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Sample records for stacking interactions involving

  1. Stray field interaction of stacked amorphous tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, Wulf; Flohrer, Sybille

    2008-01-01

    In this study, magnetic cores made of amorphous rectangular tape layers are investigated. The quality factor Q of the tape material decreases rapidly, however, when stacking at least two tape layers. The hysteresis loop becomes non-linear, and the coercivity increases. These effects are principally independent of the frequency and occur whether tape layers are insulated or not. The Kerr-microscopy was used to monitor local hysteresis loops by varying the distance of two tape layers. The magnetization direction of each magnetic domain is influenced by the anisotropy axis, the external magnetic field and the stray field of magnetic domains of the neighboring tape layers. We found that crossed easy axes (as the extreme case for inclined axes) of congruent domains retain the remagnetization and induce a plateau of the local loop. Summarizing local loops leads to the observed increase of coercivity and non-linearity of the inductively measured loop. A high Q-factor can be preserved if the easy axes of stacked tape layers are identical within the interaction range in the order of mm

  2. Edge-edge interactions in stacked graphene nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio [ORNL; Jia, Xiaoting [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Dresselhaus, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Meunier, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies show the dynamics of small graphene platelets on larger graphene layers. The platelets move nearly freely to eventually lock in at well-defined positions close to the edges of the larger underlying graphene sheet. While such movement is driven by a shallow potential energy surface described by an interplane interaction, the lock-in position occurs by via edge-edge interactions of the platelet and the graphene surface located underneath. Here we quantitatively study this behavior using van der Waals density functional calculations. Local interactions at the open edges are found to dictate stacking configurations that are different from Bernal (AB) stacking. These stacking configurations are known to be otherwise absent in edge-free two-dimensional (2D) graphene. The results explain the experimentally observed platelet dynamics and provide a detailed account of the new electronic properties of these combined systems.

  3. Power sources involving ~ 300W PEMFC fuel cell stacks cooled by different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions of ~300W PEMFC stacks, cooled by different media, were analysed. An open-cathode ~300W PEMFC stack cooled by air (Horizon, Singapore and a PEMFC F-42 stack cooled by a liquid medium (Schunk, Germany were chosen for all of the investigations described in this paper. The potential for the design and construction of power sources involving fuel cells, as well as of a hybrid system (fuel cell-lithium battery for mobile and stationary applications, is presented and discussed. The impact of certain experimental parameters on PEMFC stack performance is analysed and discussed.

  4. RPLsh: An Interactive Shell for Stack-based Numerical Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Kevin P.

    RPL shell or RPLsh, is an interactive numerical shell designed to combine the convenience of a hand-held calculator with the computational power and advanced numerical functionality of a workstation. The user interface is modelled after stack-based scientific calculators such as those made by Hewlett-Packard RPL is the name of the Forth-like programming language used in the HP 48 series), but includes many features not found in hand-held devices, such as a multi-threaded kernel with job control, integrated extended precision arithmetic, a large library of special functions, and a dynamic, resizable window display. As a native C/C++ application, it is over 1000 times faster than HP 48 emulators (e.g. Emu48 ) in simple benchmarks; for extended precision numerical analysis, its performance can exceed that of Mathematica by similar amounts. Current development focuses on interactive user functionality, with comprehensive programming and debugging support to follow.

  5. Stacking of purines in water: the role of dipolar interactions in caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, L; Di Fonzo, S; D'Amico, F; Masciovecchio, C; Brady, J W; Cesàro, A

    2016-05-11

    During the last few decades it has been ascertained that base stacking is one of the major contributions stabilizing nucleic acid conformations. However, the understanding of the nature of the interactions involved in the stacking process remains under debate and it is a subject of theoretical and experimental studies. Structural similarity between purine bases (guanine and adenine) in DNA and the caffeine molecule makes caffeine an excellent model for the purine bases. The present study clearly shows that dipolar interactions play a fundamental role in determining stacking of purine molecules in solution. In order to reach this achievement, polarized ultraviolet Raman resonant scattering experiments have been carried out on caffeine aqueous solutions as a function of concentration and temperature. The investigation pointed out at the aggregation and solvation properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. Kubo-Anderson theory was used as a framework to investigate the non-coincidence effect (NCE) occurring in the totally symmetric breathing modes of the purine rings, and in the bending modes of the methyl groups of caffeine. The NCE concentration dependence shows that caffeine aggregation at 80 °C occurs by planar stacking of the hydrophobic faces. The data clearly indicate that dipolar interactions determine the reorientational motion of the molecules in solution and are the driving force for the stacking of caffeine. In parallel, the observed dephasing times imply a change in caffeine interactions as a function of temperature and concentration. A decrease, at low water content, of the dephasing time for the ring breathing vibration mode indicates that self-association alters the solvation structure that is detectable at low concentration. These results are in agreement with simulation predictions and serve as an important validation of the models used in those calculations.

  6. Occurrence and stability of lone pair–π stacking interactions between ribose and nucleobases in functional RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2017-08-18

    The specific folding pattern and function of RNA molecules lies in various weak interactions, in addition to the strong base-base pairing and stacking. One of these relatively weak interactions, characterized by the stacking of the O4′ atom of a ribose on top of the heterocycle ring of a nucleobase, has been known to occur but has largely been ignored in the description of RNA structures. We identified 2015 ribose–base stacking interactions in a high-resolution set of non-redundant RNA crystal structures. They are widespread in structured RNA molecules and are located in structural motifs other than regular stems. Over 50% of them involve an adenine, as we found ribose-adenine contacts to be recurring elements in A-minor motifs. Fewer than 50% of the interactions involve a ribose and a base of neighboring residues, while approximately 30% of them involve a ribose and a nucleobase at least four residues apart. Some of them establish inter-domain or inter-molecular contacts and often implicate functionally relevant nucleotides. In vacuo ribose-nucleobase stacking interaction energies were calculated by quantum mechanics methods. Finally, we found that lone pair–π stacking interactions also occur between ribose and aromatic amino acids in RNA–protein complexes.

  7. Understanding substituent effects in noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Steven E

    2013-04-16

    Noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings such as π-stacking, cation/π, and anion/π interactions are central to many areas of modern chemistry. Decades of experimental studies have provided key insights into the impact of substituents on these interactions, leading to the development of simple intuitive models. However, gas-phase computational studies have raised some doubts about the physical underpinnings of these widespread models. In this Account we review our recent efforts to unravel the origin of substituent effects in π-stacking and ion/π interactions through computational studies of model noncovalent dimers. First, however, we dispel the notion that so-called aromatic interactions depend on the aromaticity of the interacting rings by studying model π-stacked dimers in which the aromaticity of one of the monomers can be "switched off". Somewhat surprisingly, the results show that not only is aromaticity unnecessary for π-stacking interactions, but it actually hinders these interactions to some extent. Consequently, when thinking about π-stacking interactions, researchers should consider broader classes of planar molecules, not just aromatic systems. Conventional models maintain that substituent effects in π-stacking interactions result from changes in the aryl π-system. This view suggests that π-stacking interactions are maximized when one ring is substituted with electron-withdrawing groups and the other with electron donors. In contrast to these prevailing models, we have shown that substituent effects in π-stacking interactions can be described in terms of direct, local interactions between the substituents and the nearby vertex of the other arene. As a result, in polysubstituted π-stacked dimers the substituents operate independently unless they are in each other's local environment. This means that in π-stacked dimers in which one arene is substituted with electron donors and the other with electron acceptors the interactions will

  8. Interactive display of stacks of images in scientific presentations with PowerPoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniadek, Thomas J; Desjardins, Benoit

    2004-09-01

    We describe a new tool to facilitate the creation and interactive display of stacks of images for scientific and educational presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint. This new tool allows interactive scrolling through stacks of images. After a presentation is created, all elements required to display the stacks of images are embedded in the PowerPoint file. These presentations can be run on any computer (Macintosh or IBM-compatible versions) using PowerPoint with no other preinstalled software, making this tool useful for scientific and educational presentations at national and international meetings.

  9. Influence of supramolecular structures in crystals on parallel stacking interactions between pyridine molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjić, Goran V; Ninković, Dragan B; Zarić, Snezana D

    2013-08-01

    Parallel stacking interactions between pyridines in crystal structures and the influence of hydrogen bonding and supramolecular structures in crystals on the geometries of interactions were studied by analyzing data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). In the CSD 66 contacts of pyridines have a parallel orientation of molecules and most of these pyridines simultaneously form hydrogen bonds (44 contacts). The geometries of stacked pyridines observed in crystal structures were compared with the geometries obtained by calculations and explained by supramolecular structures in crystals. The results show that the mean perpendicular distance (R) between pyridine rings with (3.48 Å) and without hydrogen bonds (3.62 Å) is larger than that calculated, because of the influence of supramolecular structures in crystals. The pyridines with hydrogen bonds show a pronounced preference for offsets of 1.25-1.75 Å, close to the position of the calculated minimum (1.80 Å). However, stacking interactions of pyridines without hydrogen bonds do not adopt values at or close to that of the calculated offset. This is because stacking interactions of pyridines without hydrogen bonds are less strong, and they are more susceptible to the influence of supramolecular structures in crystals. These results show that hydrogen bonding and supramolecular structures have an important influence on the geometries of stacked pyridines in crystals.

  10. Electrostatic double-layer interaction between stacked charged bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Nomura, Yoko; Akiyama, Ryo; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2017-10-01

    The inapplicability of the DLVO theory to multilayered anionic bilayers is found in terms of the co-ion-valence dependence of the lamellar repeat distance. Most of the added salt is expelled from the interlamellar space to the bulk due to the Gibbs-Donnan effect on multiple bilayers with the bulk. The electrostatic double-layer interaction is well expressed by the formula recently proposed by Trefalt. The osmotic pressure due to the expelled ions, rather than the van der Waals interaction, is the main origin of the attractive force between the bilayers.

  11. Restricting rotation of triple bond through π-stacking interactions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANKARARAMAN

    Photophysical properties - well understood. -monomer and excimer emission – well characterized. Applications – sensors – molecular photonics devices. Static excimer – preorganization in the ground state – π-π stacking in the GS. Dynamic excimer – interaction in the excited state after diffusional encounter. 3.4 - 3.5 A ...

  12. Stack zooming for multifocus interaction in skewed-aspect visual spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Waqas; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2013-08-01

    Many 2D visual spaces have a virtually one-dimensional nature with very high aspect ratio between the dimensions: examples include time-series data, multimedia data such as sound or video, text documents, and bipartite graphs. Common among these is that the space can become very large, e.g., temperature measurements could span a long time period, surveillance video could cover entire days or weeks, and documents can have thousands of pages. Many analysis tasks for such spaces require several foci while retaining context and distance awareness. In this extended version of our IEEE PacificVis 2010 paper, we introduce a method for supporting this kind of multifocus interaction that we call stack zooming. The approach is based on building hierarchies of 1D strips stacked on top of each other, where each subsequent stack represents a higher zoom level, and sibling strips represent branches in the exploration. Correlation graphics show the relation between stacks and strips of different levels, providing context and distance awareness for the foci. The zoom hierarchies can also be used as graphical histories and for communicating insights to stakeholders and can be further extended with annotation and integrated statistics.

  13. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M. [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine); Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Evstigneev, Maxim P., E-mail: max_evstigneev@mail.ru [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. > The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. > Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  14. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M.; Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. → The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. → Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  15. Theoretical study on effects of curvature of graphene in conjunction with simultaneous anion- and - stacking interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Karimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A graphene sheet (C102H30 has been rolled up by computational quantum chemistry methods to construct single-walled carbon nanotube fragments (SWCNTFs. The anion-π interactions of F- anion together with π-π stacking interactions of benzene on inner face and outer face of the central rings of SWCNTFs have been concurrently investigated. Structural parameters and energy data of the ternary benzene-SWCNTF-F- complexes were considered. Also, effects of charge transfer and aromaticity were estimated to determine how curvature of graphene influences on simultaneous anion-π and π-π stacking interactions.  Results indicate that curvature of graphene leads to structural changes in SWCNTFs which effects on simultaneous interactions of F- anion and benzene with SWCNTFs. Also, results show that although p-p stacking is a weak interaction, but it can impact on order of binding energies in complexes involved both p-p stacking and anion-p interactions

  16. Enhancement of second hyperpolarizabilities in open-shell singlet slipped-stack dimers composed of square planar nickel complexes involving o-semiquinonato type ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hitoshi; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Nakano, Masayoshi; Kubo, Takashi; Kamada, Kenji; Ohta, Koji; Champagne, Benoît; Botek, Edith

    2011-02-17

    Using the spin-unrestricted hybrid density functional theory method, we have investigated the intermolecular interaction effects on the longitudinal static second hyperpolarizability (γ) of open-shell singlet slipped-stack dimers composed of singlet diradical square planar nickel complexes involving o-semiquinonato type ligands, Ni(o-C(6)H(4)X(2))(2) (where X = O, NH, S, Se, PH). For comparison, we have also examined the γ values of a closed-shell singlet slipped-stack dimer composed of closed-shell monomers Ni[o-C(6)H(4)S(NH(2))](2). It is found that for interplanar distance ranging between 3.0 and 5.0 Å the slipped-stack dimers with intermediate monomer diradical characters exhibit larger γ values per monomer (γ(dimer)/2) than those with large monomer diradical characters or than the closed-shell dimer. These results extend the domain of validity of the relationship found between γ and the diradical character for individual molecules. It also turns out that the ratio R = (γ(dimer)/2)/γ(monomer) increases upon decreasing the interplanar distance and that this increase is larger for intermediate diradical character than for the other cases. These phenomena have been analyzed by considering the γ density distributions of the dimers, demonstrating a significant field-induced third-order charge transfer between the monomers in the case of intermediate diradical character. The present results indicate that open-shell singlet slipped-stack aggregates composed of monomers with intermediate diradical characters constitute another mean for achieving highly efficient and tunable third-order nonlinear optical materials.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy study of stacking faults and their interaction with pyramidal dislocations in deformed Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.; Yan, P.F.; Sui, M.L.; Ma, E.

    2010-01-01

    We present transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of stacking faults (SFs) and their interactions with pyramidal dislocations, in plastically deformed polycrystalline pure magnesium. We have observed well-defined fringes as well as streaking in diffraction patterns, typical of SFs. The basal SFs are decorated by a large number of dark speckles, which are created by the interaction with pyramidal dislocations that have both and components as revealed by our contrast analysis. The SFs do not appear to result from the splitting of unit dislocations, as the SFs are relatively wide and no dislocation nodes were observed. By tilting the specimen systematically inside TEM, the SFs and the associated dislocations in Mg are found to exhibit a rich variety of features in terms of their morphology and diffraction contrast.

  18. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...... then successfully applied to activity recognition, activity simulation and multi-target tracking. Our method compares favourably with respect to previously reported results using Hidden Markov Models and Relational Particle Filtering....

  19. π-Stacking interactions between G-quartets and circulenes: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Structures of planar and bowl-shaped circulenes as well as their stacks with G-quartet (G4) have been investigated through dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT-D). The binding energies are substantial ∼10 kcal/mol with d ∼3.5 Å between the stacking rings. The calculations show that G4 binds ...

  20. Van Der Waals heterogeneous layer-layer carbon nanostructures involving π···H-C-C-H···π···H-C-C-H stacking based on graphene and graphane sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kun; Zhao, Rui-Sheng; Zheng, Jia-Jia; Zheng, Hong; Nagase, Shigeru; Zhao, Sheng-Dun; Liu, Yan-Zhi; Zhao, Xiang

    2017-04-15

    Noncovalent interactions involving aromatic rings, such as π···π stacking, CH···π are very essential for supramolecular carbon nanostructures. Graphite is a typical homogenous carbon matter based on π···π stacking of graphene sheets. Even in systems not involving aromatic groups, the stability of diamondoid dimer and layer-layer graphane dimer originates from C - H···H - C noncovalent interaction. In this article, the structures and properties of novel heterogeneous layer-layer carbon-nanostructures involving π···H-C-C-H···π···H-C-C-H stacking based on [n]-graphane and [n]-graphene and their derivatives are theoretically investigated for n = 16-54 using dispersion corrected density functional theory B3LYP-D3 method. Energy decomposition analysis shows that dispersion interaction is the most important for the stabilization of both double- and multi-layer-layer [n]-graphane@graphene. Binding energy between graphane and graphene sheets shows that there is a distinct additive nature of CH···π interaction. For comparison and simplicity, the concept of H-H bond energy equivalent number of carbon atoms (noted as NHEQ), is used to describe the strength of these noncovalent interactions. The NHEQ of the graphene dimers, graphane dimers, and double-layered graphane@graphene are 103, 143, and 110, indicating that the strength of C-H···π interaction is close to that of π···π and much stronger than that of C-H···H-C in large size systems. Additionally, frontier molecular orbital, electron density difference and visualized noncovalent interaction regions are discussed for deeply understanding the nature of the C-H···π stacking interaction in construction of heterogeneous layer-layer graphane@graphene structures. We hope that the present study would be helpful for creations of new functional supramolecular materials based on graphane and graphene carbon nano-structures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  1. Interfacial interaction and glassy dynamics in stacked thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuhiko; Segawa, Kenta; Sadakane, Koichiro; Fukao, Koji; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2017-05-01

    Neutron reflectivity and dielectric permittivity of alternately stacked thin films of protonated and deuterated poly(methyl methacrylate) were measured to elucidate a correlation between the time evolution of the interfacial structure and the segmental dynamics in the stacked thin polymer films during isothermal annealing above the glass transition temperature. The roughness at the interface between two thin layers increases with the annealing time, whereas the relaxation rate and strength of the α-process decrease with an increase in the annealing time. A strong correlation between the time evolution of the interfacial structure and the dynamics of the α-process during annealing could be observed using neutron reflectivity and dielectric relaxation measurements.

  2. No Interactions of Stacked Bt Maize with the Non-target Aphid Rhopalosiphum padi and the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Shu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the agroecosystem, genetically engineered plants producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt interact with non-target herbivores and other elements of the food web. Stacked Bt crops expose herbivores to multiple Cry proteins simultaneously. In this study, the direct interactions between SmartStax® Bt maize producing six different Cry proteins and two herbivores with different feeding modes were investigated. Feeding on leaves of Bt maize had no effects on development time, fecundity, or longevity of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae, and no effects on the egg hatching time, development time, sex ratio, fecundity, and survival of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae. The results thus confirm the lack of effects on those species reported previously for some of the individual Cry proteins. In the Bt maize leaves, herbivore infestation did not result in a consistent change of Cry protein concentrations. However, occasional statistical differences between infested and non-infested leaves were observed for some Cry proteins and experimental repetitions. Overall, the study provides evidence that the Cry proteins in stacked Bt maize do not interact with two common non-target herbivores.

  3. Pathogenesis of helicobacter pylori infection involves interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is now clear that both bacterial virulence factors and host susceptibility play key roles in disease pathogenesis. The nature and levels of these interactions between these major factors has been found to determine the spectrum of clinical outcomes of the infection with this important bacterium. Virulence factors include the ...

  4. Gene-environment interactions involving functional variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Rudolph, Anja; Hopper, John L

    2017-01-01

    epidemiological breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast cancer. Analyses were conducted on up to 58,573 subjects (26,968 cases and 31,605 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, in one of the largest studies of its kind. Analyses were carried out separately for estrogen receptor (ER.......01. The strongest interaction result in relation to overall breast cancer risk was found between CFLAR-rs7558475 and current smoking (ORint  = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.88, pint  = 1.8 × 10(-4) ). The interaction with the strongest statistical evidence was found between 5q14-rs7707921 and alcohol consumption (ORint =1.......36, 95% CI: 1.16-1.59, pint  = 1.9 × 10(-5) ) in relation to ER- disease risk. The remaining two gene-environment interactions were also identified in relation to ER- breast cancer risk and were found between 3p21-rs6796502 and age at menarche (ORint  = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-1.43, pint =1.8 × 10...

  5. Simple model of stacking-fault energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Jacobsen, Lærke Wedel

    1993-01-01

    A simple model for the energetics of stacking faults in fcc metals is constructed. The model contains third-nearest-neighbor pairwise interactions and a term involving the fourth moment of the electronic density of states. The model is in excellent agreement with recently published local-density ......A simple model for the energetics of stacking faults in fcc metals is constructed. The model contains third-nearest-neighbor pairwise interactions and a term involving the fourth moment of the electronic density of states. The model is in excellent agreement with recently published local...

  6. π -Stacking interactions in YFP, quantum mechanics and force field evaluations in the S0 and S1 states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabti, Karim Elhadj; Azizi, Sihem; Ridard, Jacqueline; Lévy, Bernard; Demachy, Isabelle

    2017-08-01

    We study the π -stacking interaction between the chromophore and Tyr203 in the Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP) in order to (i) evaluate the contribution of the internal interaction energy of the isolated Chromophore-Tyrosine complex (Eint) to the 26 nm red shift observed from GFP to YFP, (ii) compare the effects of Eint and of the proteic environment. To that end, we perform quantum mechanical and force field (ff) calculations of the isolated complex in S0 and S1 states on a large sample of geometries, together with molecular dynamics simulations and potential of mean force analysis. The calculated absorption wavelengths are found red shifted with respect to the isolated chromophore by 12-19 nm, that represents a large part of the GFP-YFP shift. We find that the effect of the protein is determinant on the dynamics of the complex while the error that results from using a classicalff is of limited effect.

  7. Interactive emergency communication involving persons in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor; Nøhr, Øyvind

    2009-01-01

    We studied the dialogue between telephone operators at medical emergency communication centres in Norway and parents of children later diagnosed with sudden infant death syndrome. The aim was to understand how the parents experienced the communication with the telephone operators. The qualitative method involved semi-structured interviews. We interviewed six respondents from urban areas and five from rural areas. An important finding was that all the parents were satisfied with the resuscitation instructions they received. It was also perceived as important that the emergency operators expressed empathy and care. We believe that it is not merely the quality of the resuscitation attempts that the operators' efforts should be measured against. It is also important that the operators provide good explanations and express emotional support. Our findings indicate that this will be enormously appreciated, even if callers do not feel that they are capable of performing optimum resuscitation.

  8. Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G C; Ramana, M V; Corrigan, C; Kim, D; Ramanathan, V

    2008-05-27

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds.

  9. Simultaneous observations of aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G. C.; Ramana, M. V.; Corrigan, C.; Kim, D.; Ramanathan, V.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as −60 W m−2 per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol–cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

  10. Effects of base mat flexibility and structure-soil-structure interaction on the seismic responses of a nuclear stack building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.F.; Malik, L.E.; Maryak, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear exhaust stack building was analyzed considering flexibility of the base mat and through-soil coupling with a nearby massive reactor building. The analysis indicated that the base mat flexibility and the proximity of the reactor building significantly affect the seismic responses of the stack building

  11. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generally, any fiber product) is not uniquely defined: it is only defined up to unique isomorphism. ..... Fiber product. Given two morphisms f1 : F1 ! G, f2 : F2 ! G, we define a new stack. F1 آG F2 (with projections to F1 and F2) as follows. The objects are triples ًX1; X2; ق ..... In fact, any Artin stack F can be defined in this fashion.

  12. Quantifying Engagement: Measuring Player Involvement in Human-Avatar Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Weger, Harry; Bullinger, Cory; Bowers, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the merits of using an established system for rating behavioral cues of involvement in human dyadic interactions (i.e., face-to-face conversation) to measure involvement in human-avatar interactions. Gameplay audio-video and self-report data from a Feasibility Trial and Free Choice study of an effective peer resistance skill building simulation game (DRAMA-RAMA™) were used to evaluate reliability and validity of the rating system when applied to human-avatar interactions. The Free Choice study used a revised game prototype that was altered to be more engaging. Both studies involved girls enrolled in a public middle school in Central Florida that served a predominately Hispanic (greater than 80%), low-income student population. Audio-video data were coded by two raters, trained in the rating system. Self-report data were generated using measures of perceived realism, predictability and flow administered immediately after game play. Hypotheses for reliability and validity were supported: Reliability values mirrored those found in the human dyadic interaction literature. Validity was supported by factor analysis, significantly higher levels of involvement in Free Choice as compared to Feasibility Trial players, and correlations between involvement dimension sub scores and self-report measures. Results have implications for the science of both skill-training intervention research and game design. PMID:24748718

  13. Interaction as 'involvement' in writing for students: a corpus linguistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction as 'involvement' in writing for students: a corpus linguistic analysis of a key readability feature. E Hilton Hubbard. Abstract. The rapid change in the demographics of South Africa's tertiary level student population over the last decade — and most specifically the huge increase in those who have to study at a ...

  14. Empowerment through public involvement functional interactive planning (PIFIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, J. E.; Davidson, S. A.

    1993-05-01

    This paper constructs a planning process that will enable private industries, government, and public interest organizations to actualize their visions. The public involvement functional interactive planning (PIFIP) model can facilitate these groups in actualizing their visions by forcing them to recognize their stakeholder`s values, interests and expectations.

  15. Interactive methods to involve users into workspace design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Banke, Palle

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the use of a combination of interactive methods involving workers can lead to a useful input to the (re)design of their workspace. The workbook and the layout design game methods were tested, and a comparison between their use and the ergonomic analysis...... for the workspace design, to be more easily applied by less experienced ergonomists....

  16. Thermodynamic signatures in macromolecular interactions involving conformational flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Anja; Neumann, Piotr; Schwieger, Christian; Stubbs, Milton T

    2014-07-01

    The energetics of macromolecular interactions are complex, particularly where protein flexibility is involved. Exploiting serendipitous differences in the plasticity of a series of closely related trypsin variants, we analyzed the enthalpic and entropic contributions accompanying interaction with L45K-eglin C. Binding of the four variants show significant differences in released heat, although the affinities vary little, in accordance with the principle of enthalpy-entropy compensation. Binding of the most disordered variant is almost entirely enthalpically driven, with practically no entropy change. As structures of the complexes reveal negligible differences in protein-inhibitor contacts, we conclude that solvent effects contribute significantly to binding affinities.

  17. Identification of Inhibitors of Biological Interactions Involving Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marasco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein–protein interactions involving disordered partners have unique features and represent prominent targets in drug discovery processes. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs are involved in cellular regulation, signaling and control: they bind to multiple partners and these high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play crucial roles in many human diseases. Disordered regions, terminal tails and flexible linkers are particularly abundant in DNA-binding proteins and play crucial roles in the affinity and specificity of DNA recognizing processes. Protein complexes involving IDPs are short-lived and typically involve short amino acid stretches bearing few “hot spots”, thus the identification of molecules able to modulate them can produce important lead compounds: in this scenario peptides and/or peptidomimetics, deriving from structure-based, combinatorial or protein dissection approaches, can play a key role as hit compounds. Here, we propose a panoramic review of the structural features of IDPs and how they regulate molecular recognition mechanisms focusing attention on recently reported drug-design strategies in the field of IDPs.

  18. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  19. Construction of Discrete Pentanuclear Platinum(II) Stacks with Extended Metal-Metal Interactions by Using Phosphorescent Platinum(II) Tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fred Ka-Wai; Chan, Alan Kwun-Wa; Ng, Maggie; Low, Kam-Hung; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2017-11-20

    Discrete pentanuclear Pt II stacks were prepared by the host-guest adduct formation between multinuclear tweezer-type Pt II complexes. The formation of the Pt II stacks in solution was accompanied by color changes and the turning on of near-infrared emission resulting from Pt⋅⋅⋅Pt and π-π interactions. The X-ray crystal structure revealed the formation of a discrete 1:1 adduct, in which a linear stack of five Pt II centers with extended Pt⋅⋅⋅Pt interactions was observed. Additional binding affinity and stability have been achieved through a multinuclear host-guest system. The binding behaviors can be fine-tuned by varying the spacer between the two Pt II moieties in the guests. This work provides important insights for the construction of discrete higher-order supramolecular metal-ligand aggregates using a tweezer-directed approach. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    truct the 'moduli stack', that captures all the information that we would like in a fine moduli space. ..... the fine moduli space), it has the property that for any family W of vector bundles (i.e. W is a vector bundle over B ...... the etale topology is finer: V is a 'small enough open subset' because the square root can be defined on it.

  1. Recognition of 5'-YpG-3' sequences by coupled stacking/hydrogen bonding interactions with amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jason S; Maynes, Jason T; Glover, J N Mark

    2004-01-09

    The combined biochemical and structural study of hundreds of protein-DNA complexes has indicated that sequence-specific interactions are mediated by two mechanisms termed direct and indirect readout. Direct readout involves direct interactions between the protein and base-specific atoms exposed in the major and minor grooves of DNA. For indirect readout, the protein recognizes DNA by sensing conformational variations in the structure dependent on nucleotide sequence, typically through interactions with the phosphodiester backbone. Based on our recent structure of Ndt80 bound to DNA in conjunction with a search of the existing PDB database, we propose a new method of sequence-specific recognition that utilizes both direct and indirect readout. In this mode, a single amino acid side-chain recognizes two consecutive base-pairs. The 3'-base is recognized by canonical direct readout, while the 5'-base is recognized through a variation of indirect readout, whereby the conformational flexibility of the particular dinucleotide step, namely a 5'-pyrimidine-purine-3' step, facilitates its recognition by the amino acid via cation-pi interactions. In most cases, this mode of DNA recognition helps explain the sequence specificity of the protein for its target DNA.

  2. Communicative interactions involving plants: information, evolution, and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark C; Pearse, Ian S

    2016-08-01

    The role of information obtained via sensory cues and signals in mediating the interactions of organisms with their biotic and abiotic environments has been a major focus of work on sensory and behavioral ecology. Information-mediated interactions also have important implications for broader ecological patterns emerging at the community and ecosystem levels that are only now beginning to be explored. Given the extent to which plants dominate the sensory landscapes of terrestrial ecosystems, information-mediated interactions involving plants should be a major focus of efforts to elucidate these broader patterns. Here we explore how such efforts might be enhanced by a clear understanding of information itself-a central and potentially unifying concept in biology that has nevertheless been the subject of considerable confusion-and of its relationship to adaptive evolution and ecology. We suggest that information-mediated interactions should be a key focus of efforts to more fully integrate evolutionary biology and ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of genetic components involved in Lotus-endophyte interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal Lukasz

    colonisation of below-ground plant organs. It focused on bacterial endophyte, Rhizobium KAW12, colonisation of spontaneously formed nodules in snf1 mutants and symbiotic signalling mutants in a snf1 background. Additionally, participation of genes required for rhizobial accomodation during endophytic invasion...... was tested by coinoculation experiments with Rhizobium KAW12 and nodule inducing strains or their symbiotically deficient mutants. Such approaches allowed to identify genes possibly involved in host-endophyte recognition. Additionally, bacterial mutants used in these screenings pointed towards...... testing single host-single microsymbiont interactions, an effort was made to study relationships in between plants and the soil microbiome. Comparison of results for the nfr5 mutant of Lotus with results previously obtained for Arabidopsis suggested that plants were able to build specific bacterial...

  4. Father Involvement in Feeding Interactions with Their Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Chu, Lynna; Franke, Todd; Kuo, Alice A

    2016-03-01

    To examine the associations of father-child feeding and physical interactions with dietary practices and weight status in children. A nationally representative sample of children, mothers, and fathers who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth cohort study (N = 2441) was used to explore the relationship of father-child feeding and physical activity interactions with child dietary practices and weight status. Logistic multivariable regression analyses were adjusted for child, father, mother, and socio-demographic characteristics. Approximately 40% of fathers reported having a great deal of influence on their preschool child's nutrition and about 50% reported daily involvement in preparing food for their child and assisting their child with eating. Children had over 2 times the odds of consuming fast food at least once a week if fathers reported eating out with their child a few times a week compared to fathers who reported rarely or never eating out with their child (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.94-4.29), adjusting for all covariates. Whether fathers reported eating out with their children was also significantly associated with children's sweetened beverage intake. Potentially modifiable behaviors that support healthy dietary practices in children may be supported by targeting fathers.

  5. Regulation of Nucleosome Stacking and Chromatin Compaction by the Histone H4 N-Terminal Tail-H2A Acidic Patch Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinming; Yang, Renliang; Korolev, Nikolay; Liu, Chuan Fa; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2017-06-30

    Chromatin folding and dynamics are critically dependent on nucleosome-nucleosome interactions with important contributions from internucleosome binding of the histone H4 N-terminal tail K16-R23 domain to the surface of the H2A/H2B dimer. The H4 Lys16 plays a pivotal role in this regard. Using in vitro reconstituted 12-mer nucleosome arrays, we have investigated the mechanism of the H4 N-terminal tail in maintaining nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and mediating intra- and inter-array chromatin compaction, with emphasis on the role of K16 and the positive charge region, R17-R23. Analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments and precipitation assays were employed to analyze effects on chromatin folding and self-association, respectively. Effects on chromatin folding caused by various mutations and modifications at position K16 in the H4 histone were studied. Additionally, using charge-quenching mutations, we characterized the importance of the interaction of the residues within the H4 positive charge region R17-R23 with the H2A acidic patch of the adjacent nucleosome. Furthermore, crosslinking experiments were conducted to establish the proximity of the basic tail region to the acidic patch. Our data indicate that the positive charge and length of the side chain of H4 K16 are important for its access to the adjacent nucleosome in the process of nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and array folding. The location and orientation of the H4 R17-R23 domain on the H2A/H2B dimer surface of the neighboring nucleosome core particle (NCP) in the compacted chromatin fiber were established. The dominance of electrostatic interactions in maintaining intra-array interaction was demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Supramolecular self-assembly of a coumarine-based acylthiourea synthon directed by π-stacking interactions: Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Ashraf, Saba; Flörke, Ulrich; Delgado Espinoza, Zuly Yuliana; Erben, Mauricio F.; Pérez, Hiram

    2016-05-01

    The structure of 1-(2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbonyl)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)thiourea (1) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 7.455 (2) Å, b = 12.744 (3) Å, c = 16.892 (4) Å, β = 90.203 (6)° and Z = 4. Both, the coumarin and the phenyl rings are nearly coplanar with the central 1-acylthiourea group, with the Cdbnd O and Cdbnd S bonds adopting an opposite orientation. Intramolecular N-H···O, C-H···O, and C-H···S hydrogen bonds are favored by the planar conformation. The molecules are packed through C-H···O, C-H···S and C-H···C hydrogen bonds, and two π···π interactions with offset arrangement. Inter-centroid distance of 3.490 (2) Å, slip angles of 18.5 and 20.9°, and vertical displacements of 1.10 and 1.24 Å are the stacking parameters corresponding to the stronger π···π interaction. Hirshfeld surface analysis was performed for visualizing, exploring and quantifying intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice of compound 1, and compared with two closely related species. Shape index and Curvedness surfaces indicated π-stacking with different features in opposed sides of the molecule. Fingerprint plot showed C···C contacts with similar contributions to the crystal packing in comparison with those associated to hydrogen bonds. Enrichment ratios for H···H, O···H, S···H and C···C contacts revealed a high propensity to form in the crystal.

  7. A series of Cd(II) complexes with π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions: Structural diversities by varying the ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuli; Zhang Jinxia; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan

    2011-01-01

    Seven new Cd(II) complexes consisting of different phenanthroline derivatives and organic acid ligands, formulated as [Cd(PIP) 2 (dnba) 2 ] (1), [Cd(PIP)(ox)].H 2 O (2), [Cd(PIP)(1,4-bdc)(H 2 O)].4H 2 O (3), [Cd(3-PIP) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ].4H 2 O (4), [Cd 2 (3-PIP) 4 (4,4'-bpdc)(H 2 O) 2 ].5H 2 O (5), [Cd(3-PIP)(nip)(H 2 O)].H 2 O (6), [Cd 2 (TIP) 4 (4,4'-bpdc)(H 2 O) 2 ].3H 2 O (7) (PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 3-PIP=2-(3-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, TIP=2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, Hdnba=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, H 2 ox=oxalic acid, 1,4-H 2 bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-H 2 bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H 2 nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1 and 4 possess mononuclear structures; complexes 5 and 7 are isostructural and have dinuclear structures; complexes 2 and 3 feature 1D chain structures; complex 6 contains 1D double chain, which are further extended to a 3D supramolecular structure by π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The N-donor ligands with extended π-system and organic acid ligands play a crucial role in the formation of the final supramolecular frameworks. Moreover, thermal properties and fluorescence of 1-7 are also investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Seven new supramolecular architectures have been successfully isolated under hydrothermal conditions by reactions of different phen derivatives and Cd(II) salts together with organic carboxylate anions auxiliary ligands. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Complexes 1-7 are 0D or 1D polymeric structure, the π-π stacking and H-bonding interactions extend the complexes into 3D supramolecular network. To our knowledge, systematic study on π-π stacking and H-bonding interactions in cadmium(II) complexes are still limited. → The structural differences among the title complexes indicate the importance of N-donor chelating ligands for the creation of molecular

  8. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  9. Effects of stacking fault energies on the interaction between an edge dislocation and an 8.0-nm-diameter Frank loop of self-interstitial atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hayakawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of stacking fault energy (SFE as a single variable parameter on the interaction between an edge dislocation and a Frank loop of self-interstitial atoms with a diameter of 8.0nm. The physical contact between the edge dislocation and the loop causes constriction of the edge dislocation, followed by the formation of a D-Shockley partial dislocation. The latter process is associated with either the formation of a screw component and its cross-slip, or the direct core reaction between the dislocation and the loop. These processes induce either the absorption of the loop into the dislocation or the transformation of the loop into a perfect loop. The SFE influences the interaction morphologies by determining the separation distance of the two partial dislocations and consequently the rate of constriction. The dependence of the interaction morphology on the SFE varies with the habit plane of the loop. A higher SFE increases the probability of the absorption or transformation interaction; however, only loop shearing is observed at the lower limit of the SFE range of austenitic stainless steels.

  10. PieceStack: Toward Better Understanding of Stacked Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongshuang; Wu, Yingcai; Shi, Conglei; Qu, Huamin; Cui, Weiwei

    2016-02-24

    Stacked graphs have been widely adopted in various fields, because they are capable of hierarchically visualizing a set of temporal sequences as well as their aggregation. However, because of visual illusion issues, connections between overly-detailed individual layers and overly-generalized aggregation are intercepted. Consequently, information in this area has yet to be fully excavated. Thus, we present PieceStack in this paper, to reveal the relevance of stacked graphs in understanding intrinsic details of their displayed shapes. This new visual analytic design interprets the ways through which aggregations are generated with individual layers by interactively splitting and re-constructing the stacked graphs. A clustering algorithm is designed to partition stacked graphs into sub-aggregated pieces based on trend similarities of layers. We then visualize the pieces with augmented encoding to help analysts decompose and explore the graphs with respect to their interests. Case studies and a user study are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding the formation of stacked graphs.

  11. Electronic Field Trip: Journalism's New Frontier Involves Live, Interactive Broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMar, Jason

    1998-01-01

    Describes the "Newseum," a recently opened museum in Arlington, Virginia, dedicated to journalism and freedom of speech. Lists its highlights: free admission, an interactive newsroom, a 126-foot video wall, a news history gallery, a domed theater with a 20-by-40-foot high-definition video screen, and "The Freedom Wall." (PA)

  12. Evolution and interaction of twins, dislocations and stacking faults in rolled α-brass during nanostructuring at sub-zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Roy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cryorolling (CR strain at 153 K on the evolution of structural defects and their interaction in α−brass (Cu–30 wt.% Zn during nanostructuring has been evaluated. Even though the lattice strain increases up to 2.1 × 10−3 at CR strain of 0.6 initially, but it remains constant upon further rolling. Whereas, the twin density (β increases to a maximum value of 5.9 × 10−3 at a CR strain of 0.7 and reduces to 1.1 × 10−5 at 0.95. Accumulation of stacking faults (SFs and lattice disorder at the twin boundaries causes dynamic recrystallization, promotes grain refinement and decreases the twin density by forming subgrains. Detailed investigations on the formation and interaction of defects have been done through resistivity, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements in order to understand the micro-mechanism of nanostructuring at sub-zero temperatures.

  13. Carbohydrate involvement in cellular interactions in sea urchin gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurrum, Maria; Hernandez, Astrid; Eskalaei, Melika; Badali, Oliver; Coyle-Thompson, Cathy; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2004-01-01

    The sea urchin embryo is a model for studying cellular interactions that occur in higher organisms because of its availability, transparency, and accessibility to molecular probes. In previous studies, we found that the mannose/glucose-binding lectin Lens culinaris agglutinin entered living sea urchin embryos, bound to specific cell types and caused exogastrulation, when the developing gut (archenteron) falls out of the embryo proper. We have proposed that the lectin bound to sugar-containing ligands, thus preventing attachment of the archenteron to the blastocoel roof, resulting in exogastrulation. Here, we have continued our study of cellular interactions in this model using Lytechinus pictus sea urchin embryos, and have found that inhibitors of glycoprotein/proteoglycan synthesis, tunicamycin and sodium selenate, and the specific glycosidases, beta-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and alpha-mannosidase, all inhibit archenteron organization, elongation, and attachment to the blastocoel roof in viable swimming embryos. We also show that single cells obtained by disaggregation of 32-h-old sea urchin embryos bind to L. culinaris agglutinin- and concanavalin A-derivatized beads; the binding is blocked by alpha-methyl mannose, but not l-fucose. These cells also bind to beads derivatized with mannan. These results provide evidence for a role of carbohydrate-containing molecules in cellular interactions in sea urchin gastrulation. In a second set of experiments, we found that the supernatant obtained by disaggregation of 24-32-h-old L. pictus embryos in calcium- and magnesium-free sea water contains molecules that cause exogastrulation, archenteron disorganization, inhibition of archenteron elongation and inhibition of archenteron attachment to the blastocoel roof in viable swimming embryos. We propose that the supernatant contains ligands and/or receptors that mediate archenteron development and attachment to the blastocoel roof and are released when embryos are

  14. Generalized data stacking programming model with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Samir Elhadidy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that, everywhere in various sciences the systems are following stacked-based stored change behavior when subjected to events or varying environments “on and above” their normal situations. This paper presents a generalized data stack programming (GDSP model which is developed to describe the system changes under varying environment. These changes which are captured with different ways such as sensor reading are stored in matrices. Extraction algorithm and identification technique are proposed to extract the different layers between images and identify the stack class the object follows; respectively. The general multi-stacking network is presented including the interaction between various stack-based layering of some applications. The experiments prove that the concept of stack matrix gives average accuracy of 99.45%.

  15. The polar 2e/12c bond in phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl hetero-dimers: Stronger stacking interaction and fascinating interlayer charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rong-Lin; Xu, Hong-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of chemists have focused on the two-electron/multicenter bond (2e/mc) that was first introduced to interpret the bonding mechanism of radical dimers. Herein, we report the polar two-electron/twelve center (2e/12c) bonding character in a series of phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl radical hetero-dimers. Interestingly, the bonding energy of weaker polar hetero-dimer (P-TAP) is dominated by the overlap of the two different singly occupied molecular orbital of radicals, while that of stronger polar hetero-dimer (P-HAP) is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. Results show that the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers plays a prominent role in the essential attribution of the polar 2e/12c bond. Correspondingly, a stronger stacking interaction in the hetero-dimer could be effectively achieved by increasing the difference of nitrogen atoms number between the monomers. It is worthy of note that an interesting interlayer charge transfer character is induced in the polar hetero-dimers, which is dependent on the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers. It is our expectation that the new knowledge about the bonding nature of radical hetero-dimers might provide important information for designing radical based functional materials with various applications.

  16. Plasma surface interactions in nanoscale processing: Preservation of low-k integrity and high-k gate-stack etching with silicon selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeb, Juline

    Plasma-surface interactions are very important in the fabrication of the nm-sized features of integrated circuits. Plasma processes are employed to produce high-resolution patterns in many of the thin layers of silicon integrated circuits and to remove masking layers while maintaining high selectivity. Integrated plasma processes consisting of sequential steps such as etch, clean and surface modification, are used in semiconductor industries. The surface in contact with the process plasma is exposed to the fluxes of neutrals, ions, molecules, electrons and photons. Modeling of surface reaction mechanisms requires the determination of the characterizations of fluxes (e.g. composition, magnitude, energy and angle) and development of the reaction mechanisms of the processes such as adsorption, reflection, bond breaking and etch product evolution, while reproducing the experimental results. When modeling the reaction mechanism for an entirely new material, the experimental data is often fragmentary. Therefore, fundamental principles such as bond energies and volatility of the etch products must be considered to develop the mechanism. In this thesis, results from a computational investigation of porous low-k SiCOH etching in fluorocarbon plasmas, damage during cleaning of CFx polymer etch residue in Ar/O2 and He/H2 plasmas, NH3 plasma pore sealing and low-k degradation due to water uptake, will be discussed. The plasma etching of HfO2 gate-stacks is also computationally investigated with an emphasis on the selectivity between HfO2 and Si.

  17. The impact of banners on digital television: the role of program interactivity and product involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    In a sample of 281 respondents, the effect of a noninteractive and a medium-interactive television program on recall and brand attitudes for low- and high-involvement products advertised in banners during these programs was investigated. Medium-interactive programs resulted in less product and brand recall and recognition of brands in embedded banner advertisements, but generated more positive brand attitudes than noninteractive programs. These effects were more outspoken for a high-involvement product than for a low-involvement product. The impact of perceived program interactivity on brand attitude is fully mediated program valence and involvement for low-involvement products, but not for high-involvement products, for which perceived program interactivity had a direct impact on brand attitude.

  18. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  19. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  20. The role of father involvement and dyadic interactions in the development of family interactive abilities: a multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Simonelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate, using multilevel analysis, the development of family interactions from pregnancy to preschool age, in a longitudinal perspective. Moreover, it intends to explore the impact of couple relationship and father involvement in childcare on the developmental trend of the quality of mother-father-child interactions.103 primiparous families were assessed at 7th month of pregnancy, 4th, 9th, 18th months of child’s life and during preschool age (36-48th, using the observational procedure named Lausanne Trilogue Play. Parents’ perception of marital satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale at each point of measure; moreover, in the postnatal assessment parents completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Results showed that family interactions increase over time. Second, a decrease of marital adjustment is associated to an improvement of the quality of family interactions. Moreover, father involvement predicts the quality of family interactions from the earliest stages of child’s life.In a longitudinal perspective, family interactions and marital quality show opposite developmental trends and father’s involvement represents a particularly important feature of the family.

  1. OpenStack essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Radez, Dan

    2015-01-01

    If you need to get started with OpenStack or want to learn more, then this book is your perfect companion. If you're comfortable with the Linux command line, you'll gain confidence in using OpenStack.

  2. Mastering OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Khedher, Omar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators, cloud engineers, and system architects who want to deploy a cloud based on OpenStack in a mid- to large-sized IT infrastructure. If you have a fundamental understanding of cloud computing and OpenStack and want to expand your knowledge, then this book is an excellent checkpoint to move forward.

  3. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Endedijk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other’s actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children’s interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction.

  4. An Exploratory Study to Measure Excessive Involvement in Multitasking Interaction with Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This study developed a scale measuring excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices. An online questionnaire was designed and surveyed in a sample of 380 respondents. The sample was split into two groups for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. A four-factor structure was identified with an acceptable goodness of fit. The first two factors, "Obsession and neglect" and "Problematic control," described the obsessive feelings, neglect behaviors, and behavior control problems accompanied by excessive multitasking interaction with smart devices. The latter two factors, "Multitasking preference" and "Polychronic orientation," referred to multitaskers' preference of engaging in multiple media use or interaction tasks rather than a single task from the time orientation perspective. The four-factor structure indicates that excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices shares some similarities with other behavioral addiction types, but demonstrates uniqueness compared with excessive engagement in single media use.

  5. Involving elderly users in design: techniques to collect preferences for Interactive Digital Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolli, Anna; Gamberini, Luciano; Ibanez, Francisco; Fabregat, Maria Elena; Debelic, Tijana; Orso, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    SeniorChannel is a European project that explores the potential of using an Interactive Digital Television (IDTV) to turn elderly people at home into an active audience. Techniques to involve elderly users in the requirement collection during the design phase should take into account the decrease in perception, cognition and motor abilities associated with aging. The paper describes the specific solutions adopted here to elicit users' contribution, as well as the contributed preferences in terms of IDTV content and interaction modalities.

  6. Gene-environment interaction involving recently identified colorectal cancer susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Minnier, Jessica; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brenner, Hermann; Caan, Bette J.; Campbell, Peter T.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Du, Mengmeng; Duggan, David; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Gong, Jian; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lemire, Mathieu; Ma, Jing; Newcomb, Polly A.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Pflugeisen, Bethann M.; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Stelling, Deanna L.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Thornquist, Mark; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Warnick, Greg S.; Zanke, Brent W.; Peters, Ulrike; Hsu, Li; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Prior research has evaluated the presence of gene-environment interaction involving the first 10 identified susceptibility loci, but little work has been conducted on interaction involving SNPs at recently identified susceptibility loci, including: rs10911251, rs6691170, rs6687758, rs11903757, rs10936599, rs647161, rs1321311, rs719725, rs1665650, rs3824999, rs7136702, rs11169552, rs59336, rs3217810, rs4925386, and rs2423279. METHODS Data on 9160 cases and 9280 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO) and Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) were used to evaluate the presence of interaction involving the above-listed SNPs and sex, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, smoking, aspirin use, post-menopausal hormone (PMH) use, as well as intake of dietary calcium, dietary fiber, dietary folate, red meat, processed meat, fruit, and vegetables. Interaction was evaluated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis of an efficient Empirical Bayes estimator, and permutation was used to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS None of the permutation-adjusted p-values reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS The associations between recently identified genetic susceptibility loci and CRC are not strongly modified by sex, BMI, alcohol, smoking, aspirin, PMH use, and various dietary factors. IMPACT Results suggest no evidence of strong gene-environment interactions involving the recently identified 16 susceptibility loci for CRC taken one at a time. PMID:24994789

  7. Studies on complex π-π and T-stacking features of imidazole and phenyl/p-halophenyl units in series of 5-amino-1-(phenyl/p-halophenyl)imidazole-4-carboxamides and their carbonitrile derivatives: Role of halogens in tuning of conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2017-11-01

    5-amino-1-(phenyl/p-halophenyl)imidazole-4-carboxamides (N-phenyl AICA) (2a-e) and 5-amino-1-(phenyl/p-halophenyl)imidazole-4-carbonitriles (N-phenyl AICN) (3a-e) had been synthesized. X-ray crystallographic studies of 2a-e and 3a-e had been performed to identify any distinct change in stacking patterns in their crystal lattice. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 2a-e revealed π-π stack formations with both imidazole and phenyl/p-halophenyl units in anti and syn parallel-displaced (PD)-type dispositions. No π-π stacking of imidazole occurred when the halogen substituent is bromo or iodo; π-π stacking in these cases occurred involving phenyl rings only. The presence of an additional T-stacking had been observed in crystal lattices of 3a-e. Vertical π-π stacking distances in anti-parallel PD-type arrangements as well as T-stacking distances had shown stacking distances short enough to impart stabilization whereas syn-parallel stacking arrangements had got much larger π-π stacking distances to belie any syn-parallel stacking stabilization. DFT studies had been pursued for quantifying the π-π stacking and T-stacking stabilization. The plotted curves for anti-parallel and T-stacked moieties had similarities to the 'Morse potential energy curve for diatomic molecule'. The minima of the curves corresponded to the most stable stacking distances and related energy values indicated stacking stabilization. Similar DFT studies on syn-parallel systems of 2b corresponded to no π-π stacking stabilization at all. Halogen-halogen interactions had also been observed to stabilize the compounds 2d, 2e and 3d. Nano-structural behaviour of the series of compounds 2a-e and 3a-e were thoroughly investigated.

  8. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H.M.; Meyer, M.; Bekkering, H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hunnius, S.

    2017-01-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is

  9. Neural mirroring and social interaction : Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, H. M.; Meyer, M.; Bekkering, H.; Cillessen, A. H. N.; Hunnius, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is

  10. Interactions between membrane-bound cellulose synthases involved in the synthesis of the secondary cell wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.F.P.; Vernhettes, S.; Desprez, T.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    It has not yet been reported how the secondary CESA (cellulose synthase) proteins are organized in the rosette structure. A membrane-based yeast two-hybrid (MbYTH) approach was used to analyze the interactions between the CESA proteins involved in secondary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis and the

  11. Exploration of the pathways and interaction network involved in bladder cancer cell line with knockdown of Opa interacting protein 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuefeng; Ding, Xiang; Wen, Duangai; Hou, Jianquan; Ping, Jigen; He, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In our previous study, we displayed that knockdown of Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5) inhibited cell growth, disturbed cell cycle and increased cell apoptosis in bladder cancer (BC) cell line. Our present study aimed to explore the underlying pathways and interaction network involved in the roles of OIP5 in BC. Microarray analysis was conducted to obtain mRNA expression profiling of OIP5 knockdown (shOIP5) and control (shCtrl) BC cell lines. Bioinformatics analyses were performed including differentially expressed mRNAs (DEGs) identification, protein-protein interaction network construction, biological functions of prediction and ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA). Western Blotting (WB) was subjected to validate the protein expression levels of candidate DEGs in shOIP5 BC cell line. Respective 255 up- and 184 down-regulated DEGs were identified in shOIP5 group compared with shCtrl group. In the PPI network, CAND1 and MYC had the highest connectivity with DEGs. 439 DEGs were significantly enriched in inflammatory response, regulation of cell proliferation, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and bladder cancer. In the disease and function enrichment, DEGs were obviously involved in cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation, cancer, inflammatory response, cell death and survival. In the OIP5 regulatory network, CDH2, IRS1, IRAK3, ID1, TNF, IL6, ITGA6, MYC and SOD2 interacted with OIP5. The WB validation results were compatible with our bioinformatics analyses. OIP5 interaction network might function as an oncogene in BC progression based on aberrant inflammatory responses. Our study might provide valuable information for investigation of tumorigenesis mechanism in BC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteins involved in motility and sperm-egg interaction evolve more rapidly in mouse spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vicens

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of spermatozoa have identified a large catalog of integral sperm proteins. Rapid evolution of these proteins may underlie adaptive changes of sperm traits involved in different events leading to fertilization, although the selective forces underlying such rapid evolution are not well understood. A variety of selective forces may differentially affect several steps ending in fertilization, thus resulting in a compartmentalized adaptation of sperm proteins. Here we analyzed the evolution of genes associated to various events in the sperm's life, from sperm formation to sperm-egg interaction. Evolutionary analyses were performed on gene sequences from 17 mouse strains whose genomes have been sequenced. Four of these are derived from wild Mus musculus, M. domesticus, M. castaneus and M. spretus. We found a higher proportion of genes exhibiting a signature of positive selection among those related to sperm motility and sperm-egg interaction. Furthermore, sperm proteins involved in sperm-egg interaction exhibited accelerated evolution in comparison to those involved in other events. Thus, we identified a large set of candidate proteins for future comparative analyses of genotype-phenotype associations in spermatozoa of species subjected to different sexual selection pressures. Adaptive evolution of proteins involved in motility could be driven by sperm competition, since this selective force is known to increase the proportion of motile sperm and their swimming velocity. On the other hand, sperm proteins involved in gamete interaction could be coevolving with their egg partners through episodes of sexual selection or sexual conflict resulting in species-specific sperm-egg interactions and barriers preventing interspecies fertilization.

  13. The use of Graphic User Interface for development of a user-friendly CRS-Stack software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Rachmat; Prayudhatama, Dythia; Perkasa, Muhammad D.; Hendriyana, Andri; Fatkhan; Sardjito; Adriansyah

    2017-04-01

    The development of a user-friendly Common Reflection Surface (CRS) Stack software that has been built by implementing Graphical User Interface (GUI) is described in this paper. The original CRS-Stack software developed by WIT Consortium is compiled in the unix/linux environment, which is not a user-friendly software, so that a user must write the commands and parameters manually in a script file. Due to this limitation, the CRS-Stack become a non popular method, although applying this method is actually a promising way in order to obtain better seismic sections, which have better reflector continuity and S/N ratio. After obtaining successful results that have been tested by using several seismic data belong to oil companies in Indonesia, it comes to an idea to develop a user-friendly software in our own laboratory. Graphical User Interface (GUI) is a type of user interface that allows people to interact with computer programs in a better way. Rather than typing commands and module parameters, GUI allows the users to use computer programs in much simple and easy. Thus, GUI can transform the text-based interface into graphical icons and visual indicators. The use of complicated seismic unix shell script can be avoided. The Java Swing GUI library is used to develop this CRS-Stack GUI. Every shell script that represents each seismic process is invoked from Java environment. Besides developing interactive GUI to perform CRS-Stack processing, this CRS-Stack GUI is design to help geophysicists to manage a project with complex seismic processing procedures. The CRS-Stack GUI software is composed by input directory, operators, and output directory, which are defined as a seismic data processing workflow. The CRS-Stack processing workflow involves four steps; i.e. automatic CMP stack, initial CRS-Stack, optimized CRS-Stack, and CRS-Stack Supergather. Those operations are visualized in an informative flowchart with self explanatory system to guide the user inputting the

  14. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  15. On Stack Reconstruction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Аkeliev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes analytical investigations that study relation of fuel combustion regimes with concentration values of sulphur anhydride in flue gases and acid dew point. Coefficients of convective heat transfer at internal and external surfaces of stacks have been determined in the paper. The paper reveals the possibility to reconstruct stacks while using gas discharging channel made of composite material on the basis of glass-reinforced plastic which permits to reduce thermo-stressed actions on reinforced concrete and increase volume of released gases due to practically two-fold reduction of gas-dynamic pressure losses along the pipe length.

  16. Laser pulse stacking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  17. Dopamine/adenosine interactions involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce

    2009-12-01

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation. Accumbens DA depletions reduce the tendency of rats to work for food, and alter effort-related choice, but leave other aspects of food motivation and appetite intact. DA and adenosine receptors interact to regulate effort-related processes. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D(2) antagonists on effort-related choice, and intra-accumbens injections of a adenosine A(2A) agonist produce effects that are similar to those produced by accumbens DA depletion or antagonism. These studies have implications for understanding the neurochemical interactions that underlie activational aspects of motivation.

  18. Desalting of phosphopeptides by tandem polypyrrole-c18 reverse phase micropipette tip (TMTip{sub PPY-C18}) based on hybrid electrostatic, {Pi}-{Pi} stacking and hydrophobic interactions for mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Shi; Wang Xiaoli; Fu Jieying; Hu Xuejiao; Xiao Xiao; Huang Lulu; Zhou Youe [Key Laboratory of Pesticides and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Zhong Hongying, E-mail: hyzhong@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pesticides and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2012-04-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new micropipette tip TMTip{sub PPY-C18} was developed for desalting of phosphopeptides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMTip{sub PPY-C18} is based on polypyrrole in tandem with C18 chromatographic material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMTip{sub PPY-C18} combines electrostatic, {Pi}-{Pi} stacking and hydrophobic interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMTip{sub PPY-C18} can be used in both acidic and basic experimental conditions. - Abstract: Desalting and concentration of peptides using reverse phase (RP) C18 chromatographic material based on hydrophobic interaction is a routine approach used in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. However, MS detection of small hydrophilic peptides, in particular, phosphopeptides that bear multiple negative charges, is challenging due to the insufficient binding to C18 stationary phase. We described here the development of a new desalting method that takes the unique properties of polypyrrole (PPY). The presence of positively charged nitrogen atoms under acidic conditions and polyunsaturated bonds in polypyrrole provide a prospect for enhanced adsorption of phosphopeptides or hydrophilic peptides through extra electrostatic and {Pi}-{Pi} stacking interactions in addition to hydrophobic interactions. In tandem with reversed phase C18 chromatographic material, the new type of desalting method termed as TMTip{sub PPY-C18} can significantly improve the MS detection of phosphopeptides with multiple phosphate groups and other small hydrophilic peptides. It has been applied to not only tryptic digest of model proteins but also the analysis of complex lysates of zebrafish eggs. The number of detected phosphate groups on a peptide ranged from 1 to 6. Particularly, polypyrrole based method can also be used in basic condition. Thus it provides a useful means to handle peptides that may not be detectable in acidic condition. It can be envisioned that the TMTip{sub PPY-C18} should be able to

  19. Stacking-Based Visualization of Trajectory Attribute Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominski, C; Schumann, H; Andrienko, G; Andrienko, N

    2012-12-01

    Visualizing trajectory attribute data is challenging because it involves showing the trajectories in their spatio-temporal context as well as the attribute values associated with the individual points of trajectories. Previous work on trajectory visualization addresses selected aspects of this problem, but not all of them. We present a novel approach to visualizing trajectory attribute data. Our solution covers space, time, and attribute values. Based on an analysis of relevant visualization tasks, we designed the visualization solution around the principle of stacking trajectory bands. The core of our approach is a hybrid 2D/3D display. A 2D map serves as a reference for the spatial context, and the trajectories are visualized as stacked 3D trajectory bands along which attribute values are encoded by color. Time is integrated through appropriate ordering of bands and through a dynamic query mechanism that feeds temporally aggregated information to a circular time display. An additional 2D time graph shows temporal information in full detail by stacking 2D trajectory bands. Our solution is equipped with analytical and interactive mechanisms for selecting and ordering of trajectories, and adjusting the color mapping, as well as coordinated highlighting and dedicated 3D navigation. We demonstrate the usefulness of our novel visualization by three examples related to radiation surveillance, traffic analysis, and maritime navigation. User feedback obtained in a small experiment indicates that our hybrid 2D/3D solution can be operated quite well.

  20. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions Involved in Pectin Biosynthesis in the golgi Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian Have

    for instance as food additives, nutraceutical, for paper and energy production. Pectin is a cell wall glycan that crucial for every plant growing on land. Pectin is said to be one of the most complex glycans on earth and it is hypothesized that at least 67 enzymatic reactions are involved in its biosynthesis...... for their ability to detect PPI inside the Golgi lumen. The first method tested was the commercially available splitubiquitin system from Dualsystems Biotech AG. This was applied to test binary interactions between proteins involved in HG and Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) biosynthesis (see Manuscript II...... (Rluc-PCA) in Nicotiana benthamiana (See Manuscript IV) to perform binary interaction screening in a mid- to high-throughput manner. Mutants of gaut7 knockout grow normally (Manuscript V). This led us to hypothesize additional anchors of GAUT1 may exit. Based on subcellular localization and homology...

  1. po_stack_movie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    po_stack® er et reolsystem, hvis enkle elementer giver stor flexibilitet, variation og skulpturel virkning. Elementerne stables og forskydes frit, så reolens rum kan vendes til begge sider, være åbne eller lukkede og farvekombineres ubegrænset. Reolen kan let ombygges, udvides eller opdeles, når ...

  2. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  3. Interactive Relationship between Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour, and Organizational Commitment in Nigerian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    B.M. Nwibere

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the interactive relationship between job involvement, job satisfaction, organisational commitment citizenship behaviour (OCB) and organisational commitment among employees of Nigerian universities. The sample for the study consisted of two hundred and ten academic members of staff (210) from five (5) Federal Government owned universities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The study utilized both quantitative data (questionnaire) and qualitative data (interview). The Mult...

  4. Conserved regions of ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease MRP are involved in interactions with its substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, Olga; Perederina, Anna; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2013-08-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a ubiquitous and essential site-specific eukaryotic endoribonuclease involved in the metabolism of a wide range of RNA molecules. RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein with a large catalytic RNA moiety that is closely related to the RNA component of RNase P, and multiple proteins, most of which are shared with RNase P. Here, we report the results of an ultraviolet-cross-linking analysis of interactions between a photoreactive RNase MRP substrate and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP holoenzyme. The results show that the substrate interacts with phylogenetically conserved RNA elements universally found in all enzymes of the RNase P/MRP family, as well as with a phylogenetically conserved RNA region that is unique to RNase MRP, and demonstrate that four RNase MRP protein components, all shared with RNase P, interact with the substrate. Implications for the structural organization of RNase MRP and the roles of its components are discussed.

  5. Structural Insights into Protein-Protein Interactions Involved in Bacterial Cell Wall Biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Laddomada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial cell wall is essential for survival, and proteins that participate in its biosynthesis have been the targets of antibiotic development efforts for decades. The biosynthesis of its main component, the peptidoglycan, involves the coordinated action of proteins that are involved in multi-member complexes which are essential for cell division (the “divisome” and/or cell wall elongation (the “elongasome”, in the case of rod-shaped cells. Our knowledge regarding these interactions has greatly benefitted from the visualization of different aspects of the bacterial cell wall and its cytoskeleton by cryoelectron microscopy and tomography, as well as genetic and biochemical screens that have complemented information from high resolution crystal structures of protein complexes involved in divisome or elongasome formation. This review summarizes structural and functional aspects of protein complexes involved in the cytoplasmic and membrane-related steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, with a particular focus on protein-protein interactions whereby disruption could lead to the development of novel antibacterial strategies.

  6. Multifactor-dimensionality reduction reveals interaction of important gene variants involved in allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guia, R M; Echavez, M D J; Gaw, E L C; Gomez, M R R; Lopez, K A J; Mendoza, R C M; Rapsing, J M C; Retreta, D P; Tubog, C M B; Ventolero, M H; Yao, C L; Ramos, J D A

    2015-06-01

    Elevated IgE levels in the atopic triad of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial condition whose genetic component involves interaction of several gene loci. One hundred and two matched pairs of allergic and nonallergic individuals were phenotyped for total serum IgE level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Atopic status was defined by serum IgE concentration ≥100 IU mL(-1) . SNPs genotyped include the IL4 -590C>T (rs2243250), FCER1B E237G (rs569108), CD14 -159C>T (rs2569190), IL4RA Q551R (rs1801275) and ADRB2 R16G (rs1042713). Gene-gene interaction was analysed using multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR). Significant association between atopic allergy and the IL4 -590C>T polymorphism was confirmed in three genetic models. Interaction among the 5 gene variants was validated by MDR. The five-locus model was chosen as the best to describe the interaction of the SNPs within the context of atopy. The strongest interaction was between IL4 -590C>T and IL4RA Q551R and between FCER1B E237G and ADRB2 R16G. The IL4 variant also interacts synergistically with the FCER1B and ADRB2 coding variants. CD14 -159C>T, in general, interacts antagonistically with the rest of the SNPs. In conclusion, a five-locus interaction exists among IL4 -590C>T, FCER1B E237G, CD14 -159C>T, IL4RA Q551R and ADRB2 R16G in Filipino cases of atopic allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. CLOCK interacts with RANBP9 and is involved in alternative splicing in spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junbao; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yingying; Zheng, Xulei; Lu, Yilu; Tao, Dachang; Liu, Yunqiang; Ma, Yongxin

    2018-02-05

    The core circadian gene CLOCK plays an important role in regulating male reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, we executed yeast two-hybrid screening using cDNA fragment of CLOCK PAS A domain as bait, and identified RANBP9 as a novel protein interacting with CLOCK. The interaction between CLOCK and RANBP9 was further validated by in vivo and in vitro assays. Previous studies have confirmed that SF3B3 was a RANBP9 interacting protein. Subsequently, our study also found that CLOCK and SF3B3 can interact with each other by co-immunoprecipitation in mouse testis. In order to dissect the underlying mechanism of CLOCK in spermatogenesis, we also performed RNA-immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (RIP-Seq) in mouse testis. The result of sequence analyses and Gene Ontology enrichment analyses (biological processes) demonstrated that CLOCK can directly bind 186 key mRNA transcripts in mouse spermatogenesis. Taken together, our results firstly showed that CLOCK can interact with RANBP9 and bind with mRNAs, demonstrating that CLOCK is involved in alternative splicing in spermatogenesis. These results reveal a novel mechanism for CLOCK in spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular determinants of the interaction between Doa1 and Hse1 involved in endosomal sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsu; Shin, Donghyuk; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2014-03-28

    Yeast Doa1/Ufd3 is an adaptor protein for Cdc48 (p97 in mammal), an AAA type ATPase associated with endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway and endosomal sorting into multivesicular bodies. Doa1 functions in the endosomal sorting by its association with Hse1, a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) system. The association of Doa1 with Hse1 was previously reported to be mediated between PFU domain of Doa1 and SH3 of Hse1. However, it remains unclear which residues are specifically involved in the interaction. Here we report that Doa1/PFU interacts with Hse1/SH3 with a moderate affinity of 5 μM. Asn-438 of Doa1/PFU and Trp-254 of Hse1/SH3 are found to be critical in the interaction while Phe-434, implicated in ubiquitin binding via a hydrophobic interaction, is not. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements combined with molecular docking and biochemical analysis yield the solution structure of the Doa1/PFU:Hse1/SH3 complex. Taken together, our results suggest that hydrogen bonding is a major determinant in the interaction of Doa1/PFU with Hse1/SH3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Critical Paraoxonase 1 Residues Involved in High Density Lipoprotein Interaction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Levison, Bruce S.; Gerstenecker, Gary; DiDonato, Anthony J.; Hazen, Leah B.; Lee, Joonsue; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815–3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes

  10. Energy Expenditure of Sport Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…

  11. OpenStack cloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Locati, Fabio Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack administrator or developer, or wish to build solutions to protect your OpenStack environment, then this book is for you. Experience of Linux administration and familiarity with different OpenStack components is assumed.

  12. Dopamine/adenosine interactions involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce

    2009-01-01

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation. Accumbens DA depletions reduce the tendency of rats to work for food, and alter effort-related choice, but leave other aspects of food motivation and appetite intact. DA and adenosine receptors interact to regulate effort-related processes. Adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and intra-accumbens injections of a adenosine A2A agonist produce eff...

  13. The interactive alphabet with augmented reality as a form of involving children in educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Sekerin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to prove the expediency of using technologies with augmented reality in educational process of children in order to increase the level of their involvement and to improve the efficiency of educational process. Materials and methods. The information base of the research was made by scientific publications, information and analytical reviews, periodicals, monographs, information placed in the Internet network, concerning practical application of technologies with augmented reality in educational process, descriptive and comparative methods of analysis form the methodical basis of this research. Results. It is shown that in educational process of children it is expedient to use the modern technological achievements allowing organizing productive interactions and relationship of the students among themselves and with teachers, lecturers. Educational, business, role-playing games, discussions promoting acceleration of acquiring  a new experience and receiving new knowledge are the perspective formats of realizing the educational process. The world of augmented reality has the following properties: combines the real and virtual, interacts in real time mode, and functions in three-dimensional space. The advantages of the Interactive alphabet on the basis of the augmented reality technology are as follows: 1 security of strong emotional responses; 2 the involvement and interactivity promoting steady memorizing; 3 possibilities of interaction with the artificial world by means of gadgets; 4 Digital and offline communication; 5 possibility of carrying out virtual lessons. One of the main features of virtual reality is the feeling of participation and the opportunity to observe everything from the first person. It makes expedient to carry out lessons entirely in the virtual reality. Achievement of full involvement in educational process promotes increase of motivation and progress in knowledge acquisition.  The use of the augmented

  14. Identification of genes involved in interactions between Biomphalaria glabrata and Schistosoma mansoni by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Anne E; Spinks, Jennifer; Noble, Leslie R; Rollinson, David; Jones, Catherine S

    2007-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, a medically important schistosome. In order to identify transcripts involved in snail-schistosome interactions, subtractive cDNA libraries were prepared, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between a parasite-exposed schistosome-resistant and a susceptible strain of B. glabrata, and also between schistosome-exposed and unexposed snails from the resistant snail line. Separate libraries were made from both haemocytes and the haemopoietic organ. Subtraction was performed in both directions enriching for cDNAs differentially expressed between parasite-exposed resistant and susceptible samples and up or down-regulated in the resistant line after challenge. The resulting eight libraries were screened and eight genes, differentially expressed between the haemocytes of resistant and susceptible snail strains, were identified and confirmed with reverse transcriptase PCR, including two transcripts expected to be involved in the stress response mechanism for regulating the damaging oxidative burst pathways involved in cytotoxic killing of the parasite: the iron-storage and immunoregulatory molecule, ferritin, and HtrA2, a serine protease involved in the cellular stress response. Transcripts with elevated levels in the resistant strain, had the same expression patterns in the subtracted libraries and unsubtracted controls; higher levels in exposed resistant snails compared to susceptible ones and down-regulated in exposed compared with unexposed resistant snails. Differential expression of two of the transcripts with no known function from the susceptible strain, was independently confirmed in a repeat exposure experiment.

  15. A transmembrane polar interaction is involved in the functional regulation of integrin alpha L beta 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Chng, Choon-Peng; Parthasarathy, Krupakar; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Torres, Jaume; Tan, Suet-Mien

    2010-05-14

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane (TM) receptors formed by noncovalent associations of alpha and beta subunits. Each subunit contains a single alpha-helical TM domain. Inside-out activation of an integrin involves the separation of its cytoplasmic tails, leading to disruption of alphabeta TM packing. The leukocyte integrin alpha L beta 2 is required for leukocyte adhesion, migration, proliferation, cytotoxic function, and antigen presentation. In this study, we show by mutagenesis experiments that the packing of alpha L beta 2 TMs is consistent with that of the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 TMs. However, molecular dynamics simulations of alpha L beta 2 TMs in lipids predicted a polar interaction involving the side chains of alpha L Ser1071 and beta2 Thr686 in the outer-membrane association clasp (OMC). This is supported by carbonyl vibrational shifts observed in isotope-labeled alpha L beta 2 TM peptides that were incorporated into lipid bilayers. Molecular dynamics studies simulating the separation of alpha L beta 2 tails showed the presence of polar interaction during the initial perturbation of the inner-membrane association clasp. When the TMs underwent further separation, the polar interaction was disrupted. OMC polar interaction is important in regulating the functions of beta2 integrins because mutations that disrupt the OMC polar interaction generated constitutively activated alpha L beta 2, alpha M beta 2, and alpha X beta 2 in 293T transfectants. We also show that the expression of mutant beta2 Thr686Gly in beta2-deficient T cells rescued cell adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1, but the cells showed overt elongated morphologies in response to chemokine stromal-cell-derived factor 1 alpha treatment as compared to wild-type beta2-expressing cells. These two TM polar residues are totally conserved in other members of the beta2 integrins in humans and across different species. Our results provide an example of the stabilizing effect of polar

  16. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... parts, where also the temperatures are measured. The heat balance of the system involves a fuel cell model to describe the heat added by the fuel cells when a current is drawn. Furthermore the model also predicts the temperatures, when heating the stack with external heating elements for start-up, heat...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  17. Stack Caching Using Split Data Caches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In most embedded and general purpose architectures, stack data and non-stack data is cached together, meaning that writing to or loading from the stack may expel non-stack data from the data cache. Manipulation of the stack has a different memory access pattern than that of non-stack data, showing...... higher temporal and spatial locality. We propose caching stack and non-stack data separately and develop four different stack caches that allow this separation without requiring compiler support. These are the simple, window, and prefilling with and without tag stack caches. The performance of the stack...

  18. Differential involvement of E2A-corepressor interactions in distinct leukemogenic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Chien-Hung; Guo, Chun; Wang, David; Hu, Qiande; Zhang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    E2A is a member of the E-protein family of transcription factors. Previous studies have reported context-dependent regulation of E2A-dependent transcription. For example, whereas the E2A portion of the E2A-Pbx1 leukemia fusion protein mediates robust transcriptional activation in t(1;19) acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the transcriptional activity of wild-type E2A is silenced by high levels of corepressors, such as the AML1-ETO fusion protein in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia and ETO-2 in hematopoietic cells. Here, we show that, unlike the HEB E-protein, the activation domain 1 (AD1) of E2A has specifically reduced corepressor interaction due to E2A-specific amino acid changes in the p300/CBP and ETO target motif. Replacing E2A-AD1 with HEB-AD1 abolished the ability of E2A-Pbx1 to activate target genes and to induce cell transformation. On the other hand, the weak E2A-AD1-corepressor interaction imposes a critical importance on another ETO-interacting domain, downstream ETO-interacting sequence (DES), for corepressor-mediated repression. Deletion of DES abrogates silencing of E2A activity by AML1-ETO in t(8;21) leukemia cells or by ETO-2 in normal hematopoietic cells. Our results reveal an E2A-specific mechanism important for its context-dependent activation and repression function, and provide the first evidence for the differential involvement of E2A-corepressor interactions in distinct leukemogenic pathways.

  19. Desalting of phosphopeptides by tandem polypyrrole-c18 reverse phase micropipette tip (TMTip(PPY-C18)) based on hybrid electrostatic, Π-Π stacking and hydrophobic interactions for mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shi; Wang, Xiaoli; Fu, Jieying; Hu, Xuejiao; Xiao, Xiao; Huang, Lulu; Zhou, Youe; Zhong, Hongying

    2012-04-29

    Desalting and concentration of peptides using reverse phase (RP) C18 chromatographic material based on hydrophobic interaction is a routine approach used in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. However, MS detection of small hydrophilic peptides, in particular, phosphopeptides that bear multiple negative charges, is challenging due to the insufficient binding to C18 stationary phase. We described here the development of a new desalting method that takes the unique properties of polypyrrole (PPY). The presence of positively charged nitrogen atoms under acidic conditions and polyunsaturated bonds in polypyrrole provide a prospect for enhanced adsorption of phosphopeptides or hydrophilic peptides through extra electrostatic and Π-Π stacking interactions in addition to hydrophobic interactions. In tandem with reversed phase C18 chromatographic material, the new type of desalting method termed as TMTip(PPY-C18) can significantly improve the MS detection of phosphopeptides with multiple phosphate groups and other small hydrophilic peptides. It has been applied to not only tryptic digest of model proteins but also the analysis of complex lysates of zebrafish eggs. The number of detected phosphate groups on a peptide ranged from 1 to 6. Particularly, polypyrrole based method can also be used in basic condition. Thus it provides a useful means to handle peptides that may not be detectable in acidic condition. It can be envisioned that the TMTip(PPY-C18) should be able to facilitate the exploration of large scale phosphoproteome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of Critical Paraoxonase 1 Residues Involved in High Density Lipoprotein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Levison, Bruce S; Gerstenecker, Gary; DiDonato, Anthony J; Hazen, Leah B; Lee, Joonsue; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2016-01-22

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815-3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes

  1. Interactions involving ozone, Botrytis cinerea, and B. squamosa on onion leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rist, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Interactions involving Botrytis cinerea Pers., B. squamosa Walker, and ozone on onion (alium cepae L.) were investigated. Initially, threshold dosages of ozone required to predispose onion leaves to greater infection by B. cinerea and B. squamosa were determined under controlled conditions in an ozone-exposure chamber. Subsequent experiments supported the hypothesis that nutrients leaking out of ozone-injured cells stimulated lesion production by B. cinerea. The electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of onion plants which had been exposed to ozone were greater than the electrical conductivity of, and carbohydrate concentration in, dew collected from leaves of other, non-exposed onion plants. When conidia of B. cinerea were suspended in dew collected from leaves of plants which had been exposed to ozone and the resulting suspension atomized onto leaves of non-exposed plants, more lesions were induced than on leaves of other non-exposed plants inoculated with conidia suspended in dew collected from plants which had not been exposed to ozone. EDU protected onion leaves from ozone-induced predisposition to these fungi under controlled conditions. Experiments designed to detect interaction between B. cinerea and B. squamosa in onion leaf blighting indicated that such interaction did not occur. Leaves were blighted rapidly when inoculated with B. squamosa whether B. cinerea was present or absent.

  2. Cell-surface interactions involving immobilized magnetite nanoparticles on flat magnetic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loichen, Juliane; Hartmann, Uwe

    2009-09-01

    A new method to affect cells by cell-surface interaction is introduced. Biocompatible magnetic nanobeads are deposited onto a biocompatible magnetic thin layer. The particles are composed of small magnetite crystals embedded in a matrix which can be functionalized by different molecules, proteins or growth factors. The magnetic interaction between surface and beads prevents endocytosis if the setup is utilized for cell culturing. The force acting between particles and magnetic layer is calculated by a magnetostatic approach. Biocompatibility is ensured by using garnet layers which turned out to be nontoxic and stable under culturing conditions. The garnet thin films exhibit spatially and temporally variable magnetic domain configurations in changing external magnetic fields and depending on their thermal pretreatment. Several patterns and bead deposition methods as well as the cell-surface interactions were analyzed. In some cases the cells show directed growth. Theoretical considerations explaining particular cell behavior on this magnetic material involve calculations of cell growth on elastic substrates and bending of cell membranes.

  3. Analysis of multiple components involved in the interaction between Cryptococcus neoformans and Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Juliana; Albuquerque, Priscila C; Wolf, Julie M; Nascimento, Renata; Pereira, Marcos D; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that can cause lethal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanisms by which environmental microbes become pathogenic to mammals are still obscure, but different studies suggest that fungal virulence evolved from selection imposed by environmental predators. The soil-living Acanthamoeba castellanii is a well-known predator of C. neoformans. In this work, we evaluated the participation of C. neoformans virulence-associated structures in the interaction of fungal cells with A. castellanii. Fungal extracellular vesicles (EVs) and the polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) were internalized by A. castellanii with no impact on the viability of amoebal cells. EVs, but not free GXM, modulated antifungal properties of A. castellanii by inducing enhanced yeast survival. Phagocytosis of C. neoformans by amoebal cells and the pathogenic potential in a Galleria mellonella model were not affected by EVs, but previous interactions with A. castellanii rendered fungal cells more efficient in killing this invertebrate host. This observation was apparently associated with marked amoeba-induced changes in surface architecture and increased resistance to both oxygen- and nitrogen-derived molecular species. Our results indicate that multiple components with the potential to impact pathogenesis are involved in C. neoformans environmental interactions. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Involvement of apoptosis in host-parasite interactions in the zebra mussel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Minguez

    Full Text Available The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism.

  5. Involvement of Apoptosis in Host-Parasite Interactions in the Zebra Mussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Brulé, Nelly; Sohm, Bénédicte; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether cell death by apoptosis plays a biological function during infection is key to understanding host-parasite interactions. We investigated the involvement of apoptosis in several host-parasite systems, using zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha as test organisms and their micro- and macroparasites. As a stress response associated with parasitism, heat shock proteins (Hsp) can be induced. In this protein family, Hsp70 are known to be apoptosis inhibitors. Mussels were diagnosed for their respective infections by standard histological methods; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methods on paraffin sections and Hsp70 by immunohistochemistry on cryosections. Circulating hemocytes were the main cells observed in apoptosis whereas infected tissues displayed no or few apoptotic cells. Parasitism by intracellular bacteria Rickettsiales-like and the trematode Bucephalus polymorphus were associated with the inhibition of apoptosis whereas ciliates Ophryoglena spp. or the trematode Phyllodistomum folium did not involve significant differences in apoptosis. Even if some parasites were able to modulate apoptosis in zebra mussels, we did not see evidence of any involvement of Hsp70 on this mechanism. PMID:23785455

  6. System-Wide Analysis Reveals a Complex Network of Tumor-Fibroblast Interactions Involved in Tumorigenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Megha; Li, Jinyu; Egeblad, Mikala; Powers, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Many fibroblast-secreted proteins promote tumorigenicity, and several factors secreted by cancer cells have in turn been proposed to induce these proteins. It is not clear whether there are single dominant pathways underlying these interactions or whether they involve multiple pathways acting in parallel. Here, we identified 42 fibroblast-secreted factors induced by breast cancer cells using comparative genomic analysis. To determine what fraction was active in promoting tumorigenicity, we chose five representative fibroblast-secreted factors for in vivo analysis. We found that the majority (three out of five) played equally major roles in promoting tumorigenicity, and intriguingly, each one had distinct effects on the tumor microenvironment. Specifically, fibroblast-secreted amphiregulin promoted breast cancer cell survival, whereas the chemokine CCL7 stimulated tumor cell proliferation while CCL2 promoted innate immune cell infiltration and angiogenesis. The other two factors tested had minor (CCL8) or minimally (STC1) significant effects on the ability of fibroblasts to promote tumor growth. The importance of parallel interactions between fibroblasts and cancer cells was tested by simultaneously targeting fibroblast-secreted amphiregulin and the CCL7 receptor on cancer cells, and this was significantly more efficacious than blocking either pathway alone. We further explored the concept of parallel interactions by testing the extent to which induction of critical fibroblast-secreted proteins could be achieved by single, previously identified, factors produced by breast cancer cells. We found that although single factors could induce a subset of genes, even combinations of factors failed to induce the full repertoire of functionally important fibroblast-secreted proteins. Together, these results delineate a complex network of tumor-fibroblast interactions that act in parallel to promote tumorigenicity and suggest that effective anti-stromal therapeutic strategies

  7. Characterization of aid1, a novel gene involved in Fusobacterium nucleatum interspecies interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Aida; Kaplan, Christopher W; He, Xuesong; McHardy, Ian; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2014-08-01

    The oral opportunistic pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum is known to interact with a large number of different bacterial species residing in the oral cavity. It adheres to a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, including oral streptococci via the arginine-inhibitable adhesin RadD. In this study, we describe a novel protein encoded by the predicted open reading frame FN1253 that appears to play a role in interspecies interactions of F. nucleatum, particularly with oral streptococci and related Gram-positive species. We designated FN1253 as aid1 (Adherence Inducing Determinant 1). Expression analyses demonstrated that this gene was induced in F. nucleatum single species biofilms, while the presence of representative members of the oral microbiota known to adhere to F. nucleatum triggered its suppression. Inactivation as well as overexpression of aid1 affected the ability of F. nucleatum to coaggregate with oral streptococci and the closely related Enterococcus faecalis, but not other Gram-positive oral species tested. Furthermore, overexpression of aid1 led to a drastic change in the structure of dual species biofilms of F. nucleatum with oral streptococci. Aid1 function was abolished in the presence of arginine and found to be dependent on RadD. Interestingly, differential expression of aid1 did not affect messenger RNA and protein levels of RadD. These findings indicate that RadD-mediated adhesion to oral streptococci involves more complex cellular processes than the simple interaction of adhesins on the surface of partner strains. Aid1 could potentially play an important role in facilitating RadD-mediated interaction with oral streptococci by increasing binding specificity of F. nucleatum to other microbial species.

  8. Interactions of B-class complex proteins involved in tepal development in Phalaenopsis orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Jeng, Mei-Fen; Wu, Ting-Feng; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2008-05-01

    In our previous studies, we identified four DEFICIENS (DEF)-like genes and one GLOBOSA (GLO)-like gene involved in floral organ development in Phalaenopsis equestris. Revealing the DNA binding properties and protein-protein interactions of these floral homeotic MADS-box protein complexes (PeMADS) in orchids is crucial for the elucidation of the unique orchid floral morphogenesis. In this study, the interactome of B-class PeMADS proteins was assayed by the yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays. Furthermore, the DNA binding activities of these proteins were assessed by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). All four DEF-like PeMADS proteins interacted individually with the GLO-like PeMADS6 in Y2H assay, yet with different strengths of interaction. Generally, the PeMADS3/PeMADS4 lineage interacted more strongly with PeMADS6 than the PeMADS2/PeMADS5 lineage did. In addition, independent homodimer formation for both PeMADS4 (DEF-like) and PeMADS6 (GLO-like) was detected. The protein-protein interactions between pairs of PeMADS proteins were further confirmed by using a GST pull-down assay. Furthermore, both the PeMADS4 homodimer and the PeMADS6 homodimer/homomultimer per se were able to bind to the MADS-box protein-binding motif CArG. The heterodimeric complexes PeMADS2-PeMADS6, PeMADS4-PeMADS6 and PeMADS5-PeMADS6 showed CArG binding activity. Taken together, these results suggest that various complexes formed among different combinations of the five B-class PeMADS proteins may increase the complexity of their regulatory functions and thus specify the molecular basis of whorl morphogenesis and combinatorial interactions of floral organ identity genes in orchids.

  9. Passive stack ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.; Parkins, L.; Shaw, P.; Watkins, R. [Databuild, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The adequate ventilation of houses is essential for both the occupants and the building fabric. As air-tightness standards increase, background infiltration levels decrease and extra ventilation has to be designed into the building. Passive stack ventilation has many advantages - particularly when employed in low cost housing schemes -but it is essential that it performs satisfactorily. This paper give the results from monitoring two passive stack ventilation schemes. One scheme was a retrofit into refurbished local authority houses in which a package of energy efficiency measures had been taken and condensation had been a problem. The other series of tests were conducted on a new installation in a Housing Association development. Nine houses were monitored each of which had at least two passive vents. The results show air flow rates by the passive ducts equivalent to approximately 1 room air change per hour. The air flow in the ducts was influenced by both, internal to external temperature difference and wind speed and direction. (author)

  10. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    or wheat flour as the sole nutrient source to mimic the host–pathogen interaction. A gel‐based proteomics approach was employed to identify the proteins secreted into the culture medium. Sixty‐nine unique fungal proteins were identified in 154 protein spots, including enzymes involved in the degradation......Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley...... of cell walls, starch and proteins. Of these proteins, 35% had not been identified in previous in planta or in vitro studies, 70% were predicted to contain signal peptides and a further 16% may be secreted in a nonclassical manner. Proteins identified in the 72 spots showing differential appearance...

  12. Involvement of lipid-protein complexes in plant-microorganism interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blein Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about the environmental impact of modern agricultural have prompted research for alternate practices to pesticide treatments, notably using plant defense mechanisms. Thus, isolation and characterization of plant defense elicitors have been the main step of studies in many groups. Moreover, in the global concept of interactions between organisms and their environment, a major concern is to discriminate recognition between exogenous and endogenous signals, notably during pathogenic or allergenic interactions involving small proteins, such as elicitins or lipid transfer proteins (LTPs. Elicitins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP are both able to load and transfer lipidic molecules and share some structural and functional properties. While elicitins are known as elicitors of plant defense mechanisms, the biological function of LTPs is still an enigma. They are ubiquitous plant proteins able to load and transfer hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids or phospholipids. Among them, LTPs1 (type 1 lipid transfer proteins constitute a multigenic family of secreted plant lipid binding proteins that are constitutively expressed in specific tissues and/or induced in response to biotic and abiotic stress (for reviews [1-4]. Their biological function is still unknown, even if some data provide arguments for a role of these proteins in the assembly of extracellular hydrophobic polymers (i.e., cutin and suberin [2, 4] and/or in plant defense against fungal pathogens [1, 3]. Beside their involvement in plant defense, LTPs1 are also known to be pan-allergens of plant-derived foods [5]. Finally, the discovery of the sterol carrier-properties of elicitins has opened new perspectives dealing with the relationship between this function and the elicitor activity of these small cystein-rich proteins. Nevertheless, this elicitor activity is restrained to few plant species, and thus does not appear in accordance with a universal lipid transfer

  13. Salmonella biofilm formation on Aspergillus niger involves cellulose--chitin interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Brandl

    Full Text Available Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose-chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens.

  14. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jamsheer K

    Full Text Available Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  15. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  16. Donor-Acceptor Interaction Determines the Mechanism of Photoinduced Electron Injection from Graphene Quantum Dots into TiO2: π-Stacking Supersedes Covalent Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Casanova, David; Fang, Wei-Hai; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2017-02-22

    Interfacial electron transfer (ET) constitutes the key step in conversion of solar energy into electricity and fuels. Required for fast and efficient charge separation, strong donor-acceptor interaction is typically achieved through covalent chemical bonding and leads to fast, adiabatic ET. Focusing on interfaces of pyrene, coronene, and a graphene quantum dot (GQD) with TiO 2 , we demonstrate the opposite situation: covalent bonding leads to weak coupling and nonadiabatic (NA) ET, while through-space π-electron interaction produces adiabatic ET. Using real-time time-dependent density functional theory combined with NA molecular dynamics, we simulate photoinduced ET into TiO 2 from flat and vertically placed molecules and GQD containing commonly used carboxylic acid linkers. Both arrangements can be achieved experimentally with GQDs and other two-dimensional materials, such as MoS 2 . The weak through-bond donor-acceptor coupling is attributed to the π-electron withdrawing properties of the carboxylic acid group. The calculated ET time scales are in excellent agreement with pump-probe optical experiments. The simulations show that the ET proceeds faster than energy relaxation. The electron couples to a broad spectrum of vibrational modes, ranging from 100 cm -1 large-scale motions to 1600 cm -1 C-C stretches. Compared to graphene/TiO 2 heterojunctions, the molecule/TiO 2 and GQD/TiO 2 systems exhibit energy gaps, allowing for longer-lived excited states and hot electron injection, facilitating charge separation and higher voltage. The reported state-of-the-art simulations generate a detailed time-domain, atomistic description of the interfacial charge and energy transfer and relaxation processes, and demonstrate that the fundamental principles leading to efficient charge separation in nanoscale materials depend strongly and often unexpectedly on the type of donor-acceptor interaction. Understanding these principles is critical to the development of highly

  17. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  18. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  19. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  20. Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, R.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous

  1. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  2. HPC Software Stack Testing Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-27

    The HPC Software stack testing framework (hpcswtest) is used in the INL Scientific Computing Department to test the basic sanity and integrity of the HPC Software stack (Compilers, MPI, Numerical libraries and Applications) and to quickly discover hard failures, and as a by-product it will indirectly check the HPC infrastructure (network, PBS and licensing servers).

  3. Antiretroviral Drug Interactions: Overview of Interactions Involving New and Investigational Agents and the Role of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chris Rathbun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Antiretrovirals are prone to drug-drug and drug-food interactions that can result in subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic concentrations. Interactions between antiretrovirals and medications for other diseases are common due to shared metabolism through cytochrome P450 (CYP450 and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT enzymes and transport by membrane proteins (e.g., p-glycoprotein, organic anion-transporting polypeptide. The clinical significance of antiretroviral drug interactions is reviewed, with a focus on new and investigational agents. An overview of the mechanistic basis for drug interactions and the effect of individual antiretrovirals on CYP450 and UGT isoforms are provided. Interactions between antiretrovirals and medications for other co-morbidities are summarized. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring in the detection and management of antiretroviral drug interactions is also briefly discussed.

  4. Loop Entropy Assists Tertiary Order: Loopy Stabilization of Stacking Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Aalberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The free energy of an RNA fold is a combination of favorable base pairing and stacking interactions competing with entropic costs of forming loops. Here we show how loop entropy, surprisingly, can promote tertiary order. A general formula for the free energy of forming multibranch and other RNA loops is derived with a polymer-physics based theory. We also derive a formula for the free energy of coaxial stacking in the context of a loop. Simulations support the analytic formulas. The effects of stacking of unpaired bases are also studied with simulations.

  5. Paternal Involvement and Attention Sharing in Interactions of Premature and Full-Term Infants with Fathers: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmita Grażyna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze possible links between paternal involvement and children’s competence in coordinated joint attention (CJA in preterm versus full-term 12-month-old babies. Paternal involvement was measured through the amount of time fathers allocated to different activities with their infants, whereas children’s capacity for CJA was inferred on the basis of episodes of joint attention (EJA, empirically derived from father-infant interactions. Fifty-nine father-infant dyads participated in the study. Fatherinfant interactions in free-play situations, diaries of infant activities, and semi-structured family interviews were analyzed. Episodes of joint attention were more frequent in interactions of fathers with full-term babies in comparison to extremely premature babies, and in the case of preterm infants, in dyads with highly involved fathers as compared to those with a relatively low level of involvement.

  6. Interatomic Coulombic Decay Effects in Theoretical DNA Recombination Systems Involving Protein Interaction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E. L.; Rivas, D. A.; Duot, A. C.; Hovey, R. T.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.

    2015-03-01

    DNA replication is the basis for all biological reproduction. A strand of DNA will ``unzip'' and bind with a complimentary strand, creating two identical strands. In this study, we are considering how this process is affected by Interatomic Coulombic Decay (ICD), specifically how ICD affects the individual coding proteins' ability to hold together. ICD mainly deals with how the electron returns to its original state after excitation and how this affects its immediate atomic environment, sometimes affecting the connectivity between interaction sites on proteins involved in the DNA coding process. Biological heredity is fundamentally controlled by DNA and its replication therefore it affects every living thing. The small nature of the proteins (within the range of nanometers) makes it a good candidate for research of this scale. Understanding how ICD affects DNA molecules can give us invaluable insight into the human genetic code and the processes behind cell mutations that can lead to cancer. Authors wish to give special thanks to Pacific Union College Student Senate in Angwin, California, for their financial support.

  7. Stereochemistry of charged nitrogen-aromatic interactions and its involvement in ligand-receptor binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Marcel L.; Boks, Gertjan J.; Kooijman, Huub; Kanters, Jan A.; Kroon, Jan

    1993-04-01

    Recently, new evidence was found for the involvement of charged nitrogen-aromatic interactions in ligand-receptor binding. In this study we report two favourable orientations of a phenyl ring with respect to a R-N+(CH3)3 group, based on crystal structure statistics from the Cambridge Structural Database. In the first orientation, the phenyl ring is situated in between the substituents at about 4.5 Å from the nitrogen atom, and the ring is approximately oriented on the sphere around the nitrogen atom. In the second orientation, the phenyl ring is situated in the same direction as one of the N-C bonds at about 6.0 Å from the nitrogen atom, and the ring is tilted with respect to the sphere around the nitrogen atom. The same two orientations were also found in the crystal structures of three ligand-receptor complexes, which implies that these orientations probably play a major role in molecular recognition mechanisms.

  8. Environmental assessment of phosphogypsum stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Al-Attar, L.; Raja, G.; Abdul Ghany, B.

    2008-03-01

    Phosphogypsum is one of the most important by-products of phosphate fertilizer industry. It is kept in large stacks to the west of Homs city. Storing Phosphogypsum as open stacks exposed to various environmental effects, wind and rain, may cause pollution of the surrounding ecosystem (soil, plant, water and air). This study was carried out in order to assess the environmental impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. The obtained results show that Phosphogypsum stacks did not increase the concentration of radionuclides, i.e. Radon-222 and Radium-226, the external exposed dose of gamma rays, as well as the concentration of heavy metals in the components of the ecosystem, soil, plant, water and air, as their concentrations did not exceed the permissible limits. However, the concentration of fluorine in the upper layer of soil, located to the east of the Phosphogypsum stacks, increased sufficiently, especially in the dry period of the year. Also, the concentration of fluoride in plants growing up near-by the Phosphogypsum stacks was too high, exceeded the permissible levels. This was reflected in poising plants and animals, feeding on the plants. Consequently, increasing the concentration of fluoride in soil and plants is the main impact of Phosphogypsum stacks on the surrounding ecosystem. Minimising this effect could be achieved by establishing a 50 meter wide protection zone surrounding the Phosphogypsum stacks, which has to be planted with non palatable trees, such as pine and cypress, forming wind barriers. Increasing the concentrations of heavy metals and fluoride in infiltrated water around the stacks was high; hence cautions must be taken to prevent its usage in any application or disposal in adjacent rivers and leaks.(author)

  9. The Role of Father Involvement and Marital Satisfaction in the Development of Family Interactive Abilities: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Alessandra; Parolin, Micol; Sacchi, Chiara; De Palo, Francesca; Vieno, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the development of family interactions from pregnancy to preschool age in a longitudinal perspective, using multilevel analysis. Also, it explored the impact of couple relationship and father involvement in childcare on the developmental trend of the quality of mother-father-child interactions. One hundred and three primiparous families were assessed at 7th month of pregnancy, 4th, 9th, and 18th months of child's life and during preschool age (36-48th), using the observational procedure named, Lausanne Trilogue Play. Parents' perception of marital satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic Adjustment Scale at each point of measure; moreover, in the postnatal assessment, parents completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Results showed that family interactions increase over time. Secondly, a decrease of marital adjustment is associated with an improvement of the quality of family interactions. Moreover, father involvement predicts the quality of family interactions from the earliest stages of child's life. In a longitudinal perspective, family interactions and marital quality show opposite developmental trends and father's involvement represents a particularly important feature of the family.

  10. Interaction involving the thymus and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, immunomodulation by hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana 2

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfectly projected and impeccably created, the endocrine system precisely regulates the most delicate immune processes. The immune and neuroendocrine systems are two essential physiological components of mammalian organisms important for protection from the infection and disease on one hand, and on the other, for regulation of metabolism and other physiological activities; namely, the evidence has been found indicating that there is active and dynamic collaboration of these systems in the execution of their designated functions [1, 2,4]. These interactions occur at many stages of embryonic and neonatal development, and they are a continual part of normal homeostatic balance necessary to preserve health. There is communication between neuroendocrine and immune system via cytokines, neurotransmitters and peptide hormones which act, in both systems, through the same receptor molecules (Scheme 1. Many investigators have reported the increased thymic weight in experimental animals due to both castration and adrenalectomy [4]. The discovery from 1898 revealing that thymus was enlarged in castrated rabbits has been considered the embryo of hybrid medical discipline, i.e. the immunoendocrinology [1]. In the actual literature, at least in that available to us, it has not been noted that the appearance of the eunuchs, i.e. the castrates, stimulated the analytical approach to this phenomenon. Endocrine influences appear to be a part of bidirectional circuitry, namely, thymic hormones also regulate the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. Physiologically, thymus is under neuroendocrine control. It is apparent that the circulating levels of distinct peptide hormones are necessary to maintain a series of biological functions related both to micro environmental and lymphoid cells of the organ. The neuroendocrine control of the thymus appears to be extremely complex, with apparent presence of complete intrathymic biological circuitry involving the

  11. Maximum supercurrent in two Josephson-junction stacks: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carapella, G; Costabile, G; Sakai, S

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between two long Josephson junctions in a stack is investigated experimentally in the absence of applied magnetic field. Mutual interaction is observed when both junctions or only one junction in the stack is in the zero voltage state. To account for the observed phenomena we...... propose a model that takes into account the nonuniform self-fields generated by the bias currents....

  12. Electrochemical Detection in Stacked Paper Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  13. Metabolomic profiling identifies potential pathways involved in the interaction of iron homeostasis with glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Stechemesser

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that high serum ferritin concentrations are linked to impaired glucose homeostasis in subjects with the MetS. Iron excess is associated to distinct changes in the serum concentrations of phosphatidylcholine subsets. A pathway involving sarcosine and citrulline also may be involved in iron-induced impairment of glucose metabolism.

  14. Perspectives of Foster Parents on Interactions and Involvement with K-12 Public Schools in a County in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein-Steele, Eric Charles

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) understand foster parents' perceptions of their parental roles and their involvement in their foster children's academic work; (b) understand their perceptions of their experiences in interacting with their foster children's public school; and (c) provide suggestions to enhance the parent-school collaboration…

  15. Attachment style differences in online relationship involvement: an examination of interaction characteristics and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiali

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated attachment style differences in online relationships with regard to interaction characteristics and relationship satisfaction. The effect of relationship type was also taken into account in these investigations. The findings suggested that attachment style differences in interaction breadth and depth were present only in casual friendships. Preoccupied and dismissing individuals had a lower level of interaction breadth and depth than did secure and fearful individuals within this type of online relationship. A same pattern of attachment style differences was found in relationship satisfaction of casual online friendships.

  16. Continuous atom laser with Bose-Einstein condensates involving three-body interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, A V; Michinel, H; Novoa, D [Area de Optica, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 (Spain); Olivieri, D N, E-mail: avcarpentier@uvigo.e [Area de Linguaxes e sistemas informaticos, Escola Superior de EnxenerIa Informatica, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 (Spain)

    2010-05-28

    We demonstrate, through numerical simulations, the emission of a coherent continuous matter wave of constant amplitude from a Bose-Einstein condensate in a shallow optical dipole trap. The process is achieved by spatial control of the variations of the scattering length along the trapping axis, including elastic three-body interactions due to dipole interactions. In our approach, the outcoupling mechanism is atomic interactions, and thus, the trap remains unaltered. We calculate analytically the parameters for the experimental implementation of this continuous wave atom laser.

  17. CMEIAS-Aided Microscopy of the Spatial Ecology of Individual Bacterial Interactions Involving Cell-to-Cell Communication within Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B. Dazzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how the quantitative analytical tools of CMEIAS image analysis software can be used to investigate in situ microbial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms. Various spatial pattern analyses applied to the data extracted from the 2-dimensional coordinate positioning of individual bacterial cells at single-cell resolution indicate that microbial colonization within natural biofilms is not a spatially random process, but rather involves strong positive interactions between communicating cells that influence their neighbors’ aggregated colonization behavior. Geostatistical analysis of the data provide statistically defendable estimates of the micrometer scale and interpolation maps of the spatial heterogeneity and local intensity at which these microbial interactions autocorrelate with their spatial patterns of distribution. Including in situ image analysis in cell communication studies fills an important gap in understanding the spatially dependent microbial ecophysiology that governs the intensity of biofilm colonization and its unique architecture.

  18. CMEIAS-aided microscopy of the spatial ecology of individual bacterial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzo, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how the quantitative analytical tools of CMEIAS image analysis software can be used to investigate in situ microbial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms. Various spatial pattern analyses applied to the data extracted from the 2-dimensional coordinate positioning of individual bacterial cells at single-cell resolution indicate that microbial colonization within natural biofilms is not a spatially random process, but rather involves strong positive interactions between communicating cells that influence their neighbors' aggregated colonization behavior. Geostatistical analysis of the data provide statistically defendable estimates of the micrometer scale and interpolation maps of the spatial heterogeneity and local intensity at which these microbial interactions autocorrelate with their spatial patterns of distribution. Including in situ image analysis in cell communication studies fills an important gap in understanding the spatially dependent microbial ecophysiology that governs the intensity of biofilm colonization and its unique architecture.

  19. The required interactions among institutions involved with Research and Development in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, X.; Medeiros, J.C.; Szechtman, M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the form which CEPEL (Brazilian Federal Research Center in Electric Energy) works for the Brazilian electric system, the interaction with associates, especially with ELETROBRAS (the Federal holding company in Brazil), the modern way of CEPEL operation and interactions with clients, the partnership in Research and Development, the CEPEL philosophy of transferring technology to its clients, and the cost-benefit analysis of Research and Development activities. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development

    OpenAIRE

    Pignatello, R.; Musumeci, T.; Basile, L.; Carbone, C.; Puglisi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physi...

  1. Design, Utility, and History of the Colorado Adoption Project: Examples Involving Adjustment Interactions1

    OpenAIRE

    Rhea, Sally Ann; Bricker, Josh B.; Corley, Robin P.; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal study in behavioral development, and discusses how adoption studies may be used to assess genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences for important developmental outcomes. Previous CAP research on adjustment outcomes in childhood and adolescence which found significant interactions, including gene-environment interactions, is reviewed. New research suggests mediating effects of menarche and religiosity...

  2. Predictive Mechanisms Are Not Involved the Same Way during Human-Human vs. Human-Machine Interactions: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaï, Aïsha; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Grynszpan, Ouriel; Berberian, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, interactions with others do not only involve human peers but also automated systems. Many studies suggest that the motor predictive systems that are engaged during action execution are also involved during joint actions with peers and during other human generated action observation. Indeed, the comparator model hypothesis suggests that the comparison between a predicted state and an estimated real state enables motor control, and by a similar functioning, understanding and anticipating observed actions. Such a mechanism allows making predictions about an ongoing action, and is essential to action regulation, especially during joint actions with peers. Interestingly, the same comparison process has been shown to be involved in the construction of an individual's sense of agency, both for self-generated and observed other human generated actions. However, the implication of such predictive mechanisms during interactions with machines is not consensual, probably due to the high heterogeneousness of the automata used in the experimentations, from very simplistic devices to full humanoid robots. The discrepancies that are observed during human/machine interactions could arise from the absence of action/observation matching abilities when interacting with traditional low-level automata. Consistently, the difficulties to build a joint agency with this kind of machines could stem from the same problem. In this context, we aim to review the studies investigating predictive mechanisms during social interactions with humans and with automated artificial systems. We will start by presenting human data that show the involvement of predictions in action control and in the sense of agency during social interactions. Thereafter, we will confront this literature with data from the robotic field. Finally, we will address the upcoming issues in the field of robotics related to automated systems aimed at acting as collaborative agents.

  3. Predictive Mechanisms Are Not Involved the Same Way during Human-Human vs. Human-Machine Interactions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïsha Sahaï

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, interactions with others do not only involve human peers but also automated systems. Many studies suggest that the motor predictive systems that are engaged during action execution are also involved during joint actions with peers and during other human generated action observation. Indeed, the comparator model hypothesis suggests that the comparison between a predicted state and an estimated real state enables motor control, and by a similar functioning, understanding and anticipating observed actions. Such a mechanism allows making predictions about an ongoing action, and is essential to action regulation, especially during joint actions with peers. Interestingly, the same comparison process has been shown to be involved in the construction of an individual's sense of agency, both for self-generated and observed other human generated actions. However, the implication of such predictive mechanisms during interactions with machines is not consensual, probably due to the high heterogeneousness of the automata used in the experimentations, from very simplistic devices to full humanoid robots. The discrepancies that are observed during human/machine interactions could arise from the absence of action/observation matching abilities when interacting with traditional low-level automata. Consistently, the difficulties to build a joint agency with this kind of machines could stem from the same problem. In this context, we aim to review the studies investigating predictive mechanisms during social interactions with humans and with automated artificial systems. We will start by presenting human data that show the involvement of predictions in action control and in the sense of agency during social interactions. Thereafter, we will confront this literature with data from the robotic field. Finally, we will address the upcoming issues in the field of robotics related to automated systems aimed at acting as collaborative agents.

  4. Involvement of the amygdala in memory storage: Interaction with other brain systems

    OpenAIRE

    McGaugh, James L.; Cahill, Larry; Roozendaal, Benno

    1996-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the amygdala is involved in affectively influenced memory. The central hypothesis guiding the research reviewed in this paper is that emotional arousal activates the amygdala and that such activation results in the modulation of memory storage occurring in other brain regions. Several lines of evidence support this view. First, the effects of stress-related hormones (epinephrine and glucocorticoids) are mediated by influences involving ...

  5. Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography for bioseparation and responsive polymer ligands involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingling; Peng, Rong; Chen, Xiaonong

    2017-09-01

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is a rapid growing bioseparation technique, which separates biomolecules, such as therapeutic proteins and antibodys, based on the reversible hydrophobic interaction between immobilized hydrophobic ligands on chromatographic resin spheres and non-polar regions of solute molecule. In this review, the fundamental concepts of HIC and the factors that may affect purification efficiency of HIC is summarized, followed by the comparison of HIC with affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC) combines the advantages of HIC and membrane process and has showed great potential in bioseparation. For better understanding of HIMC, this review presents an overview of two main concerns about HIMC, i.e. membrane materials and hydrophobic ligands. Specifically, cellulose fiber-based membrane substrate and environment-responsive ligands are emphasized.

  6. Time-predictable Stack Caching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar

    completely. Thus, in systems with hard deadlines the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the real-time software running on them needs to be bounded. Modern architectures use features such as pipelining and caches for improving the average performance. These features, however, make the WCET analysis more...... addresses, provides an opportunity to predict and tighten the WCET of accesses to data in caches. In this thesis, we introduce the time-predictable stack cache design and implementation within a time-predictable processor. We introduce several optimizations to our design for tightening the WCET while...... keeping the timepredictability of the design intact. Moreover, we provide a solution for reducing the cost of context switching in a system using the stack cache. In design of these caches, we use custom hardware and compiler support for delivering time-predictable stack data accesses. Furthermore...

  7. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M.; Braun, A.; Koetz, R.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  8. Biophysical tools to monitor enzyme-ligand interactions of enzymes involved in vitamin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulli, A; Abell, C

    2005-08-01

    Knowledge of biomolecular interactions is of importance to our understanding of biological processes such as enzyme catalysis and inhibition. Biophysical techniques enable sensitive detection and accurate characterization of binding and are therefore powerful tools in enzymology and rational drug design. The applications of NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry to study enzyme-ligand interactions will be discussed. Recent work on ketopantoate reductase, which catalyses an important step on the biosynthetic pathway to vitamin B5, is used to illustrate the potential of this approach.

  9. Potential Energy Curves and Collisions Integrals of Air Components. 2; Interactions Involving Ionized Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Collision integrals are fundamental quantities required to determine the transport properties of the environment surrounding aerospace vehicles in the upper atmosphere. These collision integrals can be determined as a function of temperature from the potential energy curves describing the atomic and molecular collisions. Ab initio calculations provide a practical method of computing the required interaction potentials. In this work we will discuss recent advances in scattering calculations with an emphasis on the accuracy that is obtainable. Results for interactions of the atoms and ionized atoms of nitrogen and oxygen will be reviewed and their application to the determination of transport properties, such as diffusion and viscosity coefficients, will be examined.

  10. A novel mechanism of hippocampal LTD involving muscarinic receptor-triggered interactions between AMPARs, GRIP and liprin-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Bryony A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term depression (LTD in the hippocampus can be induced by activation of different types of G-protein coupled receptors, in particular metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs and muscarinic acethycholine receptors (mAChRs. Since mGluRs and mAChRs activate the same G-proteins and isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC, it would be expected that these two forms of LTD utilise the same molecular mechanisms. However, we find a distinct mechanism of LTD involving GRIP and liprin-α. Results Whilst both forms of LTD require activation of tyrosine phosphatases and involve internalisation of AMPARs, they use different molecular interactions. Specifically, mAChR-LTD, but not mGluR-LTD, is blocked by peptides that inhibit the binding of GRIP to the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and the binding of GRIP to liprin-α. Thus, different receptors that utilise the same G-proteins can regulate AMPAR trafficking and synaptic efficacy via distinct molecular mechanisms. Conclusion Our results suggest that mAChR-LTD selectively involves interactions between GRIP and liprin-α. These data indicate a novel mechanism of synaptic plasticity in which activation of M1 receptors results in AMPAR endocytosis, via a mechanism involving interactions between GluA2, GRIP and liprin-α.

  11. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...... segmentations that capture different structural elements of the image. We also apply the method to collections of images with identical pixel dimensions, which we call image stacks. Here it turns out that the method is able to both identify groups of similar images in the stack, and to provide segmentations...

  12. Simulating Small-Scale Object Stacking Using Stack Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper; Kraus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension system to a closed-source, real-time physics engine for improving structured stacking behavior with small-scale objects such as wooden toy bricks. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated. The tests showed that the system is able to simulate several common...

  13. Interpreters' Involvement in Multi-Party Interactions: The Nature of Participation as Listener and Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Masato

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates two naturally occurring business interpreting situations where there are a number of participants. Unlike dialogue interpreting situations where there are only two primary interlocutors, the overall interaction shows more complexity in these multi-party situations. This, in turn, means that the interpreters' functions and…

  14. Microbial interactions involving sulfur bacteria : implications for the ecology and evolution of bacterial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmann, J; van Gemerden, H

    2000-01-01

    A major goal of microbial ecology is the identification and characterization of those microorganisms which govern transformations in natural ecosystems. This review summarizes our present knowledge of microbial interactions in the natural sulfur cycle. Central to the discussion is the recent

  15. Identification of sequence motifs involved in Dengue virus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnet Mary, J; Paramasivan, R; Shenbagarathai, R

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne virus infection, which remains a serious global public health problem. As there is no specific treatment or commercial vaccine available for effective control of the disease, the attempts on developing novel control strategies are underway. Viruses utilize the surface receptor proteins of host to enter into the cells. Though various proteins were said to be receptors of Dengue virus (DENV) using Virus Overlay Protein Binding Assay, the precise interaction between DENV and host is not explored. Understanding the structural features of domain III envelope glycoprotein would help in developing efficient antiviral inhibitors. Therefore, an attempt was made to identify the sequence motifs present in domain III envelope glycoprotein of Dengue virus. Computational analysis revealed that the NGR motif is present in the domain III envelope glycoprotein of DENV-1 and DENV-3. Similarly, DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-4 were found to contain Yxxphi motif which is a tyrosine-based sorting signal responsible for the interaction with a mu subunit of adaptor protein complex. High-throughput virtual screening resulted in five compounds as lead molecules based on glide score, which ranges from -4.664 to -6.52 kcal/Mol. This computational prediction provides an additional tool for understanding the virus-host interactions and helps to identify potential targets in the host. Further, experimental evidence is warranted to confirm the virus-host interactions and also inhibitory activity of reported lead compounds.

  16. Language learning, recasts, and interaction involving AAC: background and potential for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael T; Soto, Gloria; Nelson, Keith

    2017-03-01

    For children with typical development, language is learned through everyday discursive interaction. Adults mediate child participation in such interactions through the deployment of a range of co-constructive strategies, including repeating, questioning, prompting, expanding, and reformulating the child's utterances. Adult reformulations of child utterances, also known as recasts, have also been shown to relate to the acquisition of linguistic structures in children with language and learning disabilities and children and adults learning a foreign language. In this paper we discuss the theoretical basis and empirical evidence for the use of different types of recasts as a major language learning catalyst, and what may account for their facilitative effects. We consider the occurrence of different types of recasts in AAC-mediated interactions and their potential for language facilitation, within the typical operational and linguistic constraints of such interactions. We also consider the benefit of explicit and corrective forms of recasts for language facilitation in conversations with children who rely on AAC. We conclude by outlining future research directions.

  17. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John; Bogart, Kathleen; Tylén, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    , and with three different naïve participants without MS after the intervention. Rapport was assessed by self-report and by behavioral coders who rated videos of the interactions. Individual nonverbal behavior was assessed via behavioral coders, while verbal behavior was automatically extracted from the sound...

  18. The Interactive Effects of Perceived Parental Involvement and Personality on Teacher Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the relations between teachers' perception of parental involvement and teacher satisfaction. It further aims to investigate how this relationship may be moderated by interpersonal personality traits. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was conducted; participants were 572 classroom teachers who teach at…

  19. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  20. The Direct FuelCell™ stack engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, J.; Farooque, M.; Maru, H.

    FuelCell Energy (FCE) has developed power plants in the size range of 300 kW to 3 MW for distributed power generation. Field-testing of the sub-megawatt plants is underway. The FCE power plants are based on its Direct FuelCell™ (DFC) technology. This is so named because of its ability to generate electricity directly from a hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, by reforming it inside the fuel cell stack itself. All FCE products use identical 8000 cm 2 cell design, approximately 350-400 cells per stack, external gas manifolds, and similar stack compression systems. The difference lies in the packaging of the stacks inside the stack module. The sub-megawatt system stack module contains a single horizontal stack whereas the MW-class stack module houses four identical vertical stacks. The commonality of the design, internal reforming features, and atmospheric operation simplify the system design, reduce cost, improve efficiency, increase reliability and maintainability. The product building-block stack design has been advanced through three full-size stack operations at company's headquarters in Danbury, CT. The initial proof-of-concept of the full-size stack design was verified in 1999, followed by a 1.5 year of endurance verification in 2000-2001, and currently a value-engineered stack version is in operation. This paper discusses the design features, important engineering solutions implemented, and test results of FCE's full-size DFC stacks.

  1. Using interactive graphical and technological strategies for EFL reading comprehension: A case study involving engineering students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Valeska Barraza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study engaged a group of engineering students in the use of interactive graphical and technological strategies called IGOs (interactive, graphic organisers software in order to improve their level of EFL reading comprehension. The learners were asked to use three different types of IGOs, causes and effects, a sequence of events and pros and cons. Data was gathered through an opinion’s survey with the intention of collecting and evaluating the students’ perceptions on the use of the IGOs software. Findings revealed that most of the learners answered positively. Students also expressed they wanted more opportunities to use this software; because they not only could improve their scores but also, they enjoyed the experience they had using the new strategies software.

  2. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C Horn

    Full Text Available Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  3. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Katherine C; Eubanks, Micky D; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  4. Coil–globule transition of a polymer involved in excluded-volume interactions with macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Kenta; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Polymers adopt extended coil and compact globule states according to the balance between entropy and interaction energies. The transition of a polymer between an extended coil state and compact globule state can be induced by changing thermodynamic force such as temperature to alter the energy/entropy balance. Previously, this transition was theoretically studied by taking into account the excluded-volume interaction between monomers of a polymer chain using the partition function. For binary mixtures of a long polymer and short polymers, the coil-globule transition can be induced by changing the concentration of the shorter polymers. Here, we investigate the transition caused by short polymers by generalizing the partition function of the long polymer to include the excluded-volume effect of short polymers. The coil-globule transition is studied as a function of the concentration of mixed polymers by systematically varying Flory’s χ-parameters. We show that the transition is caused by the interplay between the excluded-volume interaction and the dispersion state of short polymers in the solvent. We also reveal that the same results can be obtained by combining the mixing entropy and elastic energy if the volume of a long polymer is properly defined

  5. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; Bogart, Kathleen; Tylén, Kristian; Krueger, Joel; Bech, Morten; Østergaard, John Rosendahl; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius syndrome (MS) to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g., gestures) to compensate for their lack of facial expressivity. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with three naïve participants without MS before the intervention, and with three different naïve participants without MS after the intervention. Rapport was assessed by self-report and by behavioral coders who rated videos of the interactions. Individual non-verbal behavior was assessed via behavioral coders, whereas verbal behavior was automatically extracted from the sound files. Alignment was assessed using cross recurrence quantification analysis and mixed-effects models. The results showed that observer-coded rapport was greater after the intervention, whereas self-reported rapport did not change significantly. Observer-coded gesture and expressivity increased in participants with and without MS, whereas overall linguistic alignment decreased. Fidgeting and repetitiveness of verbal behavior also decreased in both groups. In sum, the intervention may impact non-verbal and verbal behavior in participants with and without MS, increasing rapport as well as overall gesturing, while decreasing alignment.

  6. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R.; Musumeci, T.; Basile, L.; Carbone, C.; Puglisi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy. PMID:21430952

  7. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, R; Musumeci, T; Basile, L; Carbone, C; Puglisi, G

    2011-01-01

    Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy.

  8. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eMichael

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius Syndrome (MS to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g. gestures to compensate for their lack of facial expressiveness. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with three naïve participants without MS before the intervention, and with three different naïve participants without MS after the intervention. Rapport was assessed by self-report and by behavioral coders who rated videos of the interactions. Individual nonverbal behavior was assessed via behavioral coders, while verbal behavior was automatically extracted from the sound files. Alignment was assessed using cross recurrence quantification analysis and mixed effects models. The results showed that observer-coded rapport was greater after the intervention, whereas self-reported rapport did not change significantly. Observer-coded gesture and expressivity increased in participants with and without MS, while overall linguistic alignment decreased. Fidgeting and repetitiveness of verbal behavior also decreased in both groups. In sum, the intervention may impact nonverbal and verbal behavior in participants with and without MS, increasing rapport as well as overall gesturing, while decreasing alignment.

  9. Biomembrane models and drug-biomembrane interaction studies: Involvement in drug design and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pignatello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact with many different biological membranes goes along the destiny of a drug after its systemic administration. From the circulating macrophage cells to the vessel endothelium, to more complex absorption barriers, the interaction of a biomolecule with these membranes largely affects its rate and time of biodistribution in the body and at the target sites. Therefore, investigating the phenomena occurring on the cell membranes, as well as their different interaction with drugs in the physiological or pathological conditions, is important to exploit the molecular basis of many diseases and to identify new potential therapeutic strategies. Of course, the complexity of the structure and functions of biological and cell membranes, has pushed researchers toward the proposition and validation of simpler two- and three-dimensional membrane models, whose utility and drawbacks will be discussed. This review also describes the analytical methods used to look at the interactions among bioactive compounds with biological membrane models, with a particular accent on the calorimetric techniques. These studies can be considered as a powerful tool for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical technology, in the steps of designing new drugs and optimizing the activity and safety profile of compounds already used in the therapy.

  10. A receptionist robot for Brazilian people: study on interaction involving illiterates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trovato Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The receptionist job, consisting in providing useful indications to visitors in a public office, is one possible employment of social robots. The design and the behaviour of robots expected to be integrated in human societies are crucial issues, and they are dependent on the culture and society in which the robot should be deployed. We study the factors that could be used in the design of a receptionist robot in Brazil, a country with a mix of races and considerable gaps in economic and educational level. This inequality results in the presence of functional illiterate people, unable to use reading, writing and numeracy skills. We invited Brazilian people, including a group of functionally illiterate subjects, to interact with two types of receptionists differing in physical appearance (agent v mechanical robot and in the sound of the voice (human like v mechanical. Results gathered during the interactions point out a preference for the agent, for the human-like voice and a more intense reaction to stimuli by illiterates. These results provide useful indications that should be considered when designing a receptionist robot, as well as insights on the effect of illiteracy in the interaction.

  11. VIGS for dissecting mechanisms involved in the symbiotic interaction of microbes with plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants which are difficult to transform. The pea early browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. Here, a PEBV-VIGS p......-VIGS protocol is described which is suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea for genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium....

  12. A Nitrilase-Like Protein Interacts with GCC Box DNA-Binding Proteins Involved in Ethylene and Defense Responses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Narasimhan, Meena L.; Samson, Teresa; Coca, Maria A.; Huh, Gyung-Hye; Zhou, Jianmin; Martin, Gregory B.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Bressan, Ray A.

    1998-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive element-binding proteins (EREBPs) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) bind to the GCC box of many pathogenesis-related (PR) gene promoters, including osmotin (PR-5). The two GCC boxes on the osmotin promoter are known to be required, but not sufficient, for maximal ethylene responsiveness. EREBPs participate in the signal transduction pathway leading from exogenous ethylene application and pathogen infection to PR gene induction. In this study EREBP3 was used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid interaction trap with a tobacco cDNA library as prey to isolate signal transduction pathway intermediates that interact with EREBPs. One of the strongest interactors was found to encode a nitrilase-like protein (NLP). Nitrilase is an enzyme involved in auxin biosynthesis. NLP interacted with other EREBP family members, namely tobacco EREBP2 and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) Pti4/5/6. The EREBP2-EREBP3 interaction with NLP required part of the DNA-binding domain. The specificity of interaction was further confirmed by protein-binding studies in solution. We propose that the EREBP-NLP interaction serves to regulate PR gene expression by sequestration of EREBPs in the cytoplasm. PMID:9808731

  13. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  14. Multilayer Piezoelectric Stack Actuator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher M.; Aldrich, Jack B.; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xioaqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to use actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of fractions of a nanometer. For this purpose, multilayer piezoelectric stacks are being considered as actuators for driving these precision mechanisms. In this study, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and extreme temperatures and voltages. AC signal testing included impedance, capacitance and dielectric loss factor of each actuator as a function of the small-signal driving sinusoidal frequency, and the ambient temperature. DC signal testing includes leakage current and displacement as a function of the applied DC voltage. The applied DC voltage was increased to over eight times the manufacturers' specifications to investigate the correlation between leakage current and breakdown voltage. Resonance characterization as a function of temperature was done over a temperature range of -180C to +200C which generally exceeded the manufacturers' specifications. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators from one manufacturer were driven by a 60volt, 2 kHz sine-wave for ten billion cycles. The tests were performed using a Lab-View controlled automated data acquisition system that monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The measurements included the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current and the analysis of the experimental results will be presented.

  15. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  16. Involvement of the amygdala in memory storage: Interaction with other brain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L.; Cahill, Larry; Roozendaal, Benno

    1996-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the amygdala is involved in affectively influenced memory. The central hypothesis guiding the research reviewed in this paper is that emotional arousal activates the amygdala and that such activation results in the modulation of memory storage occurring in other brain regions. Several lines of evidence support this view. First, the effects of stress-related hormones (epinephrine and glucocorticoids) are mediated by influences involving the amygdala. In rats, lesions of the amygdala and the stria terminalis block the effects of posttraining administration of epinephrine and glucocorticoids on memory. Furthermore, memory is enhanced by posttraining intra-amygdala infusions of drugs that activate β-adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors. Additionally, infusion of β-adrenergic blockers into the amygdala blocks the memory-modulating effects of epinephrine and glucocorticoids, as well as those of drugs affecting opiate and GABAergic systems. Second, an intact amygdala is not required for expression of retention. Inactivation of the amygdala prior to retention testing (by posttraining lesions or drug infusions) does not block retention performance. Third, findings of studies using human subjects are consistent with those of animal experiments. β-Blockers and amygdala lesions attenuate the effects of emotional arousal on memory. Additionally, 3-week recall of emotional material is highly correlated with positron-emission tomography activation (cerebral glucose metabolism) of the right amygdala during encoding. These findings provide strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that the amygdala is involved in modulating long-term memory storage. PMID:8942964

  17. Ly49-dependent NK cell licensing and effector inhibition involve the same interaction site on MHC ligands1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taewoong; Ferris, Stephen T.; Matsumoto, Naoki; Poursine-Laurent, Jennifer; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    NK cells become functionally competent to be triggered by their activation receptors through the interaction of NK cell inhibitory receptors with their cognate self-MHC ligands, an MHC-dependent educational process termed “licensing.” For example, Ly49A+ NK cells become licensed by the interaction of the Ly49A inhibitory receptor with its MHC class I ligand, H2Dd while Ly49C+ NK cells are licensed by H2Kb. Structural studies indicate that the Ly49A inhibitory receptor may interact with two sites, termed site 1 and site 2, on its H2Dd ligand. Site 2 encompasses the α1/α2/α3 domains of the H2Dd heavy chain and β2-microglobulin (β2m), and is the functional binding site for the Ly49A in effector inhibition. Ly49C functionally interacts with a similar site in H2Kb. However, it is currently unknown whether this same site is involved in Ly49A or Ly49C-dependent licensing. Herein, we produced transgenic C57BL/6 mice expressing wild type or site 2 mutant H2Dd molecules and studied whether or not Ly49A+ NK cells are licensed. We also investigated Ly49A and Ly49C-dependent NK licensing in murine β2m-deficient mice which are transgenic for human β2m which has species-specific amino acid substitutions in β2m. Our data from these transgenic mice indicate that site 2 on self-MHC is critical for Ly49A and Ly49C-dependent NK cell licensing. Thus, NK cell licensing through Ly49 involves specific interactions with its MHC ligand that are similar to those involved in effector inhibition. PMID:21335486

  18. Wave-Particle Interactions Involving Correlated Electron Bursts and Whistler Chorus in Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, N.; Schriver, D.; Roeder, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During the recovery phase of substorm plasma injections, the Van Allen Probes commonly observe events of quasi-periodic energetic electron bursts correlating with simultaneously detected upper-band, whistler-mode chorus emissions. These electron bursts exhibit narrow ranges of pitch angles (75-80° and 100-105°) and energies (20-40 keV). Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) emissions are also commonly detected, but typically do not display correlation with the electron bursts. To examine sources of free energy and the generation of these wave emissions, an observed electron velocity distribution on January 13, 2013 is used as the starting condition for a particle in cell (PIC) simulation. Effects of temperature anisotropy (perpendicular temperature greater than parallel temperature), the presence of a loss cone and a cold electron population on the generation of whistler and ECH waves are examined to understand wave generation and nonlinear interactions with the particle population. These nonlinear interactions produce energy diffusion along with strong pitch angle scattering into the loss cone on the order of milliseconds, which is faster than a typical bounce period of seconds. To examine the quasi-periodic nature of the electron bursts, a loss-cone recycling technique is implemented to model the effects of the periodic emptying of the loss cone and electron injection on the growth of whistler and ECH waves. The results of the simulations are compared to the Van Allen Probe observations to determine electron acceleration, heating and transport in Earth's radiation belts due to wave-particle interactions.

  19. Dissecting molecular interactions involved in recognition of target disulfides by the barley thioredoxin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Maeda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    thioredoxin reductase. HvTrxh2 M88G and M88A adjacent to the invariant cis-proline lost efficiency in both BASI disulfide reduction and recycling by thioredoxin reductase. These effects were further pronounced in M88P lacking a backbone NH group. Remarkably, HvTrxh2 E86R in the same loop displayed overall...... reductase. The findings support important roles in target recognition of backbone-backbone hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions and are discussed in relation to earlier structural and functional studies of thioredoxins and related proteins. © 2012 American Chemical Society....

  20. Interactions Between Alcohol Metabolism Genes and Religious Involvement in Association With Maximum Drinks and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Dick, Danielle M; Almasy, Laura; Chan, Grace; Aliev, Fazil; Schuckit, Marc A; Scott, Denise M; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Bierut, Laura J; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2016-05-01

    Variations in the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes are associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence in multiple populations. Additionally, some environmental factors have been recognized as modifiers of these relationships. This study examined the modifying effect of religious involvement on relationships between ADH gene variants and alcohol consumption-related phenotypes. Subjects were African American, European American, and Hispanic American adults with lifetime exposure to alcohol (N = 7,716; 53% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Genetic markers included ADH1Brs1229984, ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, ADH4-rs1042364, and ADH4-rs1800759. Phenotypes were maximum drinks consumed in a 24-hour period and total number of alcohol dependence symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Religious involvement was defined by self-reported religious services attendance. Both religious involvement and ADH1B-rs1229984 were negatively associated with the number of maximum drinks consumed and the number of lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed. The interactions of religious involvement with ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, and ADH4-rs1042364 were significantly associated with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms. Risk variants had weaker associations with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms as a function of increasing religious involvement. This study provided initial evidence of a modifying effect for religious involvement on relationships between ADH variants and maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms.

  1. Sperm whale predator-prey interactions involve chasing and buzzing, but no acoustic stunning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fais, A; Johnson, M.; Wilson, M.

    2016-01-01

    The sperm whale carries a hypertrophied nose that generates powerful clicks for long-range echolocation. However, it remains a conundrum how this bizarrely shaped apex predator catches its prey. Several hypotheses have been advanced to propose both active and passive means to acquire prey...... prey capture. Rather, buzzing involves high-frequency, low amplitude clicks well suited to provide high-resolution biosonar updates during the last stages of capture. The high temporal resolution helps to guide motor patterns during occasionally prolonged chases in which prey are eventually subdued...

  2. Hsp12p and PAU genes are involved in ecological interactions between natural yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Damaríz; Berná, Luisa; Stefanini, Irene; Baruffini, Enrico; Bergerat, Agnes; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2015-08-01

    The coexistence of different yeasts in a single vineyard raises the question on how they communicate and why slow growers are not competed out. Genetically modified laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are extensively used to investigate ecological interactions, but little is known about the genes regulating cooperation and competition in ecologically relevant settings. Here, we present evidences of Hsp12p-dependent altruistic and contact-dependent competitive interactions between two natural yeast isolates. Hsp12p is released during cell death for public benefit by a fast-growing strain that also produces a killer toxin to inhibit growth of a slow grower that can enjoy the benefits of released Hsp12p. We also show that the protein Pau5p is essential in the defense against the killer effect. Our results demonstrate that the combined action of Hsp12p, Pau5p and a killer toxin is sufficient to steer a yeast community. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular players involved in the interaction between beneficial bacteria and the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arancha eHevia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human gastrointestinal tract is a very complex ecosystem, in which there is a continuous interaction between nutrients, host cells, and microorganisms. The gut microbiota comprises trillions of microbes that have been selected during evolution on the basis of their functionality and capacity to survive in, and adapt to, the intestinal environment. Host bacteria and our immune system constantly sense and react to one another. In this regard, commensal microbes contribute to gut homeostasis, whereas the necessary responses are triggered against enteropathogens. Some representatives of our gut microbiota have beneficial effects on human health. Some of the most important roles of these microbes are to help to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier, to provide nutrients such as vitamins, or to protect against pathogens. In addition, the interaction between commensal microbiota and the mucosal immune system is crucial for proper immune function. This process is mainly performed via the pattern recognition receptors of epithelial cells, such as Toll-like or Nod-like receptors, which are able to recognize the molecular effectors that are produced by intestinal microbes. These effectors mediate processes that can ameliorate certain inflammatory gut disorders, discriminate between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, or increase the number of immune cells or their pattern recognition receptors. This review intends to summarize the molecular players produced by probiotic bacteria, notably Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, but also other very promising potential probiotics, which affect the human immune system.

  4. Bench to Bed Evidences for Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interactions Involving Oseltamivir and Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oseltamivir (OA, an ethyl ester prodrug of oseltamivir carboxylate (OC, is clinically used as a potent and selective inhibitor of neuraminidase. Chinese medicines have been advocated to combine with conventional drug for avian influenza. The current study aims to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of a Chinese medicine formula, namely, Yin Qiao San and Sang Ju Yin (CMF1, commonly used for anti-influenza in combination with OA in both rat and human, and to reveal the underlined mechanisms. It was found that although Cmax, AUC and urinary recovery of OC, as well as metabolic ratio (AUCOC/AUCOA, were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner following combination use of CMF1 and OA in rat studies (P<0.01, such coadministration in 14 healthy volunteers only resulted in a trend of minor decrease in the related parameters. Further mechanistic studies found that although CMF1 could reduce absorption and metabolism of OA, it appears to enhance viral inhibition of OA (P<0.01. In summary, although there was potential interaction between OA and CMF1 found in rat studies, its clinical impact was expected to be minimal. The coadministration of OA and CMF1 at the clinical recommended dosages is, therefore, considered to be safe.

  5. Molecular Players Involved in the Interaction Between Beneficial Bacteria and the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, Arancha; Delgado, Susana; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is a very complex ecosystem, in which there is a continuous interaction between nutrients, host cells, and microorganisms. The gut microbiota comprises trillions of microbes that have been selected during evolution on the basis of their functionality and capacity to survive in, and adapt to, the intestinal environment. Host bacteria and our immune system constantly sense and react to one another. In this regard, commensal microbes contribute to gut homeostasis, whereas the necessary responses are triggered against enteropathogens. Some representatives of our gut microbiota have beneficial effects on human health. Some of the most important roles of these microbes are to help to maintain the integrity of the mucosal barrier, to provide nutrients such as vitamins, or to protect against pathogens. In addition, the interaction between commensal microbiota and the mucosal immune system is crucial for proper immune function. This process is mainly performed via the pattern recognition receptors of epithelial cells, such as Toll-like or Nod-like receptors, which are able to recognize the molecular effectors that are produced by intestinal microbes. These effectors mediate processes that can ameliorate certain inflammatory gut disorders, discriminate between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, or increase the number of immune cells or their pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review intends to summarize the molecular players produced by probiotic bacteria, notably Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, but also other very promising potential probiotics, which affect the human immune system.

  6. Characterization of an Opa interacting protein 5 involved in lung and esophageal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinuma, Junkichi; Akiyama, Hirohiko; Fujita, Masahiro; Hosokawa, Masao; Tsuchiya, Eiju; Kondo, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Daigo, Yataro

    2012-03-01

    To identify potential molecular targets for diagnosis, treatment and/or prevention of lung and esophageal carcinomas, we screened for genes that were overexpressed in tumors through gene expression analyses of 120 lung cancers and 19 esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas using a cDNA microarray consisting of 27,648 cDNA or expressed sequence tags. In this process, we identified a gene, Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5), to be highly transactivated in the majority of lung and esophageal cancers. Immunohistochemical staining using 336 archived non-small cell lung cancers and 305 esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas specimens demonstrated that OIP5 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis of lung and esophageal cancer patients (P = 0.0053 and 0.0168, respectively), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic value for non-small cell lung cancers (P = 0.0112). Suppression of OIP5 expression with siRNA effectively suppressed the growth of cancer cells, whereas the exogenous expression of OIP5 enhanced the growth of cancer cells. In addition, OIP5 protein is likely to be stabilized through its interaction with Raf1. OIP5 is a promising target for developing new prognostic biomarkers and anti-cancer drugs. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Wave-Particle Interactions involving Whistler/Chorus Waves in the Earth's Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, N.; Schriver, D.; Roeder, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Whistler mode chorus and electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are common in the Earth's radiation belt and have been detected by the Van Allen Probes at L 4-6 during the recovery of substorm plasma injections. During an event on January 13, 2013, quasi-periodic bursts of 16-40 keV electrons in very narrow, oblique ranges of pitch angles (75-80° and 100-105°) were observed by MagEIS, which were correlated with simultaneous bursts of upper-band, whistler-mode chorus waves. ECH emissions were also detected, but exhibited little correlation with the electron bursts. To understand the generation of these different wave emissions a linear theory and particle in cell (PIC) simulation study is being carried out using the observed velocity distribution functions as the starting point. Anisotropies and gradients in the distributions can lead to the generation of both whistler and ECH waves and the PIC simulations will be used to understand how these waves interact with the electrons non-linearly, which can lead to energy diffusion and pitch angle scattering. Comparisons between the simulation results and the Van Allen probe data will be made to determine acceleration, heating and transport of electrons in the radiation belt region due to wave-particle interactions.

  8. Do Identical Polar Diatomic Molecules Form Stacked or Linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 8. Do Identical Polar Diatomic Molecules Form Stacked or Linear Dimers?: Hydrogen Bonding is Not Just Dipole-Dipole Interactions. C W Williams Richard N Zare E Arunan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 8 August 2014 pp 704-712 ...

  9. Thermal entrance effects in a thermoacoustic stacked screen regenerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bühler, Simon; wilcox, D; Oosterhuis, Joris; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2014-01-01

    Thermoacoustic cryocoolers are of raising interest because they are cost effective and reliable. The underlying heat pumping process occurs in the regenerator, where a sound wave interacts with a solid matrix material. Stacked screens are frequently used to build regenerators for thermoacoustic

  10. Very Weak Signals (VWS detected by stacking method according to different astronomical periodicities (HiCum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Ruymbeke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A stacking method to detect very weak signals is introduced in this paper. This method is to stack observed data in different well known periodicities according to the astronomical clock since majority geophysical observations are time based. We validated this method by applying it in four different cases. Interactions behind the observed parameters become obviously after it is stacked in two diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periodical waves. Amplitude and phase variations will be also measurable when a sliding windows stacking is used. This could be an important reference to find precursors before some earthquakes and volcanic events, corresponding to attenuations of medium patterns.

  11. Identifying genes involved in the interaction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans with Maillard reaction products (MRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaha, Raniah Abdulmohsen

    Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycelemcomitcrns is a gram-negative bacterium that is a facultative anaerobe which can grow in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The bacteria cause localized aggressive periodontitis that can result in the loss of teeth and endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart valves. A rich medium is an essential requirement for its growth. There arc some difficulties associated with growing the bacteria as they easily switch from the rough to smooth phenotype under no specific conditions. The bacteria start to lose viability after about 19 hours of growth in broth or about three days on plates. Colonies in the dense part of the streak on plates die earlier. It was shown that acid secreted by the colonies is responsible for the loss of viability as the bacteria are extremely sensitive to low pH. Autoclaving the growth medium for A. actinomycetemcomitans causes the bacteria to grow slowly because of the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). A method has been developed to make the A. actinomycetemcomitans growth medium using the microwave instead of the autoclave. This method produces much less of the inhibitory product since the heating time is only six minutes, compared to more than an hour when using the autoclave. Two approaches were sought in this research. The first approach was the identification of genes responsible for the interaction between the MRP and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The gene responsible for this interaction was found to be a Lys M protein which is found in many genes responsible for the cell wall integrity. The second approach was to develop a new drug made of glucose and lysine with a minimum inhibitory concentration as 75mM.

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel Fusobacterium nucleatum adhesin involved in physical interaction and biofilm formation with Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno P; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-06-01

    To successfully colonize the oral cavity, bacteria must directly or indirectly adhere to available oral surfaces. Fusobacterium nucleatum plays an important role in oral biofilm community development due to its broad adherence abilities, serving as a bridge between members of the oral biofilm that cannot directly bind to each other. In our efforts to characterize the molecular mechanisms utilized by F. nucleatum to physically bind to key members of the oral community, we investigated the involvement of F. nucleatum outer membrane proteins in its ability to bind to the pioneer biofilm colonizer, Streptococcus gordonii. Here, we present evidence that in addition to the previously characterized fusobacterial adhesin RadD, the interaction between F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 and S. gordonii V288 involves a second outer membrane protein, which we named coaggregation mediating protein A (CmpA). We also characterized the role of CmpA in dual-species biofilm formation with S. gordonii V288, evaluated growth-phase-dependent as well as biofilm expression profiles of radD and cmpA, and confirmed an important role for CmpA, especially under biofilm growth conditions. Our findings underscore the complex set of specific interactions involved in physical binding and thus community integration of interacting bacterial species. This complex set of interactions could have critical implications for the formation and maturation of the oral biofilms in vivo, and could provide clues to the mechanism behind the distribution of organisms inside the human oral cavity. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development and durability of SOFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeaff, D.; Dinesen, A.R.; Mikkelsen, Lars; Nielsen, Karsten A.; Solvang, M.; Hendriksen, Peter V.

    2004-12-01

    The present project is a part of the Danish SOFC programme, which has the overall aim of establishing a Danish production of SOFC - cells, stacks and systems for economical and environmentally friendly power production. The aim of the present project was to develop and demonstrate (on a small scale, few cells, few thousand hours) a durable, thermally cyclable stack with high performance at 750 deg. C. Good progress towards this target has been made and demonstrated at the level of stack-elements (one cell between two interconnects) or small stacks (3 5 cells). Three different stacks or stack-elements have been operated for periods exceeding 3000 hr. The work has covered development of stack-components (seals, interconnects, coatings, contact layers), establishment of procedures for stack assembly and initiation, and detailed electrical characterisation with the aims of identifying performance limiting factors as well as long term durability. Further, post test investigations have been carried out to identify possible degradation mechanisms. (BA)

  14. Identification of interacting proteins of the TaFVE protein involved in spike development in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Sheng; Lu, Yu-Qing; Meng, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Rong-Zhi; Zhang, Han; Sun, Jia-Mei; Wang, Mu-Mu; Li, Li-Hui; Li, Ru-Yu

    2017-05-01

    WD-40 repeat-containing protein MSI4 (FVE)/MSI4 plays important roles in determining flowering time in Arabidopsis. However, its function is unexplored in wheat. In the present study, coimmunoprecipitation and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to MS/MS were used to identify FVE in wheat (TaFVE)-interacting or associated proteins. Altogether 89 differentially expressed proteins showed the same downregulated expression trends as TaFVE in wheat line 5660M. Among them, 62 proteins were further predicted to be involved in the interaction network of TaFVE and 11 proteins have been shown to be potential TaFVE interactors based on curated databases and experimentally determined in other species by the STRING. Both yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that histone deacetylase 6 and histone deacetylase 15 directly interacted with TaFVE. Multiple chromatin-remodelling proteins and polycomb group proteins were also identified and predicted to interact with TaFVE. These results showed that TaFVE directly interacted with multiple proteins to form multiple complexes to regulate spike developmental process, e.g. histone deacetylate, chromatin-remodelling and polycomb repressive complex 2 complexes. In addition, multiple flower development regulation factors (e.g. flowering locus K homology domain, flowering time control protein FPA, FY, flowering time control protein FCA, APETALA 1) involved in floral transition were also identified in the present study. Taken together, these results further elucidate the regulatory functions of TaFVE and help reveal the genetic mechanisms underlying wheat spike differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A C-code for the double folding interaction potential for reactions involving deformed target nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontchar, I. I.; Chushnyakova, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    We present a C-code designed to obtain the interaction potential between a spherical projectile nucleus and an axial-symmetrical deformed target nucleus and in particular to find the Coulomb barrier, by using the double folding model (DFM). The program calculates the nucleus-nucleus potential as a function of the distance between the centers of mass of colliding nuclei as well as of the angle between the axis of symmetry of the target nucleus and the beam direction. The most important output parameters are the Coulomb barrier energy and the radius. Since many researchers use a Woods-Saxon profile for the nuclear term of the potential we provide an option in our code for fitting the DFM potential by such a profile near the barrier. Program summaryProgram title: DFMDEF Catalogue identifier: AENI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2245 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 215442 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C. Computer: PC, Mac. Operating system: Windows XP (with the GCC-compiler version 2), MacOS, Linux. RAM: 100 MB with average parameters set Classification: 17.9. Nature of problem: The code calculates in a semimicroscopic way the bare interaction potential between a spherical projectile nucleus and a deformed but axially symmetric target nucleus as a function of the center of mass distance as well as of the angle between the axis of symmetry of the target nucleus and the beam direction. The height and the position of the Coulomb barrier are found. The calculated potential is approximated by a conventional Woods-Saxon profile near the barrier. Dependence of the barrier parameters upon the characteristics of the effective NN forces (like, e

  16. Involvement of salicylate and jasmonate signaling pathways in Arabidopsis interaction with Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makandar, Ragiba; Nalam, Vamsi; Chaturvedi, Ratnesh; Jeannotte, Richard; Sparks, Alexis A; Shah, Jyoti

    2010-07-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the principal causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of wheat and barley. This fungus can also colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease resistance was enhanced in transgenic wheat and Arabidopsis plants that constitutively overexpress the NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) gene, which regulates salicylic acid (SA) signaling and modulates the activation of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent defenses. Here, we provide several lines of evidence that reveal an important role for SA and JA signaling in Arabidopsis defense against F. graminearum. SA level was elevated in fungus-inoculated leaves, and SA application and biologically activated systemic acquired resistance enhanced resistance. Furthermore, the disruption of SA accumulation and signaling in the sid2 mutant and NahG transgenic plant, and the npr1 and wrky18 mutants, respectively, resulted in heightened susceptibility to this fungus in leaves and inflorescence. JA signaling was activated in parallel with SA signaling in the fungus-challenged plants. However, the hyperresistance of the JA pathway mutants opr3, coi1, and jar1 indicates that this pathway contributes to susceptibility. Genetic and biochemical experiments indicate that the JA pathway promotes disease by attenuating the activation of SA signaling in fungus-inoculated plants. However, the hypersusceptibility of the jar1 npr1 double mutant compared with the npr1 mutant suggests that JAR1 also contributes to defense, signifying a dichotomous role of JA and a JAR1-dependent mechanism in this interaction.

  17. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Method Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual’s demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother’s and adolescents’ behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Results Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Conclusions Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context. PMID:25914852

  18. AUTONOMY AND RELATEDNESS IN MOTHER-TEEN INTERACTIONS AS PREDICTORS OF INVOLVEMENT IN ADOLESCENT DATING AGGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the negotiation of autonomy and relatedness between teens and their mothers as etiologic predictors of perpetration and victimization of dating aggression two years later. Observations of 88 mid-adolescents and their mothers discussing a topic of disagreement were coded for each individual's demonstrations of autonomy and relatedness using a validated coding system. Adolescents self-reported on perpetration and victimization of physical and psychological dating aggression two years later. We hypothesized that mother's and adolescents' behaviors supporting autonomy and relatedness would longitudinally predict lower reporting of dating aggression, and that their behaviors inhibiting autonomy and relatedness would predict higher reporting of dating aggression. Hypotheses were not supported; main findings were characterized by interactions of sex and risk status with autonomy. Maternal behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration and victimization of physical dating aggression for girls, but not for boys. Adolescent behaviors supporting autonomy predicted higher reports of perpetration of physical dating aggression for high-risk adolescents, but not for low-risk adolescents. Results indicate that autonomy is a dynamic developmental process, operating differently as a function of social contexts in predicting dating aggression. Examination of these and other developmental processes within parent-child relationships is important in predicting dating aggression, but may depend on social context.

  19. The dual role of autophagy under hypoxia-involvement of interaction between autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Tan, Jin; Miao, Yuyang; Lei, Ping; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Hypoxia is one of severe cellular stress and it is well known to be associated with a worse outcome since a lack of oxygen accelerates the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis caused by hypoxia. Generally autophagy blocks the induction of apoptosis and inhibits the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury. However, in special cases, autophagy or autophagy-relevant proteins may help to induce apoptosis, which could aggravate cell damage under hypoxia condition. In addition, the activation of apoptosis-related proteins-caspase can also degrade autophagy-related proteins, such as Atg3, Atg4, Beclin1 protein, inhibiting autophagy. Although the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis has been known for rather complex for more than a decade, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. This short review discusses and summarizes the dual role of autophagy and the interaction and molecular regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and apoptosis under hypoxia.

  20. Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitries in the Human Pathogen Candida albicans Involving Sense–Antisense Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Kravets, Anatoliy; Rustchenko, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen, usually contains a diploid genome, but controls adaptation to a toxic alternative carbon source L-sorbose, by the reversible loss of one chromosome 5 (Ch5). We have previously identified multiple unique regions on Ch5 that repress the growth on sorbose. In one of the regions, the CSU51 gene determining the repressive property of the region was identified. We report here the identification of the CSU53 gene from a different region on Ch5. Most importantly, we find that CSU51 and CSU53 are associated with novel regulatory elements, ASUs, which are embedded within CSUs in an antisense configuration. ASUs act opposite to CSUs by enhancing the growth on sorbose. In respect to the CSU transcripts, the ASU long antisense transcripts are in lesser amounts, are completely overlapped, and are inversely related. ASUs interact with CSUs in natural CSU/ASU cis configurations, as well as when extra copies of ASUs are placed in trans to the CSU/ASU configurations. We suggest that ASU long embedded antisense transcripts modulate CSU sense transcripts. PMID:22135347

  1. Transcriptional regulatory circuitries in the human pathogen Candida albicans involving sense--antisense interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Kravets, Anatoliy; Rustchenko, Elena

    2012-02-01

    Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen, usually contains a diploid genome, but controls adaptation to a toxic alternative carbon source L-sorbose, by the reversible loss of one chromosome 5 (Ch5). We have previously identified multiple unique regions on Ch5 that repress the growth on sorbose. In one of the regions, the CSU51 gene determining the repressive property of the region was identified. We report here the identification of the CSU53 gene from a different region on Ch5. Most importantly, we find that CSU51 and CSU53 are associated with novel regulatory elements, ASUs, which are embedded within CSUs in an antisense configuration. ASUs act opposite to CSUs by enhancing the growth on sorbose. In respect to the CSU transcripts, the ASU long antisense transcripts are in lesser amounts, are completely overlapped, and are inversely related. ASUs interact with CSUs in natural CSU/ASU cis configurations, as well as when extra copies of ASUs are placed in trans to the CSU/ASU configurations. We suggest that ASU long embedded antisense transcripts modulate CSU sense transcripts.

  2. Involvement of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in the secretion of danofloxacin into milk: interaction with ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, R; Egido, E; Pérez, M; González-Lobato, L; Barrera, B; Prieto, J G; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2011-08-01

    Danofloxacin, a veterinary fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug, is actively secreted into milk by an as yet unknown mechanism. One of the main determinants of active drug secretion into milk is the transporter (BCRP/ABCG2). The main purpose was to determine whether danofloxacin is an in vitro substrate for Bcrp1/BCRP and to assess its involvement in danofloxacin secretion into milk. In addition, the role of potential drug-drug interactions in this process was assessed using ivermectin. Danofloxacin was transported in vitro by Bcrp1/BCRP, and ivermectin efficiently blocked this transport. Experiments with Bcrp1(-/-) mice showed no evidence of the involvement of Bcrp1 in plasma pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin. However, the milk concentration and milk-to-plasma ratio of danofloxacin were almost twofold higher in wild-type compared with Bcrp1(-/-) mice. The in vivo interaction with ivermectin was studied in sheep after co-administration of danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg, i.m.) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). Ivermectin had no significant effect on the plasma levels of danofloxacin but significantly decreased danofloxacin concentrations in milk by almost 40%. Concomitant administration of multiple drugs, often used in veterinary therapy, may not only affect their pharmacological activity but also their secretion into milk, because of potential drug-drug interactions mediated by BCRP. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Magneto-optical properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ping; Lin, Chiun-Yan; Ho, Yen-Hung; Do, Thi-Nga; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2015-06-28

    The generalized tight-binding model is developed to investigate the magneto-optical absorption spectra of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. The absorption peaks can be classified into nine categories of inter-Landau-level optical excitations, including three intra-group and six inter-group ones. Most of them belong to the twin-peak structures because of the asymmetric Landau level spectrum. The threshold absorption peak alone comes from a certain excitation channel, and its frequency is associated with a specific interlayer atomic interaction. The Landau-level anticrossings cause extra absorption peaks. Moreover, a simple relationship between the absorption frequency and the field strength is absent. The magneto-optical properties of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene are totally different from those of AAA- and ABA-stacked ones, such as the number, intensity and frequency of absorption peaks.

  4. Possible involvement of Opa-interacting protein 5 in adipose proliferation and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kana; Maeda, Norikazu; Mori, Takuya; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Tsushima, Yu; Matsuda, Keisuke; Yamaoka, Masaya; Suganami, Takayoshi; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic matter increasing risk for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. We recently examined the association between visceral fat adiposity and gene expression profile of peripheral blood cells in human subjects. In a series of studies, Opa (Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity-associated)-interacting protein 5 (OIP5) was nominated as a molecule of unknown function in adipocytes and thus the present study was performed to investigate the role of OIP5 in obesity. Adenovirus overexpressing Oip5 (Ad-Oip5) was generated and infected to 3T3-L1 cells stably expressing Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR-3T3-L1) and to mouse subcutaneous fat. For a knockdown experiment, siRNA against Oip5 (Oip5-siRNA) was introduced into 3T3-L1 cells. Proliferation of adipose cells was measured by BrdU uptake, EdU-staining, and cell count. Significant increase of Oip5 mRNA level was observed in obese white adipose tissues and such increase was detected in both mature adipocytes fraction and stromal vascular cell fraction. Ad-Oip5-infected CAR-3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes proliferated rapidly, while a significant reduction of proliferation was observed in Oip5-siRNA-introduced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Fat weight and number of adipocytes were significantly increased in Ad-Oip5-administered fat tissues. Oip5 promotes proliferation of pre- and mature-adipocytes and contributes adipose hyperplasia. Increase of Oip5 may associate with development of obesity.

  5. Applying Geospatial Techniques to Investigate Boundary Layer Land-Atmosphere Interactions Involved in Tornadogensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Knupp, K. R.; Molthan, A.; Coleman, T.

    2017-12-01

    Northern Alabama is among the most tornado-prone regions in the United States. This region has a higher degree of spatial variability in both terrain and land cover than the more frequently studied North American Great Plains region due to its proximity to the southern Appalachian Mountains and Cumberland Plateau. More research is needed to understand North Alabama's high tornado frequency and how land surface heterogeneity influences tornadogenesis in the boundary layer. Several modeling and simulation studies stretching back to the 1970's have found that variations in the land surface induce tornadic-like flow near the surface, illustrating a need for further investigation. This presentation introduces research investigating the hypothesis that horizontal gradients in land surface roughness, normal to the direction of flow in the boundary layer, induce vertically oriented vorticity at the surface that can potentially aid in tornadogenesis. A novel approach was implemented to test this hypothesis using a GIS-based quadrant pattern analysis method. This method was developed to quantify spatial relationships and patterns between horizontal variations in land surface roughness and locations of tornadogenesis. Land surface roughness was modeled using the Noah land surface model parameterization scheme which, was applied to MODIS 500 m and Landsat 30 m data in order to compare the relationship between tornadogenesis locations and roughness gradients at different spatial scales. This analysis found a statistical relationship between areas of higher roughness located normal to flow surrounding tornadogenesis locations that supports the tested hypothesis. In this presentation, the innovative use of satellite remote sensing data and GIS technologies to address interactions between the land and atmosphere will be highlighted.

  6. Possible involvement of Opa-interacting protein 5 in adipose proliferation and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Inoue

    Full Text Available Obesity is an epidemic matter increasing risk for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. We recently examined the association between visceral fat adiposity and gene expression profile of peripheral blood cells in human subjects. In a series of studies, Opa (Neisseria gonorrhoeae opacity-associated-interacting protein 5 (OIP5 was nominated as a molecule of unknown function in adipocytes and thus the present study was performed to investigate the role of OIP5 in obesity. Adenovirus overexpressing Oip5 (Ad-Oip5 was generated and infected to 3T3-L1 cells stably expressing Coxsackie-Adenovirus Receptor (CAR-3T3-L1 and to mouse subcutaneous fat. For a knockdown experiment, siRNA against Oip5 (Oip5-siRNA was introduced into 3T3-L1 cells. Proliferation of adipose cells was measured by BrdU uptake, EdU-staining, and cell count. Significant increase of Oip5 mRNA level was observed in obese white adipose tissues and such increase was detected in both mature adipocytes fraction and stromal vascular cell fraction. Ad-Oip5-infected CAR-3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes proliferated rapidly, while a significant reduction of proliferation was observed in Oip5-siRNA-introduced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Fat weight and number of adipocytes were significantly increased in Ad-Oip5-administered fat tissues. Oip5 promotes proliferation of pre- and mature-adipocytes and contributes adipose hyperplasia. Increase of Oip5 may associate with development of obesity.

  7. Rhythmic ring–ring stacking drives the circadian oscillator clockwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yong-Gang; Tseng, Roger; Kuo, Nai-Wei; LiWang, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The oscillator of the circadian clock of cyanobacteria is composed of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, which together generate a self-sustained ∼24-h rhythm of phosphorylation of KaiC. The mechanism propelling this oscillator has remained elusive, however. We show that stacking interactions between the CI and CII rings of KaiC drive the transition from the phosphorylation-specific KaiC–KaiA interaction to the dephosphorylation-specific KaiC–KaiB interaction. We have identified the KaiB-binding site, which is on the CI domain. This site is hidden when CI domains are associated as a hexameric ring. However, stacking of the CI and CII rings exposes the KaiB-binding site. Because the clock output protein SasA also binds to CI and competes with KaiB for binding, ring stacking likely regulates clock output. We demonstrate that ADP can expose the KaiB-binding site in the absence of ring stacking, providing an explanation for how it can reset the clock. PMID:22967510

  8. Rhythmic ring-ring stacking drives the circadian oscillator clockwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yong-Gang; Tseng, Roger; Kuo, Nai-Wei; LiWang, Andy

    2012-10-16

    The oscillator of the circadian clock of cyanobacteria is composed of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, which together generate a self-sustained ∼24-h rhythm of phosphorylation of KaiC. The mechanism propelling this oscillator has remained elusive, however. We show that stacking interactions between the CI and CII rings of KaiC drive the transition from the phosphorylation-specific KaiC-KaiA interaction to the dephosphorylation-specific KaiC-KaiB interaction. We have identified the KaiB-binding site, which is on the CI domain. This site is hidden when CI domains are associated as a hexameric ring. However, stacking of the CI and CII rings exposes the KaiB-binding site. Because the clock output protein SasA also binds to CI and competes with KaiB for binding, ring stacking likely regulates clock output. We demonstrate that ADP can expose the KaiB-binding site in the absence of ring stacking, providing an explanation for how it can reset the clock.

  9. Chalcogen ‘like-like’ Interactions Involving Trisulphide and Triselenide Compounds: A Combined CSD and Ab Initio Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bauzá

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we combined a search in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD and ab initio calculations (RI-MP2/def2-TZVPD level of theory to analyze the ability of trisulphide and triselenide moieties to establish chalcogen ‘like-like’ interactions. A preliminary CSD inspection revealed two predominant structural patterns, depending on the anti or syn conformation adopted by the substituents of the S3/Se3 bridge, leading to bifurcated or double chalcogen bonding interactions, respectively. In order to analyze these two relevant structural motifs we have used a series of S and Se derivatives Ch3X2 (Ch = S and Se and X = H, F, CN, and CF3 which act as both electron donor (using the lone pairs and acceptor (using the σ-holes entities. Besides, we have carried out “atoms in molecules” (AIM and natural bonding orbital (NBO analyses to further describe and characterize the chalcogen bonding interactions described herein. As far as we know, chalcogen···chalcogen interactions involving trichalconides (S3/Se3 have not been previously described in literature a may be of great importance in the preparation and characterization of new solids based on this subclass of σ-hole bonding.

  10. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    . An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... (EIS). The stack measurement geometry was optimized for EIS by careful selection of the placement of current feeds and voltage probes in order to minimize measurement errors. It was demonstrated that with the improved placement of current feeds and voltage probes it is possible to separate the loss...... in the hydrogen fuel gas supplied to the stack. EIS was used to examine the long-term behavior and monitor the evolution of the impedance of each of the repeating units and the whole stack. The observed impedance was analyzed in detail for one of the repeating units and the whole stack and the losses reported...

  12. The case for multimodal analysis of atypical interaction: questions, answers and gaze in play involving a child with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Conversation analysis (CA) continues to accrue interest within clinical linguistics as a methodology that can enable elucidation of structural and sequential orderliness in interactions involving participants who produce ostensibly disordered communication behaviours. However, it can be challenging to apply CA to re-examine clinical phenomena that have initially been defined in terms of linguistics, as a logical starting point for analysis may be to focus primarily on the organisation of language ("talk") in such interactions. In this article, we argue that CA's methodological power can only be fully exploited in this research context when a multimodal analytic orientation is adopted, where due consideration is given to participants' co-ordinated use of multiple semiotic resources including, but not limited to, talk (e.g., gaze, embodied action, object use and so forth). To evidence this argument, a two-layered analysis of unusual question-answer sequences in a play episode involving a child with autism is presented. It is thereby demonstrated that only when the scope of enquiry is broadened to include gaze and other embodied action can an account be generated of orderliness within these sequences. This finding has important implications for CA's application as a research methodology within clinical linguistics.

  13. The Prediction of Key Cytoskeleton Components Involved in Glomerular Diseases Based on a Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Wenjun; Li, Xuejuan; Li, Shao; Ding, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of the physiological morphologies of different types of cells and tissues is essential for the normal functioning of each system in the human body. Dynamic variations in cell and tissue morphologies depend on accurate adjustments of the cytoskeletal system. The cytoskeletal system in the glomerulus plays a key role in the normal process of kidney filtration. To enhance the understanding of the possible roles of the cytoskeleton in glomerular diseases, we constructed the Glomerular Cytoskeleton Network (GCNet), which shows the protein-protein interaction network in the glomerulus, and identified several possible key cytoskeletal components involved in glomerular diseases. In this study, genes/proteins annotated to the cytoskeleton were detected by Gene Ontology analysis, and glomerulus-enriched genes were selected from nine available glomerular expression datasets. Then, the GCNet was generated by combining these two sets of information. To predict the possible key cytoskeleton components in glomerular diseases, we then examined the common regulation of the genes in GCNet in the context of five glomerular diseases based on their transcriptomic data. As a result, twenty-one cytoskeleton components as potential candidate were highlighted for consistently down- or up-regulating in all five glomerular diseases. And then, these candidates were examined in relation to existing known glomerular diseases and genes to determine their possible functions and interactions. In addition, the mRNA levels of these candidates were also validated in a puromycin aminonucleoside(PAN) induced rat nephropathy model and were also matched with existing Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) transcriptomic data. As a result, there are 15 of 21 candidates in PAN induced nephropathy model were consistent with our predication and also 12 of 21 candidates were matched with differentially expressed genes in the DN transcriptomic data. By providing a novel interaction network and prediction, GCNet

  14. Benefits, challenges, and best practices for involving audiences in the development of interactive coastal risk communication tools: Professional communicators' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. H.; DeLorme, D.

    2017-12-01

    To make scientific information useful and usable to audiences, communicators must understand audience needs, expectations, and future applications. This presentation synthesizes benefits, challenges, and best practices resulting from a qualitative social science interview study of nine professionals on their experiences developing interactive visualization tools for communicating about coastal environmental risks. Online interactive risk visualization tools, such as flooding maps, are used to provide scientific information about the impacts of coastal hazards. These tools have a wide range of audiences and purposes, including time-sensitive emergency communication, infrastructure and natural resource planning, and simply starting a community conversation about risks. Thus, the science, purposes, and audiences of these tools require a multifaceted communication strategy. In order to make these tools useable and accepted by their audiences, many professional development teams solicit target end-user input or incorporate formal user-centered design into the development process. This presentation will share results of seven interviews with developers of U.S. interactive coastal risk communication tools, ranging from state-level to international in scope. Specific techniques and procedures for audience input that were used in these projects will be discussed, including ad-hoc conversations with users, iterative usability testing with project stakeholder groups, and other participatory mechanisms. The presentation will then focus on benefits, challenges, and recommendations for best practice that the interviewees disclosed about including audiences in their development projects. Presentation attendees will gain an understanding of different procedures and techniques that professionals employ to involve end-users in risk tool development projects, as well as important considerations and recommendations for effectively involving audiences in science communication design.

  15. The Prediction of Key Cytoskeleton Components Involved in Glomerular Diseases Based on a Protein-Protein Interaction Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangrui; Tan, Aidi; Ju, Wenjun; Li, Xuejuan; Li, Shao; Ding, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of the physiological morphologies of different types of cells and tissues is essential for the normal functioning of each system in the human body. Dynamic variations in cell and tissue morphologies depend on accurate adjustments of the cytoskeletal system. The cytoskeletal system in the glomerulus plays a key role in the normal process of kidney filtration. To enhance the understanding of the possible roles of the cytoskeleton in glomerular diseases, we constructed the Glomerular Cytoskeleton Network (GCNet), which shows the protein-protein interaction network in the glomerulus, and identified several possible key cytoskeletal components involved in glomerular diseases. In this study, genes/proteins annotated to the cytoskeleton were detected by Gene Ontology analysis, and glomerulus-enriched genes were selected from nine available glomerular expression datasets. Then, the GCNet was generated by combining these two sets of information. To predict the possible key cytoskeleton components in glomerular diseases, we then examined the common regulation of the genes in GCNet in the context of five glomerular diseases based on their transcriptomic data. As a result, twenty-one cytoskeleton components as potential candidate were highlighted for consistently down- or up-regulating in all five glomerular diseases. And then, these candidates were examined in relation to existing known glomerular diseases and genes to determine their possible functions and interactions. In addition, the mRNA levels of these candidates were also validated in a puromycin aminonucleoside(PAN) induced rat nephropathy model and were also matched with existing Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) transcriptomic data. As a result, there are 15 of 21 candidates in PAN induced nephropathy model were consistent with our predication and also 12 of 21 candidates were matched with differentially expressed genes in the DN transcriptomic data. By providing a novel interaction network and prediction, GCNet

  16. Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very short life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three

  17. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  18. Carbon: Nitrogen Interaction Regulates Expression of Genes Involved in N-Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Goel

    Full Text Available In plants, several cellular and metabolic pathways interact with each other to regulate processes that are vital for their growth and development. Carbon (C and Nitrogen (N are two main nutrients for plants and coordination of C and N pathways is an important factor for maintaining plant growth and development. In the present work, influence of nitrogen and sucrose (C source on growth parameters and expression of genes involved in nitrogen transport and assimilatory pathways was studied in B. juncea seedlings. For this, B. juncea seedlings were treated with four combinations of C and N source viz., N source alone (-Suc+N, C source alone (+Suc-N, with N and C source (+Suc+N or without N and C source (-Suc-N. Cotyledon size and shoot length were found to be increased in seedlings, when nitrogen alone was present in the medium. Distinct expression pattern of genes in both, root and shoot tissues was observed in response to exogenously supplied N and C. The presence or depletion of nitrogen alone in the medium leads to severe up- or down-regulation of key genes involved in N-uptake and transport (BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.8 in root tissue and genes involved in nitrate reduction (BjNR1 and BjNR2 in shoot tissue. Moreover, expression of several genes, like BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2 and BjPK in root and two genes BjAMT2 and BjGS1.1 in shoot were found to be regulated only when C source was present in the medium. Majority of genes were found to respond in root and shoot tissues, when both C and N source were present in the medium, thus reflecting their importance as a signal in regulating expression of genes involved in N-uptake and assimilation. The present work provides insight into the regulation of genes of N-uptake and assimilatory pathway in B. juncea by interaction of both carbon and nitrogen.

  19. Carbon: Nitrogen Interaction Regulates Expression of Genes Involved in N-Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Parul; Bhuria, Monika; Kaushal, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    In plants, several cellular and metabolic pathways interact with each other to regulate processes that are vital for their growth and development. Carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) are two main nutrients for plants and coordination of C and N pathways is an important factor for maintaining plant growth and development. In the present work, influence of nitrogen and sucrose (C source) on growth parameters and expression of genes involved in nitrogen transport and assimilatory pathways was studied in B. juncea seedlings. For this, B. juncea seedlings were treated with four combinations of C and N source viz., N source alone (-Suc+N), C source alone (+Suc-N), with N and C source (+Suc+N) or without N and C source (-Suc-N). Cotyledon size and shoot length were found to be increased in seedlings, when nitrogen alone was present in the medium. Distinct expression pattern of genes in both, root and shoot tissues was observed in response to exogenously supplied N and C. The presence or depletion of nitrogen alone in the medium leads to severe up- or down-regulation of key genes involved in N-uptake and transport (BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.8) in root tissue and genes involved in nitrate reduction (BjNR1 and BjNR2) in shoot tissue. Moreover, expression of several genes, like BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2 and BjPK in root and two genes BjAMT2 and BjGS1.1 in shoot were found to be regulated only when C source was present in the medium. Majority of genes were found to respond in root and shoot tissues, when both C and N source were present in the medium, thus reflecting their importance as a signal in regulating expression of genes involved in N-uptake and assimilation. The present work provides insight into the regulation of genes of N-uptake and assimilatory pathway in B. juncea by interaction of both carbon and nitrogen. PMID:27637072

  20. Carbon: Nitrogen Interaction Regulates Expression of Genes Involved in N-Uptake and Assimilation in Brassica juncea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Parul; Bhuria, Monika; Kaushal, Mamta; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In plants, several cellular and metabolic pathways interact with each other to regulate processes that are vital for their growth and development. Carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) are two main nutrients for plants and coordination of C and N pathways is an important factor for maintaining plant growth and development. In the present work, influence of nitrogen and sucrose (C source) on growth parameters and expression of genes involved in nitrogen transport and assimilatory pathways was studied in B. juncea seedlings. For this, B. juncea seedlings were treated with four combinations of C and N source viz., N source alone (-Suc+N), C source alone (+Suc-N), with N and C source (+Suc+N) or without N and C source (-Suc-N). Cotyledon size and shoot length were found to be increased in seedlings, when nitrogen alone was present in the medium. Distinct expression pattern of genes in both, root and shoot tissues was observed in response to exogenously supplied N and C. The presence or depletion of nitrogen alone in the medium leads to severe up- or down-regulation of key genes involved in N-uptake and transport (BjNRT1.1, BjNRT1.8) in root tissue and genes involved in nitrate reduction (BjNR1 and BjNR2) in shoot tissue. Moreover, expression of several genes, like BjAMT1.2, BjAMT2 and BjPK in root and two genes BjAMT2 and BjGS1.1 in shoot were found to be regulated only when C source was present in the medium. Majority of genes were found to respond in root and shoot tissues, when both C and N source were present in the medium, thus reflecting their importance as a signal in regulating expression of genes involved in N-uptake and assimilation. The present work provides insight into the regulation of genes of N-uptake and assimilatory pathway in B. juncea by interaction of both carbon and nitrogen.

  1. SLXL1, a novel acrosomal protein, interacts with DKKL1 and is involved in fertilization in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-jie Zhuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex cellular developmental process which involves diverse families of genes. The Xlr (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family includes multiple members, only a few of which have reported functions in meiosis, post-meiotic maturation, and fertilization of germ cells. Slx-like1 (Slxl1 is a member of the Xlr family, whose expression and function in spermatogenesis need to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mRNA and protein expression and localization of Slxl1 were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in different tissues and at different stages of spermatogenesis. The interacting partner of SLXL1 was examined by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization. Assessment of the role of SLXL1 in capacitation, acrosome reaction, zona pellucida binding/penetration, and fertilization was carried out in vitro using blocking antisera. The results showed that Slxl1 mRNA and protein were specifically expressed in the testis. SLXL1 was exclusively located in the acrosome of post-meiotic germ cells and interacts with DKKL1 (Dickkopf-like1, which is an acrosome-associated protein and plays an important role in fertilization. The rates of zona pellucida binding/penetration and fertilization were significantly reduced by the anti-SLXL1 polyclonal antiserum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SLXL1 is the first identified member of the XLR family that is associated with acrosome and is involved in zona pellucid binding/penetration and subsequent fertilization. These results, together with previous studies, suggest that Xlr family members participate in diverse processes from meiosis to fertilization during spermatogenesis.

  2. Flexural characteristics of a stack leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-06-01

    A 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator is at present under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The insulating stack of the machine is of modular construction, each module being 860 mm in length. Each live section stack module contains 8 insulating legs mounted between bulkhead rings. The design, fabrication (from glass discs bonded to stainless steel discs using an epoxy film adhesive) and testing of the stack legs is described. (U.K.)

  3. Hydrogen Embrittlement And Stacking-Fault Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, R. A.; Johnson, M. H.; Davis, J. H.; Oh, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    Embrittlement in Ni/Cu alloys appears related to stacking-fault porbabilities. Report describes attempt to show a correlation between stacking-fault energy of different Ni/Cu alloys and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. Correlation could lead to more fundamental understanding and method of predicting susceptibility of given Ni/Cu alloy form stacking-fault energies calculated from X-ray diffraction measurements.

  4. Long-range regulatory interactions at the 4q25 atrial fibrillation risk locus involve PITX2c and ENPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis A; Alonso, M Eva; Badía-Careaga, Claudio; Rollán, Isabel; Arias, Cristina; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; López-Jiménez, Elena; Aránega, Amelia; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Franco, Diego; Manzanares, Miguel

    2015-04-17

    Recent genome-wide association studies have uncovered genomic loci that underlie an increased risk for atrial fibrillation, the major cardiac arrhythmia in humans. The most significant locus is located in a gene desert at 4q25, approximately 170 kilobases upstream of PITX2, which codes for a transcription factor involved in embryonic left-right asymmetry and cardiac development. However, how this genomic region functionally and structurally relates to PITX2 and atrial fibrillation is unknown. To characterise its function, we tested genomic fragments from 4q25 for transcriptional activity in a mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and in transgenic mouse embryos, identifying a non-tissue-specific potentiator regulatory element. Chromosome conformation capture revealed that this region physically interacts with the promoter of the cardiac specific isoform of Pitx2. Surprisingly, this regulatory region also interacts with the promoter of the next neighbouring gene, Enpep, which we show to be expressed in regions of the developing mouse heart essential for cardiac electrical activity. Our data suggest that de-regulation of both PITX2 and ENPEP could contribute to an increased risk of atrial fibrillation in carriers of disease-associated variants, and show the challenges that we face in the functional analysis of genome-wide disease associations.

  5. Chemical moieties and interactions involved in the binding of zearalenone to the surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nezami, Hani; Polychronaki, Nektaria; Lee, Yuan Kun; Haskard, Carolyn; Juvonen, Risto; Salminen, Seppo; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2004-07-14

    Viable, heat-and acid-killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) has shown high binding properties with zearalenone (ZEN). To identify the type of chemical moieties and interactions involved in binding with the ZEN, LGG was subjected to different chemical and enzymatical treatments, prior to the binding experiments. Pretreating the viable, heat- and acid-killed bacteria with m-periodate significantly decreased ZEN binding, suggesting that ZEN binds predominantly to carbohydrate components. Pretreatment with Pronase E had no effect on the ability of viable cells to bind ZEN, however, a reduction in the binding of ZEN by heat- and acid-killed cells, suggesting that the new binding sites exposed by heat or acid are proteins in nature. Pretreatment with urea also decreased binding, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions play a role in ZEN binding. The binding of ZEN in concentrations ranging from 0.79 to 62.82 microM and its subsequent dissociation by repetitive aqueous washes was also studied. The binding sites of the bacteria were not saturated by the maximum ZEN concentration studied.

  6. Excretory/secretory antigens from Dirofilaria immitis adult worms interact with the host fibrinolytic system involving the vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Simón, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of canine and feline heartworm disease. The parasite can survive for long periods of time (7 years or more) in the circulatory system of immunocompetent reservoirs, producing usually a chronic inflammatory vascular disease. In addition, the simultaneous death of groups of adult worms can trigger an acute disease characterized by the exacerbation of inflammatory reactions and the emergence of serious thromboembolic events. In the context of the D. immitis/host relationships, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between the excretory/secretory antigens from D. immitis adult worms (DiES) and the fibrinolytic system of the host. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we showed that DiES extract is able to bind plasminogen and generate plasmin, although this fact requires the presence of the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Moreover, we established that DiES extract enhances t-PA expression in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Additionally, 10 plasminogen-binding proteins from DiES extract were identified by mass spectrometry (HSP60, actin-1/3, actin, actin 4, transglutaminase, GAPDH, Ov87, LOAG_14743, galectin and P22U). The data suggest that DiES antigens interact with the environment of the parasite regulating the activation of the fibrinolytic system of the host with involvement of the vascular endothelium in the process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The involvement of sand disturbance, cannibalism and intra-guild predation in competitive interactions among pit-building antlion larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkae, Erez D; Scharf, Inon; Subach, Aziz; Ovadia, Ofer

    2010-10-01

    Competition in trap-building predators such as antlion larvae is a complex biotic interaction, potentially involving exploitation competition, sand throwing (i.e., interference competition), cannibalism and intra-guild predation. We investigated the short-term behavioral and developmental responses of the strict sit-and-wait antlion predator Myrmeleon hyalinus to sand disturbance (i.e., quantification of the impact of severe sand throwing), and to con- and hetero-specific competition by a larger sit-and-pursue antlion species Lopezus fedtschenkoi. We found that antlions subjected to sand disturbances reduced their pit construction activity and relocated less often. Furthermore, the reduction in pit construction activity was stronger among antlions subjected to disturbances prior to feeding. Almost no death occurred during the sand disturbance experiment, but as expected, disturbances caused reductions in the relative growth rates of antlions. This negative effect was stronger in the group exposed to sand disturbances prior to feeding. The presence of the sit-and-pursue competitor led to reductions both in pit construction and in relocation activities of M. hyalinus. Although the per-capita food supply was identical in both experiments, only 48% of M. hyalinus larvae survived the competition experiment, and this pattern was consistent between the con- and hetero-specific treatments. However, in the presence of hetero-specific competitors, the relative growth rate of surviving larvae was significantly lower than that measured in the presence of con-specific competitors. Our study demonstrates that investigating the different components of complex biotic interactions can markedly improve our understanding of how these different factors interact to influence the behavior and life history of organisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. IAA8 involved in lateral root formation interacts with the TIR1 auxin receptor and ARF transcription factors in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumi Arase

    Full Text Available The expression of auxin-responsive genes is regulated by the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor-dependent degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, which interact with auxin-responsive factors (ARFs. Most of the 29 Aux/IAA genes present in Arabidopsis have not been functionally characterized to date. IAA8 appears to have a distinct function from the other Aux/IAA genes, due to its unique transcriptional response to auxin and the stability of its encoded protein. In this study, we characterized the function of Arabidopsis IAA8 in various developmental processes governed by auxin and in the transcriptional regulation of the auxin response. Transgenic plants expressing estrogen-inducible IAA8 (XVE::IAA8 exhibited significantly fewer lateral roots than the wild type, and an IAA8 loss-of-function mutant exhibited significantly more. Ectopic overexpression of IAA8 resulted in abnormal gravitropism. The strong induction of early auxin-responsive marker genes by auxin treatment was delayed by IAA8 overexpression. GFP-fusion analysis revealed that IAA8 localized not only to the nucleus, but, in contrast to other Aux/IAAs, also to the cytosol. Furthermore, we demonstrated that IAA8 interacts with TIR1, in an auxin-dependent fashion, and with ARF proteins, both in yeast and in planta. Taken together, our results show that IAA8 is involved in lateral root formation, and that this process is regulated through the interaction with the TIR1 auxin receptor and ARF transcription factors in the nucleus.

  9. Rydberg and valence state excitation dynamics: a velocity map imaging study involving the E-V state interaction in HBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaouris, Dimitris; Kartakoullis, Andreas; Glodic, Pavle; Samartzis, Peter C; Rafn Hróðmarsson, Helgi; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2015-04-28

    Photoexcitation dynamics of the E((1)Σ(+)) (v' = 0) Rydberg state and the V((1)Σ(+)) (v') ion-pair vibrational states of HBr are investigated by velocity map imaging (VMI). H(+) photoions, produced through a number of vibrational and rotational levels of the two states were imaged and kinetic energy release (KER) and angular distributions were extracted from the data. In agreement with previous work, we found the photodissociation channels forming H*(n = 2) + Br((2)P3/2)/Br*((2)P1/2) to be dominant. Autoionization pathways leading to H(+) + Br((2)P3/2)/Br*((2)P1/2) via either HBr(+)((2)Π3/2) or HBr(+)*((2)Π1/2) formation were also present. The analysis of KER and angular distributions and comparison with rotationally and mass resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra revealed the excitation transition mechanisms and characteristics of states involved as well as the involvement of the E-V state interactions and their v' and J' dependence.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis reveals a diverse repertoire of genes involved in prokaryote-eukaryote interactions within the Pseudovibrio genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eRomano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strains of the Pseudovibrio genus have been detected worldwide, mainly as part of bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates, particularly sponges. This recurrent association has been considered as an indication of a symbiotic relationship between these microbes and their host. Until recently, the availability of only two genomes, belonging to closely related strains, has limited the knowledge on the genomic and physiological features of the genus to a single phylogenetic lineage.Here we present 10 newly sequenced genomes of Pseudovibrio strains isolated from marine sponges from the west coast of Ireland, and including the other two publicly available genomes we performed an extensive comparative genomic analysis. Homogeneity was apparent in terms of both the orthologous genes and the metabolic features shared amongst the 12 strains. At the genomic level, a key physiological difference observed amongst the isolates was the presence only in strain P. axinellae AD2 of genes encoding proteins involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction, which was then proved experimentally. We then focused on studying those systems known to be involved in the interactions with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This analysis revealed that the genus harbors a large diversity of toxin-like proteins, secretion systems and their potential effectors. Their distribution in the genus was not always consistent with the phylogenetic relationship of the strains. Finally, our analyses identified new genomic islands encoding potential toxin-immunity systems, previously unknown in the genus.Our analyses shed new light on the Pseudovibrio genus, indicating a large diversity of both metabolic features and systems for interacting with the host. The diversity in both distribution and abundance of these systems amongst the strains underlines how metabolically and phylogenetically similar bacteria may use different strategies to interact with the host and find a niche

  11. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Diverse Repertoire of Genes Involved in Prokaryote-Eukaryote Interactions within the Pseudovibrio Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Stefano; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antonio; Reen, F Jerry; Glöckner, Frank O; Crowley, Susan P; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Adams, Claire; Dobson, Alan D W; O'Gara, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    Strains of the Pseudovibrio genus have been detected worldwide, mainly as part of bacterial communities associated with marine invertebrates, particularly sponges. This recurrent association has been considered as an indication of a symbiotic relationship between these microbes and their host. Until recently, the availability of only two genomes, belonging to closely related strains, has limited the knowledge on the genomic and physiological features of the genus to a single phylogenetic lineage. Here we present 10 newly sequenced genomes of Pseudovibrio strains isolated from marine sponges from the west coast of Ireland, and including the other two publicly available genomes we performed an extensive comparative genomic analysis. Homogeneity was apparent in terms of both the orthologous genes and the metabolic features shared amongst the 12 strains. At the genomic level, a key physiological difference observed amongst the isolates was the presence only in strain P. axinellae AD2 of genes encoding proteins involved in assimilatory nitrate reduction, which was then proved experimentally. We then focused on studying those systems known to be involved in the interactions with eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This analysis revealed that the genus harbors a large diversity of toxin-like proteins, secretion systems and their potential effectors. Their distribution in the genus was not always consistent with the phylogenetic relationship of the strains. Finally, our analyses identified new genomic islands encoding potential toxin-immunity systems, previously unknown in the genus. Our analyses shed new light on the Pseudovibrio genus, indicating a large diversity of both metabolic features and systems for interacting with the host. The diversity in both distribution and abundance of these systems amongst the strains underlines how metabolically and phylogenetically similar bacteria may use different strategies to interact with the host and find a niche within its

  12. Structure of a stacked anthraquinone–DNA complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luchi, Daniela; Usón, Isabel; Wright, Glenford; Gouyette, Catherine; Subirana, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the telomeric sequence d(UBrAGG) interacting with an anthraquinone derivative has been solved by MAD. In all previously studied complexes of intercalating drugs, the drug is usually sandwiched between two DNA base pairs. Instead, the present structure looks like a crystal of stacked anthraquinone molecules in which isolated base pairs are intercalated. Unusual base pairs are present in the structure, such as G·G and A·UBr reverse Watson–Crick base pairs. PMID:20823516

  13. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  14. California dreaming?[PEM stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.

    2002-06-01

    Hyundai's Santa Fe FCEV will be on sale by the end of 2002. Hyundai uses PEM stacks that are manufactured by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a division of United Technologies. Santa Fe is equipped with a 65 kW electric powertrain of Enova systems and Shell's new gasoline reformer called Hydrogen Source. Eugene Jang, Senior Engineer - Fuel Cell and Materials at Hyundai stated that the compressor related losses on IFC system are below 3%. The maximum speed offered by the vehicle is estimated as 123km/hr while the petrol equivalent fuel consumption is quoted between 5.6L/100 km and 4.8L/100 km. Santa Fe is a compact vehicle offering better steering response and a pleasant drive. (author)

  15. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  16. Are glutathione S transferases involved in DNA damage signalling? Interactions with DNA damage and repair revealed from molecular epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusinska, Maria; Staruchova, Marta; Horska, Alexandra; Smolkova, Bozena; Collins, Andrew; Bonassi, Stefano; Volkovova, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multigene family of isoenzymes that are important in the control of oxidative stress and in phase II metabolism. Acting non-enzymically, GSTs can modulate signalling pathways of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Using a molecular epidemiology approach, we have investigated a potential involvement of GSTs in DNA damage processing, specifically the modulation of DNA repair in a group of 388 healthy adult volunteers; 239 with at least 5 years of occupational exposure to asbestos, stone wool or glass fibre, and 149 reference subjects. We measured DNA damage in lymphocytes using the comet assay (alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis): strand breaks (SBs) and alkali-labile sites, oxidised pyrimidines with endonuclease III, and oxidised purines with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. We also measured GST activity in erythrocytes, and the capacity for base excision repair (BER) in a lymphocyte extract. Polymorphisms in genes encoding three GST isoenzymes were determined, namely deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and single nucleotide polymorphism Ile105Val in GSTP1. Consumption of vegetables and wine correlated negatively with DNA damage and modulated BER. GST activity correlated with oxidised bases and with BER capacity, and differed depending on polymorphisms in GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTM1. A significantly lower BER rate was associated with the homozygous GSTT1 deletion in all asbestos site subjects and in the corresponding reference group. Multifactorial analysis revealed effects of sex and exposure in GSTP1 Ile/Val heterozygotes but not in Ile/Ile homozygotes. These variants affected also SBs levels, mainly by interactions of GSTP1 genotype with exposure, with sex, and with smoking habit; and by an interaction between sex and smoking. Our results show that GST polymorphisms and GST activity can apparently influence DNA stability and repair of oxidised bases, suggesting a potential new role for these

  17. Comparative genomics of plant-associated Pseudomonas spp.: insights into diversity and inheritance of traits involved in multitrophic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce E Loper

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide here a comparative genome analysis of ten strains within the Pseudomonas fluorescens group including seven new genomic sequences. These strains exhibit a diverse spectrum of traits involved in biological control and other multitrophic interactions with plants, microbes, and insects. Multilocus sequence analysis placed the strains in three sub-clades, which was reinforced by high levels of synteny, size of core genomes, and relatedness of orthologous genes between strains within a sub-clade. The heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens group was reflected in the large size of its pan-genome, which makes up approximately 54% of the pan-genome of the genus as a whole, and a core genome representing only 45-52% of the genome of any individual strain. We discovered genes for traits that were not known previously in the strains, including genes for the biosynthesis of the siderophores achromobactin and pseudomonine and the antibiotic 2-hexyl-5-propyl-alkylresorcinol; novel bacteriocins; type II, III, and VI secretion systems; and insect toxins. Certain gene clusters, such as those for two type III secretion systems, are present only in specific sub-clades, suggesting vertical inheritance. Almost all of the genes associated with multitrophic interactions map to genomic regions present in only a subset of the strains or unique to a specific strain. To explore the evolutionary origin of these genes, we mapped their distributions relative to the locations of mobile genetic elements and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP elements in each genome. The mobile genetic elements and many strain-specific genes fall into regions devoid of REP elements (i.e., REP deserts and regions displaying atypical tri-nucleotide composition, possibly indicating relatively recent acquisition of these loci. Collectively, the results of this study highlight the enormous heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens group and the importance of the variable genome in tailoring

  18. Comparative Genomics of Plant-Associated Pseudomonas spp.: Insights into Diversity and Inheritance of Traits Involved in Multitrophic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Joyce E.; Hassan, Karl A.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Davis, Edward W.; Lim, Chee Kent; Shaffer, Brenda T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Stockwell, Virginia O.; Hartney, Sierra L.; Breakwell, Katy; Henkels, Marcella D.; Tetu, Sasha G.; Rangel, Lorena I.; Kidarsa, Teresa A.; Wilson, Neil L.; van de Mortel, Judith E.; Song, Chunxu; Blumhagen, Rachel; Radune, Diana; Hostetler, Jessica B.; Brinkac, Lauren M.; Durkin, A. Scott; Kluepfel, Daniel A.; Wechter, W. Patrick; Anderson, Anne J.; Kim, Young Cheol; Pierson, Leland S.; Pierson, Elizabeth A.; Lindow, Steven E.; Kobayashi, Donald Y.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Weller, David M.; Thomashow, Linda S.; Allen, Andrew E.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    We provide here a comparative genome analysis of ten strains within the Pseudomonas fluorescens group including seven new genomic sequences. These strains exhibit a diverse spectrum of traits involved in biological control and other multitrophic interactions with plants, microbes, and insects. Multilocus sequence analysis placed the strains in three sub-clades, which was reinforced by high levels of synteny, size of core genomes, and relatedness of orthologous genes between strains within a sub-clade. The heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens group was reflected in the large size of its pan-genome, which makes up approximately 54% of the pan-genome of the genus as a whole, and a core genome representing only 45–52% of the genome of any individual strain. We discovered genes for traits that were not known previously in the strains, including genes for the biosynthesis of the siderophores achromobactin and pseudomonine and the antibiotic 2-hexyl-5-propyl-alkylresorcinol; novel bacteriocins; type II, III, and VI secretion systems; and insect toxins. Certain gene clusters, such as those for two type III secretion systems, are present only in specific sub-clades, suggesting vertical inheritance. Almost all of the genes associated with multitrophic interactions map to genomic regions present in only a subset of the strains or unique to a specific strain. To explore the evolutionary origin of these genes, we mapped their distributions relative to the locations of mobile genetic elements and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) elements in each genome. The mobile genetic elements and many strain-specific genes fall into regions devoid of REP elements (i.e., REP deserts) and regions displaying atypical tri-nucleotide composition, possibly indicating relatively recent acquisition of these loci. Collectively, the results of this study highlight the enormous heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens group and the importance of the variable genome in tailoring individual strains

  19. Are glutathione S transferases involved in DNA damage signalling? Interactions with DNA damage and repair revealed from molecular epidemiology studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusinska, Maria, E-mail: Maria.DUSINSKA@nilu.no [CEE-Health Effects Group, NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Staruchova, Marta; Horska, Alexandra [Department of Experimental and Applied Genetics, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Smolkova, Bozena [Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Collins, Andrew [Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (Norway); Bonassi, Stefano [Unit of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome (Italy); Volkovova, Katarina [Department of Experimental and Applied Genetics, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multigene family of isoenzymes that are important in the control of oxidative stress and in phase II metabolism. Acting non-enzymically, GSTs can modulate signalling pathways of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Using a molecular epidemiology approach, we have investigated a potential involvement of GSTs in DNA damage processing, specifically the modulation of DNA repair in a group of 388 healthy adult volunteers; 239 with at least 5 years of occupational exposure to asbestos, stone wool or glass fibre, and 149 reference subjects. We measured DNA damage in lymphocytes using the comet assay (alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis): strand breaks (SBs) and alkali-labile sites, oxidised pyrimidines with endonuclease III, and oxidised purines with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. We also measured GST activity in erythrocytes, and the capacity for base excision repair (BER) in a lymphocyte extract. Polymorphisms in genes encoding three GST isoenzymes were determined, namely deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and single nucleotide polymorphism Ile105Val in GSTP1. Consumption of vegetables and wine correlated negatively with DNA damage and modulated BER. GST activity correlated with oxidised bases and with BER capacity, and differed depending on polymorphisms in GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTM1. A significantly lower BER rate was associated with the homozygous GSTT1 deletion in all asbestos site subjects and in the corresponding reference group. Multifactorial analysis revealed effects of sex and exposure in GSTP1 Ile/Val heterozygotes but not in Ile/Ile homozygotes. These variants affected also SBs levels, mainly by interactions of GSTP1 genotype with exposure, with sex, and with smoking habit; and by an interaction between sex and smoking. Our results show that GST polymorphisms and GST activity can apparently influence DNA stability and repair of oxidised bases, suggesting a potential new role for these

  20. Stacking technology for a space constrained microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heschel, Matthias; Kuhmann, Jochen Friedrich; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a stacking technology for an integrated packaging of an intelligent transducer which is formed by a micromachined silicon transducer and an integrated circuit chip. Transducer and circuitry are stacked on top of each other with an intermediate chip in between. The bonding...

  1. Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Hepworth, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....

  2. 40 CFR 61.44 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.44 Section 61.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Firing § 61.44 Stack sampling. (a) Sources subject to § 61.42(b) shall be continuously sampled, during...

  3. Learning OpenStack networking (Neutron)

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, James

    2014-01-01

    If you are an OpenStack-based cloud operator with experience in OpenStack Compute and nova-network but are new to Neutron networking, then this book is for you. Some networking experience is recommended, and a physical network infrastructure is required to provide connectivity to instances and other network resources configured in the book.

  4. Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This project will execute the design, procurement, construction, startup, and turnover activities for upgrades to the stack monitoring system on selected Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) ventilation systems. In this plan, the technical, schedule, and cost baselines are identified, and the roles and responsibilities of project participants are defined for managing the Stack Monitoring System Upgrades, Project W-420

  5. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  6. Status of MCFC stack technology at IHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosaka, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Otsubo, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a promising option for highly efficient power generation possible to enlarge. IHI has been studying parallel flow MCFC stacks with internal manifolds that have a large electrode area of 1m{sup 2}. IHI will make two 250 kW stacks for MW plant, and has begun to make cell components for the plant. To improve the stability of stack, soft corrugated plate used in the separator has been developed, and a way of gathering current from stacks has been studied. The DC output potential of the plant being very high, the design of electric insulation will be very important. A 20 kW short stack test was conducted in 1995 FY to certificate some of the improvements and components of the MW plant. These activities are presented below.

  7. The interactive effect of job involvement and organizational commitment on job turnover revisited: a note on the mediating role of turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, A; Sverke, M

    2000-09-01

    This study extends previous theoretical and empirical research on Blau and Boal's (1987) model of the interactive effect of job involvement and organizational commitment on employee withdrawal. Using longitudinal data from a survey among the nursing staff of a Swedish emergency hospital (N = 535) and register information on actual turnover, the results showed, in contrast to the statement of the original theoretical model, that turnover intention mediates the additive and multiplicative effects of job involvement and organizational commitment on actual turnover. The study suggests that the proposed involvement by commitment interaction is theoretically justified, and underscores the pertinence of investigating intermediate linkages in turnover research.

  8. Research and Development of Fully Automatic Alien Smoke Stack and Packaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; Ge, Qingkuan; Peng, Tao; Zuo, Ping; Dong, Weifu

    2017-12-01

    The problem of low efficiency of manual sorting packaging for the current tobacco distribution center, which developed a set of safe efficient and automatic type of alien smoke stack and packaging system. The functions of fully automatic alien smoke stack and packaging system adopt PLC control technology, servo control technology, robot technology, image recognition technology and human-computer interaction technology. The characteristics, principles, control process and key technology of the system are discussed in detail. Through the installation and commissioning fully automatic alien smoke stack and packaging system has a good performance and has completed the requirements for shaped cigarette.

  9. Thermodynamic and critical properties of an antiferromagnetically stacked triangular Ising antiferromagnet in a field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, M.; Borovský, M.; Bobák, A.

    2018-05-01

    We study a stacked triangular lattice Ising model with both intra- and inter-plane antiferromagnetic interactions in a field, by Monte Carlo simulation. We find only one phase transition from a paramagnetic to a partially disordered phase, which is of second order and 3D XY universality class. At low temperatures we identify two highly degenerate phases: at smaller (larger) fields the system shows long-range ordering in the stacking direction (within planes) but not in the planes (stacking direction). Nevertheless, crossovers to these phases do not have a character of conventional phase transitions but rather linear-chain-like excitations.

  10. A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanhai; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui; Liang, Shuyan

    2016-01-21

    We report an ultrafast optical switching device constructed by stacking two layers of gold nanowires into a perpendicularly crossed network, which works at a speed faster than 280 fs with an on/off modulation depth of about 22.4%. The two stacks play different roles in enhancing consistently the optical switching performance due to their different dependence on the polarization of optical electric fields. The cross-plasmon resonance based on the interaction between the perpendicularly stacked gold nanowires and its Fano-coupling with Rayleigh anomaly is the dominant mechanism for such a high-contrast optical switching device.

  11. Key residues involved in the interaction between Cydia pomonella pheromone binding protein 1 (CpomPBP1) and Codlemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2016-10-06

    Codlemone exhibited high affinity to CpomPBP1, studying their binding mode can provide insights into the rational design of active semiochemicals. Our findings suggested that residues including Phe12, Phe36, Trp37, Ile52, Ile 94, Ala115 and Phe118 were favorable to the binding of Codlemone to CpomPBP1, whereas residues providing unfavorable contributions like Ser56 were negative to the binding. Van der waals energy and electrostatic energy, mainly derived from the sidechains of favorable residues, contributed most in the formation and stability keeping of CpomPBP1-Codlemone complex. Of the residues involved in the interaction between CpomPBP1 and Codlemone, Phe12 and Trp37, whose mutation into Ala caused significant decrease of CpomPBP1 binding ability, were two key residues in determining the binding affinity of Codlemone to CpomPBP1. This study shed lights on discovering novel active semiochemicals as well as facilitating chemical modification of lead semiochemicals.

  12. Rab3A Inhibition of Ca2+-Dependent Dopamine Release From PC12 Cells Involves Interaction With Synaptotagmin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhipan; Tang, Xia; Chen, Jia; Tang, Xiaochao; Wang, Xianchun

    2017-11-01

    Rab3 and synaptotagmin have been suggested to play important roles in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and, however, the molecular mechanism has not been completely clear. Here, we studied the effects of Rab3A and synaptotagmin I (Syt I) on dopamine release using PC12 cells as a model system. Rab3A was demonstrated to have effects on both Ca 2+ -independent and Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine releases from the PC12 cells. Application of Rab3A (up to 2500 nM) gradually decreased the amount of Ca 2+ -dependently released dopamine, indicating that Rab3A is a negative modulator that was further supported by the increase in dopamine release caused by Rab3A knockdown. Syt I knockdown weakened the Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release, suggesting that Syt I plays a positive regulatory role in the cellular process. Treatment of the Syt I-knocked down PC12 cells with Rab3A further decreased Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release and, however, the decrease magnitude was significantly reduced compared with that before Syt I knockdown, thus for the first time demonstrating that the inhibitory effect of Rab3A on Ca 2+ -dependent dopamine release involves the interaction with Syt I. This work has shed new light on the molecular mechanism for Rab3 and synaptotamin regulation of neurotransmitter release. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3696-3705, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stacked Deck: an effective, school-based program for the prevention of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T; Currie, Shawn R

    2010-06-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills for good decision making and problem solving. An overriding theme of the program is to approach life as a "smart gambler" by determining the odds and weighing the pros versus cons of your actions. A total of 949 grade 9-12 students in 10 schools throughout southern Alberta received the program and completed baseline and follow-up measures. These students were compared to 291 students in 4 control schools. Four months after receiving the program, students in the intervention group had significantly more negative attitudes toward gambling, improved knowledge about gambling and problem gambling, improved resistance to gambling fallacies, improved decision making and problem solving, decreased gambling frequency, and decreased rates of problem gambling. There was no change in involvement in high risk activities or money lost gambling. These results indicate that Stacked Deck is a promising curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

  14. The impact of stack geometry and mean pressure on cold end temperature of stack in thermoacoustic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantha, Channarong

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.

  15. Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system....... The temperature is predicted in these three parts, where they also are measured. The heat balance of the system involves a fuel cell model to describe the heat added by the fuel cells when a current is drawn. Furthermore the model also predicts the temperatures when heating the stack with external heating...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  16. Structural color in porous, superhydrophilic, and self-cleaning SiO2/TiO2 Bragg stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhizhong; Lee, Daeyeon; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E

    2007-08-01

    Thin-film Bragg stacks exhibiting structural color have been fabricated by a layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition process involving the sequential adsorption of nanoparticles and polymers. High- and low-refractive-index regions of quarter-wave stacks were generated by calcining LbL-assembled multilayers containing TiO(2) and SiO(2) nanoparticles, respectively. The physical attributes of each region were characterized by a recently developed ellipsometric method. The structural color characteristics of the resultant nanoporous Bragg stacks could be precisely tuned in the visible region by varying the number of stacks and the thickness of the high- and low-refractive-index stacks. These Bragg stacks also exhibited potentially useful superhydrophilicity and self-cleaning properties.

  17. Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C

    2005-05-01

    We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental

  18. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  19. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  20. Involvement of and interaction between WNT10A and EDA mutations in tooth agenesis cases in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huiying; Han, Dong; Feng, Hailan; Qu, Hong; Song, Shujuan; Bai, Baojing; Zhang, Zhenting

    2013-01-01

    Dental agenesis is the most common, often heritable, developmental anomaly in humans. Although WNT10A gene mutations are known to cause rare syndromes associated with tooth agenesis, including onycho-odontodermal dysplasia (OODD), Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome (SSPS), hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), and more than half of the cases of isolated oligodontia recently, the genotype-phenotype correlations and the mode of inheritance of WNT10A mutations remain unclear. The phenotypic expression with WNT10A mutations shows a high degree of variability, suggesting that other genes might function with WNT10A in regulating ectodermal organ development. Moreover, the involvement of mutations in other genes, such as EDA, which is also associated with HED and isolated tooth agenesis, is not clear. Therefore, we hypothesized that EDA mutations interact with WNT10A mutations to play a role in tooth agenesis. Additionally, EDA, EDAR, and EDARADD encode signaling molecules in the Eda/Edar/NF-κB signaling pathways, we also checked EDAR and EDARADD in this study. WNT10A, EDA, EDAR and EDARADD were sequenced in 88 patients with isolated oligodontia and 26 patients with syndromic tooth agenesis. The structure of two mutated WNT10A and two mutated EDA proteins was analyzed. Digenic mutations of both WNT10A and EDA were identified in 2 of 88 (2.27%) isolated oligodontia cases and 4 of 26 (15.38%) syndromic tooth agenesis cases. No mutation in EDAR or EDARADD gene was found. WNT10A and EDA digenic mutations could result in oligodontia and syndromic tooth agenesis in the Chinese population. Moreover, our results will greatly expand the genotypic spectrum of tooth agenesis.

  1. Involvement of and interaction between WNT10A and EDA mutations in tooth agenesis cases in the Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental agenesis is the most common, often heritable, developmental anomaly in humans. Although WNT10A gene mutations are known to cause rare syndromes associated with tooth agenesis, including onycho-odontodermal dysplasia (OODD, Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome (SSPS, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED, and more than half of the cases of isolated oligodontia recently, the genotype-phenotype correlations and the mode of inheritance of WNT10A mutations remain unclear. The phenotypic expression with WNT10A mutations shows a high degree of variability, suggesting that other genes might function with WNT10A in regulating ectodermal organ development. Moreover, the involvement of mutations in other genes, such as EDA, which is also associated with HED and isolated tooth agenesis, is not clear. Therefore, we hypothesized that EDA mutations interact with WNT10A mutations to play a role in tooth agenesis. Additionally, EDA, EDAR, and EDARADD encode signaling molecules in the Eda/Edar/NF-κB signaling pathways, we also checked EDAR and EDARADD in this study. METHODS: WNT10A, EDA, EDAR and EDARADD were sequenced in 88 patients with isolated oligodontia and 26 patients with syndromic tooth agenesis. The structure of two mutated WNT10A and two mutated EDA proteins was analyzed. RESULTS: Digenic mutations of both WNT10A and EDA were identified in 2 of 88 (2.27% isolated oligodontia cases and 4 of 26 (15.38% syndromic tooth agenesis cases. No mutation in EDAR or EDARADD gene was found. CONCLUSIONS: WNT10A and EDA digenic mutations could result in oligodontia and syndromic tooth agenesis in the Chinese population. Moreover, our results will greatly expand the genotypic spectrum of tooth agenesis.

  2. Structure of human telomeric RNA (TERRA): stacking of two G-quadruplex blocks in K(+) solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martadinata, Herry; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-04-02

    Telomeric repeat-containing RNAs (TERRA) are transcription products of the telomeres. Human TERRA sequences containing UUAGGG repeats can form parallel-stranded G-quadruplexes. The stacking interaction of such structures was shown to be important for ligand targeting and higher-order arrangement of G-quadruplexes in long TERRA sequences. Here we report on the first high-resolution structure of a stacked G-quadruplex formed by the 10-nucleotide human TERRA sequence r(GGGUUAGGGU) in potassium solution. This structure comprises two dimeric three-layer parallel-stranded G-quadruplex blocks, which stack on each other at their 5'-ends. The adenine in each UUA loop is nearly coplanar with the 5'-end G-tetrad forming an A·(G·G·G·G)·A hexad, thereby increasing the stacking contacts between the two blocks. Interestingly, this stacking and loop conformation is different from all structures previously reported for the free human TERRA but resembles the structure previously determined for a complex between a human TERRA sequence and an acridine ligand. This stacking conformation is a potential target for drugs that recognize or induce the stacking interface.

  3. Wearable solar cells by stacking textile electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shaowu; Yang, Zhibin; Chen, Peining; Deng, Jue; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-06-10

    A new and general method to produce flexible, wearable dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) textiles by the stacking of two textile electrodes has been developed. A metal-textile electrode that was made from micrometer-sized metal wires was used as a working electrode, while the textile counter electrode was woven from highly aligned carbon nanotube fibers with high mechanical strengths and electrical conductivities. The resulting DSC textile exhibited a high energy conversion efficiency that was well maintained under bending. Compared with the woven DSC textiles that are based on wire-shaped devices, this stacked DSC textile unexpectedly exhibited a unique deformation from a rectangle to a parallelogram, which is highly desired in portable electronics. This lightweight and wearable stacked DSC textile is superior to conventional planar DSCs because the energy conversion efficiency of the stacked DSC textile was independent of the angle of incident light. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. STACKING FAULT ENERGY IN HIGH MANGANESE ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mazancová

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Stacking fault energy of high manganese alloys (marked as TWIP and TRIPLEX is an important parameter determining deformation mechanism type realized in above mentioned alloys. Stacking fault energy level can be asserted with a gliding of partial and/or full dislocations, b gliding mechanism and twinning deformation process in connection with increasing of fracture deformation level (deformation elongation and with increasing of simultaneously realized work hardening proces., c gliding mechanism and deformation induced e-martensite formation. In contribution calculated stacking fault energies are presented for various chemical compositions of high manganese alloys. Stacking fault energy dependences on manganese, carbon, iron and alluminium contents are presented. Results are confronted with some accessible papers.The aim of work is to deepen knowledge of presented data. The TWIP and TRIPLEX alloys can be held for promissing new automotive materials.

  5. Stack-Based Typed Assembly Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrisett, Greg

    1998-01-01

    .... This paper also formalizes the typing connection between CPS based compilation and stack based compilation and illustrates how STAL can formally model calling conventions by specifying them as formal translations of source function types to STAL types.

  6. Characterization of Piezoelectric Stacks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Blodget, Chad; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2008-01-01

    Future NASA missions are increasingly seeking to actuate mechanisms to precision levels in the nanometer range and below. Co-fired multilayer piezoelectric stacks offer the required actuation precision that is needed for such mechanisms. To obtain performance statistics and determine reliability for extended use, sets of commercial PZT stacks were tested in various AC and DC conditions at both nominal and high temperatures and voltages. In order to study the lifetime performance of these stacks, five actuators were driven sinusoidally for up to ten billion cycles. An automated data acquisition system was developed and implemented to monitor each stack's electrical current and voltage waveforms over the life of the test. As part of the monitoring tests, the displacement, impedance, capacitance and leakage current were measured to assess the operation degradation. This paper presents some of the results of this effort.

  7. The stack on software and sovereignty

    CERN Document Server

    Bratton, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive political and design theory of planetary-scale computation proposing that The Stack -- an accidental megastructure -- is both a technological apparatus and a model for a new geopolitical architecture.

  8. Stacking for Cosmic Magnetism with SKA Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Stil, J. M.; Keller, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    Stacking polarized radio emission in SKA surveys provides statistical information on large samples that is not accessible otherwise due to limitations in sensitivity, source statistics in small fields, and averaging over frequency (including Faraday synthesis). Polarization is a special case because one obvious source of stacking targets is the Stokes I source catalog, possibly in combination with external catalogs, for example an SKA HI survey or a non-radio survey. We point out the signific...

  9. Environmental Modeling Framework using Stacked Gaussian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelfatah, Kareem; Bao, Junshu; Terejanu, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    A network of independently trained Gaussian processes (StackedGP) is introduced to obtain predictions of quantities of interest with quantified uncertainties. The main applications of the StackedGP framework are to integrate different datasets through model composition, enhance predictions of quantities of interest through a cascade of intermediate predictions, and to propagate uncertainties through emulated dynamical systems driven by uncertain forcing variables. By using analytical first an...

  10. Generalized data stacking programming model with applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Samir Elhadidy; Rawya Yehia Rizk; Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2016-01-01

    Recent researches have shown that, everywhere in various sciences the systems are following stacked-based stored change behavior when subjected to events or varying environments “on and above” their normal situations. This paper presents a generalized data stack programming (GDSP) model which is developed to describe the system changes under varying environment. These changes which are captured with different ways such as sensor reading are stored in matrices. Extraction algorithm and identif...

  11. Representations of stack triangulations in the plane

    OpenAIRE

    Selig, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Stack triangulations appear as natural objects when defining an increasing family of triangulations by successive additions of vertices. We consider two different probability distributions for such objects. We represent, or "draw" these random stack triangulations in the plane $\\R^2$ and study the asymptotic properties of these drawings, viewed as random compact metric spaces. We also look at the occupation measure of the vertices, and show that for these two distributions it converges to som...

  12. A Hybrid Artificial Reputation Model Involving Interaction Trust, Witness Information and the Trust Model to Calculate the Trust Value of Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh Ransi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent interaction in a community, such as the online buyer-seller scenario, is often uncertain, as when an agent comes in contact with other agents they initially know nothing about each other. Currently, many reputation models are developed that help service consumers select better service providers. Reputation models also help agents to make a decision on who they should trust and transact with in the future. These reputation models are either built on interaction trust that involves direct experience as a source of information or they are built upon witness information also known as word-of-mouth that involves the reports provided by others. Neither the interaction trust nor the witness information models alone succeed in such uncertain interactions. In this paper we propose a hybrid reputation model involving both interaction trust and witness information to address the shortcomings of existing reputation models when taken separately. A sample simulation is built to setup buyer-seller services and uncertain interactions. Experiments reveal that the hybrid approach leads to better selection of trustworthy agents where consumers select more reputable service providers, eventually helping consumers obtain more gains. Furthermore, the trust model developed is used in calculating trust values of service providers.

  13. Mother-child and father-child interaction with their 24-month-old children during feeding, considering paternal involvement and the child's temperament in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to study mother-child and father-child interactions with 24-month-old children during feeding, considering the possible influence of time spent by the parent with the child, the infantile temperament, and the parental psychological profile. The families were recruited from 12 preschools in Italy (N = 77 families). Through an observation of the feeding [Scala di Valutazione dell'Interazione Alimentare (SVIA - Feeding Scale; I. Chatoor et al., ; L. Lucarelli et al., )], self-reporting [Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; L.R. Derogatis, ), and report-form questionnaires [Italian Questionnaires on Temperament (QUIT; G. Axia, )], and information provided by the parents about the amount of time spent with their children, results showed that the overall quality of father-child interactions during feeding is lower than that of mother-child interactions. Fathers showed higher psychological symptoms than did mothers. No associations were found between the fathers' psychopathological risk and the quality of interactions with their children during feeding. Mothers' psychopathological risks predicted less contingent exchanges interactions with their children during feeding. Children's temperaments significantly influence mother-child interactions, but no association exists between maternal involvement and the quality of interactions with their children. Paternal involvement predicts a better quality of father-infant interactions when associated with a child's higher scores on Social Orientation. The quality of parents' interactions with their children during feeding are impacted by different issues originating from the parent's psychological profile, the degree of involvement, and from the child's temperament. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. A Time-predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspour, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to le...... of a cache for stack allocated data. Our port of the LLVM C++ compiler supports the management of the stack cache. The combination of stack cache instructions and the hardware implementation of the stack cache is a further step towards timepredictable architectures.......Real-time systems need time-predictable architectures to support static worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. One architectural feature, the data cache, is hard to analyze when different data areas (e.g., heap allocated and stack allocated data) share the same cache. This sharing leads to less...... precise results of the cache analysis part of the WCET analysis. Splitting the data cache for different data areas enables composable data cache analysis. The WCET analysis tool can analyze the accesses to these different data areas independently. In this paper we present the design and implementation...

  15. Detailed Electrochemical Characterisation of Large SOFC Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, R.

    2012-01-01

    As solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, lifetime limiting factors, determination of the limits of safe operation and methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating cells and stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires applica...... out at a range of ac perturbation amplitudes in order to investigate linearity of the response and the signal-to-noise ratio. Separation of the measured impedance into series and polarisation resistances was possible....... to analyse in detail. Today one is forced to use mathematical modelling to extract information about existing gradients and cell resistances in operating stacks, as mature techniques for local probing are not available. This type of spatially resolved information is essential for model refinement...... and validation, and helps to further the technological stack development. Further, more detailed information obtained from operating stacks is essential for developing appropriate process monitoring and control protocols for stack and system developers. An experimental stack with low ohmic resistance from Topsoe...

  16. Nuclear Magnetic Shieldings of Stacked Aromatic and Antiaromatic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundholm, Dage; Rauhalahti, Markus; Özcan, Nergiz; Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Kussmann, Jörg; Luenser, Arne; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2017-05-09

    Nuclear magnetic shieldings have been calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) level for stacks of benzene, hexadehydro[12]annulene, dodecadehydro[18]annulene, and hexabenzocoronene. The magnetic shieldings due to the ring currents in the adjacent molecules have been estimated by calculating nucleus independent molecular shieldings for the monomer in the atomic positions of neighbor molecules. The calculations show that the independent shielding model works reasonably well for the 1 H NMR shieldings of benzene and hexadehydro[12]annulene, whereas for the larger molecules and for the 13 C NMR shieldings the interaction between the molecules leads to shielding effects that are at least of the same size as the ring current contributions from the adjacent molecules. A better agreement is obtained when the nearest neighbors are also considered at full quantum mechanical (QM) level. The calculations suggest that the nearest solvent molecules must be included in the quantum mechanical system, at least when estimating solvent shifts at the molecular mechanics (MM) level. Current density calculations show that the stacking does not significantly affect the ring current strengths of the individual molecules, whereas the shape of the ring current for a single molecule differs from that of the stacked molecules.

  17. From Trust in Automation to Decision Neuroscience: Applying Cognitive Neuroscience Methods to Understand and Improve Interaction Decisions Involved in Human Automation Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drnec, Kim; Marathe, Amar R; Lukos, Jamie R; Metcalfe, Jason S

    2016-01-01

    Human automation interaction (HAI) systems have thus far failed to live up to expectations mainly because human users do not always interact with the automation appropriately. Trust in automation (TiA) has been considered a central influence on the way a human user interacts with an automation; if TiA is too high there will be overuse, if TiA is too low there will be disuse. However, even though extensive research into TiA has identified specific HAI behaviors, or trust outcomes, a unique mapping between trust states and trust outcomes has yet to be clearly identified. Interaction behaviors have been intensely studied in the domain of HAI and TiA and this has led to a reframing of the issues of problems with HAI in terms of reliance and compliance. We find the behaviorally defined terms reliance and compliance to be useful in their functionality for application in real-world situations. However, we note that once an inappropriate interaction behavior has occurred it is too late to mitigate it. We therefore take a step back and look at the interaction decision that precedes the behavior. We note that the decision neuroscience community has revealed that decisions are fairly stereotyped processes accompanied by measurable psychophysiological correlates. Two literatures were therefore reviewed. TiA literature was extensively reviewed in order to understand the relationship between TiA and trust outcomes, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge. We note that an interaction decision precedes an interaction behavior and believe that we can leverage knowledge of the psychophysiological correlates of decisions to improve joint system performance. As we believe that understanding the interaction decision will be critical to the eventual mitigation of inappropriate interaction behavior, we reviewed the decision making literature and provide a synopsis of the state of the art understanding of the decision process from a decision neuroscience perspective. We forward

  18. From Trust in Automation to Decision Neuroscience: Applying Cognitive Neuroscience Methods to Understand and Improve Interaction Decisions Involved in Human Automation Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drnec, Kim; Marathe, Amar R.; Lukos, Jamie R.; Metcalfe, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Human automation interaction (HAI) systems have thus far failed to live up to expectations mainly because human users do not always interact with the automation appropriately. Trust in automation (TiA) has been considered a central influence on the way a human user interacts with an automation; if TiA is too high there will be overuse, if TiA is too low there will be disuse. However, even though extensive research into TiA has identified specific HAI behaviors, or trust outcomes, a unique mapping between trust states and trust outcomes has yet to be clearly identified. Interaction behaviors have been intensely studied in the domain of HAI and TiA and this has led to a reframing of the issues of problems with HAI in terms of reliance and compliance. We find the behaviorally defined terms reliance and compliance to be useful in their functionality for application in real-world situations. However, we note that once an inappropriate interaction behavior has occurred it is too late to mitigate it. We therefore take a step back and look at the interaction decision that precedes the behavior. We note that the decision neuroscience community has revealed that decisions are fairly stereotyped processes accompanied by measurable psychophysiological correlates. Two literatures were therefore reviewed. TiA literature was extensively reviewed in order to understand the relationship between TiA and trust outcomes, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge. We note that an interaction decision precedes an interaction behavior and believe that we can leverage knowledge of the psychophysiological correlates of decisions to improve joint system performance. As we believe that understanding the interaction decision will be critical to the eventual mitigation of inappropriate interaction behavior, we reviewed the decision making literature and provide a synopsis of the state of the art understanding of the decision process from a decision neuroscience perspective. We forward

  19. Examining the interaction of parental involvement and parenting style in predicting adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Sara E; Friedrich, Elizabeth A; Jawad, Abbas F; Miller, Victoria A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether aspects of parenting style (specifically, warmth, autonomy support, and coercion) moderated the association between parental involvement and adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes. Children ages 8 to 16 years with type 1 diabetes and a parent completed assessments of parental involvement, parenting style, and adherence. Parent autonomy support and coercion were associated with adherence but warmth was not. Child report of more parental involvement was associated with better adherence. Warmth, autonomy support, and coercion were not moderators. The findings underscore the importance of parental involvement, operationalized as responsibility for diabetes tasks, and parenting style, specifically coercion and autonomy support, for adherence in pediatric chronic illness management. Longitudinal research is needed to better understand how and why dimensions of involvement (e.g., responsibility, monitoring, support) vary over time and whether they impact outcomes differentially. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. [Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.

  1. From Multi to Single Stack Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Mohamed Faouzi

    We investigate the issue of reducing the verification problem of multi-stack machines to the one for single-stack machines. For instance, elegant (and practically efficient) algorithms for bounded-context switch analysis of multi-pushdown systems have been recently defined based on reductions to the reachability problem of (single-stack) pushdown systems [10,18]. In this paper, we extend this view to both bounded-phase visibly pushdown automata (BVMPA) [16] and ordered multi-pushdown automata (OMPA) [1] by showing that each of their emptiness problem can be reduced to the one for a class of single-stack machines. For these reductions, we introduce effective generalized pushdown automata (EGPA) where operations on stacks are (1) pop the top symbol of the stack, and (2) push a word in some (effectively) given set of words L over the stack alphabet, assuming that L is in some class of languages for which checking whether L intersects regular languages is decidable. We show that the automata-based saturation procedure for computing the set of predecessors in standard pushdown automata can be extended to prove that for EGPA too the set of all predecessors of a regular set of configurations is an effectively constructible regular set. Our reductions from OMPA and BVMPA to EGPA, together with the reachability analysis procedure for EGPA, allow to provide conceptually simple algorithms for checking the emptiness problem for each of these models, and to significantly simplify the proofs for their 2ETIME upper bounds (matching their lower-bounds).

  2. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  3. Changes in oxidative enzyme activity during interspecific mycelial interactions involving the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiscox, J.; Baldrian, Petr; Rogers, H. J.; Boddy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2010), s. 562-571 ISSN 1087-1845 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Interactions * Basidiomycetes * Trametes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.333, year: 2010

  4. RanGTP-mediated nuclear export of karyopherin α involves its interaction with the nucleoporin Nup153

    OpenAIRE

    Moroianu, Junona; Blobel, Günter; Radu, Aurelian

    1997-01-01

    Using binding assays, we discovered an interaction between karyopherin α2 and the nucleoporin Nup153 and mapped their interacting domains. We also isolated a 15-kDa tryptic fragment of karyopherin β1, termed β1*, that contains a determinant for binding to the peptide repeat containing nucleoporin Nup98. In an in vitro assay in which export of endogenous nuclear karyopherin α from nuclei of digitonin-permeabilized cells was quantitatively monitored by indirect immunofluorescence with anti-kary...

  5. The thymic orchestration involving Aire, miRNAs and cell-cell interactions during the induction of central tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo eAleixo Passos; DANIELLA AREAS MENDES-DA-CRUZ; Ernna Hérida Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Developing thymocytes interact sequentially with two distinct structures within the thymus: the cortex and medulla. Surviving single-positive and double-positive thymocytes from the cortex migrate into the medulla, where they interact with medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). These cells ectopically express a vast set of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs), a property termed promiscuous gene expression that is associated with the presentation of PTAs by mTECs to thymocytes. Thymocyte clon...

  6. Broken sublattice symmetry states in Bernal stacked multilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chiho; Jang, Yunsu; Jung, Jeil; Min, Hongki

    2017-06-01

    We analyze the ordered phases of Bernal stacked multilayer graphene in the presence of interaction induced band gaps due to sublattice symmetry breaking potentials, whose solutions can be analyzed in terms of light-mass and heavy-mass pseudospin doublets which have the same Chern numbers but opposite charge polarization directions. The application of a perpendicular external electric field reveals an effective Hund’s rule for the ordering of the sublattice pseudospin doublets in a tetralayer, while a similar but more complex phase diagram develops with increasing layer number.

  7. EmuStack: An OpenStack-Based DTN Network Emulation Platform (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of computing and network virtualization technology, the networking research community shows great interest in network emulation. Compared with network simulation, network emulation can provide more relevant and comprehensive details. In this paper, EmuStack, a large-scale real-time emulation platform for Delay Tolerant Network (DTN, is proposed. EmuStack aims at empowering network emulation to become as simple as network simulation. Based on OpenStack, distributed synchronous emulation modules are developed to enable EmuStack to implement synchronous and dynamic, precise, and real-time network emulation. Meanwhile, the lightweight approach of using Docker container technology and network namespaces allows EmuStack to support a (up to hundreds of nodes large-scale topology with only several physical nodes. In addition, EmuStack integrates the Linux Traffic Control (TC tools with OpenStack for managing and emulating the virtual link characteristics which include variable bandwidth, delay, loss, jitter, reordering, and duplication. Finally, experiences with our initial implementation suggest the ability to run and debug experimental network protocol in real time. EmuStack environment would bring qualitative change in network research works.

  8. Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions Involving HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, and Smoking in Two Subsets of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källberg, Henrik; Padyukov, Leonid; Plenge, Robert M.; Rönnelid, Johan; Gregersen, Peter K.; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.; Toes, Rene E. M.; Huizinga, Tom W.; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are key features in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other complex diseases. The aim of this study was to use and compare three different definitions of interaction between the two major genetic risk factors of RA—the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles and the PTPN22 R620W allele—in three large case-control studies: the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study, the North American RA Consortium (NARAC) study, and the Dutch Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic study (in total, 1,977 cases and 2,405 controls). The EIRA study was also used to analyze interactions between smoking and the two genes. “Interaction” was defined either as a departure from additivity, as interaction in a multiplicative model, or in terms of linkage disequilibrium—for example, deviation from independence of penetrance of two unlinked loci. Consistent interaction, defined as departure from additivity, between HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and the A allele of PTPN22 R620W was seen in all three studies regarding anti-CCP–positive RA. Testing for multiplicative interactions demonstrated an interaction between the two genes only when the three studies were pooled. The linkage disequilibrium approach indicated a gene-gene interaction in EIRA and NARAC, as well as in the pooled analysis. No interaction was seen between smoking and PTPN22 R620W. A new pattern of interactions is described between the two major known genetic risk factors and the major environmental risk factor concerning the risk of developing anti-CCP–positive RA. The data extend the basis for a pathogenetic hypothesis for RA involving genetic and environmental factors. The study also raises and illustrates principal questions concerning ways to define interactions in complex diseases. PMID:17436241

  9. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  10. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  11. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malá, Zdena; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    This contribution is a methodological review of the publications about the topic from the last 2 years. Therefore, it is primarily organized according to the methods and procedures used in surveyed papers and the origin and type of sample and specification of analytes form the secondary structure. The introductory part about navigation in the architecture of stacking brings a brief characterization of the various stacking methods, with the description of mutual links to each other and important differences among them. The main body of the article brings a survey of publications organized according to main principles of stacking and then according to the origin and type of the sample. Provided that the paper cited gave explicitly the relevant data, information about the BGE(s) used, procedure, detector employed, and reached LOD and/or concentration effect is given. The papers where the procedure used is a combination of diverse fragments and parts of various stacking techniques are mentioned in a special section on combined techniques. The concluding remarks in the final part of the review evaluate present state of art and the trends of sample stacking in CE. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Enhanced dynamical stability with harmonic slip stacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Eldred

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop a configuration of radio-frequency (rf cavities to dramatically improve the performance of slip stacking. Slip stacking is an accumulation technique used at Fermilab to nearly double proton intensity by maintaining two beams of different momenta in the same storage ring. The two particle beams are longitudinally focused in the Recycler by two 53 MHz 100 kV rf cavities with a small frequency difference between them. We propose an additional 106 MHz 20 kV rf cavity with a frequency at the double the average of the upper and lower main rf frequencies. We show the harmonic rf cavity cancels out the resonances generated between the two main rf cavities and we derive the relationship between the harmonic rf voltage and the main rf voltage. We find the area factors that can be used to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 99% slip stacking efficiency. We measure the longitudinal distribution of the Booster beam and use it to generate a realistic beam model for slip stacking simulation. We demonstrate that the harmonic rf cavity can not only reduce particle loss during slip stacking, but also reduce the final longitudinal emittance.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of protein-protein interactions and involvement of viral proteins in SARS-CoV replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji'an Pan

    Full Text Available Analyses of viral protein-protein interactions are an important step to understand viral protein functions and their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we adopted a mammalian two-hybrid system to screen the genome-wide intraviral protein-protein interactions of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV and therefrom revealed a number of novel interactions which could be partly confirmed by in vitro biochemical assays. Three pairs of the interactions identified were detected in both directions: non-structural protein (nsp 10 and nsp14, nsp10 and nsp16, and nsp7 and nsp8. The interactions between the multifunctional nsp10 and nsp14 or nsp16, which are the unique proteins found in the members of Nidovirales with large RNA genomes including coronaviruses and toroviruses, may have important implication for the mechanisms of replication/transcription complex assembly and functions of these viruses. Using a SARS-CoV replicon expressing a luciferase reporter under the control of a transcription regulating sequence, it has been shown that several viral proteins (N, X and SUD domains of nsp3, and nsp12 provided in trans stimulated the replicon reporter activity, indicating that these proteins may regulate coronavirus replication and transcription. Collectively, our findings provide a basis and platform for further characterization of the functions and mechanisms of coronavirus proteins.

  14. The eClassroom used as a Teacher's Training Laboratory to Measure the Impact of Group Facilitation on Attending, Participation, Interaction, and Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Lobel

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and quantifies the role of group facilitation in an experiential, real-time, online, university level credit course entitled eAHSC/ 230 Interpersonal Communications and Relations. A new and unique group interaction pattern called parallel communication, as well as classical elements of group interaction are described and quantified. New measures of online group facilitation attributes with analogous face-to-face (F2F counterparts are presented. Specifically, the impact of effective group facilitation on Attentiveness, on Interaction, on Involvement, and on Participation is explored. The paper also examines the eClassrom’s potential effectiveness as a real time teaching and training laboratory which also functions as a process observation tool that collects and feeds back interaction data, providing teachers and trainers immediate and ongoing measures of facilitation effectiveness.

  15. Reconstruction of the yeast protein-protein interaction network involved in nutrient sensing and global metabolic regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Jouhten, Paula; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several protein-protein interaction studies have been performed for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using different high-throughput experimental techniques. All these results are collected in the BioGRID database and the SGD database provide detailed annotation of the different......-sensing and metabolic regulatory signal transduction pathways (STP) operating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reconstructed STP network includes a full protein-protein interaction network including the key nodes Snf1, Tor1, Hog1 and Pka1. The network includes a total of 623 structural open reading frames (ORFs...

  16. Progress of MCFC stack technology at Toshiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M.; Hayashi, T.; Shimizu, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Toshiba is working on the development of MCFC stack technology; improvement of cell characteristics, and establishment of separator technology. For the cell technology, Toshiba has concentrated on both the restraints of NiO cathode dissolution and electrolyte loss from cells, which are the critical issues to extend cell life in MCFC, and great progress has been made. On the other hand, recognizing that the separator is one of key elements in accomplishing reliable and cost-competitive MCFC stacks, Toshiba has been accelerating the technology establishment and verification of an advanced type separator. A sub-scale stack with such a separator was provided for an electric generating test, and has been operated for more than 10,000 hours. This paper presents several topics obtained through the technical activities in the MCFC field at Toshiba.

  17. Performance evaluation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack under ambient conditions: Case study of United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zeyoudi, Hend; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of open-cathode PEM fuel cell stacks with forced air-convection. • Stack performance can vary up to 40% from winter to summer. • Hot and arid condition leads to membrane drying and performance deterioration. • Anode humidification improves the stack performance up to 40% during summer. - Abstract: The open-cathode polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack has been a promising candidate as a sustainable energy conversion system for replacing fossil fuel-based energy conversion devices in portable and automotive applications. As the ambient air is directly used to provide both oxidant and cooling, the complex cooling loop can be avoided which reduces the complexity and cost. However, the stack performance is highly affected by ambient conditions, i.e., ambient temperature and humidity. In this study, the effect of monthly ambient air conditions (temperature and humidity) is evaluated with respect to the stack’s power production performance as well as thermal, water and gas management by employing a validated three-dimensional open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack model. The annual climate data from the hot and arid environment of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) are used as a case study. The objective is to develop a better fundamental understanding of the interactions of physical phenomena in a fuel cell stack, which can assist in improving the performance and operation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell-powered vehicle. The results indicate that the stack performance can vary significantly (up to 40%) from winter to summer, especially at high operating currents, with significant changes in the stack temperature and the water content at the membrane. Moreover, the anode humidification results in a significant improvement in the stack performance (up to 40%) in hot and dry conditions. However, a careful balance has to be struck between the humidifier parasitic load and the stack power.

  18. NuMA localization, stability, and function in spindle orientation involve 4.1 and Cdk1 interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Lindsey; Poulson, Nicholas D; Foote, Henry P; Lechler, Terry

    2013-12-01

    The epidermis is a multilayered epithelium that requires asymmetric divisions for stratification. A conserved cortical protein complex, including LGN, nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA), and dynein/dynactin, plays a key role in establishing proper spindle orientation during asymmetric divisions. The requirements for the cortical recruitment of these proteins, however, remain unclear. In this work, we show that NuMA is required to recruit dynactin to the cell cortex of keratinocytes. NuMA's cortical recruitment requires LGN; however, LGN interactions are not sufficient for this localization. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we find that the 4.1-binding domain of NuMA is important for stabilizing its interaction with the cell cortex. This is functionally important, as loss of 4.1/NuMA interaction results in spindle orientation defects, using two distinct assays. Furthermore, we observe an increase in cortical NuMA localization as cells enter anaphase. Inhibition of Cdk1 or mutation of a single residue in NuMA mimics this effect. NuMA's anaphase localization is independent of LGN and 4.1 interactions, revealing two distinct mechanisms responsible for NuMA cortical recruitment at different stages of mitosis. This work highlights the complexity of NuMA localization and reveals the importance of NuMA cortical stability for productive force generation during spindle orientation.

  19. Interactions Between SNAP-25 and Synaptotagmin-1 Are Involved in Vesicle Priming, Clamping Spontaneous and Stimulating Evoked Neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schupp, Melanie; Malsam, Jörg; Ruiter, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    within region II of the primary interface (Zhou et al., 2015); two mutations targeted region I (D166A and D166/E170A) and one mutation targeted both (D51/E52/E55/D166A). The final mutation (D186/D193A) targeted C-terminal residues not expected to interact with syt-1. An in vitro assay showed...

  20. Design Handbook for a Stack Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Vilma

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was made for Citec Engineering Oy Ab as a handbook and as a design tool for concrete structure designers. Handbook is about the Wärtsilä Power Plant stack structure, which is a base for about 40 meters high stack pipe. The purpose is to make a calculation base to support the design work, which helps the designer to check the right dimensions of the structure. Thesis is about to be for the concrete designers and also other designers and authorities. As an example I have used an...

  1. Managing stakeholder involvement in decision-making : A comparative analysis of six interactive processes in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Edelenbos (Jurian); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractInitiatives to encourage and stimulate the involvement of citizens but also various societal organisations in decision-making can be seen in a wide variety of European countries. Citizens panels, citizens charters, new forms of participation and other forms are being used to increase the

  2. Involving the Parents of English Language Learners in a Rural Area: Focus on the Dynamics of Teacher-Parent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jenna M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the author suggests that the current ELL parental involvement model often overlooks the structural aspects and power asymmetry of parent-teacher relationships that can hinder productive collaboration. In doing so, the author uses postcolonial theory as a conceptual lens to investigate the dynamics of ELL parent-teacher interactions…

  3. Interaction of E. coli Hsp90 with DnaK Involves the DnaJ Binding Region of DnaK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravats, Andrea N; Doyle, Shannon M; Hoskins, Joel R; Genest, Olivier; Doody, Erin; Wickner, Sue

    2017-03-24

    The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a widely conserved and ubiquitous molecular chaperone that participates in ATP-dependent protein remodeling in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It functions in conjunction with Hsp70 and the Hsp70 cochaperones, an Hsp40 (J-protein) and a nucleotide exchange factor. In Escherichia coli, the functional collaboration between Hsp90 Ec and Hsp70, DnaK, requires that the two chaperones directly interact. We used molecular docking to model the interaction of Hsp90 Ec and DnaK. The top-ranked docked model predicted that a region in the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of DnaK interacted with a region in the middle domain of Hsp90 Ec . We then made substitution mutants in DnaK residues suggested by the model to interact with Hsp90 Ec . Of the 12 mutants tested, 11 were defective or partially defective in their ability to interact with Hsp90 Ec in vivo in a bacterial two-hybrid assay and in vitro in a bio-layer interferometry assay. These DnaK mutants were also defective in their ability to function collaboratively in protein remodeling with Hsp90 Ec but retained the ability to act with DnaK cochaperones. Taken together, these results suggest that a specific region in the NBD of DnaK is involved in the interaction with Hsp90 Ec , and this interaction is functionally important. Moreover, the region of DnaK that we found to be necessary for Hsp90 Ec binding includes residues that are also involved in J-protein binding, suggesting a functional interplay among DnaK, DnaK cochaperones, and Hsp90 Ec . Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. On the Importance of Nonbonding Donor-Acceptor Interactions Involving PO2. Radicals: An ab Initio Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio

    2017-08-18

    In this study, several σ-type and π-hole bonding complexes between PO 2 . radicals and electron-rich entities have been optimized at the RI-MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory. We have used Cl - , Br - , I - anions, and ethene, ethyne, HCN, HF, and H 2 O as Lewis bases. In addition, we have performed natural bond orbital (NBO) and Mulliken spin density analyses, highlighting the donor-acceptor nature of the interaction. Moreover, an interesting retro-donation from the single electron lone pair of the PO 2 . radical to the Lewis base also contributes to the stabilization of the complexes studied herein. Finally, the Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) analysis of several complexes has been performed to further characterize the interactions discussed herein. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Toward Molecular Magnets of Organic Origin via Anion-π Interaction Involving m-Aminyl Diradical: A Theoretical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Debojit; Shil, Suranjan; Misra, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Here we study a set of novel magnetic organic molecular species with different halide ions (fluoride, chloride, bromide) absorbed ∼2 Å above or below the center of an aromatic π-ring in an m-aminyl diradical. Focus is on the nature of anion-π interaction and its impact on magnetic properties......, specifically on magnetic anisotropy and on intramolecular magnetic exchange coupling. In the development of single molecule magnets, magnetic anisotropy is considered to be the most influential factor. A new insight regarding the magnetic anisotropy that determines the barrier height for relaxation...... of magnetization of m-aminyl diradical-derived anionic complexes is obtained from calculations of the axial zero-field-splitting (ZFS) parameter D. The noncovalent anion-π interaction strongly influences magnetic anisotropy in m-aminyl-halide diradical complexes. In particular, the change of D values from positive...

  6. The thymic orchestration involving Aire, miRNAs and cell-cell interactions during the induction of central tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo eAleixo Passos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing thymocytes interact sequentially with two distinct structures within the thymus: the cortex and medulla. Surviving single-positive and double-positive thymocytes from the cortex migrate into the medulla, where they interact with medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs. These cells ectopically express a vast set of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs, a property termed promiscuous gene expression that is associated with the presentation of PTAs by mTECs to thymocytes. Thymocyte clones that have a high affinity for PTAs are eliminated by apoptosis in a process termed negative selection, which is essential for tolerance induction. The Aire gene is an important factor that controls the expression of a large set of PTAs. In addition to PTAs, Aire also controls the expression of miRNAs in mTECs. These miRNAs are important in the organization of the thymic architecture and act as posttranscriptional controllers of PTAs. Herein, we discuss recent discoveries and highlight open questions regarding the migration and interaction of developing thymocytes with thymic stroma, the ectopic expression of PTAs by mTECs, the association between Aire and miRNAs and its effects on central tolerance.

  7. OLDER ADULTS CATCH UP TO YOUNGER ADULTS ON A LEARNING AND MEMORY TASK THAT INVOLVES COLLABORATIVE SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, B.J.; Duff, M.C.; Weldon, K.; Zhang, J.; Zamba, G.; Tranel, D.; Denburg, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasizes collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task, a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the Barrier Task, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterized by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older. PMID:24841619

  8. Older adults catch up to younger adults on a learning and memory task that involves collaborative social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, B J; Duff, M C; Weldon, K; Zhang, J; Zamba, K D; Tranel, D; Denburg, N L

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory abilities tend to decline as people age. The current study examines the question of whether a learning situation that emphasises collaborative social interaction might help older persons overcome age-related learning and memory changes and thus perform similarly to younger persons. Younger and Older participants (n = 34 in each group) completed the Barrier Task (BT), a game-like social interaction where partners work together to develop labels for a set of abstract tangrams. Participants were also administered standard clinical neuropsychological measures of memory, on which the Older group showed expected inferiority to the Younger group. On the BT, the Older group performed less well than the Younger group early on, but as the task progressed, the performance of the Older group caught up and became statistically indistinguishable from that of the Younger group. These results can be taken to suggest that a learning milieu characterised by collaborative social interaction can attenuate some of the typical memory disadvantages associated with being older.

  9. Longitudinal ultrasonic vibration assisted guillotining of stacked paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Karl-Robert; Kaiser, Fabian; Zimmermann, Remo; Meier, Linus; Bolt, Peter; Wegener, Konrad

    2014-08-01

    Ultrasonic vibration assisted cutting is a complex process with high dynamics. The interaction between cutting tool and workpiece is of key interest to understand the entire process. Experimental investigations are limited by the dynamics of the measurement system, and thus appropriately modeling of the ultrasonic vibration assisted cutting process is essential. In this investigation, a dynamic model regarding the ultrasonic vibration assisted guillotining of stacked paper sheets is developed. A Kelvin-Voigt material model, representing the individual sheets, is chosen, with its stiffness and damping parameters being empirically determined. A novel measurement strategy for studying the contact time and interaction between cutting tool and workpiece is introduced. It allows the verification of the highly dynamic behavior of the developed model. With the dynamic model, the experimentally observed cutting forces can be calculated. It is found that the dynamic forces cause a quicker failure of the material, which leads to a lower compression of the stack prior to reaching the critical cutting force. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stacking faults in a layered cobalt tellurium phosphate oxochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Iwan; Johnsson, Mats

    2015-02-01

    The new compound Co2Te3(PO4)O6Cl was synthesized by chemical reactions in a sealed and evacuated silica tube. The crystal structure was solved from single crystal diffraction data and is made up by charge neutral layers. Within the layers two types of chains are made up by edge sharing [CoO6] and [CoO5Cl] polyhedra respectively. The chains are separated by tellurium oxide and phosphate building blocks. There are only weak Van der Waals interactions in between the layers and severe diffuse scattering is observed due to faulted stacking of the layers. Structure solutions in a P-1 triclinic cell and a larger monoclinic cell in P21/c are discussed and compared to a computer generated model. The reasons for the stacking faults may be due to that there are two positions available for each layer that results in similar connectivity to the next layer in addition to the relatively wide channels in between the layers that reduce the Van der Waals interactions in between them.

  11. NMR identification of the binding surfaces involved in the Salmonella and Shigella Type III secretion tip-translocon protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C; Kaur, Kawaljit; Chatterjee, Srirupa; Knight, Kevin M; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2016-08-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential for the pathogenesis of many bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella, which together are responsible for millions of deaths worldwide each year. The structural component of the T3SS consists of the needle apparatus, which is assembled in part by the protein-protein interaction between the tip and the translocon. The atomic detail of the interaction between the tip and the translocon proteins is currently unknown. Here, we used NMR methods to identify that the N-terminal domain of the Salmonella SipB translocon protein interacts with the SipD tip protein at a surface at the distal region of the tip formed by the mixed α/β domain and a portion of its coiled-coil domain. Likewise, the Shigella IpaB translocon protein and the IpaD tip protein interact with each other using similar surfaces identified for the Salmonella homologs. Furthermore, removal of the extreme N-terminal residues of the translocon protein, previously thought to be important for the interaction, had little change on the binding surface. Finally, mutations at the binding surface of SipD reduced invasion of Salmonella into human intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these results reveal the binding surfaces involved in the tip-translocon protein-protein interaction and advance our understanding of the assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus. Proteins 2016; 84:1097-1107. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Malá, Zdeňka; Pantůčková, Pavla; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-18 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  13. Testing of Electrodes, Cells and Short Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    The present contribution describes the electrochemical testing and characterization of electrodes, cells, and short stacks. To achieve the maximum insight and results from testing of electrodes and cells, it is obviously necessary to have a good understanding of the fundamental principles...

  14. Stack Gas Scrubber Makes the Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes a year long test of successful sulfur dioxide removal from stack gas with a calcium oxide slurry. Sludge disposal problems are discussed. Cost is estimated at 0.6 mill per kwh not including sludge removal. A flow diagram and equations are included. (GH)

  15. OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Kapadia, Amar; Varma, Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    If you are an IT administrator and you want to enter the world of cloud storage using OpenStack Swift, then this book is ideal for you. Basic knowledge of Linux and server technology is beneficial to get the most out of the book.

  16. Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASUDEB DATTA

    2011-11-20

    Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...

  17. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Šlampová, Andrea; Křivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-35 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.482, year: 2015

  18. The data type variety of stack algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Tucker, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    We define and study the class of all stack algebras as the class of all minimal algebras in a variety defined by an infinite recursively enumerable set of equations. Among a number of results, we show that the initial model of the variety is computable, that its equational theory is decidable,

  19. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  20. 40 CFR 61.53 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.53 Section 61.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Mercury ore processing facility. (1) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under...

  1. 40 CFR 61.33 - Stack sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack sampling. 61.33 Section 61.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... sampling. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, each owner or operator...

  2. OpenStack cloud computing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook full of practical and applicable recipes that will enable you to use the full capabilities of OpenStack like never before.This book is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments with familiarity of cloud computing platforms. Knowledge of virtualization and managing linux environments is expected.

  3. Effectors involved in fungal-fungal interaction lead to a rare phenomenon of hyperbiotrophy in the tritrophic system biocontrol agent-powdery mildew-plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Joan; Ramakrishnan, Gowsica Bojarajan; Labbé, Caroline; Lefebvre, François; Spanu, Pietro D; Bélanger, Richard R

    2018-01-01

    Tritrophic interactions involving a biocontrol agent, a pathogen and a plant have been analyzed predominantly from the perspective of the biocontrol agent. We have conducted the first comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of all three organisms in an effort to understand the elusive properties of Pseudozyma flocculosa in the context of its biocontrol activity against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei as it parasitizes Hordeum vulgare. After inoculation of P. flocculosa, the tripartite interaction was monitored over time and samples collected for scanning electron microscopy and RNA sequencing. Based on our observations, P. flocculosa indirectly parasitizes barley, albeit transiently, by diverting nutrients extracted by B. graminis from barley leaves through a process involving unique effectors. This brings novel evidence that such molecules can also influence fungal-fungal interactions. Their release is synchronized with a higher expression of powdery mildew haustorial effectors, a sharp decline in the photosynthetic machinery of barley and a developmental peak in P. flocculosa. The interaction culminates with a collapse of B. graminis haustoria, thereby stopping P. flocculosa growth, as barley plants show higher metabolic activity. To conclude, our study has uncovered a complex and intricate phenomenon, described here as hyperbiotrophy, only achievable through the conjugated action of the three protagonists. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Transcription of human resistin gene involves an interaction of Sp1 with peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPARgamma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Singh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistin is a cysteine rich protein, mainly expressed and secreted by circulating human mononuclear cells. While several factors responsible for transcription of mouse resistin gene have been identified, not much is known about the factors responsible for the differential expression of human resistin.We show that the minimal promoter of human resistin lies within approximately 80 bp sequence upstream of the transcriptional start site (-240 whereas binding sites for cRel, CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP-alpha, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2 and activator protein 1 (AP-1 transcription factors, important for induced expression, are present within sequences up to -619. Specificity Protein 1(Sp1 binding site (-276 to -295 is also present and an interaction of Sp1 with peroxisome proliferator activating receptor gamma (PPARgamma is necessary for constitutive expression in U937 cells. Indeed co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated a direct physical interaction of Sp1 with PPARgamma in whole cell extracts of U937 cells. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA upregulated the expression of resistin mRNA in U937 cells by increasing the recruitment of Sp1, ATF-2 and PPARgamma on the resistin gene promoter. Furthermore, PMA stimulation of U937 cells resulted in the disruption of Sp1 and PPARgamma interaction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay confirmed the recruitment of transcription factors phospho ATF-2, Sp1, Sp3, PPARgamma, chromatin modifier histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 and the acetylated form of histone H3 but not cRel, C/EBP-alpha and phospho c-Jun during resistin gene transcription.Our findings suggest a complex interplay of Sp1 and PPARgamma along with other transcription factors that drives the expression of resistin in human monocytic U937 cells.

  5. Intermolecular interactions involving C-H bonds, 3, Structure and energetics of the interaction between CH{sub 4} and CN{sup {minus}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novoa, J.J.; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Williams, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    On the basis of SCF and single reference MP2 calculations, the full potential energy surface of the interaction between CH{sub 4} and CN{sup {minus}} was studied using extended basis sets of up to near Hartree-Fock limit quality. Colinear arrangements C-N{sup {minus}}{hor_ellipsis}H-CH{sub 3} and N-C{sup {minus}}{hor_ellipsis}H-CH{sub 3} are found to be the only two energy minima. The binding energies of these two structures are calculated to be 2.5 and 2.1 kcal/mol, respectively, at the MP2 level. The full vibrational analyses of two structures show a red shift of about 30 cm{sup {minus}1} for the v{sub s} C-H stretching.

  6. The pragmatic language abilities of children with ADHD following a play-based intervention involving peer-to-peer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Docking, Kimberley

    2013-08-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) commonly experience significant pragmatic language deficits which put them at risk of developing emotional and social difficulties. This study aimed to examine the pragmatic language exhibited in a peer-to-peer interaction between the children with ADHD and their playmates following a pilot play-based intervention. Participants were children (aged 5-11 years) diagnosed as having ADHD (n = 14) and their self-selected typically-developing playmate. Pragmatic language was measured using the Pragmatic Protocol (PP) and the Structured Multidimensional Assessment Profiles (S-MAPs). Children's structural language was also screened and compared against their pragmatic language skills pre-post play-based intervention. The pragmatic language of children with ADHD improved significantly from pre-post intervention as measured by both the PP and S-MAPs. Both children with and without structural language difficulties improved significantly from pre- to post-intervention using S-MAPs; only children with structural language difficulties improved significantly using PP. The findings support the notion that pragmatic skills may improve following a play-based intervention that is characterized by didactic social interaction. As pragmatic language is a complex construct, it is proposed that clinicians and researchers reconsider the working definition of pragmatic language and the operationalization thereof in assessments.

  7. The Association between Gene-Environment Interactions and Diseases Involving the Human GST Superfamily with SNP Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinesha L. Hollman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental hazards has been associated with diseases in humans. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in human populations exposed to different environmental hazards, is vital for detecting the genetic risks of some important human diseases. Several studies in this field have been conducted on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, a phase II detoxification superfamily, to investigate its role in the occurrence of diseases. Human GSTs consist of cytosolic and microsomal superfamilies that are further divided into subfamilies. Based on scientific search engines and a review of the literature, we have found a large amount of published articles on human GST super- and subfamilies that have greatly assisted in our efforts to examine their role in health and disease. Because of its polymorphic variations in relation to environmental hazards such as air pollutants, cigarette smoke, pesticides, heavy metals, carcinogens, pharmaceutical drugs, and xenobiotics, GST is considered as a significant biomarker. This review examines the studies on gene-environment interactions related to various diseases with respect to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs found in the GST superfamily. Overall, it can be concluded that interactions between GST genes and environmental factors play an important role in human diseases.

  8. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  9. Effect of stacking fault energy on steady-state creep rate of face ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuum elastic theory was used to establish the relationships between the force of interaction required to constrict dislocation partials, energy of constriction and climb velocity of the constricted thermal jogs, in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy (SFE) on steady state creep rate of face centered cubic ...

  10. The N-terminus of FILIA forms an atypical KH domain with a unique extension involved in interaction with RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juke Wang

    Full Text Available FILIA is a member of the recently identified oocyte/embryo expressed gene family in eutherian mammals, which is characterized by containing an N-terminal atypical KH domain. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal fragment of FILIA (FILIA-N, which represents the first reported three-dimensional structure of a KH domain in the oocyte/embryo expressed gene family of proteins. The structure of FILIA-N revealed a unique N-terminal extension beyond the canonical KH region, which plays important roles in interaction with RNA. By co-incubation with the lysates of mice ovaries, FILIA and FILIA-N could sequester specific RNA components, supporting the critical roles of FILIA in regulation of RNA transcripts during mouse oogenesis and early embryogenesis.

  11. Scale up issues involved with the ceramic waste form: ceramic-container interactions and ceramic cracking quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, K. J.; DiSanto, T.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; O'Holleran, T.; Riley, W. P. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel to prepare the material for final disposal. Two waste streams will result from the treatment process, a stainless steel based form and a ceramic based form. The ceramic waste form will be enclosed in a stainless steel container. In order to assess the performance of the ceramic waste form in a repository two factors must be examined, the surface area increases caused by waste form cracking and any ceramic/canister interactions that may release toxic material. The results indicate that the surface area increases are less than the High Level Waste glass and any toxic releases are below regulatory limits

  12. A DNA sequence directed mutual transcription regulation of HSF1 and NFIX involves novel heat sensitive protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashankar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the Nuclear factor 1 family member NFIX has been strongly implicated in PDGFB-induced glioblastoma, its molecular mechanisms of action remain unknown. HSF1, a heat shock-related transcription factor is also a powerful modifier of carcinogenesis by several factors, including PDGFB. How HSF1 transcription is controlled has remained largely elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining microarray expression profiling and a yeast-two-hybrid screen, we identified that NFIX and its interactions with CGGBP1 and HMGN1 regulate expression of HSF1. We found that CGGBP1 organizes a bifunctional transcriptional complex at small CGG repeats in the HSF1 promoter. Under chronic heat shock, NFIX uses CGGBP1 and HMGN1 to get recruited to this promoter and in turn affects their binding to DNA. Results show that the interactions of NFIX with CGGBP1 and HMGN1 in the soluble fraction are heat shock sensitive due to preferential localization of CGGBP1 to heterochromatin after heat shock. HSF1 in turn was found to bind to the NFIX promoter and repress its expression in a heat shock sensitive manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: NFIX and HSF1 exert a mutual transcriptional repressive effect on each other which requires CGG repeat in HSF1 promoter and HSF1 binding site in NFIX promoter. We unravel a unique mechanism of heat shock sensitive DNA sequence-directed reciprocal transcriptional regulation between NFIX and HSF1. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms of transcription regulation under stress.

  13. Analysis of stacking overlap in nucleic acid structures: algorithm and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Pavan Kumar; Halder, Sukanya; Mukherjee, Debasish; Basu, Sankar; Banerjee, Rahul; Choudhury, Devapriya; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay

    2014-08-01

    RNA contains different secondary structural motifs like pseudo-helices, hairpin loops, internal loops, etc. in addition to anti-parallel double helices and random coils. The secondary structures are mainly stabilized by base-pairing and stacking interactions between the planar aromatic bases. The hydrogen bonding strength and geometries of base pairs are characterized by six intra-base pair parameters. Similarly, stacking can be represented by six local doublet parameters. These dinucleotide step parameters can describe the quality of stacking between Watson-Crick base pairs very effectively. However, it is quite difficult to understand the stacking pattern for dinucleotides consisting of non canonical base pairs from these parameters. Stacking interaction is a manifestation of the interaction between two aromatic bases or base pairs and thus can be estimated best by the overlap area between the planar aromatic moieties. We have calculated base pair overlap between two consecutive base pairs as the buried van der Waals surface between them. In general, overlap values show normal distribution for the Watson-Crick base pairs in most double helices within a range from 45 to 50 Å(2) irrespective of base sequence. The dinucleotide steps with non-canonical base pairs also are seen to have high overlap value, although their twist and few other parameters are rather unusual. We have analyzed hairpin loops of different length, bulges within double helical structures and pseudo-continuous helices using our algorithm. The overlap area analyses indicate good stacking between few looped out bases especially in GNRA tetraloop, which was difficult to quantitatively characterise from analysis of the base pair or dinucleotide step parameters. This parameter is also seen to be capable to distinguish pseudo-continuous helices from kinked helix junctions.

  14. Proteomic analysis of ACTN4-interacting proteins reveals it's a putative involvement in mRNA metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotin, Mikhail; Turoverova, Lidia; Aksenova, Vasilisa; Barlev, Nikolai; Borutinskaite, Veronika Viktorija; Vener, Alexander; Bajenova, Olga; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Pinaev, George P.; Tentler, Dmitri

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-actinin 4 (ACTN4) is an actin-binding protein. In the cytoplasm, ACTN4 participates in structural organisation of the cytoskeleton via cross-linking of actin filaments. Nuclear localisation of ACTN4 has also been reported, but no clear role in the nucleus has been established. In this report, we describe the identification of proteins associated with ACTN4 in the nucleus. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) and MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry revealed a large number of ACTN4-bound proteins that are involved in various aspects of mRNA processing and transport. The association of ACTN4 with different ribonucleoproteins suggests that a major function of nuclear ACTN4 may be regulation of mRNA metabolism and signaling.

  15. Variants of SCARB1 and VDR Involved in Complex Genetic Interactions May Be Implicated in the Genetic Susceptibility to Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Pośpiech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current data are still inconclusive in terms of a genetic component involved in the susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. Our aim was to evaluate 40 selected candidate polymorphisms for potential association with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC based on independent group of 167 patients and 200 healthy controls. The obtained data were searched for independent effects of particular polymorphisms as well as haplotypes and genetic interactions. Association testing implied position rs4765623 in the SCARB1 gene (OR=1.688, 95% CI: 1.104–2.582, P=0.016 and a haplotype in VDR comprising positions rs739837, rs731236, rs7975232, and rs1544410 (P=0.012 to be the risk factors in the studied population. The study detected several epistatic effects contributing to the genetic susceptibility to ccRCC. Variation in GNAS1 was implicated in a strong synergistic interaction with BIRC5. This effect was part of a model suggested by multifactor dimensionality reduction method including also a synergy between GNAS1 and SCARB1 (P=0.036. Significance of GNAS1-SCARB1 interaction was further confirmed by logistic regression (P=0.041, which also indicated involvement of SCARB1 in additional interaction with EPAS1 (P=0.008 as well as revealing interactions between GNAS1 and EPAS1 (P=0.016, GNAS1 and MC1R (P=0.031, GNAS1 and VDR (P=0.032, and MC1R and VDR (P=0.035.

  16. Project W-420 Stack Monitoring system upgrades conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TUCK, J.A.

    1998-11-06

    This document describes the scope, justification, conceptual design, and performance of Project W-420 stack monitoring system upgrades on six NESHAP-designated, Hanford Tank Farms ventilation exhaust stacks.

  17. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries...

  18. Heuristic Solution Approaches to the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks and presents a three different metaheuristic approaches to its solution. The Double Travelling Salesman Problem with Multiple Stacks is concerned with finding the shortest route performing pickups and deliveries...

  19. Element stacking method for topology optimization with material-dependent boundary and loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...

  20. Modeling the Air Flow in the 3410 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2013-01-23

    Additional ventilation capacity has been designed for the 3410 Building filtered exhaust stack system. The updated system will increase the number of fans from two to three and will include ductwork to incorporate the new fan into the existing stack. Stack operations will involve running various two-fan combinations at any given time. The air monitoring system of the existing two-fan stack was previously found to be in compliance with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard, however it is not known if the modified (three-fan) system will comply. Subsequently, a full-scale three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the modified stack system has been created to examine the sampling location for compliance with the standard. The CFD modeling results show good agreement with testing data collected from the existing 3410 Building stack and suggest that velocity uniformity and flow angles will remain well within acceptance criteria when the third fan and associated ductwork is installed. This includes two-fan flow rates up to 31,840 cfm for any of the two-fan combinations. For simulation cases in which tracer gas and particles are introduced in the main duct, the model predicts that both particle and tracer gas coefficients of variance (COVs) may be larger than the acceptable 20 percent criterion of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for each of the two-fan, 31,840 cfm combinations. Simulations in which the tracers are introduced near the fans result in improved, though marginally acceptable, COV values for the tracers. Due to the remaining uncertainty that the stack will qualify with the addition of the third fan and high flow rates, a stationary air blender from Blender Products, Inc. is considered for inclusion in the stack system. A model of the air blender has been developed and incorporated into the CFD model. Simulation results from the CFD model that includes the air blender show striking improvements in tracer gas mixing and tracer particle

  1. Bacillomycin D Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Is Involved in the Antagonistic Interaction with the Plant-Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qin; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Qiming; Shi, Guangming; Wu, Liming; Lou, Zhiying; Huo, Rong; Wu, Huijun; Borriss, Rainer; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Gibberella , Gibberella zeae ) is a destructive fungal pathogen that threatens the production and quality of wheat and barley worldwide. Controlling this toxin-producing pathogen is a significant challenge. In the present study, the commercially available strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ( Bacteria , Firmicutes , Bacillales , Bacillus ) FZB42 showed strong activity against F. graminearum The lipopeptide bacillomycin D, produced by FZB42, was shown to contribute to the antifungal activity. Purified bacillomycin D showed strong activity against F. graminearum , and its 50% effective concentration was determined to be approximately 30 μg/ml. Analyses using scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that bacillomycin D caused morphological changes in the plasma membranes and cell walls of F. graminearum hyphae and conidia. Fluorescence microscopy combined with different dyes showed that bacillomycin D induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and caused cell death in F. graminearum hyphae and conidia. F. graminearum secondary metabolism also responded to bacillomycin D challenge, by increasing the production of deoxynivalenol. Biological control experiments demonstrated that bacillomycin D exerted good control of F. graminearum on corn silks, wheat seedlings, and wheat heads. In response to bacillomycin D, F. graminearum genes involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species were downregulated, whereas genes involved in the synthesis of deoxynivalenol were upregulated. Phosphorylation of MGV1 and HOG1, the mitogen-activated protein kinases of F. graminearum , was increased in response to bacillomycin D. Taken together, these findings reveal the mechanism of the antifungal action of bacillomycin D. IMPORTANCE Biological control of plant disease caused by Fusarium graminearum is desirable. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a representative of the biocontrol bacterial strains. In this work

  2. Single-Cell Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Novel Neuronal Phenotypes and Interaction Networks Involved in the Central Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, James; Zhu, Haisun; O'Sullivan, Sean; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A; Weaver, David R; Schwaber, James S; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell heterogeneity confounds efforts to understand how a population of cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function. This complexity is prominent in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Here, individual neurons exhibit a remarkable amount of asynchronous behavior and transcriptional heterogeneity. However, SCN neurons are able to generate precisely coordinated synaptic and molecular outputs that synchronize the body to a common circadian cycle by organizing into cellular networks. To understand this emergent cellular network property, it is important to reconcile single-neuron heterogeneity with network organization. In light of recent studies suggesting that transcriptionally heterogeneous cells organize into distinct cellular phenotypes, we characterized the transcriptional, spatial, and functional organization of 352 SCN neurons from mice experiencing phase-shifts in their circadian cycle. Using the community structure detection method and multivariate analytical techniques, we identified previously undescribed neuronal phenotypes that are likely to participate in regulatory networks with known SCN cell types. Based on the newly discovered neuronal phenotypes, we developed a data-driven neuronal network structure in which multiple cell types interact through known synaptic and paracrine signaling mechanisms. These results provide a basis from which to interpret the functional variability of SCN neurons and describe methodologies toward understanding how a population of heterogeneous single cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function.

  3. Single-cell Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Novel Neuronal Phenotypes and Interaction Networks involved In the Central Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Park

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell heterogeneity confounds efforts to understand how a population of cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function. This complexity is prominent in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. Here, individual neurons exhibit a remarkable amount of asynchronous behavior and transcriptional heterogeneity. However, SCN neurons are able to generate precisely coordinated synaptic and molecular outputs that synchronize the body to a common circadian cycle by organizing into cellular networks. To understand this emergent cellular network property, it is important to reconcile single-neuron heterogeneity with network organization. In light of recent studies suggesting that transcriptionally heterogeneous cells organize into distinct cellular phenotypes, we characterized the transcriptional, spatial, and functional organization of 352 SCN neurons from mice experiencing phase-shifts in their circadian cycle. Using the community structure detection method and multivariate analytical techniques, we identified previously undescribed neuronal phenotypes that are likely to participate in regulatory networks with known SCN cell types. Based on the newly discovered neuronal phenotypes, we developed a data-driven neuronal network structure in which multiple cell types interact through known synaptic and paracrine signaling mechanisms. These results provide a basis from which to interpret the functional variability of SCN neurons and describe methodologies towards understanding how a population of heterogeneous single cells organizes into cellular networks that underlie tissue-level function.

  4. Status of the studies on collective effects involving beam-beam interactions at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Metral, Elias; Ribes Metidieri, Ariadna; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Goncalves Jorge, Patrik; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    This note summarised the status of the studies on the coherent beam-beam effects in the HL-LHC project. It is shown that the obit, tune, chromaticity and dynamic β effects due to head-on and long-range beam-beam interactions are tolerable without dedicated mitigations in the baseline scenario. The stability of coherent beam-beam modes under the influence of the beam coupling impedance is evaluated, as well as the impact of the beam-beam induced tune spread on the Landau damping of single beam head-tail modes of oscillation. Since the beam stability is marginal at the end of the squeeze for the ultimate scenario, it is suggested to use the ATS optics to increase the effect of the octupoles at constant current, thus providing sufficient margins. Measurements suggesting that the transverse damper noise has to be significantly reduced to allow for operation with large beam-beam parameter are shown.

  5. Single-Event Transgene Product Levels Predict Levels in Genetically Modified Breeding Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampala, Satyalinga Srinivas; Fast, Brandon J; Richey, Kimberly A; Gao, Zhifang; Hill, Ryan; Wulfkuhle, Bryant; Shan, Guomin; Bradfisch, Greg A; Herman, Rod A

    2017-09-13

    The concentration of transgene products (proteins and double-stranded RNA) in genetically modified (GM) crop tissues is measured to support food, feed, and environmental risk assessments. Measurement of transgene product concentrations in breeding stacks of previously assessed and approved GM events is required by many regulatory authorities to evaluate unexpected transgene interactions that might affect expression. Research was conducted to determine how well concentrations of transgene products in single GM events predict levels in breeding stacks composed of these events. The concentrations of transgene products were compared between GM maize, soybean, and cotton breeding stacks (MON-87427 × MON-89034 × DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 × MON-87411 × DAS-59122-7 × DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2 × DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 × MON-88913-8 × DAS-81910-7 cotton) and their component single events (MON-87427, MON-89034, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, MON-87411, DAS-59122-7, and DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2, and DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5, DAS-24236-5, SYN-IR102-7, MON-88913-8, and DAS-81910-7 cotton). Comparisons were made within a crop and transgene product across plant tissue types and were also made across transgene products in each breeding stack for grain/seed. Scatter plots were generated comparing expression in the stacks to their component events, and the percent of variability accounted for by the line of identity (y = x) was calculated (coefficient of identity, I 2 ). Results support transgene concentrations in single events predicting similar concentrations in breeding stacks containing the single events. Therefore, food, feed, and environmental risk assessments based on concentrations of transgene products in single GM events are generally applicable to breeding stacks composed of these events.

  6. Zinc finger of Arabidopsis thaliana 6 is involved in melatonin-mediated auxin signaling through interacting INDETERMINATE DOMAIN15 and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Zhang, Shengmin; Lin, Daozhe; Wei, Yunxie; Yan, Yu; Liu, Guoyin; Reiter, Russel J; Chan, Zhulong

    2018-04-01

    Although accumulating evidence demonstrates the crosstalk between melatonin and auxin as derivatives of tryptophan, the underlying signaling events remain unclear. In this study, we found that melatonin and auxin mediated the transcriptional levels of zinc finger of Arabidopsis thaliana (ZAT6) in a mutually antagonistic manner. ZAT6 negatively modulated the endogenous auxin level, and ZAT6 knockdown plants were less sensitive to melatonin-regulated auxin biosynthesis, indicating its involvement in melatonin-mediated auxin accumulation. Additionally, the identification of INDETERMINATE DOMAIN15 (IDD15) and INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID 17 (IAA17) in Arabidopsis that interacted with ZAT6 in vivo provided new insight of ZAT6-mediated auxin signaling. Further investigation showed that ZAT6 repressed the transcription activation of IDD15 on the YUC2 promoter, while ZAT6 inhibited the interaction of TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 (TIR1) and IAA17 through competitively binding to IAA17. Thus, both auxin synthesis and the auxin response were negatively modulated by ZAT6. Taken together, ZAT6 is involved in melatonin-mediated auxin signaling through forming an interacting complex of auxin signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of the carboxyl-terminal region of the yeast peroxisomal half ABC transporter Pxa2p in its interaction with Pxa1p and in transporter function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chuang

    Full Text Available The peroxisome is a single membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells involved in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation of fatty acids. The human genetic disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene (encoding ALDP, a peroxisomal half ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporter. This disease is characterized by defective peroxisomal β-oxidation and a large accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in brain white matter, adrenal cortex, and testis. ALDP forms a homodimer proposed to be the functional transporter, whereas the peroxisomal transporter in yeast is a heterodimer comprising two half ABC transporters, Pxa1p and Pxa2p, both orthologs of human ALDP. While the carboxyl-terminal domain of ALDP is engaged in dimerization, it remains unknown whether the same region is involved in the interaction between Pxa1p and Pxa2p.Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that the carboxyl-terminal region (CT of Pxa2p, but not of Pxa1p, is required for their interaction. Further analysis indicated that the central part of the CT (designated CT2 of Pxa2p was indispensable for its interaction with the carboxyl terminally truncated Pxa1_NBD. An interaction between the CT of Pxa2p and Pxa1_NBD was not detected, but could be identified in the presence of Pxa2_NBD-CT1. A single mutation of two conserved residues (aligned with X-ALD-associated mutations at the same positions in ALDP in the CT2 of the Pxa2_NBD-CT protein impaired its interaction with Pxa1_NBD or Pxa1_NBD-CT, resulting in a mutant protein that exhibited a proteinase K digestion profile different from that of the wild-type protein. Functional analysis of these mutant proteins on oleate plates indicated that they were defective in transporter function.The CT of Pxa2p is involved in its interaction with Pxa1p and in transporter function. This concept may be applied to human ALDP studies, helping to establish the pathological mechanism for CT-related X

  8. DEVS Models of Palletized Ground Stacking in Storeyed Grain Warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Processed grain stored in storeyed warehouse is generally stacked on the ground without pallets. However, in order to improve the storing way, we developed a new stacking method, palletized ground stacking. Simulation should be used to present this new storing way. DEVS provides a formalized way to describe the system model. In this paper, DEVS models of palletized ground stacking in storeyed grain warehouse are given and a simulation model is developed by AutoMod.

  9. A BDNF sensitive mechanism is involved in the fear memory resulting from the interaction between stress and the retrieval of an established trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachero, Marcelo; Bustos, Silvia G; Calfa, Gaston; Molina, Victor A

    2013-04-15

    The present study investigates the fear memory resulting from the interaction of a stressful experience and the retrieval of an established fear memory trace. Such a combination enhanced both fear expression and fear retention in adult Wistar rats. Likewise, midazolam intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion prior to stress attenuated the enhancement of fear memory thus suggesting the involvement of a stress-induced reduction of the GABAergic transmission in BLA in the stress-induced enhancing effect. It has been suggested that, unlike the immediate-early gene Zif268 which is related to the reconsolidation process, the expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly correlated with consolidation. We therefore evaluate the relative contribution of these two neurobiological processes to the fear memory resulting from the above-mentioned interaction. Intra-dorsal hippocampus (DH) infusions of either the antisense Zif268 or the inhibitor of the protein degradation (Clasto-Lactacystin β-Lactone), suggested to be involved in the retrieval-dependent destabilization process, did not affect the resulting contextual memory. In contrast, the knockdown of hippocampal BDNF mitigated the stress-induced facilitating influence on fear retention. In addition, the retrieval experience elevated BDNF level in DH at 60 min after recall exclusively in stressed animals. These findings suggest the involvement of a hippocampal BDNF sensitive mechanism in the stress-promoting influence on the fear memory following retrieval.

  10. Human U87 astrocytoma cell invasion induced by interaction of βig-h3 with integrin α5β1 involves calpain-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ma

    Full Text Available It is known that βig-h3 is involved in the invasive process of many types of tumors, but its mechanism in glioma cells has not been fully clarified. Using immunofluorescent double-staining and confocal imaging analysis, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found that βig-h3 co-localized with integrin α5β1 in U87 cells. We sought to elucidate the function of this interaction by performing cell invasion assays and gelatin zymography experiments. We found that siRNA knockdowns of βig-h3 and calpain-2 impaired cell invasion and MMP secretion. Moreover, βig-h3, integrins and calpain-2 are known to be regulated by Ca(2+, and they are also involved in tumor cell invasion. Therefore, we further investigated if calpain-2 was relevant to βig-h3-integrin α5β1 interaction to affect U87 cell invasion. Our data showed that βig-h3 co-localized with integrin α5β1 to enhance the invasion of U87 cells, and that calpain-2, is involved in this process, acting as a downstream molecule.

  11. DNA-Conjugated Organic Chromophores in DNA Stacking Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of the intercalation of acridine derivatives into DNA (1961), chemists have synthesized many intercalators tethered to DNA. Advances in the chemical synthesis of modified nucleosides along with progress in oligonucleotide synthesis have made it possible to introduce organic ch...

  12. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F μ factor. The calculated value of F μ exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F μ value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', R w or F μ for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  13. Genetic interaction between MTMR2 and FIG4 phospholipid phosphatases involved in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Vaccari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT type 4B1 neuropathy with myelin outfoldings is caused by loss of MTMR2 (Myotubularin-related 2 in humans, and we created a faithful mouse model of the disease. MTMR2 dephosphorylates both PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5P(2, thereby regulating membrane trafficking. However, the function of MTMR2 and the role of the MTMR2 phospholipid phosphatase activity in vivo in the nerve still remain to be assessed. Mutations in FIG4 are associated with CMT4J neuropathy characterized by both axonal and myelin damage in peripheral nerve. Loss of Fig4 function in the plt (pale tremor mouse produces spongiform degeneration of the brain and peripheral neuropathy. Since FIG4 has a role in generation of PtdIns(3,5P(2 and MTMR2 catalyzes its dephosphorylation, these two phosphatases might be expected to have opposite effects in the control of PtdIns(3,5P(2 homeostasis and their mutations might have compensatory effects in vivo. To explore the role of the MTMR2 phospholipid phosphatase activity in vivo, we generated and characterized the Mtmr2/Fig4 double null mutant mice. Here we provide strong evidence that Mtmr2 and Fig4 functionally interact in both Schwann cells and neurons, and we reveal for the first time a role of Mtmr2 in neurons in vivo. Our results also suggest that imbalance of PtdIns(3,5P(2 is at the basis of altered longitudinal myelin growth and of myelin outfolding formation. Reduction of Fig4 by null heterozygosity and downregulation of PIKfyve both rescue Mtmr2-null myelin outfoldings in vivo and in vitro.

  14. Transient deformational properties of high temperature alloys used in solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2017-01-01

    Stresses and probability of failure during operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is affected by the deformational properties of the different components of the SOFC stack. Though the overall stress relaxes with time during steady state operation, large stresses would normally appear through...... the transient behavior of Crofer 22 APU, a typical iron-chromium alloy used in SOFC stacks. The material parameters for the model are determined by measurements involving relaxation and constant strain rate experiments. The constitutive law is implemented into commercial finite element software using a user...

  15. Sport stacking motor intervention programme for children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore sport stacking as an alternative intervention approach with typically developing children and in addition to improve DCD. Sport stacking consists of participants stacking and unstacking 12 specially designed plastic cups in predetermined sequences in as little time as possible.

  16. Notes on G-theory of Deligne-Mumford stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Toen, B.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the methods used by the author to prove the Riemann-Roch formula for algebraic stacks, this paper contains a description of the rationnal G-theory of Deligne-Mumford stacks over general bases. We will use these results to study equivariant K-theory, and also to define new filtrations on K-theory of algebraic stacks.

  17. Learning algorithms for stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmer, Beate G [TEXAS A& M

    2009-01-01

    Stack Filters define a large class of increasing filter that is used widely in image and signal processing. The motivations for using an increasing filter instead of an unconstrained filter have been described as: (1) fast and efficient implementation, (2) the relationship to mathematical morphology and (3) more precise estimation with finite sample data. This last motivation is related to methods developed in machine learning and the relationship was explored in an earlier paper. In this paper we investigate this relationship by applying Stack Filters directly to classification problems. This provides a new perspective on how monotonicity constraints can help control estimation and approximation errors, and also suggests several new learning algorithms for Boolean function classifiers when they are applied to real-valued inputs.

  18. Industrial stacks design; Diseno de chimeneas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacheux, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) though its Civil Works Department, develops, under contract with CFE`s Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos (Management of Fossil Power Plant Projects), a series of methods for the design of stacks, which pretends to solve the a present day problem: the stack design of the fossil power plants that will go into operation during the next coming years in the country. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), a traves del Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, desarrolla, bajo contrato con la Gerencia de Proyectos Termoelectricos, de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), un conjunto de metodos para el diseno de chimeneas, con el que se pretende resolver un problema inmediato: el diseno de las chimeneas de las centrales termoelectricas que entraran en operacion durante los proximos anos, en el pais.

  19. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  20. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  1. Multistage Force Amplification of Piezoelectric Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Zuo, Lei (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the disclosure include an apparatus and methods for using a piezoelectric device, that includes an outer flextensional casing, a first cell and a last cell serially coupled to each other and coupled to the outer flextensional casing such that each cell having a flextensional cell structure and each cell receives an input force and provides an output force that is amplified based on the input force. The apparatus further includes a piezoelectric stack coupled to each cell such that the piezoelectric stack of each cell provides piezoelectric energy based on the output force for each cell. Further, the last cell receives an input force that is the output force from the first cell and the last cell provides an output apparatus force In addition, the piezoelectric energy harvested is based on the output apparatus force. Moreover, the apparatus provides displacement based on the output apparatus force.

  2. Radiation-Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack - RTIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tak-kwong; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides reconfigurable circuitry and 2-Gb of error-corrected or 1-Gb of triple-redundant digital memory in a small package. RTIMS uses circuit stacking of heterogeneous components and radiation shielding technologies. A reprogrammable field-programmable gate array (FPGA), six synchronous dynamic random access memories, linear regulator, and the radiation mitigation circuits are stacked into a module of 42.7 42.7 13 mm. Triple module redundancy, current limiting, configuration scrubbing, and single- event function interrupt detection are employed to mitigate radiation effects. The novel self-scrubbing and single event functional interrupt (SEFI) detection allows a relatively soft FPGA to become radiation tolerant without external scrubbing and monitoring hardware

  3. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  4. Entropy and biological systems: experimentally-investigated entropy-driven stacking of plant photosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Husen; Liggins, John R; Chow, Wah Soon

    2014-02-24

    According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, an overall increase of entropy contributes to the driving force for any physicochemical process, but entropy has seldom been investigated in biological systems. Here, for the first time, we apply Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the Mg(2+)-induced spontaneous stacking of photosynthetic membranes isolated from spinach leaves. After subtracting a large endothermic interaction of MgCl₂ with membranes, unrelated to stacking, we demonstrate that the enthalpy change (heat change at constant pressure) is zero or marginally positive or negative. This first direct experimental evidence strongly suggests that an entropy increase significantly drives membrane stacking in this ordered biological structure. Possible mechanisms for the entropy increase include: (i) the attraction between discrete oppositely-charged areas, releasing counterions; (ii) the release of loosely-bound water molecules from the inter-membrane gap; (iii) the increased orientational freedom of previously-aligned water dipoles; and (iv) the lateral rearrangement of membrane components.

  5. Surface targeting of the dopamine transporter involves discrete epitopes in the distal C terminus but does not require canonical PDZ domain interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerggaard, Christian; Fog, Jacob U; Hastrup, Hanne; Madsen, Kenneth; Loland, Claus J; Javitch, Jonathan A; Gether, Ulrik

    2004-08-04

    The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) contains a C-terminal type 2 PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/Discs large/zona occludens 1) domain-binding motif (LKV) known to interact with PDZ domain proteins such as PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1). As reported previously, we found that, after deletion of this motif, hDAT was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 and Neuro2A cells, suggesting that PDZ domain interactions might be critical for hDAT targeting. Nonetheless, substitution of LKV with SLL, the type 1 PDZ-binding sequence from the beta2-adrenergic receptor, did not disrupt plasma membrane targeting. Moreover, the addition of an alanine to the hDAT C terminus (+Ala), resulting in an LKVA termination sequence, or substitution of LKV with alanines (3xAla_618-620) prevented neither plasma membrane targeting nor targeting into sprouting neurites of differentiated N2A cells. The inability of +Ala and 3xAla_618-620 to bind PDZ domains was confirmed by lack of colocalization with PICK1 in cotransfected HEK293 cells and by the inability of corresponding C-terminal fusion proteins to pull down purified PICK1. Thus, although residues in the hDAT C terminus are indispensable for proper targeting, PDZ domain interactions are not required. By progressive substitutions with beta2-adrenergic receptor sequence, and by triple-alanine substitutions in the hDAT C terminus, we examined the importance of epitopes preceding the LKV motif. Substitution of RHW(615-617) with alanines caused retention of the transporter in the ER despite preserved ability of this mutant to bind PICK1. We propose dual roles of the hDAT C terminus: a role independent of PDZ interactions for ER export and surface targeting, and a not fully clarified role involving PDZ interactions with proteins such as PICK1.

  6. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from 'H' and 'F' area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system

  7. Contemporary sample stacking in analytical electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, Zdeňka; Gebauer, Petr; Boček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2011), s. 116-126 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA ČR GAP206/10/1219; GA AV ČR IAA400310703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : biological samples * stacking * trace analysis * zone electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2011

  8. Stacked Switched Capacitor Energy Buffer Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Minjie; Perreault, David J.; Afridi, Khurram

    2012-01-01

    Electrolytic capacitors are often used for energy buffering applications, including buffering between single-phase ac and dc. While these capacitors have high energy density compared to film and ceramic capacitors, their life is limited. This paper presents a stacked switched capacitor (SSC) energy buffer architecture and some of its topological embodiments, which when used with longer life film capacitors overcome this limitation while achieving effective energy densities comparable to elect...

  9. When is stacking confusing? The impact of confusion on stacking in deep H I galaxy surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytic model to predict the H I mass contributed by confused sources to a stacked spectrum in a generic H I survey. Based on the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) correlation function, this model is in agreement with the estimates of confusion present in stacked Parkes telescope data, and was used to predict how confusion will limit stacking in the deepest Square Kilometre Array precursor H I surveys. Stacking with LADUMA (Looking At the Distant Universe with MeerKAT) and DINGO UDEEP (Deep Investigation of Neutral Gas Origins - Ultra Deep) data will only be mildly impacted by confusion if their target synthesized beam size of 10 arcsec can be achieved. Any beam size significantly above this will result in stacks that contain a mass in confused sources that is comparable to (or greater than) that which is detectable via stacking, at all redshifts. CHILES (COSMOS H I Large Extragalactic Survey) 5 arcsec resolution is more than adequate to prevent confusion influencing stacking of its data, throughout its bandpass range. FAST (Five hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope) will be the most impeded by confusion, with H I surveys likely becoming heavily confused much beyond z = 0.1. The largest uncertainties in our model are the redshift evolution of the H I density of the Universe and the H I correlation function. However, we argue that the two idealized cases we adopt should bracket the true evolution, and the qualitative conclusions are unchanged regardless of the model choice. The profile shape of the signal due to confusion (in the absence of any detection) was also modelled, revealing that it can take the form of a double Gaussian with a narrow and wide component.

  10. Thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, C; Jacoby, J; Schweizer, W; Wiechula, J

    2009-03-01

    A thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation has been developed and tested. The stack design includes a free wheeling diode assembly for current reversal. Triggering of the device is achieved by a high side biased, self supplied gate driver unit using gating energy derived from a local snubber network. The structure guarantees a hard firing gate pulse for the required high dI/dt application. A single fiber optic command is needed to achieve a simultaneous turn on of the thyristors. The stack assembly is used for switching a series resonant circuit with a ringing frequency of 30 kHz. In the prototype pulsed power system described here an inductive discharge has been generated with a pulse duration of 120 micros and a pulse energy of 50 J. A maximum power transfer efficiency of 84% and a peak power of 480 kW inside the discharge were achieved. System tests were performed with a purely inductive load and an inductively generated plasma acting as a load through transformer action at a voltage level of 4.1 kV, a peak current of 5 kA, and a current switching rate of 1 kA/micros.

  11. Chemical interactions between odor-active thiols and melanoidins involved in the aroma staling of coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-01-16

    Comparative aroma dilution analyses of the headspaces of aqueous solutions containing either the total volatiles isolated from a fresh coffee brew, or these volatiles remixed with the melanoidins isolated from coffee brew, revealed a drastic decrease in the concentrations of the odorous thiols 2-furfurylthiol, 3-methyl-2-butenthiol, 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and methanethiol when melanoidins were present. Among these thiols, 2-furfurylthiol was affected the most: e.g., its concentration decreased by a factor of 16 upon addition of melanoidins. This was accompanied by a decrease in the overall roasty-sulfury aroma. Quantitations performed by means of stable isotope dilution assays confirmed the rapid loss of all thiols with increasing time while keeping the coffee brew warm in a thermos flask. Using [2H2]-2-furfurylthiol as an example, [2H]-NMR and LC/MS spectroscopy gave strong evidence that thiols are covalently bound to the coffee melanoidins via Maillard-derived pyrazinium compounds formed as oxidation products of 1,4-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxy-1-pentyl)pyrazinium radical cations (CROSSPY). Using synthetic 1,4-diethyl diquaternary pyrazinium ions and 2-furfurylthiol, it was shown that 2-(2-furyl)methylthio-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines, bis[2-(2-furyl)methylthio]-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines, and 2-(2-furyl)methylthio-hydroxy-1,4-dihydro-pyrazines were formed as the primary reaction products. Similar results were obtained for models in which either 1,4-diethyl diquaternary pyrazinium ions were substituted by Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine/glycolaldehyde, or the 2-furfurylthiol by 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate. On the basis of these results it can be concluded that the CROSSPY-derived pyrazinium intermediates are involved in the rapid covalent binding of odorous thiols to melanoidins, and, consequently, are responsible for the decrease in the sulfury-roasty odor quality observed shortly after preparation of the coffee brew.

  12. A mathematical model of an automatic assembler to stack fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.; Joynes, R.; Bretzlaff, C.I.

    1980-11-01

    Fuel elements for CANDU reactors are assembled from stacks of cylindrical UO 2 pellets, with close tolerances on lengths and diameters. Present stacking techniques involve extensive manual operations and they can be speeded up and reduced in cost by an automated device. If gamma-active fuel is handled such a device is essential. An automatic fuel pellet assembly process was modelled mathematically. The model indicated a suitable sequence of pellet manipulations to arrive at a stack length that was always within tolerance. This sequence was used as the inital input for the design of mechanical hardware. The mechanical design and the refinement of the mathematical model proceeded simultaneously. Mechanical constraints were allowed for in the model, and its optimized sequence of operations was incorporated in a microcomputer program to control the mechanical hardware. (auth)

  13. Application of current steps and design of experiments methodology to the detection of water management faults in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moçotéguy, Philippe; Ludwig, Bastian; Yousfi Steiner, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    We apply a 25-1 fractional factorial Design of Experiments (DoE) test plan in order to discriminate the direct effects and interactions of five factors on the water management of a 500 We PEMFC stack. The stack is submitted to current steps between different operating levels and several responses are extracted for the DoE analysis. A strong ageing effect on stack and cell performances is observed. Therefore, in order to perform the DoE analysis, responses which values are too strongly affected by ageing are ;corrected; prior to the analysis. A ;virtual; stack, considered as ;healthy;, is also ;reconstructed; by ;putting in series; the cells exhibiting very low performance drop. The results show that stacks and cells' resistivities are mostly impacted by direct effects of both temperature and cathodic inlet relative humidity and by compensating interaction between temperature and anodic overstoichiometric ratio. It also appears that two responses are able to distinguish a ;healthy; stack from a degraded stack: heterogeneities in cell voltages and cell resistivities distributions. They are differently impacted by considered effects and interactions. Thus, a customised water management strategy could be developed, depending on the stack's state of health to maintain it in the best possible operating conditions.

  14. Stack and area tritium monitoring systems for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, G.G.; Meixler, L.D.; Sirsingh, R.A.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the TFTR Tritium Stack and Area Monitoring Systems which have been developed to provide the required level of reliability in a cost effective manner consistent with the mission of the Tritium Handling System on TFTR. Personnel protection, environmental responsibility, and tritium containing system integrity have been the considerations in system design. During the Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) experiments on TFTR, tritium will be used for the first time as one of the fuels. Area monitors provide surveillance of the air in various rooms at TFTR. Stack monitors monitor the air at the TFTR test site that is exhausted through the HVAC systems, from the room exhaust stacks and the tritium systems process vents. The philosophies for the implementation of the Stack and Area Tritium Monitoring Systems at TFTR are to use hardwired controls wherever personnel protection is involved, and to take advantage of modern intelligent controllers to provide a distributed system to support the functions of tracking, displaying, and archiving concentration levels of tritium for all of the monitored areas and stacks

  15. Development of a novel system for isolating genes involved in predator-prey interactions using host independent derivatives of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadouri Daniel E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a gram-negative bacterium that preys upon other gram-negative bacteria. Although the life cycle of Bdellovibrio has been extensively investigated, very little is known about the mechanisms involved in predation. Results Host-Independent (HI mutants of B. bacteriovorus were isolated from wild-type strain 109J. Predation assays confirmed that the selected HI mutants retained their ability to prey on host cells grown planktonically and in a biofilm. A mariner transposon library of B. bacteriovorus HI was constructed and HI mutants that were impaired in their ability to attack biofilms were isolated. Transposon insertion sites were determined using arbitrary polymerase chain reaction. Ten HI transposon mutants mapped to genes predicted to be involved in mechanisms previously implicated in predation (flagella, pili and chemotaxis were further examined for their ability to reduce biofilms. Conclusion In this study we describe a new method for isolating genes that are required for Bdellovibrio biofilm predation. Focusing on mechanisms that were previously attributed to be involved in predation, we demonstrate that motility systems are required for predation of bacterial biofilms. Furthermore, genes identified in this study suggest that surface gliding motility may also play a role in predation of biofilms consistent with Bdellovibrios occupying a biofilm niche. We believe that the methodology presented here will open the way for future studies on the mechanisms involved in Bdellovibrio host-prey interaction and a greater insight of the biology of this unique organism.

  16. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  17. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOE’s 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability – understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group “unzipping” is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally – the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime – the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain

  18. High-throughput sequencing of small RNAs from pollen and silk and characterization of miRNAs as candidate factors involved in pollen-silk interactions in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ming Li

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, successful pollen-pistil interactions are the prerequisite and guarantee of subsequent fertilization and seed production. Recent profile analyses have helped elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying these processes at both transcriptomic and proteomic levels, but the involvement of miRNAs in pollen-pistil interactions is still speculative. In this study, we sequenced four small RNA libraries derived from mature pollen, in vitro germinated pollen, mature silks, and pollinated silks of maize (Zea mays L.. We identified 161 known miRNAs belonging to 27 families and 82 novel miRNAs. Of these, 40 conserved and 16 novel miRNAs showed different expression levels between mature and germinated pollen, and 30 conserved and eight novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between mature and pollinated silks. As candidates for factors associated with pollen-silk (pistil interactions, expression patterns of the two sets of differentially expressed miRNAs were confirmed by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR. Transcript levels of 22 predicted target genes were also validated using real-time RT-PCR; most of these exhibited expression patterns contrasting with those of their corresponding miRNAs. In addition, GO analysis of target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that functional categories related to auxin signal transduction and gene expression regulation were overrepresented. These results suggest that miRNA-mediated auxin signal transduction and transcriptional regulation have roles in pollen-silk interactions. The results of our study provide novel information for understanding miRNA regulatory roles in pollen-pistil interactions.

  19. Plume trajectory formation under stack tip self-enveloping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, A. M.; Zroichikov, N. A.; Prokhorov, V. B.

    2017-10-01

    The phenomenon of stack tip self-enveloping and its influence upon the conditions of plume formation and on the trajectory of its motion are considered. Processes are described occurring in the initial part of the plume while the interaction between vertically directed flue gases outflowing from the stack and a horizontally directed moving air flow at high wind velocities that lead to the formation of a flag-like plume. Conditions responsible for the origin and evolution of interaction between these flows are demonstrated. For the first time, a plume formed under these conditions without bifurcation is registered. A photo image thereof is presented. A scheme for the calculation of the motion of a plume trajectory is proposed, the quantitative characteristics of which are obtained based on field observations. The wind velocity and direction, air temperature, and atmospheric turbulence at the level of the initial part of the trajectory have been obtained based on data obtained from an automatic meteorological system (mounted on the outer parts of a 250 m high stack no. 1 at the Naberezhnye Chelny TEPP plant) as well as based on the results of photographing and theodolite sighting of smoke puffs' trajectory taking into account their velocity within its initial part. The calculation scheme is supplemented with a new acting force—the force of self-enveloping. Based on the comparison of the new calculation scheme with the previous one, a significant contribution of this force to the development of the trajectory is revealed. A comparison of the natural full-scale data with the results of the calculation according to the proposed new scheme is made. The proposed calculation scheme has allowed us to extend the application of the existing technique to the range of high wind velocities. This approach would make it possible to simulate and investigate the trajectory and full rising height of the calculated the length above the mouth of flue-pipes, depending on various modal

  20. A revised classification and terminology for stacked and amalgamated turbidites in environments dominated by (hemi)pelagic sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Maarten; Meyer, Inka; Moernaut, Jasper; De Decker, Steven; Verschuren, Dirk; De Batist, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Stacked or amalgamated turbidites provide an opportunity to infer the synchronous triggering of multiple slope failures, which is a criterion often used to attribute these slope failures to earthquake shaking; and such turbidites are thus a proxy for reconstructing long-term earthquake recurrence. However, other processes, such as erosion, reflecting turbidity currents and seiching, may produce similar amalgamated/stacked deposits. Here we study two turbidites from Lake Challa, a crater lake on the lower slopes of Kilimanjaro (Kenya/Tanzania). The occurrence in Lake Challa of both single slope failures and basin-wide landslide events, all accompanied by distal turbidites, provides an excellent opportunity to assess the characteristics and significance of amalgamated/stacked turbidites in an enclosed lake basin with diatomaceous sediments, reflecting hemipelagic sedimentation in offshore areas. We also compare the characteristics of amalgamated/stacked turbidites in basins other than Lake Challa to discuss potential causes of different amalgamation patterns (stacked or multi-pulsed character). The low density and elongated shape of diatom frustules increases grain-to-grain interaction and thereby damps turbulence, resulting in faster bed aggradation and a stacked character of the amalgamated turbidites. Finally, as currently both synchronously and non-synchronously triggered turbidites are in literature referred to as ;stacked turbidite;, we propose a revised terminology that differentiates an ;amalgamated turbidite; from a ;turbidite stack;. In sedimentary environments that are dominated by (hemi)pelagic sedimentation, and where turbidity currents are anomalous events, an ;amalgamated turbidite; can often be shown to be the result of synchronous triggering, while a ;turbidite stack; must always result from a succession of discrete events.

  1. Opposing effects of stacking faults and antisite domain boundaries on the conduction band edge in kesterite quaternary semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Sang; Kim, Sunghyun; Walsh, Aron

    2018-01-01

    We investigated stability and the electronic structure of extended defects including antisite domain boundaries and stacking faults in the kesterite-structured semiconductors, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe). Our hybrid density functional theory calculations show that stacking faults in CZTS and CZTSe induce a higher conduction band edge than the bulk counterparts, and thus the stacking faults act as electron barriers. Antisite domain boundaries, however, accumulate electrons as the conduction band edge is reduced in energy, having an opposite role. An Ising model was constructed to account for the stability of stacking faults, which shows the nearest-neighbor interaction is stronger in the case of the selenide.

  2. Refinement of numerical models and parametric study of SOFC stack performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Andrew C.

    The presence of multiple air and fuel channels per fuel cell and the need to combine many cells in series result in complex steady-state temperature distributions within Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks. Flow distribution in these channels, when non-uniform, has a significant effect on cell and stack performance. Large SOFC stacks are very difficult to model using full 3-D CFD codes because of the resource requirements needed to solve for the many scales involved. Studies have shown that implementations based on Reduced Order Methods (ROM), if calibrated appropriately, can provide simulations of stacks consisting of more than 20 cells with reasonable computational effort. A pseudo 2-D SOFC stack model capable of studying co-flow and counter-flow cell geometries was developed by solving multiple 1-D SOFC single cell models in parallel on a Beowulf cluster. In order to study cross-flow geometries a novel Multi-Component Multi-Physics (MCMP) scheme was instantiated to produce a Reduced Order 3-D Fuel Cell Model. A C++ implementation of the MCMP scheme developed in this study utilized geometry, control volume, component, and model structures allowing each physical model to be solved only for those components for which it is relevant. Channel flow dynamics were solved using a 1-D flow model to reduce computational effort. A parametric study was conducted to study the influence of mass flow distribution, radiation, and stack size on fuel cell stack performance. Using the pseudo 2-D planar SOFC stack model with stacks of various sizes from 2 to 40 cells it was shown that, with adiabatic wall conditions, the asymmetry of the individual cell can produce a temperature distribution where high and low temperatures are found in the top and bottom cells, respectively. Heat transfer mechanisms such as radiation were found to affect the reduction of the temperature gradient near the top and bottom cell. Results from the reduced order 3-D fuel cell model showed that greater

  3. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... including puppetry and dance. However, the aesthetics of these traditions vary across cultures and carry different associative and interpretive meanings. Puppetry offers a useful frame for understanding the relationship between abstract and imitative gestures and behavior, and instantiates the complex...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  4. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists such as ......The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists...... such as Lorentz and Einstein as well as mathematicians such as Poincare, Minkowski, Hilbert and Weyl contributed to this development. They created the new physical theories and the mathematical disciplines that play such paramount roles in their mathematical formulations. These physicists and mathematicians were...... also key figures in the philosophical discussions of nature and science - from philosophical tendencies like logical empiricism via critical rationalism to various neo-Kantian trends....

  5. Engineering the hypersonic phononic band gap of hybrid Bragg stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dirk; Liaqat, Faroha; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; El Hassouani, Youssef; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Tremel, Wolfgang; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Fytas, George

    2012-06-13

    We report on the full control of phononic band diagrams for periodic stacks of alternating layers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and porous silica combining Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. These structures exhibit large and robust on-axis band gaps determined by the longitudinal sound velocities, densities, and spacing ratio. A facile tuning of the gap width is realized at oblique incidence utilizing the vector nature of the elastic wave propagation. Off-axis propagation involves sagittal waves in the individual layers, allowing access to shear moduli at nanoscale. The full theoretical description discerns the most important features of the hypersonic one-dimensional crystals forward to a detailed understanding, a precondition to engineer dispersion relations in such structures.

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Adipose Tissues Reveals that ECM-Receptor Interaction Is Involved in the Depot-Specific Adipogenesis in Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jeong Lee

    Full Text Available Adipocytes mainly function as energy storage and endocrine cells. Adipose tissues showed the biological and genetic difference based on their depots. The difference of adipocytes between depots might be influenced by the inherent genetic programing for adipogenesis. We used RNA-seq technique to investigate the transcriptomes in 3 adipose tissues of omental (O, subcutaneous (S and intramuscular (I fats in cattle. Sequence reads were obtained from Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the bovine genome using Tophat2. Differentially expressed genes (DEG between adipose tissues were detected by EdgeR. We identified 5797, 2156, and 5455 DEGs in the comparison between OI, OS, and IS respectively and also found 5657 DEGs in the comparison between the intramuscular and the combined omental and subcutaneous fats (C (FDR<0.01. Depot specifically up- and down- regulated DEGs were 853 in S, 48 in I, and 979 in O. The numbers of DEGs and functional annotation studies suggested that I had the different genetic profile compared to other two adipose tissues. In I, DEGs involved in the developmental process (eg. EGR2, FAS, and KLF7 were up-regulated and those in the immune system process were down-regulated. Many DEGs from the adipose tissues were enriched in the various GO terms of developmental process and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the ECM-receptor interaction was one of commonly enriched pathways in all of the 3 adipose tissues and also functioned as a sub-pathway of other enriched pathways. However, genes involved in the ECM-receptor interaction were differentially regulated depending on the depots. Collagens, main ECM constituents, were significantly up-regulated in S and integrins, transmembrane receptors, were up-regulated in I. Different laminins were up-regulated in the different depots. This comparative transcriptome analysis of three adipose tissues suggested that the interactions between ECM components and transmembrane receptors of fat cells

  7. Interaction of translationally controlled tumor protein with Apaf-1 is involved in the development of chemoresistance in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Kim, Hyo Young; Maeng, Jeehye; Kim, Moonhee; Shin, Dong Hae; Lee, Kyunglim

    2014-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), alternatively called fortilin, is believed to be involved in the development of the chemoresistance of tumor cells against anticancer drugs such as etoposide, taxol, and oxaliplatin, the underlying mechanisms of which still remain elusive. Cell death analysis of TCTP-overexpressing HeLa cells was performed following etoposide treatment to assess the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Apoptotic pathway was analyzed through measuring the cleavage of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ), caspase activation, mitochondrial membrane perturbation, and cytochrome c release by flow cytometry and western blotting. To clarify the role of TCTP in the inhibition of apoptosome, in vitro apoptosome reconstitution and immunoprecipitation was used. Pull-down assay and silver staining using the variants of Apaf-1 protein was applied to identify the domain that is responsible for its interaction with TCTP. In the present study, we confirmed that adenoviral overexpression of TCTP protects HeLa cells from cell death induced by cytotoxic drugs such as taxol and etoposide. TCTP antagonized the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway following etoposide treatment, including mitochondrial membrane damage and resultant cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9, and -3, and eventually, the cleavage of EGFR and PLC-γ. More importantly, TCTP interacts with the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) of Apaf-1 and is incorporated into the heptameric Apaf-1 complex, and that C-terminal cleaved TCTP specifically associates with Apaf-1 of apoptosome in apoptosome-forming condition thereby inhibiting the amplification of caspase cascade. TCTP protects the cancer cells from etoposide-induced cell death by inhibiting the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Interaction of TCTP with Apaf-1 in apoptosome is involved in the molecular mechanism of TCTP-induced chemoresistance. These findings suggest that TCTP may serve

  8. Malonylome analysis of rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 reveals involvement of lysine malonylation in polyketide synthesis and plant-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Li, Yu-Long; Li, Lei; Peng, Xiao-Jun; Bu, Chen; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-02-10

    Using the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we performed a large-scale lysine malonylation analysis in the model representative of Gram-positive plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Altogether, 809 malonyllysine sites in 382 proteins were identified. The bioinformatic analysis revealed that lysine malonylation occurs on the proteins involved in a variety of biological functions including central carbon metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism, NAD(P) binding and translation machinery. A group of proteins known to be implicated in rhizobacterium-plant interaction were also malonylated; especially, the enzymes responsible for antibiotic production including polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) were highly malonylated. Furthermore, our analysis showed malonylation occurred on proteins structure with higher surface accessibility and appeared to be conserved in many bacteria but not in archaea. The results provide us valuable insights into the potential roles of lysine malonylation in governing bacterial metabolism and cellular processes. Although in mammalian cells some important findings have been discovered that protein malonylation is related to basic metabolism and chronic disease, few studies have been performed on prokaryotic malonylome. In this study, we determined the malonylation profiles of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, a model organism of Gram-positive plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. FZB42 is known for the extensive investigations on its strong ability of producing antimicrobial polyketides and its potent activities of stimulating plant growth. Our analysis shows that malonylation is highly related to the polyketide synthases and the proteins involved bacterial interactions with plants. The results not only provide one of the first malonylomes for exploring the biochemical nature of bacterial proteins, but also shed light on

  9. Proteomic analysis of Fasciola hepatica excretory and secretory products (FhESPs) involved in interacting with host PBMCs and cytokines by shotgun LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Huang, Si-Yang; Yue, Dong-Mei; Wang, Jin-Lei; Wang, Yujian; Li, Xiangrui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite with a worldwide distribution, which can cause chronic liver disease, fasciolosis, leading to economic losses in the livestock and public health in many countries. Control is mostly reliant on the use of drugs, and as a result, drug resistance has now emerged. The identification of F. hepatica genes involved in interaction between the parasite and host immune system is utmost important to elucidate the evasion mechanisms of the parasite and develop more effective strategies against fasciolosis. In this study, we aimed to identify molecules in F. hepatica excretory and secretory products (FhESPs) interacting with the host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), Th1-like cytokines (IL2 and IFN-γ), and Th17-like cytokines (IL17) by Co-IP combined with tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that 14, 16, and 9 proteins in FhESPs could bind with IL2, IL17, and IFN-γ, respectively, which indicated that adult F. hepatica may evade the host immune responses through directly interplaying with cytokines. In addition, nine proteins in FhESPs could adhere to PBMCs. Our findings provided potential targets as immuno-regulators, and will be helpful to elucidate the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions and search for new potential proteins as vaccine and drug target candidates.

  10. Involving people with dementia in developing an interactive web tool for shared decision-making: experiences with a participatory design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Span, Marijke; Hettinga, Marike; Groen-van de Ven, Leontine; Jukema, Jan; Janssen, Ruud; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Eefsting, Jan; Smits, Carolien

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was at gaining insight into the participatory design approach of involving people with dementia in the development of the DecideGuide, an interactive web tool facilitating shared decision-making in their care networks. An explanatory case study design was used when developing the DecideGuide. A secondary analysis focused on the data gathered from the participating people with dementia during the development stages: semi-structured interviews (n = 23), four focus group interviews (n = 18), usability tests (n = 3), and a field study (n = 4). Content analysis was applied to the data. Four themes showed to be important regarding the participation experiences of involving people with dementia in research: valuable feedback on content and design of the DecideGuide, motivation to participate, perspectives of people with dementia and others about distress related to involvement, and time investment. People with dementia can give essential feedback and, therefore, their contribution is useful and valuable. Meaningful participation of people with dementia takes time that should be taken into account. It is important for people with dementia to be able to reciprocate the efforts others make and to feel of significance to others. Implications for Rehabilitation People with dementia can contribute meaningfully to the content and design and their perspective is essential for developing useful and user-friendly tools. Participating in research activities may contribute to social inclusion, empowerment, and quality of life of people with dementia.

  11. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  12. NSF tandem stack support structure deflection characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1979-12-01

    Results are reported of load tests carried out on the glass legs of the insulating stack of the 30 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator now under construction at Daresbury Laboratory. The tests to investigate the vulnerability of the legs when subjected to tensile stresses were designed to; establish the angle of rotation of the pads from which the stresses in the glass legs may be calculated, proof-test the structure and at the same time reveal any asymmetry in pad rotations or deflections, and to confirm the validity of the computer design analysis. (UK)

  13. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  14. Effects of combustible stacking in large compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of fire in case of various distributions of combustible materials in a large compartment. Large compartments often represent a challenge for structural fire safety, because of lack of prescriptive rules to follow and difficulties of taking into account the effect...... to different stacking configurations of the pallets with the avail of a CFD code. The results in term of temperatures of the hot gasses and of the steel elements composing the structural system are compared with simplified analytical model of localized and post-flashover fires, with the aim of highlighting...

  15. Displacive phase transformations and generalized stacking faults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy; Duparc, O. H.; Khalfallah, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 490-492 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio calculations * close-packed structures * generalized stacking faults * homogeneous deformation * lattice deformation * many-body potentials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  16. The involvement of coordinative interactions in the binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase to titanium dioxide-Localization of a putative binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Avraham; Babin, Gilad; Ganoth, Assaf; Kayouf, Nivin Samir; Nitoker Eliaz, Neta; Mukkala, Srijana; Tsfadia, Yossi; Fleminger, Gideon

    2017-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthodontic and orthopedic implants by virtue to their high biocompatibility, mechanical strength, and high resistance to corrosion. Biointegration of the implants with the tissue requires strong interactions, which involve biological molecules, proteins in particular, with metal oxide surfaces. An exocellular high-affinity titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )-binding protein (TiBP), purified from Rhodococcus ruber, has been previously studied in our lab. This protein was shown to be homologous with the orthologous cytoplasmic rhodococcal dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (rhDLDH). We have found that rhDLDH and its human homolog (hDLDH) share the TiO 2 -binding capabilities with TiBP. Intrigued by the unique TiO 2 -binding properties of hDLDH, we anticipated that it may serve as a molecular bridge between Ti-based medical structures and human tissues. The objective of the current study was to locate the region and the amino acids of the protein that mediate the protein-TiO 2 surface interaction. We demonstrated the role of acidic amino acids in the nonelectrostatic enzyme/dioxide interactions at neutral pH. The observation that the interaction of DLDH with various metal oxides is independent of their isoelectric values strengthens this notion. DLDH does not lose its enzymatic activity upon binding to TiO 2 , indicating that neither the enzyme undergoes major conformational changes nor the TiO 2 binding site is blocked. Docking predictions suggest that both rhDLDH and hDLDH bind TiO 2 through similar regions located far from the active site and the dimerization sites. The putative TiO 2 -binding regions of both the bacterial and human enzymes were found to contain a CHED (Cys, His, Glu, Asp) motif, which has been shown to participate in metal-binding sites in proteins. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... including puppetry and dance. However, the aesthetics of these traditions vary across cultures and carry different associative and interpretive meanings. Puppetry offers a useful frame for understanding the relationship between abstract and imitative gestures and behavior, and instantiates the complex...

  18. Sampled-time control of a microbial fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghani, Hitesh C.; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J.; Premier, Giuliano C.

    2017-07-01

    Research into microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has reached the point where cubic metre-scale systems and stacks are being built and tested. Apart from performance enhancement through catalysis, materials and design, an important research area for industrial applicability is stack control, which can enhance MFCs stack power output. An MFC stack is controlled using a sampled-time digital control strategy, which has the advantage of intermittent operation with consequent power saving, and when used in a hybrid series stack connectivity, can avoid voltage reversals. A MFC stack comprising four tubular MFCs was operated hydraulically in series. Each MFC was connected to an independent controller and the stack was connected electrically in series, creating a hybrid-series connectivity. The voltage of each MFC in the stack was controlled such that the overall series stack voltage generated was the algebraic sum (1.26 V) of the individual MFC voltages (0.32, 0.32, 0.32 and 0.3). The controllers were able to control the individual voltages to the point where 2.52 mA was drawn from the stack at a load of 499.9 Ω (delivering 3.18 mW). The controllers were able to reject the disturbances and perturbations caused by electrical loading, temperature and substrate concentration.

  19. Binding energies of the π-stacked anisole dimer: new molecular beam-laser spectroscopy experiments and CCSD(T) calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezáč, Jan; Nachtigallová, Dana; Mazzoni, Federico; Pasquini, Massimiliano; Pietraperzia, Giangaetano; Becucci, Maurizio; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus; Hobza, Pavel

    2015-04-27

    Among noncovalent interactions, π-π stacking is a very important binding motif governed mainly by London dispersion. Despite its importance, for instance, for the structure of bio-macromolecules, the direct experimental measurement of binding energies in π-π stacked complexes has been elusive for a long time. Only recently, an experimental value for the binding energy of the anisole dimer was presented, determined by velocity mapping ion imaging in a two-photon resonant ionisation molecular beam experiment. However, in that paper, a discrepancy was already noted between the obtained experimental value and a theoretical estimate. Here, we present an accurate recalculation of the binding energy based on the combination of the CCSD(T)/CBS interaction energy and a DFT-D3 vibrational analysis. This proves unambiguously that the previously reported experimental value is too high and a new series of measurements with a different, more sensitive apparatus was performed. The new experimental value of 1800±100 cm(-1) (5.15±0.29 kcal mol(-1)) is close to the present theoretical prediction of 5.04±0.40 kcal mol(-1). Additional calculations of the properties of the cationic and excited states involved in the photodissociation of the dimer were used to identify and rationalise the difficulties encountered in the experimental work. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. AC impedance diagnosis of a 500 W PEM fuel cell stack . Part I: Stack impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaozi; Sun, Jian Colin; Blanco, Mauricio; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun; Wilkinson, David P.

    Diagnosis of stack performance is of importance to proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell research. This paper presents the diagnostic testing results of a 500 W Ballard Mark V PEM fuel cell stack with an active area of 280 cm 2 by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS was measured using a combination of a FuelCon test station, a TDI loadbank, and a Solartron 1260 Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer operating in the galvanostatic mode. The method described in this work can obtain the impedance spectra of fuel cells with a larger geometric surface area and power, which are normally difficult to measure due to the limitations on commercial load banks operating at high currents. By using this method, the effects of temperature, flow rate, and humidity on the stack impedance spectra were examined. The results of the electrochemical impedance analysis show that with increasing temperature, the charge transfer resistance decreases due to the slow oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) process at low temperature. If the stack is operated at a fixed air flow rate, a low frequency arc appears and grows with increasing current due to the shortage of air. The anode humidification cut-off does not affect the spectra compared to the cut-off for cathode humidification.

  1. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  2. Stacking Analysis of Binary Systems with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Chad; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Detecting binary systems at TeV energies is an important problem because only a handful of such systems are currently known. The nature of such systems is typically thought to be composed of a compact object and a massive star. The TeV emission from these systems does not obviously correspond to emission in GeV or X-ray, where many binary systems have previously been found. This study focuses on a stacking method to detect TeV emission from LS 5039, a known TeV binary, to test its efficacy in HAWC data. Stacking is a widely employed method for increasing signal to noise ratio in optical astronomy, but has never been attempted previously with HAWC. HAWC is an ideal instrument to search for TeV binaries, because of its wide field of view and high uptime. Applying this method to the entire sky may allow HAWC to detect binary sources of very short or very long periods not sensitive to current analyses. NSF, DOE, Los Alamos, Michigan Tech, CONACyt, UNAM, BUAP.

  3. High performance zinc air fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Pucheng; Ma, Ze; Wang, Keliang; Wang, Xizhong; Song, Mancun; Xu, Huachi

    2014-03-01

    A zinc air fuel cell (ZAFC) stack with inexpensive manganese dioxide (MnO2) as the catalyst is designed, in which the circulation flowing potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte carries the reaction product away and acts as a coolant. Experiments are carried out to investigate the characteristics of polarization, constant current discharge and dynamic response, as well as the factors affecting the performance and uniformity of individual cells in the stack. The results reveal that the peak power density can be as high as 435 mW cm-2 according to the area of the air cathode sheet, and the influence factors on cell performance and uniformity are cell locations, filled state of zinc pellets, contact resistance, flow rates of electrolyte and air. It is also shown that the time needed for voltages to reach steady state and that for current step-up or current step-down are both in milliseconds, indicating the ZAFC can be excellently applied to vehicles with rapid dynamic response demands.

  4. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  5. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; DeVore, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  6. Discovery of proteins involved in the interaction between prebiotics carbohydrates and probiotics & whole proteome analysis of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis susp. lactis BB-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir

    in the human gastrointestinal tract. Despite an increased scientific focus within this field, the mechanisms behind the beneficial effects exerted by pre- and probiotics are still far from fully understood. The purpose of the present industrial-PhD project was to identify proteins involved in interactions......Probiotic bacteria, which primarily belong to the genera Lactobascillus and Bifidobacterium, are live microorganisms that have been related to a variety of health-promoting effects. Prebiotics are indigestible food components that specifically stimulate the growth of probiotic organisms...... on these results and on chromatographic analysis of XOS consumption in BB-12 cultures, a model for XOS utilisation in BB-12 was established. The subsequent phase of the PhD project included extracellular proteome analysis, giving rise to the identification of 86 unique proteins. Of these proteins, 33...

  7. Estrogen- and xenoestrogen-induced ERK signaling in pituitary tumor cells involves estrogen receptor-α interactions with G protein-αi and caveolin I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Cheryl S.; Jeng, Yow-Jiun; Hu, Guangzhen; Wozniak, Ann; Bulayeva, Nataliya; Guptarak, Jutatip

    2012-01-01

    Multiple physiologic estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone), as well as xenoestrogenic compounds (including alkylphenols and bisphenol A), can act via nongenomic signaling initiated by liganding of the plasma membrane estrogen receptor-α (mERα). We examined heterotrimeric G protein involvement leading to extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in GH3/B6/F10 rat anterior pituitary tumor cells that express abundant mERα, and smaller amounts of mERβ and GPR30. A combination of microarrays, immunoblots, and quantitative immunoassays demonstrated the expression of members of all α, β, and γ G protein classes in these cells. Use of selective inhibitors showed that the Gαi subtype was the primary initiator of downstream ERK signaling. Using antibodies against the GTP-bound form of Gα protein subtypes i and s, we showed that xenoestrogens (bisphenol A, nonylphenol) activated Gαi at 15-30 sec; all alkylphenols examined subsequently suppressed activation by 5 min. GTP-activation of Gαi for all estrogens was enhanced by irreversible cumulative binding to GTPγS. In contrast, Gαs was neither activated nor deactivated by these treatments with estrogens. ERα and Gαi co-localized outside nuclei and could be immuno-captured together. Interactions of ERα with Gαi and caveolin I were demonstrated by epitope proximity ligation assays. An ERα/β antagonist (ICI182780) and a selective disruptor of caveolar structures (nystatin) blocked estrogen-induced ERK activation. Conclusions Xenoestrogens, like physiologic estrogens, can evoke downstream kinase signaling involving selective interactions of ERα with Gαi and caveolin I, but with some different characteristics, which could explain their disruptive actions. PMID:22230296

  8. Nature of Interlayer Binding and Stacking of sp–sp 2 Hybridized Carbon Layers: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeondeok; Lee, Hoonkyung; Heinonen, Olle; Benali, Anouar; Kwon, Yongkyung

    2017-01-01

    α-graphyne is a two-dimensional sheet of sp-sp2 hybridized carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice. While the geometrical structure is similar to that of graphene, the hybridized triple bonds give rise to electronic structure that is different from that of graphene. Similar to graphene, α-graphyne can be stacked in bilayers with two stable configurations, but the different stackings have very different electronic structures: one is predicted to have gapless parabolic bands and the other a tunable bandgap which is attractive for applications. In order to realize applications, it is crucial to understand which stacking is more stable. This is difficult to model, as the stability is a result of weak interlayer van der Waals interactions which are not well captured by density functional theory (DFT). We have used quantum Monte Carlo simulations that accurately include van der Waals interactions to calculate the interlayer binding energy of bilayer graphyne and to determine its most stable stacking mode. Our results show that inter-layer bindings of sp- and sp2-bonded carbon networks are significantly underestimated in a Kohn-Sham DFT approach, even with an exchange-correlation potential corrected to include, in some approximation, van der Waals interactions. Finally, our quantum Monte Carlo calculations reveal that the interlayer binding energy difference between the two stacking modes is only 0.9(4) eV/atom. From this we conclude that the two stable stacking modes of bilayer α-graphyne are almost degenerate with each other, and both will occur with about the same probability at room temperature unless there is a synthesis path that prefers one stacking over the other.

  9. Prolonged incubation and stacked film exposure improve sensitivity in western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haitao; Rankin, Gary O; Straley, Shannon; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2011-01-01

    Western blotting is a basic technique for protein detection. For proteins of less abundance or antibodies of poorer quality, an increased sensitivity is often desired. Although it is commonly known that higher concentrations of antibodies and prolonged film exposure times will help improve sensitivity in western blots, both measures come with their own risks, and it is often unclear to which extent these measures should be applied. We conducted time-course studies to investigate protein-antibody interactions and primary antibody-secondary antibody interactions in western blotting. We also propose a protocol of stacked film exposure and have tested it in standard curves and cancer cell samples. Our study found that protein-primary antibody interactions and primary antibody-secondary antibody interactions could take a longer time than commonly used "one hour" or "overnight", and in some cases longer than 48h, to reach its maximum binding. We also show that the modified protocol of stacked film exposure works well for both standard curves and biological samples, reaching a maximum sensitivity in western blots without blurring target signals or increasing backgrounds. In addition to regular optimization of antibody concentrations and film exposure time, a prolonged incubation with antibodies and stacked film exposure will also help improve sensitivity and reduce background in western blotting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Description of gasket failure in a 7 cell PEMFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Parc Tecnologic de Barcelona, Edifici U, C. Llorens i Artigas, 4-6, 2a Planta, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kunusch, Cristian [Laboratorio de Electronica Industrial Control e Instrumentacion, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNLP (Argentina)

    2007-06-10

    This article presents the data and the description of a fuel cell stack that failed due to gasket degradation. The fuel cell under study is a 7 cell stack. The unexpected change in several variables such as temperature, pressure and voltage indicated the possible failure of the stack. The stack was monitored over a 6 h period in which data was collected and consequently analyzed to conclude that the fuel cell stack failed due to a crossover leak on the anode inlet port located on the cathode side gasket of cell 2. This stack failure analysis revealed a series of indicators that could be used by a super visional controller in order to initiate a shutdown procedure. (author)

  11. The Treacher Collins syndrome (TCOF1) gene product is involved in ribosomal DNA gene transcription by interacting with upstream binding factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Benigno C; Henning, Dale; So, Rolando B; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J

    2004-07-20

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by an abnormality of craniofacial development that arises during early embryogenesis. TCS is caused by mutations in the gene TCOF1, which encodes the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle. Even though the genetic alterations causing TCS have been uncovered, the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis and the function of treacle remain unknown. Here, we show that treacle is involved in ribosomal DNA gene transcription by interacting with upstream binding factor (UBF). Immunofluorescence labeling shows treacle and UBF colocalize to specific nucleolar organizer regions and cosegregate within nucleolar caps of actinomycin d-treated HeLa cells. Biochemical analysis shows the association of treacle and UBF with chromatin. Immunoprecipitation and the yeast two-hybrid system both suggest physical interaction of the two nucleolar phosphoproteins. Down-regulation of treacle expression using specific short interfering RNA results in inhibition of ribosomal DNA transcription and cell growth. A similar correlation is observed in Tcof(+/-) mouse embryos that exhibit craniofacial defects and growth retardation. Thus, treacle haploinsufficiency in TCS patients might result in abnormal development caused by inadequate ribosomal RNA production in the prefusion neural folds during the early stages of embryogenesis. The elucidation of a physiological function of treacle provides important information of relevance to the molecular dissection of the biochemical pathology of TCS.

  12. MEX3C interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 2 and involves in miR-451a exosomal sorting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lu

    Full Text Available Some RNA species, especially microRNAs, are non-randomly sorted into exosomes, but how selectivity of RNA exosomal sorting is achieved is unknown. We found that all three variants of RNA-binding ubiquitin E3 ligase (MEX3C-MEX3C-1, MEX3C-2, and MEX3C-3 -interact with adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP-2, a cargo adaptor in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. MEX3C's C-terminal RING finger domain and the hnRNP K homology (KH domain shared by the three MEX3C variants are both necessary for MEX3C/AP-2 interaction. MEX3C associates with the endolysosomal compartment through an endocytosis-like process. siRNA-mediated inhibition of the MEX3C or AP-2 complex substantially decreased exosomal but not cellular microRNA miR-451a expression. Exosomal sorting is ceramide-dependent but not ESCRT-dependent in microRNA miR-451a. That RNA-binding protein associates with membrane trafficking machinery, and that its involvement in exosomal microRNA expression, suggest the existence of a mechanism for specific recruiting of RNA molecules to endosomes for subsequent exosomal sorting.

  13. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims' daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims.

  14. The role of genes involved in neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in the observation of a gene-environment interaction (GxE) in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2009-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease characterized by a high heritability. Several candidate genes have been suggested, with the strongest evidences for genes encoding dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), neuregulin 1 receptor (ERBB4) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), as well as several neurotrophic factors. These genes are involved in neuronal plasticity and play also a role in adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the genetic basis of schizophrenia could involve different factors more or less specifically required for neuroplasticity, including the synapse maturation, potentiation and plasticity as well as neurogenesis. Following the model of Knudson in tumors, we propose a two-hit hypothesis of schizophrenia. In this model of gene-environment interaction, a variant in a gene related to neurogenesis is transmitted to the descent (first hit), and, secondarily, an environmental factor occurs during the development of the central nervous system (second hit). Both of these vulnerability and trigger factors are probably necessary to generate a deficit in neurogenesis and therefore to cause schizophrenia. The literature supporting this gene x environment hypothesis is reviewed, with emphasis on some molecular pathways, raising the possibility to propose more specific molecular medicine.

  15. Quadratic forms and Clifford algebras on derived stacks

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzosi, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to quadratic structures in derived algebraic geometry. We define derived n-shifted quadratic complexes, over derived affine stacks and over general derived stacks, and give several examples of those. We define the associated notion of derived Clifford algebra, in all these contexts, and compare it with its classical version, when they both apply. Finally, we prove three main existence results for derived shifted quadratic forms over derived stacks, define ...

  16. Use of impedance tagging to monitor fuel cell stack performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gregory

    Fuel cells are electrochemical device that are traditionally assembled in stacks to perform meaningful work. Monitoring the state of the stack is vitally important to ensure that it is operating efficiently and that constituent cells are not failing for one of a several common reasons including membrane dehydration, gas diffusion layer flooding, reactant starvation, and physical damage. Current state-of-the-art monitoring systems are costly and require at least one connection per cell on the stack, which introduces reliability concerns for stacks consisting of hundreds of cells. This thesis presents a novel approach for diagnosing problems in a fuel cell stack that attempts to reduce the cost and complexity of monitoring cells in a stack. The proposed solution modifies the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) response of each cell in the stack by connecting an electrical tag in parallel with each cell. This approach allows the EIS response of the entire stack to identify and locate problems in the stack. Capacitors were chosen as tags because they do not interfere with normal stack operation and because they can generate distinct stack EIS responses. An experiment was performed in the Center for Automation Technologies an Systems (CATS) fuel cell laboratory at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) to perform EIS measurements on a single cell with and without capacitor tags to investigate the proposed solution. The EIS data collected from this experiment was used to create a fuel cell model to investigate the proposed solution under ideal conditions. This thesis found that, although the concept shows some promise in simulations, significant obstacles to implementing the proposed solution. Observed EIS response when the capacitor tags were connected did not match the expected EIS response. Constraints on the capacitor tags found by the model impose significant manufacturing challenges to the proposed solution. Further development of the proposed solution is

  17. Stacked Heterogeneous Neural Networks for Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Leon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid model for time series forecasting is proposed. It is a stacked neural network, containing one normal multilayer perceptron with bipolar sigmoid activation functions, and the other with an exponential activation function in the output layer. As shown by the case studies, the proposed stacked hybrid neural model performs well on a variety of benchmark time series. The combination of weights of the two stack components that leads to optimal performance is also studied.

  18. A novel configuration for direct internal reforming stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Richard

    This paper presents a stack concept that can be applied to both molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) internal reforming stacks. It employs anode recycle and allows the design of very simple system configurations, while giving enhanced efficiencies and high specific power densities. The recycle of anode exit gas to the anode inlet has previously been proposed as a means of preventing carbon deposition in direct internal reforming (DIR) stacks. When applied to a normal stack this reduces the Nernst voltages because the recycle stream is relatively depleted in hydrogen. In the concept proposed here, known as the `Smarter' stack, there are two anode exit streams, one of which is depleted, while the other is relatively undepleted. The depleted stream passes directly to the burner, and the undepleted stream is recycled to the stack inlet. By this means high Nernst voltages are achieved in the stack. The concept has been simulated and assessed for parallel-flow and cross-flow MCFC and SOFC stacks and graphs are presented showing temperature distributions. The `Smarter' stacks employ a high recycle rate resulting in a reduced natural gas concentration at the stack inlet, and this reduces or eliminates the unfavourable temperature dip. Catalyst grading can further improve the temperature distribution. The concept allows simple system configurations in which the need for fuel pre-heat is eliminated. Efficiencies are up to 10 percentage points higher than for conventional stacks with the same cell area and maximum stack temperature. The concept presented here was devised in a project part-funded by the EU, and has been adopted by the European Advanced DIR-MCFC development programme led by BCN.

  19. Status of Slip Stacking at Fermilab Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Seiya, Kiyomi; Chase, Brian; Dey, Joseph; Kourbanis, Ioanis; MacLachlan, James A; Meisner, Keith G; Pasquinelli, Ralph J; Reid, John; Rivetta, Claudio H; Steimel, Jim

    2005-01-01

    In order to increase proton intensity on anti proton production cycle of the Main Injector we are going to use the technique of 'slip stacking' and doing machine studies. In slip stacking, one bunch train is injected at slightly lower energy and second train is at slightly higher energy. Afterwards they are aligned longitudinally and captured with one rf bucket. This longitudinal stacking process is expected to double the bunch intensity. The required intensity for anti proton production is 8·1012

  20. A novel design for solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qattan, A.M.; Chmielewski, D.J.; Al-Hallaj, S.; Selman, J.R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Conventional fuel cell stack designs suffer from severe spatial nonuniformity in both temperature and current density. Such variations are known to create damaging thermal stresses within the stack and thus, impact overall lifespan. In this work, we propose a novel stack design aimed at reducing spatial variations at the source. We propose a mechanism of distributed fuel feed in which the heat generation profile can be influenced directly. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the potential of the proposed scheme. (author)

  1. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  2. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  3. Design and development of an automated uranium pellet stacking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, B.S.; Nokleby, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    A novel design for an automated uranium pellet stacking system is presented. This system is designed as a drop-in solution to the current production line to enhance the fuel pellet stacking process. The three main goals of this system are to reduce worker exposure to radiation to as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA), improve product quality, and increase productivity. The proposed system will reduce the potential for human error. This single automated system will replace the two existing pellet stacking stations while increasing the total output, eliminating pellet stacking as a bottleneck in the fuel bundle assembly process. (author)

  4. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  5. Isolation of three B-box zinc finger proteins that interact with STF1 and COP1 defines a HY5/COP1 interaction network involved in light control of development in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Young; Kim, Seong Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Jeon, Su Jeong; Sim, Soon Ae; Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Yoo, Cheol Min; Cheong, Yong Hwa; Hong, Jong Chan

    2016-09-23

    LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and STF1 (Soybean TGACG-motif binding Factor 1) are two related bZIP transcription factors that play a positive role in photomorphogenesis and hormonal signaling. In this study, we compared full length STF1 and truncated STF1 overexpression lines and found that the C-terminal 133 amino acids (194-306) possess all the HY5-like function in Arabidopsis. The STF1-DC1 mutant (1-306), with a 20 amino acid deletion at the carboxy terminus, failed to complement the hy5 mutant phenotype, which suggests an intact C-terminus is required for STF1 function. To understand the role of the C-terminal domain in photomorphogenesis we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to isolate proteins that bind to the STF1 C-terminus. We isolated three soybean cDNAs encoding the zinc-finger proteins GmSTO, GmSTH, and GmSTH2, which interact with STF1. These proteins belong to a family of B-box zinc finger proteins that include Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANCE (STO) and STO HOMOLOG (STH) and STH2, which play a role in light-dependent development and gene expression. The C-terminal 63 amino acids of STF1, containing a leucine zipper and the two N-terminal B-boxes, contains the domain involved in interactions between STF1 and GmSTO. In addition, we identified an interaction between soybean COP1 (GmCOP1) and GmSTO and GmSTH, as well as STF1, which strongly suggests the presence of a similar regulatory circuit for light signaling in soybean as in Arabidopsis. This study shows that photomorphogenic control requires complex molecular interactions among several different classes of transcription factors such as bZIP, B-box factors, and COP1, a ubiquitin ligase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Linear identification and model adjustment of a PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunusch, C.; Puleston, P.F.; More, J.J. [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 1 esq. 47 s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Husar, A. [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), c/ Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mayosky, M.A. [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, calle 1 esq. 47 s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIC), Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    In the context of fuel cell stack control a mayor challenge is modeling the interdependence of various complex subsystem dynamics. In many cases, the states interaction is usually modeled through several look-up tables, decision blocks and piecewise continuous functions. Many internal variables are inaccessible for measurement and cannot be used in control algorithms. To make significant contributions in this area, it is necessary to develop reliable models for control and design purposes. In this paper, a linear model based on experimental identification of a 7-cell stack was developed. The procedure followed to obtain a linear model of the system consisted in performing spectroscopy tests of four different single-input single-output subsystems. The considered inputs for the tests were the stack current and the cathode oxygen flow rate, while the measured outputs were the stack voltage and the cathode total pressure. The resulting model can be used either for model-based control design or for on-line analysis and errors detection. (author)

  7. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  8. Directive Stacked Patch Antenna for UWB Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif I. Mitu Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional ultrawideband (UWB antennas are popular in wireless signal-tracking and body-area networks. This paper presents a stacked microstrip antenna with an ultrawide impedance bandwidth of 114%, implemented by introducing defects on the radiating patches and the ground plane. The compact (20×34 mm antenna exhibits a directive radiation patterns for all frequencies of the 3–10.6 GHz band. The optimized reflection response and the radiation pattern are experimentally verified. The designed UWB antenna is used to maximize the received power of a software-defined radio (SDR platform. For an ultrawideband impulse radio system, this class of antennas is essential to improve the performance of the communication channels.

  9. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Stewart, Graeme A.; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  10. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00529764; The ATLAS collaboration; Stewart, Graeme; Seuster, Rolf; Quadt, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the “external” packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adjustments. A few additional modifications were needed to account for the different operating system, Ubuntu instead of Scientific Linux 6 / CentOS7. Selected results from the validation of the physics outputs on these ARM 64-bit servers will be shown. CPU, memory and IO intensive benchmarks using ATLAS specific environment and infrastructure have been performed, with a particular emphasis on the performance vs. energy consumption.

  11. Stacked generalization: an introduction to super learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Balzer, Laura B

    2018-04-10

    Stacked generalization is an ensemble method that allows researchers to combine several different prediction algorithms into one. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, the method has evolved several times into a host of methods among which is the "Super Learner". Super Learner uses V-fold cross-validation to build the optimal weighted combination of predictions from a library of candidate algorithms. Optimality is defined by a user-specified objective function, such as minimizing mean squared error or maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Although relatively simple in nature, use of Super Learner by epidemiologists has been hampered by limitations in understanding conceptual and technical details. We work step-by-step through two examples to illustrate concepts and address common concerns.

  12. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  13. Analysis of NSTX Upgrade OH Magnet and Center Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Zolfaghari, P. Titus, J. Chrzanowski, A. Salehzadeh, F. Dahlgren

    2010-11-30

    The new ohmic heating (OH) coil and center stack for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) upgrade are required to meet cooling and structural requirements for operation at the enhanced 1 Tesla toroidal field and 2 MA plasma current. The OH coil is designed to be cooled in the time between discharges by water flowing in the center of the coil conductor. We performed resistive heating and thermal hydraulic analyses to optimize coolant channel size to keep the coil temperature below 100 C and meet the required 20 minute cooling time. Coupled electromagnetic, thermal and structural FEA analyses were performed to determine if the OH coil meets the requirements of the structural design criteria. Structural response of the OH coil to its self-field and the field from other coils was analyzed. A model was developed to analyze the thermal and electromagnetic interaction of centerstack components such as the OH coil, TF inner legs and the Bellville washer preload mechanism. Torsional loads from the TF interaction with the OH and poloidal fields are transferred through the TF flag extensions via a torque transfer coupling to the rest of the tokamak structure. A 3D FEA analysis was performed to qualify this design. The results of these analyses, which will be presented in this paper, have led to the design of OH coil and centerstack components that meet the requirements of the NSTX-upgrade structural design criteria.

  14. Characterisation of early transcriptional changes involving multiple signalling pathways in the Mla13 barley interaction with powdery mildew ( Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Ingo; Campbell, Edward I; Woodhead, Mary; Hedley, Peter E; Young, Vanessa; Morris, Wayne L; Ramsay, Luke; Stockhaus, Joerg; Lyon, Gary D; Newton, Adrian C; Birch, Paul R J

    2004-03-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridisation was used to isolate 21 cDNAs ( bmi1- bmi21) up-regulated 1-5 h post-inoculation (hpi) in a barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Pallas) near-isogenic line (NIL) P11 ( Mla13) challenged with either avirulent or virulent isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Transcriptional changes at these time-points are crucial for the Mla-mediated hypersensitive response [W.R. Bushnell and Z. Liu (1994) Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 44:389-402]. Seven sequences were up-regulated by 1 hpi, when the pathogen has formed only the primary germ tube. Some transcripts were similar to genes with a role in regulating programmed cell death in animals, including NF kappaB and oxysterol-binding protein. Moreover, bmi7, similar to rice resistance gene Xa21, was rapidly up-regulated in both compatible and incompatible interactions, but was then down-regulated by 5 hpi in the virulent interaction. Only nine of the transcripts were up-regulated in mlo5 resistance in cv. Pallas NIL P22, confirming differential pathway induction between Mla13 and mlo5. However, eight sequences up-regulated in the Mla13 response in P11 were already highly elevated in uninoculated mlo5 mutant P22, suggesting that they may be negatively regulated by wild-type Mlo. Regulation of bmi sequences was investigated using salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethylene, H(2)O(2), abscisic acid, wounding and a glucan elicitor. No single stimulus up-regulated all genes, suggesting either combinations of these stimuli, or additional stimuli, are involved in early Mla13 and mlo5 resistances. Whereas H(2)O(2) up- or down-regulated 17 of the transcripts detected in Northern analyses, salicylic acid stimulated only down-regulation of 5 transcripts.

  15. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  16. A Software Managed Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In a real-time system, the use of a scratchpad memory can mitigate the difficulties related to analyzing data caches, whose behavior is inherently hard to predict. We propose to use a scratchpad memory for stack allocated data. While statically allocating stack frames for individual functions to ...

  17. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and su...

  18. Efficient Context Switching for the Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian; Naji, Amine

    2015-01-01

    , the analysis of the stack cache was limited to individual tasks, ignoring aspects related to multitasking. A major drawback of the original stack cache design is that, due to its simplicity, it cannot hold the data of multiple tasks at the same time. Consequently, the entire cache content needs to be saved...

  19. Incorporating Functional Genomic Information to Enhance Polygenic Signal and Identify Variants Involved in Gene-by-Environment Interaction for Young Adult Alcohol Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Savage, Jeanne E; Barr, Peter; Wolen, Aaron R; Aliev, Fazil; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Latvala, Antti; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2018-02-01

    Characterizing aggregate genetic risk for alcohol misuse and identifying variants involved in gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction effects has so far been a major challenge. We hypothesized that functional genomic information could be used to enhance detection of polygenic signal underlying alcohol misuse and to prioritize identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most likely to exhibit G × E effects. We examined these questions in the young adult FinnTwin12 sample (n = 1,170). We used genomewide association estimates from an independent sample to derive 2 types of polygenic scores for alcohol problems in FinnTwin12. Genomewide polygenic scores included all SNPs surpassing a designated p-value threshold. DNase polygenic scores were a subset of the genomewide polygenic scores including only variants in DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs), which are open chromatin marks likely to index regions with a regulatory function. We conducted parallel analyses using height as a nonpsychiatric model phenotype to evaluate the consistency of effects. For the G × E analyses, we examined whether SNPs in DHSs were overrepresented among SNPs demonstrating significant G × E effects in an interaction between romantic relationship status and intoxication frequency. Contrary to our expectations, we found that DNase polygenic scores were not more strongly predictive of alcohol problems than conventional polygenic scores. However, variants in DNase polygenic scores had per-SNP effects that were up to 1.4 times larger than variants in conventional polygenic scores. This same pattern of effects was also observed in supplementary analyses with height. In G × E models, SNPs in DHSs were modestly overrepresented among SNPs with significant interaction effects for intoxication frequency. These findings highlight the potential utility of integrating functional genomic annotation information to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in polygenic scores and identify

  20. The behaviour of stacking fault energy upon interstitial alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Yong; Koo, Yang Mo; Lu, Song; Vitos, Levente; Kwon, Se Kyun

    2017-09-11

    Stacking fault energy is one of key parameters for understanding the mechanical properties of face-centered cubic materials. It is well known that the plastic deformation mechanism is closely related to the size of stacking fault energy. Although alloying is a conventional method to modify the physical parameter, the underlying microscopic mechanisms are not yet clearly established. Here, we propose a simple model for determining the effect of interstitial alloying on the stacking fault energy. We derive a volumetric behaviour of stacking fault energy from the harmonic approximation to the energy-lattice curve and relate it to the contents of interstitials. The stacking fault energy is found to change linearly with the interstitial content in the usual low concentration domain. This is in good agreement with previously reported experimental and theoretical data.

  1. Direct methanol fuel cell stack based on MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Tang, Xiaochuan; Yuan, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaowei

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a design configuration of silicon-based micro direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack in a planar array. The integrated series connection is oriented in a "flip-flop" configuration with electrical interconnections made by thin-film metal layers that coat the flow channels etched in the silicon substrate. The configuration features small connection space and low contact resistance. The MEMS fabrication process was utilized to fabricate the silicon plates of DMFC stack. This DMFC stack with an active area of 64mm x 11mm was characterized at room temperature and normal atmosphere. Experimental results show that the prototype stack is able to generate an open-circuit voltage of 2.7V and a maximum power density of 2.2mW/cm2, which demonstrate the feasibility of this new DMFC stack configuration.

  2. Deformation Induced Microtwins and Stacking Faults in Aluminum Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W. Z.; Cheng, G. M.; Li, S. X.; Wu, S. D.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2008-09-01

    Microtwins and stacking faults in plastically deformed aluminum single crystal were successfully observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The occurrence of these microtwins and stacking faults is directly related to the specially designed crystallographic orientation, because they were not observed in pure aluminum single crystal or polycrystal before. Based on the new finding above, we propose a universal dislocation-based model to judge the preference or not for the nucleation of deformation twins and stacking faults in various face-centered-cubic metals in terms of the critical stress for dislocation glide or twinning by considering the intrinsic factors, such as stacking fault energy, crystallographic orientation, and grain size. The new finding of deformation induced microtwins and stacking faults in aluminum single crystal and the proposed model should be of interest to a broad community.

  3. Physical Sciences Laboratory 1 Rooftop Stack Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    To address concerns about worker exposures on the Physical Science Laboratory (PSL) rooftop, a tracer study was conducted to measure gaseous tracer concentrations downwind of six stacks on the southern half of the PSL building (PSL-1). These concerns were raised, in part, due to the non-standard configuration of the stacks on this building. Five of the six stacks were only about 8 feet tall, with one shorter stack that was essentially level with the roof deck. These stacks were reconfigured in August 2016, and these exhaust points on PSL-1 are now 18 feet tall. This report describes the objectives of the tracer tests performed on PSL-1, provides an overview of how the tests were executed, and presents results of the tests. The tests on the PSL rooftop were a follow-on project from a similar study performed on the LSL-II ventilation exhaust (Flaherty and Antonio, 2016).

  4. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei. Progress report, December 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1994-09-12

    This report summarizes the progress made during the second year of the three year DOE agreement DE-FG02-93ER40764 on theoretical nuclear physics research performed at the Columbia University and presents a detailed budget adjustment for the third year period December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995. Sections 1.1 to 1.8 highlight the technical progress made on the following general areas: Multiple scattering and radiative processes in QCD; the quark-gluon plasma transition in nuclear matter; QCD transport theory and dissipative mechanism in dense matter; phenomenological models of high energy interactions involving nuclei; signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in A+A; neurocomputation theory. Section 2 contains a bibliography of published papers and invited conference papers. Section 3 lists the Columbia nuclear theory members for the December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995 period. Finally, the budget adjustment requesting $319,830 for the third year relative to the original $320,000 is presented in section 6. Copies of the research papers accompany this report.

  5. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei. Progress report, December 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the second year of the three year DOE agreement DE-FG02-93ER40764 on theoretical nuclear physics research performed at the Columbia University and presents a detailed budget adjustment for the third year period December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995. Sections 1.1 to 1.8 highlight the technical progress made on the following general areas: Multiple scattering and radiative processes in QCD; the quark-gluon plasma transition in nuclear matter; QCD transport theory and dissipative mechanism in dense matter; phenomenological models of high energy interactions involving nuclei; signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in A+A; neurocomputation theory. Section 2 contains a bibliography of published papers and invited conference papers. Section 3 lists the Columbia nuclear theory members for the December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995 period. Finally, the budget adjustment requesting $319,830 for the third year relative to the original $320,000 is presented in section 6. Copies of the research papers accompany this report

  6. Alternative Donor--Acceptor Stacks from Crown Ethers and Naphthalene Diimide Derivatives: Rapid, Selective Formation from Solution and Solid State Grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Liu, Yi; Klivansky, Liana; Cao, Dennis; Snauko, Marian; Teat, Simon J.; Struppe, Jochem O.; Koshkakaryan, Gayane

    2009-01-22

    Self assembling {pi}-conjugated molecules into ordered structures are of increasing interest in the field of organic electronics. One particular example is charge transfer complexes containing columnar alternative donor-acceptor (ADA) stacks, where neutral and ionic ground states can be readily tuned to modulate electrical, optical, and ferroelectrical properties. Aromatic-aromatic and charge transfer interactions have been the leading driving forces in assisting the self-assembly of ADA stacks. Various folding structures containing ADA stacks were assembled in solution with the aid of solvophobic or ion-binding interactions. Meanwhile, examples of solid ADA stacks, which are more appealing for practical use in devices, were obtained from cocrystalization of binary components or mesophase assembly of liquid crystals in bulk blends. Regardless of these examples, faster and more controllable approaches towards precise supramolecular order in the solid state are still highly desirable.

  7. Enhanced H-bonding and pi-stacking in DNA: a potent duplex-stabilizing and mismatch sensing nucleobase analogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Chenguang; Dallmann, Andre; Marafini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    X-pyrene is a new nucleic acid duplex stabilizing cytosine analogue that combines enhanced pi-stacking, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions to greatly increase the stability of bulged DNA duplexes and DNA/RNA hybrids. X-pyrene is highly selective for guanine as a partner and duplex...

  8. 3D modeling and simulation of 2G HTS stacks and coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeño, Víctor M R; Grilli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Use of 2G HTS coated conductors in several power applications has become popular in recent years. Their large current density under high magnetic fields makes them suitable candidates for high power capacity applications such as stacks of tapes, coils, magnets, cables and current leads. For this reason, modeling and simulation of their electromagnetic properties is very desirable in the design and optimization processes. For many applications, when symmetries allow it, simple models consisting of 1D or 2D representations are well suited for providing a satisfying description of the problem at hand. However, certain designs such as racetrack coils and finite-length or non-straight stacks, do pose a 3D problem that cannot be easily reduced to a 2D configuration. Full 3D models have been developed, but their use for simulating superconducting devices is a very challenging task involving a large-scale computational problem. In this work, we present a new method to simulate the electromagnetic transient behavior of 2G HTS stacks and coils. The method, originally used to model stacks of straight superconducting tapes or circular coils in 2D, is now extended to 3D. The main idea is to construct an anisotropic bulk-like equivalent for the stack or coil, such that the geometrical layout of the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting and substrate layers is reduced while keeping the overall electromagnetic behavior of the original device. Besides the aforementioned interest in modeling and simulating 2G HTS coated conductors, this work provides a further step towards efficient 3D modeling and simulation of superconducting devices for large-scale applications. (paper)

  9. Reflector imaging by diffraction stacking with stacking velocity analysis; Jugo sokudo kaiseki wo tomonau sanran jugoho ni yoru hanshamen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning seismic reflection survey for geometrical arrangement between pits, the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis is compared with the CDP (common depth point horizontal stacking method). The advantages of the CDP supposedly include the following. Since it presumes an average velocity field, it can determine velocities having stacking effects. The method presumes stratification and, since such enables the division of huge quantities of observed data into smaller groups, more data can be calculated in a shorter time period. The method has disadvantages, attributable to its presuming an average velocity field, that accuracy in processing is lower when the velocity field contrast is higher, that accuracy in processing is low unless stratification is employed, and that velocities obtained from stacking velocity analysis are affected by dipped structures. Such shortcomings may be remedied in the scattering stacking method with stacking velocity analysis. Possibilities are that, as far as the horizontal reflection plane is concerned, it may yield stack records higher in S/N ratio than the CDP. Findings relative to dipped reflection planes will be introduced at the presentation. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  11. Stacking faults in austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermida, J.D. [CNEA, San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

    1996-06-01

    During last decade, Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) has been successfully used as an acceptable replacement material for steel in many applications, due to the relatively high strength and reasonable ductility obtained. These properties are the result of the special microstructure exhibited by this material at the end of the upper bainite reaction: ferrite platelets surrounded by high carbon stabilized austenite. However, at the beginning of the austempering treatment, the existence of interdendritic low carbon austenite is revealed by its transformation to martensite when cooling the sample or during subsequent deformation. The completion of the upper bainite reaction is of decisive importance to mechanical properties because the remaining martensite reduces ductility. It was observed that the rate of the upper bainite reaction is governed by the carbon content difference between the low and high carbon austenites. The carbon content is obtained by the lattice parameter measurement, because there exists a known expression that relates both magnitudes. Several works have used X-ray diffraction to measure the lattice parameter and phase concentrations as a function of austempering time. In these works, the lattice parameters were obtained directly from the {l_brace}220{r_brace} and {l_brace}311{r_brace} peaks position. The purpose of this work is to show more precise lattice parameters measurement and, very closely related to this, the existence of stacking faults in austenite, even at times within the processing window.

  12. ATLAS software stack on ARM64

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Joshua Wyatt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment explores new hardware and software platforms that, in the future, may be more suited to its data intensive workloads. One such alternative hardware platform is the ARM architecture, which is designed to be extremely power efficient and is found in most smartphones and tablets. CERN openlab recently installed a small cluster of ARM 64-bit evaluation prototype servers. Each server is based on a single-socket ARM 64-bit system on a chip, with 32 Cortex-A57 cores. In total, each server has 128 GB RAM connected with four fast memory channels. This paper reports on the port of the ATLAS software stack onto these new prototype ARM64 servers. This included building the "external" packages that the ATLAS software relies on. Patches were needed to introduce this new architecture into the build as well as patches that correct for platform specific code that caused failures on non-x86 architectures. These patches were applied such that porting to further platforms will need no or only very little adj...

  13. Lithiation-induced shuffling of atomic stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2014-09-10

    In rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, understanding the atomic-scale mechanism of Li-induced structural evolution occurring at the host electrode materials provides essential knowledge for design of new high performance electrodes. Here, we report a new crystalline-crystalline phase transition mechanism in single-crystal Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires upon lithiation. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observed that stacks of atomic planes in an intermediate hexagonal (h-)LiZnSb phase are "shuffled" to accommodate the geometrical confinement stress arising from lamellar nanodomains intercalated by lithium ions. Such atomic rearrangement arises from the anisotropic lithium diffusion and is accompanied by appearance of partial dislocations. This transient structure mediates further phase transition from h-LiZnSb to cubic (c-)Li2ZnSb, which is associated with a nearly "zero-strain" coherent interface viewed along the [001]h/[111]c directions. This study provides new mechanistic insights into complex electrochemically driven crystalline-crystalline phase transitions in lithium-ion battery electrodes and represents a noble example of atomic-level structural and interfacial rearrangements.

  14. Weyl magnons in noncoplanar stacked kagome antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    Weyl nodes have been experimentally realized in photonic, electronic, and phononic crystals. However, magnonic Weyl nodes are yet to be seen experimentally. In this paper, we propose Weyl magnon nodes in noncoplanar stacked frustrated kagome antiferromagnets, naturally available in various real materials. Most crucially, the Weyl nodes in the current system occur at the lowest excitation and possess a topological thermal Hall effect, therefore they are experimentally accessible at low temperatures due to the population effect of bosonic quasiparticles. In stark contrast to other magnetic systems, the current Weyl nodes do not rely on time-reversal symmetry breaking by the magnetic order. Rather, they result from explicit macroscopically broken time reversal symmetry by the scalar spin chirality of noncoplanar spin textures and can be generalized to chiral spin liquid states. Moreover, the scalar spin chirality gives a real space Berry curvature which is not available in previously studied magnetic Weyl systems. We show the existence of magnon arc surface states connecting projected Weyl magnon nodes on the surface Brillouin zone. We also uncover the first realization of triply-degenerate nodal magnon point in the noncollinear regime with zero scalar spin chirality.

  15. Pi-pi Stacking Mediated Cooperative Mechanism for Human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Fa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily with responsibility for metabolizing ~50% of clinical drugs. Experimental evidence showed that CYP3A4 can adopt multiple substrates in its active site to form a cooperative binding model, accelerating substrate metabolism efficiency. In the current study, we constructed both normal and cooperative binding models of human CYP3A4 with antifungal drug ketoconazoles (KLN. Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation were then carried out to study the cooperative binding mechanism. Our simulation showed that the second KLN in the cooperative binding model had a positive impact on the first one binding in the active site by two significant pi-pi stacking interactions. The first one was formed by Phe215, functioning to position the first KLN in a favorable orientation in the active site for further metabolism reactions. The second one was contributed by Phe304. This pi-pi stacking was enhanced in the cooperative binding model by the parallel conformation between the aromatic rings in Phe304 and the dioxolan moiety of the first KLN. These findings can provide an atomic insight into the cooperative binding in CYP3A4, revealing a novel pi-pi stacking mechanism for drug-drug interactions.

  16. Identification of Novel Inhibitory Peptides of Protein-Protein Interactions Involved in DNA Repair as Potential Drugs in Breast Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beck, William

    2001-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are critical to almost every cellular process. Disruption of these interactions would effectively interfere with the cell's functions and its ability to grow and divide normally...

  17. Identification of Naval Inhibitory Peptides of Protein-Protein Interactions Involved in DNA Repair as Potential Drugs in Breast Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamalakaran, Sitharthan

    2003-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are critical to almost every cellular process. Disruption of these interactions would effectively interfere with the cell's functions and its ability to grow and divide normally...

  18. Modelling the impact of creep on the probability of failure of a solid oxidefuel cell stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greco, Fabio; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Nakajo, Arata

    2014-01-01

    In solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology a major challenge lies in balancing thermal stresses from an inevitable thermal field. The cells are known to creep, changing over time the stress field. The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of creep on the failure probability...... of an SOFC stack. A finite element analysis on a single repeating unit of the stack was performed, in which the influence of the mechanical interactions,the temperature-dependent mechanical properties and creep of the SOFC materials are considered. Moreover, stresses from the thermo-mechanical simulation...... of sintering of the cells have been obtained and were implemented into the model of the single repeating unit. The significance of the relaxation of the stresses by creep in the cell components and its influence on the probability of cell survival was investigated. Finally, the influence of cell size...

  19. Creating a Rackspace and NASA Nebula compatible cloud using the OpenStack project (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.

    2010-12-01

    NASA and Rackspace have both provided technology to the OpenStack that allows anyone to create a private Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud using open source software and commodity hardware. OpenStack is designed and developed completely in the open and with an open governance process. NASA donated Nova, which powers the compute portion of NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform, and Rackspace donated Swift, which powers Rackspace Cloud Files. The project is now in continuous development by NASA, Rackspace, and hundreds of other participants. When you create a private cloud using Openstack, you will have the ability to easily interact with your private cloud, a government cloud, and an ecosystem of public cloud providers, using the same API.

  20. Efficiency of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bosma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a feedforward control of optimal oxygen excess ratio that maximize net power (improve efficiency of a NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack (FCS system. Net powers profile as a function of oxygen excess ratio for some points of operation are analyzed by using FCS model. The relationships between stack current and the corresponding control input voltage that gives an optimal oxygen excess ratio are used to design a feedforward control scheme. The results of this scheme are compared to the results of a feedforward control using a constant oxygen excess ratio. Simulation results show that optimal oxygen excess ratio improves fuel cell performance compared to the results of constant oxygen excess ratio. The same procedures are performed experimentally for the FCS system. The behaviour of the net power of the fuel cell stack with respect to the variation of oxygen excess ratio is analyzed to obtain optimal values. Data of stack current and the corresponding voltage input to the compressor that gives optimal values of oxygen excess ratio are used to develop a feedforward control. Feedforward control based on constant and optimal oxygen excess ratio control, are implemented in the NedStack P8.0-64 PEM fuel cell stack system by using LabVIEW. Implementation results shows that optimal oxygen excess ratio control improves the fuel cell performance compared to the constant oxygen excess ratio control.

  1. Is there a relationship between the stacking fault character and the activated mode of plasticity of Fe-Mn-based austenitic steels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrissi, H.; Ryelandt, L.; Veron, M.; Schryvers, D.; Jacques, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    By changing the testing temperature, an austenitic Fe-Mn-Al-Si alloy presents either ε-martensite transformation or mechanical twinning during straining. In order to understand the nucleation and growth mechanisms involved in both phenomena, defects and particularly stacking faults, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. It is observed that the character of the stacking faults also changes (from extrinsic to intrinsic) together with the temperature and the activated mode of plasticity.

  2. Interaction of the amyloid precursor protein-like protein 1 (APLP1) E2 domain with heparan sulfate involves two distinct binding modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahms, Sven O., E-mail: sdahms@fli-leibniz.de [Leibniz Institute for Age Research (FLI), Beutenbergstrasse 11, 07745 Jena (Germany); Mayer, Magnus C. [Freie Universität Berlin, Thielallee 63, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Miltenyi Biotec GmbH, Robert-Koch-Strasse 1, 17166 Teterow (Germany); Roeser, Dirk [Leibniz Institute for Age Research (FLI), Beutenbergstrasse 11, 07745 Jena (Germany); Multhaup, Gerd [McGill University Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Than, Manuel E., E-mail: sdahms@fli-leibniz.de [Leibniz Institute for Age Research (FLI), Beutenbergstrasse 11, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Two X-ray structures of APLP1 E2 with and without a heparin dodecasaccharide are presented, revealing two distinct binding modes of the protein to heparan sulfate. The data provide a mechanistic explanation of how APP-like proteins bind to heparan sulfates and how they specifically recognize nonreducing structures of heparan sulfates. Beyond the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, the members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family are essential for neuronal development and cell homeostasis in mammals. APP and its paralogues APP-like protein 1 (APLP1) and APP-like protein 2 (APLP2) contain the highly conserved heparan sulfate (HS) binding domain E2, which effects various (patho)physiological functions. Here, two crystal structures of the E2 domain of APLP1 are presented in the apo form and in complex with a heparin dodecasaccharide at 2.5 Å resolution. The apo structure of APLP1 E2 revealed an unfolded and hence flexible N-terminal helix αA. The (APLP1 E2){sub 2}–(heparin){sub 2} complex structure revealed two distinct binding modes, with APLP1 E2 explicitly recognizing the heparin terminus but also interacting with a continuous heparin chain. The latter only requires a certain register of the sugar moieties that fits to a positively charged surface patch and contributes to the general heparin-binding capability of APP-family proteins. Terminal binding of APLP1 E2 to heparin specifically involves a structure of the nonreducing end that is very similar to heparanase-processed HS chains. These data reveal a conserved mechanism for the binding of APP-family proteins to HS and imply a specific regulatory role of HS modifications in the biology of APP and APP-like proteins.

  3. Nonsynonymous changes of equine lentivirus receptor-1 (ELR1) gene in amino acids involved in the interaction with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi-Botto, C M; Sadaba, S A; Zappa, M E; Peral-García, P; Díaz, S

    2017-06-01

    Equine lentivirus receptor-1 (ELR1) has been characterized as the specific functional receptor that mediates equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) entrance to horse macrophages. This receptor is tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14 (TNFRSF14). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of allelic variants in the coding sequence of equine TNFRSF14 gene by screening for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different equine populations. Forty seven horse samples were randomly selected from a reservoir of EIAV-seropositive and seronegative samples collected from different outbreaks and regions of Argentina. DNA samples were scanned via PCR and direct sequencing of exon 3 and exon 5 of TNFRSF14 gene. A total of 21 SNPs were identified, of which 11 were located in coding sequences. Within exon 5, four SNPs caused nonsynonymous substitutions, while two other SNPs caused synonymous substitutions in crucial residues (Ser112 and Thr114) implicated in the interaction with EIAV. Despite some of exon 5 variants occurred exclusively in EIAV-positive or EIAV-negative horses, critical residues for the function of the mature protein were conserved, accounting for selective pressures in favor of preserving the specific function of TNFRSF members and the host immune response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the existence of allelic variations involving some crucial amino acid residues in horse ELR1. Further, it could be an initial step to test the possible functional relevance and relationship of these variants with EIAV infection and disease progression as well as to develop preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is involved in ectopic endometrial tissue growth and peritoneal-endometrial tissue interaction in vivo: a plausible link to endometriosis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Rakhila

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2, cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins, survival (B-cell lymphoma-2 and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth factors relevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis.

  5. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is involved in ectopic endometrial tissue growth and peritoneal-endometrial tissue interaction in vivo: a plausible link to endometriosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhila, Halima; Girard, Karine; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Lemyre, Madeleine; Akoum, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO) mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT) mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2), cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins), survival (B-cell lymphoma-2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth) factors relevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis.

  6. Gene stacking of multiple traits for high yield of fermentable sugars in plant biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Aude; Chalvin, Camille; Shih, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    the ratio of C6 to C5 sugars in the cell wall and decreasing the lignin content are two important targets in engineering of plants that are more suitable for downstream processing for second-generation biofuel production.Results: We have studied the basic mechanisms of cell wall biosynthesis and identified...... genes involved in biosynthesis of pectic galactan, including the GALS1 galactan synthase and the UDP-galactose/UDP-rhamnose transporter URGT1. We have engineered plants with a more suitable biomass composition by applying these findings, in conjunction with synthetic biology and gene stacking tools...... to vessels where this polysaccharide is essential. Finally, the high galactan and low xylan traits were stacked with the low lignin trait obtained by expressing the QsuB gene encoding dehydroshikimate dehydratase in lignifying cells.Conclusion: The results show that approaches to increasing C6 sugar content...

  7. DeepStack: Expert-level artificial intelligence in heads-up no-limit poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravčík, Matej; Schmid, Martin; Burch, Neil; Lisý, Viliam; Morrill, Dustin; Bard, Nolan; Davis, Trevor; Waugh, Kevin; Johanson, Michael; Bowling, Michael

    2017-05-05

    Artificial intelligence has seen several breakthroughs in recent years, with games often serving as milestones. A common feature of these games is that players have perfect information. Poker, the quintessential game of imperfect information, is a long-standing challenge problem in artificial intelligence. We introduce DeepStack, an algorithm for imperfect-information settings. It combines recursive reasoning to handle information asymmetry, decomposition to focus computation on the relevant decision, and a form of intuition that is automatically learned from self-play using deep learning. In a study involving 44,000 hands of poker, DeepStack defeated, with statistical significance, professional poker players in heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em. The approach is theoretically sound and is shown to produce strategies that are more difficult to exploit than prior approaches. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Electronic structure of transferred graphene/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures with nonzero stacking angles by nano-ARPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eryin; Chen, Guorui; Wan, Guoliang; Lu, Xiaobo; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Fedorov, Alexei V; Zhang, Guangyu; Asensio, Maria C; Zhang, Yuanbo; Zhou, Shuyun

    2016-11-09

    In van der Waals heterostructures, the periodic potential from the Moiré superlattice can be used as a control knob to modulate the electronic structure of the constituent materials. Here we present a nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (nano-ARPES) study of transferred graphene/h-BN heterostructures with two different stacking angles of 2.4° and 4.3° respectively. Our measurements reveal six replicas of graphene Dirac cones at the superlattice Brillouin zone (SBZ) centers. The size of the SBZ and its relative rotation angle to the graphene BZ are in good agreement with Moiré superlattice period extracted from atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Comparison to the epitaxial graphene/h-BN with 0° stacking angles suggests that the interaction between graphene and h-BN decreases with increasing stacking angle.

  9. Consolidity: Stack-based systems change pathway theory elaborated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an elaborated analysis for investigating the stack-based layering processes during the systems change pathway. The system change pathway is defined as the path resulting from the combinations of all successive changes induced on the system when subjected to varying environments, activities, events, or any excessive internal or external influences and happenings “on and above” its normal stands, situations or set-points during its course of life. The analysis is essentially based on the important overall system paradigm of “Time driven-event driven-parameters change”. Based on this paradigm, it is considered that any affected activity, event or varying environment is intelligently self-recorded inside the system through an incremental consolidity-scaled change in system parameters of the stack-based layering types. Various joint stack-based mathematical and graphical approaches supported by representable case studies are suggested for the identification, extraction, and processing of various stack-based systems changes layering of different classifications and categorizations. Moreover, some selected real life illustrative applications are provided to demonstrate the (infinite stack-based identification and recognition of the change pathway process in the areas of geology, archeology, life sciences, ecology, environmental science, engineering, materials, medicine, biology, sociology, humanities, and other important fields. These case studies and selected applications revealed that there are general similarities of the stack-based layering structures and formations among all the various research fields. Such general similarities clearly demonstrate the global concept of the “fractals-general stacking behavior” of real life systems during their change pathways. Therefore, it is recommended that concentrated efforts should be expedited toward building generic modular stack-based systems or blocks for the mathematical

  10. Mixed Mechanism of Lubrication by Lipid Bilayer Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boţan, Alexandru; Joly, Laurent; Fillot, Nicolas; Loison, Claire

    2015-11-10

    Although the key role of lipid bilayer stacks in biological lubrication is generally accepted, the mechanisms underlying their extreme efficiency remain elusive. In this article, we report molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer stacks undergoing load and shear. When the hydration level is reduced, the velocity accommodation mechanism changes from viscous shear in hydration water to interlayer sliding in the bilayers. This enables stacks of hydrated lipid bilayers to act as efficient boundary lubricants for various hydration conditions, structures, and mechanical loads. We also propose an estimation for the friction coefficient; thanks to the strong hydration forces between lipid bilayers, the high local viscosity is not in contradiction with low friction coefficients.

  11. On $k$-stellated and $k$-stacked spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Bhaskar; Datta, Basudeb

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the class $\\Sigma_k(d)$ of $k$-stellated (combinatorial) spheres of dimension $d$ ($0 \\leq k \\leq d + 1$) and compare and contrast it with the class ${\\cal S}_k(d)$ ($0 \\leq k \\leq d$) of $k$-stacked homology $d$-spheres. We have $\\Sigma_1(d) = {\\cal S}_1(d)$, and $\\Sigma_k(d) \\subseteq {\\cal S}_k(d)$ for $d \\geq 2k - 1$. However, for each $k \\geq 2$ there are $k$-stacked spheres which are not $k$-stellated. The existence of $k$-stellated spheres which are not $k$-stacked remains...

  12. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  13. Optimized stacked RADFETs for milli-rad dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, B.; Lane, B.; Mohammadzadeh, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper details the improvements in the design of stacked RADFETs for increased radiation sensitivity. The issues of high read-out voltage has been shown to be a draw-back. It is the body (bulk)effect factor that is responsible for the increased overall stack Threshold voltage (V T ), which is greater than the sum of the individual devices V T . From extensive process and device simulation and resultant circuit simulation, modified stack structures have been proposed and designed. New and exciting result of lower initial (pre-irradiation) output voltage as well as increased radiation sensitivity will be presented. (author)

  14. The Effects of Graphene Stacking on the Performance of Methane Sensor: A First-Principles Study on the Adsorption, Band Gap and Doping of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of graphene stacking are investigated by comparing the results of methane adsorption energy, electronic performance, and the doping feasibility of five dopants (i.e., B, N, Al, Si, and P via first-principles theory. Both zigzag and armchair graphenes are considered. It is found that the zigzag graphene with Bernal stacking has the largest adsorption energy on methane, while the armchair graphene with Order stacking is opposite. In addition, both the Order and Bernal stacked graphenes possess a positive linear relationship between adsorption energy and layer number. Furthermore, they always have larger adsorption energy in zigzag graphene. For electronic properties, the results show that the stacking effects on band gap are significant, but it does not cause big changes to band structure and density of states. In the comparison of distance, the average interlamellar spacing of the Order stacked graphene is the largest. Moreover, the adsorption effect is the result of the interactions between graphene and methane combined with the change of graphene’s structure. Lastly, the armchair graphene with Order stacking possesses the lowest formation energy in these five dopants. It could be the best choice for doping to improve the methane adsorption.

  15. Fuel flow distribution in SOFC stacks revealed by impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    . An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. An experimental stack with low ohmic resistance from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S was characterized using Electrochemical...... Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The stack measurement geometry was optimized for EIS by careful selection of the placement of current feeds and voltage probes in order to minimize measurement errors. It was demonstrated that with the improved placement of current feeds and voltage probes it is possible...... to separate the loss contributions in an ohmic and a polarization part and that the low frequency response is useful in detecting mass transfer limitations. This methodology can be used to detect possible minor changes in the supply of gas to the individual cells, which is important when going to high fuel...

  16. Simulation of magnetization and levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, I. V.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Mineev, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work it is presented a computational model of a magnetic levitation system based on stacks of high-temperature second generation superconducting tapes (HTS) GdBa2Cu3O7-x. Calculated magnetic field and the current distributions in the system for different stacks geometries in the zero-field cooling mode are also presented. The magnetization curves of the stacks in the external field of a permanent NdFeB magnet and the levitation force dependence on the gap between the magnet and the HTS tapes stack were obtained. A model of the magnetic system, oriented to levitation application, is given. Results of modeling were compared with the experimental data.

  17. Fast principal component analysis for stacking seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-04-01

    Stacking seismic data plays an indispensable role in many steps of the seismic data processing and imaging workflow. Optimal stacking of seismic data can help mitigate seismic noise and enhance the principal components to a great extent. Traditional average-based seismic stacking methods cannot obtain optimal performance when the ambient noise is extremely strong. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for stacking seismic data without being sensitive to noise level. Considering the computational bottleneck of the classic PCA algorithm in processing massive seismic data, we propose an efficient PCA algorithm to make the proposed method readily applicable for industrial applications. Two numerically designed examples and one real seismic data are used to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  18. Static analysis of worst-case stack cache behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a stack cache in a real-time system can aid predictability by avoiding interference that heap memory traffic causes on the data cache. While loads and stores are guaranteed cache hits, explicit operations are responsible for managing the stack cache. The behavior of these operations can......-graph, the worst-case bounds can be efficiently yet precisely determined. Our evaluation using the MiBench benchmark suite shows that only 37% and 21% of potential stack cache operations actually store to and load from memory, respectively. Analysis times are modest, on average running between 0.46s and 1.30s per...... be analyzed statically. We present algorithms that derive worst-case bounds on the latency-inducing operations of the stack cache. Their results can be used by a static WCET tool. By breaking the analysis down into subproblems that solve intra-procedural data-flow analysis and path searches on the call...

  19. A Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Nielsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable computing platforms to allowfor static analysis of the worst-case execution time. Caches are important for good performance, but data caches arehard to analyze for the worst-case execution time. Stack allocated data has different properties related to local......Real-time systems need time-predictable computing platforms to allowfor static analysis of the worst-case execution time. Caches are important for good performance, but data caches arehard to analyze for the worst-case execution time. Stack allocated data has different properties related...... to locality, lifetime, and static analyzability of access addresses comparedto static or heap allocated data. Therefore, caching of stack allocateddata benefits from having its own cache. In this paper we present a cache architecture optimized for stack allocateddata. This cache is additional to the normal...

  20. DBaaS with OpenStack Trove

    CERN Document Server

    Giardini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the Trove component for OpenStack, understand if it can be used with the CERN infrastructure and report the benefits and disadvantages of this software. Currently, databases for CERN projects are provided by a DbaaS software developed inside the IT-DB group. This solution works well with the actual infrastructure but it is not easy to maintain. With the migration of the CERN infrastructure to OpenStack the Database group started to evaluate the Trove component. Instead of mantaining an own DbaaS service it can be interesting to migrate everything to OpenStack and replace the actual DbaaS software with Trove. This way both virtual machines and databases will be managed by OpenStack itself.

  1. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  2. SEE on Different Layers of Stacked-SRAMs

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, V; Tsiligiannis, G; Rousselet, M; Mohammadzadeh, A; Javanainen, A; Virtanen, A; Puchner, H; Saigné, F; Wrobel, F; Dilillo, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents heavy-ion and proton radiation test results of a 90 nm COTS SRAM with stacked structure. Radiation tests were made using high penetration heavy-ion cocktails at the HIF (Belgium) and at RADEF (Finland) as well as low energy protons at RADEF. The heavy-ion SEU cross-section showed an unusual profile with a peak at the lowest LET (heavy-ion with the highest penetration range). The discrepancy is due to the fact that the SRAM is constituted of two vertically stacked dice. The impact of proton testing on the response of both stacked dice is presented. The results are discussed and the SEU cross-sections of the upper and lower layers are compared. The impact of the stacked structure on the proton SEE rate is investigated.

  3. Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    ARL-TR-8138 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction by...not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8138 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for...aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if

  4. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Center Stack Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Avasarala, S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Dudek, L.; Fan, H.; Hatcher, H.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Titus, P.; Woolley, R.; Zhan, H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the NSTX Center Stack Upgrade project is to expand the NSTX operational space and thereby the physics basis for next-step ST facilities. The plasma aspect ratio (ratio of plasma major to minor radius) of the upgrade is increased to 1.5 from the original value of 1.26, which increases the cross sectional area of the center stack by a factor of ∼ 3 and makes possible higher levels of performance and pulse duration.

  5. A new method for beam stacking in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Recently, I developed a new beam stacking scheme for synchrotron storage rings called 'longitudinal phase-space coating' (LPSC). This scheme has been convincingly validated by multi-particle beam dynamics simulations and has been demonstrated with beam experiments at the Fermilab Recycler. Here, I present the results from both simulations and experiments. The beam stacking scheme presented here is the first of its kind.

  6. Stacking faults and phase transformations in silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhet, X.; Demenet, J.-L.; Rabier, J.

    1998-11-01

    From observations of extended dislocation nodes in β silicon nitride, possible stacking fault structures in the basal plane of this compound have been investigated. It has been found that stacking fault structure is locally analogous to α silicon nitride. A phase transformation α to β or β to α can also be achieved by cooperative shear of partial dislocations with 1/3<~ngle1bar{1}00rangle Burgers vectors.

  7. LOFT diesel generator ''A'' exhaust stack seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    A stress analysis of the LOFT Diesel Generator ''A'' Exhaust Stack was performed to determine its reaction to Safe-Shutdown Earthquake loads. The exhaust stack silencer and supporting foundation was found to be inadequate for the postulated seismic accelerations. Lateral support is required to prevent overturning of the silencer pedestal and reinforcement of the 4'' x 0.5'' silencer base straps is necessary. Basic requirements for this additional support are discussed

  8. Field-induced stacking transition of biofunctionalized trilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masato Nakano, C. [Flintridge Preparatory School, La Canada, California 91011 (United States); Sajib, Md Symon Jahan; Samieegohar, Mohammadreza; Wei, Tao [Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Trilayer graphene (TLG) is attracting a lot of attention as their stacking structures (i.e., rhombohedral vs. Bernal) drastically affect electronic and optical properties. Based on full-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we here predict electric field-induced rhombohedral-to-Bernal transition of TLG tethered with proteins. Furthermore, our simulations show that protein's electrophoretic mobility and diffusivity are enhanced on TLG surface. This phenomenon of controllable TLG stacking transition will contribute to various applications including biosensing.

  9. The involvement of DNA repair genes in the hypoxia-dependent NLCQ-1 (NSC 709257) toxicity and its synergistic interaction with cisplatin or melphalan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulou, M.V.; Xue, C.-J.; Bloomer, W.D.

    2003-01-01

    4-[3-(2-Nitro-1-imidazolyl)-propylamino]-7-chloro-quinoline hydrochloride (NLCQ-1) is a weakly DNA-intercalating hypoxia selective cytotoxin, which synergistically enhances the antitumor effect of several chemotherapeutic agents or radiation against mouse tumors or human xenografts. Synergy with melphalan (L-PAM) or cisplatin (cisPt) requires hypoxic pre-exposure of cells to NLCQ-1 or, in mice, administration of NLCQ-1 about 1 h before L-PAM or cisPt. This suggests that NLCQ-1 may cause DNA lesions upon reductive metabolism. To indirectly identify such lesions, rodent cell lines defective in specific DNA repair genes (EM9 and UV41) and their repair-proficient parental AA8, were exposed to NLCQ-1 alone and in combination with L-PAM or cisPt under hypoxic/aerobic conditions and appropriate routes, and assessed for clonogenicity. Selected comparisons with tirapazamine (TPZ) were also performed. DNA ssbs were identified by using the alkaline comet assay. Synergism was assessed by isobologramic analysis. EM9, which lack the functional XRCC1 gene and are unable to efficiently repair DNA ssbs, were 3.7x and 4.5x more sensitive to NLCQ-1 and TPZ, respectively, than the parental AA8 cells. Similarly, UV41, which are defective in the ERCC4/XPF gene and thus, hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, were 4.1x more sensitive than AA8 cells to NLCQ-1. Equitoxic concentrations of NLCQ-1 and TPZ gave similar numbers of ssbs in AA8 and EM9 cells exposed to each compound for 1 h under hypoxic conditions. In combination with L-PAM or cisPt, synergy was observed in AA8 but not in EM9 or UV41 cells, with either NLCQ-1 or TPZ. These results suggest that NLCQ-1 is involved in the formation of DNA ssbs and interstrand crosslinks, with the latter being most likely responsible for NLCQ-1 hypoxic toxicity. The synergistic interaction of NLCQ-1 with L-PAM or cisPt is probably due to an enhancement in the L-PAM/cisPt-induced DNA interstrand crosslinks, possibly as a result of an inhibited

  10. The cell-cell interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and small cell lung cancer cells is involved in tumor progression via STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriki, Toyohisa; Ohnishi, Koji; Fujiwara, Yukio; Horlad, Hasita; Saito, Yoichi; Pan, Cheng; Ikeda, Koei; Mori, Takeshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu; Takeya, Motohiro; Komohara, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. It is well known that various stromal cells, including macrophages, play a role in tumor progression in several types of malignant tumors; however, the significance of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in SCLC has not been fully elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a molecule well-known to be related to tumor progression. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of TAMs and SCLC cells to test the hypothesis that TAMs induce tumor progression in SCLC via STAT3 activation. We performed immunohistochemical analysis using surgically resected tumor specimens and in vitro co-culture experiments using human SCLC cell lines and human monocyte-derived macrophages. We first demonstrated via immunostaining that STAT3 activation in tumor cells was predominantly observed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests existing near TAMs in stroma. The indirect co-culture of SCLC cells and macrophages induced STAT3 activation in both cell types, and macrophage-derived culture supernatant (CS) significantly activated STAT3 in SCLC cells. Macrophage-derived CS induced tumor cell proliferation and invasion via STAT3 activation. In addition, chemo-resistance and sphere formation were also increased by macrophage-derived CS. Macrophage-derived interleukin-6 and CC chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4/MIP-1β) were suggested to be associated with STAT3 activation in SCLC cells. CS-induced STAT3 activation in SCLC cells was suppressed by anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, but not by anti-CCL4/MIP-1β antibody. These results suggest that TAMs are likely involved in SCLC progression via STAT3 activation and TAM-derived IL-6 is indicated to be one of molecules related to STAT3 activation in SCLC cells. Thus, the cell-cell interaction between TAMs and SCLC cells might be a target for therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  12. Standoff Stack Emissions Monitoring Using Short Range Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Jean-Francois Y.; Babin, Francois; Allard, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There are well documented methods for stack emissions monitoring. These are all based on stack sampling through sampling ports in well defined conditions. Once sampled, the molecules are quantified in instruments that often use optical techniques. Unfortunately sampling ports are not found on all stacks/ducts or the use of the sampling ports cannot be planned efficiently because of operational constraints or the emissions monitoring equipment cannot be driven to a remote stack/duct. Emissions monitoring using many of the same optical techniques, but at a standoff distance, through the atmosphere, using short range high spatial resolution lidar techniques was thus attempted. Standoff absorption and Raman will be discussed and results from a field campaign will be presented along with short descriptions of the apparatus. In the first phase of these tests, the molecules that were targeted were NO and O2. Spatially resolved optical measurements allow for standoff identification and quantification of molecules, much like the standardized methods, except for the fact that it is not done in the stack, but in the plume formed by the emissions from the stack. The pros and cons will also be discussed, and in particular the problem of mass emission estimates that require the knowledge of the flow rate and the distribution of molecular concentration in the plane of measurement.

  13. Standoff Stack Emissions Monitoring Using Short Range Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravel Jean-Francois Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are well documented methods for stack emissions monitoring. These are all based on stack sampling through sampling ports in well defined conditions. Once sampled, the molecules are quantified in instruments that often use optical techniques. Unfortunately sampling ports are not found on all stacks/ducts or the use of the sampling ports cannot be planned efficiently because of operational constraints or the emissions monitoring equipment cannot be driven to a remote stack/duct. Emissions monitoring using many of the same optical techniques, but at a standoff distance, through the atmosphere, using short range high spatial resolution lidar techniques was thus attempted. Standoff absorption and Raman will be discussed and results from a field campaign will be presented along with short descriptions of the apparatus. In the first phase of these tests, the molecules that were targeted were NO and O2. Spatially resolved optical measurements allow for standoff identification and quantification of molecules, much like the standardized methods, except for the fact that it is not done in the stack, but in the plume formed by the emissions from the stack. The pros and cons will also be discussed, and in particular the problem of mass emission estimates that require the knowledge of the flow rate and the distribution of molecular concentration in the plane of measurement.

  14. Effects of composite and coordinated interactions between populations of particle-like individuals involving forces and internal states — A statistical-mechanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Alf H.

    2008-09-01

    In this analogue modeling of interacting species we consider in particular interactions we refer to as composite interactions between particles called “daphnicles” and “food particles” that evolve on a third particle component in the background. Other force interactions are also taken account of but they play a smaller role in this study. The states of daphnicles and food particles are not only given by their position- and velocity-variables but also by variables of internal properties they have, which we shall call “saturation” for daphnicles and “nutrition” for food particles. The “laws” of variations of all these variables, where the rates of change of saturation and nutrition take place in the central region of the force interaction range where daphnicles and food particles come close together in their movements, are coupled in the composite interactions we consider. Due to this coupling of the “outer” force interaction to the “inner” saturation-nutrition interaction the inner interaction can be raised or diminished and in this way the distribution of say saturation of daphnicles may be regulated. From an extended Liouville equation for a system of a large number of particles where in particular interactions like these are baked in on the level of individual particles we aim to derive equations for daphnicle and food particle distribution functions on a kinetic level; this derivation constitutes the main part of the paper. Proper equations on a coarser grained level of description are then found quite easily: this “mixed” kinetic/moment level is in between the kinetic- and the full moment (macroscopic) levels such that distribution of saturation and nutrition still play a role and the equations still retain essential characteristics of the composite interactions taking place on the microscopic level, besides other force interactions. Though the terminology used suites modeling of biological systems and the results may throw some

  15. Unusual reflection of electromagnetic radiation from a stack of graphene layers at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludov, Yu V; Peres, N M R; Vasilevskiy, M I

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) radiation with single-layer graphene and a stack of parallel graphene sheets at arbitrary angles of incidence. It is found that the behavior is qualitatively different for transverse magnetic (or p-polarized) and transverse electric (or s-polarized) waves. In particular, the absorbance of single-layer graphene attains a minimum (maximum) for the p (s)-polarization at the angle of total internal reflection when the light comes from a medium with a higher dielectric constant. In the case of equal dielectric constants of the media above and beneath graphene, for grazing incidence graphene is almost 100% transparent to p-polarized waves and acts as a tunable mirror for the s-polarization. These effects are enhanced for a stack of graphene sheets, so the system can work as a broad band polarizer. It is shown further that a periodic stack of graphene layers has the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal, with gaps (or stop bands) at certain frequencies. When an incident EM wave is reflected from this photonic crystal, the tunability of the graphene conductivity renders the possibility of controlling the gaps, and the structure can operate as a tunable spectral-selective mirror. (paper)

  16. Porous Structures in Stacked, Crumpled and Pillared Graphene-Based 3D Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Creighton, Megan; Chen, Yantao; Hurt, Robert; Külaots, Indrek

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, an atomically thin material with the theoretical surface area of 2600 m 2 g -1 , has great potential in the fields of catalysis, separation, and gas storage if properly assembled into functional 3D materials at large scale. In ideal non-interacting ensembles of non-porous multilayer graphene plates, the surface area can be adequately estimated using the simple geometric law ~ 2600 m 2 g -1 /N, where N is the number of graphene sheets per plate. Some processing operations, however, lead to secondary plate-plate stacking, folding, crumpling or pillaring, which give rise to more complex structures. Here we show that bulk samples of multilayer graphene plates stack in an irregular fashion that preserves the 2600/N surface area and creates regular slot-like pores with sizes that are multiples of the unit plate thickness. In contrast, graphene oxide deposits into films with massive area loss (2600 to 40 m 2 g -1 ) due to nearly perfect alignment and stacking during the drying process. Pillaring graphene oxide sheets by co-deposition of colloidal-phase particle-based spacers has the potential to partially restore the large monolayer surface. Surface areas as high as 1000 m 2 g -1 are demonstrated here through colloidal-phase deposition of graphene oxide with water-dispersible aryl-sulfonated ultrafine carbon black as a pillaring agent.

  17. Role of SiC substrate surface on local tarnishing of deposited silver mirror stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limam, Emna; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Zanna, Sandrine; Klein, Lorena H.; Chauveau, Grégory; Grèzes-Besset, Catherine; Savin De Larclause, Isabelle; Marcus, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    The role of the SiC substrate surface on the resistance to the local initiation of tarnishing of thin-layered silver stacks for demanding space mirror applications was studied by combined surface and interface analysis on model stack samples deposited by cathodic magnetron sputtering and submitted to accelerated aging in gaseous H2S. It is shown that suppressing the surface pores resulting from the bulk SiC material production process by surface pretreatment eliminates the high aspect ratio surface sites that are imperfectly protected by the SiO2 overcoat after the deposition of silver. The formation of channels connecting the silver layer to its environment through the failing protection layer at the surface pores and locally enabling H2S entry and Ag2S growth as columns until emergence at the stack surface is suppressed, which markedly delays tarnishing initiation and thereby preserves the optical performance. The results revealed that residual tarnishing initiation proceeds by a mechanism essentially identical in nature but involving different pathways short circuiting the protection layer and enabling H2S ingress until the silver layer. These permeation pathways are suggested to be of microstructural origin and could correspond to the incompletely coalesced intergranular boundaries of the SiO2 layer.

  18. Evolution of risk assessment strategies for food and feed uses of stacked GM events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine; Brune, Phil; McDonald, Justin; Nesbitt, Monique; Sauve, Alaina; Storck-Weyhermueller, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Data requirements are not harmonized globally for the regulation of food and feed derived from stacked genetically modified (GM) events, produced by combining individual GM events through conventional breeding. The data required by some regulatory agencies have increased despite the absence of substantiated adverse effects to animals or humans from the consumption of GM crops. Data from studies conducted over a 15-year period for several stacked GM event maize (Zea mays L.) products (Bt11 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR604, MIR604 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR604 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR162 ×  GA21 and Bt11 ×  MIR604 ×  MIR162 ×  GA21), together with their component single events, are presented. These data provide evidence that no substantial changes in composition, protein expression or insert stability have occurred after combining the single events through conventional breeding. An alternative food and feed risk assessment strategy for stacked GM events is suggested based on a problem formulation approach that utilizes (i) the outcome of the single event risk assessments, and (ii) the potential for interactions in the stack, based on an understanding of the mode of action of the transgenes and their products. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad El Zoghbi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Methods Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case–control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Results Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. Conclusion There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco

  20. The interaction between stent(s) implantation, PICA involvement, and immediate occlusion degree affect symptomatic intracranial spontaneous vertebral artery dissection aneurysm (sis-VADA) recurrence after reconstructive treatment with stent(s)-assisted coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai-Jun; Zhao, Rui; Huang, Qing-Hai; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Fang, Yi-Bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Jian-Min; Zhao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate risk factors of sis-VADAs recurrence after reconstructive treatment based on 113 reconstructed lesions. A total of 111 patients (M:F = 68:43; median age, 47 years) with 113 sis-VADAs underwent reconstruction from October 2000 to March 2011, using stent(s) and coils. Treatments and predictors of recurrence were retrospectively analysed. Fifty-eight sis-VADAs underwent single-stent treatment, and the remaining 55 sis-VADAs underwent treatment with 2-4 overlapping stents. Follow-up angiography was available for 94 sis-VADAs 12 -78 months, with recurrence in ten patients, including seven angiographic recurrences and three post-treatment haemorrhagic recurrences. A higher rate of post-treatment recurrence was observed in the single stent group than in the multiple stents group (p = 0.010). The interaction between stent (s) implantation and immediate occlusion degree (odds ratio [OR] =3.152; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.293-7.686; p = 0.012), between stent (s) implantation and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) involvement (OR = 4.607; 95% CI, 1.172-18.113; p = 0.029), and between PICA involvement and immediate occlusion degree (OR = 5.018; 95% CI, 1.263-19.933; p = 0.022) affect recurrence in the reconstructed sis-VADAs. This single centre cohort study indicated that the interaction effect between stent (s) implantation, PICA involvement, and immediate occlusion degree were closely associated with recurrence after reconstructive treatment of sis-VADA. The interaction between stent (s) and immediate occlusion degree affect aneurysmal recurrence. The interaction between stent and PICA involvement affect aneurysmal recurrence. The interaction between PICA involvement and immediate occlusion degree affect aneurysmal recurrence.