness variable.

  3. The Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress for Women after Spousal Emotional Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…

  4. Supporting Special-Needs Adoptive Couples: Assessing an Intervention to Enhance Forgiveness, Increase Marital Satisfaction, and Prevent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Thomas W.; Rhody, Margaret; Schoolmeesters, Shannon; Ellingson, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    An educational group intervention focusing on forgiveness and marriage education was implemented with adoptive parents. Couples qualified by having adopted at least one special-needs child. Data were examined for 112 adoptive parents: 54 from a treatment group that immediately received a 36-contact hour intervention and 58 from a waiting list…

  5. Psychological Repair: The Intersubjective Dialogue of Remorse and Forgiveness in the Aftermath of Gross Human Rights Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla

    2015-12-01

    The possibility of psychological repair after mass trauma is considered here in the context of the global trend of dialogue between survivors and perpetrators in the aftermath of mass atrocities. Stories of remorse and forgiveness illustrate and allow reflection on the last two decades' experience in dealing with the past, as exemplified by truth commissions in countries like South Africa and Rwanda. Three aspects of this experience are stressed. First, it is argued that the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of South Africa was a unique dialogic space that enabled the emergence of new subjectivities in the encounter between survivors and perpetrators. Second, concepts of intersubjectivity are used to explore how a psychoanalytic perspective might contribute to understanding the process of trauma testimony, and to examine the different ways in which empathy plays out in survivors' and perpetrators' responses as witnesses to trauma testimony. A key element here is the aspect of concern and care for the other that is linked to the empathy-remorse-forgiveness cycle in the dialogue between victim and perpetrator. Finally, remorse and its relation to forgiveness are explored. Contextually rich case study material from research on forgiveness illustrates this discussion. © 2015 by the American Psychoanalytic Association.

  6. Offense Type as Determinant of Revenge and Forgiveness after Victimization: Adolescents' Responses to Injustice and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlsma, Coby; Lugtmeyer, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    Victims of injustice and aggression may have strong feelings about the perpetrator(s) that may impede their efforts to cope with the victimizing experience. We examined to what extent adolescents' interpersonal responses to victimization in terms of revenge and forgiveness depend on offense type. Of 455 Dutch students from various educational…

  7. The impact of mixed, hope and forgiveness-focused marital counselling on interpersonal cognitive distortions of couples filing for divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, A; Bahari, F

    2014-09-01

    Divorce and conflict are overlapping processes. Previous findings suggest that spirituality-related interventions in mental health nursing may play a significant role in reducing the level and amount of conflict. We examined the effects of hope and forgiveness-focused marital counselling and a combination of the two intervention types on interpersonal cognitive distortions of couples filing for divorce in Isfahan, Iran. We conducted a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test design. Of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center undergoing pre-divorce counselling, 60 were randomly assigned to four groups: hope-focused, forgiveness-focused, mixed and control. Data were gathered using the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale and analysed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney's U and Wilcoxon tests. Hope- and forgiveness-focused interventions did not have a significant effect on the total number of interpersonal cognitive distortions in comparison with the control group. However, the mixed intervention significantly reduced irrational expectations and interpersonal rejection among couples. Combining hope- and forgiveness-focused interventions can be used to decrease irrational marital beliefs among couples. In addition, rating the level of conflict among couples is important for determining the type of intervention that should be used by mental health nurses (psycho-educational or therapeutic). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ‘Grace Gets Angry’, or the ‘Tactics’ of Forgiveness: the Biopolitics of Reconciliation in the Postcolony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Barnard-Naude

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reconsiders the role of forgiveness in the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC. Following the preface, the article situates forgiveness within the Lacanian psychoanalytic registers of real, symbolic and imaginary. These dimensions of forgiveness are presented in dialogical style in order to reflect the spirit of dialogue and voice in accordance with which the TRC took place. Part 6 takes up the discursive problematic of forgiveness and submits it to the genealogy of the TRC as produced by Adam Sitze (2013. Drawing on Sitze, I offer a novel understanding of forgiveness, namely as a Foucaultian norm integral to a biopolitical imperative (here, the imperative of peace. In the concluding parts, I return to the psychoanalytic paradigm in order to consider whether we can nevertheless recognise a certain ‘surplus’ forgiveness in and around the TRC. Whether this may be the case in spite, or because of, the biopolitical deployment of forgiveness, remains an open question.Este artículo reconsidera el papel del perdón en la Comisión de la Verdad y la Reconciliación de Sudáfrica (CVR. Tras la introducción, el artículo sitúa el perdón dentro de los registros psicoanalíticos lacanianos de lo real, lo simbólico y lo imaginario. Estas dimensiones del perdón se presentan en un estilo dialógico para reflejar el espíritu de diálogo y voz con el que tuvo lugar la CVR. La Parte 6 aborda la problemática discursiva del perdón y la somete a la genealogía de la CVR, como la planteó Adam Sitze (2013. A partir de Sitze, se ofrece una nueva visión del perdón, concretamente como una norma focaultiana integral de imperativo biopolítico (en este caso, el imperativo de la paz. En las conclusiones, se vuelve al paradigma psicoanalítico para considerar si se puede identificar un cierto "excedente" de perdón en y alrededor de la CVR. si esto puede ser el caso a pesar de, o debido al uso biopolítico del perdón sigue

  9. 13 CFR 120.315 - Interest rate and loan limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate and loan limit. 120... Special Purpose Loans Disabled Assistance Loan Program (dal) § 120.315 Interest rate and loan limit. The interest rate on direct DAL loans is three percent. There is an administrative limit of $150,000 on a...

  10. 24 CFR 201.40 - Post-disbursement loan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-disbursement loan requirements. (a) Discovery of misstatements of fact. If, after a loan has been made, the lender discovers any material misstatement of fact or that the loan proceeds have been misused by the... insurance of the loan shall not be affected unless such material misstatement of fact or misuse of loan...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive such...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  13. Gender and banking : Are women better loan officers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Guttler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania, we analyze gender differences in loan officers’ performance. Loans screened and monitored by female loan officers have a lower likelihood to turn problematic than loans handled by male loan officers. This effect cannot be explained by

  14. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  15. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-15 Split-dollar loans. (a) General rules—(1... split-dollar loan depend upon the relationship between the parties and upon whether the loan is a demand...-dollar demand loan is any split-dollar loan that is payable in full at any time on the demand of the...

  16. 5 CFR 537.103 - Agency student loan repayment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency student loan repayment plans. 537... REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.103 Agency student loan repayment plans. Before providing student loan repayment benefits under this part, an agency must establish a student loan repayment plan. This plan must...

  17. 42 CFR 57.309 - Payment of nursing student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of nursing student loans. 57.309 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.309 Payment of nursing student loans. (a) Nursing student loans from any fund may be paid to...

  18. Student Loans Reform in China: Problems and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianguo; Wang, Rong

    2009-01-01

    Student loans schemes have developed rapidly alongside China's move towards mass higher education. In this paper, the main features of the existing four types of student loan schemes are compared. In particular, the providers of principal loan, borrower eligibility, loan size, loan origination, interest subsidy, risk-sharing, repayment conditions…

  19. 7 CFR 1927.56 - Scheduling loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.56 Scheduling loan closing. The agency, in coordination with the closing agent, will arrange a loan closing and send loan closing instructions, on an agency form to the closing agent when the agency determines that the...

  20. Student loan debt and economic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Daniel H.; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief examines the impact of student loan debt on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation, employing a rich set of financial and demographic variables that are not available in many of the existing studies that use credit bureau data. It is important to understand whether and, if so, how student loan debt affects households' economic decisions because student loan debt has now surpassed credit card debt to become the second largest amount of household debt outsta...

  1. 7 CFR 1781.8 - Rates and terms-WS loans and WS advances and RCD loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rates and terms-WS loans and WS advances and RCD... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.8 Rates and terms—WS loans and WS advances and RCD loans...

  2. A public theological approach to the (impossibility of forgiveness in Matthew 18:15-35: Reading the text through the lens of integral theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion A. Forster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some 20 years after the dawn of participative democracy, there is little noticeable or substantial change in the living conditions of the average South African. The country remains divided by race, class and economics. Poverty, inequality and racial enmity remain looming challenges to human flourishing and social transformation. Some have begun to ask whether forgiveness for the sins of colonialism and apartheid are possible. This article engages with the (impossibilityof forgiveness as it is presented in Matthew 18:15-35. In particular, it does so from the bilingual perspective of a public theological engagement with the text and its contemporary readers in South Africa. By reading the text from an integral All Quadrants All Levels (AQAL approach this article extrapolates a textured understanding of forgiveness that ‘possibilises’ the (impossiblity of forgiveness between racially and socially divided groups of readers.

  3. Covenant Violations and Dynamic Loan Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudenberg, Felix; Imbierowicz, Björn; Saunders, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic allocation of control rights in private debt contracts of firms. We show that a covenant violation in the prior loan contract implies a stigma for borrowers which results in stricter loan contract terms in subsequent new loan contracts. Our analyses reject...... potentially other explanations such as firm characteristics or agency problems between the lender and firm management, shareholders or public debtholders. After covenant violations in the prior contract, new loans have on average 18 bps higher spreads and include more of those covenant types which also have...... been violated in the prior contract, with tighter thresholds....

  4. 34 CFR 674.34 - Deferment of repayment-Federal Perkins loans, NDSLs and Defense loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may defer making a scheduled installment repayment on a Federal Perkins loan, an NDSL, or a Defense loan, regardless of contrary provisions of the borrower's promissory note and regardless of the date... money, gifts, loans, housing, food, clothes, car, medical and dental care, and payment of college costs...

  5. Beyond Financial Need: Predictors of Student Loans and Student Loan Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Bat, Meghan J.

    2016-01-01

    Although public concern about student loan debt has been increasing, little research has examined predictors of debt beyond financial need or demographic factors. The present study explored the role of several psychological and attitudinal variables in student loan debt among 189 college students. Results indicate that loan initiative and loan…

  6. 38 CFR 36.4204 - Loan purposes, maximum loan amounts and terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan purposes, maximum loan amounts and terms. 36.4204 Section 36.4204 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... constructing a suitable pad for the manufactured home. (e) The maximum permissible loan terms shall not exceed...

  7. Forgiveness and Conflict Resolution in Close Relationships: Within and Cross Partner Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANK D. FINCHAM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Do forgiveness and conflict tactics (compromise, aggression, and avoidancein response to conflicts instigated by a romantic partner's offence uniquely predict effective arguing and relationship quality? Using 92 Italian couples we tested a mediational model in which each partner's responses to conflict predicted bothe partners' perceived effective arguing that, in turn, predict their own relationship quality. For both men and women, negative responses to conflict (unforgiveness, aggression, and avoidance overlapped and jointly predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality, directly and indirectly via effective arguing. Positive responses investigated (benevolence and compromise did not overlap for either men or women. Men's positive positive responses to conflict uniquely predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality via effective arguing, whereas women's positive responses did not predict them independently of their male partner's tactics.

  8. Crosstalk in concurrent repeated games impedes direct reciprocity and requires stronger levels of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Johannes G; Hilbe, Christian; Rand, David G; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2018-02-07

    Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation among humans. Many of our daily interactions are repeated. We interact repeatedly with our family, friends, colleagues, members of the local and even global community. In the theory of repeated games, it is a tacit assumption that the various games that a person plays simultaneously have no effect on each other. Here we introduce a general framework that allows us to analyze "crosstalk" between a player's concurrent games. In the presence of crosstalk, the action a person experiences in one game can alter the person's decision in another. We find that crosstalk impedes the maintenance of cooperation and requires stronger levels of forgiveness. The magnitude of the effect depends on the population structure. In more densely connected social groups, crosstalk has a stronger effect. A harsh retaliator, such as Tit-for-Tat, is unable to counteract crosstalk. The crosstalk framework provides a unified interpretation of direct and upstream reciprocity in the context of repeated games.

  9. The Mandate of the Collective: Apology Representativeness Determines Perceived Sincerity and Forgiveness in Intergroup Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Hornsey, Matthew J; Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Coughlin, Anne-Marie

    2017-06-01

    The sincerity of an apology is often critical for it to be viewed positively by victims. For collective apologies, we argue that sincerity takes on a particular meaning: It is a function of the apology's perceived representativeness for the offender group's will or sentiment. Consistent with this notion, when an apologetic (vs. nonapologetic) message was democratically chosen (Study 1) or explicitly endorsed by the majority of the offending outgroup (Study 2), it was considered more sincere and, through this, led to more forgiveness. Furthermore, while disagreement about an apology within the offender group reduced its perceived representativeness and sincerity, this was less so when the dissenters could be subtyped: when disagreement was correlated with an existing subgroup within the offending outgroup (Study 3) and in line with expectations for that subgroup (Study 4). This research shows that victim group members consider intragroup processes within the offending outgroup for attributions of sincerity.

  10. 42 CFR 57.1510 - Security for loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1510...

  11. 42 CFR 57.1512 - Length and maturity of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  12. 42 CFR 57.1518 - Modification of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  13. 42 CFR 57.1507 - Limitations applicable to loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  14. 77 FR 28572 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Loan Verification Certificate for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Loan Verification Certificate for Special Direct Consolidation Loans SUMMARY: This Loan Verification Certificate... Manage Student Loan Debt.'' Loans made under this initiative are known as Special Direct Consolidation...

  15. Assessing bank competition for consumer loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Humphrey, David

    2015-01-01

    Based on frontier analysis, we derive inferences of bank consumer loan competition from estimating a revenue-cost 'competition efficiency' (CE) frontier. The competitiveness of the $400 billion U.S. bank consumer loan market is then assessed by comparing results from our frontier CE measure with

  16. 7 CFR 1980.370 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... payments and early recognition and solution of problems are keys to resolving many delinquent loan cases... cure the delinquency. The Lender should consider the borrower's financial condition in attempting to... concurrence. Reamortization shall not change the amount of the loan guarantee. (d) Lender reporting to RHS...

  17. Deeper in Debt: Women and Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of the past few decades student loans have become an increasingly common means of paying for a college education. Most students who complete a college program now take on student loans, and the amount of student debt that students assume has increased along with the price of attending college. At this time about 44 million…

  18. 7 CFR 1735.30 - Hardship loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plan for the state, see 7 CFR part 1751, subpart B. (b)(1) Hardship loan funds shall not be used to... most points will be approved first, the second highest next, etc.) The following ranking methodology and loan approval conditions apply: (1) Ranking criteria.Borrowers will receive points based on each...

  19. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  20. Rules versus Discretion in Loan Rate Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a heteroscedastic regression model to identify the determinants of the dispersion in interest rates on loans granted to small and medium sized enterprises. We interpret unexplained deviations as evidence of the banks’ discretionary use of market power in the loan rate setting process.

  1. 29 CFR 4043.34 - Loan default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan default. 4043.34 Section 4043.34 Labor Regulations... CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.34 Loan default. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for a plan whenever there is a default by a member of the plan's...

  2. A New Paradigm in Mortgage Loan Advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otterstedt, Margrét Sesselja; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Kulahci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Danish mortgage market has undergone considerable changes during the last 15 years. New and more complex variations of loan products have been introduced. Nevertheless, mortgage loan advice has remained, by large, unchanged. This paper addresses a study where a number of new refinancing rules...

  3. Microcredit Loan Repayment Default among Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model is applied to primary data from a survey of 200 small scale entrepreneurs in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Results show that enterprise size, interest rate, loan duration, level of profit and loan amount are the simultaneous determinants of probability and rate of default. The study recommends that the National ...

  4. 7 CFR 762.110 - Loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...,000 or less must, at least, consist of: (i) The application form; (ii) Loan narrative; (iii) Balance... of debts over $1,000; (3) Three years financial history; (4) Three years of production history (for... least: (1) An application form; (2) A loan narrative; and (3) Any other items agreed to during the...

  5. 7 CFR 1951.885 - Loan classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the loan(s) payments for 24 consecutive months. (4) Be secured by collateral which is determined to be..., and are not considered to pose a credit risk to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354... presently expose FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 to a sufficient degree of risk to...

  6. A Database Management System for Interlibrary Loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the increasing complexity of dealing with interlibrary loan requests and describes a database management system for interlibrary loans used at Texas Tech University. System functions are described, including file control, records maintenance, and report generation, and the impact on staff productivity is discussed. (CLB)

  7. 42 CFR 57.1515 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1515 Loan... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan closing. 57.1515 Section 57.1515 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING...

  8. 75 FR 38999 - Federal Perkins Loan Program: Federal Family Education Loan Program and William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... of dependent undergraduate students and Federal Consolidation Loans and Direct Consolidation Loans... results in the borrower not being eligible to receive unemployment benefits under applicable State law...

  9. The limits of forgiveness in International Relations: groups supporting the Yasukuni shrine in Japan and political tensions in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Visits (or attempts to visit to the Yasukuni Shrine by Japanese officials have generated a series of controversies and tensions between the countries occupied by imperialist Japan during the Pacific War. The central dilemma is that Yasukuni, emblem of Japanese militarism, questions the coherence and consistency of the requests for forgiveness made by different Japanese prime ministers to countries in the region in repentance for atrocities and violations of human rights committed in the past. The weakness of the apologies is not an exclusive problem of Japan. On the contrary, the official pardon granted by one state to another has become an increasingly common practice, but questioned in international relations. The limits of apologies in the process of reconciliation between states have led to a new research strand, aligned with the debates on transitional justice, which discusses dimensions of the level of forgiveness in terms of rectification processes. From this perspective, previous research shows that there is a tendency to analyse the case of Yasukuni without delving into the social groups that support the shrine and define the agenda of prominent personalities of local politics, especially linked to the ruling party, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP, who claim Yasukuni. Faced with this gap, this article examines the characteristics and modes of action of the groups in favour of Yasukuni and the responses from China and South Korea to the visits to the shrine by officials, in order to understand the peculiarities and scope of forgiveness in East Asia.

  10. 7 CFR 766.355 - Acceleration of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceleration of loans. 766.355 Section 766.355... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Liquidation § 766.355 Acceleration of loans... imposes separate restrictions on accelerations; (ii) The borrower is American Indian, whose real estate is...

  11. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., District and County employees, provided there has not been a recent training meeting in that State. (b... County personnel properly trained in the current methods of processing EM loan applications and EM loan... employees in administering the EM loan program. (d) Comprehensive EM loan training package. A comprehensive...

  12. Toward Improvement of Credit Policies on Guaranteed Student Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Robert P.

    Four aspects of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program are compared with credit policies on other loans made by consumer installment lenders. The four aspects are: (1) the planning, screening, monitoring, collecting, and write-off policies on GSLs versus uninsured loans; (2) the importance of the Student Loan Marketing Association in providing…

  13. A Trillion-Dollar Question: What Predicts Student Loan Delinquencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Alvaro; Sommer, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    The recent significant increase in student loan delinquencies has generated interest in understanding the key factors predicting the non-performance of these loans. However, despite the large size of the student loan market, existing analyses have been limited by lack of data. This paper studies predictors of student loan delinquencies using a…

  14. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telephone loan budget. 1737.60 Section 1737.60... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and nonloan...

  15. Advantages and Disadvantages of Student Loans Repayment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    It is a difficulty problem to choice repayment patterns of student loan. "Conventional mortgage-type loan" and "Income contingent loan" has been performed in many countries. These loan repayment manners have their own characteristics. In this paper, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and would provide policy choice…

  16. 42 CFR 57.205 - Health professions student loan funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health professions student loan funds. 57.205... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.205 Health professions student loan funds. (a) Funds established...

  17. Exit Counseling Guide for Federal Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Student loans, unlike grants and work-study, are borrowed money that must be repaid, with interest, just like car loans and home mortgages. You cannot have these loans canceled because you didn't like the education you received, didn't get a job in your field of study or because you're having financial difficulty. Loans are legal obligations that…

  18. 42 CFR 60.51 - The student loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The student loan application. 60.51 Section 60.51... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.51 The student loan application. When the student completes his or her portion of the student loan application and submits it to the school, the school must do the...

  19. 77 FR 40785 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC90 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) (also referred to as ``Agency'') by requiring an annual fee for... to exceed 0.5 percent of the outstanding principal balance of the loan for the life of the loan. The...

  20. Como reembolsar sus prestamos para estudiantes (Repaying Your Student Loans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This guide, written in Spanish, discusses how to repay student loans. Following a general introduction, the guide discusses the grace period before repayment and repayment requirements. Repayment plans are described for Perkins Loans, Direct Loans, and Federal Family Education Loans. Repayment options are discussed, including consolidation,…

  1. 42 CFR 57.305 - Nursing student loan funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nursing student loan funds. 57.305 Section 57.305... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.305 Nursing student loan funds. (a) Funds established with Federal capital contributions. Any...

  2. 42 CFR 57.308 - Nursing student loan promissory note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nursing student loan promissory note. 57.308... Nursing Student Loans § 57.308 Nursing student loan promissory note. (a) Promissory note form. Each nursing student loan must be evidenced by a properly executed promissory note in a form approved by the...

  3. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    OpenAIRE

    D. Andrew Austin

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous subsidies, a simple model of the student loan market suggests that small changes in subsidy levels should not affect loan supply. Empirical results based on...

  4. 5 CFR 1655.20 - Residential loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...'s primary residence is his or her principal residence. A primary residence may include a house, a... residence. A residential loan will not be made for a lease-to-buy option, unless the option to buy is being...

  5. ACED Allegheny Home Improvement Loan Program (AHILP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Allegheny Home Improvement Loan Program (AHILP) is the most affordable way for eligible Allegheny County residents to rehabilitate and improve their homes....

  6. National Asset Management Agency Management of Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, John

    2012-01-01

    Report of the Comptroller and Auditor General National Asset Management Agency – Management of Loans I have, in accordance with the provisions of Section 9 of the Comptroller and Auditor General (Amendment) Act, 1993, carried out an examination of the arrangements for the management of loans by the National Asset Management Agency. I hereby submit my report on the above examination for presentation to Dáil Éireann pursuant to Section 11 of the said Act. John Buckley Comptroller...

  7. On Chinese Loan Words from English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun; Deng, Tianbai

    2009-01-01

    In the recent twenty years, with China's reform and opening policy to the outside world, there is a sharp increase in English loan words in Chinese. On the one hand, it demonstrates that China's soft power has been booming up. But on the other hand, some language pollution in the meanwhile is caused by non-standard use of loan words in Chinese.…

  8. Description of two new species of Glypthelmins Stafford, 1905 (Digenea: Macroderoididae) in Rana spp. from Mexico, based on morphology and mtDNA and rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises J; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2004-11-01

    Glypthelmins Stafford, 1905 includes 29 putative species commonly found in the intestine and liver of anurans from all over the world but mainly in the Americas. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ( cox 1), ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and the large subunit 28S rDNA gene were obtained and analysed using pairwise distance matrices and parsimony methods in order to characterise the interrelationships between 14 isolates of four nominal species of Glypthelmins recognised on morphological grounds. The highest intra-specific sequence divergence occurred in the cox 1 (18.53%) sequence, followed by that of the ITS2 (5.44%) and 28S (4.63%). Genetic variability was detected between the three isolates originally identified as G. facioi Brenes et al., 1959 from two localities in Mexico and one locality in Costa Rica. Sequence divergence exhibited among these isolates ranged from 10.70 to 11.22%, from 0.48 to 0.97% and from 1.33 to 1.88% for cox 1, ITS2 and 28S, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis combining all three data-sets generated a single most parsimonious tree. The three isolates of G. facioi form a clade, with an isolate collected from frogs in Veracruz State as the sister group to an isolate from Tabasco State + G. facioi from Costa Rica. The information derived from pairwise distance of independent data-sets plus the phylogenetic information indicate that each of the two isolates from Mexico, identified a priori as G. facioi, represent separate species. A re-examination of specimens was carried out and a re-evaluation made of the morphological characters to find reliable differences that had been overlooked. As a consequence, G. brownorumae n. sp. from Tabasco and G. tuxtlasensis n. sp. from Veracruz are described based on molecular and morphological differences.

  9. NON-PERFORMING LOANS DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bad loans are essentially loans with arrears of 90 days or more, and the criterion of 90 days is the most common practice in different countries to determine indicators on the bad in lending. Credit risk is one of the most important financial risks facing the banking system is assumed by all credit institutions and may cause serious problems so that bank and the whole system if risk exposure is substantial. From this point of view, the most important function of bank management is to control the quality of the loan portfolio. This is because the poor quality of loans is the leading cause of bankruptcy. In accordance with the central bank, credit institutions are obliged to protect the bank's capital and the deposits of individuals and legal entities and to cover any loans that present uncertainties in recovery, to determine and utilize prudential value adjustments. The central bank aims NPL development using aggregated indicators on credit institutions. Conclusions are presented on developments and trends in non-performing loans in the portfolio of credit institutions in Romania.

  10. 77 FR 15116 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; FHA-Insured Mortgage Loan Servicing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Processing, Escrow Administration, Customer Service, Servicing Fees and 235 Loans AGENCY: Office of the... Proposal: FHA-Insured Mortgage Loan Servicing for Performing Loans; MIP Processing, Escrow Administration...

  11. View of God as benevolent and forgiving or punishing and judgmental predicts HIV disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironson, Gail; Stuetzle, Rick; Ironson, Dale; Balbin, Elizabeth; Kremer, Heidemarie; George, Annie; Schneiderman, Neil; Fletcher, Mary Ann

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the predictive relationship between View of God beliefs and change in CD4-cell and Viral Load (VL) in HIV positive people over an extended period. A diverse sample of HIVseropositive participants (N = 101) undergoing comprehensive psychological assessment and blood draws over the course of 4 years completed the View of God Inventory with subscales measuring Positive View (benevolent/forgiving) and Negative View of God (harsh/judgmental/punishing). Adjusting for initial disease status, age, gender, ethnicity, education, and antiretroviral medication (at every 6-month visit), a Positive View of God predicted significantly slower disease-progression (better preservation of CD4-cells, better control of VL), whereas a Negative View of God predicted faster disease-progression over 4 years. Effect sizes were greater than those previously demonstrated for psychosocial variables known to predict HIV-disease-progression, such as depression and coping. Results remained significant even after adjusting for church attendance and psychosocial variables (health behaviors, mood, and coping). These results provide good initial evidence that spiritual beliefs may predict health outcomes.

  12. The excuse principle can maintain cooperation through forgivable defection in the Prisoner's Dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Kokko, Hanna; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Āboliņš-Ābols, Mikus; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J.

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal altruism describes a situation in which an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, but there is an ultimate fitness benefit based on an expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time. It creates the obvious dilemma in which there is always a short-term benefit to cheating, therefore cooperating individuals must avoid being exploited by non-cooperating cheaters. This is achieved by following various decision rules, usually variants of the tit-for-tat (TFT) strategy. The strength of TFT, however, is also its weakness—mistakes in implementation or interpretation of moves, or the inability to cooperate, lead to a permanent breakdown in cooperation. We show that pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) use a TFT with an embedded ‘excuse principle’ to forgive the neighbours that were perceived as unable to cooperate during mobbing of predators. The excuse principle dramatically increases the stability of TFT-like behavioural strategies within the Prisoner's Dilemma game. PMID:23864603

  13. To Forgive and Discredit: Bipolar Identities and Medicated Selves Among Female Youth in Residential Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Leah Gogel

    2015-09-01

    Based on 11 months of ethnographic fieldwork at a residential treatment center in the United States, this article explores the varied meanings that female youth attribute to behavior and the strategic (mis)use of knowledge about psychiatric diagnosis and medication at a time when the scope of behaviors pathologized in young people continues to expand. Drawing upon psychological and critically applied medical anthropology, as well as contributions from philosophy on how classifications of people come into being and circulate, attention is paid to the multiple contradictions at work in diagnosing young people with mental disorders. A detailed examination of an exchange that occurred during one particular group therapy session is presented to demonstrate how psychiatric selves emerge in this environment when conventional labeling practices no longer suffice as an explanation of behavior. This turn to psychiatry reveals both the salience of and confusion around mental health treatment and diagnosis among adolescents, opens up the distinctions young people make between "real selves" and "medicated selves," and invokes the possibility of psychiatric disorder as a means to both forgive and discredit.

  14. Why Student Loans Are Different: Findings from Six Focus Groups of Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Holt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For all the attention student loans have received in the media and from policymakers in recent years, there is still remarkably little information on why and how borrowers struggle to repay them. Rising college prices and debt levels explain some of the troubles borrowers have with their loans, as does a slow economic recovery that has caused…

  15. Federal Student Loan Amounts and Terms for Loans Issued in 2016-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project on Student Debt, 2016

    2016-01-01

    U.S. citizens or permanent residents, enrolled at least half time in a qualified program at a participating school, not in default on a prior federal student loan, and not previously convicted of a drug offense while receiving federal financial aid are eligible to apply for a student loan. The chart presented in this report summarizes the interest…

  16. What Triggers Loan Repayment Failure of Consumer Loans – Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Pasic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research explores most dominant lending product to population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a consumer loan, with aim to answer the question of what factors trigger loan repayment failure. It explores relation of borrower characteristics such as gender, age, level of indebtness to likeliness of loan repayment by use of probit on banking data sample representing 39% of the market share in the country. It identifies factors which lead to loan repayment failure and also provides exact empirical model for default prediction at loan approval stage. Main audience of this research should be banks, which could use the finding of the study to adjust their credit policies and risk appetite to ensure that lending losses from this strongly present product are minimized, thus leading to stable and financially sound banking sector.

  17. Fast to forgive, slow to retaliate: intuitive responses in the ultimatum game depend on the degree of unfairness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Ferguson

    Full Text Available Evolutionary accounts have difficulty explaining why people cooperate with anonymous strangers they will never meet. Recently models, focusing on emotional processing, have been proposed as a potential explanation, with attention focusing on a dual systems approach based on system 1 (fast, intuitive, automatic, effortless, and emotional and system 2 (slow, reflective, effortful, proactive and unemotional. Evidence shows that when cooperation is salient, people are fast (system 1 to cooperate, but with longer delays (system 2 they show greed. This is interpreted within the framework of the social heuristic hypothesis (SHH, whereby people overgeneralize potentially advantageous intuitively learnt and internalization social norms to 'atypical' situations. We extend this to explore intuitive reactions to unfairness by integrating the SHH with the 'fast to forgive, slow to anger' (FFSA heuristic. This suggests that it is advantageous to be prosocial when facing uncertainty. We propose that whether or not someone intuitively shows prosociality (cooperation or retaliation is moderated by the degree (certainty of unfairness. People should intuitively cooperate when facing mild levels of unfairness (fast to forgive but when given longer to decide about another's mild level of unfairness should retaliate (slow to anger. However, when facing severe levels of unfairness, the intuitive response is always retaliation. We test this using a series of one-shot ultimatum games and manipulate level of offer unfairness (50:50 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and enforced time delays prior to responding (1s, 2s, 8s, 15s. We also measure decision times to make responses after the time delays. The results show that when facing mildly unfair offers (60:40 people are fast (intuitive to cooperate but with longer delays reject these mildly unfair offers: 'fast to forgive, and slow to retaliate'. However, for severely unfair offers (90:10 the intuitive and fast response is to

  18. 26 CFR 301.7701-13A - Post-1969 domestic building and loan association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (5) Residential real property loan. (6) Church loan. (7) Urban renewal loan. (8) Institutional loan...) In general. The term “property used in the association's business” means land, buildings, furniture...

  19. Safety of Municipal Loan in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is justification of the necessity of legal regulation of actions of the bodies of local self-government when detecting signs of insolvency. Each stage of municipal loans management is analysed from the point of view of availability of legal rules, which do not allow making municipal loans by territorial communities of the cities with weak financial state or regulate sequence of actions of municipalities in default times. The following results were obtained: majority of legal restrictions in the sphere of local finance management are directed at prevention of ungrounded loans or have the form of sanctions, applied to local bodies, which perform their debt obligations with delay; the state formally controls the process of making municipal loans, avoiding financial responsibility; the national legislation does not contain the mechanism of regulation of actions of territorial communities, which experience difficulties when performing debt obligations. The article proves expediency of adoption of a uniform regulatory-legal act in Ukraine, which would regulate all economic relations connected with making municipal loans. This legal document shall contain a section about actions of the municipality-debtor when signs of default start to appear, announcement of default and declaration of the debtor insolvent (bankrupt. The article recommends the following structure of this section: regulation of the procedure of default announcement avoidance; announcement of default with the pre-trial restoration of the debtor’s solvency; and announcement of default with declaring the debtor bankrupt juridically.

  20. Investigating on effects of different granting loans on bank deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Ebrahimi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between different granting loans and bank deposits in some governmental banks in province of Semnan, Iran. For the proposed study of this paper, equipment of resources includes cash account, zero-interest account, short term investment and long term investment and these are considered as dependent variables. There are also seven types of granting loans devoted to customers, which are partnership loans, zero-interest loans, civic participation, contract quantity loans, future contract loans, rent-purchase loans and installment sales loans. The study considers the financial information of 171 governmental banks located in province of Semnan, Iran over the period 2006-2011. The results of our study indicate that five variables maintain positive impact on dependent variable. The highest impact belongs to Partnership loans (0.34, followed by Sales loans (0.24, contract quantity loans (0.21 and Zero-interest loans (0.16 and Future contract loans (0.14 come in the last position. The study also uses Freedman test to rank dependent factors and the results indicate that short- term investment is number one priority followed by long term investment and the other two options including zero-interest and cash accounts are in lower priority.

  1. 7 CFR 1786.209 - Outstanding loan documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all provisions of its RUS loan contract, its outstanding notes issued to RUS, and the RUS mortgage. (b... making prepayments on any loans pursuant to the RE Act in accordance with the terms thereof or as may be...

  2. 42 CFR 57.313a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student... of all loans and interest canceled under this subpart for full-time employment as a nurse, death, or...

  3. 76 FR 56091 - Expansion of 911 Access; Telecommunications Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Access; Telecommunications Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with... the Telecommunications Loan Program. DATES: This rule is effective on September 12, 2011. Comments... INFORMATION CONTACT: David Villano, Assistant Administrator, Telecommunications Program, USDA--Rural Utilities...

  4. 7 CFR 4279.113 - Eligible loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agricultural-production portion of any loan will not exceed 50 percent of the total loan or $1 million... guarantee fee. (v) Tourist and recreation facilities, including hotels, motels, and bed and breakfast...

  5. 75 FR 23219 - Information Collection; Direct Loan Servicing-Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Loan Programs provide loans to family farmers to purchase real estate and equipment and finance... information collection of this issue of the Federal Register. You may submit comments by any of the following...

  6. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - Neighborhood Stabilization Outcome Pool Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary to protect the interests of CCC on the basis of one or more of the following risk factors: (1... to the preservation or safety of the loan collateral. Loans may be made on a lower percentage basis...

  8. 13 CFR 120.383 - Restrictions on loan processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Since greater risk may be associated with a loan to an applicant under this program, a Certified Lender or Preferred Lender shall not make a defense economic assistance loan under the PLP or CLP programs...

  9. 7 CFR 761.9 - Interest rates for direct loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates for direct loans. 761.9 Section 761.9... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.9 Interest rates for direct loans. Interest rates for all direct loans are set in accordance with the Act. A copy of the...

  10. 12 CFR 705.7 - Loans to participating credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans to participating credit unions. 705.7 Section 705.7 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT REVOLVING LOAN PROGRAM FOR CREDIT UNIONS § 705.7 Loans to participating credit unions...

  11. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous…

  12. 7 CFR 1980.311 - Loan limitations and special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to 90 percent of the present market value. (c) Subdivisions. Housing units may be financed in... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan limitations and special provisions. 1980.311... Loan limitations and special provisions. (a) Prohibited loan purposes. Conditional commitments will not...

  13. Gender and Banking : Are Women Better Loan Officers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Guttler, A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze gender differences associated with loan officer performance. Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania over the period 1996 to 2006, we find that loans screened and monitored by female loan officers show statistically and economically significant lower default rates than

  14. 7 CFR 1900.6 - Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. 1900.6 Section... AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL Delegations of Authority § 1900.6 Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force. The Chair, Loan Resolution Task Force is delegated the following authorities, to be exercised until...

  15. 13 CFR 120.881 - Ineligible Projects for 504 loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Development Company Loan Program (504) Loan-Making Policies Specific to 504 Loans § 120.881 Ineligible... workforce of a relocating small business or a substantial increase in unemployment in any area of the... crucial to the continued existence, economic wellbeing, and/or competitiveness of the applicant; and (2...

  16. 7 CFR 1703.112 - Expedited telecommunications loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited telecommunications loans 1703.112 Section... § 1703.112 Expedited telecommunications loans RUS will expedite consideration and determination of an application submitted by an RUS telecommunications borrower for a loan under the Act or an advance of such...

  17. 13 CFR 120.884 - Ineligible costs for 504 loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible costs for 504 loans. 120.884 Section 120.884 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS... for 504 loans. Costs not directly attributable and necessary for the Project may not be paid with...

  18. 75 FR 23631 - Federal Home Loan Bank Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... on private-label MBS that were backed by subprime and nontraditional residential mortgage loans. To address certain issues associated with subprime and nontraditional loans, the Finance Board's Office of....g., subprime or Alt-A loans). \\5\\ This provision was in section II.B. of the FMP, and no longer...

  19. 7 CFR 1779.78 - Repurchase of loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repurchase of loan. 1779.78 Section 1779.78 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.78 Repurchase of loan. (a...

  20. 7 CFR 1779.25 - Ineligible loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible loan purposes. 1779.25 Section 1779.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.25 Ineligible loan purposes...

  1. 7 CFR 1779.34 - Terms of loan repayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms of loan repayment. 1779.34 Section 1779.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.34 Terms of loan repayment...

  2. 7 CFR 1779.84 - Additional loans or advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional loans or advances. 1779.84 Section 1779.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.84 Additional loans or...

  3. 7 CFR 1779.30 - Loan guarantee limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan guarantee limitations. 1779.30 Section 1779.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.30 Loan guarantee...

  4. Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor farm households and other microentrepreneurs have difficulties in obtaining loans from banks and other financial institutions because they are unable to provide securities or collaterals for the loans. Collaterals on loans reduce uncertainty and moral hazard problems for creditors. They also serve as a measure of the ...

  5. 7 CFR 772.7 - Leasing minor program loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing minor program loan security. 772.7 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.7 Leasing minor program loan security. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may consent to the borrower leasing all or a portion of security...

  6. 7 CFR 1714.8 - Hardship rate loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the consumer income tests will be determined on a weighted average based on the percentage of the...'s total electric system exceeds 17, the borrower must include, as a note on RUS Form 740c, Cost Estimates and Loan Budget for Electric Borrowers, submitted as part of the loan application for a loan at...

  7. 34 CFR 674.55 - Teacher cancellation-Defense loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Teacher cancellation-Defense loans. 674.55 Section 674... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Loan Cancellation § 674.55 Teacher... schools under paragraph (b)(1) of this section based on a ranking by the State education agency. (ii) The...

  8. 34 CFR 682.506 - Limitations on maximum loan amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount in excess of the student's estimated cost of attendance for the period of enrollment for which the loan is intended less— (i) The student's estimated financial assistance; and (ii) The student's... Student Loan Programs § 682.506 Limitations on maximum loan amounts. (a) The Secretary does not guarantee...

  9. 7 CFR 1735.33 - Variable interest rate loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate loans. 1735.33 Section 1735.33... § 1735.33 Variable interest rate loans. After June 10, 1991, and prior to November 1, 1993, RUS made certain variable rate loans at interest rates less than 5 percent but not less than 2 percent. For those...

  10. Analysis of Default Risk of Agricultural Loan by Some Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to reduce default rate and loan diversions since members can serve as watch dog to each other. Banks should also prevent unnecessary delay in loan disbursement to allow for timely use of the loan. Banks should also explore the Agricultural credit guarantee scheme (ACGS) to offset part of the risk in case of default.

  11. 24 CFR 203.50 - Eligibility of rehabilitation loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prescribed by the Secretary. (e) The loan transaction shall be an acceptable risk as determined by the... mortgagor or his creditors as provided in the rehabilitation loan agreement. (5) The loan shall bear interest at the rate prescribed in § 203.20 on the amount advanced to the mortgagor or its creditors, and...

  12. 14 CFR 1300.23 - Participation in guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a loan guaranteed under the program by sale of... transferred in whole or in part; (2) The lender remains solely responsible for the administration of the loan... loans guaranteed under the program: (1) Eligible lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance...

  13. Of religion and redemption : Evidence from default on Islamic loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.T.M.; Farooq, Moazzam; Ongena, S.R.G.

    We compare default rates on conventional and Islamic loans using a comprehensive monthly dataset from Pakistan that follows more than 150,000 loans over the period 2006:04 to 2008:12. We find robust evidence that the default rate on Islamic loans is less than half the default rate on conventional

  14. UtIlISINg forgIveNeSS to helP SexUAlly ABUSeD ADoleSceNtS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    views of themselves and their interpersonal relationships. guilt and shame arouse feelings of helplessness, anger, .... anxiety, pain, dissatisfaction, depression, anger, remorse and repentance, as a result of the violation of ..... there is a lateral consensus among those who develop forgiveness therapy. An incorrect view of ...

  15. 76 FR 30904 - Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan... access to advanced telecommunications systems, equipment and services. The List of Materials historically... taking a fundamentally new approach to advancing state-of-the-art telecommunications technologies...

  16. Terms and conditions for Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Smartway financing projects where an eligible nonprofit grantee is implementing a loan program and loan Recipients will use the loan funds for activities that trigger Davis Bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use this T&C for DERA Smartway financing projects where an eligible nonprofit grantee is implementing a loan program and loan Recipients will use the loan funds for activities that trigger Davis Bacon.

  17. 77 FR 66087 - Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... tuition has contributed to a significant increase in student loan debt among Americans. The ability of... change. Some commenters suggested that private student loans should be discharged if the borrower is... Government does not have authority to require the discharge of a private student loan. The post-discharge...

  18. 7 CFR 764.51 - Loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to make a determination on the loan application. (e) The applicant need not submit any information... ordering a credit report on the applicant; (12) Verification of all debts; (13) Any additional information...-Doc OL request, the applicant must: (1) Be current on all payments to all creditors including the...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.61 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency will seek a first or parity lien position on Agency-financed property in all instances. The Agency... collateral. (2) The amount of the loan against the collateral does not exceed its estimated security value... foreclosure; (iii) The Agency to occupy the property, sublet the property, or sell the leasehold for cash or...

  20. Complaints Soar over Student-Loan Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five years, the number of complaints filed against agencies collecting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education has grown by 45 percent. The Federal Trade Commission, which oversees the entire industry, received 142,743 complaints involving debt-collection companies last year, though only some involved student loans. Consumer…

  1. 7 CFR 1951.877 - Loan agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property being insured or the amount of the loan. Hazard insurance includes fire, windstorm, lightning..., builder's risk, public liability, property damage, flood or mudslide, or any other hazard insurance that... will be assigned to the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354. (ii) Ordinarily, life...

  2. Estimating Loan-to-value Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korteweg, Arthur; Sørensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We estimate a model of house prices, combined loan-to-value ratios (CLTVs) and trade and foreclosure behavior. House prices are only observed for traded properties and trades are endogenous, creating sample-selection problems for existing approaches to estimating CLTVs. We use a Bayesian filterin...

  3. 44 CFR 206.376 - Loan cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except increases due to inflation, the annual operating budget or operating statement expenditures will... impact of the loss of property tax revenue in Debt Service or Pension Funds (non-operating funds) if all... cancellation. (a) FEMA shall cancel repayment of all or part of a Special Community Disaster Loan to the extent...

  4. Testimony: Combating the Student Loan Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmcamp, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Public Policy Priorities (CPPP) provides written testimony on the Senate Higher Education Committee interim charges exploring student financial aid and the issue of student loan debt Texas institutions of higher education. This paper highlights recommendations for strengthening and improving the financial aid system in Texas to…

  5. 44 CFR 206.361 - Loan program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means the local government's fiscal year. (c) Interest rate. The interest rate is the rate for five year... executed. This rate is from the monthly Treasury schedule of certified interest rates which takes into... shall use the loaned funds to carry on existing local government functions of a municipal operation...

  6. 44 CFR 206.366 - Loan cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... additional unreimbursed disaster-related expenses for a municipal operating character. For loan cancellation... other revenues rates or the tax assessment valuation of property which was not damaged or destroyed by... revenue rates and tax assessment valuation factors applicable to such property in effect at the time of...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.72 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all cases, the borrower must: (1) Provide evidence that an Agency-approved accounting system is in... may seek enforcement of this provision as well as the Government.” (ii) All other loans are subject to... Standards, by a Certified Public Accountant (CPA). In some cases, the Agency will contract directly with a...

  8. Student Loan Default and Repayment in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As college costs continue to rise, student loan default and repayment are issues of increasing concern to students and families, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments. Helping students borrow responsibly and manage their debt are vitally important to maintaining college access and affordability and increasing the education…

  9. 44 CFR 206.375 - Loan administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... annually shall submit to FEMA copies of its annual financial reports (operating statements, balance sheets... accordance with the Schedule of Loan Increments in the Promissory Note. As funds are disbursed, interest will... government shall submit a copy of its most recent financial report (if not submitted previously) for...

  10. 19 CFR 351.505 - Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the firm's future financial position, such as market studies, country and industry economic forecasts...-term loans; (B) The present and past financial health of the firm, as reflected in various financial indicators calculated from the firm's financial statements and accounts; (C) The firm's recent past and...

  11. 78 FR 3828 - Microloan Operating Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    .... Comment: Require the mentor to sign the loan application to prevent fraud and abuse of program. Response... Standards by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Category (13 CFR 121.201). All of the... higher for two subcategories of animal production. (See 13 CFR 121.201, subsectors 112112 and 112310...

  12. 7 CFR 3560.63 - Loan limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... tax credits, must make an equity contribution from their own resources. (1) Loan applicants who will receive benefits from the low-income housing tax credit program must make an equity contribution in the...-income housing tax credit program, the amount of Agency financing for the housing will not exceed 95...

  13. 7 CFR 4274.356 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit factors. Changes in legal entities or where tax consideration are the reason for change will not... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 4274.356 Section 4274.356 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL...

  14. 12 CFR 614.4330 - Loan participations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum: (1) Define the duties and responsibilities of the participating institution and the lead lender, and/or the servicing institution, if different from the lead lender. (2) Provide for loan servicing... borrower distress or default; (4) Provide for sharing of risk; (5) Set forth conditions for the offering...

  15. 76 FR 8403 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Agency will evaluate the lender's eligibility on a case- by-case basis given the risk of loss posed by... program requirements are not conducive to lenders, particularly in light of the inherent risks associated... identified potential benefits and costs of the Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loan Program to lenders...

  16. 44 CFR 206.364 - Loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., accounting and financial reporting, including a description of each fund account. (2) Operating budget. For... appropriating body, which contains an estimate of proposed expenditures, other than capital outlays for fixed assets for a stated period of time, and the proposed means of financing the expenditures. For loan...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.112 - Loan feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service cost of the new loan. (3) The economics of the borrower's operations and service area are such... financial and management controls and there are and have been no significant financial or other... assets, is adequate to enable the borrower to meet its financial needs and to provide service consistent...

  18. Modelling home equity conversion loans with life insurance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baškot Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Home equity represents a reserve that can be used for providing additional money for its owners during their retirement. Life insurance models can be successfully applied to model home equity conversion loans. The home equity conversion loan is a financial product that provides a certain flexibility by using home equity as a resource for a quality life during retirement. Home equity conversion loans do not have a predetermined maturity date, as do conventional loans. But, like every loan, it must be repaid. One potential advantage of using a home equity conversion loan during tough financial times instead of some types of need-based assistance is that eligibility is straightforward. Home equity conversion loans can be useful tools in the process of pension system reform.

  19. The strength of a remorseful heart: psychological and neural basis of how apology emolliates reactive aggression and promotes forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Urielle; Yu, Hongbo; Han, Ting; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Apology from the offender facilitates forgiveness and thus has the power to restore a broken relationship. Here we showed that apology from the offender not only reduces the victim’s propensity to react aggressively but also alters the victim’s implicit attitude and neural responses toward the offender. We adopted an interpersonal competitive game which consisted of two phases. In the first, “passive” phase, participants were punished by high or low pain stimulation chosen by the opponents when losing a trial. During the break, participants received a note from each of the opponents, one apologizing and the other not. The second, “active” phase, involved a change of roles where participants could punish the two opponents after winning. Experiment 1 included an Implicit Association Test (IAT) in between the reception of notes and the second phase. Experiment 2 recorded participants’ brain potentials in the second phase. We found that participants reacted less aggressively toward the apologizing opponent than the non-apologizing opponent in the active phase. Moreover, female, but not male, participants responded faster in the IAT when positive and negative words were associated with the apologizing and the non-apologizing opponents, respectively, suggesting that female participants had enhanced implicit attitude toward the apologizing opponent. Furthermore, the late positive potential (LPP), a component in brain potentials associated with affective/motivational reactions, was larger when viewing the portrait of the apologizing than the non-apologizing opponent when participants subsequently selected low punishment. Additionally, the LPP elicited by the apologizing opponents’ portrait was larger in the female than in the male participants. These findings confirm the apology’s role in reducing reactive aggression and further reveal that this forgiveness process engages, at least in female, an enhancement of the victim’s implicit attitude and a

  20. PENGARUH NON PERFORMING LOAN (NPL TERHADAP PROFITABILITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Agustami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Profitability is one of the essential elements in the process of assessing performance in banking finance. Bank needs to keep its profitability to maintain the continuity of its corporation. In the process of attaining income and making profit, a bank commonly does many efforts. One of them is through offering the credits to the public. However, in fact, credit which becomes the basis to run the company has the risk of failure when the clients/ debtors have to pay the loan back on its deadline/ Non Performing Loan (NPL. The objective of this study is to find out whether NPL influences negatively or not towards the bank profitability. This study employed the basic regression analysis method through linearity and normality tests. The data used is the financial statement of PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk in 2002 until 2010 published by Bank Indonesia. Based on the revealed elaboration and the data analysis about the influence of NPL towards profitability, it can be concluded that the condition of Non-Performing Loan (NPL in PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk is good in general since it is still below the NPL value regulated by Bank Indonesia which is 5%. Meanwhile, the profitability based on the return on assets (ROA in PT. Bank OCBC NISP tends to be below the minimum standard which is 1,5%, but it is classified in high category in the framework of performance determination of banking finance governed by Bank Indonesia. In PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk, Non-Performing Loan (NPL influences negatively towards profitability.

  1. 77 FR 35707 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; FHA-Insured Mortgage Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Processing, Escrow Administration, Customer Service, Servicing Fees and 235 Loans AGENCY: Office of the Chief...-Insured Mortgage Loan Servicing for Performing Loans; MIP Processing, Escrow Administration, Customer...

  2. 7 CFR 1610.6 - Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans. 1610.6..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.6 Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans. (a) The Bank makes loans, under section 408 of the Act, concurrently with RUS cost-of-money loans made under section...

  3. 13 CFR 120.215 - What interest rates apply to smaller loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rates apply to... BUSINESS LOANS Policies Specific to 7(a) Loans Maturities; Interest Rates; Loan and Guarantee Amounts § 120.215 What interest rates apply to smaller loans? For a loan over $25,000 but not exceeding $50,000, the...

  4. 13 CFR 123.5 - What kinds of loans are available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What kinds of loans are available... Overview § 123.5 What kinds of loans are available? SBA offers three kinds of disaster loans: physical... loans directly or in participation with a financial institution. If a loan is made in participation with...

  5. 7 CFR 1781.20 - Disbursement of WS and RCD loan funds and WS advance funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disbursement of WS and RCD loan funds and WS advance... (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.20 Disbursement of WS and RCD loan funds and WS advance funds. (a) WS and RCD loan funds will be disbursed by the processing office in accordance...

  6. 42 CFR 57.207 - Maximum amount of health professions student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum amount of health professions student loans... LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.207 Maximum amount of health professions student loans. The total of the health professions student loans made from the fund to any student for a school year may...

  7. 42 CFR 57.208 - Health professions student loan promissory note and disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health professions student loan promissory note and..., SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.208 Health professions student loan promissory note and disclosure requirements. (a) Promissory note form. Each health professions student loan...

  8. 7 CFR 1717.154 - Transitional assistance in connection with new loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... generally requires that an applicant for a municipal rate loan obtain a portion of its debt financing from a... date if that first loan is a municipal rate loan whose loan period does not exceed 2 years, and the..., its electric rates and rate disparity, and the likely mitigation effects of priority loan processing...

  9. O perdão interpessoal em relação a variáveis psicossociais e demográficas Interpersonal forgiveness in relation to psychosocial and demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Rique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O perdão foi estudado através do Enright Forgiveness Inventory - EFI (versão em português - em relação à intensidade da mágoa, aos afetos, aos julgamentos e aos comportamentos da vítima referentes ao ofensor. Verificou-se também se a cultura, o sexo, a idade e a religião influenciam o perdão. Participaram 200 brasileiros e 394 estadunidenses. Os resultados foram similares nas duas culturas: as pessoas perdoaram espontaneamente, mas não completamente. O perdão mostrou-se negativamente correlacionado com a intensidade da mágoa; foi oferecido em maior grau à família e aos amigos do que a estranhos e a colegas de trabalho; e as pessoas perdoaram mais pelos julgamentos do que pelos afetos. Não ocorreram diferenças quanto à religião, sexo ou idade. Futuros estudos devem verificar se ao perdoar completamente os afetos positivos pelo ofensor permanecem inferiores ou se igualam aos escores dos julgamentos positivos.The Enright Forgiveness Inventory - EFI (Portuguese version was used to verify relationships between forgiveness and degree of injury to the agents of hurt and also the degree of affect, behavior and judgment from victims towards their offenders. It was also checked whether culture, gender, age and religion affect the act of forgiving. Two hundred Brazilians and 394 Americans participated in the study. Findings were similar for both cultures. Forgiveness was negatively related to the degree of injury. People forgive family and friends at a higher degree than they forgive strangers or co-workers. Positive judgments received significantly higher scores than positive affect. No significant effect was found for forgiveness regarding gender, age or religion. Future studies should verify whether genuine forgiveness shows positive affect for offenders at a same degree as positive judgments or affect remains always lower than judgment for forgiving.

  10. Consumer Loans in Cambodia: Implications on Banking Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Channarith

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the fast development of consumer loans including housing loans in Cambodia to check whether or not such a development posts any stability risk to banking system in Cambodia. Using stress-testing method, the paper finds that current level of consumer loans provided by banks does yet creates a big threat to the banking stability in Cambodia. Rather, the surge reflects consequences of positive development in the banking system and economy as a whole, including the rise of mid...

  11. THE LOAN CONTRACT IN THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIA MOCANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Civil Code maintains, mainly, the stipulations of the Civil Code of 1865 regarding loan contracts, in its both forms (the loan for use and the loan for consumption. As a variety of the loan for consumption, a few new specific stipulations were included, regarding the loan with interest.This research is focused on the current regulation of the loan contract, including a series of changes, of which the most important refers to: the loan promise, the risk regarding the asset placed in a bailment, property transfer and the risk in the loan for consumption contract, loan return and the interest regime. Also, what kept my attention is the significant changes brought to the interest regime by the Law for applying the Civil Code, included for now in Chapter I of the O.G. no. 13/2011, regarding the legal compensatory interest and the penalty interest for financial duties, as well as for the regulation of certain financial-fiscal measures in the banking department.

  12. 77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric...

  13. 13 CFR 307.9 - Revolving Loan Fund Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operating the RLF must be consistent with Prudent Lending Practices. (b) Evaluation of RLF Plans. EDA will... management procedures, including loan processing, underwriting, closing, disbursements, collections...

  14. A Study of Effectiveness of Group Forgiveness Therapy in Reducing Aggression among 11-13 Year Old Male Adolescents in City of Dezful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sanai Zaker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of group forgiveness therapy in reducing aggression among 11 – 13 year old boys. Methods: This semi experimental study (pretest-posttest design with control group was conducted on 30 students who scored high on Aggression Questionnaire. The sample was selected through cluster sampling assignment and participants were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received forgiveness counseling via twelve group sessions of 1 hour duration each. During this period no intervention was given to the control group. Data was analyzed using Kolmogrov-Smironov, Levene F test, and t-test for independent and dependent groups. Results: Statistical analysis, using independent t test for between-group comparison, showed that compared to the control group, aggression both physical and verbal, anger, and hostility in the experimental group significantly decreased. Also result of dependent t test for within-group comparison showed that aggression and its dimensions were significantly decreased after implementing independent variable. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that group forgiveness therapy can significantly reduce aggression.

  15. 77 FR 4547 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... defined in section 102(2) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C... CONTACT: Kathleen Wicks, Director of Grants & Campus-Based Division, U.S. Department of Education, Federal...: (202) 377-3110 or via email: kathleen.wicks@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the...

  16. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...-case basis the effect that a major disaster, as defined in section 102(2) of the Robert T. Stafford...: Kathleen Wicks, Director of Grants & Campus-Based Division, U.S. Department of Education, Federal Student...) 377-3110 or via the Internet: kathleen.wicks@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for the...

  17. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... effect that a major disaster, as defined in section 102(2) of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... CONTACT: Kathleen Wicks, Director of Grants & Campus-Based Division, U.S. Department of Education, Federal...: (202) 377-3110 or via the Internet: kathleen.wicks@ed.gov . If you use a telecommunications device for...

  18. 34 CFR 685.301 - Origination of a loan by a Direct Loan Program school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., subpart E, a school may rely in good faith upon statements made by the borrower and, in the case of a... in a program of study with less than a full academic year remaining, the school need not recalculate... pattern or practice that results in a denial of a borrower's access to Direct Loans because of the...

  19. 7 CFR 1436.9 - Loan amount and loan application approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approving authority to be ineligible for loan. (c) The maximum total principal amount of the farm storage... facility; (ii) By a yield determined reasonable by the county committee; (iii) Multiply by two (for 2 years... first time. (e) When a storage structure has a larger capacity than the applicant's needed capacity, as...

  20. 76 FR 30246 - Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... institutions, directly or in partnership with other market participants, to purchase loans of failed banks from... fail, farmers, ranchers, producers or harvesters of aquatic products, and cooperatives can be left... others have asked whether System institutions, directly or in partnership with other market participants...

  1. 77 FR 31993 - Loan Workouts and Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... stated that ``[u]nder this IRPS, TDR loans are as defined in generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the Board does not intend through this policy to change the Financial Accounting Standards..., consistent with industry practice or Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) requirements...

  2. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  3. 38 CFR 36.4307 - Interest rate reduction refinancing loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rate reduction... § 36.4307 Interest rate reduction refinancing loan. (a) Pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 3710(a)(8), (a)(9)(B)(i... interest rate payable on the existing loan provided that all of the following requirements are met: (1) The...

  4. 12 CFR 203.4 - Compilation of loan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purchases and then sells within the same calendar year (this information need not be included in quarterly... currently offered to consumers by a representative sample of creditors for mortgage loans that have low-risk... may but need not be collected for loans purchased by the financial institution. (c) Optional data. A...

  5. 24 CFR 573.7 - Loan guarantee agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will require the Borrower to provide collateral security, to an extent and in a form, acceptable to HUD... property with comparable new property; (5) The lender will follow certain claim procedures to be specified... underlying collateral security for the loan; and (7) The lender will act as the fiscal agent for the loan...

  6. Which U.S. Households Use Education Loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chungwen; Fisher, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study uses the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) to investigate the characteristics of households that hold at least one loan for educational expenses. The benefit of using household-level data is that a single household may have education loans for multiple people in the household, including the household head, spouse/partner,…

  7. 38 CFR 36.4377 - Transfer of insured loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchase price, whichever is the lesser. (b) Transfers between insurance accounts in a manner or under... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of insured loans... Transfer of insured loans. (a) In cases involving the transfer from one insured financial institution to...

  8. 7 CFR 1776.17 - Revolving loan fund maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revolving loan fund maintenance. 1776.17 Section 1776.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... Revolving loan fund maintenance. As long as any part of the HWWS grant remains available for lending, and...

  9. 31 CFR 585.406 - Extensions of credits or loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions of credits or loans. 585.406 Section 585.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Interpretations § 585.406 Extensions of credits or loans. (a) The prohibition in § 585.210 applies to the...

  10. Identifying Interbank Loans, Rates, and Claims Networks from Transactional Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.; Cely, Jorge; Cadena, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We identify interbank (i.e. non-collateralized) loans from the Colombian large-value payment system by implementing Furfine’s method. After identifying interbank loans from transactional data we obtain the interbank rates and claims without relying on financial institutions’ reported data.

  11. 7 CFR 3550.109 - Escrow account (loans only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow account (loans only). 3550.109 Section 3550... 306C Water and Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.109 Escrow account (loans only). RHS may require that borrowers deposit into an escrow account amounts necessary to ensure that the account will contain...

  12. 7 CFR 1737.32 - Loan Design (LD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... growth, must be discussed. Reasons for growth projections which vary from historic trends must be... an exhibit. (vii) Special projects. Facilities involving investment in excess of $100,000 for any... Special Projects. (viii) Investment in nonrural areas.(A) For initial loans, or loans for areas not...

  13. Book Loan Delinquency in Academic Libraries: Students' Reaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the reaction of students towards book loan delinquency in academic libraries. The objectives were to determine the frequency of use of the reserve collection of an academic library, to find out if there was book loan delinquency, investigate the cause(s), and examine the effects on the students and the ...

  14. 38 CFR 21.4503 - Determination of loan amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may be reasonably expected to be expended for education needs in any academic year or other loan... actual cost of attendance, as defined in § 21.4500(f), to obtain the net amount by which costs exceed the... for an education loan may not exceed $2,500 in any one academic year. It also may not exceed an amount...

  15. Effects of the Subsidized Students' Loan on University Enrolment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effect of the subsidized students' loan on university enrolment in Ghana between 1988-2008 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework. It was discovered that the subsidized student loan had positive and significant impact on university enrolment. Per capita gross domestic product ...

  16. 76 FR 70069 - Federal Home Loan Bank Community Support Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... importance of public engagement, proposed Sec. 1290.2(c) would require the Banks to include notices on their... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1290 RIN 2590-AA38 Federal Home Loan Bank Community... by requiring the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) to monitor and assess the eligibility of each Bank...

  17. Funding Costs and Loan Pricing by Multinational Bank Affiliates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2009), s. 1-48 ISSN 1803-7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multinational banks * bank loan pricing * internal capital market Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/derviz-funding costs and loan pricing by multinational bank affiliates.pdf

  18. 12 CFR 221.103 - Loans to brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...,” in the case of loans to brokers or dealers secured by margin stock where the proceeds of the loans... made to a broker to furnish cash working capital for the conduct of his brokerage business (i.e., for... referred to in § 221.3(c) which the lending bank must accept in good faith in determining the purpose of...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.490 - Business and industry buydown loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The lender and/or borrower demonstrates to the Government's satisfaction that it has a need for a... Law 103-354 Farmer Programs loan or if the financial and production information required by § 1980.113... Typhoon Omar. (c) Interest rate. (1) If the interest rate charged by the lender (note rate) on a BIB loan...

  20. 38 CFR 17.804 - Loan approval criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan approval criteria. 17.804 Section 17.804 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL... package, loan approval will be based on the following: (a) Favorable financial history and status, (1) A...

  1. 78 FR 52460 - Single Family Housing Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... packager. Under this process, the groups must maintain clear separation of duties. 1. Agency-certified loan...) Have at least one year of real estate and/or mortgage experience, (2) be employed by a qualified... involving the purchase of an RHS Real Estate Owned property or loans under the Mutual Self-Help Housing...

  2. Securitization and Lending Standards : Evidence from the Wholesale Loan Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, A.; Marques-Ibanez, D.; Ongena, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of securitization activity on banks’ lending standards using evidence from pricing behavior on the syndicated loan market. We find that banks more active at originating asset-backed securities are also more aggressive on their loan pricing practices. This suggests that

  3. 7 CFR 4280.123 - Guaranteed loan funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.123 Guaranteed loan funding. (a) The... the renewable energy system or energy efficiency improvement. (1) Post-application purchase and...

  4. 7 CFR 4280.152 - Servicing guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.152 Servicing guaranteed loans. The lender... the business, along with such other documentation as the Agency may request to determine eligibility...

  5. Are Student Loan Default Rates Linked to Institutional Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Terry T.; McKitrick, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    As more undergraduates have taken out loans to attend college, the number of borrowers who fail to repay their student loans has increased. While previous research has focused on students' likelihood to default, this study employed institutional cohort default rates (CDRs) as an outcome variable. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data…

  6. 25 CFR 101.2 - Kinds of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... purposes of obtaining a college or graduate education and degree in a field which will provide employment... purposes of obtaining a college or graduate education and degree in a field which will provide employment... organizations may receive loans from the revolving loan fund for investment in or lending to other organizations...

  7. 7 CFR 1779.96 - Termination of Loan Note Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Loan Note Guarantee. 1779.96 Section 1779.96 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.96...

  8. Credit worthiness and loan repayment performance among farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Credit worthiness and loan repayment performance among farmer cooperators in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. ... policies that will improve the linkage between farmer cooperatives and formal credit sources in the area. Keywords: Credit worthiness, loan repayment, farmers, cooperative societies and credit ...

  9. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Practices Although the Board is not proposing specific underwriting standards, risk avoidance methods, or... also identifies ``best practices'' FCUs should incorporate into their individual STS programs. DATES... sometimes engage in predatory lending practices. While some payday loan borrowers use these loans sparingly...

  10. Determinant of asymmetric risks in Nigerian loan market: any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size of default probability by borrowers and the extent to which borrowers were fully informed about the cost implications of their loans were the two key factors that determined asymmetric risk in Nigerian loan market. Keywords: Information asymmetry, Credit constraint, Default risk, Adverse selection, Moral hazard.

  11. 76 FR 30286 - Community Development Revolving Loan Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... a loan must provide information demonstrating the Qualifying Credit Union's sound financial position... source of financial support, in the form of both loans and technical assistance grants, for credit unions... financial services to low-income residents of these communities, resulting in more opportunities for...

  12. 78 FR 20466 - National Institutes of Health Loan Repayment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (or AIDS Research LRP); Loan Repayment Program for General Research (or... Immune Deficiency Syndrome (or AIDS Research LRP); (2) Loan Repayment Program for General Research (or.... 201 et seq.). AIDS Research means research activities related to the Acquired Immunodeficiency...

  13. 7 CFR 1786.104 - Loan fund audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan fund audit. 1786.104 Section 1786.104... Loan fund audit. RUS shall have the right to audit within 6 months of closing, transactions involving... borrower. Should RUS determine that the borrower has made disbursements of funds advanced pursuant to RUS...

  14. 77 FR 54721 - Appraisals for Higher-Risk Mortgage Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... permit a creditor to extend credit in the form of a higher-risk mortgage loan to any consumer without... manufactured homes. Consistent with the statute, the proposal would allow a creditor to make a higher-risk..., the proposal would require a higher-risk mortgage loan creditor to obtain an additional written...

  15. 7 CFR 2201.28 - Participation in guaranteed Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Participation in guaranteed Loans. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a Loan guaranteed under the Program by sale of participations therein if... in part as a result of the sale of such participations; (2) The Lender remains solely responsible for...

  16. 13 CFR 500.210 - Assignment or transfer of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... has the effect of distributing the risks of the credit among other Lenders if: (i) Neither the loan... be modified, assigned, conveyed, sold or otherwise transferred by the Lender, in whole or in part... assignment or transfer of less than 100 percent of a Lender's interest in the Loan Documents and Guarantee...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.105 - Loan settlement and foreclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Sugar Loan Program... and interest if the processor converts the in-process sugar into raw cane sugar or refined beet sugar... in-process sugar must be fully processed into raw cane sugar or refined beet sugar, before the...

  18. Bank loan loss provisions research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Ozili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.

  19. Announcement effects of convertible bond loans versus warrant-bond loans : An empirical analysis for the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Veld, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the announcement effects of offerings of convertible bond loans and warrant-bond loans using data for the Dutch market. Using standard event study methodology it is found that on average stock prices show a positive but insignificant abnormal return for the announcement of a

  20. 45 CFR 1336.65 - Staffing and organization of the Revolving Loan Fund: Responsibilities of the Loan Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organization table, including: (a) The structure and composition of the Board of Directors of the RLF; (b) The... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Staffing and organization of the Revolving Loan... Hawaiian Revolving Loan Fund Demonstration Project § 1336.65 Staffing and organization of the Revolving...

  1. Do loans increase college access and choice?: examining the introduction of universal student loans

    OpenAIRE

    Bridget Terry Long

    2007-01-01

    The returns to college are substantial, including increased earnings and public benefits, such as better health and increased involvement in public service and giving. As a result, since the introduction of the Guaranteed Student Loan program in 1965 and the Pell Grant in 1972, the federal government has experimented with using financial aid to increase college access, choice, and affordability. ; Although years of research support the notion that financial aid can influence students' post-se...

  2. [A study on English loan words in French plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, E; Tegelberg, E

    2014-10-01

    The French language is less and less used as an international scientific language and many French researchers publish their work in English. Nowadays, Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique is the only international plastic surgical journal published completely in French. The use of English loan words in French plastic surgery has never been studied. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and types of English loan words in French plastic surgery. A corpus consisting of all the articles in a number of Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthethique, chosen by default, was created. The frequency of English loan words was calculated and the types of words were analysed. The corpus contains 367 (0.8%) English loan words. Most of them are non-integrated loan words and calques. The majority of the plastic surgical loan words describe surgical techniques. The French plastic surgical language seems to be influenced by English. The usage of loan words does not always follow the recommendations and the usage is sometimes ambiguous. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  4. Associations Between Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward Debt, Stress, and Student Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Spivey, Christina A; Jaeger, Melanie C; Williams, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Objective. To assess graduating pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt and determine associations with stress, student loan debt, financial need, current employment, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Methods. Survey was conducted using an attitudes-toward-debt scale (sub-scales: tolerant attitudes toward debt; contemplation and knowledge about loans; fear of debt), Perceived Stress Scale, and questions concerning current employment, estimated total student loan debt, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Federal loan data were collected using financial aid records. Independent samples t -test, ANOVA, and Pearson's r correlations were conducted. Results. There were 147 students (96.7%) who participated. The majority were female (59.2%), white (69.4%), and had federal student loans (90.5%). Mean total loan amount was $153,276 (SD $59,810), which included federal students loans accumulated before and during pharmacy school. No significant differences were noted on attitudes toward debt or stress based on whether respondents had federal student loans. Greater "fear of debt" was correlated with increased stress, estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan debt, and pharmacy school loan debt. Greater "contemplation and knowledge about loans" was correlated with lower estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan amount, and pharmacy school loan amount. Students with higher "contemplation and knowledge" scores expected to repay loans within a shorter time frame than students with lower scores. Conclusion. Increased fear of debt was related to greater perceived stress and higher student loan amounts borrowed, while increased contemplation and knowledge about loans was associated with lower amounts borrowed. Educational programming concerning loans, debt, and personal financial management may help reduce stress and amount borrowed.

  5. 7 CFR 1421.105 - Farm-stored marketing assistance loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... should be applied to the basic county marketing assistance loan rate to provide CCC with adequate... quality under this section shall apply only to new marketing assistance loans and not to outstanding marketing assistance loans. In determining loan percentages or the necessity to apply quality discounts, the...

  6. 13 CFR 123.302 - What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the interest rate on an... ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.302 What is the interest rate on an economic injury disaster loan? Your economic injury loan will have an interest rate of 4 percent per annum...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4231 - Certain seasonal commodity loans to cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certain seasonal commodity loans to... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Terms and Conditions § 614.4231 Certain seasonal commodity loans to cooperatives. Loans on certain commodities that are part of government programs shall comply with the criteria...

  8. 42 CFR 57.311 - Cancellation of nursing student loans for disability or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation of nursing student loans for disability or death. 57.311 Section 57.311 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.311 Cancellation of nursing student loans for...

  9. 42 CFR 23.23 - Who is eligible to receive a private practice option loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Assistance Loan (42 U.S.C. 294, et seq.), Nursing Student Loan (42 U.S.C. 297a et seq.), or any other Federally guaranteed or direct student loan are ineligible for this loan program. (c) NHSC scholarship... to NHSC scholarship recipients who have completed at least 2 years of their service obligations at a...

  10. 42 CFR 57.312 - Repayment of loans for service in a shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.312 Repayment of loans for service in a shortage area. (a) Service in a... in section 846(a)(1) of the Act; (2) Has obtained one or more nursing student loans or any other...

  11. 77 FR 35241 - Improving Repayment Options for Federal Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Repayment Options for Federal Student Loan Borrowers Memorandum for the Secretary of Education [and] the Secretary of the Treasury More individuals than ever before are using student loans to finance college... Repayment (IBR) plan for Federal student loans currently allows former students to cap their student loan...

  12. 5 CFR 537.106 - Conditions and procedures for providing student loan repayment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... student loan repayment benefits. 537.106 Section 537.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.106 Conditions and procedures for providing student loan repayment benefits. (a) General conditions. (1) Student loan repayment benefits may...

  13. 42 CFR 57.307 - Maximum amount of nursing student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum amount of nursing student loans. 57.307... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.307 Maximum amount of nursing student loans. The total of the nursing student...

  14. 42 CFR 57.211 - Cancellation of health professions students loans for disability or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation of health professions students loans..., SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.211 Cancellation of health professions students loans for disability or death. (a) Permanent and total disability. The Secretary will cancel a...

  15. 77 FR 38784 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Federal Perkins Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... participating in the Federal Perkins Loan Program, formerly the National Direct/Defense Student Loan Program... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Federal Perkins Loan Program/NDSL Assignment Form SUMMARY: The Federal Perkins Loan Program allows for...

  16. Factors That Affect Willingness to Borrow Student Loans among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Kathleen K.; Leonhard, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that student loan borrowing has increased at the community college level. This trend is worrisome to many, as research is inconclusive regarding whether loans are positively correlated with achieving a college degree. Many also contend that choosing not to borrow a student loan due to loan aversion can negatively impact a…

  17. 42 CFR 57.206 - Eligibility and selection of health professions student loan applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... student loan applicants. 57.206 Section 57.206 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH..., SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.206 Eligibility and selection of health professions student loan applicants. (a) Determination of eligibility. (1) Applicants are eligible for...

  18. 5 CFR 537.108 - Loss of eligibility for student loan repayment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loss of eligibility for student loan... SERVICE REGULATIONS REPAYMENT OF STUDENT LOANS § 537.108 Loss of eligibility for student loan repayment benefits. (a) An employee receiving student loan repayment benefits from an agency is ineligible for...

  19. 42 CFR 57.209 - Payment of health professions student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of health professions student loans. 57.209... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.209 Payment of health professions student loans. (a) Health...

  20. 76 FR 52271 - Institutions and Lender Requirements Relating to Education Loans, Student Assistance General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 668 [Docket ID ED-2009-OPE-0003] RIN 1840-AC95 Institutions and Lender Requirements Relating to Education Loans, Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

  1. 7 CFR 1944.423 - Loan packaging and 502 RH application submittal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan packaging and 502 RH application submittal. 1944... Grants § 1944.423 Loan packaging and 502 RH application submittal. A grantee is required to assist 502 RH applicants in submitting their application for a RH loan. Loan packaging will be performed in accordance with...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.106 - Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral... Marketing Assistance Loans § 1421.106 Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral. (a) A commodity may be pledged as collateral for a warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan in the quantity...

  3. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  4. 13 CFR 120.970 - Servicing of 504 loans and Debentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... including receipt and review of the Borrower's or Operating Company's financial statements on an annual or more frequent basis and monitoring the status of the Borrower and 504 loan collateral. (c) The CDC is... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Servicing § 120.970 Servicing of 504 loans and Debentures...

  5. Associations Between Pharmacy Students’ Attitudes Toward Debt, Stress, and Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Christina A.; Jaeger, Melanie C.; Williams, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess graduating pharmacy students’ attitudes toward debt and determine associations with stress, student loan debt, financial need, current employment, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Methods. Survey was conducted using an attitudes-toward-debt scale (sub-scales: tolerant attitudes toward debt; contemplation and knowledge about loans; fear of debt), Perceived Stress Scale, and questions concerning current employment, estimated total student loan debt, post-graduation plans, and expected length of time to repay loans. Federal loan data were collected using financial aid records. Independent samples t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson’s r correlations were conducted. Results. There were 147 students (96.7%) who participated. The majority were female (59.2%), white (69.4%), and had federal student loans (90.5%). Mean total loan amount was $153,276 (SD $59,810), which included federal students loans accumulated before and during pharmacy school. No significant differences were noted on attitudes toward debt or stress based on whether respondents had federal student loans. Greater “fear of debt” was correlated with increased stress, estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan debt, and pharmacy school loan debt. Greater “contemplation and knowledge about loans” was correlated with lower estimated total student loan debt, total federal loan amount, and pharmacy school loan amount. Students with higher “contemplation and knowledge” scores expected to repay loans within a shorter time frame than students with lower scores. Conclusion. Increased fear of debt was related to greater perceived stress and higher student loan amounts borrowed, while increased contemplation and knowledge about loans was associated with lower amounts borrowed. Educational programming concerning loans, debt, and personal financial management may help reduce stress and amount borrowed. PMID:29109558

  6. Analysis of Third Party Loan Guarantee and Performance of Non-Prime Household Loans in Microfinance Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ndirangu Wachira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Household loans remain the engine to productivity and economic growth globally. Non-prime household loan is essential, because it enables the borrowers with no collateral to access credit from Microfinance Banks. The survival and sustainability of non-prime household loans globally is therefore significant. Credit risk however remains the main deterrent of the soundness of Microfinance Banks. This leads to the poor performance of microfinance institutions in many economies in the world. Several countries globally are making inroad in reducing the credit risks, which lead to the poor performance of Microfinance Banks. It is still unknown why the credit risk affects the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks domiciled in Kenya. The reason for conducting this study is to determine the level at which the third party loan guarantee and the performance of non-prime household loans relate to the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. Particularly, this study is to determine how the amount secured by guarantee, recoveries from guarantors, percentage of loan secured, and percentage recoveries from guarantors relate to the performance of nonprime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The population was 516 senior management employees of the banks. The researcher conducted a multiple regression analysis for determining the relationship between the amount secured by guarantee—recoveries from guarantors, percentage granted, and percentage recoveries—and the performance of non-prime household loans. The R and R2 were used for determining the strength of the relationship and the coefficient of determination at 0.05 level of significance of variables. The result of this study reveals that there exists a strong relationship between the dependent and independent variables, thereby contradicting the null hypothesis, which states that the relationship does not exist. The percentage of the recoveries from the guarantors over the

  7. 7 CFR 1786.162 - Outstanding loan documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... outstanding notes issued to RUS, and the RUS Mortgage. (b) Nothing in this subpart shall affect any rights of... shall prohibit a borrower from making prepayments of any loans pursuant to the RE Act in accordance with...

  8. Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised Credit Scheme Of Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank(Nacrbd) In Zaria And Kaduna North Local Government Areas Of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

  9. Some Empirical Evidence of Loan Loss Provisions for Albanian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushku Elona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we used a panel of Albanian banks for the period 2004-2014 to examine the main determinants of loan loss provisions. In addition, we tested how the latest crisis has affected provisioning behaviour of the banks. We find that loan loss provisions of banks are driven by non-discretionary components and economic fluctuations. Furthermore, we find a positive and significant result between earnings before interest, taxes and provisions and loan loss provisions, thus confirming the income smoothing hypothesis. Our estimated results do not support the capital management and signalling hypotheses. We also find that the global crisis has contributed significantly to the procyclicality of loan loss provisioning in Albania and banks continued to do income smoothing during the crisis.

  10. 7 CFR 1710.106 - Uses of loan funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service, or replace existing facilities. (ii) The purchase, rehabilitation and integration of existing... inventory on hand for each type of loan, RUS may either reduce the amount on an equal proportion basis for...

  11. Key factors for loan repayment of micro entrepreneurs in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbeko, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the extent to what corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies, entrepreneurial and business skills and programmes for training and monitoring improve microbusiness performance and loan repayment rates: ‘To what extent do corporate social responsibility strategies,

  12. 7 CFR 1980.498 - Business and Industry Disaster Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guaranteed for tourist or recreation facilities except for hotels, motels, bed and breakfasts, race tracks.... This portion of this section contains the regulations for making BID loans to farmers for agricultural...

  13. 76 FR 71934 - Information Collection; Direct Loan Servicing-Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... family farmers to purchase real estate and equipment and finance agricultural production. Direct Loan..., include the date, volume, and page number of this issue of the Federal Register, the OMB control number...

  14. 75 FR 26706 - Information Collection; Direct Loan Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... farmers to purchase real estate and equipment, and finance agricultural production. Direct Loan Making, as... the information collection and page number of this issue of the Federal Register. You may submit...

  15. 27 CFR 478.97 - Loan or rental of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business of a dealer in firearms or as engaging in firearms transactions. Therefore, licensing and... Conduct of Business § 478.97 Loan or rental of firearms. (a) A licensee may lend or rent a firearm to any...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR FROM MOLDOVA THROUGH AGRICULTURE LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona SARGO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from various funds, programs or foreign donor agencies. Farmers find it difficult to bank loans because of collateral amount required is too high. However, commercial banks in Moldova provide agricultural loans, thus increasing the economic efficiency of agriculture.

  17. U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants (Greenbook)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is used to produce the "U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants" publication, known as the "Greenbook". The annual report to Congress on U.S foreign assistance...

  18. 34 CFR 668.212 - Loan servicing appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Any cohort default rate upon which a loss of eligibility under § 668.206 is based. (b) Improper loan... preclaims or default aversion assistance to the guaranty agency; and (ii) Submit a certification or other...

  19. 31 CFR 545.414 - Loans or extensions of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS... loans or extensions of credit to a person in the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban...

  20. 7 CFR 1942.112 - Eligible loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section: (i) Reasonable fees and costs such as legal, engineering, architectural, fiscal advisory, recording, environmental impact analyses, archaeological surveys and possible salvage or other... construction or procurement incurred before loan approval. Construction work or procurement actions should not...

  1. 12 CFR 225.44 - Reporting of stock loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting of stock loans. 225.44 Section 225.44... § 225.44 Reporting of stock loans. (a) Requirements. (1) Any foreign bank or affiliate of a foreign bank... involves a person or group of persons that has been the owner or owners of record of the stock for a period...

  2. A Document Imaging Technique for Implementing Electronic Loan Approval Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manikandan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The image processing is one of the leading technologies of computer applications. Image processing is a type of signal processing, the input for image processor is an image or video frame and the output will be an image or subset of image [1]. Computer graphics and computer vision process uses an image processing techniques. Image processing systems are used in various environments like medical fields, computer-aided design (CAD, research fields, crime investigation fields and military fields. In this paper, we proposed a document image processing technique, for establishing electronic loan approval process (E-LAP [2]. Loan approval process has been tedious process, the E-LAP system attempts to reduce the complexity of loan approval process. Customers have to login to fill the loan application form online with all details and submit the form. The loan department then processes the submitted form and then sends an acknowledgement mail via the E-LAP to the requested customer with the details about list of documents required for the loan approval process [3]. The approaching customer can upload the scanned copies of all required documents. All this interaction between customer and bank take place using an E-LAP system.

  3. Student Loan Programs. Senate Hearing Before the Committee on Appropriations. Fiscal Year 1976. 94th Congress, First Session. Special Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Appropriations.

    This 1976 Senate Hearing before the Appropriations Committee is concerned with student loans. Issues discussed are: (1) student loan programs; (2) educational loans to middle-income families; (3) default rate on bank loans; (4) HELP grant loan; (5) views of the Financial Aid Officers Panel; (6) proprietary career schools; (7) consumer protection;…

  4. Loan and nonloan flows in the Australian interbank network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Webster, Rachel; Melatos, Andrew; Kieu, Tien

    2012-05-01

    High-value transactions between banks in Australia are settled in the Reserve Bank Information and Transfer System (RITS) administered by the Reserve Bank of Australia. RITS operates on a real-time gross settlement (RTGS) basis and settles payments and transfers sourced from the SWIFT payment delivery system, the Austraclear securities settlement system, and the interbank transactions entered directly into RITS. In this paper, we analyse a dataset received from the Reserve Bank of Australia that includes all interbank transactions settled in RITS on an RTGS basis during five consecutive weekdays from 19 February 2007 inclusive, a week of relatively quiescent market conditions. The source, destination, and value of each transaction are known, which allows us to separate overnight loans from other transactions (nonloans) and reconstruct monetary flows between banks for every day in our sample. We conduct a novel analysis of the flow stability and examine the connection between loan and nonloan flows. Our aim is to understand the underlying causal mechanism connecting loan and nonloan flows. We find that the imbalances in the banks' exchange settlement funds resulting from the daily flows of nonloan transactions are almost exactly counterbalanced by the flows of overnight loans. The correlation coefficient between loan and nonloan imbalances is about -0.9 on most days. Some flows that persist over two consecutive days can be highly variable, but overall the flows are moderately stable in value. The nonloan network is characterised by a large fraction of persistent flows, whereas only half of the flows persist over any two consecutive days in the loan network. Moreover, we observe an unusual degree of coherence between persistent loan flow values on Tuesday and Wednesday. We probe static topological properties of the Australian interbank network and find them consistent with those observed in other countries.

  5. 12 CFR 723.20 - How can a state supervisory authority develop and enforce a member business loan regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... state regulation minimizes the risk and accomplishes the overall objectives of NCUA's member business... member business loan; (2) Loan to one borrower limits; (3) Written loan policies; (4) Collateral and...

  6. Analysis of Post Loan Disbursement Allocation and Performance of Non-Prime Household Loan in Microfinance Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ndirangu Wachira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The part played by non-prime household loans in improving the lives of many people who cannot afford collateral globally cannot be ignored. Many Microfinance Banks in many economies worldwide have tried to maintain the Grameen Bank Model of granting microloans, mainly non-prime household loans. However, the credit risks associated with this initiative hamper the pace at which the granting of this credit facility is expected to grow. This study intends to explore the relationship between the post loan disbursement allocation and the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The theory associated to this study is the Credit Risk Theory. This theory, which is regarded as credit structural theory, was developed by Merton in 1972. The descriptive survey research design method was applied, and the sample size was 150 respondents. The data-collection tool used was a questionnaire. A logistic regression analysis was conducted for the purpose of predicting non-prime household performance in the Microfinance Banks using training budget, recoveries budget, percentage of training budget, and percentage of recoveries budget as predictors. The Wald test shows that training budget, recoveries budget, and percentage of training budget were good predictors, making a significant contribution to prediction. The percentage of budget on recoveries was not a significant predictor. The Microfinance Banks should enhance the performance of non-prime household loans through capacity building to the borrowers and educate the borrowers on dangers of enforced loan recoveries. The government, through the Central Bank of Kenya, should have a training policy for the Microfinance Banks so that they can enlighten the borrowers on proper financial management to avoid conflicts with borrowers during loan recoveries.

  7. Determinants of non-performing loans: The case of Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makri Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to identify the factors affecting the non-performing loans rate (NPL of Eurozone’s banking systems for the period 2000-2008, just before the beginning of the recession. In our days, Eurozone is in the middle of an unprecedented financial crisis, calling into question the soundness of the banking systems of European countries. Looking at both macro-variables (e.g. annual percentage growth rate of gross domestic product, public debt as % of gross domestic product, unemployment and micro-variables (e.g. loans to deposits ratio, return on assets, return on equity, we investigate which factors determine NPL on aggregate level. Overall, our findings reveal strong correlations between NPL and various macroeconomic (public debt, unemployment, annual percentage growth rate of gross domestic product and bank-specific (capital adequacy ratio, rate of nonperforming loans of the previous year and return on equity factors.

  8. 36 CFR 1228.12 - How do agencies obtain approval to loan permanent or unscheduled records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (7) A signature block for the Archivist of the United States. The loan must not take place until the Archivist has signed the agreement. (b) On request, NARA may allow an agency to prepare an annual loan...

  9. 13 CFR 120.423 - Which 7(a) loans may a Lender securitize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Lender may only securitize 7(a) loans that will be fully disbursed within 90 days of the securitization's closing date. If the amount of a fully disbursed loan increases after a securitization settles, the Lender...

  10. The impact of training and monitoring on loan repayment of microfinance debtors in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbeko, Daniel; Blok, Vincent; Omta, S.W.F.; Velde, van der G.

    2017-01-01

    Microbusiness entrepreneurs training and monitoring programmes are widely recognized as key to loan repayment performance of microfinance institution (MFI) loan clients in developing countries. Empirical evidence is, however, largely lacking and where present, not consistent. The present paper

  11. 12 CFR 723.5 - How do you implement a member business loan program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... union sufficient expertise given the complexity and risk exposure of the loans in which the credit union... interest in the collateral securing the loan that the third party is responsible for reviewing, with the...

  12. Modelling loans and deposits during electoral years i n Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae - Marius JULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of electoral years on loans and deposits for population in Romania. Using monthly data regarding the total loans and deposits, we identify the significance of the electoral timing on population´s behavior regarding financial decisions. We estimate that there are small changes in population´s affinity for increase in the indebtedness or for savings. We use dummy variables for electoral periods, and when these are econometrically significant there is an evidence of the influence of the electoral timings in population´s financial decisions.

  13. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  14. Default Risk and Private Student Loans: Implications for Higher Education Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, Felicia; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2014-01-01

    The private market for student loans has become an important source of college financing in the United States. Unlike government student loans, the terms on student loans in the private market are based on credit status. We quantify the importance of the private market for student loans and of credit status for college investment in a general equilibrium heterogeneous life-cycle economy. We find that students with good credit status invest in more college education (compared to those with bad...

  15. 7 CFR 1710.102 - Borrower eligibility for different types of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC... percent guarantees of private-sector loans under section 311. Under section 311 of the RE Act, both... from RUS a 90 percent guarantee of a private-sector loan to refinance their Federal Financing Bank...

  16. 7 CFR 1436.13 - Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date. 1436.13 Section 1436.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.13 Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity...

  17. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations. 120.828 Section 120.828 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc...

  18. 7 CFR 3575.80 - Interest rate changes after loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate changes after loan closing. 3575.80..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.80 Interest rate changes after...) may collectively effect a permanent reduction in the interest rate on the guaranteed loan at any time...

  19. 13 CFR 123.104 - What interest rate will I pay on my home disaster loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate will I pay on... ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Home Disaster Loans § 123.104 What interest rate will I pay on my home disaster loan? If you can obtain credit elsewhere, your interest rate is set by a statutory formula, but...

  20. 11 CFR 100.83 - Brokerage loans and lines of credit to candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... living expenses. Any reduction in the unpaid balance of the loan, advance, or line of credit shall reduce..., or co-signer bears to the total number of endorsers or guarantors. However, if the spouse of the...-half of the available credit extended by the unsecured loan. (c) Routine living expenses. (1) A loan...

  1. Education on the Installment Plan: The Rise of Student Loan Indebtedness in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Matt

    During academic year (AY) 1996-97, 83,000 students left Texas postsecondary institutions with $882 million in federally guaranteed loans. This study attempts to analyze the cumulative Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation loan indebtedness of student borrowers who left postsecondary educational institutions from AY 1991 through 1997. The major…

  2. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act of...

  3. 12 CFR 723.17 - Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... field of membership, board minutes and loan portfolio); (c) Credit unions that have a history of... limit? 723.17 Section 723.17 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.17 Are there any exceptions to the aggregate loan limit...

  4. 78 FR 52169 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... PLUS Loan borrower must not have an adverse credit history. If an applicant for a Direct PLUS Loan is determined to have an adverse credit history, the applicant may qualify for a Direct PLUS Loan by obtaining an endorser who does not have an adverse credit history. The Endorser Addendum serves as the means by...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4255 - Loans for the acquisition of a lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a lot. 36.4255 Section 36.4255 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS..., Including Site Preparation Combination and Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4255 Loans for the acquisition of a lot. (a) A loan to finance all or part of the cost of acquisition by the veteran of a lot on...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4224 - Refinancing existing manufactured home loan including purchase of lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufactured home loan including purchase of lot. 36.4224 Section 36.4224 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... manufactured home loan including purchase of lot. (a) A veteran may refinance (38 U.S.C. 3712(a)(1)(G)) an... conjunction with a loan to acquire a suitable lot on which that manufactured home is or will be located...

  7. 13 CFR 120.391 - What is the Builders Loan Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the Builders Loan Program? 120.391 Section 120.391 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS...)(9) of the Act, SBA may make or guarantee loans to finance small general contractors to construct or...

  8. 12 CFR 221.109 - Loan to open-end investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the general nature and operations of such a company, any loan by a bank to such a company should be... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan to open-end investment company. 221.109... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.109 Loan to open-end investment company. In...

  9. 78 FR 45283 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2013 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after July 19, 2013. Military Reservist Loan Program--4.000% Dated: July 19, 2013. James E. Rivera...

  10. 77 FR 46550 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2012 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after July 20, 2012. Military Reservist Loan Program 4.000% ] Dated: July 30, 2012. James E. Rivera...

  11. 77 FR 71668 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2013 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after November 26, 2012. Military Reservist Loan Program 4.000% Dated: November 19, 2012. James E...

  12. 78 FR 26680 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2013 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after April 26, 2013. Military Reservist Loan Program--4.000%. Dated: May 2, 2013. James E. Rivera...

  13. 77 FR 25010 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for Third Quarter FY 2012 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after April 20, 2012. Military Reservist Loan Program--4.000% Dated: April 23, 2012. Joseph P. Loddo...

  14. 78 FR 5555 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2013 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after January 18, 2013. Military Reservist Loan Program--4.000% Dated: January 18, 2013. James E. Rivera...

  15. 76 FR 44976 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... No: 2011-18897] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans... Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after July 22, 2011. Military Reservist Loan Program: 4.000...

  16. 78 FR 65416 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2014 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after October 18, 2013. Military Reservist Loan Program: 4.000% Dated: October 21, 2013. James E. Rivera...

  17. 76 FR 66769 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for First Quarter FY 2012 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after October 21, 2011. Military Reservist Loan Program--4.000%. Dated: October 19, 2011. James E...

  18. 77 FR 4854 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Second Quarter FY 2012 In... following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after January 23, 2012. Military Reservist Loan Program 4.000% January 23, 2012. James E. Rivera...

  19. 42 CFR 405.380 - Collection of past-due amounts on scholarship and loan programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of past-due amounts on scholarship and... Suspension of Payment, Recovery of Overpayments, and Repayment of Scholarships and Loans Repayment of Scholarships and Loans § 405.380 Collection of past-due amounts on scholarship and loan programs. (a) Basis and...

  20. The Success of Students' Loans in Financing Higher Education in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyahende, Veronica R.

    2013-01-01

    Students' loans in financing higher education in Tanzania have been subjected to many researches. However, less information is available on how the success of students' loans in financing higher education can be revealed. Therefore the purpose of this study is to examine the factors indicating the success of students' loans in financing higher…

  1. Options to Change Interest Rates and Other Terms on Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Direct Student Loan Program offers loans to students and their parents to help pay for postsecondary education. Under current law, about $1.4 trillion in new direct loans will be made to students between 2013 and 2023, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects. Analysts and policymakers have raised concerns about various features…

  2. Above and Beyond: What Eight Colleges Are Doing to Improve Student Loan Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Carla; Webster, Jeff; Klepfer, Kasey; Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing student loans can be confusing and intimidating, enough so that these feelings can influence how students go to college or whether they even enroll at all. Colleges have a responsibility to provide loan counseling to federal student loan borrowers--which, when done intently, can produce a potentially clarifying and empowering experience.…

  3. The Influence of Students' Loans Borrowers' Characteristics on Default Rate in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyahende, Veronica R.

    2013-01-01

    The cost of students' loans defaulting has lead to a serious discussion among participants. Substantial attention has been made on the students' loans and its impact on higher education finances while researches on students' loans defaults have not been taken for more than a decade. Therefore this study examines the influence of student loans…

  4. Income-Contingent Student Loan Repayment Systems Outside the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    There is remarkable diversity in student loan systems throughout the world. In considering the ideal approach to system of loan repayment based on income here in the United States, it is valuable to examine the nature, successes, and failures of some other countries' methods of offering borrowers income-contingent student loan repayment. Two…

  5. Affordable at Last: A New Student Loan System. Education Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin

    2011-01-01

    Student loan debt is fast becoming a fact of American life. Students are borrowing more money for college and are being forced to pay back large sums of their income. This report offers a new way to pay back student loans based on each individual's earnings. International Income-Contingent Loan Systems are appended. (Contains 1 figure and 40…

  6. 77 FR 28860 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Federal Perkins Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... simplified the loan process by eliminating the need for institutions to prepare, and students to sign, a... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Federal Student Aid; Federal Perkins Loan Program Master Promissory Note SUMMARY: The Federal Perkins Loan Master Promissory...

  7. 78 FR 6081 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ...; Comment Request; National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS) AGENCY: Federal Student Aid (FSA), Department... of Collection: National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS). OMB Control Number: 1845-0035. Type of... data through the National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS) system from postsecondary schools, Perkins...

  8. Quantitative Study Examining the Relationship between Demographic Factors and Loan Default among 4-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ashley K.

    2017-01-01

    The rate of default on college loans in the United States is staggering and poses a major financial threat not only to the students who are unable to repay their student loans but the U.S. economy. For instance, in 2011, borrowers at nonprofit and for-profit 4-year colleges accounted for almost 50% of all federal loan recipients. College students…

  9. Deeper in Debt: Women and Student Loans. Executive Summary and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This document provides a summary of and recommendations from the larger report, "Deeper in Debt: Women and Student Loans" (ED580345). Over the course of the past few decades student loans have become an increasingly common means of paying for a college education. Most students who complete a college program now take on student loans, and…

  10. Of Religion and Redemption : Evidence from Default on Islamic Loans (Replaces EBC DP 2010-032)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.; Farooq, M.; Ongena, S.

    2012-01-01

    We compare default rates on conventional and Islamic loans using a comprehensive monthly dataset from Pakistan that follows more than 150,000 loans over the period 2006:04 to 2008:12. We find robust evidence that the default rate on Islamic loans is less than half the default rate on conventional

  11. 7 CFR 1940.563 - Section 502 non-subsidized guaranteed Rural Housing (RH) loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (RH) loans. 1940.563 Section 1940.563 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... guaranteed Rural Housing (RH) loans. (a) Amount available for allocations. See § 1940.552(a) of this subpart... percentage range used for Section 502 guaranteed RH loans is plus or minus 15. (e) Base allocation. See...

  12. Some State Loan Agencies Say They May Stay on the Sidelines This Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite action by Congress and the Bush administration to shore up the student-loan industry, some state-authorized organizations say they may not return to the loan business this year, and others are cutting some of the borrower benefits and services they provide. Nine state loan agencies stopped issuing either new federally backed or new private…

  13. 75 FR 29877 - Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... provide AHP direct subsidy to enable eligible households with subprime or nontraditional loans held by a...-value ratio, payment history, type of original loan (e.g., subprime or nontraditional), and reasons for...: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION...

  14. 12 CFR 221.7 - Supplement: Maximum loan value of margin stock and other collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and other collateral. 221.7 Section 221.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD... value of margin stock and other collateral. (a) Maximum loan value of margin stock. The maximum loan... nonmargin stock and all other collateral. The maximum loan value of nonmargin stock and all other collateral...

  15. 76 FR 68126 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... area. Loan repayment benefits are limited to payments of the principal and interest on government and commercial loans received for the attendance at an accredited college of veterinary medicine that result in a... greatest need. This section also provides that loan repayments may consist of payments of the principal and...

  16. 7 CFR 1942.122 - Actions prior to loan closing and start of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Rescue and Other Small Community Facilities Projects § 1942.122 Actions prior to loan closing and start of construction. (a) Excess FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loan funds. Loans... construction. 1942.122 Section 1942.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix I to Part 27 - Monthly Home Loan Activity Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monthly Home Loan Activity Format I Appendix I to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. I Appendix I to Part 27—Monthly Home Loan Activity Format EC22SE91...

  18. 13 CFR 120.331 - What devices or techniques are eligible for a loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heating or production of energy from industrial waste; (f) Hydroelectric power equipment; (g) Wind energy... BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Energy Conservation § 120.331 What devices or techniques are eligible for a loan? Eligible energy conservation devices or techniques include: (a) Solar thermal equipment...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4150 - Lending policies and loan underwriting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... loan size, complexity and risk exposure (b) The procedures to be followed in credit analysis (c) The minimum standards for loan disbursement, servicing and collections (d) Requirements for collateral and... debt from cashflow (2) That are appropriate for each loan program and the institution's risk-bearing...

  20. 17 CFR 210.12-29 - Mortgage loans on real estate. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage loans on real estate... § 210.12-29 Mortgage loans on real estate. 1 [For Certain Real Estate Companies] Column A—Description 2... amount of the extended mortgages, explain. 7 If any item of mortgage loans on real estate investments has...